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Sample records for taastamise alade seire

  1. Heinz Valk sai iseseisvuse taastamise mälestuskivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves andis 20. augustil 2007 Kadriorus kultuuritegelastele korraldatud vastuvõtul Eesti iseseisvuse taastamise mälestuskivi kunstnik Heinz Valgule. Ilmunud ka: Vaba Eesti Sõna 23. aug. 2007, lk. 6, 8; ingl. k. lk. 12, pealk.: President Ilves presents commemorative stone for the restoration of independence to artist Heinz Valk

  2. President Ilves andis iseseisvuse taastamise mälestuskivi kunstnik Heinz Valgule / Kristel Peterson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peterson, Kristel

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves andis 20. augustil 2007 Kadriorus kultuuritegelastele korraldatud vastuvõtul Eesti iseseisvuse taastamise mälestuskivi kunstnik Heinz Valgule. Riigipea rõhutas oma kõnes, et 20. augustit tuleks nimetada just iseseisvuse taastamise aastapäevaks ja mitte taasiseseisvumise päevaks

  3. SEIRS with gold nanoantennas towards health diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubrech, Frank; Weber, Daniel; Bochterle, Joerg; Petrich, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Aizpurua, Javier [Donostia International Physics Center, Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Di Fabrizio, Enzo [Italian Institute of Technology, Genoa (Italy); La Chapelle, Marc Lamy de [University Paris 13, Bobigny (France)

    2011-07-01

    It is well established, that plasmonic oscillations in metal nanorods efficiently enhance near-field under resonant conditions. In the infrared, fundamental antenna-like resonance can be used for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopic (SEIRS) studies. In the project NANOANTENNA we optimize such system for application of SEIRS to the detection of rare biomolecular disease indicators in the human blood. Accordingly, as first step, a biocompatible material combination was identified and secondly, the resonance condition is optimized.

  4. SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side, Syafruddin; Irwan, Mulbar, Usman; Sanusi, Wahidah

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation for Hepatitis B discuss in this paper. Population devided by four variables, namely: Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR). Several factors affect the population in this model is vaccination, immigration and emigration that occurred in the population. SEIR Model obtained Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) non-linear System 4-D which then reduces to 3-D. SEIR model simulation undertaken to predict the number of Hepatitis B cases. The results of the simulation indicates the number of Hepatitis B cases will increase and then decrease for several months. The result of simulation using the number of case in Makassar also found the basic reproduction number less than one, that means, Makassar city is not an endemic area of Hepatitis B.

  5. On The Travelling Wave Solution For An SEIR Epidemic Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the travelling wave solution for a Susceptible, Exposed, Infective and Removed (SEIR) epidemic disease model. For this SEIR model, the disease is driven by both the latent and infective class (the diffusion term is included in both classes). The population is closed. Keywords: Epidemic model, spatial spread, ...

  6. Riik läks Natura-alade moodustamisel üle piiri / Kaur Lass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lass, Kaur, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Natura-alade moodustamisel on riik Eestis ületanud oma volitusi ja kahjustanud maaomanike huve, jättes teostamata keskkonna uuringud Natura-alade määramisel. Vt. samas: Vaidlus: spaa viis kohtusse

  7. Global stability of an SEIR epidemic model with constant immigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Guihua [Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Faculty of Life Science, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715 (China) and Department of Mathematics, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715 (China) and Department of Mathematics, North University of China, Taiyuan Shanxi 030051 (China)]. E-mail: liguihua@nuc.edu.cn; Wang Wendi [Department of Mathematics, Southwest China Normal University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Jin Zhen [Department of Mathematics, North University of China, Taiyuan Shanxi 030051 (China)

    2006-11-15

    An SEIR epidemic model with the infectious force in the latent (exposed), infected and recovered period is studied. It is assumed that susceptible and exposed individuals have constant immigration rates. The model exhibits a unique endemic state if the fraction p of infectious immigrants is positive. If the basic reproduction number R is greater than 1, sufficient conditions for the global stability of the endemic equilibrium are obtained by the compound matrix theory.

  8. Global stability of an SEIR epidemic model with constant immigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guihua; Wang Wendi; Jin Zhen

    2006-01-01

    An SEIR epidemic model with the infectious force in the latent (exposed), infected and recovered period is studied. It is assumed that susceptible and exposed individuals have constant immigration rates. The model exhibits a unique endemic state if the fraction p of infectious immigrants is positive. If the basic reproduction number R is greater than 1, sufficient conditions for the global stability of the endemic equilibrium are obtained by the compound matrix theory

  9. GFR and Blood Lead Levels in Gas Station Workers Based on δ-Alad Gene Polymorphisms

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    Lantip Rujito

    2015-04-01

    showed that the proportion of ALAD genotype for ALAD 1-1, 1-2 and 2-2 were 94.7%, 5.3%, and 0% respectively. The mean of serum levels in homozygous 1-1 was 15.94 ppb and heterozygote 1-2 was 1.15 ppb. GFR of participants ranged from 71.11 mL/min to 185.20 mL/min with a mean of 117.34mL/min. There was no correlation between serum Pb and GFR (p = 0.19. Study also could not determine the correlation between GFR and ALAD gene Polymorphism. Discussion: Study then concluded that there was no correlation between blood lead levels in the GFR on each δ-ALAD genotypes. Keywords: Lead intoxication, GFR, δ-ALAD, gas station workers

  10. In Silico Studies of Mammalian δ-ALAD Interactions with Selenides and Selenoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei Nogara, Pablo; Batista Teixeira Rocha, João

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the mammalian δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) is inhibited by selenides and selenoxides, which can involve thiol oxidation. However, the precise molecular interaction of selenides and selenoxides with the active center of the enzyme is unknown. Here, we try to explain the interaction of selenides and the respective selenoxides with human δ-ALAD by in silico molecular docking. The in silico data indicated that Se atoms of selenoxides have higher electrophilic character than their respective selenides. Further, the presence of oxygen increased the interaction of selenoxides with the δ-ALAD active site by O…Zn coordination. The interaction of S atom from Cys124 with the Se atom indicated the importance of the nucleophilic attack of the enzyme thiolate to the organoselenium molecules. These observations help us to understand the interaction of target proteins with organoselenium compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  12. Lyapunov functions and global stability for SIR and SEIR models with age-dependent susceptibility

    KAUST Repository

    Korobeinikov, Andrei; Melnik, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    We consider global asymptotic properties for the SIR and SEIR age structured models for infectious diseases where the susceptibility depends on the age. Using the direct Lyapunov method with Volterra type Lyapunov functions, we establish conditions for the global stability of a unique endemic steady state and the infection-free steady state.

  13. Persistence of an SEIR Model with Immigration Dependent on the Prevalence of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the immigration of susceptible individuals into an SEIR epidemic model, assuming that the immigration rate decreases as the spread of infection increases. For this model, the basic reproduction number, R0, is found, which determines that the disease is either extinct or persistent ultimately. The obtained results show that the disease becomes extinct as R01.

  14. Development of a Discrete Spatial-Temporal SEIR Simulator for Modeling Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, S.A.

    2000-11-01

    Multiple techniques have been developed to model the temporal evolution of infectious diseases. Some of these techniques have also been adapted to model the spatial evolution of the disease. This report examines the application of one such technique, the SEIR model, to the spatial and temporal evolution of disease. Applications of the SEIR model are reviewed briefly and an adaptation to the traditional SEIR model is presented. This adaptation allows for modeling the spatial evolution of the disease stages at the individual level. The transmission of the disease between individuals is modeled explicitly through the use of exposure likelihood functions rather than the global transmission rate applied to populations in the traditional implementation of the SEIR model. These adaptations allow for the consideration of spatially variable (heterogeneous) susceptibility and immunity within the population. The adaptations also allow for modeling both contagious and non-contagious diseases. The results of a number of numerical experiments to explore the effect of model parameters on the spread of an example disease are presented.

  15. The analysis of optimal singular controls for SEIR model of tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, Faridawaty; Rangkuti, Yulita M.; Sinaga, Marlina S.

    2014-12-01

    The optimally of singular control for SEIR model of Tuberculosis is analyzed. There are controls that correspond to time of the vaccination and treatment schedule. The optimally of singular control is obtained by differentiate a switching function of the model. The result shows that vaccination and treatment control are singular.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase (ALAD variants and renal cell carcinoma risk among individuals exposed to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M van Bemmel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies are reporting associations between lead exposure and human cancers. A polymorphism in the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD gene affects lead toxicokinetics and may modify the adverse effects of lead. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs tagging the ALAD region among renal cancer cases and controls to determine whether genetic variation alters the relationship between lead and renal cancer. Occupational exposure to lead and risk of cancer was examined in a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. Comprehensive analysis of variation across the ALAD gene was assessed using a tagging SNP approach among 987 cases and 1298 controls. Occupational lead exposure was estimated using questionnaire-based exposure assessment and expert review. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: The adjusted risk associated with the ALAD variant rs8177796(CT/TT was increased (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73, p-value = 0.02 when compared to the major allele, regardless of lead exposure. Joint effects of lead and ALAD rs2761016 suggest an increased RCC risk for the homozygous wild-type and heterozygous alleles ((GGOR = 2.68, 95%CI = 1.17-6.12, p = 0.01; (GAOR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.06-3.04 with an interaction approaching significance (p(int = 0.06. No significant modification in RCC risk was observed for the functional variant rs1800435(K68N. Haplotype analysis identified a region associated with risk supporting tagging SNP results. CONCLUSION: A common genetic variation in ALAD may alter the risk of RCC overall, and among individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Further work in larger exposed populations is warranted to determine if ALAD modifies RCC risk associated with lead exposure.

  17. SEIR Model of Rumor Spreading in Online Social Network with Varying Total Population Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Suyalatu; Deng Yan-Bin; Huang Yong-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Based on the infectious disease model with disease latency, this paper proposes a new model for the rumor spreading process in online social network. In this paper what we establish an SEIR rumor spreading model to describe the online social network with varying total number of users and user deactivation rate. We calculate the exact equilibrium points and reproduction number for this model. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the online social network with increasing population size based on the original real world Facebook network. The simulation results indicate that the SEIR model of rumor spreading in online social network with changing total number of users can accurately reveal the inherent characteristics of rumor spreading process in online social network . (paper)

  18. SEIR Model of Rumor Spreading in Online Social Network with Varying Total Population Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suyalatu; Deng, Yan-Bin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2017-10-01

    Based on the infectious disease model with disease latency, this paper proposes a new model for the rumor spreading process in online social network. In this paper what we establish an SEIR rumor spreading model to describe the online social network with varying total number of users and user deactivation rate. We calculate the exact equilibrium points and reproduction number for this model. Furthermore, we perform the rumor spreading process in the online social network with increasing population size based on the original real world Facebook network. The simulation results indicate that the SEIR model of rumor spreading in online social network with changing total number of users can accurately reveal the inherent characteristics of rumor spreading process in online social network. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275017 and 11173028

  19. Dynamic Behaviors of an SEIR Epidemic Model in a Periodic Environment with Impulse Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonautonomous SEIR endemic model with saturation incidence concerning pulse vaccination. By applying Floquet theory and the comparison theorem of impulsive differential equations, a threshold parameter which determines the extinction or persistence of the disease is presented. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the main theoretical results and it shows that pulse vaccination plays a key role in the disease control.

  20. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed SEIRS Worm Model in Computer Network

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    Zizhen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed SEIRS epidemic model with vertical transmission in computer network is considered. Sufficient conditions for local stability of the positive equilibrium and existence of local Hopf bifurcation are obtained by analyzing distribution of the roots of the associated characteristic equation. Furthermore, the direction of the local Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, a numerical example is presented to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. Complex dynamics of an SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Khan, Yasir; Islam, Saeed

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the dynamics of an SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence, treatment function, and optimal control. Rigorous mathematical results have been established for the model. The stability analysis of the model is investigated and found that the model is locally asymptotically stable when R0 1. The proposed model may possess a backward bifurcation. The optimal control problem is designed and obtained their necessary results. Numerical results have been presented for justification of theoretical results.

  2. ASEI-SEIR model with vaccination for dengue control in Shah Alam, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chai Jian; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiology modelling provides an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that influence the spread of dengue disease. The most common mathematical models used are the compartment models abbreviated by ASI-SIR, ASEI-SIR and ASEI-SEIR. This paper starts with a discussion of these common models, followed by the derivation of the basic reproduction number (Ro) of each model. The value of Ro in ASI-SIR model is higher than that in ASEI-SIR and ASEI-SEIR models due to the exclusion of exposed adult mosquito in ASI-SIR model. Further, sensitivity analysis on Ro indicates that natural mortality and biting rate of adult mosquito have significant effects on dengue transmission dynamics. Next, an in-house mathematical model named MOSSEIR is developed, based upon the ASEI-SEIR compartment model, in which both mosquito and human populations are considered. The mosquito population is divided into four compartments consisting of aquatic mosquito, susceptible, exposed and infected adult mosquito; while the human population is classified into four compartments comprising susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered human. MOSSEIR is then used to replicate the number of dengue cases in 2010 for Shah Alam, a capital city of Selangor with high incidence of dengue fever. Finally, effectiveness of control strategies, including mosquito breeding sites control, fogging and vaccination, are evaluated for Shah Alam. Simulation results indicate that these three control strategies can significantly reduce dengue transmission, in theory. In reality, the effectiveness of traditional control methods such as elimination of mosquito breeding sites and fogging is below expectation due to non-compliance. Therefore, the adoption of a safe, effective and affordable vaccine remains the best prospect for controlling dengue.

  3. Global asymptotic stability of a delayed SEIRS epidemic model with saturation incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tailei; Teng Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the asymptotic behavior of solutions of an autonomous SEIRS epidemic model with the saturation incidence is studied. Using the method of Liapunov-LaSalle invariance principle, we obtain the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable if the basic reproduction number is not greater than one. Moreover, we show that the disease is permanent if the basic reproduction number is greater than one. Furthermore, the sufficient conditions of locally and globally asymptotically stable convergence to an endemic equilibrium are obtained base on the permanence

  4. Two profitless delays for an SEIRS epidemic disease model with vertical transmission and pulse vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xinzhu; Jiao Jianjun; Chen Lansun

    2009-01-01

    Since the investigation of impulsive delay differential equations is beginning, the literature on delay epidemic models with pulse vaccination is not extensive. In this paper, we propose a new SEIRS epidemic disease model with two profitless delays and vertical transmission, and analyze the dynamics behaviors of the model under pulse vaccination. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by the stroboscopic map, we obtain a 'infection-free' periodic solution, further, show that the 'infection-free' periodic solution is globally attractive when some parameters of the model are under appropriate conditions. Using a new modeling method, we obtain sufficient condition for the permanence of the epidemic model with pulse vaccination. We show that time delays, pulse vaccination and vertical transmission can bring different effects on the dynamics behaviors of the model by numerical analysis. Our results also show the delays are 'profitless'. In this paper, the main feature is to introduce two discrete time delays, vertical transmission and impulse into SEIRS epidemic model and to give pulse vaccination strategies.

  5. Case-only gene-environment interaction between ALAD tagSNPs and occupational lead exposure in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Levin, Albert M; Rundle, Andrew; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Bock, Cathryn H; Nock, Nora L; Jankowski, Michelle; Datta, Indrani; Krajenta, Richard; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2014-05-01

    Black men have historically had higher blood lead levels than white men in the U.S. and have the highest incidence of prostate cancer in the world. Inorganic lead has been classified as a probable human carcinogen. Lead (Pb) inhibits delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), a gene recently implicated in other genitourinary cancers. The ALAD enzyme is involved in the second step of heme biosynthesis and is an endogenous inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, a master system for protein degradation and a current target of cancer therapy. Using a case-only study design, we assessed potential gene-environment (G × E) interactions between lifetime occupational Pb exposure and 11 tagSNPs within ALAD in black (N = 260) and white (N = 343) prostate cancer cases. Two ALAD tagSNPs in high linkage disequilibrium showed significant interaction with high Pb exposure among black cases (rs818684 interaction odds ratio or IOR = 2.73, 95% CI 1.43-5.22, P = 0.002; rs818689 IOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.15-4.21, P = 0.017) and an additional tagSNP, rs2761016, showed G × E interaction with low Pb exposure (IOR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.13-3.84, P = 0.019). Further, the variant allele of rs818684 was associated with a higher Gleason grade in those with high Pb exposure among both blacks (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.01-15.46, P = 0.048) and whites (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.18-7.39, P = 0.020). Genetic variation in ALAD may modify associations between Pb and prostate cancer. Additional studies of ALAD, Pb, and prostate cancer are warranted and should include black men. Prostate 74:637-646, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Analysis of an SEIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Incidence and Saturated Treatment Function

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    Jinhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and saturated treatment function are explored in this paper. The basic reproduction number that determines disease extinction and disease survival is given. The existing threshold conditions of all kinds of the equilibrium points are obtained. Sufficient conditions are established for the existence of backward bifurcation. The local asymptotical stability of equilibrium is verified by analyzing the eigenvalues and using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. We also discuss the global asymptotical stability of the endemic equilibrium by autonomous convergence theorem. The study indicates that we should improve the efficiency and enlarge the capacity of the treatment to control the spread of disease. Numerical simulations are presented to support and complement the theoretical findings.

  7. Study of the stability of a SEIRS model for computer worm propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.; Hernández Encinas, L.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, malware is the most important threat to information security. In this sense, several mathematical models to simulate malware spreading have appeared. They are compartmental models where the population of devices is classified into different compartments: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. The main goal of this work is to propose an improved SEIRS (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Susceptible) mathematical model to simulate computer worm propagation. It is a continuous model whose dynamic is ruled by means of a system of ordinary differential equations. It considers more realistic parameters related to the propagation; in fact, a modified incidence rate has been used. Moreover, the equilibrium points are computed and their local and global stability analyses are studied. From the explicit expression of the basic reproductive number, efficient control measures are also obtained.

  8. The relationship between selected VDR, HFE and ALAD gene polymorphisms and several basic toxicological parameters among persons occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Jędrychowska, Iwona; Chabowski, Mariusz; Gać, Paweł; Janus, Agnieszka; Gosławska, Katarzyna; Smyk, Beata; Solska, Urszula; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2015-08-06

    The aim of this study was to find a relationship between polymorphisms of ALAD rs1805313, rs222808, rs1139488, VDR FokI and HFE C282Y and H63D and basic toxicological parameters (lead and ZnPP blood concentration) in people occupationally exposed to lead. We collected data of 101 workers (age 25-63 years) directly exposed to lead. The toxicological lab tests included blood lead, cadmium and ZnPP concentration measurement and arsenic urine concentration measurement. Workers were genotyped for ALAD (rs1805313, rs222808, rs1139488), HFE (C282Y, H63D) and VDR (FokI). Individuals with the lead exposure and coexisting F allel in the locus Fok-I of VDR gene are suspected of higher zinc protoporphyrins concentrations. Workers exposed to the lead with the Y allel in the locus C282Y of the HFE gene are predisposed to lower ZnPP levels and individuals with coexisting H allel in the locus H63D HFE gene are predisposed to lower Pb-B levels. The T allel in the locus rs1805313 of the ALAD gene determines lower Pb-B and ZnPP levels in lead-exposed individuals. The heterozigosity of the locus rs2228083 of the ALAD gene has a strong predilection to higher Pb-B levels. The carriage of the C allel in the locus rs1139488 of the ALAD gene might determine higher Pb-B levels and the heterozigosity of the locus rs1139488 of the ALAD gene might result in higher ZnPP levels. The study revealed relationship between VDR, HFE and ALAD genes polymorphism and basic toxicological parameters in occupationally exposed workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between selected VDR, HFE and ALAD gene polymorphisms and several basic toxicological parameters among persons occupationally exposed to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Łaczmański, Łukasz; Jędrychowska, Iwona; Chabowski, Mariusz; Gać, Paweł; Janus, Agnieszka; Gosławska, Katarzyna; Smyk, Beata; Solska, Urszula; Mazur, Grzegorz; Poręba, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a relationship between polymorphisms of ALAD rs1805313, rs222808, rs1139488, VDR FokI and HFE C282Y and H63D and basic toxicological parameters (lead and ZnPP blood concentration) in people occupationally exposed to lead. We collected data of 101 workers (age 25–63 years) directly exposed to lead. The toxicological lab tests included blood lead, cadmium and ZnPP concentration measurement and arsenic urine concentration measurement. Workers were genotyped for ALAD (rs1805313, rs222808, rs1139488), HFE (C282Y, H63D) and VDR (FokI). Individuals with the lead exposure and coexisting F allel in the locus Fok-I of VDR gene are suspected of higher zinc protoporphyrins concentrations. Workers exposed to the lead with the Y allel in the locus C282Y of the HFE gene are predisposed to lower ZnPP levels and individuals with coexisting H allel in the locus H63D HFE gene are predisposed to lower Pb-B levels. The T allel in the locus rs1805313 of the ALAD gene determines lower Pb-B and ZnPP levels in lead–exposed individuals. The heterozigosity of the locus rs2228083 of the ALAD gene has a strong predilection to higher Pb-B levels. The carriage of the C allel in the locus rs1139488 of the ALAD gene might determine higher Pb-B levels and the heterozigosity of the locus rs1139488 of the ALAD gene might result in higher ZnPP levels. Conclusion. The study revealed relationship between VDR, HFE and ALAD genes polymorphism and basic toxicological parameters in occupationally exposed workers

  10. Stability Analysis Susceptible, Exposed, Infected, Recovered (SEIR) Model for Spread Model for Spread of Dengue Fever in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side, Syafruddin; Molliq Rangkuti, Yulita; Gerhana Pane, Dian; Setia Sinaga, Marlina

    2018-01-01

    Dengue fever is endemic disease which spread through vector, Aedes Aegypty. This disease is found more than 100 countries, such as, United State, Africa as well Asia, especially in country that have tropic climate. Mathematical modeling in this paper, discusses the speed of the spread of dengue fever. The model adopting divided over four classes, such as Susceptible (S), Exposed (E), Infected (I) and Recovered (R). SEIR model further analyzed to detect the re-breeding value based on the number reported case by dengue in Medan city. Analysis of the stability of the system in this study is asymptotically stable indicating a case of endemic and unstable that show cases the endemic cases. Simulation on the mathematical model of SEIR showed that require a very long time to produce infected humans will be free of dengue virus infection. This happens because of dengue virus infection that occurs continuously between human and vector populations.

  11. Lead induces DNA damage and alteration of ALAD and antioxidant genes mRNA expression in construction site workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Zertashia; Riaz, Sadaf; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar; Jahan, Sarwat; Ahmad, Malik Waqar; Ullah, Muhammad Abaid; Wazir, Hizbullah; Mahjabeen, Ishrat

    2018-01-16

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are considered as possible mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. To test this hypothesis, DNA damage and expression variations of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 2a (OGG1-2a) genes was studied in a cohort of 100 exposed workers and 100 controls with comet assay and real-time polymerse chain reaction (PCR). Results indicated that increased number of comets was observed in exposed workers versus controls (p gene.

  12. Bifurcation Analysis for an SEIRS-V Model with Delays on the Transmission of Worms in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation for an SEIRS-V model with delays on the transmission of worms in a wireless sensor network is investigated. We focus on existence of the Hopf bifurcation by regarding the diverse delay as a bifurcation parameter. The results show that propagation of worms in the wireless sensor network can be controlled when the delay is suitably small under some certain conditions. Then, we study properties of the Hopf bifurcation by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, we give a numerical example to support the theoretical results.

  13. Blood Pb and δ-ALAD inhibition in cattle and sheep from a Pb-polluted mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Barasona, José A.; Mateo, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Pb pollution on cattle and sheep raised in an ancient mining area were studied through the use of blood Pb (PbB) levels and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity. Lead levels in livestock blood from the mining area (n = 110) were significantly elevated when compared to the controls (n = 79). In 91.4% of cattle (n = 58) and 13.5% of sheep (n = 52) sampled in the mining area, PbB levels corresponded to subclinical exposure (6–35 μg/dl). Two young cattle ( 35 μg/dl). Elevated PbB was also accompanied by δ-ALAD activity inhibition in blood, which confirms that measurable effects of Pb poisoning were taking place. Observed PbB levels suggest that a potential risk to human consumers of beef from the Pb polluted areas may also exist, as has been shown previously for game meat from the same mining area. - Highlights: ► We studied effects of Pb pollution on livestock raised in an old mining area. ► Livestock from the mining area had higher blood Pb levels than the controls. ► Pb levels were higher in cattle than in sheep. ► Pb exposure inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, especially in cattle. ► Lead uptake in livestock reared in this area poses a risk to human consumers. - Lead from an ancient mining area still affects livestock health and compromises the safety of derived food products.

  14. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  15. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  16. The effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, H; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  17. Effects of CaEDTA injection on lead, zinc, copper and ALAD in erythrocyte, plasma and urine in lead-exposed workers: a 24-h observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, H.; Araki, S.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the concentrations of lead, zinc and copper in plasma, erythrocyte and urine, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocyte, we administered CaEDTA in 1-h intravenous infusion to ten male gun metal founders with blood-lead concentration of 39 to 64 micrograms/dl (mean 49 micrograms/dl). We found that the plasma concentration of lead, following a rapid rise within the first 3 h, fell temporarily to the level significantly lower than the initial level 19 h after start of the infusion. The plasma concentration of zinc fell to the minimal level 5 h after the infusion; and the erythrocyte concentration of zinc and the ALAD activity concurrently rose to the maximal level 5 h after the infusion. By contrast, no significant alteration was observed in the concentrations of copper in plasma and erythrocyte. The maximal level of urinary metal excretion was attained during the period between 1 and 2 h after start of CaEDTA infusion for lead; within 2 h for zinc; and between 2 and 4 h for copper. The urinary metal excretion returned to the initial level 14 to 24 h after infusion for zinc and copper; but lead excretion was still higher than the initial level during this period. The difference in the kinetics of the three metals following CaEDTA injection is discussed in the light of these findings.

  18. Behavior of lead and zinc in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine and ALAD in erythrocytes following intravenous infusion of CaEDTA in lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Aono, H; Fukahori, M; Tabuki, K

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on concentrations of lead and zinc in plasma, erythrocytes, whole blood, and urine, we administered CaEDTA by intravenous infusion for 1 hr to seven lead workers with blood lead concentrations of 46-67 micrograms/100 g (mean 54 micrograms/100 g). The plasma lead concentration (PPb) and the mobilization yield of lead in urine by CaEDTA were highest during the period between 1 and 2 hr after the infusion was started. In contrast, the lead concentration in erythrocytes (EPb) and in whole blood (BPb) remained unchanged during the 24 hr following infusion. Plasma zinc concentration (PZn) also fell rapidly following CaEDTA infusion; the decline was followed by a gradual rise in the zinc concentration in erythrocytes (EZn) without alteration in the zinc in whole blood. The mobilization yield of zinc in urine by CaEDTA (MZn) reached its highest level within 1 hr after the start of the infusion. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes gradually increased for 5 hr following CaEDTA infusion. These observations suggest that (1) PPb concentration is a more sensitive indicator of the body burden of chelatable lead than is either BPb or EPb; (2) MZn is mobilized mostly from plasma during the first several hours following the start of CaEDTA infusion, and the fall in PZn concentration following infusion is compensated first by a rise in EZn concentration and then by an immediate redistribution of zinc in other organs to the blood; and (3) Pb-inhibited ALAD activity is reactivated by the increased EZn during and shortly after CaEDTA infusion.

  19. Software de simulações dos modelos Sir e Seir como ferramenta de gerenciamento ambiental de doenças epidemiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranaya Silva Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As epidemias têm causado pânico em todo o mundo desde a antiguidade, nos dias de hoje a dengue, zika vírus e a chikungunya tem sido alvo de grande preocupação nacional. Observa-se, portanto, a importância de se compreender a dinâmica de transmissão dessas doenças através da técnica de investigação por modelos matemáticos, uma vez que este método não interfere no meio estudado. Visando auxiliar no gerenciamento ambiental por meio da compreensão da dinâmica das epidemias, captura do comportamento qualitativo do modelo e dos parâmetros que podem influenciar significativamente no processo de transmissão, foi desenvolvido um software de simulação dos modelos SIR e SEIR empregando o Método de Integração Numérica de Runge-Kutta de 4ª ordem implementado em linguagem de programação JAVA.

  20. Bayesian inference in an extended SEIR model with nonparametric disease transmission rate: an application to the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasso, Gianluca; Lambert, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    SummaryThe 2014 Ebola outbreak in Sierra Leone is analyzed using a susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) epidemic compartmental model. The discrete time-stochastic model for the epidemic evolution is coupled to a set of ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the expected proportions of subjects in each epidemic state. The unknown parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework by combining data on the number of new (laboratory confirmed) Ebola cases reported by the Ministry of Health and prior distributions for the transition rates elicited using information collected by the WHO during the follow-up of specific Ebola cases. The time-varying disease transmission rate is modeled in a flexible way using penalized B-splines. Our framework represents a valuable stochastic tool for the study of an epidemic dynamic even when only irregularly observed and possibly aggregated data are available. Simulations and the analysis of the 2014 Sierra Leone Ebola data highlight the merits of the proposed methodology. In particular, the flexible modeling of the disease transmission rate makes the estimation of the effective reproduction number robust to the misspecification of the initial epidemic states and to underreporting of the infectious cases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Tüli Robert Smithsoni "Spiraalse muuli" taastamise ümber / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika maakunstniku Robert Smithsoni (1938-1973) töö "Spiral Jetty" / "Spiraalne muul", mis on ligi 30 aastat seisnud nähtamatult Utah' osariigis Suure Soolajärve põhjas, on praegu kogu ulatuses näha. Teose omanik Dia kunstikeskus on dilemma ees, kas muul restaureerida või mitte

  2. Eesti iseseisvuse taastamise küsimusest Soome ja Saksamaa suhetes 1942-1943 / Arti Hilpus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hilpus, Arti, 1972-

    2012-01-01

    Riiklikul tasandil ei olnud Soomel kerge Eestile toetust avaldada. Aastatel 1942-1943 püstitasid soomalsed küsimuse suurema autonoomia või iseseisvuse andmisest Eestile. Iseseisvuse mittelubamise korral oli plaaniks Eesti liitmine Soomega. Soome riigi esindajad väljendasid sõja ajal sakslastele korduvalt ja erinevate kanalite kaudu oma muret Balti rahvaste ja eriti eestlaste tuleviku üle, kuid Saksamaa juhtkond ei lasknud end vastavate poliitiliste muudatuste suunas mõjutada. Eelöeldut illustreerivad Saksa välisministeeriumile ja Saksa saadikule Helsingis saadetud telegrammid

  3. Bamboo Fibre Reinforced Cement Used as a Roofing Sheet | Alade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo fibre roofing sheet was able to withstand an average load of 51Kg, which is above the minimum required strength of 50kg. Comparatively, Asbestos roofing sheets and coconut fibre roofing sheets of similar dimensions had failure loads of 104.65Kg and 79Kg respectively. When immersed in water, bamboo fibre ...

  4. Metsaomanikud vaidlevad Natura-alade vastu / Silvia Paluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paluoja, Silvia, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Pärnumaa keskkonnateenistusse jõudis 97 avaldust kinnistute omanikelt, kelle maad jäävad ohustatud või haruldaste taimede ja loomade ning nende elupaikade kaitseks moodustatavasse üleeuroopalisse hoiualade ehk Natura 2000 võrgustikku

  5. 17. Alade Adetayo Oludare kinship Structures in sub Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REGINALDS

    Rights” in Coetzee, P.H. and A.P.J. Roux eds. 2002. The African ... that “the social act of naming, the very act of constituting personhood, is fundamentally ..... values are reflected in voting as well as in administrative patterns. Majority of the.

  6. Tamkivi : Natura alad on ebaolulised / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Autori väitel on uus keskkonnaminister Jaanus Tamkivi seadnud kahtluse alla üle-euroopalise tähtsusega Natura 2000 kaitsealade vajalikkuse. Riigikogu liikme Aleksei Lotmani, Eestimaa Looduse Fondi juhatuse liikme Jüri-Ott Salmi hinnanguid. Kommenteerib Hannes Veinla. Vt. ka Aleksei Lotmani ja Marek Strandbergi kommentaare 12. apr. Meie Maa lk. 2

  7. Sillamäe-Kotka laevaliikluse taastamise kohal ripub küsimärk / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 2. apr., lk. 4. Kuigi Soome laevafirma Stella Company Group kavatses mais alustada reisilaevaliiklust Sillamäe ja Kotka sadama vahel, on plaani elluviimine takerdunud laeva rentimise tõttu

  8. Riigikontrolli audit paljastab Natura-alade segaduse / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Riigikontrolli audit näitab, et Natura 2000 kaitsealade hulka on arvatud ka väheväärtuslikke metsaalasid, samas on välja jäetud kaitset väärivaid elupaiku. Keskkonnaministeeriumi nõuniku Hanno Zingeli selgitusi. Lisa: Paljud taluvad asjata piiranguid

  9. Keskkonna ja turvalisuse globaalse seire (GMES) teenused / Anu Reinart, Tiit Kutser, Tiina Dišlis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinart, Anu, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    1998. aastal käivitasid Euroopa Komisjon ja Euroopa Kosmoseagentuur koos teiste kosmoseagentuuridega programmi GMES, mille oluliseks eesmärgiks on koondada erinevate riikide võimalused ning ühise tegevuse kaudu realiseerida teadlaste, avalikkuse ja erasektori ekspertide optimaalne koostöö

  10. MODEL SEIR UNTUK EPIDEMI FLU BABI PADA POPULASI BABI DENGAN LAJU KONTAK JENUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model will be assessed for swine flu epidemic in pig populations. The model provided a deterministic model with saturated contact rate which is a generalization of the standard contact rate. This generalization is expressed by the probability of an individual contact that is expressed as a function of population. In this paper, it will be analyzed the equilibrium point of mathematical models and their stability.

  11. Doktoritöö trammi arvutipõhise juhtimise, seire ja diagnostika alal / Rain Lahtmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lahtmets, Rain

    2005-01-01

    30. aug. kaitses Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli energeetikateaduskonnas oma väitekirja "Kergrööbastranspordi juhtimine, talitusjärelvalve ja diagnostika" elektriajamite ja jõuelektroonika instituudi teadur Argo Rosin

  12. Ofitserski mundir ot Hugo Boss / Mark Ostanin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ostanin, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Antikvaarsete esemete laat Kurtnas. Müügil olevatest ajaloolistest rekonstruktsioonidest. Saksa armee ohvitserimundri taastamise keerulisusest rohkete vigur-detailide tõttu. Mundri disainerina mainitakse Hugo Bossi

  13. First years of the re-establishment of Estonia's naval defence / Reet Naber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naber, Reet, 1952-

    2014-01-01

    Meremuuseumi rollist sõjalaevastiku ümberkorraldamise alguses. Alveelaevast Lembit, alustest Edgar, Ahti jt. Eesti Mereakadeemiast. Piirivalve ülevõtmisest.Eesti laevastiku taastamise kontseptsioonist. Ühtse juhtimise puudumisest Eesti laevastikus

  14. Täna 20 aastat tagasi : jaanuar 1988 / Indrek Toome ; interv. Helle Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toome, Indrek

    2008-01-01

    Uus rubriik, milles meenutatakse kuust kuusse Eesti iseseisvumise taastamise aja olulisi sündmusi. Vestlus Indrek Toomega, kes nimetati 1988. aasta jaanuaris Eesti Kommunistliku Partei Keskkomitee uueks ideoloogiasekretäriks

  15. Vtoraja zhizn klassiki estonskogo kinematografa / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2006-01-01

    Oskar Lutsu jutustuse järgi valminud mängufilm "Kevade" restaureeriti ja digitaliseeriti Soomes Digital Film Finland poolt, restauraator Giuseppe di Giorgio. Lisatud nimekiri "Taastamise ootel" filmidest, mis "Eesti film 100" raames restaureerimist ootavad

  16. Komorowski celebrates Lithuanian holiday in Vilnius / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    Poola president Bronislaw Komorowski võttis osa 16. veebruaril peetud Leedu riigi taastamise päeva pidustustest. Poola-Leedu vahelistest probleemidest ja Poola välisministri Radoslaw Sikorski osast selles

  17. Sri Lanka president lubab sõjalõksus riiki tänapäeva tuua / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu

  18. Jaani kirik seljatas aasta teo konkursil hansapäevad / Mari-Liis Hüvato, Martin Shmutov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hüvato, Mari-Liis

    2005-01-01

    Tartlased ja Postimehe lugejad tunnistasid Tartu 2005. aasta väärikaimaks teoks Jaani kiriku taastamise, kommenteerivad Juhani Jaeger, Toomas Peterson, Reet Mägi. Loetletud konkursil osalenud Tartu aasta teod 2005 ja varasemad aasta teod

  19. Palkarhitektuuri taastamisest 2008. aasta uuringute põhjal / Joosep Metslang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metslang, Joosep, 1983-

    2010-01-01

    Palkhoonete taastamise kontseptsioonidest, taastamisviisidest, kolme palkehitise - Pritsu talu lauda, Tooma raida ja Köstriaseme talu suveköögi taastamistöödest ja sellega seotud probleemidest ja vigadest

  20. Aminolevulinate dehydrogenase polymorphisms did not modified lead serum and memory relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantip Rujito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead accumulation in the blood widely known affecting the formation of heme and oxygen transport processes in vital organs, Leading to organ failure including the brain synapses. Lead affinity has been recognized influenced by constitutional genotype of aminolevulinate dehydrogenase (ALAD, which encodes for heme synthesis. This research aimed to determine the relationship between plumbum (Pb and short term memory on each ALAD gene genotyping (ALAD 1-1, ALAD 1-2 or ALAD 2-2 in gas station workers. METHODS Seventy six probands from gas station workers were recruited to participate in this research. Each probands was carried out ALAD genotyping using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP method, lead serum level using atomic absorbent spectrophotometer (AAS, and short term memory was measurement by intelligence structure test (IST. RESULTS Proportion of δ ALAD 1-1, 1-2, and 2-2 were 91.8%, 8.2% and 0% respectively. Lead serum showed 15.84 ppb in homozygous 1-1, and 20.79 ppb in heterozygous. Short term memory in the probands varied from 85 until 117, with average in 99.71. There was significant negative relationship between lead serum and short term memory (r=-0.24; p=0.038. However, we could not find any significant correlation in each δ ALAD genotypes. CONCLUSION The δ ALAD genotypes did not modified the relationship between serum lead level and short term memory in gas station workers.

  1. Modulation of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity by the Sorbitol-Induced Osmotic Stress in Maize Leaf Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Tiwary, S; Gadre, R

    2018-01-01

    Osmotic stress induced with 1 M sorbitol inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesizing activities in etiolated maize leaf segments during greening; the ALAD activity was inhibited to a greater extent than the ALA synthesis. When the leaves were exposed to light, the ALAD activity increased for the first 8 h, followed by a decrease observed at 16 and 24 h in both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaf tissues. The maximum inhibition of the enzyme activity was observed in the leaf segments incubated with sorbitol for 4 to 8 h. Glutamate increased the ALAD activity in the in vitro enzymatic preparations obtained from the sorbitol-treated leaf segments; sorbitol inhibited the ALAD activity in the preparations from both sorbitol-treated and untreated leaves. It was suggested that sorbitol-induced osmotic stress inhibits the enzyme activity by affecting the ALAD induction during greening and regulating the ALAD steady-state level of ALAD in leaf cells. The protective effect of glutamate on ALAD in the preparations from the sorbitol-treated leaves might be due to its stimulatory effect on the enzyme.

  2. Viking Line toob Rosella uuest aastast Eesti lipu alla / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    Viking Line'i parvlaev Rosella hakkab kulude kokkuhoiu, äritegevuse tasuvuse ja konkurentsivõime taastamise huvidest sõitma uuest aastast Eesti lipu all ning vahetab välja senise laevameeskonna. Viking Line'i infojuhi Johanna Boijer-Svahnströmi kommentaare

  3. Venemaa tulevik ja lääs / Joschka Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Joschka, 1948-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 4. sept. lk. 9. Venemaa keskvõimu tugevdamisest, välispoliitika ohtlikust pöördumisest impeeriaalse võimu taastamise suunas, mis viib lääneriikide tähtsamate huvide kitsenemiseni

  4. "Kui teil on võimalik seda vältida - vältige..." : Nõukogude Liidu poliitika Ida-Euroopas ja külma sõja algus / Kaarel Piirimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirimäe, Kaarel

    2004-01-01

    Nõukogude Liidu eesmärkidest Teise maailmasõja järgses Euroopas, rahvademokraatiarežiimide kujundamisest Ida-Euroopa riikides, USA riigisekretäri George Marshalli algatatud Euroopa Taastamise Programmist, Euroopa kommunistlike parteide uue koordinatsioonikeskuse Kominformi asutamiskonverentsist Poolas 1947. a.

  5. Meeting March 11 / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    Leedus tähistatakse 11. märtsil 2010 iseseisvuse taastamise 20. aastapäeva. Vilniusesse saabuvatest külalistest, kelle seas on ka Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Töövisiit Vilniusesse 11.03.2010

  6. Lithuania celebrates March 11 / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    11. märtsil tähistati Leedus iseseisvuse taastamise 21. aastapäeva. President Dalia Grybauskaite oli sellel ajal Brüsselis, kus toimus Euroopa Liidu valitsusjuhtide ja riigipeade erakorraline kriisikohtumine Liibüa teemal. Vilniuses toimunud meeleavaldustest

  7. Valimiskaotuse haavu raviva Rahvaliidu ajutine juht Ester Tuiksoo : "Meil on tugev küünarnukitunne" / Ester Tuiksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 28. märts 2007, lk. 2. Delfi lugejate küsimustele vastab Rahvaliidu ajutine juht ja lahkuva valitsuse põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo, kellelt päriti nii erakonna maine taastamise, eesti toidu kui ka jopede jagamise kohta

  8. Põhiväärtuste kriisist Eestis / Jüri Lina ; foto: Enn Kalve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lina, Jüri, 1949-

    1991-01-01

    nõukogude korra valeliku propaganda hüvanguks töötamisest, ebamoraalsest äritegevusest, põhiväärtuste normaalstaatuse taastamise hädavalikkusest kommunistliku impeeriumi mõjuvõimu alt pääsemiseks

  9. Vabariigi president ja vabariigi valitsus eksiilis 1988-1992 / Heinrich Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Heinrich, 1911-2004

    1997-01-01

    Lisad: Eesti eksiilvalitsuse deklaratsioon Eesti Vabariigi riikliku iseseisvuse taastamise puhul ; Heinrich Marki kiri Endel Lippmaale 31. märtsist 1992 põhiseaduse küsimuses ; Eesti Vabariigi Valitsuse eksiilis deklaratsioon tegevuse lõpetamise kohta ; Heinrich Marki ametist loobumise käskkiri ning Lennart Meri auaadress Heinrich Markile

  10. Eesti-Taani suhete õiguslikke, poliitilisi ja majanduslikke aspekte 1940-1995 : [bakalaureusetöö] / Jürgo Loo ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Peeter Järvelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loo, Jürgo

    1995-01-01

    Taani poliitika Balti riikide NSV Liitu inkorporeerimise küsimuses ja Eesti-Taani vahelised suhted Eesti iseseisvuse taastamise eelsel perioodil, Eesti-Taani poliitilised suhted pärast Eesti iseseisvuse taastamist, Eesti-Taani majandussuhted, lepinguliste suhete areng

  11. Symposium des Nordost-Instituts zu seutsch-baltischen diplomatischen Beziehungen / Detlef Henning

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henning, Detlef, 1959-

    2011-01-01

    12. oktoobril 2011 toimus Lüneburgis avatud sümpoosion Baltimaade ja Saksamaa vahel diplomaatiliste suhete taastamise kahekümnenda aastapäeva puhul. Ülevaade toimunust. Lüneburgi valikut hinnati igati õnnestunuks ja järgmisel aastal plaanitakse seal läbi viia loengusari Hansalinnade ajaloo teemal

  12. Küla arengukava on külaarengu toetuse saamiseks vajalik / Ain Lember

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lember, Ain

    2004-01-01

    Liikumine Kodukant kavatseb esitada põllumajandusministeeriumile protestikirja, kuna ei nõustu ministeeriumi infopäevadel levitatava tõlgendusega nagu võiks külade taastamise ja arendamise meetme toetust taotleda ka ilma küla arengukavata. Arvamust avaldavad: Maris Ode, Lemmi Maasik, Heli Raamets, Marek Raud ja Sille Rähn

  13. The durability and mechanical strenght properties of bamboo in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The durability and mechanical strenght properties of bamboo in reinforced concrete. GA Alade, FA Olutoge, AA Alade. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 4(2) 2004: 35-40. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Biomonitoring of lead-contaminated Missouri streams with an assay for erythrocyte δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in fish blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Hunn, J.B.; Nash, T.; Tieger, M. N.; Steadman, B. L.

    1993-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) in erythrocytes has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and, more recently, in fishes. The assay was tested for ALA-D activity in fishes from streams affected by lead in combination with other metals from lead-zinc mining and related activities. Fishes (mostly catostomids) were collected from sites affected by historic and current mining activities, and from sites considered to be unaffected by mining (reference sites). A group of potentially toxic elements was measured in blood and carcass samples of individual fish, as were ALA-D activity, total protein (TP), and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood. Concentrations of mining-related metals (lead, zinc, and cadmium) were significantly greater (P<0.05) in fish blood and carcass at sites affected by historic mining activities than at reference and active mining sites. When analyzed by multiple regression, ALA-D activity, Hb, and TP accounted for 66% of blood-lead and 69% of carcass-lead variability. Differences among species were small. ALA-D activity as a biomarker adequately distinguished sites affected by bioavailable environmental lead. Zinc was the only other metal that affected ALA-D activity; it appeared to ameliorate the inactivation of ALA-D by lead.

  15. Unest äratatud Alatskivi loss / Meeli Müüripeal, Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müüripeal, Meeli, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Alatskivi lossist (Arved von Nolcken, 1880-1885), lossi restaureerimise käigust ja seisust. Korras on viis esindusruumi. Sisekujunduse autorid: Olev Suuder, Oleg Mellov, ARC Projekt. SA Alatskivi Loss plaanidest. Kommenteerivad sihtasutuse juhataja Külli Must, lossi taastamise eestvedajad restauraator Raivo Nisu ja senine vallavanem Maie Nisu, kes kaitses 2004. a. EKA-s magistritöö "Alatskivi mõisaansambli revitaliseerimise ideeprojekt". 14 ill

  16. Ognjami mne sverknul vokzal... / Lev Livshits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Лившиц, Лев, 1924-2013

    2006-01-01

    Kunstimetseenidest Venemaal. Neist parun Alexander Stieglitzi elu oli seotud Narvaga. Tema asutatud A. Stieglitzi kunsttööstuskoolis Peterburis õppis 15 eesti kunstnikku. Raudtee rajamisest Eestis ja Reveli vaksalihoone ning seda ümbritsevate alade ajaloost

  17. Riigikogu komisjon nõudis Natura 2000 loojatelt selgitusi / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni esimees Jürgen Ligi kommenteerib komisjoni istungit, kus Natura 2000 loojad andsid kinnituse eraomanike kooskõlastuseta maade Euroopa Komisjonile esitamisest loobumiseks. Vt. samas: Keskkonnaministeerium: me ei loobu Natura alade esitamisest

  18. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The so-called acute porphyrias, which are Acute Intermittent Porphyria , Hereditary Coproporphyria , Variegate Porphyria and ALAD Porphyria ... precursor substances registers changes between the fed and fasting states. The normal fast that occurs between meals ...

  19. 220 AUTOMATED CLEARING SYSTEM AND THE BANKING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time services to the banks and easy movement of financial instrument transfers. It would be ..... Akujuobi, L.E. (2006) Corporate Finance, Owerri: Springfield Publishers Ltd. Alade ... (2001) Fundamentals of Applied Quantitative Techniques for.

  20. Experimental study on the effect of ingested lead shot on Estuarine crocodiles: significance for Finniss River field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lead has long been recognised as a cumulative metabolic poison in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Because of the many industrial activities that have brought about its widespread distribution, lead is ubiquitous in the environment. For example, uranium mining at the Rum Jungle site on the Finniss River, Northern Territory, resulted in contamination of river sediments with lead. Today, lead levels remain at about 250 mg kg-1 of wet river sediment within the immediate vicinity of the mine. Another potential source of lead poisoning in wildlife is the use of lead gunshot for hunting. Mortality in wild waterfowl caused by the ingestion of spent lead shot has been recognised in North America and Europe for over a century. An experimental study was undertaken to assess the above hypothesis on the effects of lead in the environs of crocodiles. The specific effects of lead intoxication arise mainly from the interaction of lead with the enzymatic processes in the haem biosynthetic pathway. One of these enzymes, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), catalyses the condensation of two molecules of aminolevulinic acid to produce the pyrrole, porphobilinogen, the building block of the haem molecule. ALAD is a metalloenzyme requiring zinc for activity and is inhibited by lead displacing the essential zinc. This inhibition of ALAD by lead has been used as a specific biomarker for lead poisoning in fish, birds and mammals. An assay system was developed for the measurement of ALAD activity in crocodilian blood. It was found that ALAD was inhibited by up to 90% during the first week after exposure of the crocodiles to lead shot. There was an inverse correlation between BPb and ALAD activity throughout the 42 week experimental period. BPb concentrations greater than 100 mg dL-1 produced significant inhibition of ALAD. The results indicated that ALAD inhibition could be used as a specific biomarker of lead toxicity in crocodiles

  1. Laboratory results of some biological measures in workers exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, G.C.; Alessio, L.

    1974-12-01

    Erthrocyte ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) activity and blood lead values were studied in different groups of subjects not occupationally exposed to lead and compared with values for exposed workers. The results lead to the conclusion that measurement of ALAD activity is more useful in evaluating possible exposure of general population groups to minimal quantities of lead than in the surveillance of workers in the lead industries.

  2. Lead-Binding Proteins: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey C. Gonick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead-binding proteins are a series of low molecular weight proteins, analogous to metallothionein, which segregate lead in a nontoxic form in several organs (kidney, brain, lung, liver, erythrocyte. Whether the lead-binding proteins in every organ are identical or different remains to be determined. In the erythrocyte, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD isoforms have commanded the greatest attention as proteins and enzymes that are both inhibitable and inducible by lead. ALAD-2, although it binds lead to a greater degree than ALAD-1, appears to bind lead in a less toxic form. What may be of greater significance is that a low molecular weight lead-binding protein, approximately 10 kDa, appears in the erythrocyte once blood lead exceeds 39 μg/dL and eventually surpasses the lead-binding capacity of ALAD. In brain and kidney of environmentally exposed humans and animals, a cytoplasmic lead-binding protein has been identified as thymosin β4, a 5 kDa protein. In kidney, but not brain, another lead-binding protein has been identified as acyl-CoA binding protein, a 9 kDa protein. Each of these proteins, when coincubated with liver ALAD and titrated with lead, diminishes the inhibition of ALAD by lead, verifying their ability to segregate lead in a nontoxic form.

  3. Evaluation of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase activity as a short-term indicator in fish of a harmful exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Blunt, B.R.; Spry, D.J.; Austen, K.

    1977-04-01

    The activity of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) of fish is easily measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus) to lead consistently inhibited ALA-D within 2 wks at concentrations as low as 10, 90, 470, and 90 ..mu..g/l, respectively. In rainbow and brook trout these concentrations were closely related to the published minimum effective concentrations causing sublethal harm. There was a significant linear relationship between ALA-D activity and log of blood lead concentration, between ALA-D activity and log of lead in water, and between blood lead and lead in water. Near lethal exposures to cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury did not significantly inhibit ALA-D activity. Recovery of ALA-D activity of rainbow trout after transfer from 120 ..mu..g/l lead to clean water occurred in 8 wk. This enzyme provides fast, consistent, specific, and sensitive estimates of lead concentrations causing sublethal harm to fish and may help to relate sources of lead to degree of exposure of fish populations in the field.

  4. Hispaania kurk, made in Poland / Gunnel Koba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koba, Gunnel

    2009-01-01

    Taimekaitse vahendite kahjulikust mõjust inimese tervisele ning Veterinaar- ja toiduameti andmed Eestis aastail 1998-2007 uuritud puu-, juur- ning aedviljade taimekaitsevahendite ja pestitsiidijääkide seire proovidest

  5. Kamjo mööblikollektsioonid = Kamjo furniture collections

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Sisearhitektide Hillar Männi (Link OÜ, A₃ OÜ) ja Aet Seire (A₃ OÜ) Rootsi firmale Kamjo disainitud magamistoakollektsioonidest. Kollektsioonid valmistatakse Eestis käsitööna. Loetletud sisearhitektide töid

  6. Maja ja märgid = A house and signs / Jarmo Kauge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kauge, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    2013. a. valminud eramust - Elevandimaja - Maardus. Autor Vilen Künnapu. Arhitektuur: AB Künnapu & Padrik. Sisekujundus: Aet Seire, Vilen Künnapu. Elevandiskulptuur: Vambola Mets, Vilen Künnapu. Ruume kaunistavad August Künnapu maalid

  7. NGAM webinar materials for talk by C. Serest on May 2012 Market Technology Symposium, fenceline monitoring session

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk supports the NGAM workshop and webinar seires and prepares for NGAM 2 The Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) webinar and workshop series captures the revolution in air pollution measurement science enabled by rapid advances in sensors, communication...

  8. Biochemical and hematological effects of lead ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.; Murray, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    1. One-day old American kestrel (Faico sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 μl/g of corn oil (controls), 25, 125 or 625 mg/kg of metallic lead in corn oil for 10 days.2. Forty per cent of the nestlings receiving 625 mg/kg of lead died after 6 days and growth rates were significantly depressed in the two highest lead dosed groups. At 10 days hematocrit values were significantly lower in the two highest lead treated groups, and hemoglobin content and red blood cell (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity was depressed in all lead treated groups. Plasma creatine phosphokinase decreased in the two highest treatment groups.3. Brain, liver and kidney ALAD activities, brain RNA to protein ratio and liver protein concentration decreased after lead exposure whereas liver DNA, DNA to RNA ratio and DNA to protein ratio increased. Brain monoamine oxidase and ATPase were not significantly altered.4. Measurements of the ontogeny of hematological variants and enzymes in normal development, using additional untreated nestlings, revealed decreases in red blood cell ALAD, plasma aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, brain DNA and RNA and liver DNA, whereas hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma alkaline phosphatase, brain monoamine oxidase, brain ALAD and liver ALAD increased during the first 10 days of posthatching development.5. Biochemical and hematological alterations were more severe than those reported in adult kestrels or precocial young birds exposed to lead. Alterations may be due in part to delayed development.

  9. Continuous far red irradiation controls molecular properties of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in Raphanus Sativus seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balange, A.P. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 76-Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Photobiologie); Lambert, C. (U.E.R. Scientifique de Luminy, Dept. de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Marseilles (France))

    1983-12-01

    8-Aminolevulinate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.24) (ALAD) is a phytochrome-dependent enzyme. Under continuous far red light (FR), the intracellular location of ALAD is modified: in young irradiated seedling cotyledons (48 h from sowing) it is localised in the cytoplasm, as for seedlings kept in continuous darkness or irradiated but treated with erythromycin (ERT). In seedlings kept 120 h under continuous FR light, ALAD is detected in cytoplasm too, but also in etioplasts. Studies from DEAE-cellulose chromatography show that, when ALAD is localised in the cytoplasm it has a stable charge, but an unstable molecular weight. If plastids are allowed to grow normally under continuous FR light, the enzyme can be purified from stroma of etioplasts from 72 h from sowing. The molecule is unstable, both in charge and in molecular weight. ALAD from etioplasts is further transformed into a species stable both in charge and in molecular weight. The relationship between the molecular modifications and physiological results observed previously are discussed. 12 refs.

  10. Effects of lead on enzymes of porphyrine biosynthesis in chloroplasts and erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampp, R.; Kriebitzsch, C.; Ziegler, H.

    1974-01-01

    Two enzymes of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and prophobilinogenase (PBGA), show a pronounced sensitivity to lead ion, as was shown in isolated chloroplasts of spinach. It has been reported by several authors that the activity of ALAD involved in the hemoglobine-biosynthesis in erythrocytes is also very sensitive to lead ions. Spinach chloroplasts were isolated and sonicated and the enzyme activity tested. Calf blood was collected with heparin and kept at 0/sup 0/C until enzyme determination. Hemolyzed erythrocytes (rapid freezing and thawing twice) were used as the source of enzymes. The incubation mixture was the same as for chloroplasts; the hemoglobin content per test was about 44 mg (ALAD) and 91 mg (PBGA). ALAD in erythrocytes is somewhat more sensitive to lead ions than ALAD in chloroplasts. PBGA in erythrocytes is also inhibited by Pb/sup 2 +/ ions, again more than the chloroplast enzyme. At all concentrations of Pb/sup 2 +/ checked in our experiments the percentage of inhibition was higher with PBGA. 3 references, 1 figure.

  11. Eesti Kindlustuse peahoone V korruse renoveerimine esindusruumideks / Aivar Habakukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habakukk, Aivar

    1998-01-01

    Lahendus on valminud vastavalt ajaloolaste Leo Gensi ja Toivo Tinti poolt koostatud eritingimustele. 1925. a. valminud hoones oli juba algselt V korrus kavandatud kõige esinduslikumana. Projekt nägi ette esinduslikkuse taastamise. Korrusele olid ette nähtud direktsiooni kabinetid ja esindusruumid koos abiruumidega. Projekt : Stuudio Habakukk & Kivi, 1997. Autorid Aivar Habakukk, Enn Kivi. Ehituse peatöövõtt : AS Gustaf. Restaureerimine : AS KAR Grupp. Mööbel : esindusruumides Kinnarps, Bengt Olof (AS Santor), tööruumides A & A.S.A.. Valgustid : Steel Line AS. Valmis 1998.

  12. Avalik kiri Riigikogule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka Postimees 2. märts lk. 2, Meie Maa 2. märts, lk. 2, Põhjarannik 2. märts, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 2. märts, lk. 2, Kesknädal 2. märts lk. 6, Maaleht, Pärnu Postimees 3. märts lk. 8,11, Hiiu Leht 11. märts lk. 2. 20. augustil 1991. aastal Eesti riikliku iseseisvuse taastamise poolt hääletanud pole rahul Eesti lipu seaduse eelnõu muudatusettepanekuga, mis lipu heiskamise muudab vabatahtlikuks taasiseseisvumispäeval 20. augustil

  13. Rüütel jagas esimesed 500 teenetemärki / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel autasustab seoses vabariigi 88. aastapäeva ja iseseisvuse taastamise 15. aastapäevaga 834 inimest, 22. veebruaril andis president teenetemärgi üle enam kui 500 inimesele. President allkirjastas ka otsuse, millega autasustatakse Torino taliolümpial kuldmedali võitnud Kristina Šmiguni, Andrus Veerpalu ning nende treenereid Mati Alaveri ja Anatoli Šmiguni. Arvamust avaldab Eesti Evangeelse Luterliku Kiriku peapiiskop Andres Põder. Lisa: President Rüütli kolm mõtet. Fotol presidendipaar koos Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi saanud Reet Linna ja Anne Veskiga

  14. Käsitöö ja ühistöö. Tallinna diakonisside haigla kabelist Pikva Miikaeli kabeliks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    1891. a. arhitekt Erwin Bernhardi projekti järgi valminud puitkabeli teisaldamisest Pikva mõisa aladele. Teisaldustöid tegi OÜ Kuukaar. Projekti töörühm: Illar Kannelmäe, Mare Kelpmann, Reet Talima, Kaido Ole, Lauri Sillak, Mati Raal, Merike Kallas. Andres Sild mõõdistas ja inventeeris kabeli, Jaanus Vipper restaureeris aknad ja uksed, Tõnu Vainküla orelikapi ja pingid, Indrek Joala paigaldas konstruktsiooniosasid, Tõnu Aru ja Eve Ester jäädvustasid kabeli taastamise. Kabel pühitseti 2. XI 2005

  15. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  16. Miljööalade majaomanike ja korteriühistute koolitamine = Обучение владельцев домов и квартирных товариществ, находящихся в районах культурно-исторической сред

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elvisto, Tarmo Andre, 1964-

    2009-01-01

    Ülevaade 2008. aastal toimunud Säästva Renoveerimise Infokeskuse korraldatud koolitustsüklitest korteriühistutele ja majaomanikele, mille käigus jagati säästva renoveerimise alast oskusteavet, et aidata kaasa ajaloolise hoonestuse säilimisele

  17. Optical nanoantennas for multiband surface-enhanced infrared and raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    D'Andrea, Cristiano

    2013-04-23

    In this article we show that linear nanoantennas can be used as shared substrates for surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy (SERS and SEIRS, respectively). This is done by engineering the plasmonic properties of the nanoantennas, so to make them resonant in both the visible (transversal resonance) and the infrared (longitudinal resonance), and by rotating the excitation field polarization to selectively take advantage of each resonance and achieve SERS and SEIRS on the same nanoantennas. As a proof of concept, we have fabricated gold nanoantennas by electron beam lithography on calcium difluoride (1-2 μm long, 60 nm wide, 60 nm high) that exhibit a transverse plasmonic resonance in the visible (640 nm) and a particularly strong longitudinal dipolar resonance in the infrared (tunable in the 1280-3100 cm -1 energy range as a function of the length). SERS and SEIRS detection of methylene blue molecules adsorbed on the nanoantenna\\'s surface is accomplished, with signal enhancement factors of 5 × 102 for SERS (electromagnetic enhancement) and up to 105 for SEIRS. Notably, we find that the field enhancement provided by the transverse resonance is sufficient to achieve SERS from single nanoantennas. Furthermore, we show that by properly tuning the nanoantenna length the signals of a multitude of vibrational modes can be enhanced with SEIRS. This simple concept of plasmonic nanosensor is highly suitable for integration on lab-on-a-chip schemes for label-free chemical and biomolecular identification with optimized performances. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Optical nanoantennas for multiband surface-enhanced infrared and raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    D'Andrea, Cristiano; Bochterle, Jö rg; Toma, Andrea; Huck, Christian W.; Neubrech, Frank; Messina, Elena; Fazio, Barbara; Maragó , Onofrio M.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Lamy De La Chapelle, Marc L.; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe; Pucci, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    In this article we show that linear nanoantennas can be used as shared substrates for surface-enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy (SERS and SEIRS, respectively). This is done by engineering the plasmonic properties of the nanoantennas, so to make them resonant in both the visible (transversal resonance) and the infrared (longitudinal resonance), and by rotating the excitation field polarization to selectively take advantage of each resonance and achieve SERS and SEIRS on the same nanoantennas. As a proof of concept, we have fabricated gold nanoantennas by electron beam lithography on calcium difluoride (1-2 μm long, 60 nm wide, 60 nm high) that exhibit a transverse plasmonic resonance in the visible (640 nm) and a particularly strong longitudinal dipolar resonance in the infrared (tunable in the 1280-3100 cm -1 energy range as a function of the length). SERS and SEIRS detection of methylene blue molecules adsorbed on the nanoantenna's surface is accomplished, with signal enhancement factors of 5 × 102 for SERS (electromagnetic enhancement) and up to 105 for SEIRS. Notably, we find that the field enhancement provided by the transverse resonance is sufficient to achieve SERS from single nanoantennas. Furthermore, we show that by properly tuning the nanoantenna length the signals of a multitude of vibrational modes can be enhanced with SEIRS. This simple concept of plasmonic nanosensor is highly suitable for integration on lab-on-a-chip schemes for label-free chemical and biomolecular identification with optimized performances. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Neli hüpoteesi Iraagi asjus / Jüri Adams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adams, Jüri, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Rahvamasside osavõtust Iraagis toimunud ajutise parlamendi valimistel ja põhiseaduse rahvahääletusel, rahvusriikide tekkimine ajaloos, rahvusriigi idee levik, kurdide iseseisvusliikumine ja püüd ühendada Kurdistani autonoomiaga ka kurdidega asustatud naaberprovintside alad, islamiriigi loomise idee Iraagi shiiitide hulgas, kodusõda Iraagis

  20. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research - Vol 12, No 1 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of Student-Teacher's Attitude Toward Teaching Profession Across Teacher Training Institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Oluwatomi M. Alade, Sola M. Aletan, Olaotan O. Kuku, 22-31 ...

  1. Rannikureostaja tabati Hollandis / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti ja Hollandi koostöös tabati Hollandis Panama lipu all sõitnud kaubalaev Voyager II, mis oli reostanud Hiiumaa rannikut, kaptenile määrati peaaegu 80 000 kroonine trahv. Vt. samas: Tundlikud alad kantakse merekaardile

  2. Effects of mercury and selenite on δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity and on selected oxidative stress parameters in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perottoni, Juliano; Lobato, L.P.; Silveira, Aline; Rocha, J.B.T.; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effects of Na 2 SeO 3 and HgCl 2 on kidney and liver of adult rats. In vivo, HgCl 2 (17 μmol/kg, sc) reduced ascorbic acid levels in liver (∼15%), whereas in kidney it reduced ALA-D activity (∼60%) and ascorbic acid levels (∼35%) and increased TBARS content (∼50%). Na 2 SeO 3 (17 μmol/kg, sc) exposure increased the content of nonprotein thiol groups in liver (35-60%) and kidney (∼50-160%), partially prevented mercury-induced ALA-D inhibition in kidney, and completely prevented a mercury-induced increase of TBARS content and decrease of ascorbic acid levels in kidney. In vitro, HgCl 2 and Na 2 SeO 3 inhibited renal and hepatic ALA-D, while HgCl 2 increased TBARS in renal and hepatic tissue preparations. Na 2 SeO 3 increased the rate of glutathione oxidation in vitro. Results indicated that Na 2 SeO 3 protected against HgCl 2 effects in vivo (prevention of mercury interaction with thiol groups and of mercury-induced oxidative damage). In vitro, Na 2 SeO 3 did not prevent mercury effects, but potentiated ALA-D inhibition by mercury, probably due to its ability to oxidize thiol groups

  3. Kultuuripealinna vedajad püüavad mereni jõuda / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2009-01-01

    SA Tallinn 2011 juht Mikko Fritze ja programmijuht Jaanus Rohumaa tutvustavad Tallinna mereäärsete alade hetkeolukorda. Üks põhilisi Tallinna, Euroopa kultuuripealinna ideesid on Tallinn kui merelinn. Linna merele avamisest. Valmivast Rocca al Mare promenaadist

  4. Lead Effect on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity of Feral Pigeon (Columba livia in Drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Plakiqi Milaimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effects of environmental pollution with heavy metals from ferro-nickel smelter on Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD activity, and to analyze the blood lead level of feral pigeon (Columba livia in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard in Drenas City, Republic of Kosovo. For this purpose, twenty specimens of feral pigeon (20 birds, males and females, were collected in Drenas city which were living in ferro-nickel smelter courtyard, and 20 specimens in Lubizhdë village as control group (non-contaminated area. ALAD activity in Drenas group was significantly inhibited (P<0.001, compared with ALAD activity of controls. The blood lead level was significantly increased (P=0.015 compared to control group. Correlation between ALAD and blood lead level in Drenas group was negative (r=-0.117; P>0.050 and positive in Lubizhdë group (r=0.452; P> 0.050, but not in significant difference between the input groups. Feral pigeons can play an important role as bioindicators, which can used to monitor the environmental pollution with heavy metals that may originate from Nickel metallurgy.

  5. Miks pole Rosenberg õnnestunud valik? / David Vseviov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vseviov, David, 1949-

    2011-01-01

    Autor avaldab arvamust seoses Eesti Ajaloo muuseumi Suurgildi hoone uue püsinäitusega „VISA HING. 11 000 aastat Eesti ajalugu", kus tuntud inimeste hulgas on kajastatud ka Tallinnas õppinud ja töötanud hilisema Saksamaa Ida-alade riigiministri Alfred Rosenbergiga seonduvat ja mille eksponeerimine keelati Eesti Vabariigi kultuuriministeeriumi poolt

  6. Linn laiendab tasuta traadita interneti ala / Urmas Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Urmas

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsuse tellimusel paigaldab Elion traadita interneti ehk WiFi seadmed kõigisse linnaosadesse, kokku 28 üldkasutatavasse kohta. Projekti maksumuseks on 800 000 krooni. Kaart: Tasuta WiFi Tallinnas. Lisa: Linna rajatud tasuta WiFi alad

  7. Sarivõistlused ja Medalijaht 2012 / Eduard Pukkonen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukkonen, Eduard, 1960-

    2012-01-01

    2012. aastal lisandus Eesti Orienteerumisliidu juhatuse otsusega olemasolevatele sarjadele Eesti meistrivõistluste medalite kogumise võistlus Medalijaht 2012, mille esimene võitja on Marianne Haug 11 medaliga. 2012. aastal jagati orienteerumisspordis kõigi alade ja võistlusklasside peale välja 744 Eesti meistrivõistluste medalit

  8. Kindluselamud Lebbekes, Belgias / Kai Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    1999-01-01

    Sotsiaalehitistena tellitud Lebbeke neli uut maja näevad välja nagu hästikindlustatud eramud. 1,7 meetri kõrguste tellismüüridega suletud alade sees asuvad autovarjualune, aiakuur, terrass ja aed, mis on klaasseina abi ühenduses maja alumise korrusega. Materjalid: tellis, tumehall metall, betoon. Autor: Bob 361 Arhitektid.

  9. Nõukogude armeehooned: maailmapärand või risu? / Mart Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Mart

    2011-01-01

    Kunagise raudse eesriide alade kaardistamisest on välja kasvanud Euroopa Roheline Vöö: üle 3000 kaitseala ja -paiga 8000 kilomeetril. Selle Eesti-osa kirjeldatakse Maaülikool raamatus "The Estonian Green Belt". Saksamaa tahab kogu raudse eesriide ala määramist UNESCO maailmapärandisse

  10. Natura 2000 kütab kirgi / Jüri Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Jüri, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 26. spr., lk. 2. Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni aseesimehe sõnul viib valitsusliit looduse mitmekesisuse säilitamiseks lõpule Natura 2000 võrgustiku alade kaitse alla võtmise, jätkab loodushoiu toetuste maksmist pärandkooslusel ja alustab toetuste maksmist Natura aladel

  11. Natura 2000 ei lõpeta elu maal / Aleksei Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Aleksei, 1960-

    2004-01-01

    Natura alade kaitsekorralduse alused sätestab loodusdirektiivi paragrahv 6. Selle põhimõte on vältida elupaikade kahjustamist Natura aladel. Mingi ala kandmine Natura 2000 võrgustikku ei tähenda sugugi igasuguse inimtegevuse automaatset keelamist

  12. Projektile Urb.Energy pandi lõpp-punkt väärika konverentsiga = Точку в проекте "Urb.Energy" поставили проведением достойной конференции / Marit Otsing

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Otsing, Marit

    2011-01-01

    9. detsembril toimunud konverentsil tutvustati kõigile huvilistele kolme aasta jooksul Urb.Energy projekti raames tehtud tööd - Rakveres Seminari tänava piirkonnas arendati omavalitsuse ning piirkonna elanike koostöös välja ühtne visioon sellest, kuidas piirkonna avalikud alad ning korterelamud välja nägema hakkavad

  13. Tallinna vanalinna kaitseala 45 ja Helmi Üprus 100 / Jaan Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Jaan, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna raekojas 6. sept.-l toimunud konverentsist "Tallinna vanalinna kaitseala 45 ja Helmi Üprus 100", lühidalt ettekannetest. Konverentsi vaheajal näidatud Airi Kasera filmist "Õed Üprused" (ETV, 1988). Mustlas 7. sept. toimunud seminarist "Miljööväärtuslikud alad väikelinnades"

  14. Narva kant vajab oma brändi / Esko Passila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Passila, Esko

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et Ida-Virumaa peaks looma ühtse tugeva brändi, mille alusel tulevikuotsuseid teha. See peaks tooma välja soodsa asukoha eelised, võimalused, tööjõu kättesaadavuse, kasutusvalmid maa-alad, hinnad jne.

  15. Mis jääb alles normatiivsest linnaehitusest? = What remains of normative urban constructions? / Endrik Mänd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mänd, Endrik, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    16. ja 17. veebruaril 2010 toimunud Tallinna II linnafoorumi teemana kerkis üles Põhjaväilaga seonduv. Linnaliiklusest, soovist taas siduda mereäärsed alad ühtsesse linnakoesse, avaliku linnaruumi esteetilisest kvaliteedist, kiiruspõhimõttest lähtuvast transpordi planeerimisest, Põhjaväila projektist, valikutest transpordis, jalgsiliikujate olukorra parandamise võimalustest

  16. Distribution of corded ware in the areas north of the Gulf of Finland - an update/ Kerkko Nordqvist, Piritta Häkälä

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nordqvist, Kerkko

    2014-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse nöörkeraamika leiukohti Soomes ja Loode-Venemaal. Leiukohad jagatakse kolme peamisse rühma: matuse- ja asulakohad ning venekirveste juhuleiukohad. Soome lahest põhja poole jäävad alad paistavad silma rohkete asulakohtade ja väheste kalmistutega

  17. The medieval peasantry : on the social and religious position of the rural natives in southern Livonia (13th-15th centuries) / Andris Šnē

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Šnē, Andris, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Liivimaa Läti alade sotsiaalsest, poliitilisest ja usulisest olukorrast 13.-15. sajandil. Kuni pärisorjuse kehtestamiseni 15. sajandil jäid agraarsed struktuurid Liivimaal sarnasteks vallutuseelsete struktuuridega. Kohalikud rahvad säilitasid oma eelajaloolise paganliku pärandi läbi keskaja kuni uusajani välja

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 215 ... Vol 27, No 2 (2015), Studies on Haematology and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chickens Finished on an Unprocessed and Processed Velvet Bean (Mucuna Pruriens (L.)) as Dietary Protein Sources, Abstract PDF. Aliyu I. Muhammad, Shua'ibu B. Adamu, Nuruddeen K. Alade, Abdulmumin B. Amin, ...

  19. Effects of low-level exposure to xenobiotics present in paints on oxidative stress in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Angela M; Charão, Mariele; Brucker, Natália; Bulcão, Rachel; Freitas, Fernando; Guerreiro, Gilian; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Waechter, Fernanda; Hirakata, Vânia; Linden, Rafael; Thiesen, Flávia V; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2010-09-15

    Paints are composed of an extensive variety of hazardous substances, such as organic solvents and heavy metals. Biomonitoring is an essential tool for assessing the risk to occupational health. Thus, this study analyzed the levels of biomarkers of exposure for toluene, xylene, styrene, ethylbenzene, and lead, as well as the oxidative stress biomarker alterations in painters of an industry. Lipid peroxidation biomarker (MDA), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), nonprotein thyol groups, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) were analyzed in exposed and nonexposed subjects. We estimated which of the paint constituents have the greatest influence on the changes in the biomarkers of oxidative stress in this case of co-exposure. The results demonstrated that despite the fact that all the biomarkers of exposure were below the biological exposure limits, the MDA levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were increased, while nonprotein thyol groups and ALA-D levels were decreased in painters when compared with nonexposed subjects. After statistic test, toluene could be suggested as the principal factor responsible for increased lipid peroxidation and inhibition of ALA-D enzyme; however, further studies on the inhibition of ALA-D enzyme by toluene are necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Super ODS steels R and D for fuel cladding of next generation nuclear systems. 5) Mechanical properties and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasada, R.; Lee, S.G.; Lee, J.H.; Omura, T.; Zhang, C.H.; Dou, P.; Isselin, J.; Kimura, A.; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, S.; Ohnuki, S.; Fujisawa, T.; Okuda, T.; Abe, F.

    2009-01-01

    The newly-developed Al-added ODS ferritic steels with an addition of Zr or Hf, so-called super ODS candidate steels, showed good notch-impact properties in the as-received condition with keeping the excellent creep strength. (author)

  1. India ja Pakistan seisavad uute alguste lävepakul / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Indias ja Pakistanis tähistati iseseisvuse 60. aastapäeva. Demokraatliku arengutee valinud India ja islamistliku Pakistani suhted on pingelised, sõdade ja piirikonfliktide põhjuseks on olnud Kashmiri alad. Kaart: India ja Pakistan. Lisa: India ja Pakistan

  2. Source and impact of lead contamination on δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A.; Blasco, J.; Delgado, J.; Sarmiento, A.M.; Nieto, J.M.; Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 208 Pb/ 204 Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 ± 1.09 μg g -1 Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 ± 0.10 μg g -1 Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels ( -1 Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e -8.3[Pb] ; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in marine bivalve species with different feeding habits. Lead isotope data

  3. Avaliação dos fatores de risco relacionados à exposição ao chumbo em crianças e adolescentes do Rio de Janeiro Evaluation of risk factors related to lead exposure in children and adolescents from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Oliveira da Costa Mattos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A importância do chumbo atmosférico na contaminação global do ambiente tem recebido crescente atenção científica. A principal forma de monitorização da exposição é biológica, mas a ambiental tem um papel importante, já que o ambiente é a principal fonte de exposição ao chumbo. O estudo transversal busca identificar fontes de contaminação e potenciais fatores de risco da exposição em 64 crianças de zero a dezesseis anos de uma comunidade economicamente desfavorecida do Rio de Janeiro. Foram determinadas as concentrações de chumbo em solo, água, poeira e ar e calculados os fatores de risco neurológico e carcinogênico de inalação e ingestão. O sangue coletado foi utilizado para análise de Pb-S, ALA-D% e genotipagem da ALA-D. O fator de risco neurológico observado foi 549 vezes superior à dose de referência para poeira e 554 vezes superior no caso de ingestão. O fator de risco carcinogênico para ingestão foi de quatro vezes. A média de Pb-S foi 5,6μg/dL e 40% das crianças apresentaram valores de Pb-S acima do ponto de corte de 6μg/dL. A média de ALA-D% foi 40,3% e foi observada correlação entre Pb-S e ALA-D%. O genótipo ALAD1-2 foi identificado em 10% das crianças. Os resultados deste estudo permitirão o conhecimento da nossa realidade, subsidiando os órgãos de saúde pública e meio ambiente nas ações de controle e vigilância ambiental integradaThe importance of atmospheric lead in environmental global contamination is receiving increasing scientific attention. The main exposure monitoring approach is biological, but the environmental one has a key role, since the environment is the major source of exposure. The study aimed to identify the contamination sources and potential risk factors of the exposure in a 64 subject group formed by 0-16 years-old children from an economically deprived community in Rio de Janeiro. Lead concentrations in soil, water, dust and air were determined and neurological

  4. [Inhibition rate of gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in erythrocytes as a reliable index for individual workers of low lead exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, H; Omichi, M; Ohishi, H; Ishikawa, K; Hirashima, N

    1983-09-01

    As the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes is decreased by lead exposure, we considered that a net reduction of ALAD activity by lead in blood should be the difference between the activity fully activated with zinc (Zn2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and that without activation. The optimal condition of activation of ALAD was found by addition of 0.25 mM of Zn2+ and 10 mM of DTT in the reaction mixture. Judging from our previous results that the amount of inhibition of ALAD activity can be represented as the rate of inhibition and is closely correlated with the dose of lead administered to rabbits, the inhibition rate of ALAD activity and lead content in blood (Pb-B) of lead workers were measured. The scatter diagram obtained from the inhibition rate and lead content in blood has two groups being divided at 50 micrograms/ml of Pb-B. In one group less than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B, the inhibition rate has been closely related to Pb-B., the regression equation being Y = 1.82 X + 11.7, and the correlation coefficient + 0.926. In another group more than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B the inhibition rate remained constant at the 90% level. Measurement of the inhibition rate suggests to have practical validity for monitoring lead exposure in workers, and by means of a nomograph lead content in blood can be estimated from the inhibition rate.

  5. Post-uniform elongation and tensile fracture mechanisms of Fe-18Mn-0.6C-xAl twinning-induced plasticity steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ha-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Nam, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Joon; Fabrègue, Damien; Park, Myeong-heom; Tsuji, Nobuhiro; Lee, Young-Kook

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the complicated interrelationship between necking, post-uniform elongation (e_p_u), strain rate sensitivity (SRS), fracture mechanism and Al concentration in Fe-18Mn-0.6C-xAl twinning-induced plasticity steels. Many tensile tests were conducted for in- and ex-situ observations of necking, fracture surfaces, crack propagation and the density and size of micro-voids with the assistance of a high-speed camera and X-ray tomographic equipment. The addition of Al increased e_p_u, SRS and reduction ratios in dimension of the neck part of tensile specimens, and also changed fracture mode from quasi-cleavage to ductile fracture at the edge part. The quasi-cleavage surface of Al-free specimen was induced by edge and side cracks occurring along grain boundary junctions and twin boundaries within the edges and side surfaces where local deformation bands meet. The ductile-fracture surface of 1.5 %Al-added specimen was formed by the coalescence of micro-voids. While the side-to-middle crack propagation occurred in Al-free and 1 %Al-added specimens due to side cracks, the middle-to-side crack propagation was observed in 1.5 %Al-added specimen. The Al-free specimen had the larger size of the 20 largest voids compared to the 1.5 %Al-added specimen despite its lower void density and local strain due to the accelerated growth of voids near the tips of side cracks. Evaluating the negligible e_p_u of Al-free specimen by SRS is not deemed to be reasonable due to its inappreciable necking and side cracks. The improvement of e_p_u in 1.5 %Al-added specimen is primarily due to disappearance of edge and side cracks.

  6. Effects of lead on lactating rats and their sucklings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Buchet, J P; Hubermont, G

    1977-08-01

    Lead was administered to lactating rats in drinking water (0, 1, 10, and 100 ppM) from the day of delivery up to day 21 after delivery, at which time the mothers and their newborns were sacrificed. Various parameters of blood: lead concentration (Pb-B), hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), free erythrocyte porphyrin concentration (FEP), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity (ALAD)--and of tissue: ALAD activity, free tissue porphyrin concentration (FTP) and lead concentration (Pb-T) were determined. In mothers, a significant increase of Pb-B and a reduction of ALAD activity of blood were found in the 100 ppM group. In tissues Pb was significantly increased in liver of the 100 ppM group and in kidney of the 10 and 100 ppM groups. None of the biochemical parameters measured in tissues was significantly modified. In suckling rats an increase in Pb-B and a reduction of ALAD activity in blood were found in the 10 and 100 ppM lead groups. Pb concentration was significantly increased in liver, kidney and brain of the 100 ppM group and in kidney of the 10 ppM group. Lead storage in kidney of the 100 ppM group was associated with a marked increase in FTP and a slight reduction in ALAD activity. On the basis of the biochemical parameters studied in the newborn rats, the ''no-effect'' level of lead administered in drinking water during lactation is around 1 ppM, which is rather similar to that found when lead was administered to the mother before and/or during pregnancy.

  7. Increase in the amount of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in workers with moderate lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Sano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The amount of ALA-D in human erythrocytes was determined directly by radioimmunoassay or calculated from the restored activity assayed in the presence of zinc and dithiothreitol, and a good correlation was observed between the RIA-based and the restored activity-based amounts. The RIA-based amount of ALA-D in the blood of 10 normal individuals (blood lead levels of 5.6 +- 2.3 μg/100 ml: mean +- SD) and 19 lead-exposed workers (blood lead levels of 41.2 +- 10.2 μg/100 ml) was 54.1 +- 11.8 μg/ml blood and 92.3 +- 20.6 μg/ml blood, respectively, indicating an apparent increase of the enzyme amount in lead-exposed workers. A significant increase in the amount of erythrocyte ALA-D calculated from the restored activity in lead-exposed workers was observed even in the low blood lead level of 10-20 μg/100 ml, resulting in the range of blood lead level 20-40 μg/100 ml. No significant difference was observed in hematocrit and hemoglobin content between lead-exposed and non-exposed groups. These observations suggested that the increase of erythrocyte ALA-D in lead exposure was not due to anemia, which might result in the increase of young erythrocytes in peripheral blood. This increase in the amount of ALA-D in human erythrocytes might be a result of the function to overcome the inhibition of the enzyme in bone marrow cells during lead exposure, and these findings may throw light on the danger to human health of low-level lead toxicity. (orig.)

  8. Periodic array-based substrates for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, the first reports of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS) surfaced. Probably due to signal-enhancement factors of only 101 to 103, which are modest compared to those of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), SEIRS did not reach the same significance up to date. However, taking the compared to Raman scattering much larger cross-sections of infrared absorptions and the enhancement factors together, SEIRS reaches about the same sensitivity for molecular species on a surface in terms of the cross-sections as SERS and, due to the complementary nature of both techniques, can valuably augment information gained by SERS. For the first 20 years since its discovery, SEIRS relied completely on metal island films, fabricated by either vapor or electrochemical deposition. The resulting films showed a strong variance concerning their structure, which was essentially random. Therefore, the increase in the corresponding signal-enhancement factors of these structures stagnated in the last years. In the very same years, however, the development of periodic array-based substrates helped SEIRS to gather momentum. This development was supported by technological progress concerning electromagnetic field solvers, which help to understand plasmonic properties and allow targeted design. In addition, the strong progress concerning modern fabrication methods allowed to implement these designs into practice. The aim of this contribution is to critically review the development of these engineered surfaces for SEIRS, to compare the different approaches with regard to their performance where possible, and report further gain of knowledge around and in relation to these structures.

  9. Nanoantennas for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy: Effects of interaction and higher order resonant excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aizpurua

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity in surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS strongly depends on where the resonant excitation is spectrally located compared to the molecular vibration that is to be enhanced. In this contribution, we study the effect of coupling in the electromagnetic properties of 2D gold nanorod arrays in the IR. We also study the SEIRS activity of higher order resonant excitations in long nanoantennas to identify polaritonic signals of a supporting SiO2 layer with nanometer thickness (3 nm on a silicon substrate.

  10. Structural studies of substrate and product complexes of 5-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase from humans, Escherichia coli and the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum calidifontis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Davies, N; Butler, D; Norton, E; Thompson, D; Sarwar, M; Guo, J; Gill, R; Azim, N; Coker, A; Wood, S P; Erskine, P T; Coates, L; Cooper, J B; Rashid, N; Akhtar, M; Shoolingin-Jordan, P M

    2017-01-01

    A number of X-ray analyses of an enzyme involved in a key early stage of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis are reported. Two structures of human 5-aminolaevulinate dehydratase (ALAD), native and recombinant, have been determined at 2.8 Å resolution, showing that the enzyme adopts an octameric quaternary structure in accord with previously published analyses of the enzyme from a range of other species. However, this is in contrast to the finding that a disease-related F12L mutant of the human enzyme uniquely forms hexamers [Breinig et al. (2003), Nature Struct. Biol. 10, 757-763]. Monomers of all ALADs adopt the TIM-barrel fold; the subunit conformation that assembles into the octamer includes the N-terminal tail of one monomer curled around the (α/β) 8 barrel of a neighbouring monomer. Both crystal forms of the human enzyme possess two monomers per asymmetric unit, termed A and B. In the native enzyme there are a number of distinct structural differences between the A and B monomers, with the latter exhibiting greater disorder in a number of loop regions and in the active site. In contrast, the second monomer of the recombinant enzyme appears to be better defined and the active site of both monomers clearly possesses a zinc ion which is bound by three conserved cysteine residues. In native human ALAD, the A monomer also has a ligand resembling the substrate ALA which is covalently bound by a Schiff base to one of the active-site lysines (Lys252) and is held in place by an ordered active-site loop. In contrast, these features of the active-site structure are disordered or absent in the B subunit of the native human enzyme. The octameric structure of the zinc-dependent ALAD from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum calidifontis is also reported at a somewhat lower resolution of 3.5 Å. Finally, the details are presented of a high-resolution structure of the Escherichia coli ALAD enzyme co-crystallized with a noncovalently bound moiety of the product, porphobilinogen (PBG

  11. Revitalisasi Kebudayaan Batak Toba Dalam Pengembangan Pariwisata Di Kabupaten Toba - Samosir...

    OpenAIRE

    Jhonson Pardosi

    2007-01-01

    Penelitian ini membahas pengembangan pariwisata budaya melalui pertunjukan tortor dan gondang sabangunan. Tortor dan gondang sabangunan merupakan warisan leluhur yang tidak dapat dipisahkan, selalu dilaksanakan seiring dengan aturan-aturan atau adat ni gondang yang mengikatnya. Adat ni gondang sangat erat hubungannya dengan kepercayaan hasipelebeguan. Oleh karena itu, pelaksanaan tortor dan gondang sabangunan pernah tidak diperbolehkan oleh aturan gereja dan kemudian diperbolehkan kembali tet...

  12. Absolute migration and the evolution of the Rodriguez triple junction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) is a junction connecting three mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean: the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The evolution of the RTJ has been studied extensively for the past 10 Ma and the triple junction is believed to ...

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Eco-Label terhadap Kesadaran Konsumen untuk Membeli Green Product

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, Erlinda; Indriani, Dyah Rusty

    2014-01-01

    . Pandangan manusia telah bergeser seiring dengan meningkatnya kepedulian terhadap lingkungan, sehingga menimbulkan tuntutan bagi pelaku bisnis untuk memberikan solusi dalam menghadapi berbagai permasalahan lingkungan melalui pengembangan green product. Eco-label sebagai jaminan mutu green product merupakan isu di dunia bisnis dan perdagangan global saat ini. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menerapkan Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) untuk mengetahui pengaruh eco-label terhadap kesadaran kons...

  14. Pengaruh Intensitas Mengakses Facebook terhadap Penggunaan Bahasa Alay pada Remaja Usia Sekolah

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmahanti, Ayunda Sari; Herieningsih, Sri Widowati; Santosa, Hedi Pudjo; Ulfa, Nurrist Surayya

    2014-01-01

    Perkembangan media baru internet membantu masyarakat modern untuk mendekatkan jarak melalui teknologi komunikasinya. Melalui internet pula, kini banyak muncul situs sosial media, salah satunya Facebook. Facebook merupakan salah satu situs pertemanan yang beguna untuk mencari teman baru maupun berkomunikasi kembali dengan teman lama. Semakin berkembang situs ini, semakin banyak pula penggunanya terutama di kalangan remaja. Seiring meningkatnya mereka mengakses dan melakukan interaksi di Facebo...

  15. Pentingnya Penerapan Hygiene Dan Sanitasi Di Area Kitchen Dalam Meningkatkan Mutu Dan Cita Rasa Makanan Terhadap Kepuasan Tamu Di Garuda Plaza Hotel Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syafutra, Idham

    2011-01-01

    Dewasa ini keberadaan sektor pariwisata, terutama dibidang perhotelan telah banyak menyumbangkan devisa bagi negara. Hal ini terlihat semakin pesatnya persaingan bisnis dibidang ini perhotelan. Dengan seiring berjalannya waktu, kini hotel semakin meningkatkan kualitas dan produk serta jasa dari pelayanannya. Banyak atau sedikitnya jumlah kunjungan tamu dapat dilihat dari baik buruknya pelayanan hotel tersebut. Dengan memperhatikan seluruh area hotel dan meningkatkan hygiene dan sanitasi p...

  16. Bauran Pemasaran Jasa, Pengaruhnya terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen Pengguna Mobil Toyota Avanza Veloz PT. Hasjrat Abadi Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Wowor, Valdy Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Perkembangan teknologi dunia yang sangat pesat saat ini, menyebabkan semua Perusahaan perotomotifan harus berpikir lebih keras untuk menciptakan produk yang unggul dengan menerapkan strategi-strategi pemasaran. Bauran Pemasaran merupakan salah satu strategi pemasaran untuk meningkatkan jumlah penjualan sebuah produk. Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, kini orientasi berpikir Perusahaan perotomotifan tidak saja pada penciptaan produk unggul, namun bagaimana kepuasan konsumen menjadi tujuan uta...

  17. Artificial Intelligence Base Telemedicine Robotic

    OpenAIRE

    Hakika, Kisti; TS, Hendra Yunianto; Afriyanti, Liza

    2009-01-01

    Telemedicine atau pelayanan kesehatan jarak jauh bukan hal yang baru lagi dalam dunia kesehatan.Penggunaan teknologi sangat membantu dalam mengimplementasikan telemedicine. Namun perkembangantelemedicine mengalami kemajuan seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi. Salah satu perkembanganteknologi adalah robot. Secara umum kegunaan robot adalah untuk menggantikan tugas manusia. Padamakalah ini, akan dibuat simulasi telemedicine berupa konsultasi antara dokter dan pasien menggunakansebua...

  18. Dynamic Economic Dispatch pada Sistem Kelistrikan Microgrid dengan Penambahan Media Penyimpan Energi Menggunakan Quadratic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Wirakusuma, Fakhruddin; Suryoatmojo, Heri; Wibowo, Rony Seto

    2016-01-01

    Kebutuhan daya listrik saat ini meningkat pesat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. Peningkatan kebutuhan daya listrik ini bertolak belakang dengan menipisnya ketersediaan sumber energy minyak dan batu bara. Permasalahan ini berdampak pada ketahanan listrik nasional. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan daya listrik yang besar dengan cakupan wilayah yang luas diperlukan pembangkit tersebar berskala kecil. Pembangkit tersebar ini diupayakan bersumber pada energi terbarukan untuk meminimalkan pemakaian ...

  19. Smartphone: antara Kebutuhan dan E-lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Mabruroh, Chuzaimah; Dihan, Fereshti Nurdiana

    2010-01-01

    Kebutuhan terhadap sarana telekomunikasi yang multi fungsi kian berkembang, termasuk smartphone. Seiring peningkatan kebutuhan smartphone, aplikasi terhadap ponsel pada umumnya dan juga smartphone khususnya kian berkembang. Software - hardware smartphone juga kian beragam dengan harga yang semakin terjangkau. Fokus riset adalah persepsi konsumen terhadap smartphone dengan pendekatan riset kualitatif - diskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa persepsi terhadap smartphone lebih dominan seb...

  20. Wolbachia Sebagai Alternatif Pengendalian Vektor Nyamuk Aedes SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Lusiyana, Novyan

    2014-01-01

    Demam Berdarah Dengue (DBD) adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue. Virus dengue ditransmisikan kepada manusia melalui perantara vektor yaitu nyamuk Aedes aegypti dan Aedes albopictus (Aedes sp.). Penyakit ini dapat terjadi sepanjang tahun dan meningkat seiring dengan datangnya musim penghujan. Penyakit DBD memiliki mortalitas yang cukup tinggi terutama di negara-negara beriklim tropis dimana banyak faktor yang mendukung perkembangbiakan nyamuk vektor tersebut.

  1. Ilmus haridusterminite sõnastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eurydice programmi poolt välja antud sõnastik : European glossary on education. Vol. 4 : Management, Monitoring and Support Staff. Sõnastik annab ülevaate 30 Euroopa riigis kasutatavatest haridusterminitest, mis puudutavad kooli juhtkonda, seire- ja abipersonali kõigil haridustasemetel

  2. Karakteriga kodu / Karen Jagodin ; kommenteerinud Enn Rajasaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jagodin, Karen, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    2008. aastal valminud 2-korruseline eramu Mähel. Arhitekt Enn Rajasaar. Sisearhitekt Aet Seire. Välisviimistluses on kombineeritud tumedat tellist ja heledat krohvi. Sisekujundust läbivad värvid punane ja must. Osa mööbliesemeid (raamatukapid, söögitoa laud) valmisid sisearhitekti erilahendusena

  3. E-Goverment Sembakodroid Monitoring Harga Sembako Berbasis Android

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fahriyannur Rosyady; Risnandar Risnandar; Izzatul Ummah

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRAK Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman dan teknologi yang begitu pesat, banyak manusia yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari teknologi. Hal ini menyebabkan banyaknya instansi pemerintah yang memanfaatkan teknologi khususnya di bidang Information Technology (IT) dalam menjalankan business process dalam pemerintahan. Dinas Perindustrian dan Perdagangan (Disperindag) Provinsi Jawa Barat merupakan sebuah Dinas yang bertugas untuk mengatur dan mengawasi  jalannya arus perdagangan di Jawa Barat. ...

  4. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection/ Julia Fitzner ; Saba Qasmieh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fitzner, Julia

    2018-01-01

    Pärast 2009.- 2010. aasta gripi H1N1 pandeemiat algatas Maailma Terviseorganisatsioon (WHO) tehnilise konsultatsiooni ülemaailmse gripi seire kohta. WHO uute juhtumite määratluste ülemaailmne kasutamine aitab määrata globaalsete suundumuste näitajaid ja gripiviirustega kaasnevaid haigusi

  5. RMK katsetab metsade tulevalvet digikaameratega / Vaike Pommer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pommer, Vaike, 1947-

    2007-01-01

    2007. a. septembrist oktoobrini katsetatakse Vihterpalu põlengualal uut digitaalkaameratel põhinevat seiresüsteemi. Keskkonnainvesteeringute Keskuse rahastatud projekti "Metsade kaitse tulekahjude eest" raames korraldatud tehnilise projekti hanke võitis Saksa firma IQ Wireless GmbH

  6. PRODUKSI NANOFIBER DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM PENGOLAHAN AIR

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnandika, Vania Elita

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak Kebutuhan air meningkat seiring meningkatnya jumlah penduduk dan taraf kehidupan masyarakat. Pembangunan yang dilakukan secara terus-menerus dan sangat cepat di Indonesia mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas air permukaan. Teknologi membran merupakan salah satu teknologi pengolahan air yang menghasilkan produk dengan kualitas tinggi. Membran berstruktur nano, khususnya nanofiber, saat ini menjadi perhatian karena menjawab kebutuhan teknologi filtrasi yang efektif dan hemat biaya. Pr...

  7. Strategi Pengelolaan Ekosistem Mangrovedi Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang Kecamatan Medan Belawan

    OpenAIRE

    Alisyah, Fadhil Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    120302034 Kelurahan Belawan Sicanang merupakan salah satu kelurahan yang berada di wilayah administratif Kecamatan Medan Belawan. Pepohonan mangrove diketahui banyak tumbuh di wilayah ini. Namun, seiring dengan berkembangnya aktivitas yang dilakukan oleh manusia, dapat mengancam keberadaan ekosistem mangrove dengan tindakan penebangan dan alih fungsi lahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan penyebab degradasi ekosistem mangrove dan memaparkan strategi pengelolaan ekosistem man...

  8. Dramaturgi Kepemimpinan Perempuan dalam Organisasi Profit

    OpenAIRE

    Negari, Leidena Sekar; Sunarto, Sunarto; Lukmantoro, Triyono

    2013-01-01

    DRAMATURGI KEPEMIMPINAN PEREMPUAN DALAMORGANISASI PROFITAbstrakPemimpin dalam organisasi biasanya didominasi oleh kaum pria, karena konsepdan tradisi yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Indonesia yang mengaut pahampaternalistik. Seiring perkembangan zaman perempuan kini mampu mendudukijajaran top tier manajemen di sejumlah organisasi profit. Gaya komunikasiperempuan yang dianggap mampu dicintai karyawan dan lingkungan kerjanyadalam membangun sebuah hubungan menjadi sebuah nilai plus.Di dalam peneli...

  9. Ehitaja nõuab kohtu kaudu Evelin Ilveselt võla tasumist / Kadri Paas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    AS Nuia Melior on esitanud hagi proua Evelin Ilvese vastu, milles nõutakse Ärma talus tehtud tööde eest arvete tasumist. Firma juhataja Heino Luige sõnul küünib võlg 120 000 kroonini. Vandeadvokaat Madis Pätsi väitel ei ole OÜ Ermamaal ASi Nuia Melior ees võlgnevust, kuna AS Nuia Melior oli Ärma talus teostatavate tööde alltöövõtja ning oli sõlminud lepingu peatöövõtjaga Aus Invest OÜ. President T.H. Ilvese esivanemate talu taastamise peatöövõtja Aus Invest on pankrotis ja firma juht Aivar Aus lahkunud välismaale. Lisa: Eesti presidendid ehitajatega kimpus

  10. Structure and Dynamics of the Southeast Indian Ridge, 129°E to 140°E, and Off-axis Volcanism: Preliminary Results of the STORM Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briais, Anne; Barrère, Fabienne; Boulart, Cédric; Ceuleneer, Georges; Ferreira, Nicolas; Hanan, Barry; Hémond, Christophe; Macleod, Sarah; Maia, Marcia; Maillard, Agnès; Merkuryev, Sergey; Park, Sung-Hyun; Révillon, Sidonie; Ruellan, Etienne; Schohn, Alexandre; Watson, Sally; Yang, Yun-Seok

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle) on the N/O L'Atalante early 2015. The SEIR between Australia and Antarctica displays large variations of axial morphology despite an almost constant intermediate spreading rate. The Australia-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) between 120°E and 128°E is a section of the mid-ocean ridge where the magma budget is abnormally low, and which marks the boundary between Indian and Pacific mantle domains with distinct geochemical isotopic compositions. The STORM project focuses on the area east of the discordance from 128 to 140°E, where gravity highs observed on satellite-derived maps of the flanks of the SEIR reveal numerous volcanic seamounts. A major objective of the STORM cruise was to test the hypothesis of a mantle flow from the Pacific to the Indian domains. We collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data between 136 and 138°E to map off-axis volcanic ridges up to 10 Ma-old crust. We mapped the SEIR axis between 129 and 140°E, and the northern part of the George V transform fault. We collected rock samples on seamounts and in the transform fault, basaltic glass samples along the ridge axis, and near-bottom samples and in-situ measurements in the water column. Our observations reveal that the off-axis seamounts form near the SEIR axis, are not associated to off-axis deformation of the ocean floor, and are often located near the traces of ridge axis discontinuities. We also observe a general shallowing of the ridge axis from the AAD to the George V TF and the presence of robust axial segments near the transform fault. Our new data allow us to describe the complex evolution of the transform fault system. They also permit to locate new hydrothermal systems along the ridge axis.

  11. Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, J.; Rastogi, S.C.

    1977-08-01

    Garages and auto-repair workshops may be polluted with other heavy metals besides lead. Blood of autoworkers with high lead content was analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, ALAD activity and carboxyhaemoglobin level. Cadmium and copper levels in blood of autoworkers were comparable with those of the control subjects while chromium and nickel levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01 for both metals), and scattered raised values of manganese were found. There was no significant mutual correlation between levels of various heavy metals determined in whole blood. High copper levels were slightly related to decreasing ALAD activity (P < 0.1). Nineteen percent of autoworkers were found to have an abnormally high blood level of carboxyhemoglobin. The amount of particulate heavy metal in autoworkshop air was not related to biochemical abnormalities found in the autoworkers. Various sources of pollution of these heavy metals in autoworkshops are discussed.

  12. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri`s Old Lead Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmann, S.R.; Krajicek, J.J. [Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead (Pb) contamination of aquatic ecosystems was assessed. Thirty-seven snapping turtles were collected from three sites on the Big River, an Ozarkian stream contaminated with Pb mine tailings. Morphometric measurements, tissue Pb concentrations (muscle, blood, bone, carapace, brain, and liver), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD) activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, osmolality, and chloride ion content were measured. The data showed no effects of Pb contamination on capture success or morphological measurements. Tissue Pb concentrations were related to capture location. Hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma glucose, and plasma chloride ion content were not significantly different with respect to capture location. The {delta}-ALAD activity levels were decreased in turtles taken from contaminated sites. Lead levels in the Big River do not appear to be adversely affecting the snapping turtles of the river. Chelydra serpentina is a useful species for biomonitoring of Pb-contaminated aquatic environments.

  13. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: rcompany@ualg.pt; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Science Labs., Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J. [CIMA, Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)], E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  14. Metal Accumulation, Blood δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity and Micronucleated Erythrocytes of Feral pigeons (Columba Livia Living Near Former Lead-Zinc Smelter “ Trepça” – Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezaj I. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of lead in blood and tibia (Pb, zinc (Zn and cupper (Cu in tibia, blood δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D; EC: 4.2.1.24 activity, hematocrit value (Hct and micronuclei frequency (MN of peripheral erythrocytes have been determinated in three different populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia; forma urbana and forma domestica, collected in Mitrovica town (situated close to smelter “Trepça”, down closed in 2000 year and in rural area (Koshare willage . The blood lead level in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma urbana was 3 times higher (149.6; 50.5 μg% in comparison with that in feral pigeons from Mitrovica (forma domestica and 27.7 times higher (5.4 μg% in comparison with pigeons from rural area. The Pb concentration of tibia of feral pigeons (froma urbana and forma domestica, from Mitrovica town was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with control. The concentration of Zn in tibia of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana, was significantly higher (P<0.006 in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons from Mitrovica town (forma urbana and froma domestica, was significantly inhibited in comparison with control. The blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons –forma urbana from Mitrovica town was significantly inhibited (P<0.001 in comparison with the blood ALA-D activity of feral pigeons-forma domestica from Mitrovica town. The erythrocyte MN frequency of feral pigeons from Mitrovica was significantly higher (P <0.001 in comparison with controls. The smelter “Trepça” ten year after closed down pose a threat to the local environment, biota and people’s health.

  15. Ülev ja igapäevane = The sublime and the everyday / Kaja Pae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pae, Kaja

    2015-01-01

    Eesti linnade suurima elanike tihedusega piirkonnad on vabaplaneeringu alad. Paneelelamupiirkondade avalik ruum on jäänud lõpetamata, valmis on ehitatud kortermajad, koolid ja lasteaiad ning suurem infrastruktuur, kuid majadevahelise vaba ruumi täpsema läbimõtestamiseni pole jõutud.Tartu linnavalitsus korraldas 2014. aastal Annelinna visioonikonkursi, et planeeringulisi võimalusi edasi arendada ja avalikku ruumi parandada.

  16. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: a freshwater bivalve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Cravo, A; Shepherd, T J; Pearson, G; Bebianno, M J

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  17. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: A freshwater bivalve study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A.; Shepherd, T.J.; Pearson, G.; Bebianno, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision 206 Pb/ 204 Pb, 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, 208 Pb/ 204 /Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance

  18. Ameerika sõdurite Eestis viibimine saab selgemad reeglid / Mihkel Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Mihkel

    2017-01-01

    Eesti ja USA vahelisest kaitsekoostöö lepingust, millega kavatsetakse anda selgem raamistik USA vägede siinolekuks ja lihtsustada relvajõudude Eestis tegutsemist. Kokkuleppes pannakse paika kahe riigi suhted ja õigused, mis puudutavad näiteks Eesti kaitseväe alade ja ehitiste kasutamist, ameeriklaste maksusoodustusi, ehitusõigusi ning USA sõdurite väär- ja kriminaaltegude menetlemist

  19. Effects of cadmium on chick embryogenesis and some comparisons with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D W; Chen, D C.C.; Hsu, J L

    1978-07-01

    During the last ten years because of the severity of the problem of pollution and the part that heavy metals play in it we have been doing research on the effects of some heavy metals on chick embryogenesis in order to get a comparative study and to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Experiments were performed using 431 fertilized white Leghorn eggs to study the effect of cadmium on chick embryogenesis. Cadmium acetate at 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, 0.060, 0.12 or 0.24 mg/egg and lead acetate at 0.02, 0.04 or 0.075 mg/egg was injected in ovo on the fourth day of incubation. The embryos were taken out on the 19th day and examined for gross defects. Electrocardiograms were recorded on some embryos. Hemoglobin determinations were done on others. The changes in plasma delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydrase (ALAD) of the embryos due to cadmium and lead acetate were also determined. It was found that the LD50 of cadmium acetate was close to 0.045 mg. The highest incidence of abnormality, 30.9% of the surviving embryos, appeared in the 0.030 mg group although malformed embryos were also found in the 0.015, 0.045 and 0.060 mg groups. The most common malformations occurred in the liver (58%) and the cardiovascular system, with edema totalling over 90%. Lesser abnormalities were observed in the limbs. Lead acetate affected ALAD more than cadmium acetate. There was no significant difference on hemoglobin concentration or EKG between the distilled water control and either the cadmium or lead treated groups. Thus, embryolethality, embryotoxicity, congenital abnormalities and changes in ALAD were all observed in the cadmium-treated chick embryos although lead acetate seemed to inhibit the ALAD activity more effectively than cadmium acetate.

  20. Effect of short-term administration of lead to pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubermont, G; Buchet, J P; Roels, H; Lauwerys, R

    1976-03-01

    Lead was administered to adult female rats in drinking water (0; 0.1; 1 and 10 ppM) for 3 weeks before mating, during pregnancy and during 3 weeks after delivery. On day 21 after delivery the mothers and their newborns were sacrificed and various parameters of blood--lead concentration (Pb-B), hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), free erythrocyte porphyrins (FEP), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD)--and tissue--ALAD, free tissue porphyrins (FTP), lead concentration (Pb-T)--were determined. In mothers a significant increase in Pb-B and Pb concentration in kidney was found in the 10 ppM group, but this increase in lead concentration was not associated with any statistically significant modification of the biochemical parameters. In newborns, lead concentration in blood and in kidney was also significantly increased in the 10 ppm group and this lead exposure was associated with a decrease of the ALAD activity in blood and an increase of FTP in kidney. On the basis of the biochemical parameters investigated it was concluded that the developing organism is more susceptible to the biological action of lead than the organism of adult animals and that the ''no-effect'' level of lead administered during pregnancy and in the neonatal period is around 1 ppM.

  1. Transitions in axial morphology along the Southeast Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Cochran, James R.

    1996-07-01

    Shipboard bathymetric and magnetic profiles across the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) were analyzed in order to examine the nature of along-axis variations in axial morphology at this intermediate spreading rate ridge. Three types of axial morphology are observed along the SEIR: an axial high, a shallow (200-700 m deep) axial valley and a deep (>1000 m deep) axial valley. An axial high is found to the east of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) (east of 128°E) and between 82°E and 104°E. A shallow rift valley is found from 104°E to 114°E and from 82°E westward past the Amerstdam/St. Paul hotspot (ASP) to about 30°S, 75°E. Deep rift valleys are found from 114°E to 128°E in the vicinity of the AAD and from the Indian Ocean Triple Junction (IOTJ) at 25°S, 70°E to about 30°S, 75°E. The transition near 30°S occurs in an area of constant zero-age depth and does not appear to result from an increase in mantle temperature. It could be the result of the rapid increase in spreading rate along that portion of the SEIR. The most likely cause of the other transitions in axial morphology is variations in mantle temperature. The transitions between the different types of axial morphology are well defined and occur over a limited distance. Transitions in axial morphology are accompanied by significant changes in ridge flank topographic roughness. The transitions from axial valleys to axial highs are also accompanied by changes in the amplitude of the seafloor magnetic anomalies. Our observations suggest that there are distinct modes rather than a continuum of axial morphology on the SEIR and that there appears to be a "threshold" mechanism for a rapid change between different states of axial morphology. The ASP has only a limited influence on the SEIR. The ridge axis is marked by an axial valley for the entire distance from the IOTJ up to and past the ASP. The ridge axis becomes shallower as the ASP is approached from the northwest but only by about 300 m over

  2. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) across all species and locations and typically were greater in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) than in other taxa. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p < 0.01) among sites and species. Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent

  3. Source and impact of lead contamination on {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in several marine bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Company, R.; Serafim, A.; Lopes, B.; Cravo, A. [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Kalman, J.; Riba, I.; DelValls, T.A. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Blasco, J. [Instituto Ciencias Marinas Andalucia (CSIC), Campus Rio San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Delgado, J. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sarmiento, A.M. [Catedra UNESCO/UNITWIN/WiCop, Department of Physical-Chemistry, Faculty Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Avda Fuerzas Armadas s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Shepherd, T.J.; Nowell, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bebianno, M.J., E-mail: mbebian@ualg.pt [CIMA, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2011-01-17

    Coastal areas and estuaries are particularly sensitive to metal contamination from anthropogenic sources and in the last few decades the study of space-time distribution and variation of metals has been extensively researched. The Gulf of Cadiz is no exception, with several rivers draining one of the largest concentrations of sulphide deposits in the world, the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Of these rivers, the Guadiana, one of the most important in the Iberian Peninsula, together with smaller rivers like the Tinto and Odiel, delivers a very high metal load to the adjacent coastal areas. The purpose of this work was to study the source and impact of lead (Pb) drained from historical or active mining areas in the IPB on the activity of a Pb inhibited enzyme ({delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, ALAD) in several bivalve species along the Gulf of Cadiz. Seven marine species (Chamelea gallina, Mactra corallina, Donax trunculus, Cerastoderma edule, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Scrobicularia plana and Crassostrea angulata) were collected at 12 sites from Mazagon, near the mouth of the rivers Tinto and Odiel (Spain), to Cacela Velha (Ria Formosa lagoon system, Portugal). Lead concentrations, ALAD activity and lead isotope ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) were determined in the whole soft tissues. The highest Pb concentrations were determined in S. plana (3.50 {+-} 1.09 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.) and D. trunculus (1.95 {+-} 0.10 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.), while M. galloprovincialis and C. angulata showed the lowest Pb levels (<0.38 {mu}g g{sup -1} Pb d.w.). In general, ALAD activity is negatively correlated with total Pb concentration. However this relationship is species dependent (e.g. linear for C. gallina ALAD = -0.36[Pb] + 0.79; r = 0.837; or exponential for M. galloprovincialis ALAD = 2.48e{sup -8.3[Pb]}; r = 0.911). This indicates that ALAD activity has considerable potential as a biomarker of Pb and moreover, in

  4. Draft and final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report for the proposed renewal of the contract between the United States Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California for operation and management of the Lawrence berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) has been prepared in conformance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the University of California Procedures for the Implementation of CEQA (UC Procedures) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the University of California`s operation of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the next five years. The specific project under consideration in this SEIR is the renewal of a five-year contract between the University and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and operate the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. As the California agency responsible for carrying out the proposed project, the University is the lead agency responsible for CEQA compliance. Environmental impacts, mitigation, and a site overview are presented.

  5. Draft and final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report for the proposed renewal of the contract between the United States Department of Energy and the Regents of the University of California for operation and management of the Lawrence berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) has been prepared in conformance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the University of California Procedures for the Implementation of CEQA (UC Procedures) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with the University of California's operation of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the next five years. The specific project under consideration in this SEIR is the renewal of a five-year contract between the University and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and operate the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. As the California agency responsible for carrying out the proposed project, the University is the lead agency responsible for CEQA compliance. Environmental impacts, mitigation, and a site overview are presented.

  6. Analisa Pengaruh Mobile Advertising pada Industri Telekomunikasi

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Didik

    2014-01-01

    Layanan mobile advertising terus mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan perkembangan sarana telekomunikasi mobile. Peluang mobile advertising ini sangat besar, akan tetapi peluang tersebut belum dimanfaatkan dengan maksimal. Mobil advertising terdiri dari beragam tipe, seperti SMS, MMS, E-mail, Search, Banner Display, Content Sponsorship dan Video. Sementara itu model Mobile advertising terdiri dari pull advertising dan push advertising. Di penelitian ini diteliti tentang pengaruh mobile adver...

  7. HUBUNGAN PENGETAHUAN DAN SHALAT TERHADAP TEKANAN DARAH PADA LANSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yuldeni, Yuldeni; Awaluddin, Awaluddin

    2017-01-01

    Hipertensi merupakan salah satu masalah yang cukup dominan di dunia, baik di negara-negara maju maupun di negara-negara berkembang. Tekanan darah secara alami cenderung meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya usia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pengetahuan dan shalat terhadap tekanan darah pada lansia hipertensi di Balai Pelayanan Sosial Tresna Werdha (BPSTW) Khusnul Khotimah Pekanbaru.Jenis penelitian ini adalah kuantitatifdengan pendekatan rancangan cross sectional. Jumla...

  8. Hotel di Kawasan Kenjeran

    OpenAIRE

    Soetjipto, Michael Reinhart

    2014-01-01

    Hotel yang terletak di kawasan Kenjeran ini bertujuan untuk memfasilitasi para wisatawan domestik atau ataupun Internasional. Selain itu seiring dengan pengembangan kenpark yang mulai merencanakan pengembangan fasilitas hiburan serta apartemen yang dapat mendukung dari adanya hotel tersebut sebagai bangunan yang dapat melengkapi komplek tersebut. Fasilitas yang ada saat ini dan cukup ramai dikunjungi masyarakat adalah sebuah tempat ibadah orang tionghoa, banyak masyarakat yang datang untuk be...

  9. Strategi Pengembangan Kota Surakarta Menjadi Kota Mice (Meeting, Incentive, Convention, Exhibition)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadi, Khairul; Hidayat, Teguh

    2013-01-01

    Seiring dengan berkembangnnya sistem transportasi yang ada di dunia baik transportasi laut, darat, dan udara dimana dapat memudahkan seseorang atau sebuah kelompok berpergian dari satu wilayah ke wilayah lain, dari sinilah MICE (meeting, incentive, convention, exhibition) dilihat sebagai peluang bisnis dimana seseorang atau kelompok melakukan sebuah pertemuan atau konferensi conference). Indonesia sudah berkembang menjadi salah satu negara tujuan bisnis dan wisata. Hal itu dibuktikan dengan p...

  10. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing staff absenteeism during pandemic influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, VJ; Chen, MI

    2007-01-01

    We used a deterministic SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed) meta-population model, together with scenario, sensitivity, and simulation analyses, to determine stockpiling strategies for neuraminidase inhibitors that would minimize absenteeism among healthcare workers. A pandemic with a basic reproductive number (R0) of 2.5 resulted in peak absenteeism of 10%. Treatment decreased peak absenteeism to 8%, while 8 weeks' prophylaxis reduced it to 2%. For pandemics with higher R0, peak ab...

  11. Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Perajin Batik Tulis Melalui Penerapan Teknologi Pemungutan Zat Warna Alam

    OpenAIRE

    Prima Astuti Handayani; Catur Rini Widyastuti; Adhi Setiawan

    2013-01-01

    Seiring kemajuan teknologi zat warna alam tergeser oleh keberadaan zat warna sintetis. Penggunaan zat warna alam masih tetap dijaga keberadaannya khususnya pada pembatikan. Kain batik yang menggunakan zat warna alam memiliki nilai jual yang tinggi karena memiliki nilai seni dan warna khas, tidak bersifat karsiogenik, ramah lingkungan serta berkesan etnik dan eksklusif. Zat warna alam coklat untuk pewarnaan batik dapat diperoleh dari kulit soga tingi melalui proses ekstraksi dengan pelarut eta...

  12. Redesain Interior Hotel Bisnis Dengan Konsep Minimalis Montana

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfadilah, Citra; Rachmaniyah, Nanik

    2016-01-01

    Pada era global ini bisnis perhotelan berkembang seiring dengan kemajuan sektor pariwisata dan bisnis. Kondisi ini tidak lepas dari mobilisasi yang dilakukan oleh manusia di seluruh dunia dari waktu ke waktu. Perkembangan bisnis yang pesat di kota besar seperti Surabaya membuat orang- orang berdatangan ke kota ini untuk berbisnis. Akibatnya, industri hotel berbasis bisnis bersaing ketat. Tema perancangan desain interior hotel bisnis ini ditentukan setelah melewati beberapa tahapan, seperti st...

  13. Implementasi Business Intelligence pada Manajemen Report Bank XYZ

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhlash, Imam; Husni, Zaky Nur

    2014-01-01

    Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi membuat persaingan bisnis semakin ketat. Bank XYZ adalah salah satu bank di Indonesia yang memiliki lebih dari 1500 cabang dan menghasilkan data yang berukuran sangat besar tiap bulannya. Dari data tersebut bank XYZ ingin mendapatkan laporan dan informasi untuk pengambilan langkah atau keputusan selanjutnya. Banyaknya data yang ada membuat proses pengambilan informasi berjalan lamban jika dilakukan dengan query standard pada data base. Business ...

  14. Quality Assurance in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdin, Nurdin

    2009-01-01

    Kualitas telah menjadi isu kritis dalam persaingan modern dewasa ini, dan hal itu telah menjadi beban tugas bagi para manager menengah. Dalam tataran abstrak kualitas telah didefinisikan oleh dua pakar penting bidang kualitas yaitu Joseph Juran dan Edward Deming. Mereka berdua telah berhasil menjadikan kualitas sebagai mindset yang berkembang terus dalam kajian managemen, khususnya managemen kualitas. Ouality assurance dalam dunia pendidikan adalah suatu keniscayaan seiring dengan terjadinya ...

  15. Analisis Perbandingan Efisiensi Penggunaan Baja Ringan Pada Tiga Jenis Tipe Rangka Atap

    OpenAIRE

    DAKHI, DICE J L

    2015-01-01

    10 0404 1097 Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, baja ringan semakin populer digunakan pada konstruksi rangka atap. Hal ini dikarenakan baja ringan jauh lebih ekonomis dibandingkan dengan baja konvensional maupun kayu. Baja ringan juga memiliki segudang kelebihan yang sangat menguntungkan sebuah konstruksi. Tahun 2013, Badan Standar Nasional mengeluarkan SNI 7971 yaitu standar untuk perencanaan struktur baja ringan (canai dingin). Dengan adanya SNI ini, diharapkan suatu st...

  16. Analisis Perbandingan Algoritma Bubble Sort, Merge Sort, Dan Quick Sort Dalam Proses Pengurutan Kombinasi Angka Dan Huruf

    OpenAIRE

    Sonita, Anisya; Nurtaneo, Febrian

    2015-01-01

    Peran algoritma dalam perangkat lunak atau pemprograman begitu penting, sehingga perlu memahami konsep dasar algoritma. Begitu banyak logika pemprograman yang telah diciptakan, untuk kasus yang umum dan juga khusus. Seiring berkembangnya kemajuan di bidang informatika dan teknologi, tuntutan untuk menemukan metode pemecahan masalah secara lebih tepat, efektif dan kuat menjadi sebuah kebutuhan, terutama untuk permasalahan klasik. Salah satu masalah klasik di bidang tersebut adalah pengurutan d...

  17. MEDIA KONSULTASI ONLINE SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF UPAYA PENANGANAN MASALAH REMAJA

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Mirawati

    2016-01-01

    Abstrak. Kebutuhan remaja saat ini terhadap bimbingan karir dan konseling semakin tinggi, seiring dengan semakin beragamnya permasalahan remaja. Di sekolah-sekolah, kebutuhan konsultasi juga meningkat terutama sejak adanya Seleksi Nasional Masuk Perguruan Tinggi (SNMPTN) yang menggunakan “jalur sekolah” atau jalur prestasi. Masalahnya, karena berbagai sebab, ternyata tidak semua remaja dapat mengungkapkan permasalahan atau berkonsultasi dengan mudah secara tatap muka. Di sisi lain penggunaan ...

  18. Implementasi XML Encryption (XML Enc) Menggunakan Java

    OpenAIRE

    Tenia Wahyuningrum

    2012-01-01

    Seiring dengan semakin luasnya penggunaan XML pada berbagai layanan di internet, yang penyebaran informasinya sebagian besar menggunakan infrastruktur jaringan umum, maka mulai muncul permasalahan mengenai kebutuhan akan keamanan data bagi informasi yang terkandung didalam sebuah dokumen XML. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan menggunakan teknologi XML Enc. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas mengenai cara menggunakan XML Enc menggunakan bahasa pemrograman java, khususnya menyandikan dokumen XML (enk...

  19. Analisa Kekuatan Spiral Bevel Gear Dengan Variasi Sudut Spiral Menggunakan Metode Elemen Hingga

    OpenAIRE

    Deta Rachmat Andika; Agus Sigit Pramono

    2017-01-01

    Seiring perkembangan zaman,  teknologi roda gigi dituntut untuk mampu mentransmisikan daya yang besar dengan efisiensi yang besar pula. Pada jenis intersecting shaft gear, tipe roda gigi payung spiral (spiral bevel gear)  merupakan perkembangan dari roda gigi payung bergigi lurus (straight bevel gear). Kelebihan dari spiral bevel gear antara  lain adalah kemampuan transmisi daya dan efisiensi yang lebih besar pada geometri yang sama serta tidak terlalu berisik. Akan tetapi spiral bevel gear j...

  20. Sikap Dan Perilaku Room Boy/Room Maid Dalam Meningkatkan Prosedur Operasional Kerja Di Puri Artha Hotel Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Meliala, Eunike

    2010-01-01

    Salah satu penunjang untuk majunya dunia pariwisata adalah hotel, yaitu sebagai sarana akomodasi bagi para wisatawan, baik wisatawan nusantara maupun wisatawan mancanegara. Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, banyak sekali hotel-hotel di Indonesia yang telah tumbuh. Oleh karena itu pihak hotel harus mampu menciptakan suasana yang dibutuhkan oleh wisatawan. Perkembangan ini harus pula diikuti oleh tenaga- tanaga yang benar-benar mengerti akan hotel secara mendasar, sehingga dapat memberikan ...

  1. Perilaku Pembelian Online Produk Fashion pada Zalora Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Marheni Eka

    2016-01-01

    Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi, kemajuan berbisnis melalui internet pun semakin berkembang. Pada zaman sekarang ini, masyarakat sudah banyak yang menyukai berbelanja secara online, karena selain praktis, harga barang yang ditawarkan pun relatif murah atau sama dengan di toko konvensional. Salah satu toko online yang digemari masyarakat Indonesia adalah Zalora. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh perilaku konsumen terhadap keputusan pembelian (studi pada konsumen Zalora Indo...

  2. Tingkat Kesadaran dan Kepedulian Konsumen terhadap Environmental Values yang Menentukan Efektivitas Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Rintan

    2016-01-01

    Kesadaran dunia terhadap lingkungan mulai bergema dan menjadi pusat perhatian seiring adanya Perubahan iklim akibat pemanasan global yang membuat cuaca tidak menentu dan banyaknya bencana alam. Salah satu biang utama masalah lingkungan adalah household product yang menyebabkan penumpukan sampah, pembuangan limbah kimia, pemborosan energi listrik dan gas buangan alat elektronik seperti AC dan kulkas turut andil dalam menipiskan lapisan ozon. “Green Marketing” kemudian menjadi alternatif strate...

  3. Effects of the infectious period distribution on predicted transitions in childhood disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, Olga; Earn, David J D

    2013-07-06

    The population dynamics of infectious diseases occasionally undergo rapid qualitative changes, such as transitions from annual to biennial cycles or to irregular dynamics. Previous work, based on the standard seasonally forced 'susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed' (SEIR) model has found that transitions in the dynamics of many childhood diseases result from bifurcations induced by slow changes in birth and vaccination rates. However, the standard SEIR formulation assumes that the stage durations (latent and infectious periods) are exponentially distributed, whereas real distributions are narrower and centred around the mean. Much recent work has indicated that realistically distributed stage durations strongly affect the dynamical structure of seasonally forced epidemic models. We investigate whether inferences drawn from previous analyses of transitions in patterns of measles dynamics are robust to the shapes of the stage duration distributions. As an illustrative example, we analyse measles dynamics in New York City from 1928 to 1972. We find that with a fixed mean infectious period in the susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, the dynamical structure and predicted transitions vary substantially as a function of the shape of the infectious period distribution. By contrast, with fixed mean latent and infectious periods in the SEIR model, the shapes of the stage duration distributions have a less dramatic effect on model dynamical structure and predicted transitions. All these results can be understood more easily by considering the distribution of the disease generation time as opposed to the distributions of individual disease stages. Numerical bifurcation analysis reveals that for a given mean generation time the dynamics of the SIR and SEIR models for measles are nearly equivalent and are insensitive to the shapes of the disease stage distributions.

  4. Perancangan Serial Ttl to Usb Hid Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Gunardi, Yudhi; Munandar, Aris

    2015-01-01

    Seiring berjalannya waktu, perkembangan teknologi komputer sangat cepat, sehingga memunculkan berbagai software baru dan bermacam operating system. Sementara aktivitas manusia dalam sehari – hari tidak pernah lepas dari komputer sebagai penunjang kerja dengan operating system yang berbeda - beda. Perangkat elektronik untuk komunikasi data yang menunjang kerja manusia mayoritas tidak dapat bekerja secara langsung pada semua operating system.Untuk itu diperlukan sebuah inovasi agar semua perang...

  5. Rancang Bangun Database dan Migrasi Data Melalui teknik ORM untuk Aplikasi Dashboard Pemantauan Mytra

    OpenAIRE

    Maratul Muthi'ah

    2018-01-01

    Abstrak – Teknologi informasi dan sarana telekomunikasi berkembang sangat cepat seiring dengan kebutuhan manusia. Teknologi pada saat ini sangat memudahkan bagi kehidupan manusia. Seperti contohnya bisnis online barang/jasa yang memudahkan manusia dalam membeli barang atau menyewa jasa. Penyimpanan pada bisnis online tersebut memerlukan database, database berguna untuk menyimpan data customer, booking, serta invoice. Pada saat ini banyak sekali database yang bisa digunakan untuk membuat suatu...

  6. Penerapan Aplikasi Web Di Hotel Arinda Guest House Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Ade Mubarok; M Ridza Apriyanta

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak Hotel adalah industri yang berkembang sangat cepat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi. salah satu faktor yang dapat memberikan fasilitas kenyamanan adalah adanya layanan informasi yang cepat untuk reservasi hotel. Beberapa masalah yang biasanya dihadapi pihak hotel dan calon tamunya seperti sulit mendapatkan informasi yang cepat, melakukan check in dan pembayaran yang mengharuskan tamu datang lansung ke hotel, melakukan pencatatan buku tamu dan membuat laporan secara ...

  7. Structure and Dynamics of the Southeast Indian Ridge and Off-axis Volcanism, 129°E to 140°E: Preliminary Results of the STORM Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Barrere, F.; Boulart, C.; Ceuleneer, G.; Ferreira, N.; Hanan, B. B.; Hemond, C.; MacLeod, S.; Maillard, A. L.; Merkuryev, S. A.; Park, S. H.; Revillon, S.; Ruellan, E.; Schohn, A.; Watson, S. J.; Yang, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle) on the N/O L'Atalante early 2015. The SEIR between Australia and Antarctica displays large variations of axial morphology despite an almost constant intermediate spreading rate. The Australia-Antarctic Discordance (AAD) between 120°E and 128°E is a section of the mid-ocean ridge where the magma budget is abnormally low, and which marks the boundary between Indian and Pacific mantle domains with distinct geochemical isotopic compositions. The STORM project focuses on the area east of the discordance from 128 to 140°E, where gravity highs observed on satellite-derived maps of the flanks of the SEIR reveal numerous volcanic seamounts. A major objective of the STORM cruise was to test the hypothesis of a mantle flow from the Pacific to the Indian domains. We collected multibeam bathymetry and magnetic data between 136 and 138°E to map off-axis volcanic ridges up to 10 Ma-old crust. We mapped the SEIR axis between 129 and 140°E, and the northern part of the George V transform fault. We collected rock samples on seamounts and in the transform fault, basaltic glass samples along the ridge axis, and near-bottom samples and in-situ measurements in the water column. Our observations reveal that the off-axis seamounts form near the SEIR axis, and are not associated to off-axis deformation of the ocean floor. They show a general shallowing of the ridge axis from the AAD to the George V TF and the presence of robust axial segments near the transform fault. They allow us to describe the complex evolution of the transform fault system. They also permit to locate new hydrothermal systems along the ridge axis. STORM cruise scientific party: F. Barrere, C. Boulart, G. Ceuleneer, N. Ferreira, B. Hanan, C. Hémond, S. Macleod, M. Maia, A. Maillard, S. Merkuryev, S.H. Park, S. Révillon, E. Ruellan, A. Schohn, S. Watson, and Y.S. Yang.

  8. Evaluation of toxic metals and essential elements in children with learning disabilities from a rural area of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2014-10-17

    Children's exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  9. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  10. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Henn Birgit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5 μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]. TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements.

  11. Lead concentrations and reproductive success in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within highway roadside verges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Hoffman, D.J.; Beyer, W.N.; Franson, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the authors studied lead concentrations and reproductive success in free-living European starlings Sturnus vulgaris nesting within the verges of two Maryland highways with different traffic volumes, Route 197(average daily traffic volume[ADT] = 10,800 vehicles) and the Baltimore-Washington Parkway (ADT=52,500 vehicles) and a nearby control area. Concentrations (mg kg-1 dry weight) of lead in the ingesta (84-94 mg kg-1), carcasses (4.0-9.6 mg kg-1)and feathers (6.8-52 mg kg-1) of Parkway nestlings and adults were 3 to 13 times those found in starlings from the control area, whereas lead concentrations in the ingesta and tissues of starlings from the verge of Route 197 were similar to those of controls. Activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells (RBCs) of adult and nestling starlings from the Parkway was depressed from 43 to 60% compared to controls. RBC ALAD activity in adults from nests along Route 197 was similar to that of adult starlings from the control area, but that of their young was depressed 17%. Haemoglobin concentrations (-16%) and haematocrits (-10%) in Parkway nestlings were depressed compared with those of nestlings from the other two study areas, whereas those of adults were not affected. Clutch size, number of young hatched and the number of young in nests 1 to 3 days before fledging were similar among sites, as were body weights of adults and prefledging weights of their young. However, brain weights of Parkway nestlings were lower (P < 0.05) than those of nestlings from the other study areas. Results suggests that lead within verges of major highways probably does not pose a serious hazard to adult ground-foraging songbirds. However, the effects of lead-induced reductions in haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, RBC ALAD activity and brain weight on the postfledging survival of their young are not known.

  12. Management Engineering Team Application of Officer Grade Requirements Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    td l sti h ’tI i I111 I m~ tA fo~i l~vlAld ltllt% 11",1 01i All ipil ll ppi lt d I hC AlAd dIA fact* I 1 IVIICA the 11 Ill* 1 cI 1Al 1. 10110I...tiaftSuperviso OAFSC Date Lt 02 Pop4gI75-o.P.Q-j2Q&A=Ma4-54, l53 AF OFFICER POSITION DESCRIPTION 30 Instructions to Incumbent To: Designated Officer 1. As

  13. De la imitación en el arte de escribir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Motta Salas

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available En el glorioso tiempo del Renacimiento fue conocidísima la controversia que mantuvieron Ángel Ambrogini, llamado Poliz'ano, príncipe de las letras latinas de fines del siglo XV, y Pablo Cortese, señaladísimo también en el culto a las letras clásicas. Sostenían los dos ilustres escritores ideas contrarias acerca de una cuestión doctrinal tan debatida e importante como la de la imitación en el arte de escribir, o en la composición de la obra literaria.

  14. [Evaluation of initial results of treatment of lead poisoning with EDTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, V; Adjarov, D; Pavlova, S; Naydenova, E; Kerimova, M; Kuneva, T

    1994-01-01

    The results of EDTA therapy were studied in 37 workers of a battery factory consisting of males with varying degrees of occupational lead poisoning (low exposure: 10 subjects, blood lead levels (PbB) lower than 400 micrograms/l with slight alterations in heme biosynthesis; beyond limit of effect: 5 subjects, PbB > 400 micrograms/l; slight intoxication: 19 subjects, with marked alterations in heme synthesis and preclinical signs of intoxication; average degree of intoxication: 3 subjects with clinical signs of intoxication. Clinical symptoms and the following parameters were investigated: blood lead (PbB), delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in erythrocytes (ALA-D), zinc protoporphyrin (PP) in erythrocytes and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in 24-hour urine before and after EDTA chelating therapy. Simultaneous measurement of ALA-D and PP showed high diagnostic sensitivity in detecting lead poisoning in occupationally exposed subjects. In view of the high interindividual variability of the results, these indices did not, however, permit a useful differentiation to be made of the different degrees of intoxication at individual level, even though a good correlation was observed between PbB and porphyrin metabolism indices. From the alterations observed in ALA-D and PP values it was not possible to establish an association between degree of alteration and types of clinical symptoms in the different intoxication studies. At the end of EDTA treatment, a clinical improvement was observed in all cases studied but only in 5 cases was a reduction in PbB observed, to levels below 1.20 mol/l, which is accepted as a permissible limit for the general population; in 17 cases PbB remained at levels above the critical value for occupational lead poisoning (400 micrograms/l), although there was a decrease after treatment. The improvement observed in the indices of porphyrin metabolism at the end of treatment was only slight: significant variations were measured only for PbB. After

  15. Kodukoharaamatud / Voldemar Miller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Miller, Voldemar, 1911-2006

    1996-01-01

    Virve Orav. Narva-Jõesuu kodu-uurija pilguga. 1993. Helmut Elstrok. Padaorust Viru mereni. Viru-Nigula - Tln., 1994. Helmut Elstrok. Kõrvemaast Põhjarannani. Kuusalu - Tln.-Tapa, 1995. Lembit Arulo. Nii see olla võis... Põhjaranniku külaelust läbi aegade. Tln., 1994. Robert Nerman. Kopli. Miljöö, olustik, kultuurilugu 1918-1940. Tln., 1995. Ain Sarv. Varjusurmast tõusnud. Eestirootslaste ja Eestirootsi alade saatusest pärast Teist maailmasõda, Tln., 1994. Jaan Ellen. Kuhu kõik nad jäid? Tõsilugu Urvaste ürgorust. Tln., 1994

  16. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in Latin America: a consensus statement by the medical associations of 17 Latin American countries Tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en América Latina: declaración de consenso de las asociaciones médicas de 17 países latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rosas Guzmán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin America faces unique challenges in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (Latin American Diabetes Association, ALAD brought together medical associations in 17 countries in Latin America to produce a consensus statement regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The goal of the document is to provide practical recommendations that will guide clinicians through a simple decision-making process for managing patients. The cornerstone elements for therapeutic decision making are: severity of hyperglycemia, clinical condition of the patient (stable or with metabolic decompensation, and body mass index. The consensus includes a section devoted specifically to patients with obesity. Information is presented as highly-relevant clinical questions. The algorithm is based on the scientific recommendations of the 2006 ALAD guidelines (a document prepared using an evidence-based approach and data from recent randomized controlled studiesAmérica Latina se enfrenta a algunos retos excepcionales en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. La Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (ALAD reunió a las asociaciones médicas de 17 países latinoamericanos con el fin de producir una declaración de consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2. El objetivo de ese documento es brindar recomendaciones prácticas que guíen a los médicos a lo largo de un sencillo proceso decisorio para el tratamiento de los pacientes. Los elementos fundamentales para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas son la gravedad de la hiperglucemia, el estado clínico del paciente (estable o con descompensación metabólica y el índice de masa corporal. El documento contiene un apartado dedicado específicamente a los pacientes obesos y la información se presenta en forma de preguntas clínicas sumamente pertinentes. El algoritmo se basa en las recomendaciones científicas de las directrices de la ALAD del año 2006

  17. Läti avastab uuesti oma veeäärse võlu = Latvia Rediscovers its Waters / Ieva Zibarte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zibarte, Ieva

    2006-01-01

    Riia, Liepaja ja Ventspilsi veeäärsete alade arendamise plaanidest. Riias ehitatakse Daugava kaldale Läti Rahvusraamatukogu (Gunnars Birkerts, projekt: 1980-ndad), tehissaarele AB Dam Riia Kontserdisaal (2006. a. arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Läti AB Silis, Zabers & Klava), Andrejostasse Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseum, koha arengukava töötab välja Rem Koolhaasi OMA Hollandi büroo. Kliversala saare arendamiseks 2005. a. korraldatud workshop's sai Eesti büroo Kosmos eriauhinna. Liepaja kontserdisaali arhitektuurikonkursi võitis Volker Giencke

  18. Enhanced removal of 241Am by DTPA chelation therapy in an adult and teenage subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasso, T.L.; Cohen, N.

    1975-01-01

    A series of Na 3 (Ca-DTPA) chelation treatments were carried out on two human subjects, an adult man and a teenage boy, who have long-term body burdens of 241 Am. The in vivo whole-body counting, bioassay of urine and feces, and various blood chemistry measurements were coordinated to coincide with this therapy schedule. Decreases in total body burdens for this treatment period were measured as 5 percent in the adult and 30 percent in the youth. High concentrations of zinc in urine and a corresponding decrease of activity of the zinc-dependent erythropoietic enzyme, ALAD, were also observed. (U.S.)

  19. Üleujutus arendaja hingel / Maris Kuuda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuda, Maris

    2007-01-01

    Kohalikel omavalitsustel pole piisavalt hoobasid sundida arendajaid üleujutusohuga arvestama. Pärnusse hotelli September rajajad (arhitektid Emil Urbel, Andrus Mark) arvestavad ujutusohuga. Arvamust avaldavad Rene Reisner, Mari Sepp, Ülo Sults, Karri Tiigisoon, Indrek Rannik, Mark Soosaar, Tiiu Pärn, Merle Looring, Rita Sepp, Kaspar Alles. Keskkonnaministeeriumi plaanist muuta veeseadust, mis sunniks ehitajaid ja arendajaid arvestama üleujutusohuga. Lisadena olulise üleujutusohuga alad Eestis ning üleujutuste ohjamist käsitleva Euroopa Liidu direktiivi eelnõust

  20. Oral lead bullet fragment exposure in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Jeremy; Holladay, Steven; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Jarrett, Timothy; Gogal, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant known to adversely affect multiple organ systems in both mammalian and avian species. In birds, a common route of exposure is via oral ingestion of lead particles. Data are currently lacking for the retention and clearance of Pb bullet fragments in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds while linking toxicity with blood Pb levels. In the present study, northern bobwhite quail fed a seed-based diet were orally gavaged with Pb bullet fragments (zero, one or five fragments/bird) and evaluated for rate of fragment clearance, and changes in peripheral blood, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal parameters. Based on radiographs, the majority of the birds cleared or absorbed the fragments by seven days, with the exception of one five-fragment bird which took between 7 and 14 days. Blood Pb levels were higher in males than females, which may be related to egg production in females. In males but not females, feed consumption, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma protein concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were all adversely affected by five Pb fragments. Birds of both sexes that received a single Pb fragment displayed depressed δ-ALAD, suggesting altered hematologic function, while all birds dosed with five bullet fragments exhibited greater morbidity.

  1. Protective effect of Allium sativum (garlic) aqueous extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoj Kumar, V; Henley, A K; Nelson, C J; Indumati, O; Prabhakara Rao, Y; Rajanna, S; Rajanna, B

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative activity of Allium sativum against lead-induced oxidative stress in the brain, liver, and kidney of male rats. Four groups of male Wistar strain rats (100-120 g) were taken: group 1 received 1000 mg/L sodium acetate and group 2 was given 1000 mg/L lead acetate through drinking water for 2 weeks. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum and 500 mg/kg body weight/day of A. sativum, respectively, by oral intubation for a period of 2 weeks along with lead acetate. The rats were sacrificed after treatment and the brain, liver, and kidney were isolated on ice. In the brain, four important regions namely the hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and brain stem were separated and used for the present investigation. Blood was also drawn by cardiac puncture and preserved in heparinized vials at 4 °C for estimation of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity. The results showed a significant (p sativum resulted in tissue-specific recovery of oxidative stress parameters namely ROS, LPP, and TPCC. A. sativum treatment also restored the blood delta-ALAD activity back to control. Overall, our results indicate that A. sativum administration could be an effective antioxidant treatment strategy for lead-induced oxidative insult.

  2. Imported occupational lead poisoning: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracca, M; Scafa, F; Boeri, R; Flachi, Daniela; Candura, S M

    2013-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, occupational lead poisoning has become increasingly rare, however this metal remains a serious health hazard in the rest of the world. We observedfour male patients (aged 35 / 54 years) who had suffered recurrent abdominal pain due to recent lead exposure (for 7 to 13 months) in two Chinese battery recycling plants. On their return to Italy, three of them presented normocytic, normochromic anaemia. The diagnosis was confirmed by high lead levels in the blood and urine, decreased erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D), raised erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZP), and elevated urinary excretion of b-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphyrins. Chelation with EDTA resulted in increased urinary lead excretion, improvement of the clinical picture, decreased ZP, and progressive normalization of the other lead biomarkers (Pb-B, ALA-D, ALA-U, urinary porphyrins). Temporary work in developing countries may result in imported lead poisoning. Differential diagnosis of this unusual condition requires careful medical history collection and specific toxicological analysis. Preventive measures for workers going abroad are needed.

  3. Regulation of porphyrin synthesis and photodynamic therapy in heavy metal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinblat, Borislava; Pour, Nir; Malik, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesis by malignant cells is successfully exploited for photodynamic therapy (PDT) following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and light irradiation. The influence of two environmental heavy metal poisons, lead and gallium, on PpIX-synthesis and ALA-PDT was studied in two neu-ronal cell lines, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and PC12 pheochromocytoma. The heavy metal intoxication affected two of the heme-synthesis enzymes, ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) and porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD). The present results show that lead poisoning significantly decreased the PBGD cellular level and inhibited its enzymatic activity, whereas the effects of gallium were less prominent. Although, the protein levels were reduced, the mRNA levels of PBGD remained unchanged during metal intoxication. These findings show additional inhibitory activity of lead on top of its classical effect on ALAD. Proteasome activity was enhanced during lead treatment, as measured by the AMC fluorigenic proteasome assay. The reduction in PBGD levels was not a consequence of PBGD mRNA reduced synthesis, which remained unchanged as shown by RT-PCR analysis. As a result of the lead poisoning, marked alterations in the cell cycle were observed, including a decreased G1 phase and an increased number of S phase cells. The efficacy of ALA-PDT was reduced in correlation with decreased activities of the enzymes during lead intoxication. We may conclude that lead poisoning adversely affects the outcome of ALA photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  4. Selected trace elements and organochlorines: some findings in blood and eggs of nesting common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael; Smith, Milton R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 and 1998, we collected blood samples from nesting adult female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at five locations in the Baltic Sea near coastal Finland and analyzed them for lead, selenium, mercury, and arsenic. Eggs were collected from three locations in 1997 for analysis of selenium, mercury, arsenic, and 17 organochlorines (OCs). Mean blood lead concentrations varied by location and year and ranged from 0.02 ppm (residues in blood on wet weight basis) to 0.12 ppm, although one bird had 14.2 ppm lead in its blood. Lead residues in the blood of eiders were positively correlated with the stage of incubation, and lead inhibited the activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. Selenium concentrations in eider blood varied by location, with means of 1.26 to 2.86 ppm. Median residues of selenium and mercury in eider eggs were 0.55 and 0.10 ppm (residues in eggs on fresh weight basis), respectively, and concentrations of both selenium and mercury in eggs were correlated with those in blood. Median concentrations of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in eggs ranged from 13.1 to 29.6 ppb, but all other OCs were below detection limits. The residues of contaminants that we found in eggs were below concentrations generally considered to affect avian reproduction. The negative correlation of ALAD activity with blood lead concentrations is evidence of an adverse physiological effect of lead exposure in this population.

  5. Regulation of heme metabolism in normal and sideroblastic bone marrow cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraham, N.G.; Lutton, J.D.; Hoffman, R.; Levere, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Heme metabolism was examined in developing in vitro erythroid colonies (CFUE) and in bone marrow samples taken directly from four normal donors and four patients with sideroblastic anemia. Maximum activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS), ALA dehydratase (ALAD), and 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in normal marrow CFUE after 8 days of culture, whereas heme oxygenase progressively decreased to low levels of activity during the same period. Assays on nucleated bone marrow cells taken directly from patients revealed that ALAS activity was considerably reduced in idiopathic sideroblastic anemia (IASA) and X-linked sideroblastic anemia (X-SA) bone marrow specimens, whereas the activity increased more than twofold (normal levels) when cells were assayed from 8-day CFUE. In all cases, ALAD activity appeared to be within normal levels. Measurement of heme synthesis revealed that normal levels of 14 C-ALA incorporation into heme were achieved in IASA cells but were reduced in X-SA cells. In marked contrast to levels in normal cells, heme oxygenase was found to be significantly elevated (two- to fourfold) in bone marrow cells taken directly from patients with IASA and X-SA. Results from this study demonstrate that IASA and X-SA bone marrow cells have disturbances in ALAS and heme metabolism, and that erythropoiesis (CFUE) can be restored to normal levels when cells are cultured in methylcellulose

  6. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  7. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Casteel, Stan W; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A; Nichols, John R; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen L; Rattner, Barnett A; Schultz, Sandra L

    2018-01-29

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  8. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Casteel, Stan W.; Friedrichs, Kristen R.; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A.; Nichols, John W.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schultz, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  9. Oceanic magmatic evolution during ocean opening under influence of mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushchevskaya, Nadezhda; Melanholina, Elena; Belyatsky, Boris; Krymsky, Robert; Migdisova, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Petrology, geochemistry and geophysics as well as numerical simulation of spreading processes in plume impact environments on examples of Atlantic Ocean Iceland and the Central Atlantic plumes and Kerguelen plume in the Indian Ocean reveal: - under interaction of large plume and continental landmass the plume can contribute to splitting off individual lithosphere blocks, and their subsequent movement into the emergent ocean. At the same time enriched plume components often have geochemical characteristics of the intact continental lithosphere by early plume exposure. This is typical for trap magmatism in Antarctica, and for magmatism of North and Central Atlantic margins; - in the course of the geodynamic reconstruction under the whole region of the South Atlantic was formed (not in one step) metasomatized enriched sub-oceanic mantle with pyroxenite mantle geochemical characteristics and isotopic composition of enriched HIMU and EM-2 sources. That is typical for most of the islands in the West Antarctic. This mantle through spreading axes jumping involved in different proportions in the melting under the influence of higher-temperature rising asthenospheric lherzolite mantle; - CAP activity was brief enough (200 ± 2 Ma), but Karoo-Maud plume worked for a longer time and continued from 180 to 170 Ma ago in the main phase. Plume impact within Antarctica distributed to the South and to the East, leading to the formation of extended igneous provinces along the Transantarctic Mountains and along the east coast (Queen Maud Land province and Schirmacher Oasis). Moreover, this plume activity may be continued later on, after about 40 million years cessation, as Kerguelen plume within the newly-formed Indian Ocean, significantly affects the nature of the rift magmatism; - a large extended uplift in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean - Southeastern Indian Ridge (SEIR) was formed on the ancient spreading Wharton ridge near active Kerguelen plume. The strongest plume

  10. Mitigation Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report (SEIR) (September 1992) for the Proposed Renewal of the Contract between the United States Department of Energy and The Regents of the University of California for the Operation and Management of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory identifies the environmental impacts associated with renewing the contract and specifies a series of measures designed to mitigate adverse impacts to the environment. This Mitigation Monitoring Plan describes the procedures the University will use to implement the mitigation measures adopted in connection with the approval of the Contract.

  11. Mengintip Komunikasi Pemasaran di Matahari Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung MSG

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan yang kian tajam di dunia pemasaran menuntut mental yang kreatif dan inovatif agar dapat mengetahui kebutuhan masyarakat yang kian cerdas daLam menentukan pilihan terhadap suatu produk. Akan tetapi sebelum menyiasati strategi pemasaran, harus lebih dahulu meninjau uLang paradigma marketing dan pemasarnya itu sendiri agar selalu terbarukan seiring dengan perkembangan target pasar. Strategi pemasaran dalam membidik pasar tersebut dilakukan dengan lintas divisi, pemanfaatan database, serra memahami marketing plan yang meliputi marketing objective, communication objective, dan communication strategy.

  12. SISTEM INFORMASI PENJUALAN BATIK BASUREK BERBASIS WEB PADA BASUREK COLLECTION BENGKULU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Muslihudin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dunia Bisnis semakin berkembang seiring dengan meningkatnya perekonomian. Maraknya persaingan dalam penjualan batik basurek mendorong penjual berlomba untuk mendapatkan pelanggan dan menginformasikan penjualannya agar dikenal masyarakat, dengan melakukan penjualan secara online menggunakan website, Sarana Internet menjadi gaya hidup sebagian besar masyarakat yang ingin segalanya serba praktis dan cepat, Tetapi Fasilitas yang terkoneksi melalui internet untuk melakukan pemesanan belum tersedia, untuk itu akan dirancang penjualan online berbasis web menggunakan Macromedia dreamweaver, Php Mysql, Xampp dan Photoshop. Dengan dirancangnya website penjualan secara online diharapkan dapat menarik minat pelanggan serta  membantu meraih keuntungan ditengah persaingan.

  13. Parameter Estimation, Sensitivity Analysis and Optimal Control of a Periodic Epidemic Model with Application to HRSV in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A state wide Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV surveillance system was implemented in Florida in 1999 to support clinical decision-making for prophylaxis of premature infants. The research presented in this paper addresses the problem of fitting real data collected by the Florida HRSV surveillance system by using a periodic SEIRS mathematical model. A sensitivity and cost-effectiveness analysis of the model is done and an optimal control problem is formulated and solved with treatment as the control variable.

  14. Density threshold for Mopeia virus invasion and persistence in its host Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goyens, J.; Reijniers, J.; Borremans, B.

    2013-01-01

    . We developed a spatially explicit and individual-based SEIR model of Mopeia virus in multimammate mice Mastomys natalensis. This is an interesting model system for studying abundance thresholds because the host is the most common African rodent, populations fluctuate considerably and the virus...... is closely related to Lassa virus but non-pathogenic to humans so can be studied safely in the field. The simulations show that, while host density clearly is important, sharp thresholds are only to be expected for persistence (and not for invasion), since at short time-spans (as during invasion...

  15. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI ADOPSI APLIKASI UBER SEBAGAI PENYEDIA JASA TRANSPORTASI DI SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Hendrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring berjalannya waktu, Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK di dunia ini semakin berkembang dengan pesat. Permintaan masyarakat akan kebutuhan jasa transportasi semakin tinggi. Kemajuan internet dan canggihnya telepon genggam semakin lama semakin canggih, yang membuat lebih nyaman dan efisiensi untuk memanjakan masyarakat. Dari fenomena tersebut lahirlah Uber. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori Technology Acceptance Model (TAM dengan populasi user Uber Kota Surabaya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi aplikasi Uber sebagai penyedia jasa Transportasi di Surabaya. Hasil yang diperoleh setelah di analisis oleh peneliti adalah kepercayaan pengguna dalam mengadopsi aplikasi Uber yang sangat berpengaruh signifikan terhadap keinginan seseorang untuk menggunakan aplikasi Uber.

  16. Perancangan dan Pembuatan Aplikasi Pengenalan Batik "Indonesiaku" Melalui Permainan Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cornelius Andika

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Game atau yang biasa disebut permainan merupakan aktivitas terstruktur yang biasanya bertujuan untuk menghibur. Seiring berkembangnya zaman tidak dapat dipungkiri bahwa game terus berkembang pesat. Game itu sendiri telah dipergunakan untuk berbagai macam jenis keperluan, termasuk pendidikan. Jenis konsol yang digunakan juga bervariasi. Di sini penulis mencoba mengembangkan suatu permainan bertema pengenalan budaya batik berjudul "Indonesiaku" dengan tujuan mengenalkan budaya batik di Indonesia yang merupakan warisan budaya bangsa. Permainan ini berbasis Android dan dikembangkan dengan framework Starling serta aplikasi Adobe Flash Builder. Pembuatan batik dalam permainan ini memiliki 4 tahap yaitu nglowong, nembok, medeli, dan nglorod. Tahap tahap tersebut digunakan sebagai simulasi saat membuat batik tulis.

  17. Estimation of the transmission dynamics of African swine fever virus within a swine house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. P.; Larsen, T. S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    The spread of African swine fever virus (ASFV) threatens to reach further parts of Europe. In countries with a large swine production, an outbreak of ASF may result in devastating economic consequences for the swine industry. Simulation models can assist decision makers setting up contingency plans......·00 (95% CI 0-1). Furthermore, we simulated the spread of ASFV within a pig house using a modified SEIR-model to establish the time from infection of one animal until ASFV is detected in the herd. Based on a chosen detection limit of 2·55% equivalent to 10 dead pigs out of 360, the disease would...

  18. ANALISIS PERUBAHAN KURIKULUM PADA PROSES PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN JASMANI OLAHRAGA DAN KESEHATAN DI SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Yulianto

    2017-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan proses pembelajaran PJOK yang dilakukan guru seiring dengan tuntutan perubahan kurikulum sebagai kompetensi keprofesionalan guru. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis fenomenologi untuk menggali data alamiah dari subjek guru PJOK. Pengumpulan data dilakukan oleh peneliti sebagai instrumen kunci dengan teknik wawancara, observasi, dan analisis dokumen kepada subjek guru PJOK di SD inti kota Malang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, guru PJOK telah memenuhi standar profesi guru, guru PJOK telah memahami konsep perubahan kurikulum dan konsep PJOK, namun proses pembelajaran PJOK tidak maksimal sesuai dengan tuntutan perubahan kurikulum sebagai kompetensi keprofesionalan guru.

  19. SEKSUALITAS CYBER: SEX SEBAGAI KESENANGAN DAN KOMODITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Rianto

    2016-02-01

    Tulisan ini ingin mengeksplorasi lebih jauh bagaimana seksualitas hadir dalam dunia cyber. Meskipun konstruksi seksualitas manusia seumuran manusia itu sendiri, tapi konstruksi atau representasinya akan sangat ditentukan oleh konteks sosialnya. Karakter-karakter yang berbeda dari dunia cyber dimana otoritas politik dan gatekeeper tidak berperan secara signifikan akan mempengaruhi konstruksi atas seksualitas. Studi ini menemukan bahwa seks lebih dipahami sebagai sebuah kesenangan dan komoditas. Berbagai reportasi pelaku seksual menggambarkan bagaimana kesenangan akan hubungan seksual dipuja sedemikian rupa. Seiring pemujaan seksualitas sebagai kesenangan itu, adalah seks sebagai komoditas, yang diwujudkan dalam bentuk berbagai penawaran atau iklan untuk menjual layanan seks yang mereka sediakan.

  20. Pengelolaan Media Sosial Oleh Unit Corporate Communication PT GMF Aeroasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar Syuderajat

    2017-01-01

    Studi ini berjudul:  Pengelolaan  Media  Sosial  oleh  Unit Corporate Communication PT GMF AeroAsia. Seiring dengan meningkatknya jumlah pengguna social media telah melahirkan media baru bagi bidang komunikasi khususnya dunia public relations. Kesempatan ini kemudian dimanfaatkan oleh PT GMF AeroAsia untuk memanfaatkan media sosial yang dijadikan sebagai media komunikasi dengan memberikan  informasi  seputar  dunia  aviasi  dan  bidang  MRO  (maintenance, repair,  organization)  PT  GMF AeroA...

  1. Whole-Body Docosahexaenoic Acid Synthesis-Secretion Rates in Rats Are Constant across a Large Range of Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Metherel, Adam H; Chen, Chuck T; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) thought to be important for brain function. Although the main dietary source of DHA is fish, DHA can also be synthesized from α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is derived from plants. Enzymes involved in DHA synthesis are also active toward ω-6 (n-6) PUFAs to synthesize docosapentaenoic acid n-6 (DPAn-6). It is unclear whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient to maintain brain DHA. The objective of this study was to determine how different amounts of dietary ALA would affect whole-body DHA and DPAn-6 synthesis rates. Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ALA-deficient diet (ALA-D), an ALA-adequate (ALA-A) diet, or a high-ALA (ALA-H) diet for 8 wk from weaning. Dietary ALA concentrations were 0.07%, 3%, and 10% of the fatty acids, and ALA was the only dietary PUFA that differed between the diets. After 8 wk, steady-state stable isotope infusion of labeled ALA and linoleic acid (LA) was performed to determine the in vivo synthesis-secretion rates of DHA and DPAn-6. Rats fed the ALA-A diet had an ∼2-fold greater capacity to synthesize DHA than did rats fed the ALA-H and ALA-D diets, and a DHA synthesis rate that was similar to that of rats fed the ALA-H diet. However, rats fed the ALA-D diet had a 750% lower DHA synthesis rate than rats fed the ALA-A and ALA-H diets. Despite enrichment into arachidonic acid, we did not detect any labeled LA appearing as DPAn-6. Increasing dietary ALA from 3% to 10% of fatty acids did not increase DHA synthesis rates, because of a decreased capacity to synthesize DHA in rats fed the ALA-H diet. Tissue concentrations of DPAn-6 may be explained at least in part by longer plasma half-lives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. SEIIrR: Drug abuse model with rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari

    2017-05-01

    Drug abuse in the world quite astonish and tend to increase. The increase and decrease on the number of drug abusers showed a pattern of spread that had the same characteristics with patterns of spread of infectious disease. The susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR) epidemic models for infectious disease was developed to study social epidemic. In this paper, SEIR model for disease epidemic was developed to study drug abuse epidemic with rehabilitation treatment. The aims of this paper were to analogize susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIrR) model on the drug abusers, to determine solutions of the model, to determine equilibrium point, and to do simulation on β. The solutions of SEIIrR model was determined by using fourth order of Runge-Kutta algorithm, equilibrium point obtained was free-drug equilibrium point. Solutions of SEIIrR showed that the model was able to suppress the spread of drug abuse. The increasing value of contact rate was not affect the number of infected individuals due to rehabilitation treatment.

  3. Discrete stochastic analogs of Erlang epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M; Dougherty, Eric R

    2018-12-01

    Erlang differential equation models of epidemic processes provide more realistic disease-class transition dynamics from susceptible (S) to exposed (E) to infectious (I) and removed (R) categories than the ubiquitous SEIR model. The latter is itself is at one end of the spectrum of Erlang SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models with [Formula: see text] concatenated E compartments and [Formula: see text] concatenated I compartments. Discrete-time models, however, are computationally much simpler to simulate and fit to epidemic outbreak data than continuous-time differential equations, and are also much more readily extended to include demographic and other types of stochasticity. Here we formulate discrete-time deterministic analogs of the Erlang models, and their stochastic extension, based on a time-to-go distributional principle. Depending on which distributions are used (e.g. discretized Erlang, Gamma, Beta, or Uniform distributions), we demonstrate that our formulation represents both a discretization of Erlang epidemic models and generalizations thereof. We consider the challenges of fitting SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models and our discrete-time analog to data (the recent outbreak of Ebola in Liberia). We demonstrate that the latter performs much better than the former; although confining fits to strict SEIR formulations reduces the numerical challenges, but sacrifices best-fit likelihood scores by at least 7%.

  4. Research on Propagation Model of Malicious Programs in Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin GAO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc wireless network faces more security threats than traditional network due to its P2P system structure and the limited node resources. In recent years, malicious program has become one of the most important researches on international network security and information security. The research of malicious programs on wireless network has become a new research hotspot in the field of malicious programs. This paper first analyzed the Ad Hoc network system structure, security threats, the common classification of malicious programs and the bionic propagation model. Then starting from the differential equations of the SEIR virus propagation model, the question caused by introducing the SEIR virus propagation model in Ad Hoc wireless network was analyzed. This paper improved the malicious program propagation model through introducing the network topology features and concepts such as immunization delay, and designed an improved algorithm combined with the dynamic evolution of malware propagation process. Considering of the network virus propagation characteristics, network characteristics and immunization strategy to improve simulation model experiment analysis, the experimental results show that both the immunization strategy and the degrees of node can affect the propagation of malicious program.

  5. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN PEMILIHAN GADGET ANDROID MENGGUNAKAN METODE PROMETHEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan informasi dan teknologi menjadi hal yang penting bagi kehidupan manusia. Ponsel saat ini bukan hanya digunakan untuk telepon dan berkirim pesan, seiring perkembangan teknologi ponsel sudah dapat melakukan sama dengan apa yang bisa dilakukan komputer mulai dari internet, email, chating, video dan sebagainya. Teknologi Android merupakan teknologi hasil karya google yang dihadirkan pada telepon pintar atau gadget. Seiring perkembangan teknologi sistem operasi android dan perkembangan gadget pada smartphone dan tablet mengakibatkan banyaknya gadget yang beredar dengan berbagai merek dan spesifikasi yang beragam. Gadget android yang ada di pasar sekarang sudah berjumlah lebih dari 70 jenis yang mengakibatkan kebingungan bagi calon pembeli. Pertimbangan yang digunakan bagi calon pembeli meliputi kriteria dan spesifikasi yang kompleks membuat calon pembeli sulit dalam menentukan gadget yang dirasa tepat sesuai yang diinginkan. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dengan cara membuat sebuah sistem pendukung keputusan terhadap gadget android dengan menggunakan metode promethee. Dari hasil penelitian dengan metode promethee dihasilkan perankingan rekomendasi terhadap gadget android sesuai yang di inginkan oleh calon pembeli berdasarkan kriteria dan spesifikasi sehingga dapat membantu calon pembeli dalam menentukan gadget yang diinginkan. Dari hasil tersebut diharapkan dapat membantu calon pembeli dalam menentukan gadget yang tepat sesuai kriteria dan spesifikasi yang diinginkan. Kata Kunci: teknologi, gadget,  Android, promethee, sistem.

  6. Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using interacting gold nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubrech, Frank; Weber, Daniel; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Shen, Hong [Universite Troyes, Troyes (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc [Universite Paris 13, Bobigny (France)

    2009-07-01

    We performed surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS) of molecules adsorbed on gold nanowires using synchrotron light of the ANKA IR-beamline at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Arrays of gold nanowires with interparticle spacings down to 30nm were prepared by electron beam lithography. The interparticle distance was reduced further by wet-chemically increasing the size of the gold nanowires. The growth of the wires was proofed using IR spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy. After this preparation step, appropriate arrays of nanowires with an interparticle distance down to a few nanometers were selected to demonstrate the surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy of one monolayer octadecanthiol (ODT). As know from SEIRS studies using single gold nanowires, the spectral position of the antenna-like resonance in relation to the absorption bands of ODT (2850cm-1 and 2919cm-1) is crucial for both, the lineshape of the molecular vibration and the signal enhancement. In contrast to single nanowires studies, a further increase of the enhanced signals is expected due to the interaction of the electromagnetic fields of the close-by nanowires.

  7. Optimal control and stability analysis of an epidemic model with population dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Soovoojeet; Haldar, Palash; Kar, T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SEIR type epidemic model with population dispersal is considered here. • Vaccination is taken as a control parameter. • Optimal control problem is formulated and then solved. • Simulation shows that different diseases can be analyzed through this model. - Abstract: In the present paper we consider an SEIR type epidemic model with transport related infection between two cities. It is observed that transportation among regions has a strong impact on the dynamic evolution of a disease which can be eradicated in the absence of transportation. Transportation can lead to the incorporation of a positive risk probability. The epidemiological threshold, commonly known as the basic reproduction number, is derived and it is observed that when the basic reproduction number is less than unity the disease dies out, where as if it exceeds unity the disease may persist in the system. A thorough dynamical behavior of the constructed model is studied. We formulate and solve an optimal control problem using vaccination as a control tool. Extensive numerical simulations are carried out based on our analytical results. Finally we try to relate our work with a real world problem.

  8. Dynamic strain aging of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel in tensile testing and deep drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.G.; Hong, S.; Anjabin, N.; Park, B.H.; Kim, S.K.; Chin, K.-G.; Lee, S.; Kim, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic strain aging (DSA) of metallic materials due to solute atom diffusion to mobile dislocations induce deformation instability with load fluctuations and deformation localizations, hence reducing their sheet formability. In this paper, DSA behaviors of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with and without Al during tensile testing and deep drawing are investigated in terms of strain localization and the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) band. A theoretical DSA model with internal variables of dislocation density and twin volume fraction is presented for an estimation of strain localization and strain hardening behavior of TWIP steels. The simulation results of the load history and PLC bands during tensile testing and deep drawing are in good agreement with the experimental values. A serration behavior is observed in high-Mn TWIP steels and its tensile residual stress is higher than that in the Al-added TWIP steels, which results in a deformation crack or delayed fracture of deep drawn specimens

  9. Oxidative stress and neurological disorders in relation to blood lead levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, M; Fareed, Mohd; Kumar, A; Siddiqui, W A; Siddiqui, M K J

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Free radical generation appears to be the mode of lead toxicity. We evaluated the effects of blood lead levels on oxidative stress parameters in children suffering from neurological disorders. Thirty children (aged 3-12 years) with neurological disorders (cerebral palsy [n = 12], seizures [n = 11], and encephalopathy [n = 7]) were recruited in the study group. Sixty healthy children (aged 3-12 years) from similar socio-economic environments and not suffering from any chronic disease were taken as the controls. Blood lead levels and oxidant/antioxidant status were determined. Mean blood lead level was significantly higher while delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity, a biomarker for lead exposure, was significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group (P children with neurological disorders. Lead-induced oxidative stress as an underlying mechanism for neurological diseases in children warranted further investigation.

  10. Initial occupational exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forni, A.; Cambiaghi, G.; Secchi, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    Serial chromosome and biochemical studies were carried out in 11 subjects before and during initial occupational exposure to moderate quantities of lead fumes in a storage battery plant. The rate of abnormal metaphases, mostly with chromatid and one-break chromosome aberrations, was approximately doubled after one month of work; it further increased after two months of work; remained in this range up to seven months of exposure; and then tended to decrease somewhat. Blood lead levels increased progressively in the first few months, then reached a steady state. Urinary lead and coproporphyrin levels increased sharply after one month of work, while urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) levels increased moderately. The ALA dehydratase (ALAD) activity of red blood cells (RBCs) was reduced to almost 50 percent of the initial values after one month, decreased further in subsequent months, and remained decreased through the remainder of the study.

  11. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yingjun [China Medical University, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun [China Medical University, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the optimum combination of micronutrients used with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Experiment was carried out based on the orthogonal design L{sub 8}(2{sup 7}) setting six factors with two different levels of each, and eight groups of mice were needed. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% lead acetate for four consecutive weeks, and then supplemented by gavage with different combinations of micronutrients with and without DMSA as designed in the orthogonal table. Lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, brain and bone and activities of blood {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were analyzed after cessation of supplementation. The results suggested that DMSA was the only factor which could decrease significantly lead levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone; calcium and ascorbic acid were the notable factors decreasing lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, bone and brain; zinc and calcium were the notable factors reversing the lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD; taurine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in kidney and brain; and thiamine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in brain. The lowest lead level in blood, liver, kidney and bone was shown in the mice supplemented with combination of calcium and ascorbic acid along with DMSA. In conclusion, the optimum combination of micronutrients used with DMSA suggested in present study was calcium and ascorbic acid, which seemed to potentiate the chelating efficacy of DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. (orig.)

  13. Specific Cα-C Bond Cleavage of β-Carbon-Centered Radical Peptides Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Keishiro; Yamakoshi, Mariko; Sakamoto, Kenya; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2018-04-01

    Radical-driven dissociation (RDD) of hydrogen-deficient peptide ions [M - H + H]·+ has been examined using matrix-assisted laser dissociation/ionization in-source decay mass spectrometry (MALDI-ISD MS) with the hydrogen-abstracting matrices 4-nitro-1-naphthol (4,1-NNL) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA). The preferential fragment ions observed in the ISD spectra include N-terminal [a] + ions and C-terminal [x]+, [y + 2]+, and [w]+ ions which imply that β-carbon (Cβ)-centered radical peptide ions [M - Hβ + H]·+ are predominantly produced in MALDI conditions. RDD reactions from the peptide ions [M - Hβ + H]·+ successfully explains the fact that both [a]+ and [x]+ ions arising from cleavage at the Cα-C bond of the backbone of Gly-Xxx residues are missing from the ISD spectra. Furthermore, the formation of [a]+ ions originating from the cleavage of Cα-C bond of deuterated Ala(d3)-Xxx residues indicates that the [a]+ ions are produced from the peptide ions [M - Hβ + H]·+ generated by deuteron-abstraction from Ala(d3) residues. It is suggested that from the standpoint of hydrogen abstraction via direct interactions between the nitro group of matrix and hydrogen of peptides, the generation of the peptide radical ions [M - Hβ + H]·+ is more favorable than that of the α-carbon (Cα)-centered radical ions [M - Hα + H]·+ and the amide nitrogen-centered radical ions [M - HN + H]·+, while ab initio calculations indicate that the formation of [M - Hα + H]·+ is energetically most favorable. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  15. In vitro glutathione peroxidase mimicry of ebselen is linked to its oxidation of critical thiols on key cerebral suphydryl proteins - A novel component of its GPx-mimic antioxidant mechanism emerging from its thiol-modulated toxicology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kade, I J; Balogun, B D; Rocha, J B T

    2013-10-25

    The antioxidant mechanism of ebselen in rats brain is largely linked with its glutathione peroxidase (GPx) rather than its peroxiredoxin mimicry ability. However, the precise molecular dynamics between the GPx-mimicry of ebselen and thiol utilization is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein, we investigated the influence of dithiothreitol (DTT) on the antioxidant action of ebselen against oxidant-induced cerebral lipid peroxidation and deoxyribose degradation. Furthermore, the critical inhibitory concentrations of ebselen on the activities of sulphydryl enzymes such as cerebral sodium pump, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also investigated. We observe that ebselen (at ≥42 μM) markedly inhibited lipid peroxidation in the presence and absence of DTT, whereas it inhibited deoxyribose degradation only in the presence of DTT. Furthermore, under in vitro conditions, ebselen inhibited the thiol containing enzymes; cerebral sodium pump (at ≥40 μM), δ-ALAD (≥10 μM) and LDH (≥1 μM) which were either prevented or reversed by DTT. However, the inhibition of the activities of these sulphydryl proteins in diabetic animals was prevented by ebselen. Summarily, it is apparent that the effective in vitro inhibitory doses of ebselen on the activity of the sulphydryl proteins are far less than its antioxidant doses. In addition, the presence of DTT is evidently a critical requirement for ebselen to effect its antioxidant action against deoxyribose degeradation and not lipid peroxidation. Consequently, we conclude that ebselen possibly utilizes available thiols on sulphydryl proteins to effect its GPx mimicry antioxidant action against lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The uptake and effects of lead on small mammals and frogs at a trap and skeet range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansley, W.; Roscoe, D.E. [New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, Trenton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study was performed to evaluate the bioavailability and effects of lead in wildlife at a trap and skeet range. The total lead concentration in a composite soil sample (pellets removed) was 75,000 {micro}g/g dry weight. Mean tissue lead concentrations ({micro}g/g dry wt.) in while footed mice at the range (liver = 4.98, kidney = 34.9, femur = 245) were elevated (P < 0.01) 5 to 64-fold relative to concentrations in mice from a control area. Tissue lead concentrations in the only short tail shrew captured at the range (liver = 34.1, kidney = 1506, femur = 437) were elevated 35 to 1,038-fold. Femur lead concentrations in green frogs at the range (1,728 {micro}g/g) were elevated nearly 1,000-fold, and the lead concentration in a pooled kidney sample (96.2 {micro}g/g) was elevated 67-fold. There was significant depression of blood ALAD activity in mice (P = 0.0384) and depression of blood and liver ALAD activity in frogs (P<0.001). Hemoglobin concentrations were reduced 6.7% in mice (P = 0.0249), but hematocrit was not significantly affected in mice or frogs. Kidney:body weight ratios were similar in range and control mice. Intranuclear inclusions were present in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of two of the mice and the shrew that were captured at the range, and necrosis of the tubular epithelium was also evident in one of the mice, Soil ingestion may be a significant route of lead uptake in small mammals at the range. However, the tendency of lead to concentrate in the bones rather than in more digestible soft tissues may minimize food chain uptake of lead by predators, especially raptors that regurgitate undigestible material.

  17. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Computer Virus Model with Multistate Antivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By considering that people may immunize their computers with countermeasures in susceptible state, exposed state and using anti-virus software may take a period of time, a computer virus model with time delay based on an SEIR model is proposed. We regard time delay as bifurcating parameter to study the dynamical behaviors which include local asymptotical stability and local Hopf bifurcation. By analyzing the associated characteristic equation, Hopf bifurcation occurs when time delay passes through a sequence of critical value. The linerized model and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are also derived by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, an illustrative example is also given to support the theoretical results.

  18. Penerapan Metode Composite Performance Index (CPI Pada Pemilihan Hotel Di Kota Lubuklinggau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Anto Tri Susilo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan kemajuan zaman, kemajuan teknologi informasi juga semakin berkembang pesat. Perkembangan teknologi informasi, memiliki dampak besar pada berbagai bidang kehidupan masyarakat baik dari segi sosial, ekonomi, pendidikan, pembangunan, dan pariwisata. Salah satu unsur penting yang mendukung sektor pariwisata adalah adanya hotel. Hotel sebagai sarana akomodasi umum sangat membantu wisatawan yang berkunjung dengan menyediakan layanan penginapan. Keragaman hotel sering membuat para wisatawan kesulitan dalam menentukan hotel yang akan dipilih sebagai tempat menginap. Sistem pendukung keputusan adalah model yang dibangun untuk memecahkan masalah terstruktur. Composite Performance Index (CPI adalah metode yang umum digunakan dalam proses pengambilan keputusan adalah. Metode CPI menggunakan pemecahan masalah dengan sistem Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM yang menentukan urutan atau prioritas dalam analisis multikriteria. Hasil akhir dari penelitian ini adalah terciptanya sistem pendukung keputusan yang menghasilkan informasi mengenai peringkat hotel yang dapat dijadikan tempat referensi untuk tetap memperhatikan beberapa kriteria, termasuk tarif kamar, jarak ke pusat kota, fasilitas dan layanan.

  19. MODEL INFORMASI PUBLIK DI ERA MEDIA SOSIAL: KAJIAN GROUNDED TEORI DI PEMDA SUKOHARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Purworini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Model komunikasi yang diterapkan di instansi pemerintah daerah menarik untuk diteliti dari kajian public relations. Model komunikasi yang tampak dilakukan satu arah diyakini oleh banyak kalangan akan bergeser ke komunikasi dua arah seiring dengan maraknya perkembangan media sosial. Penelitian di bidang ini tentu sangat relevan mengingat humas secara ideal memiliki peran signifikan dalam mengelola komunikasi di instansi. Penelitian ini dilakukan di pemerintah daerah Sukoharjo. Penelitian dilakukan dengan yang teknik kualitatif dengan analisis data menggunakan grounded theory. Dari analisis yang dilakukan, dapat dijelaskan bahwa humas pemda Sukoharjo menganut model komunikasi satu arah, dimana model ini bertumpu pada diseminasi informasi kepada publik. Ini menjelaskan nilai utama yang melekat dalam komunikasi di humas pemda. Nilai utama termasuk pola komunikasi, tipe informasi dan media yang digunakan. Komunikasi satu arah terbentuk karena pengaruh SDM yang ada dan peraturan yang berlaku di instansi tersebut.

  20. Pembuatan Sistem Informasi Rental Mobil dengan Menggunakan Java dan Mysql

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Rahmawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pangsa pasar yang semakin berkembang di berbagai bidang usaha khususnya pada jasa, membuat sistem pembukuan penjualan yang belum menggunakan komputer menjadi tidak efektif. Salah satu contoh bidang usaha tersebut adalah usaha rental mobil. Proses pengolahan data transaksi perusahaan tersebut semakin tidak akurat dan lambat seiring dengan meningkatnya transaksi yang dilakukan. Atas dasar tersebut digunakan Sistem Informasi Rental Mobil yang berbasis komputer sehingga lebih cepat dan akurat. Sistem Informasi tersebut dibuat dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java dan menggunakan database MySQL yang tertanam langsung pada aplikasi. Proses pembuatan dan pengembangan Sistem Informasi Rental Mobil ini menggunakan metode SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle model air terjun. Hasil dari perancangan aplikasi ini adalah suatu aplikasi desktop yang dapat memudahkan pengguna dalam pencarian mobil yang sedang tersedia, penagihan pembayaran dan pengembalian mobil jika batas waktu pengembalian sudah tiba.

  1. Optimasi Penempatan Menara BTS Menggunakan Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fatkhur Rohman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecomunication System (UMTS saat ini dipandang sebagai sebuah sistem impian yang menggantikan Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM dan merupakan salah satu evolusi generasi ketiga (3G dari jaringan mobile. Salah satu komponen pendukung jaringan UMTS adalah Node B, Node B dapat dianalogikan sebagai BTS. Seiring perkembangan kebutuhan pelanggan yang semakin meningkat, kebutuhan akan BTS(Node B semakin bertambah, hal ini menyebabkan banyaknya jumlah menara BTS da menyebabkan pemandangan yang kurang bagus bagi visualisasi kota.oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan optimisasi penempatan menara BTS. Salah satu metode untuk mengoptimasi adalah Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization. Maka dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang simulasi optimasi penempatan BTS menggunakan QPSO dengan parameter yang akan dioptimasi adalah Coverage Area dan Trafik. Dari hasil penelitian yang dilakukan, Algoritma QPSO mampu mengurangi jumlah BTS dari 55 BTS menjadi 43 BTS.

  2. Penerapan Batas Ramp-Rate dengan Menggunakan Kombinasi Metode FDP (Forward Dynamic Programming dan QP (Quadratic Programming Pada Unit Commitment-Economic Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Fahmi Andriyanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan akan energi listrik terus menigkat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. meningkatnya beban listrik ini harus diimbangi dengan penambahan daya yang dibangkitkan. Hal ini sangat berpengaruh pada penjadwalan unit pembangkit yang harus ditentukan dengan baik agar didapatkan pembangkitan yang optimal. Pada Tugas Akhir ini mengambil topik mengenai unit commitment dan economic dispatch dengan mempertimbangkan nilai dari batasan generator (ramp-rate. Metode yang digunakan adalah complete enumeration dengan forward dynamic programming pada unit commitment dan quadratic programming pada economic dispatch. Metode - metode tersebut diterapkan dalam pemrograman matlab sehingga dapat dijadikan suatu program perhitungan unit commitment dan economic dispatch dengan mempertimbangkan nilai batasan ramp-rate. Dengan metode tersebut, diharapkan permasalahan penjadwalan unit pembangkit dapat terselesaikan dengan baik dan optimal sehingga memperoleh total biaya pembangkitan yang ekonomis.

  3. Desain dan Implementasi Konverter DC-DC Rasio Tinggi Berbasis Pensaklaran Kapasitor dan Induktor Terkopel untuk Aplikasi pada Photovoltaic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Rinaldi Zulkarnain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya pembangkit listrik yang menggunakan photovoltaic sebagai salah satu energi terbarukan, maka berdampak kepada perkembangan teknologi konverter. Tegangan output dari photovoltaic masih perlu ditingkatkan agar mampu dihubungkan pada sistem grid. Salah satu pengembangan topologi konverter boost untuk aplikasi keluaran photovoltaic yaitu konverter DC-DC rasio tinggi berbasis pensaklaran kapasitor dan induktor terkopel. Konverter ini merupakan pengembangan dari konverter gabungan boost-flyback yang ditambahkan rangkaian pensaklaran kapasitor. Kelebihan dari konverter ini adalah memiliki rasio konversi dan efisiensi yang tinggi. Konverter ini mampu menjaga tegangan output konstan ketika tegangan inputnya berubah-ubah. Konverter ini sangan cocok diaplikasikan pada sumber energi alternatif yang menghasilkan tegangan DC rendah seperti photovoltaic.

  4. SOFTWARE OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE GRATIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aini Rakhmawati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Berlakunya Undang – undang Hak Atas Kekayaan Intelektual (HAKI, memunculkan suatu alternatif baru untuk menggunakan software open source. Penggunaan software open source menyebar seiring dengan isu global pada Information Communication Technology (ICT saat ini. Beberapa organisasi dan perusahaan mulai menjadikan software open source sebagai pertimbangan. Banyak konsep mengenai software open source ini. Mulai dari software yang gratis sampai software tidak berlisensi. Tidak sepenuhnya isu software open source benar, untuk itu perlu dikenalkan konsep software open source mulai dari sejarah, lisensi dan bagaimana cara memilih lisensi, serta pertimbangan dalam memilih software open source yang ada. Kata kunci :Lisensi, Open Source, HAKI

  5. Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Perajin Batik Tulis Melalui Penerapan Teknologi Pemungutan Zat Warna Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seiring kemajuan teknologi zat warna alam tergeser oleh keberadaan zat warna sintetis. Penggunaan zat warna alam masih tetap dijaga keberadaannya khususnya pada pembatikan. Kain batik yang menggunakan zat warna alam memiliki nilai jual yang tinggi karena memiliki nilai seni dan warna khas, tidak bersifat karsiogenik, ramah lingkungan serta berkesan etnik dan eksklusif. Zat warna alam coklat untuk pewarnaan batik dapat diperoleh dari kulit soga tingi melalui proses ekstraksi dengan pelarut etanol. Tujuan spesifik dari kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat adalah perajin batik Desa Pandan Kabupaten Rembang mampu membuat zat warna batik dari alam, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dirinya sendiri, sehingga diharapkan dapat meningkatkan pendapatan keluarga. Metode yang dilakukan meliputi metode ceramah mengenai pembuatan zat warna; metode praktek tentang proses pembuatan zat warna dari kulit soga tingi; metode tanya jawab untuk mengetahui sejauh mana peserta mampu menerima atau terlibat dalam kegiatan, dan evaluasi untuk memperoleh gambaran penafsiran dan analisis untuk memperoleh simpulan dari semua kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang sudah dilaksanakan.

  6. ANALISIS TRANSFER RATE PENAMBAHAN NODE PADA INFRASTRUKTUR MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK (MANET UNTUK FILE SERVER

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    Rudi Kurniawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Wireless Network sudah lama ditemukan dan seiring waktu juga mengalami perkembangan, Namun sifat teknologi ini menggantungkan diri pada infrastruktur jaringan yang ada. Hal ini bias menjadi kelemahan tersendiri saat kondisi infrastruktur jaringan sedang mengalami gangguan, karena setiap komunikasi yang melewati infrastruktur jaringan tersebut tidak akan sampai pada tujuan. Teknologi jaringan Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET diciptakan sebagai antisipasi jika infrastruktur jaringan sedang mengalami gangguan. Dengan jaringan MANET sistem komunikasi yang dilakukan tidak membutuhkan infrastruktur jaringan karena tiap node pada jaringan tersebut bersifat mobile. Untuk menguji kemampuan MANET, pada penelitian ini akan menerapkan File Transfer Protocol (FTP sebagai media untuk melakukan komunikasi data file transfer yang diimplementasi pada jaringan MANET. Dari pengujian yang telah dilakukan diperoleh hasil bahwa File Transfer dapat berfungsi dengan baik saat diterapkan pada jaringan MANET.

  7. Pendeteksian Malware pada Lingkungan Aplikasi Web dengan Kategorisasi Dokumen

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    Fransiskus Gusti Ngurah Dwika Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jumlah aplikasi berbasis web semakin bertambah seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi. Dengan bertambahnya jumlah aplikasi web, serangan-serangan yang dilakukan terhadap aplikasi-aplikasi web tersebut juga meningkat. Salah satu jenis serangan yang marak dilakukan terhadap aplikasi web adalah penyisipan malware seperti web shell yang dapat memberikan akses bebas terhadap komputer server kepada penyerang.Dalam makalah ini, dijelaskan implementasi aplikasi yang menerapkan teknik kategorisasi dokumen untuk mendeteksi malware atau kode malicious khususnya jenis web shell dengan teknik kategorisasi dokumen. Proses kategorisasi dokumen meliputi praproses dan tokenisasi kode sumber, pembuatan model classifier Multinomial Naive Bayes dan Decision Tree, dan klasifikasi dokumen menggunakan classifier yang telah dibuat. Uji coba yang dilakukan terhadap 718 file kode sumber PHP menghasilkan tingkat precision dari 72% hingga 83% dan recall 83% hingga 97%.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI APOTEK BERBASIS WEBSITE PADA APOTEK AR-ROZ FARMA 4 KEDONDONG

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    Rita Irviani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Informasi terus berkembang pesat seiring dengan kemampuan komputer memberi solusi bagi permasalahan diberbagi bidang tidak terkecuali bidang kesehatan. Salah satu contoh perkembangan teknologi informasi yaitu adanya sistem informasi yang membuat proses pengolahan data penjualan obat pada apotek menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Pada apotek Ar-roz Farma 4 Kedondong, penulis memperhatikan proses pengolahan data penjualan obat publikasi informasi masih dilakukan secara konvensional sehingga sering mengalami masalah pada ketepatan perhitungan, transaksi lambat dan terhambatnya akses informasi. Solusi untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut salah satunya dengan membangun sistem informasi apotek berbasis web. Hasil penelitian ini berupa sebuah sistem informasi penjualan berbasis web dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP dan database MySql. Sistem tersebut diharapkan dapat mempermudah dan mempercepat proses pelayanan transaksi penjualan dan kemudahan akses informasi yang tentunya akan membuat konsumen merasa sangat puas dengan pelayanan yang diberikan.

  9. Inventarisasi Cerita Rakyat Dari Kabupaten Demak Melalui Aplikasi Buku Digital (E-Book Interaktif

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    Noor Hasyim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerita rakyat merupakan salah satu keunikan budaya yang dimiliki oleh setiap daerah, termasuk daerah Kabupaten Demak. Cerita rakyat mampu menjadi sarana pendidikan nilai-nilai luhur yang diwariskan oleh pendahulu kepada generasi mendatang. Inventarisasi cerita rakyat ini penting dilakukan seiring modernisasi yang terjadi di segala bidang menjadikan masyarakat setempat khususnya generasi muda banyak yang tidak mengetahui cerita tersebut. Di zaman modern inventarisasi harus juga dilakukan denga cara modern pula. Salah satu caara untuk mengemas cerita rakyat di zaman modern adalah menggunakan aplikasi buku digital yang dibuat interaktif. Perkembangan komputer tablet berbasis touchscreen semakin menambah interaktif gambar bergerak yang disajikan di dalam aplikasi buku digital. Kata Kunci: Buku digital, Cerita Rakyat, E-book, Folklor

  10. SELEKSI RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus striatum DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN LAJU PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT UNTUK BUDIDAYA

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    Andi Parenrengi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Budidaya rumput laut di Indonesia semakin berkembang seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan bahan baku industri untuk pasar domestik dan eksport. Rumput laut Kappaphycus striatum, salah satu spesies rumput laut komersil, telah intensif dibudidayakan di perairan pantai. Saat ini, masalah utama yang dihadapi pembudidaya adalah rendahnya kualitas bibit yang berasal dari hasil budidaya. Seleksi varietas merupakan salah satu metode yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan laju pertumbuhan rumput laut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh seleksi varietas terhadap pertumbuhan rumput laut sehingga dapat dilakukan produksi bibit unggul untuk keperluan budidaya. Budidaya rumput laut K. striatum telah dilakukan di Teluk Laikang, Kabupaten Takalar, Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan dengan menggunakan metode long line. Seleksi varietas dilakukan berdasarkan parameter laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH dan metode seleksi mengacu pada protokol seleksi yang telah dikembangkan pada rumput laut K. alvarezii. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LPH bibit hasil seleksi lebih tinggi (P

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Epidemic Diffusion within Small-World Network

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    Ming Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To depict the rule of epidemic diffusion, two different models, the Susceptible-Exposure-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIRS model and the Susceptible-Exposure-Infected-Quarantine-Recovered-Susceptible (SEIQRS model, are proposed and analyzed within small-world network in this paper. Firstly, the epidemic diffusion models are constructed with mean-filed theory, and condition for the occurrence of disease diffusion is explored. Then, the existence and global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium for these two complex epidemic systems are proved by differential equations knowledge and Routh-Hurwiz theory. At last, a numerical example which includes key parameters analysis and critical topic discussion is presented to test how well the proposed two models may be applied in practice. These works may provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with epidemic diffusion controlling problems.

  12. Penentuan Letak dan Kapasitas Optimal Bank Kapasitor pada Jaring Transmisi 150 kV Sumatera Utara Menggunakan Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

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    Andita Noor Shafira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Listrik merupakan suatu kebutuhan mutlak yang harus dipenuhi untuk menjamin keberlangsungan hidup masyarakat masa kini. Kebutuhan ini terus meningkat seiring dengan pertumbuhan beban yang semakin bertambah dari tahun ke tahun. Pertumbuhan beban yang diikuti dengan peningkatan permintaan suplai daya reaktif akibat beban bersifat induktif meningkat menyebabkan perencanaan dan operasi dari sistem interkoneksi menjadi lebih kompleks sehingga kualitas sistem menjadi kurang dapat diandalkan. Aliran daya reaktif dapat menyebabkan drop tegangan dan kerugian daya dalam sistem transmisi. Untuk itu dilakukan penentuan letak dan kapasitas kapasitor shunt untuk mengurangi kerugian daya dengan menggunakan Newton-Raphson dan metode optimisasi Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. Pada percobaan ini dilakukan pemasangan lima kapasitor dengan jumlah koloni sebesar 50 dan Max Cycle Number sebesar 150. Hasil simulasi menggunakan metode Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm menunjukkan bahwa pemasangan kapasitor pada Jaring Transmisi 150 kV Sumatera Utara dapat menurunkan kerugian daya aktif sebesar 8,37%.

  13. KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM YANG DIPRODUKSI DARI KOMBINASI GELATIN KULIT KAKI AYAM DAN SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hasdar

    2012-09-01

    SDS-PAGE dan menunjukkan sebagai molekul kolagen. Hasil analisis kandungan asam amino edible film menggunakan HPLC dihasilkan komposisi residu asam amino terbesar adalah glysin yaitu 29,42%, 37,88%, 38,32%, 39,28% dan 39,17% pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hal itu menggambarkan bahwa profil protein edible film dapat dipastikan sebagian besar berasal dari kolagen gelatin. Pengamatan dengan scaning electron microscope menunjukkan telah terbentuk cross linking antara molekul protein gelatin dan molekul soy protein isolate dan yang ditunjukan semakin berkurangnya retakan seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi gelatin. Perbedaan kombinasi gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate untuk membentuk edible film tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kekuatan tarik (tensile strenght, dan kemuluran (elongation, namun berpengaruh nyata pada laju transmisi uap air (Water Vapour Transmision Rate. Kombinasi 95:5 protein gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate menghasilkan edible film yang terbaik. (Kata kunci: Edible film, Gelatin kaki ayam, Soy protein isolate

  14. Game Blok Bakar Berbasis Android Menggunakan Metode LCG dan LFSR

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    Kadek Adi Praptha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blok Bakar merupakan permainan kartu tradisional Bali yang menggunakan kartu domino. Konsep utama dari game adalah memilih blok kartu yang terdiri dari 2 buah kartu yang sudah diacak. Namun seiring perkembangan jaman peminat permainan Blok Bakar dari tahun ke tahun mengalami penurunan, sehingga diperlukan sebuah sarana sebagai media pelestarian Budaya Bali. Penelitian ini menyajikan suatu aplikasi game Blok Bakar berbasis Android dengan mengkombinasikan metode pengacakan Linear Congruential Generators (LCG dan Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR agar minat masyarakat terhadap game Blok Bakar dapat meningkat. Kombinasi metode digunakan untuk memperoleh kartu acak dan meminimalisir kemunculan kartu yang sama. Game Blok Bakar dibuat dengan menggunakan software Corona SDK dengan bahasa pemrograman Lua. Hasil dari kombinasi metode LCG dan LFSR memberikan perbandingan kemenangan dan kekalahan Bandar sebesar 52% berbanding 48% untuk kondisi taruhan dan 60% berbanding 40% untuk kondisi jumlah kartu. Kata kunci: Blok Bakar, Budaya Bali, game kartu, LCG, LFSR.

  15. Disease Extinction Versus Persistence in Discrete-Time Epidemic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driessche, P; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2018-04-12

    We focus on discrete-time infectious disease models in populations that are governed by constant, geometric, Beverton-Holt or Ricker demographic equations, and give a method for computing the basic reproduction number, [Formula: see text]. When [Formula: see text] and the demographic population dynamics are asymptotically constant or under geometric growth (non-oscillatory), we prove global asymptotic stability of the disease-free equilibrium of the disease models. Under the same demographic assumption, when [Formula: see text], we prove uniform persistence of the disease. We apply our theoretical results to specific discrete-time epidemic models that are formulated for SEIR infections, cholera in humans and anthrax in animals. Our simulations show that a unique endemic equilibrium of each of the three specific disease models is asymptotically stable whenever [Formula: see text].

  16. PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SEKOLAH UMUM (Perspektif Sosio-Politik-Historis

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    Mohammad Kosim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam perspektif historis, keberadaan mata pelajaran Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI di sekolah umum mengalami perjalanan panjang dan rumit seiring dengan kondisi sosial politik yang menyertai. Hal ini bisa ditelusuri sejak masa penjajahan hingga era reformasi. Di masa Belanda pendidikan agama tidak ada peluang diajarkan di sekolah pemerintah dengan alasan pemerintah bersikap netral. Kebijakan Jepang lebih lunak—kendati tidak lebih baik dari Belanda—dengan mengizinkan pendidikan agama diajarkan di sekolah. Setelah Indonesia merdeka, secara perlahan dan pasti, posisi PAI di sekolah umum mulai menguat, dari sebelumnya sebagai mata pelajaran pelengkap, tidak wajib, dan tidak menentukan kenaikan kelas, menjadi mata pelajaran inti di setiap jenjang pendidikan. Meskipun posisi PAI di sekolah umum cukup kuat, tidak berarti lepas dari masalah, terutama dalam tataran aplikasi.

  17. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, C F; O'Callaghan, M J A; Kelly, T C

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony

  18. The epidemic of Tuberculosis on vaccinated population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sriwahyuni; Halfiani, Vera; Meurah Yuni, Syarifah; Iskandar, Taufiq; Rasudin; Ramli, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which has caused a large number of mortality in Indonesia. This disease is caused by Mycrobacterium tuberculosis. Besides affecting lung, this disease also affects other organs such as lymph gland, intestine, kidneys, uterus, bone, and brain. This article discusses the epidemic of tuberculosis through employing the SEIR model. Here, the population is divided into four compartments which are susceptible, exposed, infected and recovered. The susceptible population is further grouped into two which are vaccinated group and unvaccinated group. The behavior of the epidemic is investigated through analysing the equilibrium of the model. The result shows that administering vaccine to the susceptible population contributes to the reduction of the tuberculosis epidemic rate.

  19. KEJAHATAN PORNOGRAFI Upaya Pencegahan dan Penanggulangannya di Kabupaten Ponorogo

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    Irma Rumtianing Uswatul Hanifah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah telah mengeluarkan undang-undang No 44 Tahun 2008 tentang pornografi. Tujuan dari undang-undang tersebut salah satunya mewujudkan dan memelihara tatanan kehidupan masyarakat yang beretika, berkepribadian luhur, menjungjung tinggi nilai-nilai Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, serta menghormati harkat dan martabat kemanusiaan. Dalam perkembangannya, materi pornografi mengalami pertumbuhan dan penyebaran yang pesat seiring dengan perkembangan dan kemajuan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Peredaran dan penyebaran film porno kini semakin pesat karena ditopang dengan kecanggihan sarana informasi dan komunikasi salah satunya media internet yang bisa diakses oleh masyarakat pada setiap saat. Tulisan berikut akan mengkaji bagaimana upaya dan trategi yang dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Ponorogo dalam mencegah dan menanggulangi kejahatan pornografi di Kabupaten Ponorogo, apa hambatan dan bagaimana solusi dalam pencegahan serta penanggulangan kejahatan pornografi di Kabupaten Ponorogo serta bagaimana formulasi kebijakan untuk pencegahan dan penanggulangan kejahatan pornografi di Kabupaten Ponorogo. Kata kunci: Pornografi, Polres, KP3A

  20. PERANCANGAN CHATBOT PUSAT INFORMASI MAHASISWA MENGGUNAKAN AIML SEBAGAI VIRTUAL ASSISTANT BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskur Maskur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan teknologi dan keinginan program studi teknik informatika untuk mengembangkan layanan terhadap mahasiswa, informasi yang diperoleh melalui sistem informasi dan chatting yang dilakukan antara pengguna dengan pihak Virtual Assistant. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun chatbot yang mempunyai tujuan sebagai Virtual Assistant yang memberikan informasi kepada mahasiswa melalui data yang tersimpan pada sistem yang berisi informasi mengenai program studi teknik informatika dan penambahan pengetahuan baru apabila data yang tersimpan tidak ditemukan. Pada perancangan dan implementasi perangkat lunak ini menghasilkan sebuah prototipe Chatbot yang dibangun dengan menggunakan mesin ALICE sebagai penerjemah AIML. AIML ini menyebabkan Chatbot dapat mengintegrasikan input yang diterima berupa input text. Sehingga akan dihasilkan percakapan antara pengguna dan program. Dengan pemanfaatan chatbot yang telah dilengkapi dengan informasi berupa audio, membuat pengguna dapat lebih mudah mendapatkan informasi yang berasal dari database yang diinformasikan kepada pengguna. Dari hasil pengujian verifikasi, pengujian validitas dan pengujian prototipe yang dilakukan sistem berjalan dengan baik sesuai dengan perencanaan.

  1. REPRESENTASI NILAI-NILAI AL QURAN DALAM NOVEL KARTINI KARYA ABIDAH EL KHALIEQY

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    Haniah Haniah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji nilai-nilai al quran yang ada di dalam novel Kartini karya Abidah El Khalieqy. Pengkajian ini didasari karena terdegradasinya moral generasi saat ini. Penurunan kualitas moral tersebut dilatarbelakangi oleh lemahnya keimanan di dalam diri seiring arus globalisasi yang tidak terbendung lagi. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif. Peneliti akan mendeskripsikan hasil penelitian dengan rinci. Sumber data dari penelitian ini adalah novel Kartini karya Abidah El Khalieqy, sedangkan datanya adalah kutipan-kutipan teks di dalam novel yang mencerinkan nilai-nilai al quran.  Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis interaktif yang dikembangkan oleh Miles dan Huberman. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa nilai-nilai al quran yang tercermin di dalam novel Kartini di antaranya kewajiban membaca, mencintai al quran, berbakti kepada orang tua, berserah diri kepada Allah, beribadah sebaik-baiknya, dan keutamaan menjadi orang yang berilmu.

  2. PERBANDINGAN BIT ERROR RATE KODE REED-SOLOMON DENGAN KODE BOSE-CHAUDHURI-HOCQUENGHEM MENGGUNAKAN MODULASI 32-FSK

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    Eva Yovita Dwi Utami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kode Reed-Solomon (RS dan kode Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH merupakan kode pengoreksi error yang termasuk dalam jenis kode blok siklis. Kode pengoreksi error diperlukan pada sistem komunikasi untuk memperkecil error pada informasi yang dikirimkan. Dalam makalah ini, disajikan hasil penelitian kinerja BER sistem komunikasi yang menggunakan kode RS, kode BCH, dan sistem yang tidak menggunakan kode RS dan kode BCH, menggunakan modulasi 32-FSK pada kanal Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN, Rayleigh dan Rician. Kemampuan memperkecil error diukur menggunakan nilai Bit Error Rate (BER yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kode RS seiring dengan penambahan nilai SNR, menurunkan nilai BER yang lebih curam bila dibandingkan sistem dengan kode BCH. Sedangkan kode BCH memberikan keunggulan saat SNR bernilai kecil, memiliki BER lebih baik daripada sistem dengan kode RS.

  3. Aplikasi Animasi 3 Dimensi Mendem Ari-Ari Berbasis Android

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    I Gusti Agung Sagotri Mahadewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mendem Ari-ari merupakan salah satu tradisi umat Hindu yang dilaksanakan saat bayi baru lahir. Banyak kaum muda khususnya pasangan muda belum mengetahui bagaimana prosesi dalam melakukan upacara Mendem Ari-ari. Seiring perkembangan teknologi, permasalahan tersebut dapat ditanggulangi dengan sebuah metode pembelajaran di bidang Teknologi Informasi yaitu dengan memanfaatkan teknologi smartphone berbasis Android sebagai media pembelajaran prosesi upacara Mendem Ari-ari yang diimplementasikan ke dalam sebuah aplikasi animasi 3 dimensi. Aplikasi Mendem Ari-ari yang dibuat dalam aplikasi berbasis Android menggunakan Autodesk Maya sebagai pemodelan dan animasi, sedangkan perancangan aplikasi Android menggunakan Unity. User memberikan input berupa sentuhan pada suatu tombol, aplikasi Mendem Ari-ari kemudian memproses dengan memberikan output sesuai tombol yang disentuh. Hasil dari aplikasi Mendem Ari-ari dapat menjelaskan informasi mengenai prosesi upacara Mendem Ari-ari yang menampilkan objek animasi 3 dimensi dan juga video secara real atau nyata. Kata kunci: Animasi, 3 Dimensi, Mendem Ari-ari, Android

  4. Rancang Bangun Animasi 3D Pembelajaran Shalat Jenazah Berbasis Android

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    Gembong Satria Prabowo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shalat jenazah dan berwudhu merupakan kegiatan yang sering dilakukan Umat Islam. Kurangnya informasi serta masih digunakannya metode pengajaran konvensional yaitu hanya dengan menggunakan buku dan lisan saja merupakan salah satu penyebab Umat Islam khususnya siswa kurang mampu memahami tata cara berwudhu dan shalat jenazah. Seiring perkembangan teknologi, permasalahan tersebut dapat ditanggulangi dengan sebuah metode pembelajaran di bidang Teknologi Informasi yaitu dengan memanfaatkan teknologi smartphone berbasis Android sebagai media pembelajaran tata cara berwudhu dan shalat jenazah yang diimplementasikan ke dalam sebuah aplikasi animasi 3 dimensi. Aplikasi APJenazah dibuat berbasis Android menggunakan Autodesk Maya sebagai pemodelan dan animasi, sedangkan perancangan aplikasi Android menggunakan Unity. Aplikasi digunakan dengan input dari user berupa sentuhan tombol, dan output berdasarkan tombol yang disentuh. Hasil dari aplikasi APJenazah yaitu informasi mengenai prosesi tata cara berwudhu dan shalat jenazah, menggunakan objek dan karakter animasi 3 dimensi. Kata Kunci: Animasi, 3 Dimensi, Shalat Jenazah, Android

  5. Delivering Islamic Studies and Teaching Diversity in Southern Thai Islamic Schools

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    Raihani Raihani

    2016-06-01

    [Pengajaran keragaman budaya dan agama merupakan sebuah tantangan besar bagi guru pendidikan keislaman pada sekolah di Thailand Selatan, seiring dengan pemahaman keislaman mereka yang kuat, kesenjangan tingkat perkembangan profesionalitas, dan konflik politik etnik di daerah tersebut. Tulisan ini mengetengahkan persoalan yang mereka hadapi, khususnya deskripsi proses pengajaran studi keislaman di sekolah Islam lokal dan peluang dalam promosi keragaman budaya dan agama. Tulisan ini juga melihat kemungkinan peluang bagi guru agama Islam dan anak didiknya untuk saling belajar dari realitas keragaman dalam masyarakat. Kami menemukan bahwa menyampaikan pengetahuan keislaman harus tepat dengan konsep pengajaran bagi pemeluk agamanya menggunakan pendekatan keyakinan yang lurus. Indoktrinasi dengan sedikit dorongan pemikiran kritis merupakan kewajaran dalam kelas agama. Presentasi agama dan budaya lain didesain untuk eksplorasi kekurangan dan kesalahan dari perspektif yang monolitik.

  6. Re-Design Pompa Sentrifugal Double Admission dengan Fluida Kerja Semi Lean Benfield Solution (K2CO3 pada Kapasitas 700 m3/h dan Head 275.8 m, (STUDI KASUS : PT. PETROKIMIA GRESIK

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    Fathur Rahim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan pompa sentrifugal dalam dunia industri, khususnya di PT. Petrokimia Gresik memiliki peran yang sangat penting, terutama untuk memindahkan fluida kerja dari satu tempat ke tempat lain. PT. Petrokima Gresik dalam menggunakan jenis pompa untuk mengalirkan semi lean benfield solution ( yang berfungsi sebagai absorber dalam proses pembuatan amoniak. Seiring berjalannya waktu, kapasitas pompa sentrifugal double admission yang semula 582,3ingin ditingkatkan menjadi 700 Oleh karena itu, dilakukan perancangan ulang pompa sentrifugal double admission untuk fluida kerja semi lean benfield solution ( .Setelah itu dilakukan perancangan ulang pompa dengan data yang telah diolah meliputi perancangan poros, impeller dengan bentuk sudu double curvature, volute, pasak dan bearing. Dari perancangan ulang, didapatkan desain pompa sentrifugal double admission untuk fluida kerja semi lean benfield solution ( yang sesuai dengan kapasitas 700pada head 275,8 m serta daya BHP sebesar 886 Kwatt dengan effisiensi 74%.

  7. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Zhu, Guanghu; He, Jianfeng; Song, Tie; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Zeng, Weilin; Li, Xing; Li, Zhihao; Xie, Runsheng; Zhong, Haojie; Wu, Xiaocheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yonghui; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-08-02

    Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6%) in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI) data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed) model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250). The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  8. Tantangan Lembaga Keuangan Syariah dalam Menghadapi Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN

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    Budi Kolistiawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Islamic law is basically a standard concept. As the time goes by, there is an ijtihad in some aspects of life, but they do not deviate from the teaching of Islam. So Islam in solving the problem is in accordance with Islamic teaching. It is an economic system that is part of human life. Islamic economic system is expected to solve the problems of human life without deviating from Islamic law of Allah SWT. Along with the development of the era, nowadays there are many emerging Islamic-based financial institutions or commonly called as Islamic financial institutions amid community. The purpose of this study is to determine how far the reediness of Islamic financial institutions in facing the ASEAN Economic Community. The method of discussion used in this study is analysis technique based on data and references of library research.  Hukum Islam pada dasarnya merupakan konsep yang baku. Tetapi seiring berjalannya waktu, terdapat ijtihad dalam beberapa bidang kehidupan, namun tetap berada pada batasan yang tidak menyimpang dari ajaran Islam. Sehingga Islam dalam menyelesaikan masalah akan sesuai dengan perkembangan zaman. Demikian juga dengan sistem ekonomi yang merupakan bagian dari bidang kehidupan manusia. Sistem ekonomi Islam diharapkan bisa menyelesaikan permasalahan yang ada pada kehidupan manusia tanpa melanggar ketentuan hukum syariat Allah SWT. Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, saat ini telah banyak bermunculan lembaga keuangan yang berbasis Islam atau sering disebut lembaga keuangan syariah ditengah masyarakat. Tujuan dari pembahasan ini untuk mengetahui sejauh mana kesiapan lembaga keuangan syariah menghadapi Masyarakat Ekonomi Asean. Metode pembahasan dalam artikel ini menggunakan teknik analisis berdasarkan data dan referensi kepustakaan yang ada.

  9. Early rigorous control interventions can largely reduce dengue outbreak magnitude: experience from Chaozhou, China

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    Tao Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever is a severe public heath challenge in south China. A dengue outbreak was reported in Chaozhou city, China in 2015. Intensified interventions were implemented by the government to control the epidemic. However, it is still unknown the degree to which intensified control measures reduced the size of the epidemics, and when should such measures be initiated to reduce the risk of large dengue outbreaks developing? Methods We selected Xiangqiao district as study setting because the majority of the indigenous cases (90.6% in Chaozhou city were from this district. The numbers of daily indigenous dengue cases in 2015 were collected through the national infectious diseases and vectors surveillance system, and daily Breteau Index (BI data were reported by local public health department. We used a compartmental dynamic SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Removed model to assess the effectiveness of control interventions, and evaluate the control effect of intervention timing on dengue epidemic. Results A total of 1250 indigenous dengue cases was reported from Xiangqiao district. The results of SEIR modeling using BI as an indicator of actual control interventions showed a total of 1255 dengue cases, which is close to the reported number (n = 1250. The size and duration of the outbreak were highly sensitive to the intensity and timing of interventions. The more rigorous and earlier the control interventions implemented, the more effective it yielded. Even if the interventions were initiated several weeks after the onset of the dengue outbreak, the interventions were shown to greatly impact the prevalence and duration of dengue outbreak. Conclusions This study suggests that early implementation of rigorous dengue interventions can effectively reduce the epidemic size and shorten the epidemic duration.

  10. Efficient Vaccine Distribution Based on a Hybrid Compartmental Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    Full Text Available To effectively and efficiently reduce the morbidity and mortality that may be caused by outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, it is very important for public health agencies to make informed decisions for controlling the spread of the disease. Such decisions must incorporate various kinds of intervention strategies, such as vaccinations, school closures and border restrictions. Recently, researchers have paid increased attention to searching for effective vaccine distribution strategies for reducing the effects of pandemic outbreaks when resources are limited. Most of the existing research work has been focused on how to design an effective age-structured epidemic model and to select a suitable vaccine distribution strategy to prevent the propagation of an infectious virus. Models that evaluate age structure effects are common, but models that additionally evaluate geographical effects are less common. In this paper, we propose a new SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious šC recovered model, named the hybrid SEIR-V model (HSEIR-V, which considers not only the dynamics of infection prevalence in several age-specific host populations, but also seeks to characterize the dynamics by which a virus spreads in various geographic districts. Several vaccination strategies such as different kinds of vaccine coverage, different vaccine releasing times and different vaccine deployment methods are incorporated into the HSEIR-V compartmental model. We also design four hybrid vaccination distribution strategies (based on population size, contact pattern matrix, infection rate and infectious risk for controlling the spread of viral infections. Based on data from the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza epidemic, we evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed HSEIR-V model and study the effects of different types of human behaviour in responding to epidemics.

  11. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, Roberto G.; Zoni, Silvia; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bontempi, Elza; Micheletti, Serena; Broberg, Karin; Parrinello, Giovanni; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11–14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 μg/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44–10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 μg/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00–24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 μg/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 μg/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  12. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Roberto G., E-mail: lucchini@med.unibs.it [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Zoni, Silvia [Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bontempi, Elza [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia (Italy); Micheletti, Serena [Cognition Psychology Neuroscience lab., University of Pavia and Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Civil Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Broberg, Karin [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Parrinello, Giovanni [Statistics and Biometry, University of Brescia (Italy); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  13. Toxicity of lead acetate to female rabbits after chronic subcutaneous administration. Pt. 1. Biochemical and clinical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falke, H.E. (Nijverheidsorganisatie TNO, Zeist (Netherlands). Toxicology and Nutrition Inst.); Zwennis, W.C.M. (Nijverheidsorganisatie TNO, Rijswijk (Netherlands). Medical Biological Lab.)

    1990-10-01

    The effect of chronic subcutaneous administration of lead acetate was studied in female rabbits. The low-dose group (15 animals) received three times a week 0.10-0.20 {mu}g/kg body weight and the high-dose group (15 animals) 0.80-1.20 {mu}g/kg. The control group received the vehicle only. Concentrations of lead in blood in the low-dose group increased to ca. 400 {mu}g/l after 70 days and in the high-dose group to ca. 900 {mu}g/l after 110 days. After 7.5 months eight animals of each group were sacrificed. The remaining rabbits were kept for an additional 4 months without treatment. Blood lead concentrations decreased with a half-time of 60-70 days. During exposure the gain in body weight was lower in the high-dose group than in the control group and the low-dose group. The high-dose group developed slight anaemia and low MCV, MCH and MCHC, and basophilic stipping of erythrocytes. These effects disappeared during recovery. ALAD activity in erythrocytes was very low during exposure in both exposed groups and did not reach control values during recovery. During exposure the concentrations of ZPP and ALA-U increased, but only ALA-U returned to normal during recovery. No other effects of lead on the composition of the urine were observed. No effects were observed on plasma urea and creatinine concentrations. In the high-dose group the concentration of ALAD in the liver decreased by 30%. During recovery this effect was no longer present. No effects were seen in cytochrome P-450 content or cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme activities. Lead was mainly stored in bones, but some also in several soft tissues. After recovery the concentrations in soft tissues decreased to a variable degree. In the high-dose group the relative weights of heart and liver increased. These effects disappeared during recovery. At 400 {mu}g lead/l blood no adverse effects were observed that did occur at the high dose level. (orig.).

  14. Lead pellet retention time and associated toxicity in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Steven; Jarrett, Timothy; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Holladay, Jeremy; Williams, Jamie; Gogal, Robert

    2010-12-01

    Birds are exposed to Pb by oral ingestion of spent Pb shot as grit. A paucity of data exists for retention and clearance of these particles in the bird gastrointestinal tract. In the current study, northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) were orally gavaged with 1, 5, or 10 Pb shot pellets, of 2-mm diameter, and radiographically followed over time. Blood Pb levels and other measures of toxicity were collected, to correlate with pellet retention. Quail dosed with either 5 or 10 pellets exhibited morbidity between weeks 1 and 2 and were removed from further study. Most of the Pb pellets were absorbed or excreted within 14 d of gavage, independent of dose. Pellet size in the ventriculus decreased over time in radiographs, suggesting dissolution caused by the acidic pH. Birds dosed with one pellet showed mean blood Pb levels that exceeded 1,300 µg/dl at week 1, further supporting dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Limited signs of toxicity were seen in the one-pellet birds; however, plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (d-ALAD) activity was persistently depressed, suggesting possible impaired hematological function. © 2010 SETAC.

  15. Biomarker assessment of the effects of strip mine contamination on channel catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.K. Jr.; Black, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A suite of biomarkers were used to evaluate acute (1 day) to semi-chronic (3 month) heavy metal-induced toxicity in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, caged at an abandoned strip mine and a noncontaminated reference site. Assays performed include indicators of metabolic, hematological, osmoregulatory, and genotoxic stress. Two cage designs were utilized to evaluate the importance of exposure routes; one allowing exclusive contact with the water column and the other allowing contact with water and sediments. Significant DNA strand breakage was observed in catfish exposed in both regimes, but DNA repair was observed only in water-exposed catfish. Transient increases in hemoglobin, ALAD, and hematocrit levels were observed at 1 month for both exposure regimes, followed by a return to control levels for the duration of the study. Environmental conditions (i.e., changes in water quality and temperature) may have contributed to the variable plasma chloride and glucose levels observed in all catfish exposed to strip mine wastes. Further analysis of the data with non-metric clustering techniques and correlations with tissue metal residues may yield more insights into causal relationships

  16. Transformaciones en el abordaje de la diabetes: análisis de las evidencias científicas publicadas por dos sociedades científicas (1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Serena Perner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir y analizar los cambios en la definición de la diabetes como enfermedad y la relación con las transformaciones en su abordaje terapéutico. Se realizó un análisis de contenido sobre los artículos, guías y consensos publicados por la Sociedad Argentina de Diabetes (SAD y la Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (ALAD entre los años 1980 y 2010. Se desagregaron las diferentes clasificaciones, los valores considerados normales para definir a una persona como diabética y el tratamiento, analizando críticamente los cambios y modificaciones encontrados con el auxilio de categorías como medicalización, riesgo y estilos de vida. Como resultado del análisis hemos podido observar cómo el creciente proceso de medicalización, la dependencia con respecto al conocimiento científico de países centrales, los intereses de la industria farmacéutica y el lugar central del tratamiento farmacológico se inscriben en el abordaje de la diabetes y se hacen visibles a través de los cambios sucedidos en los últimos 30 años.

  17. Lead intoxication: clinic and diagnostic evaluation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Riera Nora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, poor nutrition, environmental and social injustice prevailing in Latin America are factorsthat determine the action of pollutants on children. Lead poisoning and pollution constitute apublic health problem throughout the world. Lead affects multiple organs: nervous system particularly,hematopoietic, renal, endocrine, bone and others. Objective: to assess clinical, biochemicaland vascular effects in children exposed to known source of lead. Materials and methods: Sevenchildren with defined source lead exposure were studied, general and specific lead laboratorywere made. Endothelial function and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed. Statistic:descriptive. Results: Age average was 6,2 years (DE± 1, 6, average haematocrit 31% (DE±0,02;hemoglobin average 10,2 g/dl (DE± 0,78. 100% presented hypochromia, microcitosis, anemiaand marked anisocytosis. Lead average: 37,9 ug/dl (DE±6,22, ALA-D average: 8,9 U/L (DE±4,5.No changes were found in lipid profile and kidney function. All presented microalbuminuriaand endothelial dysfunction. Conclusion: These results show the effects of environmental leadexposure that can result in children not occupationally exposed.

  18. Effects of lead exposure on oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry in waterbirds in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Haro, Monica; Green, Andy J; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Medina lagoon in Andalusia has one of the highest densities of spent lead (Pb) shot in Europe. Blood samples from waterbirds were collected in 2006-2008 to measure Pb concentration (PbB), δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), oxidative stress biomarkers and plasma biochemistry. PbB above background levels (>20 μg/dl) was observed in 19% (n=59) of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and in all common pochards (Aythya ferina) (n=4), but common coots (Fulica atra) (n=37) and moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) (n=12) were all 6 μg/dl. In mallards, an inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and an increased level of oxidized glutathione (oxGSH) in red blood cells (RBC) were associated with PbB levels >20 μg/dl. In coots, PbB levels were negatively related to vitamin A and carotenoid levels in plasma, and total glutathione in RBCs; and positively related with higher superoxide dismutase and GPx activities and % oxGSH in RBCs. Overall, the results indicate that previously assumed background levels of PbB for birds need to be revised. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical pollutants in field-collected canvasback tissues, eggs, and food materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.; Stendell, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 studies began on the levels of environmental pollutants in canvasback tissues, eggs, and food items. The purpose of the studies were to determine if the levels of toxic chemicals found in canvasbacks were of the magnitude to cause problems affecting reproduction and survival. Overall, levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCB's were low in canvasbacks and their eggs. Some individual birds, however, laid eggs with elevated residues of DDE (12.1 ppm) or PCB's (28.6 ppm). There was no significant difference between eggshell thicknesses of 1972-73 and pre-1946 collections. About 12% of the canvasbacks analyzed had elevated levels of blood lead with reduced ALAD enzyme activity. Adult canvasbacks collected from the Chesapeake Bay in 1975 had moderate to high levels of cadmium in their kidneys. Cadmium, in excessive amounts is very toxic and can curtail spermatogenesis in male birds. Although no single toxic chemical found in wild canvasbacks appears to be a major factor in population declines, the cumulative effects of sublethal levels of all the pollutants may render birds susceptible to disease, hunting pressure or predation.

  20. Alteration of paraoxonase, arylesterase and lactonase activities in people around fluoride endemic area of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulkumar, Mani; Vijayan, Raji; Penislusshiyan, Sakayanathan; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity due to excess fluoride concentration in drinking water is of great concern in people who rely only on the ground water as their water source in many region of the world. We collected samples and examined the toxicity of fluoride in a population residing at Salem, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu, India and measured HDL bound enzyme (PON1), erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) and adenosine 5' triphosphatase (ATPases), plasma enzyme (butyrylcholinesterase, BChE) and rate limiting enzyme in heme biosynthesis (delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, δ-ALAD) activities. In fluorosis patients, formation of lipid peroxidation product was more in erythrocytes than in plasma. The observation further revealed that there was 50% reduction in the activity of HDL bound anti atherogenic enzyme-paraoxonase (PON1). The activities of membrane bound and signaling enzymes (acetylcholinesterase - AChE and adenosine 5' triphosphatase - ATPase) of erythrocyte were also diminished. These results suggested that there was defectiveness in the signaling and energy metabolism in fluorosis patients. Altered isoenzyme pattern of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in fluorosis samples was observed. Furthermore, the result suggested that both the heart (LDH 1) and liver (LDH 5) were most affected by fluoride toxicity. The study also provided reference values for tests which are used to predict the severity of fluoride toxicity. The toxic effect of fluoride was due to the collective effects on vital protective system rather than single factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  2. Effect of PEG-6000 Imposed Water Deficit on Chlorophyll Metabolism in Maize Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Gadre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic constraint limiting plant growth and productivity world wide. The current study was undertaken with the aim to investigate the effect of water deficit imposed by PEG-6000, on chlorophyll metabolism in maize leaves to work out the mechanistic details. Leaf segments prepared from primary leaves of etiolated maize seedlings were treated with varying concentrations of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000; w/v- 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% in continuous light of intensity 40 Wm-2 at 26±2 °C for 24 h in light chamber. The results demonstrate a concentration dependent decline in chlorophyll content with increasing concentration of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Reduction in chlorophyll ‘a’ level was to a greater extent than the chlorophyll ‘b’. The RNA content decreased in a concentration dependent manner with PEG, however, proline content increased significantly. Relative water content decreased significantly with the supply of 30% PEG only. A substantial decrease in chlorophyll synthesis due to significant reduction in ALA content and ALAD activity, with no change in chlorophyllase activity with the supply of PEG suggests that water deficit affects chlorophyll formation rather than its degradation.

  3. Alleviation of isoproturon toxicity to wheat by exogenous application of glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M

    2014-06-01

    Treatment with the recommended field dose of isoproturon to 7-d-old wheat seedlings significantly decreased shoot height, fresh and dry weights during the subsequent 15days. Meanwhile contents of carotenoids, chlorophylls and anthocyanin as well as activities of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) were significantly inhibited. On the other hand, the herbicide significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA), a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation and H2O2, while it significantly decreased the contents of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) and reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). These findings indicate an induction of a stress status in wheat seedlings following isoproturon treatment. However, exogenous GSH appeared to limit the toxic effects of isoproturon and seemed to overcome this stress status. Most likely, contents of pigment and activities of enzymes were raised to approximate control levels. Moreover, antioxidants were elevated and the oxidative stress indices seemed to be alleviated by GSH application. These results indicate that exogenous GSH enhances enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to alleviate the effects of isoproturon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: → Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. → Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. → Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. → Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. → Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  5. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: {yields} Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. {yields} Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. {yields} Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. {yields} Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. {yields} Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  6. Stress response of lead-exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during swimming performance and hypoxia challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, K.A. [National Biological Service, La Crosse, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States); Caldwell, C.A. [National Biological Service, La Crosse, WI (United States); Sandheinrich, M.B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants often invoke a stress response in aquatic organisms, and may compromise their capacity to respond to secondary stressors. This may reduce growth, reproduction and survival. The authors objectives were to assess the effects of lead and secondary stressors on hematology and blood chemistry of rainbow trout. After a 7 to 8-week aqueous exposure to Pb(100{micro}g/L), rainbow trout were challenged with forced swimming or hypoxia. Lead significantly reduced concentrations of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), but not other constituents in the blood. Lead did not affect the swimming endurance of the fish. Hematocrit, mean cell hemoglobin content, and mean cell volume were significantly lower in Pb-exposed trout following the swimming challenge. Although hypoxia resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose concentrations, there were no significant differences between the Pb and control groups. Hypoxia did not affect plasma chloride concentrations, although concentrations increased in Pb-exposed trout. There was no difference in lactic acid concentrations between Pb-exposed and control fish after forced swimming or hypoxia.

  7. Excretion of lead and its biological activity several years after termination of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přerovská, I.; Teisinger, J.

    1970-01-01

    Přerovská, and Teisinger, J. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 352-355. Excretion of lead and its biological activity several years after termination of exposure. A group of 27 persons who had been treated some years previously for chronic lead poisoning at our clinic, and who had not come into occupational contact with lead since, was examined. Half of them had had no occupational exposure to lead for 3 to 5 years and the others for 8 to 17 years. In most of these persons there is still an increased lead excretion, originating from an increased deposit in the bones. The mobilization test after calcium versenate (CaEDTA) injection was greater than 0·350 mg/24 hours. The values found for haemoglobin, punctate basophilia, coproporphyrin and ALA in urine were normal, but there was, in all cases, a decreased ALA-D activity. This finding suggests biological activity of such negligible lead flow many years after termination of exposure. PMID:5488694

  8. Modelling fast spreading patterns of airborne infectious diseases using complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Frank; Marwan, Norbert; Hoffmann, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The pandemics of SARS (2002/2003) and H1N1 (2009) have impressively shown the potential of epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases in a world that is strongly connected. Global air travelling established an easy and fast opportunity for pathogens to migrate globally in only a few days. This made epidemiological prediction harder. By understanding this complex development and its link to climate change we can suggest actions to control a part of global human health affairs. In this study we combine the following data components to simulate the outbreak of an airborne infectious disease that is directly transmitted from human to human: em{Global Air Traffic Network (from openflights.org) with information on airports, airport location, direct flight connection, airplane type} em{Global population dataset (from SEDAC, NASA)} em{Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) compartmental model to simulate disease spreading in the vicinity of airports. A modified Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) model to analyze the impact of the incubation period.} em{WATCH-Forcing-Data-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) climate data: temperature, specific humidity, surface air pressure, and water vapor pressure} These elements are implemented into a complex network. Nodes inside the network represent airports. Each single node is equipped with its own SIR/SEIR compartmental model with node specific attributes. Edges between those nodes represent direct flight connections that allow infected individuals to move between linked nodes. Therefore the interaction of the set of unique SIR models creates the model dynamics we will analyze. To better figure out the influence on climate change on disease spreading patterns, we focus on Influenza-like-Illnesses (ILI). The transmission rate of ILI has a dependency on climate parameters like humidity and temperature. Even small changes of environmental variables can trigger significant differences in the global outbreak behavior. Apart from the direct

  9. Geochemistry of the mantle beneath the Rodriguez Triple Junction and the South-East Indian Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michard, A.; Montigny, R.; Schlich, R.

    1986-01-01

    Rare earth element abundances and SR, Nd, Pb isotope compositions have been measured on zero-age dredge samples from the Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) and the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR). Along the SEIR, the geochemical ''halo'' of the St. Paul hot spot has a half-width of about 400 km and the data may be fairly well accounted for by a binary mixing between an Indian MORB-type component ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.7028, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd=0.51304, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=17.8) and the plume type St. Paul component (0.7036, 0.5129 and 18.7 respectively). The alignment of the lead isotope data is particularly good with age of 1.95+-0.13 Ga and Th/U source value of 3.94. One sample dredged on the ridge 60 km southeast of St. Paul bears a definite Kertguelen isotopic signature. The RTJ has distinctive geochemical properties which contrast with those of the adjacent ridge segments. Low 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios which plots to the left of the geochron, rather high 208 Pb/ 204 Pb and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (17.4, 37.4, and 0.7031 respectively) a striking isotopic homogeneity, and variable LRE/HREE fractionation with (LA/S)sub(N) 0.3-0.8 make this triple junction an anomalous site. The geochemical properties of the Indian Ocean basalts have been examined using a three-component mantle model involving (a) a normal MORB-type source though to represent the depleted upper mantle matrix, (b) an OIB-type source of uncertain parentage (recycled oceanic crust), and (c) a component with low μ, Low Sm/Nd, high Rb/Sr (time-averaged value) which is tentatively assigned to ancient hydrothermal and abyssal sediments recycled in the mantle. The high 208 Pb/ 204 Pb and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios typical of the Dupal anomaly are likely due to the widespread distribution of this latter component in the basalt source from this area, including that for MORBs. (orig.)

  10. Geochemistry of the mantle beneath the Rodriguez Triple Junction and the South-East Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, A.; Montigny, R.; Schlich, R.

    1986-05-01

    Rare earth element abundances and Sr, Nd. Pb isotope compositions have been measured on zero-age dredge samples from the Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) and the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR), Along the SEIR. the geochemical "halo" of the St. Paul hot spot has a half-width of about 400 km and the data may be fairly well accounted for by a binary mixing between an Indian MORB-type component ( 87Sr/ 86Sr = 0.7028. 143Nd/ 144Nd = 0.51304. 206Pb/ 204Pb = 17.8) and the plume-type St. Paul component (0.7036, 0.5129, and 18.7 respectively). The alignment of the lead isotope data is particularly good with an apparent age of 1.95 ± 0.13 Ga and Th/U source value of 3.94. One sample dredged on the ridge 60 km southeast of St. Paul bears a definite Kerguelen isotopic signature. The RTJ has distinctive geochemical properties which contrast with those of the adjacent ridge segments. Low 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios which plots to the left of the geochron, rather high 208Pb/ 204Pb and 87Sr/ 87Sr ratios (17.4. 37.4, and 0.7031 respectively), a striking isotopic homogeneity, and variable LREE/HREE fractionation with (La/Sm) N, = 0.3-0.8 make this triple junction an anomalous site. The geochemical properties of the Indian Ocean basats have been examined using a three-component mantle model involving (a) a normal MORB-type source though to represent the depleted upper mantle matrix, (b) an OIB-type source of uncertain parentage (recycled oceanic crust?), and (c) a component with low μ. low Sm/Nd. high Rb/Sr (time-averaged value) which is tentatively assigned to ancient hydrothermal and abyssal sediments recycled in the mantle. The high 208Pb/ 204Pb and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios typical of the Dupal anomaly are likely due to the widespread distribution of this latter component in the basalt source from this area. including that for MORBs.

  11. Interkoneksi Sufi Klasik Dan Kontemporer (Mengenal Sufisme Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitryadi Hi. Yusub

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini akan membahas tentang, “sufisme“Mengenal sufi Islam Tanpa Batas”. Sufisme merupakan salah satu bagian daripengkajian Tasauf,paham ini didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa praktik-praktik dijalankan para penganutnya yang telah “dirumuskan” oleh kaum muslim terdahulu, yaitu para sahabat nabi saw,serta para tabiin, sebagaimana halnya orang-orang yang hidup setelah itu, dikonsepkan sebagai jalan menuju titik kebenaran. Hasil pengkajian ini menunjukkan bahwa: Pertama, Sufisme merupakan salah satu warisan ilmu pengetahuan Islam yang penting untuk di pelihara, dijaga serta mampu diperhatikan oleh umat Islam.Kedua, Perkembangan tarekat sufisme mengalami kemajuan, seiring dengan perkembangan waktu dari satu masa ke suatu zaman berikutnya. Sehingga menepis anggapan yang menganggap bahwa para sufi dan tarekatnya tidak akan mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan terjadinya modernisasi dan industrilisasi.Ketiga, Pengikut sufi memiliki ajaran yang sangat penting bagi pencarian ketenangan hati, yang disebut dengan uzlah. Uzlah atau pengasingan diri dari pergaulan masyarakat untuk mendekatkan diri kepada Allah. Kata kunci: Sufisme, Tasauf, Islam   Abstract   This paper will discuss about SUFISM, "know the Sufis of Islam without borders". Sufism is one part of the study of Tasauf, this doctrine is based on the assumption that the practices executed her followers that have been "reformulated" by Muslims earlier, that the companions of the Prophet, as well as the taabi'een, as well as those who live after that, conceptualised as the way to point out the truth. This study aims to discover: Recognize the concept of Sufism Get to know the characters of traditional Sufi Thought and His congregation. The results of this study indicate that: Sufism is one legacy of Islamic science that is important to observe, guarded as well as being able to be noticed by the Muslims. the development of Sufism progress, along with the development of one period of time to

  12. Segmentation and Contrasting Magma Supply Along the South-East Indian Ridge, 130°E to 140°E: Results of the STORM Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briais, A.; Ruellan, E.; Maia, M.; Hemond, C.; Hanan, B. B.; Ceuleneer, G.; Graham, D. W.; Park, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    We present observations of the South-East Indian Ridge (SEIR) between 130°E to 140°E, mostly collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle) on the N/O L'Atalante. The SEIR displays large variations of axial depth despite an almost constant intermediate full spreading rate of 75 km/m.y. In the study area the analysis of multibeam bathymetry maps shows that the axis displays a rise morphology to the east away from the discontinuities, and a rifted high morphology in the west and near the OSCs, as often observed along intermediate-spreading mid-ocean ridges. The ridge axis is offset by 27 km at 131°E and 20 km at 135°E by two large-offset overlapping spreading centers (OSCs) propagating westward, and by a smaller OSC at 137°17'E. These OSCs define four second-order ridge segments (A2 to A5 from west to east). We observe a general shallowing of the ridge axis from 3100 m depth in the west to 2400 m depth in the east, and a prominent deepening of the axis near the large OSCs. The easternmost segment A5 shows a very shallow axial ridge suggesting a robust magma supply despite its proximity to the George V transform fault (140°E). Major element variations in basalt glasses are systematically related to morphotectonic segmentation of the ridge axis, showing contrasts in crystal fractionation from one segment to another that may relate to differences in replenishment of axial melt lenses by primitive melts. Along segment A5, crystallization increases with proximity to the George V transform fault, consistent with an expected cold edge effect. In contrast, along segment A3 the extent of crystallization increases progressively from east to west in the direction of ridge propagation. *STORM Cruise Scientific Party: F. Barrere, C. Boulart, A. Briais, D. Brunelli, G. Ceuleneer, N. Ferreira, D. Graham, B. Hanan, C. Hémond, S. Macleod, M. Maia, A. Maillard, S. Merkuryev, S.H. Park, S. Révillon, E. Ruellan, A. Schohn, S. Watson, and Y.S. Yang.

  13. PENGARUH E-WOM TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN BERKUNJUNG KE TEMPAT WISATA DI KOTA BANDUNG

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    Ati Mustikasari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Berwisata sudah menjadi bagian dari kebutuhan sebagian masy arakat di Indonesia . Seiring dengan meningkatnya minat masyarakat Indonesia berwisata, maka industri parawisata pun mengalami perubahan pesat. Berbagai peluang usaha di bidang jasa pariwisata pun mulai merambah, seperti pemesanan tiket, akomodasi, hingga a lternatif piliha n perjalanan seperti buku, blog, sosial media, layanan jasa informasi, hingga pengalaman yang didapat dari orang lain. Hal ini dilakukan agar penggemar kegiatan wisata mempunyai banyak pilihan berwisata sekaligus mengukur jumlah bujet yang harus dikeluarkan nantinya . Fenomena kesenangan masyarakat Indonesia yang senang membagi pengalaman, perasaan, dan lain sebag a inya menjadikan media sosial seperti facebook, path, instagram dan lain - lain sangat populer di Indonesia . K egiatan ini dinamakan e - WOM. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah ingin mengetahui apakah e - WOM pada media sosia l dapat mempengaruhi keputusan berkunjung calon wisatawan khususnya ke Kota Bandung. Metode pengumpulan data pada penelitian ini menggunakan kuesioner yang disebarkan kep ada 220 responden, yang kemudian diolah de ngan menggunakan Analisis Jalur. V ariabel yang diuji adalah I ntensity (X1, Valence of Opinion (X2, Content (X3 dan Keputusan berkunjung (Y. Ha sil dari penelitian ini adalah I ntensity, Valence of Opinion, dan Co ntent mampu mempengaruhi calon wisatawan untuk menentukan tempat tujuan wisata yang akan dia kunjungi di Kota Bandung baik secara parsial maupun simultan.

  14. Climate impact on spreading of airborne infectious diseases. Complex network based modeling of climate influences on influenza like illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Frank; Marwan, Norbert; Hoffmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    In this study we combined a wide range of data sets to simulate the outbreak of an airborne infectious disease that is directly transmitted from human to human. The basis is a complex network whose structures are inspired by global air traffic data (from openflights.org) containing information about airports, airport locations, direct flight connections and airplane types. Disease spreading inside every node is realized with a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) compartmental model. Disease transmission rates in our model are depending on the climate environment and therefore vary in time and from node to node. To implement the correlation between water vapor pressure and influenza transmission rate [J. Shaman, M. Kohn, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 106, 3243 (2009)], we use global available climate reanalysis data (WATCH-Forcing-Data-ERA-Interim, WFDEI). During our sensitivity analysis we found that disease spreading dynamics are strongly depending on network properties, the climatic environment of the epidemic outbreak location, and the season during the year in which the outbreak is happening.

  15. Ekstraksi Kayu Nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus lam dengan Pelarut Etanol sebagai Pewarna Tekstil Menggunakan Metode Microwave-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaniar Rulandri Widoretno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring berkembangnya teknologi menyebabkan kebanyakan industri tekstil di Indonesia lebih memilih menggunakan pewarna sintetis pada proses pewarnaan kain. Pada kenyataannya pewarna sintetis dapat berdampak negatif karena bersifat toxic bagi kesehatan pekerja dan lingkungan. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan penggunaan zat warna alami. Salah satu potensi yang belum termanfaatkan di Indonesia adalah limbah kayu nangka dari industri meubel, kayu nangka sendiri mengandung zat warna yang memberikan pigmen warna kuning sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai alternatif sumber bahan pewarna alami. Dalam penelitian ini bahan yang akan diekstraksi adalah kayu nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus lam dengan ukuran serbuk antara 35 mesh – 60 mesh. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol 96% sebanyak 200 mL. Ekstraksi dengan menggunakan metode Microwave-Assisted Extraction dilakukan pada kondisi operasi yang berbeda, yakni meliputi perbandingan rasio bahan terhadap pelarut (0,02; 0,04; 0,06; 0,08; 0,1 g/mL, daya microwave (100; 264; 400; 600: 800 watt, serta waktu ekstraksi (10; 20; 30; 40; 50; 60; 70: 80; 90 menit. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diperoleh yield optimum sebesar 3,39% pada daya 400 watt, 3,67% pada rasio bahan terhadap pelarut 0,02 g/mL, dan 3,49% pada waktu ekstraksi 30 menit dengan daya microwave 600 watt. Hasil pengujian pewarnaan pada tekstil menunjukkan bahwa pewarna alami kayu nangka dapat digunakan sebagai pewarna pewarna tekstil karena dapat memberikan hasil pewarnaan yang permanen.

  16. AGROFORESTRI UNTUK ADAPTASI DAN MITIGASI PERUBAHAN IKLIM

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    Tigor Butarbutar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilangnya tutupan lahan hutan karena konversi hutan untuk pemukiman, perkebunan, pertanian dan kebutuhan untuk pembangunan di sektor lain, telah menyebabkan perubahan pola cuaca/iklim di berbagai tempat. Perubahan iklim dapat diantisipasi dengan mitigasi dan adaptasi. Mitigasi berarti usahausaha pencegahan yang perlu dilakukan, sedangkan adaptasi merupakan kegiatan-kegiatan penyesuaian yang perlu dilakukan untuk dapat hidup dan bertahan dan meningkatkan ketahanan, kelenturan dan mengarahkemigrasikarenakondisiiklimyangberbeda.Agroforestridapatmemitigasidanmengadaptasi perubahaniklim dengan alasan-alasansebagaiberikut: aPencampuranjenis pohonpenghasilkayu,buah dan lain-lain, karena campuran jenis lebih baik dari tanaman murni; b Pencampuran jenis yang didasarkan pada sifat toleransi ( dan , sehingga akan memanfaatkan seluruh cahaya untuk fotosintesis; c Pencampuran perbedaan umur; d Pencampuran berdasarkan perbedaan waktu pemanenan; e Penggabungan nilai ekonomi, sosial dan budaya sehingga perubahan vegetasi dapat berjalan seiring dengan perubahan sosial dan budaya secara berangsur yang dapat disesuaikan dengan perubahan iklim; dan f Dapat digunakan sebagai model untuk memfasilitasi perubahan kelompok vegetasi menjadi kelompok yang baru (adaptasi, seperti teori perubahan vegetasi melalui perladangan berpindah-pindahyangteratur.

  17. Persepsi Mahasiswa Terhadap Plagiat

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    Elok Putri Nimasari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ketidakjujuran dalam bidang akademik seperti plagiat, banyak terjadi di lingkungan akademisi. Menjiplak hasil tulisan dan ide tanpa mencantumkan referensi kerap ditemukan dalam banyak kasus, tidak hanya di dalam karya ilmiah tetapi juga pada tugas-tugas perkuliahan. Seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi melalui telepon pintar dan juga jaringan internet yang semakin mudah untuk mengakses informasi, membuat plagiat di lingkungan akademisi juga semakin meningkat. Dengan atau tanpa sadar mahasiswa menjiplak sebuah karya atau ide pemikiran, adalah tanggung jawab sebuah institusi perguruan tinggi untuk memperkenalkan pada mahasiswanya apa itu plagiat, jenis-jenis plagiat, akibat dari perilaku plagiat, bagaimana cara-cara untuk menghindari plagiat dan bagaimana penerapan sangsi untuk yang melakukan plagiat secara konsisten. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi persepsi dan perilaku mahasiswa terhadap plagiat, mengidentifikasi tipe-tipe plagiat, dan menganalisis solusi yang bisa dilakukan untuk mengurangi perilaku plagiat.Pendekatan kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan menggunakan kuesioner, wawancara, observasi, dan analisis dokumen di aplikasikan dalam studi ini.Obyek dalam penelitian ini merupakan mahasiswa Universitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo. Sampel populasi menggunakan purposive random sampling.

  18. Analisis Remaining Life dan Penjadwalan Program Inspeksi pada Pressure Vessel dengan Menggunakan Metode Risk Based Inspection (RBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Arina Wahyu Lillah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan eksplorasi minyak dan gas bumi di dunia, perusahaan minyak dan gas di Indonesia juga turut berlomba-lomba untuk mendapatkan ladang minyak dan gas bumi sebanyak-banyaknya. Perkembangan ini turut dipengaruhi oleh aturan-aturan pemerintah mengenai keselamatan dan pencegahan bahaya baik pada unit yang dikelola maupun tenaga kerja pengelola. Untuk itu semua perlatan-peralatan (unit kerja harus dijamin kehandalaannya agar tidak menimbulkan bahaya baik bagi pekerja maupun lingkungan. Subjek penelitian dalam tugas akhir ini ialah pada pressure vessel yang dimiliki oleh Terminal LPG Semarang. Kemungkinan bahaya yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada pressure vessel perlu dianalisis agar dapat meminimalkan resiko yang akan terjadi. Metode Risk Based Inspection (RBI diharapkan dapat meminimalkan resiko yang ada pada pressure vessel. Penilaian resiko dalam tugas akhir ini mengacu pada standar API RP 581. Untuk mengetahui besarnya resiko yang ada pada plant, maka terlebih dahulu harus dihitung besarnya probabilitas kegagalan dan konsekuensi apabila terjadi kegagalan. Langkah selanjutnya ialah membandingkan besarnya resiko yang didapat dengan target resiko yang dimiliki oleh perusahaan. Dari hasil perbandingan ini dapat diketahui tingkat resiko pressure vessel, sehingga dapat ditentukan jadwal inspeksi dan metode inspeksi yang tepat.

  19. PEMBUATAN DAN KARAKTERISASI MEMBRAN HIBRIDA KITOSAN-SILIKA- PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Widhi Mahatmanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Membran kitosan mempunyai efektivitas pemisahan relatif tinggi tetapi kestabilan mekanik rendah. Untuk meningkatkan kestabilan perlu ditambahkan silika sehingga dihasilkan membran kitosan-silika. Sebagai bahan dasar silika digunakan natrium silikat yang diisolasi dari abu sekam padi. Dalam pembuatan membran kitosan-silika, plasticizer (polietilen glikol/PEG digunakan untuk meningkatkan kestabilan mekanik membran secara signifikan. Pembuatan membran kitosan-silika-PEG dilakukan dengan cara penguapan larutan dan pencetakan. Membran kitosan-silika-PEG dikarakterisasi sifat mekaniknya dengan menguji kekuatan tarik, persen perpanjangan dan Modulus Young, perubahan gugus fungsi, morfologi, sifat kristalinitas, kestabilan terhadap suhu, sifat hidrofilisitas, dan uji terhadap fluks air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa membran kitosan-silika dengan komposisi kitosan/silika 1:0,8 mempunyai harga kuat tarik optimum. Penambahan PEG akan meningkatkan harga persen perpanjangan, tidak menunjukkan perubahan yang signifikan pada hasil uji FTIR dan XRD, tetapi meningkatkan sifat hidrofil seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi PEG dan pH. Nilai Fluks air menurun dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi PEG, dimungkinkan PEG terjebak secara fisik dalam padatan komposit.

  20. Nonlinear model of epidemic spreading in a complex social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiński, Robert A; Grabowski, A

    2007-10-01

    The epidemic spreading in a human society is a complex process, which can be described on the basis of a nonlinear mathematical model. In such an approach the complex and hierarchical structure of social network (which has implications for the spreading of pathogens and can be treated as a complex network), can be taken into account. In our model each individual has one of the four permitted states: susceptible, infected, infective, unsusceptible or dead. This refers to the SEIR model used in epidemiology. The state of an individual changes in time, depending on the previous state and the interactions with other individuals. The description of the interpersonal contacts is based on the experimental observations of the social relations in the community. It includes spatial localization of the individuals and hierarchical structure of interpersonal interactions. Numerical simulations were performed for different types of epidemics, giving the progress of a spreading process and typical relationships (e.g. range of epidemic in time, the epidemic curve). The spreading process has a complex and spatially chaotic character. The time dependence of the number of infective individuals shows the nonlinear character of the spreading process. We investigate the influence of the preventive vaccinations on the spreading process. In particular, for a critical value of preventively vaccinated individuals the percolation threshold is observed and the epidemic is suppressed.

  1. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Simulasi Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN Berbasis Software Defined Network (SDN Menggunakan POX Controller

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    Rohmat Tulloh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.

  3. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on the Dynamics of Rift Valley Fever

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    Saul C. Mpeshe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic SEIR model of rift valley fever (RVF with climate change parameters was considered to compute the basic reproduction number ℛ0 and investigate the impact of temperature and precipitation on ℛ0. To study the effect of model parameters to ℛ0, sensitivity and elasticity analysis of ℛ0 were performed. When temperature and precipitation effects are not considered, ℛ0 is more sensitive to the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock and more elastic to the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. When climatic data are used, ℛ0 is found to be more sensitive and elastic to the expected number of infected eggs laid by Aedes spp. via transovarial transmission, followed by the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. and the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock for both regions Arusha and Dodoma. These results call for attention to parameters regarding incubation period, the adequate contact rate of Aedes spp. and livestock, the infective periods of livestock and Aedes spp., and the vertical transmission in Aedes species.

  4. Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on the Dynamics of Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeshe, Saul C.; Luboobi, Livingstone S.; Nkansah-Gyekye, Yaw

    2014-01-01

    A deterministic SEIR model of rift valley fever (RVF) with climate change parameters was considered to compute the basic reproduction number ℛ 0 and investigate the impact of temperature and precipitation on ℛ 0. To study the effect of model parameters to ℛ 0, sensitivity and elasticity analysis of ℛ 0 were performed. When temperature and precipitation effects are not considered, ℛ 0 is more sensitive to the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock and more elastic to the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. When climatic data are used, ℛ 0 is found to be more sensitive and elastic to the expected number of infected eggs laid by Aedes spp. via transovarial transmission, followed by the expected number of infected livestock due to one infected Aedes spp. and the expected number of infected Aedes spp. due to one infected livestock for both regions Arusha and Dodoma. These results call for attention to parameters regarding incubation period, the adequate contact rate of Aedes spp. and livestock, the infective periods of livestock and Aedes spp., and the vertical transmission in Aedes species. PMID:24795775

  5. KONSEP PENULISAN JURNALISTIK MASA DEPAN DAN DESAIN STORYBOARD UNTUK ONLINE NEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Priyana Hadi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entering this 21st century%2C press (on newspapers and magazines no longer count on physical printed edition to meet the readers demand on actual news. Press are required to provide online information in term of minutes or even seconds as soon as an event is occuring. Thus%2C speed has become an essential factor in journalism. News is associated to new-ness. Newspapers and magazines are competing one another to serve news fresh from the oven. Journalism has proceeds to an outstanding speed and dynamics which transforms its operation pattern%2C affiliated with the boost of information technology and communication especially the internet. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Memasuki trend abad ke 21 pers cetak (koran dan majalah sekarang tidak saja mengandalkan edisi fisik cetak untuk menjumpai para pembaca setianya dengan sajian berita-berita aktualnya. Tetapi dituntut mampu memberikan sajian informasi online yang seketika%2C dalam hitungan menit atau bahkan detik atas peristiwa atau kejadian disuatu tempat. Karenanya unsur kecepatan (speed menjadi sesuatu yang esensial dalam jurnalistik. News yang berarti berita terkandung didalamnya makna kebaruan. Surat kabar dan majalah dengan sendirinya berkompetisi dalam menyampaikan kebaruan tersebut. Karenanya kehidupan jurnalistik mengalami percepatan serta dinamika yang luar biasa%2C yang pada akhirnya mengubah pola pengerjaan jurnalistik seiring dengan kemajuan di bidang teknologi informasi dan komunikasi khususnya internet. Writing%2C Journalism%2C Online News%2C Storyboard Design.

  6. PERENCANAAN LOKASI SITE BTS LAYANAN 3G-WCDMA DI PEMERINTAH KOTA DENPASAR DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN BALAI BANJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Aryadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan perkembangan kebutuhan bit rate dan kapasitas layanan data yang meningkat di wilayah Kota Denpasar, diperlukan perencanaan lokasi site BTS (Base Transceiver Station yang dapat melayani kebutuhan pelanggan secara kuantitas maupun kualitas. Untuk memperoleh nilai bit rate yang maksimal dibutuhkan jari-jari sel yang kecil. Dengan perbandingan luas wilayah sebesar 130,48 km2 jika dibagi dengan 399 balai banjar di Kota Denpasar maka diperoleh coverage area 0,327 km2 per banjar dengan jari-jari sel sekitar 285 m. Maka pada penelitian ini lokasi site BTS yang digunakan adalah pada Balai Banjar di Kota Denpasar. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk merancang lokasi site BTS layanan 3G-WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access untuk wilayah Pemerintah Kota Denpasar sesuai data sebaran penduduk dan mengetahui perbandingan jumlah site BTS secara teoritis untuk layanan 3G-WCDMA memanfaatkan Balai Banjar Pemerintah Kota Denpasar dengan model pemetaan secara geografis. Metode penelitian terdiri dari 3 alur, yaitu perkiraan pertumbuhan pelanggan 3G-WCDMA dan Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ per desa di Kota Denpasar, Perhitungan jumlah dan jari-jari site secara teoritis per desa di Kota Denpasar, dan Pemetaan site di Kota Denpasar memanfaatkan Balai Banjar. Perhitungan secara teoritis menunjukkan bahwa 257 site yang diperlukan untuk melingkupi seluruh wilayah Denpasar. Sementara pemetaan secara geografis dengan memanfaatkan lokasi Balai Banjar adalah sebanyak 311 site. Dari 311 site, 155 site (49,84% terdapat pada kawasan Balai Banjar dan 156 site (50,16% terdapat di luar kawasan Balai Banjar.

  7. Dynamic Economic Dispatch Pada Sistem Kelistrikan Microgrid Dengan Penambahan Media Penyimpan Energi Menggunakan Quadratic Programming

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    Fakhruddin Wirakusuma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan daya listrik saat ini meningkat pesat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. Peningkatan kebutuhan daya listrik ini bertolak belakang dengan menipisnya ketersediaan sumber energy minyak dan batu bara. Permasalahan ini berdampak pada ketahanan listrik nasional. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan daya listrik yang besar dengan cakupan wilayah yang luas diperlukan pembangkit tersebar berskala kecil. Pembangkit tersebar ini diupayakan bersumber pada energi terbarukan untuk meminimalkan pemakaian dari sumber energy minyak dan batu bara lalu dihubungkan ke Micro Grid serta digunakan baterai sebagai power balance. Oleh karena banyaknya pembangkit tersebar dan penggunaan baterai maka penting untuk menentukan besarnya pembangkitan daya listrik yang optimal dari masing-masing pembangkit serta penggunaan baterai berdasarkan kapasitas yang optimal sehingga kebutuhan daya listrik dapat dipenuhi dengan biaya yang minimal tiap waktunya. Optimisasi ini dikenal dengan istilah Dynamic Economic Dispatch. Optimisasi ini sudah banyak dilakukan dilakukan dengan berbagai macam metode Artificial Intelligence. Pada penelitian ini, metode Artificial Intellegence yang diaplikasikan yakni Quadratic Programming. Metode ini diterapkan pada software MATLAB. Dengan metode tersebut, diketahui bahwa penggunaan baterai mampu mengurangi total biaya pembangkitan.

  8. Defining epidemics in computer simulation models: How do definitions influence conclusions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Orbann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer models have proven to be useful tools in studying epidemic disease in human populations. Such models are being used by a broader base of researchers, and it has become more important to ensure that descriptions of model construction and data analyses are clear and communicate important features of model structure. Papers describing computer models of infectious disease often lack a clear description of how the data are aggregated and whether or not non-epidemic runs are excluded from analyses. Given that there is no concrete quantitative definition of what constitutes an epidemic within the public health literature, each modeler must decide on a strategy for identifying epidemics during simulation runs. Here, an SEIR model was used to test the effects of how varying the cutoff for considering a run an epidemic changes potential interpretations of simulation outcomes. Varying the cutoff from 0% to 15% of the model population ever infected with the illness generated significant differences in numbers of dead and timing variables. These results are important for those who use models to form public health policy, in which questions of timing or implementation of interventions might be answered using findings from computer simulation models.

  9. STUDI KASUS PEMANFAATAN E-LEARNING SEBAGAI SALAH SATU SARANA YANG MENDUKUNG PEMBELAJARAN DI FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DAN KOMUNIKASI UNIVERSITAS SEMARANG

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    Maya Rini Handayani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan perkembangan Teknologi Informasi (TI yang semakin pesat, kebutuhan akan suatu konsep dan mekanisme belajar mengajar (pendidikan berbasis TI menjadi tidak terelakkan lagi. Konsep yang kemudian terkenal dengan sebutan e-Learning ini membawa pengaruh terjadinya proses transformasi pendidikan konvensional ke dalam bentuk digital, baik secara isi (contents dan sistemnya. Sistem e-Learning mutlak diperlukan untuk mengantisipasi perkembangan jaman dengan dukungan Teknologi Informasi dimana semua menuju ke era digital, baik mekanisme maupun konten. Pengembangan sistem e-Learning harus didahului dengan melakukan analisa terhadap kebutuhan dari pengguna (user needs. Sesuai dengan paradigma rekayasa sistem dan perangkat lunak, kebutuhan dari pengguna ini memiliki kedudukan tertinggi, dan merupakan dasar kreasi dan kerja pengembang. Agar penelitian ini dapat memberikan hasil yang baik, maka penulisan laporannya menggunakan berbagai macam data, keterangan data, serta informasi penting yang diperoleh dari berbagai sumber, didasarkan pada (1 data primer, yaitu data yang diperoleh secara langsung dari obyek penelitian ( dosen dan mahasiswa , (2 data sekunder, yaitu data yang diperoleh dari buku-buku, literatur sebagai pelengkap dalam penyusunan laporan penelitian ini. Metode Studi Pustaka, yaitu metode pengumpulan data melalui pemahaman literatur maupun buku dan juga browsing internet sebagai acuan untuk menentukan landasan teori. Metode angket / kuesioner, yaitu pengumpulan data dengan membagikan kuesioner kepada para dosen dan mahasiswa di lingkungan FTIK USM

  10. Deciphering Dynamics of Recent Epidemic Spread and Outbreak in West Africa: The Case of Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Roy, Parimita

    Recently, the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was the largest outbreak to date. In this paper, an attempt has been made for modeling the virus dynamics using an SEIR model to better understand and characterize the transmission trajectories of the Ebola outbreak. We compare the simulated results with the most recent reported data of Ebola infected cases in the three most affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The epidemic model exhibits two equilibria, namely, the disease-free and unique endemic equilibria. Existence and local stability of these equilibria are explored. Using central manifold theory, it is established that the transcritical bifurcation occurs when basic reproduction number passes through unity. The proposed Ebola epidemic model provides an estimate to the potential number of future cases. The model indicates that the disease will decline after peaking if multisectorial and multinational efforts to control the spread of infection are maintained. Possible implication of the results for disease eradication and its control are discussed which suggests that proper control strategies like: (i) transmission precautions, (ii) isolation and care of infectious Ebola patients, (iii) safe burial, (iv) contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, and (v) early diagnosis are needed to stop the recurrent outbreak.

  11. KEDUDUKAN ALAT BUKTI DIGITAL DALAM PEMBUKTIAN CYBERCRIME DI PENGADILAN

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    Cahyo Handoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pada dasarnya setiap undang-undang yang dibuat oleh pembuat undang-undang merupakan jawaban hukum terhadap persoalan masyarakat pada waktu dibentuknya undang-undang tersebut. Perkembangan hukum seharusnya seiring dengan perkembangan masyarakat, sehingga ketika masyarakatnya berubah atau berkembang maka hukum harus berubah untuk menata semua perkembangan yang terjadi dengan tertib di tengah pertumbuhan masyarakat modern,, karena globalisasi telah menjadi pendorong lahirnya era teknologi informasi.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendiskripsikan profil alat bukti digital pada perkara cyber crime, mengetahui kedudukan alat bukti digital pada perkara cyber crime. Teori yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini merupakan teori hukum progresif dengan metode penelitian yuridis empiris dengan menggunakan analisis data secara kualitatif, jenis penelitian nya merupakan penelitian deskriptif. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini, Sistem pembuktian dan alat-alat bukti berdasarkan Pasal 184 KUHAP mampu menjangkau pembuktian untuk kejahatan cybercrime yang tergolong tindak pidana baru. Penelusuran terhadap alat-alat bukti konvensional seperti keterangan saksi dan saksi ahli, juga pergeseran surat dan petunjuk dari konvensional menuju elektronik akan mampu menjerat pelaku cyber crime. Undang-Undang No. 11 tahun 2008 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik pada Pasal 5 telah secara jelas menyebutkan bahwa Informasi Elektronik merupakan alat bukti hukum yang sah berupa informasi elektronik dan/atau dokumen elektronik dan/atau hasil cetaknya.

  12. Hasil Cetak Informasi Elektronik dan/atau Dokumen Elektronik Sebagai Alat Bukti Tindak Pidana Pencemaran Nama Baik Melalui Media Daring

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    Aris Hardinanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan dan perubahan dunia menjadi sangat cepat sebagai akibat dari kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, terutama teknologi transportasi dan komunikasi telah membuat berbagai kemudahan terhadap mobilitas masyarakat. Arus perkembangan informasi antar negara tidak dapat lagi dikendalikan oleh pemerintah, sehingga peran dalam mengendalikan arus mobiltias penduduk melalui jejaring sosial. Pertumbuhan yang seperti ini mengakibatkan perubahan sosial di masyarakat seluruh dunia, lintas batas negara. Kejahatan jenis baru sebagai dampak negatif dari perkembangan teknologi informasi muncul seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi. Kejahatan menggunakan media teknologi informasi atau komputer dan internet disebut Computer Related Crime atau Cybercrime. Kedudukan alat bukti sebagai penegak hukum pidana materiil menjadi parameter hakim untuk memutus suatu perkara. Undang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2008 Tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik memberikan ruang terhadap hasil cetak alat bukti elektronik dalam cybercrime sebagai alat bukti yang sah. Hasil cetak alat bukti elektronik sah apabila alat bukti elektronik itu dapat dijamin keasliannya. Dengan demikian kedudukan alat bukti elektronik dalam cybercrime memiliki kriteria yang ketat dibanding alat bukti konvensional. Metode penelitian dalam jurnal ini menggunakan pendekatan perundang-undangan (statute approach, pendekatan kasus (case approach serta pendekatan konseptual (conceptual approach Kata kunci: alat bukti elektronik, cybercrime. 

  13. EFEK PEMBERIAN KOMBINASI BUAH SIRIH (Piper betle L FRUIT, DAUN MIYANA (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR. LEAF, MADU DAN KUNING TELUR TERHADAP PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS DAN KAPASITAS FAGOSITOSIS SEL MAKROFAG

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    Yun Astuti Nugroho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang, kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat Sulawesi Utara untuk mengobati malaria.  Diharapkan kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur juga memiliki potensi untuk merangsang respon imun. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur terhadap aktivitas dan kapasitas sel makrofag. Metode, tiga puluh ekor mencit Swiss dibagi ke dalam 5 grup. Grup I mendapatkan air suling, grup II mendapatkan 0,55 mg/20g BB Stimuno. Sementara kelompok perlakuan: grup III sampai V masing-masing mendapatkan  0,07 mL; 0,21 mL; 0,6 mL/20 g BB. Bahan uji diberikan secara oral pada hari pertama sampai dengan ketujuh. Pada hari kedelapan, kepada masing-masing mencit disuntik secara intraperitoneal bakteri Staphylococcus aureus (SA. Aktivitas dan kapasitas sel  makrofag dihitung dari sediaan apus cairan peritoneum dengan menghitung persentase fagosit yang melakukan fagositosis dari 100 fagosit. Kapasitas fagositosis ditetapkan berdasarkan jumlah SA yang difagositosis oleh 50 fagosit aktif. Hasil, aktivitas dan kapasitas sel makrofag meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan dosis kombinasi buah sirih (Piper betle L, daun miyana (Plectranthus scutellarioides (L. R. BR, madu dan kuning telur dibandingkan dengan kontrol negatif. Kata  kunci: Buah sirih, Piper betle L, Makrofag, Fagositosis 

  14. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF HINDU PHILOSOPHY “TRI KAYA PARISUDHA” FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN MUNDUK VILLAGE, NORTH BALI

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    Putu Devi Rosalina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesatnya pertumbuhan pariwisata menimbulkan kecenderungan untuk menjaga kontak antara penduduk lokal dan wisatawan. Keharmonisan hubungan kedua pihak ini tentunya menjadi pilar utama dalam perkembangan pariwisata berkelanjutan. Oleh karena itu, membangun pemahaman dua-arah dapat dibina salah satunya melalui penerapan kearifan lokal. Maka, penelitian ini mendiskusikan tentang bagaimana revitalisasi Tri Kaya Parisudha dapat berujung kepada perkembangan pariwisata berkelanjutan di Munduk. Konsep Tri Kaya Parisudha yang meliputi ‘pikiran’ (Manacika, ‘perkataan’ (Wacika dan ‘perbuatan’ (Kayika, dipercaya dapat menghasilkan energi intelektual, emosional, spiritual dan energi kreatif. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif-kualitatif secara deskriptif. Kuesioner disebarkan melalui accidental sampling dengan pendekatan 4 skala likert, yang kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif melalui wawancara mendalam dengan informan melalui purposive sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Tri Kaya Parisudha sudah dipahami dan diimplementasikan oleh penduduk Munduk, seiring dengan keterbukaan mereka untuk menyambut turis karena dianggap memberikan dampak positif terhadap pendapatan. Sebagian besar turis, yakni 74% menyatakan sangat puas akan kunjungan mereka. Implementasi TKP kemudian harus lebih ditingkatkan lagi melalui pengetahuan, bahasa dan sikap, yang kemudian bermuara pada peningkatan loyalitas dan pembentukan citra baik bagi suatu destinasi, sehingga pada akhirnya Munduk dapat terus berpegangan pada pariwisata berkelanjutan.

  15. Analisis Tata Kelola Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan Kerangka Kerja COBIT 4.1 pada Fakultas Teknik Undip

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    Arini Arumana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peran teknologi informasi dalam suatu instansi sudah tidak dapat dielakkan lagi, mengingat perkembangannya yang begitu pesat seiring berjalannya waktu. Namun masalah yang sering terjadi di instansi adalah penggunaan teknologi informasi yang kadang tidak sesuai dengan harapan. Oleh karena itu diperlukan tata kelola terhadap penggunaan teknologi informasi yang biasa disebut dengan IT Governance. Fakultas teknik UNDIP adalah salah satu fakultas yang dalam operasionalnya sangat mengandalkan teknologi informasi, baik dalam aktifitas belajar mengajar maupun dalam menjalankan operasional bisnis. Kondisi sekarang di Fakultas Teknik sendiri tidak terdapat suatu indikator yang dapat menyatakan bahwa kinerja TI yang berjalan telah sesuai dengan visi dan misi Fakultas Teknik, oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan analisis tata kelola teknologi informasi, guna mengetahui performa TI sekarang sesuai dengan yang diharapkan oleh managemen atau tidak. Hasil dari analisis ini berupa tingkat kematangan tata kelola TI yang mecerminkan kondisi tata kelola TI di Fakultas Teknik dengan mengacu pada maturity level yang disediakan kerangka kerja COBIT 4.1, yakni dari level 0 (non-existent sampai 5 (optimized. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan, secara garis besar kondisi kematangan tata kelola TI Fakultas Teknik berada pada level 2 yakni repeatable but intuitive. Kondisi ini mengacu pada beberapa kelemahan dalam proses-proses TI yang berjalan, diantaranya penetapan dan dokumentasi tindakan, kebijakan dan prosedur yang minim, serta tidak tersedianya service level yang disetujui bersama.

  16. The model of microblog message diffusion based on complex social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Bai, Shu-Ying; Jin, Rui

    2014-05-01

    Microblog is a micromessage communication network in which users are the nodes and the followship between users are the edges. Sina Weibo is a typical case of these microblog service websites. As the enormous scale of nodes and complex links in the network, we choose a sample network crawled in Sina Weibo as the base of empirical analysis. The study starts with the analysis of its topological features, and brings in epidemiological SEIR model to explore the mode of message spreading throughout the microblog network. It is found that the network is obvious small-world and scale-free, which made it succeed in transferring messages and failed in resisting negative influence. In addition, the paper focuses on the rich nodes as they constitute a typical feature of Sina Weibo. It is also found that whether the message starts with a rich node will not account for its final coverage. Actually, the rich nodes always play the role of pivotal intermediaries who speed up the spreading and make the message known by much more people.

  17. REKAYASA PERANGKAT LUNAK MEDIA INFORMASI SMA QURANIAH PALEMBANG

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    Herlinda Kusmiati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan semakin berkembangnya teknologi informasi dan meningkatnya penggunaan internet sebagai media informasi dikalangan masyarakat Indonesia. Hal ini mendorong SMA Quraniah Palembang untuk membenahi media informasi yang ada saat ini untuk meningkatkan jumlah siswa.  Media informasi yang dibuat berbasis website menggantikan Media  informasi saat ini yang masih menggunakan media brosur dan banner, dimana informasi yang diberikan masih sebatas informasi mengenai visi misi, profile, dan syarat pendaftaran siswa baru yang tidak dapat diakses dengan mudah oleh masyarakat. Dengan media informasi berbasis website dapat memberikan kemudahan kepada masyarakat dalam mendapatkan informasi mengenai profil sekolah, persyaratan pendafataran siswa baru. Selain itu, media informasi ini menyediakan informasi mengenai kegiatan-kegiatan yang ada di sekolah, ektrakulikuler siswa, serta fasilitas yang ada di sekolah. Media informasi ini dikelola oleh admin tata usaha, sehingga kesalahan-kesalahan dalam penyampaian informasi akan lebih mudah diperbaiki. Informasi-informasi mengenai SMA Quraniah Palembang dapat diakses kapanpun dan dimanapu, tidak terbatas pada salah satu wilayah saja. Media informasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan Php & Mysql dan Waterfall sebagai metode pengembangan sistem.

  18. Implementasi Data Mining Estimasi Ketersediaan Lahan Pembuangan Sampah menggunakan Algoritma Simple Linear Regression

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    Robi Yanto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tingginya aktivitas konsumsi yang dilakukan masyarakat berbanding lurus dengan meningkatnnya produksi sampah. Salah satu permasalahan tingginya produksi sampah yaitu rendahnya kesadaran masyarakat terhadap pengelolaan sampah. Hal ini merupakan masalah yang dihadapi di kota-kota besar. Sampah memberikan dampak negatif terhadap perubahan kondisi alam yang ada yaitu terjadinya polusi udara, air dan tanah yang mengakibatkan lingkungan menjadi tidak sehat. Kegiatan pengelolaan sampah melalui sosialisasi program 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle tentang sampah, telah memberikan dampak yang maksimal terhadap kesadaran masyarakat tentang pentingnya lingkungan yang sehat. seiring dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk memberikan dampak pada peningkatan produksi sampah. Sehingga membutuhkan lahan pembuangan sampah yang mencukupi dalam jangka panjang. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut maka dilakukan analisa data terhadap estimasi ketersediaan lahan pembuangan sampah dalam jangka panjang dengan menggunakan teknik data mining. dari hasil analisa data mining menggunakan algoritma regresi linear sederhana dengan memperhatikan pertumbuhan penduduk tahun 2018 sampai dengan 2025 sebesar 201484 jiwa, maka diketahui bahwa peningkatan sampah dari tahun 2018 sampai dengan tahun 2025 adalah 36.052,326 ton. Sehingga dari luas lahan 30000 M2 hanya tersediaan lahan pembuangan sampah sampai tahun 2025 sebesar 5.965,1 M2.

  19. Effect of modelling slum populations on influenza spread in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898

  20. Cluster Server IPTV dengan Penjadwalan Algoritma Round Robin

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    Didik Aribowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat, otomatis seiring juga dengan meningkatnya para pengguna yang terhubung pada jaringan internet. Berawal dari sebuah single server yang selalu mendapatkan request dari banyak user, perlahan tapi pasti akan terjadi overload dan crash sehingga berdampak pada request yang tidak dapat dilayani oleh single server. Desain arsitektur cluster dapat dibangun dengan menggunakan konsep network load balancing yang memungkinkan proses pengolahan data di share ke dalam beberapa komputer. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan algoritma penjadwalan round robin sebagai solusi alternatif mengatasi permasalah overload data pada server yang dapat mempengaruhi kinerja sistem IPTV. Untuk  jumlah request yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 5000, 15000, 25000, dan 50000 request. Dengan metode tersebut, maka performansi algoritma penjawalan dapat diamati dengan menekankan pada parameter sebagai berikut, yaitu throughput, respon time, reply connection, dan error connection sehingga didapatkan algoritma penjadwalan terbaik dalam rangka optimalisasi cluster server IPTV. Secara otomatis dalam proses load balancing mampu mengurangi beban kerja setiap server sehingga tidak ada server yang overload dan memungkinkan server  menggunakan bandwidth  yang tersedia secara lebih efektif serta menyediakan akses yang cepat ke web browser yang dihosting. Implementasi webserver cluster dengan skema load balancing dapat memberikan alvalaibilitas sistem yang tetap terjaga dan skalabilitas yang cukup untuk dapat tetap melayani setiap request dari pengguna

  1. PERAN LEMBAGA PERADILAN DALAM PEMBATASAN UPAYA HUKUM DALAM PERKARA PERDATA

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    Bambang Sugeng Ariadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to application of judicial principle is simple, fast and low cost is to reduce accumulation of cases in the Supreme Court especially at the level of Cassation. Along with the increasing number of incoming cases, and was sentenced in the District Court and Court of Appeal, the amount of the proposed decision legal remedy of Cassation to the Supreme Court also increased and began to be a serious problem. For that we need to do some research on role of Judiciary in Legal action restrictions in order to reduce the accumulation of civil cases. Penerapan asas peradilan yang sederhana, cepat dan biaya ringan bertujuan untuk mengurangi penumpukkan perkara di Mahkamah Agung, terutama pada tingkat Kasasi. Seiring dengan makin meningkatnya jumlah perkara yang masuk, dan diputus di PN dan PT, jumlah putusan yang diajukan upaya hukum Kasasi ke MA juga semakin meningkat dan mulai menjadi masalah serius. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan suatu penelitian tentang Peran Lembaga Peradilan dalam Pembatasan Upaya Hukum dalam rangka mengurangi penumpukkan perkara perdata.

  2. Tindak Penyiksaan dan Hukum Internasional

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    Pranoto Iskandar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tindak penyiksaan pada saat ini telah mendapatkan popularitasnya kembali seiring dengan insiden Abu Ghraib. Tapi, sebenarnya tindak penyiksaan, sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh rekaman sejarah, merupakan salah satu bentuk kebiadaban yang paling melekat dalam perjalanan umat manusia. Tindak penyiksaan tepatnya bukanlah kejahatan sebagaimana kejahatan umumnya mengingat natur kejahatan ini sendiri yang dapat dilakukan oleh siapa saja – termasuk oleh negara. Oleh karena itu timbul pertanyaan, bagaimana reaksi komunitas internasional terhadap kejahatan ini. Tulisan ini merupakan kajian terhadap tindak penyiksaan dalam hukum internasional. Torture today has got its popularity due to Abu Graib case. However, torture actually in its history is one of the serious crimes in human being life. Torture is not common crime because naturally it can be done not only by everybody but also by state. Based on this assumption then how is the international community reaction to this kind of crime? This paper is intended to describe this crime in international law perspective. The method of study is library due to the kind of research is normative. There are three kinds of research approaches. They are statute approach, concept approach and case approach.

  3. Pemanfaatan Hasil Eksplorasi Plasmanutfah Jeruk Nusantara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Budiyati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia memiliki keanekaragaman  jenis jeruk unggul  lokal maupun nasional   yang tersebar diseluruh nusantara dari sabang sampai merauke,  dan berpotensi  dikembangkan serta didayagunakan untuk mendukung ketahanan pangan, khususnya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan vitamin dan mineral masyarakat seiring  dengan bertambahnya penduduk yang terus meningkat dari tahun ketahun.  Penelitian  bertujuan untuk identifikasi hasil eksplorasi plasmanutfah jeruk nusantara  berdasarkan kemanfaatan sesuai jenisnya.  Penelitian dilakukan dari tahun 2010 -2013  diseluruh daerah sentra jeruk  Maluku Utara, Maluku tenggara,  Kalimantan Timur, dan Jawa Timur. Metodologi dengan  survei  dan exploratif,  kordinasi dengan Diperta, BPTP, Kebun Raya LIPI serta wawancara dengan penduduk lokal.  Hasil penelitian telah mendapat 30 Asesi Jeruk yang terdiri  citrus  reculata, citrus maxima,  citrus  ambicarpha dan   citrus aurantivolia dan  Menjadi  3 macam jenis berdasarkan pemanfaatannya  yaitu sebagai  buah segar (Pamelo, Keprok dan Manis, olahan dan jenis  biofarmaka (Nipis. Nipis Jumbo, Jerpaya, dan  Jari Buda membukaKata kunci:   buah, eksplorasi, jeruk, plasmanutfah, varietas

  4. Spread of Ebola disease with susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIhR) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi

    2017-06-01

    Ebola is a deadly infectious disease and has caused an epidemic on several countries in West Africa. Mathematical modeling to study the spread of Ebola disease has been developed, including through models susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR). Furthermore, susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIhR) model has been derived. The aims of this research are to derive SEIIhR model for Ebola disease, to determine the patterns of its spread, to determine the equilibrium point and stability of the equilibrium point using phase plane analysis, and also to apply the SEIIhR model on Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in 2014. The SEIIhR model is a differential equation system. Pattern of ebola disease spread with SEIIhR model is solution of the differential equation system. The equilibrium point of SEIIhR model is unique and it is a disease-free equilibrium point that stable. Application of the model is based on the data Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. The free-disease equilibrium point (Se; Ee; Ie; Ihe; Re )=(5743865, 0, 0, 0, 0) is stable.

  5. An Agent-Based Model of School Closing in Under-Vacccinated Communities During Measles Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M; Carlson, Colin; Dougherty, Eric; Porco Francis, Travis C; Salter, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The winter 2014-15 measles outbreak in the US represents a significant crisis in the emergence of a functionally extirpated pathogen. Conclusively linking this outbreak to decreases in the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccination rate (driven by anti-vaccine sentiment) is critical to motivating MMR vaccination. We used the NOVA modeling platform to build a stochastic, spatially-structured, individual-based SEIR model of outbreaks, under the assumption that R 0 ≈ 7 for measles. We show this implies that herd immunity requires vaccination coverage of greater than approximately 85%. We used a network structured version of our NOVA model that involved two communities, one at the relatively low coverage of 85% coverage and one at the higher coverage of 95%, both of which had 400-student schools embedded, as well as students occasionally visiting superspreading sites (e.g. high-density theme parks, cinemas, etc.). These two vaccination coverage levels are within the range of values occurring across California counties. Transmission rates at schools and superspreading sites were arbitrarily set to respectively 5 and 15 times background community rates. Simulations of our model demonstrate that a 'send unvaccinated students home' policy in low coverage counties is extremely effective at shutting down outbreaks of measles.

  6. Pengembangan Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Permasalahan Inventory Routing Problem Pada Spbu Menggunakan Algoritma Ant Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Nur Alam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan bertambahnya jumlah kendaraan setiap tahun, akan mempengaruhi konsumsi bahan bakar yang dibutuhkan. Tingginya kebutuhan bahan bakar di Indonesia didominasi oleh jenis bahan bakar premium. Persentase konsumsi bahan bakar premium di daerah Jawa-Bali mencapai 59% dari kuota premium nasional. Besarnya persentase kebutuhan akan bahan bakar premium, menyebabkan manajemen distribusi menjadi hal krusial yang perlu ditingkatkan secara berkala. Depo yang berperan sebagai supplier terhadap retailer -yang dalam studi kasus ini adalah SPBU- diusulkan menerapkan model Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI, yaitu proses pengadaan barang dimana supplier mengelola inventori dari retailernya. VMI memiliki salah satu perencanaan yaitu Inventory Routing Problem (IRP, IRP merupakan suatu bentuk perencanaan berbasis vendor hasil perpaduan antara Inventory Management dengan Inventory Routing yang mengatur kuantitas pengiriman dan retailer mana yang harus dikunjungi dalam suatu waktu perencanaan dalam jangka waktu tertentu yang bersifat terbatas (finite planning horizon. Dengan hasil akhir berupa penjadwalan, perencanaan model IRP mempertimbangkan jarak supplier-retailer dan biaya stockout yang mungkin terjadi pada retailer, sehingga diharapkan pengiriman optimal dan tidak terjadi stockout pada pos-pos penjualan bahan bakar.

  7. Pengelolaan Media Sosial Oleh Unit Corporate Communication PT GMF Aeroasia

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    Fajar Syuderajat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini berjudul:  Pengelolaan  Media  Sosial  oleh  Unit Corporate Communication PT GMF AeroAsia. Seiring dengan meningkatknya jumlah pengguna social media telah melahirkan media baru bagi bidang komunikasi khususnya dunia public relations. Kesempatan ini kemudian dimanfaatkan oleh PT GMF AeroAsia untuk memanfaatkan media sosial yang dijadikan sebagai media komunikasi dengan memberikan  informasi  seputar  dunia  aviasi  dan  bidang  MRO  (maintenance, repair,  organization  PT  GMF AeroAsia.   Tujuan studi ini, untuk mengetahui pengelolaan media sosial yang digunakan PT GMF AeroAsia sebagai strategi komunikasi brand awareness dengan konsep  teori yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah New Media Theory yang berhubungan dengan media sosial. Metode pendekatan penulisan kualitatif dan bersifat deskriptif. Hasil dari studi ini mengatakan bahwa pengelolaan media sosial PT GMF AeroAsia oleh Corporate Communication memilih facebook, instagram, youtube, dan linkedin. Penanganan langsung dilakukan oleh tim digital aktivasi dengan konten-konten yang terlebih dahulu disetujui oleh kepala divisi Corporate Communication.   Kesimpulan, PT GMF AeroAsia menggunakan facebook, instagram, youtube, dan linkedin sesuai dengan segmentasi perusahaan yang lebih menekankan B-to-B. Meskipun banyak sekali follower pada media sosial tersebut namun untuk respon atau feedback kurang mendapatkan perhatian, sehingga terkesan lambat dalam menanggapi. Kata kunci: corporate communication;  media sosial; PT GMF AeroAsia.

  8. VISUALISASI SISTEM TATA SURYA MENGGUNAKAN ANIMASI 3D

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    Achmad Nur Hamid

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia berkembang pesat seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi. Salah satu aspek yang dipengaruhi adalah dunia pendidikan. Dalam dunia pendidikan multimedia digunakan sebagai media pembelajaran. Dengan aplikasi pembelajaran berbasis multimedia, materi yang disajikan diharapkan lebih menarik dan mudah dipahami. Tujuan dari penulisan skripsi ini adalah untuk membuat aplikasi system tatasurya menggunakan animasi 3 dimensi untuk menunjang sarana belajar yang sudah ada seperti buku. Pengumpulan data dalam pembuatan aplikasi ini dilakukan dengan cara mendayagunakan sumber informasi yang terdapat pada perpustakaan dan sumber informasi lain seperti internet. Aplikasi ini dikembangkan dengan metode pengembangan multimedia menurut Luther yaitu concept, design, material collecting, assembly, testing dan distribution. Dalam pembuatan aplikasi ini menggunakan 3DS Max 2009 sebagai software untuk membuat objek-objek yang terdapat pada system tata surya dengan bentuk 3 dimensi, Adobe Premiere Pro sebagai software untuk menggabungkan suara (audio dan video hasil renderan dari 3DS Max, Adobe Flash CS4 Professional di gunakan sebagai penggabungan semua objek multimedia yang telah dibuat oleh perangkat lunak lainnya. Dengan aplikasi ini siswa dapat memahami materi tentang sistem tata surya dan membuat suasana belajar lebih menyenangkan.

  9. PURWARUPA SISTEM INFORMASI KADASTER 3D BERBASIS WEB (STUDI KASUS : RUMAH SUSUN PENJARINGAN SARI, KOTA SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Laksmana Darmawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan informasi pertanahan 3D saat ini sangat dibutuhkan masyarakat seiring dengan perkembangan pertumbuhan pembangunan dari pembangunan horizontal ke arah pembangunan vertikal. Salah satu informasi kadaster 3D yang perlu dikembangkan adalah mengenai Rumah Susun Sederhana Sewa (Rusunawa. Dalam penelitian ini Rusunawa yang dijadikan sebagai studi kasus penelitian adalah Rumah Susun Penjaringan Sari Surabaya yang dikelola oleh Pemerintah Kota Surabaya.Untuk menghasilkan informasi kadaster 3D dari Rumah Susun Penjaringan Sari Surabaya dibutuhkan data denah gedung beserta data penghuni Rumah Susun Penjaringan Sari Surabaya. Data-data tersebut digunakan untuk membuat basis data 3D. Basis data 3D dibuat dengan menggunakan software PostgreSQL+PostGIS dan selanjutnya diintegrasikan dengan sistem informasi sehingga dapat dihasilkan visualisasi dari purwarupa sistem informasi kadaster 3D berbasis web.Penelitian ini menghasilkan produk berupa purwarupa atau prototype berupa web informasi kadaster 3D yang dapat mengakomodasi pendaftaran sewa menyewa dari Rumah Susun Penjaringan Sari dengan model dinamis sehingga data-data yang ada dapat di¬update ketika mengalami perubahan data. Dari penelitian ini diharapkan dapat dijadikan bahan pertimbangan untuk mengaplikasikan sistem informasi kadaster 3D di Indonesia secara online.

  10. Analisis Faktor Relationship Satisfaction Pada Kerjasama Antar UMKM Berbasis Logam di Waru, Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Tri Wibowo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Industri berskala mikro, kecil, dan menengah memiliki peranan yang penting di dalam perekonomian Indonesia. Jawa Timur sebagai penyumbang Produk Regional Domestik Bruto terbesar kedua pada tahun 2010 memiliki andil di dalam perkembangan Usaha Mikro, Kecil, dan Menengah (UMKM di Indonesia. Salah satu industri berskala UMKM di Jawa Timur yang sedang berkembang adalah industri berbasis logam di Waru, Sidoarjo. Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu agar dapat bersaing dengan UMKM sejenis dari daerah lain dan produk impor, maka industri berbasis logam harus menguatkan kerjasama di dalam kegiatan industrinya. Untuk menguatkan kerjasama antar UMKM, maka tiap UMKM harus memperhatikan kepuasan di dalam hubungan kerjasamanya (relationship satisfaction. Hasil studi literatur dan observasi awal menunjukkan bahwa faktor benevolence, credibility, opportunism, relationship commitment, dan mutual cooperation berpengaruh terhadap relationship satisfaction. Sehingga pada penelitian ini akan dianalisis faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap relationship satisfaction pada kerjasama antar UMKM di Waru, Sidoarjo dengan menggunakan metode Structural Equation Modelling. Faktor relationship satisfaction sebagai konstruk endogen dan faktor benevolence, credibility, opportunism, relationship commitment, dan mutual cooperation sebagai konstruk endogen. Masing-masing konstruk tersebut kemudian dilakukan uji confirmatory factor analysis (CFA untuk mengetahui bahwa faktor tersebut berada pada kondisi unidimensionalitas.

  11. Studi Eksperimen Aliran Melalui Square Duct dan Square Elbow 90º dengan Double Guide Vane pada Variasi Sudut Bukaan Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Jaya Nazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalasi saluran udara tidak hanya berupa pipa lurus, tetapi juga terdapat fitting/aksesoris perpipaan misalnya elbow 90o dan damper. Aksesoris perpipaan ini berfungsi agar saluran udara dapat terpasang sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Namun, penggunaan aksesoris perpipaan ini menyebabkan bertambahnya pressure drop akibat adanya friction loss dan separation loss. Pemasangan guide vane pada elbow 90o diharapkan dapat mengurangi pressure drop karena dapat mengurangi terjadinya secondary flow, namun hal ini dapat menambah kerugian akibat gaya gesek. Saat ini penghematan energi menjadi sorotan terutama dalam dunia industri. Penurunan pressure drop pada belokan perpipaan sangat diharapkan, agar dapat menghemat energi lebih. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan usaha agar dapat menurunkan pressure drop yang terjadi. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimen dengan benda uji saluran udara yang terdiri dari: upstream duct (straight duct, square elbow 90o dengan r/Dh=1,5 dan dilengkapi double guide vane, damper, downstream duct (straight duct, dan induced fan. Pengukuran parameter yang dibutuhkan dilakukan dengan menggunakan: pitot tube, inclined manometer, pressure tranducer. Dari eksperimen ini diperoleh bahwa profil kecepatan pada masing-masing variasi sudut bukaan damper sudah mendekati keadaan recovery aliran pada akhir section baik dari bidang vertikal maupun horizontal. Pressure drop yang terjadi semakin naik seiring dengan bertambahnya nilai bilangan Reynolds dan sudut bukaan damper. Nilai konstanta damper semakin naik dari bukaan sudut 0o hingga 30o.

  12. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Pengaturan Optimal LQR untuk Menjaga Kestabilan Hover pada Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardono Kardono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadcopter adalah pesawat terbang yang memiliki potensi untuk lepas landas, hover, terbang manuver, dan mendarat bahkan di daerah kecil. Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi modern, saat ini quadcopter banyak digunakan untuk pengawasan area, pengambilan foto/video, pelaksanaan misi yang beresiko tinggi dan lain-lain. Kestabilan hover pada quadcopter sangatlah penting dan harus dimiliki quadcopter agar pemanfaatannya dapat maksimal. Kontrol hover merupakan prioritas utama dalam setiap upaya pengendalian quadcopter baik pada pengendalian fase take-off, landing, dan trajectory, hal ini dikarenakan kesalahan yang kecil saja yang terjadi pada sudut dan atau ketinggian quadcopter dapat menyebabkan quadcopter bergerak baik terhadap sumbu x, y, maupun z. Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas desain sistem kontrol pada quadcopter agar dapat melakukan proses hover secara otomatis dengan stabil dan metode yang digunakan adalah kontroler Linier Quadratic Regulator (LQR. Pada Tugas Akhir ini, didapatkan nilai parameter kontrol LQR dari hasil tuning diperoleh parameter R=1 dan Q=Q4 yang pada simulasi dapat terbang hover pada ketinggian 2 m, dan dapat mengatasi gangguan dengan rise time selama 0,1332detik. Respon hasil implementasi pada quadcopter tidak sebaik dengan hasil simulasi, terbang hover dengan set point ketinggian 100 cm masih berisolasi antara 50cm sampai 200cm, dan respon kestabilan sudut lebih lambat yaitu 0,23detik.

  13. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Kristanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat bambu berdasar anthropometri ukuran tubuh operator, keluhan selama bekerja, dan waktu proses penyayatan bambu. Hasil penelitian setelah perancangan menunjukan posisi operator saat bekerja cukup ergonomis karena ukuran tempat kerja disesuaikan dengan dimensi antropometri operator. Waktu baku pada kondisi sebelum perancangan sebesar 21,16 detik/iratan dan output standar sebesar 170,09 iratan/jam. Sedangkan setelah perancangan sebesar 4,42 detik/iratan dan output standarnya sebesar 815,22 iratan/jam dengan peningkatan output standar 479,46%, terjadi penurunan waktu baku sebesar 378,73%. Sementara itu nilai break event point terjadi ketika UKM Jamboel Kipas sudah memproduksi 12927 kipas.

  14. PERANCANGAN MESIN PENYAYAT BAMBU SECARA ERGONOMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Kristanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jamboel Kipas adalah UKM yang memproduksi souvenir kipas dengan sistem pesanan make to order. Seiring perkembangan waktu, Jamboel Kipas tidak dapat memenuhi pesanan karena keterbatasan kapasitas produksi souvenir kipas. Hal ini disebabkan karena waktu proses yang lama terjadi pada bagian penyayatan bambu, yaitu sebesar 22 detik/iratan. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas penyayatan bambu serta memperbaiki posisi operator saat bekerja, dengan perancangan mesin penyayat bambu berdasar anthropometri ukuran tubuh operator, keluhan selama bekerja, dan waktu proses penyayatan bambu. Hasil penelitian setelah perancangan menunjukan posisi operator saat bekerja cukup ergonomis karena ukuran tempat kerja disesuaikan dengan dimensi antropometri operator. Waktu baku pada kondisi sebelum perancangan sebesar 21,16 detik/iratan dan output standar sebesar 170,09 iratan/jam. Sedangkan setelah perancangan sebesar 4,42 detik/iratan dan output standarnya sebesar 815,22 iratan/jam dengan peningkatan output standar 479,46%, terjadi penurunan waktu baku sebesar 378,73%. Sementara itu nilai break event point terjadi ketika UKM Jamboel Kipas sudah memproduksi 12927  kipas.

  15. Analisis Kenyamanan Serta Redesain Pegas Suspensi Mobil Toyota Fortuner 4.0 V6 SR (AT 4x4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Priyambada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan dunia otomotif mengalami kemajuan yang sangat pesat. Seiring dengan perkembangan  tersebut kualitas kenyamanan kendaraan merupakan faktor yang harus diperhatikan. Dalam upaya meningkatkan kualitas kenyamanan kendaraan dilakukan pengembangan dalam sistem suspensi. Hal ini yang mendasari penulis untuk melakukan penelitian terkait suspensi mobil Toyota Fortuner 4.0 V6 SR. Pada penelitian ini, terdapat dua tahap, yakni tahap pengujian dan tahap analisis. Tahap pengujian untuk mendapatkan persentase road holding yang digunakan dalam menentukan kriteria keamanan kendaraan. Pada tahap analisis dilakukan simulasi untuk mengetahui percepatan rms yang dialami penumpang dengan pemodelan Half Car memanjang. Selanjutnya dilakukan perancangan ulang pegas suspensi yang lebih baik dari segi keamanan dan kenyamanan. Dari penelitian ini diketahui bahwa desain dari mobil Toyota Fortuner mengutamakan kenyamanan untuk penggunaan di jalan perkotaan. Berdasarkan standar ISO 2631 menunjukkan bahwa respon suspensi redesain untuk jalan perkotaan menghasilkan kenyamanan yang lebih baik daripada suspensi aktual. Berdasarkan kriteria keamanan BEISSBARTH dari hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa suspensi mobil Toyota Fortuner termasuk dalam kategori kurang baik sedangkan hasil simulasi untuk suspensi aktual dan redesain termasuk dalam kategori cukup baik. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan kekakuan pegas untuk suspensi depan (ksf = 44631,61 N/m dan (ksr = 53500 N/m untuk suspensi belakang.

  16. Implementasi Business Intelligence untuk Menganalisis Data Persalinan Anak di Klinik Ani Padang dengan Menggunakan Aplikasi Tableau Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdhal Zikri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pengelolaan data merupakan hal penting dari sebuah perusahaan namun prosesnya tidaklah mudah. Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi, terciptalah banyak cara dalam mengolah dan mengatur data salah satunya yaitu Business intelligence (BI yang merupakan sebuah proses untuk melakukan ekstrasi data-data operasional perusahaan dan mengumpulkannya  dalam sebuah data warehouse. BI tidak hanya digunakan untuk perusahaan saja tetapi bisa diterapkan pada hal lainnya. Klinik Ani merupakan klinik yang telah berdiri sebelum tahun 2000. Klinik tersebut memiliki record data dari tiap pasien yang telah ditanganinya, salah satunya persalinan. Namun karena proses yang digunakan masih berbentuk manual, klinik tersebut masih belum bisa meningkatkan efektifitas dak efisiensinya sebaik mungkin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi-informasi yang berguna untuk meningkatkan efektifitas dan efisiensi pada klinik tersebut dengan dasar Business intelligence. Dalam penelitian ini, analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan aplikasi Tableau Public. Tableau Public adalah perangkat lunak bisnis intelijen yang mudah untuk digunakan, terutama dalam hal membuat visualisasi data, analisis data, dan pelaporan. Dengan metodologi deskriptif  yang didapatkan dari hasil observasi terhadap data yang ada, akan didapatkan sebuah output berupa informasi tentang tren kelahiran/persalinan anak dalam empat semester terakhir di Klinik Ani Padang Sumatera Barat.

  17. Keterampilan Sosial Pustakawan dalam Memberikan Pelayanan Bermutu di Perpustakaan

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    Machsun Rifauddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perpustakaan sebagai lembaga pelayanan jasa informasi harus terus berkembang seiring dengan kebutuhan pemustaka yang semakin kompleks dan beragam. Perpustakaan sudah seharusnya dikelola oleh pustakawan yang memiliki keterampilan sosial khusus dalam memberikan pelayanan yang bermutu kepada pemustaka. Pelayanan yang bermutu menjadi tolak ukur kepuasan pemustaka. Artikel ini disusun berdasarkan kajian literatur yang diambil dari berbagai sumber rujukan. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk memberikan gambaran secara umum bagaimana menjadi pustakawan profesional yang terampil dalam memberikan pelayanan bermutu kepada pemustaka secara konseptual. Pelayanan bermutu dapat dilakukan dengan menyampaikan sifat positif, mengenali kebutuhan pelanggan, memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan, dan memastikan pemustaka kembali lagi atau merasa puas. Pustakawan juga dituntut untuk memiliki kemampuan interpersonal yang ditunjukkan dengan berkomunikasi secara efektif kepada pemustaka. ABSTRACT Library information services as an institution should continue to evolve along with user needs of an increasingly complexs. The library was supposed to run by librarians who have specific social skills in providing quality service to user. Service quality became measure user satisfaction. This article based on the study of literature drawn from various reference sources. Purpose this article is to give an overview in general how to be professional librarians in providing quality service to user as conceptually. Quality service can do with be done with positive atitude , recognize customer needs, satisfy customer needs, and make sure user back again or feel satisfied. Librarians also are required to have interpersonal skills demonstrated by communicating effectively to the user.

  18. Fetisisme Ras Kaukasoid dan Ras Mongoloid Sebagai Strategi Pemasaran dalam Sinetron Indonesia

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    Dimas Yudhistira

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRAK   Budaya populer yang tumbuh seiring dengan industrialisasi memengaruhi produksi per- filman di Indonesia. Salah satu genre perfilman di Indonesia adalah sinetron. Sinetron yang di- kategorikan sebagai produk seni kitsch memiliki dua kriteria yaitu sebagai komoditi seni yang populer dan sebagai komoditi dagang yang menghasilkan keuntungan ekonomis. Sebagai se- buah produk seni kitsch yang merupakan dasar pembuatan karyanya adalah selera masyarakat kebanyakan maka sinetron harus jeli dalam melihat keadaan dan latar belakang masyarakat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini menggambarkan masyara- kat Indonesia yang merupakan ras Melayu telah dijajah oleh ras Kaukasoid dan Mongoloid sebelum tahun 1945 dan setelahnya. Efek dari penjajahan ini adalah ras Melayu telah ditanami fantasi yang menjadi stereotip mengenai ras Kaukasoid dan Mongoloid yang berakhir dengan fetisisme. Fetisisme ini dijadikan sebagai strategi pemasaran oleh produser dan sutradara un- tuk menarik antusiasme calon penonton sinetron. Caranya dengan menampilkan aktor dan aktris Melayu keturunan Kaukasoid dan Mongoloid sebagai pemeran utama.   Kata kunci: sinetron, seni kitsch, ras, fetisisme

  19. REPRESENTASI PEREMPUAN PADA LUKISAN DI BAK TRUK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Bima Wicandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The backs of dump trucks have transformed to not only as a transportation mechanism, but also as visual communication media. This phenomena goes along with the many advertisements that utilizes this kind of medium in promoting certain products. But the backs of dump trucks become a promotional medium because of the already many paintings painted on them, which they are originally plain on the right, left, and the back sides. Women become figures that many portray as their painted subjects. This article focuses more on the painting phenomena that uses the female figures through a gender study, to see whether woman representations in the paintings of the backs of trucks are signified as having imbalanced gender relations. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Bak truk telah menjelma tidak saja menjadi alat transportasi namun juga media komunikasi visual seiring dengan semakin banyaknya iklan yang memanfaatkan media ini dalam mempromosikan suatu produk. Namun perjalanan bak truk menjadi media promosi diawali oleh bertebarannya lukisan yang memanfaatkan bak truk yang semula kosong di sisi kanan, kiri maupun belakang truk. Perempuan menjadi figur yang banyak dipakai sebagai objek lukis. Tulisan ini lebih menyoroti fenomena lukisan yang banyak mengambil figur perempuan dalam kajian gender, untuk melihat apakah representasi perempuan dalam lukisan di bak truk tersebut dimaknai sebagai adanya ketimpangan dalam relasi gender. Kata kunci: representasi, perempuan, bak truk, lukisan, relasi gender.

  20. Studi Eksperimen Variasi Beban Pendinginan pada Evaporator Mesin Pendingin Difusi Absorpsi R22-DMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Syukri Maulana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara dengan iklim tropis, sehingga lebih dibutuhkan sistem pendingin daripada sistem pemanas. Salah satu teknologi pendinginan yang dapat digunakan adalah DAR (Diffusion Absorbtion refrigeration. Berbeda dengan sistem kompresi uap, sistem refrigerasi difusi absorbsi tidak menggunakan kompresor, namun menggunakan generator sebagai penggantinya. Namun seiring waktu, sistem pendingin absorbsi mulai ditinggalkan karena memiliki COP (Coeffisient Of Performance yang relatif kecil. Pada penelitian kali ini pasangan refrijeran dan absorben yang digunakan adalah R22 dan DMF (Dhymethylformamyde dengan konsentrasi R22 sebesar 60%. Penelitian dilakukan dengan memvariasikan beban pendinginan pada kabin evaporator dengan memasang heater elektrik yang dilengkapi dengan voltage regulator.  Terdapat tiga variasi beban pendinginan yang akan dilakukan yaitu beban pertama dengan mengkondisikan beban heater electric 0 watt (tanpa beban, beban kedua dengan beban 7,84 watt, dan beban ketiga 15,68 watt. Hasil yang diperoleh dari pengujian beban pendinginan pada evaporator, yaitu semakin tinggi beban pendinginan maka COP dari sistem pendingin akan semakin tinggi. Adapun hasil performa optimum yang didapatkan antara lain: Qgen optimum adalah 337.417 watt, laju alir massa refrijeran ( optimum adalah 0.679 gram/s. Panas yang diserap evaporator (Qevap optimum adalah 130.604 Watt. Coefficient Of Performance (COP optimum 0.398. Panas yang dibuang kondensor (Qcond maksimum 132.026 Watt.

  1. Uji Kualitas Air Minum Isi Ulang di Kecamatan Sukodono, Sidoarjo Ditinjau Dari Perilaku dan Pemeliharaan Alat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Ardy Pradana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan kemajuan teknologi sekarang ini dan diiringi dengan semakin sibuknya aktivitas manusia maka masyarakat cenderung memilih cara yang lebih praktis dengan biaya relatif murah dalam memenuhi kebutuhan air minum yaitu dengan menggunakan air minum isi ulang  terutama di kecamatan Sukodono, Sidoarjo. Agar air minum isi ulang yang dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat di kecamatan Sukodono, Sidoarjo aman untuk dikonsumsi, maka perlu dilakukan uji kualitas apakah kandungan dalam air minum isi ulang sudah memenuhi Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 tantang persyaratan kualitas air minum. Parameter yang diuji meliputi Total Coliform, TDS, Kekeruhan dan Warna. Kualitas air minum isi ulang ditunjang oleh cara pemeliharaan peralatan produksi. Prosedur pemeliharaan alat dari masing-masing depo air minum isi ulang diperoleh melalui wawancara dan penggunaan kuesioner. Hasil uji laboratorium dari 8 depo air minum isi ulang ada yang belum memenuhi parameter Total Koliform sebanyak 5 depo. Berdasarkan hasil kuesioner 5 depo tersebut termasuk dalam kategori cukup, yang berarti masih kurang dalam melakukan pemeliharaan alat.

  2. Modeling the spread of tuberculosis in semiclosed communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Bosch, Paul; Nájera, Manuel; Aguilera, Ximena

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of long-term dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis (LTB) in semiclosed communities. These communities are congregate settings with the potential for sustained daily contact for weeks, months, and even years between their members. Basic examples of these communities are prisons, but certain urban/rural communities, some schools, among others could possibly fit well into this definition. These communities present a sort of ideal conditions for TB spread. In order to describe key relevant dynamics of the disease in these communities, we consider a five compartments SEIR model with five possible routes toward TB infection: primary infection after a contact with infected and infectious individuals (fast TB), endogenous reactivation after a period of latency (slow TB), relapse by natural causes after a cure, exogenous reinfection of latently infected, and exogenous reinfection of recovered individuals. We discuss the possible existence of multiple endemic equilibrium states and the role that the two types of exogenous reinfections in the long-term dynamics of the disease could play.

  3. Perancangan Buku Batik Plumpungan Salatiga Dengan Menggunakan Teknologi Augmented Realty Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Cahya Winata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Batik Indonesia telah ditetapkan oleh United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO sebagai warisan kemanusiaan untuk budaya lisan dan non-bendawi pada tanggal 2 Oktober 2009. Pengakuan UNESCO ini meliputi teknik, teknologi serta motif batik Indonesia. Indonesia memiliki motif batik yang beragam, dan hampir disetiap daerah memiliki motif batik yang berbeda-beda. Batik Plumpungan Salatiga merupakan karya seni batik kontemporer yang didesain dari batu Prasasti Kota Salatiga. Batik Salatiga ini masih tergolong baru sehingga hanya dikenal oleh golongan tertentu saja. Untuk memperkenalkan batik Plumpungan Salatiga dibutuhkan media informasi yang dapat menarik masyarakat untuk lebih mengenal batik Plumpungan. Media buku dipilih sebagai sarana untuk memberikan informasi tentang batik Plumpungan Salatiga. Seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi dan permasalahan yang terjadi, Peneliti menggunakan teknologi Augmented Reality sebagai metode dalam memberikan informasi dan menarik minat masyarakat untuk lebih mengenal dan mengetahui tentang batik Plumpungan yang dapat dijalankan pada smartphone Android. Objek penelitian ini adalah batik Plumpungan Salatiga. Metode Augmented Reality ini sudah diujikan kepada pemilik batik dan 20 responden masyarakat didapatkan hasil metode Augmented Reality dapat memberikan informasi mengenai pengaplikasian motif batik Plumpungan Salatiga pada objek 3D yang ditampilkan.

  4. Pembuatan Aplikasi Permainan “Ayo Sehat” Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Setyawidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (PHBS disekolah merupakan kebutuhan mutlak seiring munculnya berbagai penyakit yang sering menyerang anak usia sekolah dasar, yaitu usia 6 sampai 12 tahun seperti kecacingan, diare, sakit gigi, sakit kulit, gizi buruk dan lain sebagainya yang ternyata berkaitan erat dengan PHBS. Usia sekolah dasar merupakan waktu yang tepat untuk menanamkan kebiasaan menerapkan perilaku hidup dan sehat. Salah satu cara mengenalkan PHBS adalah melalui permainan. Aplikasi permainan Ayo Sehat dibuat menggunakan Unity, sebuah game engine yang dapat merancang permainan pada berbagai platform. Aplikasi permainan ini dikembangkan dengan metode Multimedia Development Life Cycle (MDLC melalui tahap pengembangan konsep, desain, pengumpulan materi, pengujian, dan pendistribusian. Aplikasi permainan ini diuji dengan Black Box Testing, menunjukkan bahwa permainan sudah berjalan sesuai spesifikasi kebutuhan yang menampilkan hasil uji pada tiap fungsi aplikasi dan tombol. Berdasarkan hasil uji Wilcoxon terdapat perbedaan nyata antara nilai pretest dan nilai post- test dimana pengguna lebih memahami Pola Hidup Bersih dan Sehat setelah penggunaan aplikasi. Hasil dari penelitian dan pengujian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi permainan Ayo Sehat telah sesuai dengan tujuan yaitu mengenalkan PHBS di lingkungan sekolah pada anak usia sekolah dasar.

  5. GAME EDUKASI PERAKITAN AMPLIFIER BERBASIS ANDROID UNTUK USER UMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundhi Fanju Hafili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Seiring dengan perkembangan dan kebutuhan teknologi saat ini pembelajaran elektro dapat dibuat menjadi lebih praktis dan menarik di ponsel berbasis android Mempelajari elektronika juga memerlukan usaha-usaha nyata yang ber-kesinambungan dan mengarah kepada tumbuhnya kesadaran untuk menjadikan elektronika sebagai perkembangan teknologi. Dengan adanya metode game, merupakan salah satu metode belajar merakit amplifier yang disusun secara praktis dan sistematis sehingga memudahkan setiap orang untuk belajar maupun mengajarkan merancang amplifier. Sementara itu metode pembelajaran yang ada saat ini yaitu melalui buku maupun dengan cara bertatap muka langsung dengan tentor dirasa masih kurang efektif. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut maka penulis membuat game edukasi elektro merancang amplifier, karena mudah dipahami dan memudahkan para calon teknisi elektro dalam belajar merancang amplifier. Perancangan ini dilakukan dengan pendekatan metode Research and Development adalah metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu dan menguji keefektifan produk tersebut. Dengan aplikasi ini diharapkan dapat membantu para pengguna yang ingin belajar merakit amplifier berbasis android. . Kata kunci: elektro, game, research and development.

  6. IMPLEMESTASI E-KRS PADA PROGRAM STUDI D4 TEKNIK INFORMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairul Fikri Ramadhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, komputer telah digunakan untuk berbagai keperluan dan menjadi bagian yang sangat penting untuk menunjang aktifitas maupun pekerjaan dalam segala hal. Pemanfaatan atau pengembangan sistem komputer ini sangat membantu pekerjaan seseorang termasuk dalam kegiatan akademik. Termasuk pula perguruan tinggi Politeknik Harapan Bersama Tegal, khususnya Program Studi D4 Teknik Informatika. Pada setiap perguruan tinggi tentunya memiliki system pengisian KRS sebagai syarat untuk mengambil matakuliah yang akan ditempuh disemester depan. Namun banyak perguruan tinggi yang masih menggunakan sistem pengisian KRS dengan cara manual termasuk pada Program Studi D4 Teknik Informatika Politeknik Harapan Bersama Tegal.Berdasarkan kondisi tersebut, maka diperlukan perencanaan sebagai langkah awal, menganalisis data yang diperlukan, merancang sistem yang ada menggunakan UML, serta penerapannya untuk mengimplementasikan  sebuah sistem E-KRS pada program studi D4 Teknik Informatika dengan tujuan untuk menghasilkan sebuah aplikasi E-KRS pada Program Studi D4 Teknik Informatika sehingga mempermudah mahasiswa dalam mengisi formulir KRS secara online. Sistem dirancang dan dibangun dengan menggunakan teknologi PHP serta Framework Code Igniter, Xampp sebagai web server, MySql sebagai database server. Dan Adobe Dreamweaver sebagai editor. Kata kunci: Tegal, E-KRS, Program Studi D4 Teknik Informatika

  7. Analisis Variasi Warna Terhadap Kualitas Daya Serap dan Kuat Tarik Tissue Napkin Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Meita Alfathy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tisu telah menjadi kebutuhan sehari–hari masyarakat dunia karena tisu merupakan benda pembersih praktis yang dapat dibawa kemana–mana. Inovasi yang dilakukan oleh para produsen adalah dengan memberikan corak motif bahkan warna untuk menambah nilai estetika dari tisu terutama pada tissue napkin paper atau kertas tisu serbet. Seiring berjalannya waktu, nilai estetika pada tissue napkin paper menjadi pertimbangan utama konsumen dalam pemilihan tisu dibandingkan fungsi utama kertas tissue napkin paper sebagai alat pembersih sehingga konsumen melupakan kualitas fisik dari tissue napkin paper. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi potensi perbedaan kuat tarik dan daya serap tissue napkin paper dengan dan tanpa colourant. Tissue napkin paper dihitung volume air yang terserap secara radial dan gaya yang dibutuhkan tisu dengan luas permukaan 0,042m2  untuk merobeknya, sehingga diketahui bahwa tissue napkin berwana merah, hijau, kuning dan putih memiliki persentase kualitas daya serap secara berturut-turut 38,89%, 42,78%, 41,67%, 46,67%  dan daya kuat tarik 78,3N/m2; 103,3N/m2; 140,4N/m2; 141,5N/m2. Colourant mengubah struktur pore menjadi lebih sempit dan jarak permukaan serat selulosa menjadi semakin panjang. Sehingga terjadi penurunan daya serap dan kuat tarik tissue napkins paper dengan colourant meskipun tidak dalam taraf yang signifikan.

  8. Spiritualitas Budaya Jawa dalam Seni Tari Klasik Gaya Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Pamardi

    2016-02-01

    ABSTRAK   Seni tari klasik Jawa telah berkembang secara dinamis seiring dengan sejarah perkembang- an keraton-keraton di Jawa Tengah, terutama setelah abad XV yang dimulai pada era kerajaan Demak. Seni tari klasik Jawa hidup dan berkembang di lingkungan istana Mataram Islam sejak periode Panembahan Senapati di Kotagede, atau jaman Sultan Agung di keraton Plered sampai dengan berpindahnya keraton Mataram ke Kartasura. Metode penelitian ini konsentrasi utamanya pada penggunaan data kualitatif dengan per- tanyaan-pertanyaan ’mengapa’ dan ’bagaimana’ untuk mengungkap misteri yang berada di belakang fenomena yang ada. Tindakannya dilakukan dengan pendekatan multi disiplin dari ilmu-ilmu sejarah, sosial, dan koreografi. Peristiwa perjanjian Gianti pada tahun 1755 tidak saja berpengaruh dan berdampak pada kekuasaan raja Mataram yang harus membagi menjadi dua wilayah, yaitu wilayah Kasunanan Surakarta dan wilayah Kasultanan Yogyakarta, tetapi juga berimplikasi pada kehidupan ke- budayaan Jawa. Kebudayaan Jawa yang semula bersumber dari satu kerajaan, yaitu Mataram Kasunanan, kemudian menjadi dua corak, yaitu kebudayaan Jawa Surakarta dan Yogyakarta. Namun demikian, baik di istana Kasunanan Surakarta maupun istana Kasultanan Yogyakarta tetap mengembangkan kesenian klasik Jawa berdasarkan nilai-nilai budaya adiluhung walau- pun dalam corak atau gaya yang berbeda. Nilai-nilai spiritualitas ‘kejawen’ tetap menjadi sum- ber acuannya.   Kata kunci: seni tari, klasik, spiritualitas Jawa

  9. APLIKASI 3D TERRAIN VIRTUAL RECREATION GARUDA WISNU KENCANA CULTURAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Indra Raditya Martha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi 3D Terrain Garuda Wisnu Kencana Cultural Park (GWK atau GWK 3DVR adalah sebuah aplikasi virtual recreation yang merupakan salah satu cara tercepat untuk merampungkan proyek prestisius GWK secara virtual yang terhambat pembangunannya karena krisis moneter Indonesia di Tahun 1997. Aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggabungkan objek 3 dimensi kedalam virtual environtment yang didesain agar menyerupai keadaan lapangan GWK berdasarkan masterplan 2014, digabungkan dengan wawancara langsung kepada pihak arsitektur GWK. Aplikasi GWK 3DVR merupakan aplikasi yang memerlukan spesifikasi perangkat keras yang cukup tinggi sehingga GWK 3DVR dilengkapi dengan fitur pengaturan kualitas grafis. Pengguna aplikasi seakan-akan berjalan di areal kompleks GWK dengan mengunakan tombol navigasi dan mode kamera first person yang terdapat pada aplikasi. Sensasi immersive dan realitas dapat dirasakan apabila pengoperasiannya disertai dengan pengunaan head mounted display yang kedepannya lebih mudah didapat. Hal tersebut dikarenakan virtual reality saat ini mulai berkembang cepat seiring dengan kepopulerannya pada bidang multimedia dan gaming. Walaupun hanya berbentuk virtual setidaknya aplikasi ini diharapkan dapat memvisualisasikan bentuk jadi dari GWK dan secara keseluruhan aplikasi telah mampu berjalan dengan baik serta menampilkan bentuk dan perkiraan tata letak juga tempat dari GWK yang saat ini belum rampung dengan bentuk virtual 3 dimensi. Kata kunci: Virtual recreation, first person point of view, Garuda Wisnu Kencana.

  10. PENDIDIKAN SEBAGAI INSTITUSI SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Saat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pendidikan dan masyarakat tidak dapat dipisahkan. Pendidikan berlangsung da-lam masyarakat, dan eksistensi dan kualitas hidup masyarakat ditentukan oleh tingkat pendidikan yang dialaminya. Sebagai institusi sosial, pendidikan tumbuh dan berkembang dalam masyarakat tanpa mengenal tingkat kebudayaan, apakah masyarakat bersahaja atau masyarakat modern. Seiring dengan perkembangan masyarakat, mucul pula kebutuhan-kebutuhan terhadap lembaga-lembaga/ins-titusi sosial merupakan kumpulan norma yang berkisar pada suatu kebutuhan pokok dalam kehidupan masyarakat, termasuk pendidikan. Dengan demikian, lahirlah lembaga pendidikan sebagai institusi sosial, mulai taman kanak-kanak, SD, SLTP, SLTA, dan pendidikan tinggi. Abstract: Education and society cannot be separated; education takes place in society while the existence and the quality of society’s life were determined by the level of education experienced. As a social institution, education grows and develops in society without knowing the level of culture, whether in traditional or modern society. Along with the development of society, raise also a demand to agencies and social institutions, a set of norms that revolve around a basic need in people's lives, including education. Thus, educational institutions are born as social institutions, from kindergarten, elementary, junior high, high school, and higher education.

  11. Tipe Dry Cell dan Wet Cell berdimensi 80 x 80 mm dengan Penambahan PWM E-3 FF (1 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanur Arzaqa Ghiffari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketersediaan bahan bakar minyak semakin terbatas dan hasil pembakarannya berdampak pada pencemaran lingkungan, salah satu solusinya dengan memanfaatkan gas HHO pada kendaraan bermotor. Penelitian dengan sistem direct connection, temperatur mencapai lebih dari 90oC menyebabkan  generator HHO menjadi rusak dan meleleh, maka penelitian ini menambahan alat untuk mengkontrol besarnya arus, frekuensi, dan duty cycle. Pengembangan generator HHO menggunakan tipe kering (dry cell dan tipe basah (wet cell dengan penambahan PWM (Pulse Width Modulation E-3 Fixed Frequency 1 kHz divariasikan berupa duty cycle: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%  dan direct connection. Pengujian dilakukan di Laboratorium Teknik Pembakaran dan Bahan Bakar - Teknik Mesin ITS.  Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan karakteristik unjuk kerja terbaik pada kedua tipe generator HHO dengan penambahan PWM. Nilai arus dan tegangan lebih stabil dibandingkan dengan tanpa penambahan PWM (direct connection, namun arus cenderung meningkat seiring dengan kenaikan temperatur mencapai 70oC. Efisiensi terbaik pada generator tipe wet dengan duty cycle 80%,  yaitu 27,7 %.

  12. Mathematical Model for Dengue Epidemics with Differential Susceptibility and Asymptomatic Patients Using Computer Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga Vargas, Clarita

    When there are diseases affecting large populations where the social, economic and cultural diversity is significant within the same region, the biological parameters that determine the behavior of the dispersion disease analysis are affected by the selection of different individuals. Therefore and because of the variety and magnitude of the communities at risk of contracting dengue disease around all over the world, suggest defining differentiated populations with individual contributions in the results of the dispersion dengue disease analysis. In this paper those conditions were taken in account when several epidemiologic models were analyzed. Initially a stability analysis was done for a SEIR mathematical model of Dengue disease without differential susceptibility. Both free disease and endemic equilibrium states were found in terms of the basic reproduction number and were defined in the Theorem (3.1). Then a DSEIR model was solved when a new susceptible group was introduced to consider the effects of important biological parameters of non-homogeneous populations in the spreading analysis. The results were compiled in the Theorem (3.2). Finally Theorems (3.3) and (3.4) resumed the basic reproduction numbers for three and n different susceptible groups respectively, giving an idea of how differential susceptibility affects the equilibrium states. The computations were done using an algorithmic method implemented in Maple 11, a general-purpose computer algebra system.

  13. Effect of vaccines and antivirals during the major 2009 A(H1N1 pandemic wave in Norway--and the influence of vaccination timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Freiesleben de Blasio

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of mass vaccination with adjuvanted vaccines (eventually 40% population coverage and antivirals during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Norway, we fitted an age-structured SEIR model using data on vaccinations and sales of antivirals in 2009/10 in Norway to Norwegian ILI surveillance data from 5 October 2009 to 4 January 2010. We estimate a clinical attack rate of approximately 30% (28.7-29.8%, with highest disease rates among children 0-14 years (43-44%. Vaccination started in week 43 and came too late to have a strong influence on the pandemic in Norway. Our results indicate that the countermeasures prevented approximately 11-12% of potential cases relative to an unmitigated pandemic. Vaccination was found responsible for roughly 3 in 4 of the avoided infections. An estimated 50% reduction in the clinical attack rate would have resulted from vaccination alone, had the campaign started 6 weeks earlier. Had vaccination been prioritized for children first, the intervention should have commenced approximately 5 weeks earlier in order to achieve the same 50% reduction. In comparison, we estimate that a non-adjuvanted vaccination program should have started 8 weeks earlier to lower the clinical attack rate by 50%. In conclusion, vaccination timing was a critical factor in relation to the spread of the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza. Our results also corroborate the central role of children for the transmission of A(H1N1 pandemic influenza.

  14. Analisis Perbandingan Antara Colocation Server Dengan Amazon Web Services (Cloud Untuk Usabilitas Portal Swa.co.id Di PT. Swa Media Bisnis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipur Sugiyanta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendukung usabilitas web portal nya, SWA Media Online menggunakan layanan web hosting Colocation Server dari Wowrack. Layanan Colocation Server dari Wowrack ini memiliki lokasi server fisik atau pusat data di Surabaya, Indonesia. Seiring berjalannya waktu, penggunaan Colocation Server dirasa semakin menghambat perkembangan perusahaan, terbukti dengan melambatnya akses ke web portal swa.co.id. Untuk itu, pada bulan Mei - Juni 2015 SWA Media Online memutuskan berpaling dari Colocation Server ke teknologi cloud terbaru. Pada akhir bulan Juni 2015, SWA Media Online resmi bermigrasi dari colocation ke Amazon Web Services. Dimana server fisik nya berada di Singapura (untuk pelanggan ASEAN. Untuk fitur yang digunakan, hampir sama seperti saat menggunakan colocation yaitu yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan perusahaan. Namun, pada Amazon Web Services memberikan service atau fitur tambahan berupa adanya load balancer, auto scaling, dan bucket atau media penyimpanan. Metodologi yang peneliti terapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah metodologi analisis secara kualitatif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, didapatkan hasil bahwa fitur tambahan yang diberikan Amazon Web Services mampu meningkatkan usabilitas portal dalam segi kemudahan dalam kecepatan akses portal. Kecepatan akses web portal meningkat lebih baik dibandingkan saat menggunakan Colocation Server.

  15. Removable Watermarking Sebagai Pengendalian Terhadap Cyber Crime Pada Audio Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhani Lian Putri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat menuntut penggunanya untuk lebih berhati-hati seiring semakin meningkatnya cyber crime.Banyak pihak telah mengembangkan berbagai teknik perlindungan data digital, salah satunya adalah watermarking. Teknologi watermarking berfungsi untuk memberikan identitas, melindungi, atau menandai data digital, baik audio, citra, ataupun video, yang mereka miliki. Akan tetapi, teknik tersebut masih dapat diretas oleh oknum-oknum yang tidak bertanggung jawab.Pada penelitian ini, proses watermarking diterapkan pada audio digital dengan menyisipkan watermark yang terdengar jelas oleh indera pendengaran manusia (perceptible pada audio host.Hal ini bertujuan agar data audio dapat terlindungi dan apabila ada pihak lain yang ingin mendapatkan data audio tersebut harus memiliki “kunci” untuk menghilangkan watermark. Proses removable watermarking ini dilakukan pada data watermark yang sudah diketahui metode penyisipannya, agar watermark dapat dihilangkan sehingga kualitas audio menjadi lebih baik. Dengan menggunakan metode ini diperoleh kinerja audio watermarking pada nilai distorsi tertinggi dengan rata-rata nilai SNR sebesar7,834 dB dan rata-rata nilai ODG sebesar -3,77.Kualitas audio meningkat setelah watermark dihilangkan, di mana rata-rata SNR menjadi sebesar 24,986 dB dan rata-rata ODG menjadi sebesar -1,064 serta nilai MOS sebesar 4,40.

  16. SISTEM INFORMASI UJIAN BERBASIS WEB SERVER SMK BINA ISLAM MANDIRI (BISMA KERSANA BREBES TEGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rifqi Tsani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya kemajuan teknologi informasi, mungkin akan sangat terbantu dengan adanya internet. Dengan internet, kita akan mudah menghadirkan layanan yang dapat diakses dari manapun dan kapanpun di dunia ini. Saat ini hampir setiap orang melakukan pengaksesan informasi, salah satunya dengan situs website. SMK BISMA Kersana merupakan sekolah swasta yang cukup terkenal di daerah Kersana. Dalam tiap tahunnya selalu mengalami kesulitan dalam menyajikan soal-soal yang akan diberikan kepada murid-muridnya. Begitu juga dalam melakukan sistem pengolahan nilai, pada SMK BISMA Kersana masih begitu sederhana sehingga memerlukan waktu yang lama. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, maka diperlukan suatu sistem yang terkomputerisasi untuk mendukung kemajuan dan perkembangan sekolah tersebut. Maka dirancanglah sistem ujian online dan penilaian siswa berbasis web server. Dimana para guru langsung mengolah soal-soal ujian siswa. Begitu juga para siswa setelah melakukan ujian akan bisa langsung melihat hasil ujiannya. Dalam pembuatan sistem informasi ujian berbasis web server ini metode perancangan yang digunakan adalah ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development or Production, Implementation or Delivery and Evaluations. Dengan menggunakan sistem informasi berbasis web server ini dapat membantu guru dalam memberikan nilai pada anak didiknya yang telah melaksanakn ujian di karenakan sistem ini langsung memberikan hasil berupa nilai ujian setelah siswa melaksanakan ujian.

  17. Menakar Kekuasaan Presiden dalam Pembentukan Peraturan Perundang-undangan Menurut Undang-Undang Dasar 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahayu Prasetianingsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Konstitusi dapat ditafsirkan berbeda-beda oleh masing-masing rezim yang berkuasa termasuk mengenai kekuasaan Presiden. Di Amerika Serikat berkembang pemikiran yang diperdebatkan apakah presiden memiliki kekuasaan yang sifatnya tersirat (implied power dari kekuasaan yang diberikan oleh konstitusinya, dan berkembang executive order sebagai implied power presiden. Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 sebelum perubahan dinilai memberikan kewenangan atau membuka celah tafsir yang besar pada kekuasaan Presiden. Dengan demikian, paradigma perubahan UUD 1945 diantaranya adanya keinginan untuk mengurangi kekuasaan tersebut. Tulisan ini akan membahas apakah UUD 1945 setelah perubahan telah memberikan kekuasaan yang cukup kepada presiden dan apa saja kewenangan yang merupakan turunan langsung dari kekuasaan presiden. Kekuasaan Presiden berdasarkan UUD 1945 juga mempunyai kecenderungan untuk bertambah seiring dengan berkembangnya sistem ketatangaraan bahkan untuk menjalankan pemerintahan, presiden dapat membentuk Peraturan Pemerintah dan Peraturan Presiden selain terlibat secara langsung dalam pembentukan UU dan dapat mengeluarkan Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang dalam keadaan kegentingan yang memaksa (emergency law. Kewenangan presiden dalam pembentukan UU, Perpu dan PP secara tegas disebutkan dalam UUD 1945, sedangkan kewenangan pembentukan Perpres menjadi kewenangan yang ditafsirkan dari ketentuan Pasal 4 ayat (1 UUD 1945.

  18. Penentuan Rute Angkutan Umum Optimal Dengan Transport Network Simulator (TRANETSIM di Kota Tuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Riaya Nikita Ratriaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring perkembangan ekonomi, jumlah penduduk yang mendiami Kota Tuban terus mengalami peningkatan. Kondisi tersebut menimbulkan dampak terhadap kegiatan di beberapa ruas jalan pada Kota Tuban. Perkembangan permukiman yang ekspansif ke pinggiran Kota Tuban juga menimbulkan bangkitan-bangkitan pergerakan baru.. Sirkulasi angkutan umum yang terdapat di Kota Tuban memiliki kondisi eksisting yang belum mencakup keseluruhan zona yang menjadi bangkitan dan tarikan pergerakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan rute angkutan umum yang optimal untuk Kota Tuban. Untuk itu, dilakukan tiga tahapan untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Tahap pertama adalah mengukur bangkitan dan tarikan pergerakan tiap zona dengan matriks asal-tujuan. Tahap selanjutnya adalah melakukan pembobotan terhadap faktor-faktor penentu rute angkutan umum dengan teknik analisis Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP menggunakan software Expert Choice. Tahap terakhir adalah menentukan rute angkutan umum yang optimal menggunakan software Transport Network Simulator (TRANETSIM. Berdasarkan analisis yang digunakan dalam tahapan penelitian, hasil yang diperoleh yaitu rute Terminal Kambang Putih – Desa Tunah (PP, Desa Tunah – Terminal Kambang Putih (PP, Terminal Kambang Putih – Desa Semanding (PP, serta Desa Semanding – Desa Tunah (PP.

  19. Parameter Scaling for Epidemic Size in a Spatial Epidemic Model with Mobile Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyori T Urabe

    Full Text Available In recent years, serious infectious diseases tend to transcend national borders and widely spread in a global scale. The incidence and prevalence of epidemics are highly influenced not only by pathogen-dependent disease characteristics such as the force of infection, the latent period, and the infectious period, but also by human mobility and contact patterns. However, the effect of heterogeneous mobility of individuals on epidemic outcomes is not fully understood. Here, we aim to elucidate how spatial mobility of individuals contributes to the final epidemic size in a spatial susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR model with mobile individuals in a square lattice. After illustrating the interplay between the mobility parameters and the other parameters on the spatial epidemic spreading, we propose an index as a function of system parameters, which largely governs the final epidemic size. The main contribution of this study is to show that the proposed index is useful for estimating how parameter scaling affects the final epidemic size. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed index, we show that there is a positive correlation between the proposed index computed with the real data of human airline travels and the actual number of positive incident cases of influenza B in the entire world, implying that the growing incidence of influenza B is attributed to increased human mobility.

  20. Spread of Ebola disease with susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIhR) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari

    2017-01-01

    Ebola is a deadly infectious disease and has caused an epidemic on several countries in West Africa. Mathematical modeling to study the spread of Ebola disease has been developed, including through models susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR). Furthermore, susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEII h R) model has been derived. The aims of this research are to derive SEII h R model for Ebola disease, to determine the patterns of its spread, to determine the equilibrium point and stability of the equilibrium point using phase plane analysis, and also to apply the SEII h R model on Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone in 2014. The SEII h R model is a differential equation system. Pattern of ebola disease spread with SEII h R model is solution of the differential equation system. The equilibrium point of SEII h R model is unique and it is a disease-free equilibrium point that stable. Application of the model is based on the data Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. The free-disease equilibrium point ( S e ; E e ; I e ; I he ; R e )=(5743865, 0, 0, 0, 0) is stable. (paper)

  1. [Predicting spread of new pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in local mid-size city: evaluation of hospital bed shortage and effectiveness of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shouhei; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2010-01-01

    On April 24th, 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) was first reported in Mexico. Japan confirmed cases of the flu on May 9th, and the pandemic in Japan has become full-scale. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan announced that the first peak of this pandemic was predicted to occur in October, 2009. Therefore, it is most important to predict the progress of this pandemic to be able to use medical resources effectively in Japan. We used a modified susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered (SEIR) model to calculate the number of infected people and hospital bed shortage during this pandemic. In this model, available medical resources were investigated on the basis of four vaccination scenarios. Our model showed that it would take a further six months for the pandemic to peak than was predicted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. Without vaccination, at the peak of the pandemic 23,689 out of 400,000 people would be infected and the hospital bed shortage would reach 7,349 in total. We suggest that mathematical models are strong tools to predict the spread of infectious diseases. According to our model, it is possible to prevent hospital bed shortage by vaccination.

  2. Penggalian Pola Asosiasi pada Data Warehouse Agen Perusahaan Manufaktur Menggunakan Microsoft SQL Server (Studi Kasus: PT. XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhika Putra Cahyarifian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Data penjualan pada perusahaan manufaktur selalu bertambah setiap hari seiring dengan terjadinya transaksi yang dilakukan pelanggan. Hal ini perlu didukung dengan adanya pengelolaan data yang bisa digunakan untuk mengambil keputusan. Selama ini agen PT. XYZ belum mempunyai sistem yang terintegrasi di Surabaya untuk menggunakan seluruh data yang dimilikinya untuk proses pengambilan keputusan. Penulis melakukan pengerjaan penelitian dengan membuat sebuah data warehouse yang digunakan untuk mengelola data dalam jumlah besar, dalam studi kasus ini adalah data penjualan harian agen PT.XYZ. Selain itu pemanfaatan pengambilan keputusan dari data penjualan yang terhitung besar ini juga perlu dilakukan. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan melakukan penggalian asosiasi untuk memberikan rekomendasi produk cross-selling. Metode yang digunakan dalam pengerjaan penelitian ini adalah metode association rule mining, dengan metode ini akan ditemukan sebuah pola dari data transaksi penjualan dari periode sebelumnya mengenai hubungan keterkaitan antar variabel sehingga diketahui kecenderungan produk yang akan dibeli oleh pelanggan bersamaan dengan produk tertentu. Hasil yang diharapkan dari penelitian ini adalah rekomendasi produk cross-selling dari proses penggalian asosiasi terhadap data penjualan agen PT. XYZ. Dan dapat membantu agen PT. XYZ dalam melakukan pengelolaan data dan pengambilan keputusan.

  3. PERANGKAT LUNAK ANTAR MUKA GRAFIS SCHEMA DAN CUBE EDITOR MS ANALYSIS SERVICE BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Johan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi Web telah menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan lagi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Seiring dengan meningkatnya teknologi internet membuat seorang administrator tidak perlu berada didepan komputer server untuk dapat melakukan pekerjaan administratif seperti membuat analisis proses secara online dari sebuah schema database untuk dibuat schema cube (data warehousing dan melakukan perubahan pada schema yang sudah dibuat.Untuk dapat melakukan hal tersebut SQL Server 7.0 maupun SQL Server 2000 telah menyediakan fasilitas pengaksesan tabel dimensi, cube, relasi dan koneksi database dalam Analysis Manager menggunakan DSO (Decision Support Object library component MS OLAP. Dengan adanya DSO connection, seorang administrator dapat memanipulasi schema, tabel, cube, dimension, relasi suatu schema cube dari database SQL Server secara langsung dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman yang mendukung, seperti MS Visual Basic, VBScript, MS Visual C++, MS.Net. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat aplikasi berbasis web yang merupakan tahap awal dari OLAP (Online Analytical Processing suatu schema database dengan menggunakan SQL Analysis Service, Analysis Manager yang memungkinkan seorang administrator database untuk dapat melakukan pekerjaan administratif khususnya membuat schema dan cube (fact table dari database yang dianalisis, membuat dan mengedit dimensi, dimana saja tanpa harus berada di komputer server. Kata Kunci : DSO, Cube, Measure,GUI, dimensi, fact table, ADO MD, SQL DMO, OLAP.

  4. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Razzaq

    Full Text Available Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered (SEIDQR(S/I along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.

  5. PENGEMBANGAN ALAT DESTILATOR BIOETANOL MODEL REFLUK BERTINGKAT DENGAN BAHAN BAKU SINGKONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmad Winarso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penyediaan energi di masa depan merupakan permasalahan yang senantiasa menjadi perhatian bagi semua pihak. Seiring dengan meningkatnya pembangunan, kebutuhan akan energi terus meningkat. Disisi lain cadangan minyak bumi sebagai bahan bakar yang paling banyak dipakai saat ini semakin menipis karena sifatnya yang non renewable, oleh karena itu diperlukan upaya untuk mencari bahan bakar alternatif yang renewable sekaligus ramah lingkungan. Bioetanol sebagai salah satu bahan bakar alternatif sampai saat ini belum banyak digunakan. Padahal di Indonesia, banyak sekali sumber daya alam hayati yang dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku untuk memproduksi bioetanol, salah satunya adalah ubi kayu. Penggunaan bioetanol sebagai bahan bakar didasari oleh sifatnya yang mudah terbakar dan memiliki kalor-bakar netto besar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan alat destilator bioetanol dengan fokus pengembangan pada pengembangan menara refluk dengan sistem bertingkat sehingga diharapkan bisa lebih optimal menghasilkan bioetanol dengan kadar tinggi. Pengembangan alat distilator bioethanol ini dimulai dari proses observasi lapangan yang dilanjutkan dengan studi literatur. Tahapan selajutnya adalah proses perencanaan komponen-komponen dari peralatan tersebut dan dilanjutkan dengan proses pembuatan serta uji coba peralatan. Hasil penelitian ini telah dikembangkan alat destilator bioetanol dengan spesifikasi sebagai berikut: diameter tangki 400 mm, tinggi tangki 500 mm, terbuat dari bahan stainles steel A304 dengan ketebalan 2 mm. Kapasitas tangki yang diijinkan adalah dari volume tabung atau sebesar 40 liter. Dari hasil uji coba pada hasil proses distilasi fermentasi ketela pohon menghasilkan ethanol dengan kadar 92%. Kata kunci: bioetanol, destilator, refluk bertingkat.

  6. MENGENAL FOTOGRAFI DAN FOTOGRAFI DESAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesie Yuliadewi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available At present%2C photography technology has grown rapidly. It began from invention of obscura camera%2C which was invented by Leonardo da Vinci%2C until the invention of digital camera%2C which are produced by camera factories. Together with this development%2C the role of photography become expanded%2C that is to support the other sciences%2C like visual communication design. From this case%2C the term design photography often become the question to those who are involved in department visual communication design. The dicussion consist of two sections%2C they are basic photography and design photography. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Saat ini teknologi fotografi telah berkembang pesat%2C mulai dari penemuan kamera obscura yang ditemukan oleh Leonardo da Vinci sampai penemuan kamera digital yang dikeluarkan oleh beberapa pabrik besar pembuat kamera. Seiring dengan hal itu peranan fotografi juga semakin luas%2C yaitu sebagai pendukung ilmu pengetahuan yang lain%2C seperti desain komunikasi visual. Dari sini timbullah istilah Fotografi Desain yang sering menjadi pertanyaaan di kalangan orang yang akan terlibat dalam jurusan Desain Komunikasi Visual. Pembahasan terdiri dari dua pokok bahasan%2C yaitu fotografi dasar dan fotografi desain.

  7. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI PENDAFTARAN AKTA PPAT BERBASIS WEB DENGAN TEKNOLOGI QR CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Anggriawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi telah mengalami percepatan yang tinggi. Keadaan tersebut membuat banyak hal dapat dilakukan dengan lebih mudah dan efisien. Seiring dengan hal tersebut kebutuhan akan informasi yang cepat dan akurat juga semakin tinggi. Dengan tujuan untuk menghasilkan penyajian informasi yang cepat, jelas, dan akurat sehingga dapat membantu proses pengambilan keputusan dalam proses verifikasi data. Metode dalam pembuatan aplikasi ini dibagi menjadi tiga bagian yaitu pertama, melakukan pengumpulan data Akta  PPAT. Kedua, perancangan aplikasi pencetakan Akta PPAT, QR Code, dan pengecekan Akta. Ketiga, pembuatan aplikasi pendaftaran Akta QR Code PPAT menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP yang dapat dijalankan pada browser. Hasil dari pembuatan aplikasi berupa aplikasi pendaftaran Akta PPAT yang dapat menampilkan proses penginputan data para pihak, pengeditan data pada Akta PPAT, pencetakan Akta QR Code. Aplikasi dapat menampilkan hasil pengecekan Akta melalui scan QR Code pada aplikasi dalam bentuk teks file, dan melakukan validasi data pada hasil scan. Simpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi dapat menampilkan hasil cetak Akta dan QR Code.

  8. Modeling the Spread of Tuberculosis in Semiclosed Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of long-term dynamics of tuberculosis (TB and latent tuberculosis (LTB in semiclosed communities. These communities are congregate settings with the potential for sustained daily contact for weeks, months, and even years between their members. Basic examples of these communities are prisons, but certain urban/rural communities, some schools, among others could possibly fit well into this definition. These communities present a sort of ideal conditions for TB spread. In order to describe key relevant dynamics of the disease in these communities, we consider a five compartments SEIR model with five possible routes toward TB infection: primary infection after a contact with infected and infectious individuals (fast TB, endogenous reactivation after a period of latency (slow TB, relapse by natural causes after a cure, exogenous reinfection of latently infected, and exogenous reinfection of recovered individuals. We discuss the possible existence of multiple endemic equilibrium states and the role that the two types of exogenous reinfections in the long-term dynamics of the disease could play.

  9. Pemetaan Distribusi Gas Polutan Menggunakan Quadcopter Berbasis Autonomous Waypoint Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Fachrudin Priyanta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pencemaran udara adalah suatu kondisi dimana kualitas udara menjadi rusak dan terkontaminasi oleh zat-zat, baik yang tidak berbahaya maupun berbahaya bagi makhlup hidup. Seiring dengan perkembangan dan pembangunan industri di Indonesia, akan berdampak pada meningkatnya tingkat pencemaran udara. Sistem monitoring emisi gas polutan industri secara umum dilakukan dengan cara manual menggunakan sensor gas pada titik-titik tertentu. Hal ini memakan waktu dan biaya cukup banyak. Quadcopter merupakan salah satu jenis Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV yang mampu bergerak secara otomatis sesuai dengan sistem tracking waypoint. Sistem tracking waypoint merupakan sistem navigasi berdasarkan posisi Global Positioning System (GPS dan kompas, sehingga quadcopter dapat berjalan secara otomatis. Implementasi sensor gas semikonduktor dapat menunjang quadcopter untuk mengukur kadar gas di udara, sehingga dapat diaplikasikan sebagai alat monitoring secara otomatis. Data posisi GPS quadcopter dapat diakses secara langsung pada google maps di software mission planner. Kadar gas polutan disimpan pada web server raspberry pi 2 dan mampu diakses secara online. Hasil pemetaan kadar gas ditampilkan dalam 3D analyzer google earth.

  10. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  12. Rancang Bangun Perangkat Lunak Unit Kontrol Alat Ukur Sudu Cross Flow Water Turbine Berbasis Pengolahan Citra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Marliana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi informasi dan komunikasi, alat ukur mengalami perkembangan yang cukup signifikan. Salah satu bentuk perkembangannya adalah dengan dibuatnya alat ukur sudu cross flow water turbine berbasis pengolahan citra oleh Rusweki dan Pradnyana pada tahun 2013. Namun, alat ukur ini masih dioperasikan secara manual. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk melakukan pengembangan terhadap alat tersebut, khususnya dibidang rancang bangun perangkat lunak untuk unit kontrolnya. Metodologi yang diterapkan dalam tugas akhir ini yang pertama adalah mempelajari hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan topik bahasan dari berbagai literatur. Langkah kedua adalah menetukan perumusan masalah dan menentukan metode pembuatan perangkat lunak. Ketiga, pembuatan perangkat lunak dan verifikasi. Pada penelitian ini telah berhasil dirancang perangkat lunak untuk unit kontrol alat ukur sudu CFWT berbasis pengolahan citra. Berdasarkan hasil kalibrasi sensor inframerah Sharp GP2Y0A21 didapatkan bahwa nilai jarak adalah sama dengan 178924.57 dibagi dengan nilai output ADC desimal pangkat 1.08. Selisih maksimal antara jarak input dan jarak tempuh motor adalah 0.5mm, dan jarak kontrol antara 130-400mm. Dengn demikian, metode pengukuran menggunakan alat ini akan lebih mudah dan cermat, karena selain dapat mengukur benda dengan bentuk yang kompleks mngurangi resiko keausan benda an lebih teliti, juga bisa diakukan dengan mudah serta cepat karena adanya sistem kontrol

  13. Eksistensi Gula Gending di dalam Dinamika Budaya Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Triyanuartha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap eksistensi gula gending di dalam dinamika budaya yang terjadi di Lombok. Gula gending merupakan sebuah pertunjukan musik yang dimainkan ketika pedagang harum manis mepromosikan barang dagangannya untuk menarik perhatian calon pembeli. Seiring dengan perjalanan waktu, pertunjukan musik ini menjadi langka dan jarang ditemukan di dalam masyarakat. Kini gula gending muncul kembali dengan beberapa perkembangan yang menyertainya. Analisis dilakukan terhadap fakta musikal yang meliputi dimensi sonorik, dimensi visual dan dimensi kinestetik. Untuk membahas mengenai penyebab dan hasil dari perkembangan akan digunakan konsep music and cutural dynamic.   This research aims to gasp the exsistence of gula gending in cultural dynamic which occurs in Lombok. Gula gending was a music performance played when the arbanat seller was promoting their goods to attract the customers’ attention. As the time goes by, this music performance becomes rare, so we seldom find its existence in society. In spite of the fact, nowdays gula gending reappears along with few following developments. An analysis has been done to the musical facts which may include among athers are sonoric dimention, visual dimention, and kinesthetic dimention. To gain the explanation about the causes and results of the development, music and cultural dynamic concepts are conducted.

  14. Sistem Otomasi Lampu pada Bangunan Publik dengan Metode Forward Chaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Konsumsi listrik Indonesia terus meningkat setiap tahunnya. Seiring dengan peningkatan konsumsi listrik, efisiensi dalam penggunaan listrik menjadi sangat krusial. Salah satu tolok ukur efisiensi listrik adalah intensitas energi. Untuk menurunkan intensitas energi diperlukan adanya konservasi energi melalui manajemen energi dan penggunaan teknologi hemat energi. Contoh di mana konservasi energi belum dilakukan pada bangunan publik adalah dengan membiarkan barang elektronik tetap menyala walau sedang tidak dipergunakan, contohnya lampu. Oleh karena itu, perlu dirancang suatu sistem untuk mematikan lampu secara otomatis di luar jam operasional dan tidak ada aktivitas pada bangunan publik. Sistem ini menggunakan kecerdasan buatan (Artificial Intelligence yang menggunakan metode Forward Chaining dengan sensor Passive Infrared Receiver untuk mendeteksi keberadaan manusia dengan dijembatani oleh Raspberry Pi untuk menghubungkan ke relay sebagai saklar untuk lampu. Sistem akan memutuskan kapan saat yang tepat untuk menyalakan dan memadamkan lampu, bergantung pada kehadiran manusia di setiap ruangan dan jam operasional dari bangunan. Dengan adanya sistem ini, diharapkan dapat menghasilkan penghematan energi yang cukup signifikan. Kata Kunci—forward chaining, otomasi lampu, pengendalian lampu, raspberry pi, sensor passive infrared reciever

  15. Mixtures of benzo(a)pyrene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and tributyltin are more toxic to neotropical fish Rhamdia quelen than isolated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Heloísa H P; Liebel, Samuel; Rossi, Stéfani C; Azevedo, Ana C B; Barrera, Ellie A L; Garcia, Juan Ramon Esquivel; Grötzner, Sônia Regina; Neto, Francisco Filipak; Randi, Marco A F; Ribeiro, Ciro A O

    2015-12-01

    The effects of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and tributyltin (TBT) association were investigated through a multi-biomarker approach. Ten Rhamdia quelen fish per group were exposed through intraperitoneal injections either to BaP (0.3; 3 or 30 mg kg(-1)), DDT or TBT (0.03; 0.3 or 3 mg kg(-1)) or BaP/DDT, BaP/TBT, DDT/TBT or BaP/DDT/TBT on their lowest doses. The experiments were divided in acute (one dose, 5-day) and sub-chronic (3 doses, 15-day). Control groups received an equal volume of PBS or canola oil (1 ml kg(-1)). The three tested contaminants altered AChE activity in brain and muscle in similar ways; the mixtures antagonized the increase evoked by the contaminants alone. BaP and TBT increased GSH content and mixtures reduced it. GPx activity was increased by DDT and TBT in the 15-day experiment and reduced by the mixtures. BaP increased GST activity in sub-chronic experiment while TBT reduced it in the acute experiment. BaP/TBT increased GST activity compared to all groups; the other mixtures reduced it compared to BaP or DDT in the 5-day experiment. BaP, DDT and TBT increased δ-ALAd activity mainly in acute exposure; the mixtures also increased δ-ALAd compared to DDT or TBT in 5 and 15-day. BaP, TBT and BaP/DDT decreased LPO in the acute experiment. In the sub-chronic experiment DDT/TBT increased LPO when compared to TBT. None of the contaminants alone altered PCO, but all mixtures increased it compared to one or another contaminant. Contaminants isolated had a more acute effect in ALT plasma level; their lowest dose, which had no effect alone, in combination has led to an increase of this enzyme, especially after 15 days. DDT increased AST in the acute and sub-chronic experiments, while TBT did the same in the latter. DDT/TBT decreased AST opposing the effect of the contaminants alone in the 5-day experiment. Hepatic lesions index could be explained by a more acute effect of the contaminants alone or combined and by

  16. Effect of Lead (Pb Exposure on the Activity of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in Battery Manufacturing Workers (BMW of Western Maharashtra (India with Reference to Heme biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusal K. Das

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW of Western Maharashtra (India who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb over a long period of time (about 15 years. This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28 was found to be in the range of 25.8 – 78.0 μg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98 whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35 the range was 2.8 – 22.0 μg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08. The blood level (Pb-B and urinary lead level (Pb-U were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte – ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP, urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U and porphobilinogen (PBG-U of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p 1.0 were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (% and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p< 0.001 and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p< 0.001 and erythrocytecatalase (p< 0.001 were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p<0.02 between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 – 78.0 μg / dL but such significant correlation did not notice in

  17. Effect of intercritical deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of a low-silicon aluminum-added hot-rolled directly quenched and partitioned steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: tan.x@mpie.de [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Xu, Yun-Bo, E-mail: yunbo_xu@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ponge, Dirk [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Yang, Xiao-Long; Hu, Zhi-Ping; Peng, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ju, Xiao-Wei [CERI LONG PRODUCT CO., LTD., Beijing 100176 (China); Wu, Di [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Raabe, Dierk [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2016-02-22

    Here, we applied hot-rolling in conjunction with direct quenching and partitioning (HDQ&P) processes with different rolling schedules to a low-C low-Si Al-added steel. Ferrite was introduced into the steel by intercritical rolling and air cooling after hot-rolling. The effect of intercritcal deformation on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties was investigated. The promotion of austenite stabilization and the optimization of the TRIP effect due to a moderate degree of intercritical deformation were systematically explored. The results show that the addition of 1.46 wt% of Al can effectively promote ferrite formation. An intercritical deformation above 800 °C can result in a pronounced bimodal grain size distribution of ferrite and some elongated ferrite grains containing sub-grains. The residual strain states of both austenite and ferrite and the occurrence of bainite transformation jointly increase the retained austenite fraction due to its mechanical stabilization and the enhanced carbon partitioning into austenite from its surrounding phases. An intercritical deformation below 800 °C can profoundly increase the ferrite fraction and promote the recrystallization of deformed ferrite. The formation of this large fraction of ferrite enhances the carbon enrichment in the untransformed austenite and retards the bainite transformation during the partitioning process and finally enhances martensite transformation and decreases the retained austenite fraction. The efficient TRIP effect of retained austenite and the possible strain partitioning of bainite jointly improve the work hardening and formability of the steel and lead to the excellent mechanical properties with relatively high tensile strength (905 MPa), low yield ratio (0.60) and high total elongation (25.2%).

  18. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  19. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug

  20. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  1. Low blood lead levels impair intellectual and hematological function in children from Cartagena, Caribbean coast of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ortega, Neda; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2017-12-01

    Lead produces numerous biochemical and physiological changes in humans, including hematological disorders, toxic effects on the central nervous system and in the function of several organs. The aim of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLL) in children from Cartagena, Colombia, associating those with hematological and liver damage markers, the intelligence quotient (IQ), as well as with gene expression of the aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), gamma interferon (INF-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tumor protein (p53). To achieve this purpose, 118 blood samples were collected from children 5-16 years old, with their respective informed consent from their parents. BLL was measured by atomic absorption; hematological parameters were obtained with automated systems; plasma was utilized to analyze hepatic toxicity markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT) was administered to measure the IQ; and gene expression was quantified from blood RNA. The mean BLL was 1.7±0.3μg/dL. A low proportion of the children (3.4%) had BLL above the CDC recommended limit (5μg/dL). BLL were correlated weakly, but negatively with child age, weight, height, body mass index, platelets wide distribution, mean platelet volume, γ-GT and IQ. There were not significant changes in the expression of evaluated genes. These results support the hypothesis that BLL below 5μg/dL may still be a detrimental factor on children's cognitive abilities, development and hematology, in line with recent concerns that there is no safe level of pediatric lead exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pengaruh infus rimpang temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza terhadap kadar hemoglobin dan jumlah eritrosit tikus putih yang diberi larutan timbal nitrat [PbNO32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Sugiharto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome infuse to hemoglobinconcentration and number of erythrocyte of [(PbNO32] treated rats. Pb was presumed to be link at sulphyhydril groups that may causedan inhibition to several enzymatic process, such as d-ALAD and heme sintetase which is caused the inhibits of Hb synthesis anderythropoesis. Twenty female rats was used in this experiment. They were divided into five groups, i.e. (A control (treated with 1 mlaquadest; (B treated with 1/2 ml of 12 ppm lead solution and 1/2 ml aquadest; (C treated with 1/2 ml of 12 ppm lead solution and 1/2 ml of 20% turmeric rhizome infuse; (D treated with 1/2 ml of 50 ppm lead solution and 1/2 ml aquadest; (E treated with 1/2 ml of50 ppm lead solution and 1/2 ml of 20% turmeric rhizome infuse. The treatment was given orally every day (30 days using a modifiedsyringe. After 30 days of treatment, the blood sample were taken about 2 ml by heart puncture. The Hb concentration was determinedusing by Cyanmethemoglobin method and number of erythrocyte was counting on Haemocytometer Improved Neubauer. Data wereanalyzed by Anova and LSD test (α = 0.05. The results of this study shows that 20% of turmeric rhizome infuse statistically has asignificant effect (P < 0.05 to increasing of hemoglobin concentration but hasn’t significant to prevent the number of erythrocytedecreasing of [(PbNO32] treated.

  4. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roversi, Katiane, E-mail: katianeroversi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Benvegnú, Dalila M., E-mail: dalilabenvegnu@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Roversi, Karine, E-mail: karineroversi-@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Trevizol, Fabíola, E-mail: fatrevizol@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia (Brazil); Vey, Luciana T., E-mail: luciana.taschetto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde (Brazil); Elias, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.elias@uffs.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul (UFFS), Bioquímica e Farmacologia (Brazil); Fracasso, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.fra@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups (n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  5. Efficient L-Alanine Production by a Thermo-Regulated Switch in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Deng, Can; Cui, Wen-Jing; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Zhou, Zhe-Min

    2016-01-01

    L-Alanine has important applications in food, pharmaceutical and veterinary and is used as a substrate for production of engineered thermoplastics. Microbial fermentation could reduce the production cost and promote the application of L-alanine. However, the presence of L-alanine significantly inhibit cell growth rate and cause a decrease in the ultimate L-alanine productivity. For efficient L-alanine production, a thermo-regulated genetic switch was designed to dynamically control the expression of L-alanine dehydrogenase (alaD) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus on the Escherichia coli B0016-060BC chromosome. The optimal cultivation conditions for the genetically switched alanine production using B0016-060BC were the following: an aerobic growth phase at 33 °C with a 1-h thermo-induction at 42 °C followed by an oxygen-limited phase at 42 °C. In a bioreactor experiment using the scaled-up conditions optimized in a shake flask, B0016-060BC accumulated 50.3 g biomass/100 g glucose during the aerobic growth phase and 96 g alanine/100 g glucose during the oxygen-limited phase, respectively. The L-alanine titer reached 120.8 g/l with higher overall and oxygen-limited volumetric productivities of 3.09 and 4.18 g/l h, respectively, using glucose as the sole carbon source. Efficient cell growth and L-alanine production were reached separately, by switching cultivation temperature. The results revealed the application of a thermo-regulated strategy for heterologous metabolic production and pointed to strategies for improving L-alanine production.

  6. Effects of lead in nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally dosed in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is a known environmental toxicant, and poisoning resulting from the ingestion of lead shot has been well-documented in many species of waterfowl. However, much less is known regarding exposure and effects of free environmental lead in species of birds other than waterfowl. In an attempt to evaluate toxicity of lead to herons and to determine the usefulness of feathers as a non-invasive exposure-monitoring tool, black-crowned night-heron nestlings were dosed with lead to determine its distribution among tissues, and its effects on biochemical biomarkers, growth, and survival. Five-day-old heron nestlings (one per nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; N=7) or one of three lead solutions (as lead nitrate) (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg body weight of nestling; N=7 per dose) chosen to represent levels below, at, and above those found in moderately-polluted environments. All nestlings treated with lead exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to controls, and nestlings treated with the highest concentration showed a reduced carcass weight compared to controls. Of several measures of oxidative stress that were analyzed, significant differences were found between low- and high-dosed nestlings in hepatic total thiol and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. No differences in survival were detected between dosed nestlings, controls, or uninjected siblings. Lead concentrations in several matrices, including feathers, are being determined to assess distribution among tissues and will also be examined for relationships with measures of effect.

  7. Perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis contributes to differential herbicidal symptoms in photodynamically stressed rice (Oryza sativa) treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the molecular mechanism of deregulated porphyrin biosynthesis in rice plants under photodynamic stress imposed by an exogenous supply of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). Plants treated with 5 mM ALA or 50 µM OF exhibited differential herbicidal symptoms as characterized by white and brown necrosis, respectively, with substantial increases in cellular leakage and malondialdehyde production. Protoporphyrin IX accumulated to higher levels after 1 day of ALA and OF treatment, whereas it decreased to the control level after 2 days of ALA treatment. Plants responded to OF by greatly decreasing the levels of Mg-protoporphyrin IX (MgProto IX), MgProto IX methyl ester, and protochlorophyllide to levels lower than control, whereas their levels drastically increased 1 day after ALA treatment and then disappeared 2 days after the treatment. Enzyme activity and transcript levels of HEMA1, GSA and ALAD for ALA synthesis greatly decreased in ALA- and OF-treated plants. Transcript levels of PPO1, CHLH, CHLI, and PORB genes involving Mg-porphyrin synthesis continuously decreased in ALA- and OF-treated plants, with greater decreases in ALA-treated plants. By contrast, up-regulation of FC2 and HO2 genes in Fe-porphyrin branch was noticeable in ALA and OF-treated plants 1 day and 2 days after the treatments, respectively. Decreased transcript levels of nuclear-encoded genes Lhcb1, Lhcb6, and RbcS were accompanied by disappearance of MgProto IX in ALA- and OF-treated plants after 2 days of the treatments. Under photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF, tight control of porphyrin biosynthesis prevents accumulation of toxic metabolic intermediates not only by down-regulation of their biosynthesis but also by photodynamic degradation. The up-regulation of FC2 and HO2 also appears to compensate for the photodynamic stress-induced damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Discovery and Distribution of Black Smokers on the Western Galapagos Spreading Center: Implications for Spatial and Temporal Controls on High Temperature Venting at Ridge/Hotspot Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymon, R. M.; Anderson, P. G.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; White, S. M.; MacDonald, K. C.

    2006-12-01

    Though nearly one-fifth of the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) lies on or near hotspots, it has been debated whether hotspots increase or decrease MOR hydrothermal flux, or affect vent biota. Despite hotspot enhancement of melt supply, high-temperature vent plumes are enigmatically sparse along two previously-surveyed ridge- hotspot intersections [Reykjanes Ridge (RR), Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR)]. This has been attributed to crustal thickening by excess volcanism. During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 540 km-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot at lon. 94.5 -89.5 deg. W. Although MOR hydrothermal springs were first found along the eastern GSC crest in 1977 near lon. 86 deg. W, the GalAPAGoS smokers are the first active high-temperature vents to be found anywhere along the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary. Active and/or recently-inactive smokers were located beneath plumes at 5 sites on the seafloor between lon. 91 deg. W and 94.5 deg. W (see Anderson et al., this session) during near-bottom, real-time fiber-optic Medea camera surveys. Smokers occur along eruptive seafloor fissures atop axial volcanic ridges near the middles of ridge segments, mainly in areas underlain by relatively shallow, continuous axial magma chamber (AMC) seismic reflectors. These findings (1) support magmatic, rather than tectonic, control of GSC smoker distribution; (2) demonstrate that thick crust at MOR-hotspot intersections does not prevent high-temperature hydrothermal vents from forming; and, (3) appear to be inconsistent with models suggesting that enhanced hydrothermal cooling causes abrupt deepening of the AMC and transition from non-rifted to rifted GSC morphology near lon. 92.7 deg. W. The widely-spaced smoker sites located on different GSC segments exhibit remarkably similar characteristics and seafloor settings. Most sites are mature or extinct, and are on lava

  9. Interdisciplinary pharmacometrics linking oseltamivir pharmacology, influenza epidemiology and health economics to inform antiviral use in pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mohamed A; Smith, Patrick F; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Wu, David B C; Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Lee, Kenneth K C; Chong, Huey Yi; Nelson, Richard E; Nieforth, Keith; Dall, Georgina; Toovey, Stephen; Kong, David C M; Kamauu, Aaron; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Rayner, Craig R

    2017-07-01

    A modular interdisciplinary platform was developed to investigate the economic impact of oseltamivir treatment by dosage regimen under simulated influenza pandemic scenarios. The pharmacology module consisted of a pharmacokinetic distribution of oseltamivir carboxylate daily area under the concentration-time curve at steady state (simulated for 75 mg and 150 mg twice daily regimens for 5 days) and a pharmacodynamic distribution of viral shedding duration obtained from phase II influenza inoculation data. The epidemiological module comprised a susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered (SEIR) model to which drug effect on the basic reproductive number (R 0 ), a measure of transmissibility, was linked by reduction of viral shedding duration. The number of infected patients per population of 100 000 susceptible individuals was simulated for a series of pandemic scenarios, varying oseltamivir dose, R 0 (1.9 vs. 2.7), and drug uptake (25%, 50%, and 80%). The number of infected patients for each scenario was entered into the health economics module, a decision analytic model populated with branch probabilities, disease utility, costs of hospitalized patients developing complications, and case-fatality rates. Change in quality-adjusted life years was determined relative to base case. Oseltamivir 75 mg relative to no treatment reduced the median number of infected patients, increased change in quality-adjusted life years by deaths averted, and was cost-saving under all scenarios; 150 mg relative to 75 mg was not cost effective in low transmissibility scenarios but was cost saving in high transmissibility scenarios. This methodological study demonstrates proof of concept that the disciplines of pharmacology, disease epidemiology and health economics can be linked in a single quantitative framework. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. APLIKASI SEARCH ENGINE PAPER KARYA ILMIAH BERBASIS WEB DENGAN METODE FUZZY RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Adytia Darmadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of paper collected by an educational institution is incresing each year. The increasing number of paper collected demand a method in order to find the right paper everytime there is someone who needs a reference. By far, most search engine still depend on keyword matching / string maching to find the apropriate result. This method will only find the apropriate paper based on the occurance of the inserted keyword on the paper. This research will discuss a searching system using fuzzy relation, by using fuzzy relation the relation between keyword and paper is found and determined. Searching system using fuzzy relation allows the search result include paper that do not have the keyword to be shown as a result. This result is made posssible because the word which occur in the paper is related to keyword inserted. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Banyaknya jumlah paper yang dikoleksi sebuah lembaga pendidikan setiap tahun akan bertambah. Seiring dengan pertambahan jumlah paper tersebut maka diperlukan sebuah metode untuk mencari paper agar bila membutuhkan referensi maka paper/dokumen yang diperlukan dapat dengan mudah dapat ditemukan. Sejauh yang ada saat ini, kebanyakan mesin pencari masih mengandalkan pencarian dengan menggunakan keyword matching/string matching sehingga mengakibatkan hasil pencarian hanya akan menampilkan paper-paper yang mempunyai keyword/kata kunci yang dicari. Penelitan ini membahas sebuah sistem pencarian dengan menggunakan metode fuzzy relation, dimana dengan fuzzy relation didapatkan hubungan antara keyword dan paper. Dengan metode fuzzy relation maka sebuah pencarian mempunyai kemungkinan menampilkan hasil berupa paper yang tidak mengandung keyword yang dicari. Karena kata yang mengakibatkan paper (yang tidak mengandung keyword muncul mempunyai hubungan dengan keyword yang dimasukkan. Kata kunci: mesin pencari, relasi fuzzy, sistem cerdas.

  11. POTENSI JENDELA DALAM MEMINIMALKAN INTRUSI KEBISINGAN: SEBUAH STUDI AWAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost domestic building of warm humid climate depends very much on natural ventilation, and thus large openings. However, since adjacent street transforms into potential noise source, the openings will be critical points for noise intrusion. Opening design strategies is then of importance to adopt. Prior to this investigation, a computational simulation has been carried out to calculate ventilation rates within building to meet airflow requirement, which shows that there are three type of windows suitable to be employed. These windows, i.e. casement, top-hung and jalousie, were then to be examined of doing task in reducing noise ingress. The research shows indication rather than conclusion that jalousie window insignificantly offers better noise reduction than the two others do. Some unconsidered factors are predicted having effect on this result. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bangunan domestik sederhana, seperti rumah tinggal, yang berlokasi di negara tropis lembab seperti Indonesia, sangat bergantung pada keberadaan jendela demi kelangsungan ventilasi alami. Seiring pertumbuhan fungsi jalan di depan bangunan, jendela juga meupakan titik kritis terjadinya intrusi kebisingan dari jalan ke dalam bangunan. Oleh karenanya, perlu ditempuh kompromi desain jendela untuk kepentingan ventilasi dan reduksi kebisingan. Penelitian sebelumnya terhadap 3 model jendela menunjukkan bahwa ketiga jendela tersebut mampu mensuplai tingkat ventilasi yang disyaratkan. Pada penelitian ini ketiga model jendela tersebut kemudian diuji kemampuannya dalam mereduksi kebisingan melalui proses uji lapangan. Ketiga model tersebut adalah jendela casement, top-hung dan jalusi. Namun demikian, keterbatasan dana dan sumber daya telah menyebabkan beberapa faktor belum dapat diuji dalam penelitian ini. Faktor-faktor tersebut menyebabkan perbedaan hasil pengujian antara tiga jendela tersebut kurang signifikan. Hal ini menyebabkan penelitian belum dapat menghasilkan kesimpulan

  12. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease at Sub-National Level during the 2014 West Africa Epidemic: Model Scrutiny and Data Meagreness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Santermans

    Full Text Available The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has infected at least 27,443 individuals and killed 11,207, based on data until 24 June, 2015, released by the World Health Organization (WHO. This outbreak has been characterised by extensive geographic spread across the affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and by localized hotspots within these countries. The rapid recognition and quantitative assessment of localised areas of higher transmission can inform the optimal deployment of public health resources.A variety of mathematical models have been used to estimate the evolution of this epidemic, and some have pointed out the importance of the spatial heterogeneity apparent from incidence maps. However, little is known about the district-level transmission. Given that many response decisions are taken at sub-national level, the current study aimed to investigate the spatial heterogeneity by using a different modelling framework, built on publicly available data at district level. Furthermore, we assessed whether this model could quantify the effect of intervention measures and provide predictions at a local level to guide public health action. We used a two-stage modelling approach: a a flexible spatiotemporal growth model across all affected districts and b a deterministic SEIR compartmental model per district whenever deemed appropriate.Our estimates show substantial differences in the evolution of the outbreak in the various regions of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, illustrating the importance of monitoring the outbreak at district level. We also provide an estimate of the time-dependent district-specific effective reproduction number, as a quantitative measure to compare transmission between different districts and give input for informed decisions on control measures and resource allocation. Prediction and assessing the impact of control measures proved to be difficult without more accurate data. In conclusion, this study provides us a

  13. Perkembangan Profesional Konselor Untuk Memenuhi Kebutuhan Masyarakat Industri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhila Yusri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan sosial yang amat cepat dan makin kompleksnya keadaan masyarakat dewasa ini telah terjadi di seluruh belahan dunia. Perubahan itu melahirkan diferensiasi dan situasi global yang berbeda. Masyarakat industri yang tiap hari disibukkan dengan rutinitas pekerjaan dan kariernya. Bekerja di bawah tekanan dan kecemasan akan kesuksesan dalam kariernya. Bahkan banyak diantara mereka yang melupakan bahwasanya di rumah mereka mempunyai anak-anak dan keluarga yang membutuhkan perhatian lebih dan kasih sayang. Kecenderungan kriminalitas meningkat dan kenakalan remaja serta perbuatan-perbuatan yang melampaui norma-norma sosial semakin subur. Kehadiran konselor sepertinya menjawab tantangan zaman dan seiring dengan pesatnya kemajuan pasar global. Kantor berita online, careerbuilder.co.uk menulis dan menempatkan konselor dalam 10 besar profesi yang sangat dibutuhkan di dalam masyarakat saat ini. Alasannya dikemukakan bahwa tekanan hidup yang semakin meningkat membuat banyak orang menderita stres dan mengalami kecemasan berlebihan. Karena itu, tenaga konselor merupakan profesi yang dibutuhkan untuk membantu masyarakat dalam menghadapi berbagai permasalahan kehidupan di zaman globalisasi seperti saat sekarang ini. Seorang calon konselor  yang hanya cukup puas dengan kemampuan dan keahlian serta kompetensi yang sudah dikuasai secara benar dibangku perkuliahan saja tanpa membekali dengan kemampuan (skill lain. Hal ini, jelas akan menjadi pertanyaan besar, “apakah bisa menembus ketatnya persaingan dunia profesi di pasar global?”. Sementara dunia globalisasi menuntut pekerja profesional yang handal. Oleh karena itu, untuk dapat bersaing di pasar global konselor memang diharapkan untuk selalu mengembangkan kemampuan profesionalnya dibidang konseling. Arah pengembangan profesional konselor hendaknya disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan pasar global, hingga tenaga konselor dapat membantu masyarakat industri keluar dari berbagai permasalahan yang dihadapinya. Pada

  14. Two time-delay dynamic model on the transmission of malicious signals in wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshri, Neha; Mishra, Bimal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of time delay to reduce the adversary effect in WSN is explored. • Model with two time delays is proposed to analyse spread of malicious signal in WSN. • Dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown. • Threshold condition for switch of stability are obtained analytically. • Relation between stability and the two time delays is also explored. - Abstract: Deployed in a hostile environment, motes of a Wireless sensor network (WSN) could be easily compromised by the attackers because of several constraints such as limited processing capabilities, memory space, and limited battery life time etc. While transmitting the data to their neighbour motes within the network, motes are easily compromised due to resource constraints. Here time delay can play an efficient role to reduce the adversary effect on motes. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model SEIR (Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Recovered) with two time delays to describe the transmission dynamics of malicious signals in wireless sensor network. The first delay accounts for an exposed (latent) period while the second delay is for the temporary immunity period due to multiple worm outbreaks. The dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown from the point of stability which switches under some threshold condition specified by the basic reproduction number. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also depends on the threshold condition and that latent and temporary immunity period in a mote does not affect the stability, but they play a positive role to control malicious attack. Moreover, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis

  15. Isolation and Analytical Characterization of Local Malaysian Leech Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alaama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech saliva contains biologically active compounds that are mainly proteins and peptides. In this study a modified and smooth extraction method of saliva was used without leeches' scarification. UV and Bradford Assay protein methods showed that the saliva extract contains high concentrations of proteins. RP-HPLC chromatogram revealed that more than 30 different peaks were observed in leech saliva extract. Gel electrophoresis revealed the existence of proteins and peptides with different molecular weights. The gel showed up to 25 different bands. Comparison of gel electrophoresis data with protein database revealed the closeness of four molecular weights to known proteins from Hirudinaria leech family. Other proteins detected by gel electrophoresis may be related to completely new biologically active proteins and peptides in the saliva extract or to a modification (isoforms of the existing ones or finally to a mixture of both.ABSTRAK: Air liur pacat secara biologinya mengandungi sebahagian besar campuran aktif protein dan peptida. Dalam kajian ini, kaedah pengestrakan air liur pacat yang telah diubah suai digunakan tanpa perlu membunuh pacat. Kaedah protein Cerakin UV dan Bradford menunjukkan air liur pacat yang diekstrak mengandungi konsentrasi protein yang tinggi. Kromatogram RP-HPLC memperlihatkan lebih daripada 30 puncak berbeza diperolehi semasa air liur pacat diekstrak. Gel elektroforesis memperlihatkan kewujudan protein dan peptida dengan berat molekul yang berbeza. Gel menunjukkan hingga 25 jalur yang berbeza. Perbandingan data menggunakan gel elektroforesis seiring dengan pangkalan data protein memperlihatkan persamaan empat berat molekul, dengan protein yang yang dikenali daripada keluarga pacat Hirudinaria. Jenis protein lain yang dikesan dengan menggunakan gel elektrofosis mungkin juga berkait secara biologinya dengan protein dan peptida aktif yang baru, dalam ekstrak air liur atau pengubahsuaian (beberapa jenis yang berbeza daripada

  16. PRINSIP-PRINSIP EPISTEMOLOGI IMAM SYAFI’I DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA PERKEMBANGAN EPISTEMOLOGI HUKUM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dra. Tutik Hamidah, M.Ag.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemenuhan nafkah istri bukan hanya ketika ikatan perkawinan masih terjalin, namun pasca perceraian nafkah istri juga harus dipenuhi. Agama sangat jelas mengatur dan menjembatani hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan pemenuhan nafkah istri. Problem seputar  nafkah istri pasca perceraian sering kali menjadi kasus yang tak kunjung usai, karena banyak terjadi dari pihak mantan suami lalai memenuhi kewajibannya terhadap mantan istrinya, akibatnya pihak istri sering kali dirugikan. Kasus yang sering mencuat ke permukaan masyarakat  adalah disebabkan banyaknya istri yang awam hukum diselesaikan begitu saja, sementara hak- haknya diabaikan. Hal tersebut disebabkan karena masih banyak masyarakat yang belum melek hukum, terutama yang berkaitan dengan hukum-hukum agama. Di sisi lain suami masih cenderung menyepelekan kewajiban karena dianggap persoalan  sudah selesai seiring dengan putusan cerai, sehingga banyak yang tak memenuhi kewajibannya seperti: memberi nafkah selama iddah, pembagian harta bersama (gono gini, melunasi mahar yang terutang dan  memberikan biaya hadhanah kepada anak- anaknya. Maintenance is not only the right of  wife in the bond of  marriage but also after the divorce. However, women mostly denied the right of  maintenance after the dissolution of marriage. This denial is partly resulted from the women’s ignorance of  their legal right and partly due to the negligence of the men to carry out their duty of  maintenance falsely considering that the duty has ended by the termination of marriage. Maintenance during the waiting period (iddah, distribution of  estates (gono gini, giving the unpaid dower, and widow right of  retention are among the perplexing issues following the dissolution of  marriage. Sanction against the violation of  these rulings should be enacted and implemented.

  17. KEPASTIAN HUKUM HUKUM PEMENUHAN NAFKAH ISTRI PASCA PERCERAIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatul Jannah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemenuhan nafkah istri bukan hanya ketika ikatan perkawinan masih terjalin, namun pasca perceraian nafkah istri juga harus dipenuhi. Agama sangat jelas mengatur dan menjembatani hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan pemenuhan nafkah istri. Problem seputar  nafkah istri pasca perceraian sering kali menjadi kasus yang tak kunjung usai, karena banyak terjadi dari pihak mantan suami lalai memenuhi kewajibannya terhadap mantan istrinya, akibatnya pihak istri sering kali dirugikan. Kasus yang sering mencuat ke permukaan masyarakat  adalah disebabkan banyaknya istri yang awam hukum diselesaikan begitu saja, sementara hak- haknya diabaikan. Hal tersebut disebabkan karena masih banyak masyarakat yang belum melek hukum, terutama yang berkaitan dengan hukum-hukum agama. Di sisi lain suami masih cenderung menyepelekan kewajiban karena dianggap persoalan  sudah selesai seiring dengan putusan cerai, sehingga banyak yang tak memenuhi kewajibannya seperti: memberi nafkah selama iddah, pembagian harta bersama (gono gini, melunasi mahar yang terutang dan  memberikan biaya hadhanah kepada anak- anaknya. Maintenance is not only the right of  wife in the bond of  marriage but also after the divorce. However, women mostly denied the right of  maintenance after the dissolution of marriage. This denial is partly resulted from the women’s ignorance of  their legal right and partly due to the negligence of the men to carry out their duty of  maintenance falsely considering that the duty has ended by the termination of marriage. Maintenance during the waiting period (iddah, distribution of  estates (gono gini, giving the unpaid dower, and widow right of  retention are among the perplexing issues following the dissolution of  marriage. Sanction against the violation of  these rulings should be enacted and implemented.

  18. AUTOMATICTECTURE : OTOMATISASI PENUH DALAM ARSITEKTUR MASA DEPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Galieh Gunagama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Teknologi memudahkan umat manusia dalam hidup, akan tetapi, perkembangan yang terjadi juga membawa dampak negatif berupa terancamnya sejumlah profesi dengan adanya otomatisasi. Proses otomatisasi telah menggantikan porsi pekerjaan manusia dengan mesin berkecerdasan, dan tren tersebut akan semakin membesar seiring berjalannya waktu. Dalam hubungannya dengan studi eksperimental dan prediksi masa depan, dunia rancang bangun juga memiliki kemungkinan untuk diotomatisasikan dengan adanya perkembangan dalam bidang arsitektur digital, robotika, dan kecerdasan buatan. Di tengah kondisi global yang serba cepat dan penuh dinamika, dunia arsitektur perlu mempersiapkan diri dalam menghadapi perkembangan tersebut jika tidak ingin segera digantikan. Diskusi dalam paper ini mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi lebih dalam dan memprediksikan profesi arsitek pada masa depan dalam skenario terbaik dan terburuk terkait perkembangan proses otomatisasi yang semakin tidak terhindarkan.   Kata kunci: Arsitektur Eksperimental, Arsitektur Digital, Teknologi, Masa Depan ABSTRACT. Technology facilitates mankind in life, however, developments that occurred also had a negative impact in the form of threats to a number of professions with automatization. Automation process has replaced the portion of human work with the intelligent machine, and the trend will be growing over time. In conjunction with experimental studies and future predictions, the design and construction field also have the possibility to be automated with the development in the field of digital architecture, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Amid the global fast-paced and dynamic environment, architecture needs to be prepared in facing such developments if do not want to immediately replaced. The discussion in this paper attempts to explore deeper and predict the future of the profession in the best and worst case scenario related to the development of automation process which is increasingly

  19. Ekstraksi Pektin dari Kulit dan Tandan Pisang dengan Variasi Suhu dan Metode (Pectin Extraction from Banana Peels and Bunch with Various Temperatures and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2016-12-01

    ABSTRAK Seiring peningkatan produksi pisang tentu akan diikuti dengan peningkatan limbah pisang seperti kulit dan tandan buah pisang. Pemanfaatan limbah pisang tersebut masih belum optimal. Padahal di dalamnya terkandung substansi alami tanaman yang memiliki nilai guna tinggi yaitu pektin yang tersusun atas molekul asam galakturonat membentuk asam poligalakturonat. Pektin dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan penstabil pada sari buah, jelly, jam dan marmalade. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik tepung dari kulit dan tandan pisang, mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan suhu (60 °C dan 80 °C dan metode ekstraksi (satu, dua dan tiga tingkat terhadap rendemen pektin, serta karakteristik pektin yang terekstrak. Limbah pisang berasal dari pisang varietas agung dan embug. Ekstraksi pektin dilakukan dengan menggunakan pelarut air pada perbandingan tepung dan air sebesar 1:54 (ekstraksi satu tingkat, 1:27 (ekstraksi dua tingkat dan 1:18 (ekstraksi tiga tingkat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakrestik tepung limbah pisang yaitu kadar air berkisar antara 8,14 sampai dengan 9,05 % dengan kadar pektin tertinggi terdapat pada kulit pisang embug 4,54 % dan derajat putih tepung limbah pisang berkisar antara 50,80 sampai dengan 55,21 %. Rendemen pektin dapat terekstrak optimal pada kondisi ekstraksi suhu ekstraksi 80 °C dengan dua tingkat ekstraksi. Kulit pisang mengandung pektin lebih banyak daripada tandan pisang. Pektin yang terekstrak memiliki derajat putih sekitar 31,31 sampai dengan 38,12 %. Gugus fungsi pektin limbah pisang tersusun atas gugus alkohol (primer, sekunder dan tersier, amina primer, amida (monosub dan dwisubtitusi serta karbonat kovalen. Kata kunci: Kulit dan tandan pisang; ekstraksi; gugus fungsi; pektin; suhu

  20. POTENSI PEMAKAIAN KERIKIL PATERONGAN TORJUN DAN OMBEN DI PULAU MADURA UNTUK BETON STRUKTUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julistiono Handojo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural concrete in Madura increases with the development of the island, however coarse and fine aggregates which are used, mostly come from Jawa. This research explores the possibility of using the coarse aggregates from Madura taken from Paterongan, Torjun, and Omben. Although it is shown that in general the coarse aggregates are physically the same with aggregates from Mojokerto or Pasuruan and pass SNI, ACI, ASTM, and BS, only aggregate from Torjun pass the flakiness requirements. The fineness modulus of the aggregates do not pass SNI but pass the BS requirement. Using the aggregates in 225kg/cm2 concrete strength mix design fail to reach the target strength. Aggregates from Paterongan and Omben are only recommended for lean concrete, but there is a possibility to use aggregates from Torjun for structural concrete, with betterment in grading. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pemakaian beton di pulau Madura meningkat seiring dengan perkembangan pulau Madura tetapi agregat kasar dan halus yang digunakan untuk pembuatan beton masih banyak didatangkan dari pulau Jawa. Untuk melihat kemungkinan penggunaan krikil Madura sebagai agregat kasar beton, telah dilakukan penelitian kekuatan terhadap kerikil Madura yang berasal dari Paterongan, Torjun, dan Omben. Meskipun secara umum dapat dikatakan sifat-sifat fisik kerikil tersebut mendekati sama dengan kerikil dari Mojokerto atau Pasuruan dan memenuhi syarat SNI, ACI, ASTM maupun BS, hanya krikil dari Torjun yang memenuhi syarat kepipihan. Modulus kehalusan kerikil tersebut juga tidak memenuhi syarat SNI walaupun masih memenuhi syarat BS. Penggunaan kerikil Paterongan, Torjun, dan Omben untuk mix disain 225 kg/cm2 ternyata di bawah target yang diharapkan, sehingga kerikil Paterongan dan Omben direkomendasi hanya untuk beton rabat, sedangkan kerikil dari Torjun kemungkinan masih bisa digunakan untuk beton struktur dengan perbaikan gradasi.

  1. JERAMI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PANEL AKUSTIK PELAPIS DINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of walling panels with acoustic qualification has surprisingly increased, due to the needs for home theaters and mini recording studios in the increase of environmental noise. Therefore, good supply of acoustic panels, especially those with lower price are necessary. A series of study to explore possibility in using paddy-straw as main material to construct cheap and high quality panels has been developed. Prior to this study, an earlier small research showed there was a great potency in using paddy-straw as panels, especially ones drawn from paddy in type IR. The earlier study recommends further research to examine strength of compression and tensile of the constructed panels to go for building materials, which is presented in this paper. Acoustic qualification of the panels is subject for further reserach. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Kebutuhan akan panel pelapis dinding yang bersifat akustik terus meningkat seiring meningkatnya kebisingan dan kebutuhan terhadap ruang studio pribadi. Ketersediaan panel pelapis dinding dengan harga yang lebih terjangkau seperti yang terbuat dari bahan limbah sangatlah dibutuhkan. Pada penelitian awal telah diselidiki kemungkinan penggunaan jerami yang merupakan limbah sebagai bahan baku pembuatan panel akustik. Penelitian tersebut menunjukkan bahwa jerami sangat potensial digunakan sebagai bahan aku panel, terutama jerami padi berjenis IR. Selanjutnya panel jerami ini perlu mendapatkan perlakukan uji desak dan lentur untuk memastikan kemampuannya menahan berat sendiri dan kekuatannya saat proses penggunaan, sebelum akhirnya mengalami pengujian berkaitan dengan kualitas akustik. Kekuatan desak dan lentur panel dimaksud, tersaji dalam tulisan ini. Kata kunci: panel jerami, uji desak, uji lentur.

  2. Sistem Pemantauan Kadar pH, Suhu dan Warna pada Air Sungai Melalui Web Berbasis Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sabiq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water is a very important natural resource for human life and other living things. Water pollution, especially in river water, should be controlled because of the rapid development. One technology to monitor multiple physical quantities scattered in a region is the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. WSN technology has the ability to transmit data from sensor readings and forward data received from other nodes. In this study, prototype monitoring system of pH level, temperature, and color based on WSN that can be monitored through the developed web. The sensors at each node are connected to Arduino Uno as a processing unit, data read from the sensor is sent to the sync node via XBee wireless device. In the sink, the PC also serves as a database server and a web server is used. Test results with two different dispersion indicate that sensor readings can be read by all nodes and received by the sync node and can be displayed on web pages that have been built. Air merupakan sumber daya alam yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan manusia dan mahluk hidup lainnya. Pencemaran air khususnya air sungai perlu dikendalikan seiring makin cepatnya pembangunan. Salah satu teknologi untuk melakukan pemantauan besaran fisik dalam wilayah yang tersebar adalah Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, yang memiliki kemampuan untuk mengirimkan data hasil pembacaan sensor serta meneruskan data yang diterima dari node lain. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan purwarupa sistem pemantauan kadar pH, suhu dan warna berbasis WSN yang dapat dipantau melalui web. Sensor pada setiap node dihubungkan ke Arduino Uno sebagai unit pemroses, data yang dibaca dari sensor dikirimkan ke node sink melalui perangkat XBee nirkabel. Pada sink digunakan PC yang berfungsi juga sebagai database server dan web server. Hasil dari pengujian dengan dua penyebaran yang berbeda didapatkan hasil bahwa pembacaan sensor dapat dibaca oleh seluruh node dan diterima oleh sink serta dapat ditampilkan melalui laman web yang

  3. Koordinasi Kewenangan Pada Pengusahaan Panas Bumi untuk Keperluan Tenaga Listrik

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    Canggih Prabowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penyediaan energi terbarukan melalui pemanfaatan tidak langsung panas bumi merupakan tanggung jawab bersama antara pemerintah pusat dengan pemerintah daerah. Hal ini menimbulkan kewenangan sebagaimana diamanatkan Undang-Undang Nomor 30 Tahun 2007 tentang Energi dan Undang-Undang Nomor 30 tahun 2009 tentang Ketenagalistrikan. Seiring tuntutan penyediaan tenaga listrik mengalami peningkatan, beberapa kendala berupa koordinasi dan perizinan penggunaan kawasan hutan turut terjadi. Hal ini turut menjadi alasan perubahan Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah dan Undang-Undang Nomor 27 Tahun 2003 tentang Panas Bumi. Namun demikian, perubahan tersebut menimbulkan kerancuan berkenaan implementasi otonomi daerah menurut Pasal 18 Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Perselisihan koordinasi kewenangan antara badan dan/atau pejabat pemerintahan, dalam hal ini pemerintah kabupaten dengan Kementerian ESDM, juga telah muncul dan telah menjadi perkara yang diajukan ke Mahkamah Konsitusi. Abstract The provision of renewable energy through the use of indirect geothermal energy is a shared responsibility of the central government with local government authorities, as mandated in Law Number 30 Year 2007 on Energy and Law Number 30 of 2009 on Electricity. As the demand of electricity supply is increasing, some obstacles in the form of co-ordination and licensing the use of the forest area are also on the rise. On that basis, Law Number 32 Year 2004 on Regional Government and Law Number 27 Year 2003 on Geothermal are amended. Nevertheless, these changes create confusion in respect to the implementation of regional autonomy in accordance with Article 18 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945. Furthermore, a dispute on authorities coordination between governmental body and/or government officials, in this case between local government and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, has arisen and has

  4. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Silinder Pengganggu Di Depan Returning Blade Turbin Angin Savonius Terhadap Performa Turbin “ Studi Kasus Untuk Rasio Diameter Silinder Pengganggu Terhadap Diameter Turbin (d/D = 0,75 “

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    Retno Dewi Pamungkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara yang memiliki sumber daya alam yang melimpah, dimana sumber daya alam tersebut dapat dijadikan sebagai sumber energi. Seiring berjalannya waktu, ketersediaannya semakin menipis. Untuk mengatasi ketergantungan energi fosil, maka perlu pengembangan untuk mendapatkan sumber energi terbarukan.  Energi terbarukan yang belum banyak dimanfaatkan secara optimal dan berpotensi untuk dikembangkan adalah energi angin. Dengan meletakkan silinder pengganggu di depan returning blade turbin angin tipe Savonius, maka performa turbin angin dapat ditingkatkan. Hal tersebut merupakan tujuan dari penelitian ini. Untuk meningkatkan performa turbin angin Savonius yang berdiameter (D = 60 mm dan tinggi (H = 80 mm, digunakan silinder yang berdiameter (d = 45 mm yang diletakkan di depan returning blade turbin. Pengganggu diletakkan dengan variasi jarak 1,5 ≤ S/D ≤ 2,4. Penelitian dilakukan di dalam open circuit wind tunnel, dengan dimensi tes uji; panjang 457 mm, lebar 304 mm dan tinggi 304 mm. Pada kecepatan angin masuk sebesar 8,77 m/s; 10,97 m/s; 13,16 m/s yang sesuai dengan Re = 6,0 x 104; 7,5 x 104; 9,0 x 104 Kecepatan angin diukur menggunakan pitot-static tube ­yang terhubung dengan inclined manometer. Putaran dari turbin angin diukur menggunakan tachometer, torsi statis menggunakan torque meter dan daya turbin angin diperoleh dengan mengukur tegangan dan kuat arus yang dihasilkan oleh generator yang terhubung dengan poros turbin Savonius. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini adalah penggunaan silinder pengganggu yang diletakkan di depan returning blade terbukti efektif meningkatkan performa turbin angin. Selain itu, variasi jarak S/D yang diteliti berpengaruh terhadap performa turbin Savonius. Untuk semua bilangan Reynolds yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini didapatkan bahwa jarak S/D = 1,7 terbukti efektif meningkatkan performa turbin Savonius yang digunakan dalam penelitian. Hal ini ditandai dengan peak value dari putaran

  5. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds.

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    Viviane Hénaux

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates, considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1-2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50-60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  6. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.; Bunck, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI) epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI) viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates), considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1–2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP) AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50–60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  7. AKSESIBILITAS HOTEL HORISON BEKASI DENGAN MAL METROPOLITAN

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    Nadia Nursintia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Development of accommodation services is growing very fast, the construction of hotels ranging from low to star property confirms that the business is very profitable and promising. Growing hotel development as the presence and development of tourism in a region. Concept of mix used and are now growing in demand by developers. In addition to shorten the land, its facilities are increasingly in demand, because the concept of developing the land into two business buildings comprising the hotel and mall, can provide ease of access for service users to carry out all the activities that support their activities. Accessibility is a very important thing to be considered for the service users to choose the hotel accommodation that will be flown them. Distance, transportation, facilities, road conditions, and ease of location had been the benchmark and consideration to get a suitable hotel for their activities.   Keyword : Accessibility, Hotel   Abstrak - Perkembangan jasa akomodasi saat ini berkembang sangat cepat, dibangunnya hotel mulai dari hotel rendah hingga bintang menegaskan bahwa bisnis properti ini sangat menguntungkan dan menjanjikan. Pembangunan hotel berkembang seiring hadirnya dan berkembangnya pariwisata di suatu daerah. Konsep mix used pun kini semakin berkembang dan diminati oleh para pengembang. Selain karena mempersingkat lahan, fasilitas nya pun semakin diminati, karena konsep mengembangkan satu lahan menjadi dua bangunan usaha yang terdiri dari hotel dan mal, dapat memberikan kemudahan akses untuk para pengguna jasa untuk melakukan segala aktifitas yang mendukung kegiatannya. Aksesbilitas merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang menjadi pertimbangan bagi para pengguna jasa akomodasi untuk memilih hotel yang akan mereka singgahi. Jarak, transportasi, fasilitas, kondisi jalan, dan kemudahan lokasi lah yang menjadi tolak ukur dan pertimbangan untuk mendapatkan hotel yang cocok bagi kegiatan mereka.   Kata Kunci

  8. Optimizing reactive responses to outbreaks of immunizing infections: balancing case management and vaccination.

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    Petra Klepac

    Full Text Available For vaccine-preventable infections, immunization generally needs to be supplemented by palliative care of individuals missed by the vaccination. Costs and availability of vaccine doses and palliative care vary by disease and by region. In many situations, resources for delivery of palliative care are independent of resources required for vaccination; however we also need to consider the conservative scenario where there is some trade-off between efforts, which is of potential relevance for resource-poor settings. We formulate an SEIR model that includes those two control strategies--vaccination and palliative care. We consider their relative merit and optimal allocation in the context of a highly efficacious vaccine, and under the assumption that palliative care may reduce transmission. We investigate the utility of a range of mixed or pure strategies that can be implemented after an epidemic has started, and look for rule-of-thumb principles of how best to reduce the burden of disease during an acute outbreak over a spectrum of vaccine-preventable infections. Intuitively, we expect the best strategy to initially focus on vaccination, and enhanced palliative care after the infection has peaked, but a number of plausible realistic constraints for control result in important qualifications on the intervention strategy. The time in the epidemic when one should switch strategy depends sensitively on the relative cost of vaccine to palliative care, the available budget, and R0. Crucially, outbreak response vaccination may be more effective in managing low-R0 diseases, while high R0 scenarios enhance the importance of routine vaccination and case management.

  9. Autómata Celular Estocástico paralelizado por GPU aplicado a la simulación de enfermedades infecciosas en grandes poblaciones

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    José Ruiz-Castilla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de áreas de la ciencia están siendo beneficiadas por la reducción de tiempo de cómputo gracias al uso de las Unidades Gráficas de Proceso (GPU. En el caso de la Epidemiología, tales unidades agilizan la simulación de escenarios con poblaciones grandes, escenarios en los que el tiempo de procesamiento es muy significativo. El presente artículo introduce la simulación de eventos epidemiológicos basado en un modelo de Autó­matas Celulares Estocásticos (AC, el cual ofrece la implementación de las características principales de una enfermedad infecciosa a gran escala: contacto, vecindario, trayectorias y transmisibilidad. Un caso de estudio es simulado en una implementación del algoritmo AC para una enfermedad infecciosa de tipo SEIRS (Susceptible, Expuesto, Infectado, Recu­perado y Susceptible. Una población de 1 000 000 de individuos es paralelizada a través de un algoritmo de balanceo de procesos implementado en el lenguaje de programación C-CUDA. El resultado dado por el software paralelizado por GPU es comparado contra un análisis hecho del modelo paralelizado por multi-hilos CPU. Los resultados demuestran que el tiempo de cómputo puede ser reducido significativamente gracias al uso de C-CUDA.

  10. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT KERAPU BEBEK (Cromileptes altivelis HASIL BUDIDAYA

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    Ida Komang Wardana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kerapu bebek/kerapu tikus/humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan budidaya laut yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Sebelum berkembangnya kerapu hibrid, Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, sudah berhasil mengembangkan pembenihan ikan kerapu bebek meskipun sintasan yang diperoleh masih bervariasi. Pemantauan benih hasil budidaya sebagian besar terfokus pada pertumbuhan dan jika sudah mencapai ukuran konsumsi bisa dijual atau diekspor ke Hongkong. Sebagai institusi penelitian nampaknya masih perlu mengupas lebih detail komoditas yang dikembangkan. Beberapa catatan yang dapat diperhatikan, untuk lebih mengenal komoditas kerapu bebek, sebelum dijadikan sebagai ikon jenis ikan yang pernah memiliki masa kejayaan, karena saat ini popularitasnya relatif menurun karena ada larangan ekspor dan masuk dalam satwa CITES. Catatan tersebut antara lain; kerapu bebek selama fase yuwana (2-3 bulan dapat dijadikan sebagai kandidat ikan hias dengan performasi bintik bintik hitam pada permukaan tubuh yang merupakan keunikan tersendiri, karena jumlah dan polanya berbeda antara satu individu dengan yang lainnya serta akan bertambah jumlahnya seiring dengan bertambahnya umur dan bobot badan. Spot/bintik hitam kemungkinan identik dengan sidik jari manusia, yang bisa digunakan untuk membedakan antara satu individu dengan individu lainnya dalam satu populasi. Gonad kerapu bebek turunan pertama (F1 dengan umur dan kisaran bobot badan yang kurang lebih sama (600-900 g, menunjukkan 95% berada pada fase betina. Sementara pematangan dan pembentukan gonad jantan pada kerapu bebek hasil budidaya dapat dipacu dengan rangsangan hormonal dan pemberian pakan segar dengan kualitas yang baik. Dari hasil pengamatan diperoleh informasi bahwa kerapu bebek hasil budidaya dapat memijah dengan baik dan menghasilkan turunan generasi kedua (F2, akan tetapi kualitas telur dan larva yang dihasilkan masih lebih rendah bila

  11. PENDIDIKAN TEKHNOHUMANISTIK BERBASIS CORE ETHICAL VALUES

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    Akmal Mundiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisasi yang diantaranya berupa revolusi tekhnologi, transportasi, informasi dan komunikasi merupakan sebuah fakta yang tidak bisa dihindari dan pada akhirnya menjadikan dunia tanpa batas dan sekat. Oleh karenanya, pendidikan tentang pengetahuan dan tekhnologi harus menjadi garda terdepan guna menghadapi era globalisasi guna mengejar ketertinggalan. Mengingat, pendidikan ideal memang selalu bersifat antisipatif dan prepatoristik, yakni selalu mengacu ke masa depan, dan selalu mempersiapkan generasi muda untuk kehidupan masa depan yang jauh lebih baik, bermutu, dan bermakna tanpa kehilangan entitasnya. Akan tetapi, dewasa ini pendidikan bermakna telah kehilangan entitasnya karena masih sebatas transfer ilmu dan olah pikir, tetapi tidak membangun karakter siswa. Hal tersebut tentunya diakibatkan efek negative globalisasi terhadap pendidikan berpengaruh terhadap bergesernya orientasi pendidikan yang dikacaukan dalam proritas pelayanan persaingan global dari pada memelihara harmoni local sehingga pendidikan saat ini terkesan meredusir nilai-nilai budaya dan tunduk pada kepentingan industri dan kaum pemodal. Oleh karenanya, format pendidikan masa depan memang sudah seharusnya dirancang sedemikian rupa guna memberdayakan segala potensi kebangsaan dalam terma-terma nilai budaya tradisional dan terus berproses seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, dalam balutan tali temali kebudayaan nasional yang terberdayakan (empowerment. Model pendidikan karakter di masa depan harus disandarkan pada keluhuran dan kearifan nilai budaya lokal yang terbarukan. Salah satu model yang relevan untuk menjembatani keinginan tersebut adalah model pendidikan teknohumanistik, yaitu sebuah model rekayasa didaktik-metodik yang mentransformasikan budaya, sain, teknologi, dan nilai-nilai keadaban berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip harkat kemanusiaan, yang dalam aplikasinya bersandar pada nilai-nilai tradisional yang terbarukan dan terus berproses pada sumbu keunggulan lokal (local genius

  12. PENERAPAN ANIMASI INTERAKTIF DALAM PENGENALAN AKSARA SUNDA

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    Siti Maria Holida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Sundanese script is the work of Sundanese orthography to be maintained and preserved, because the Sundanese script is a cultural heritage that is priceless. Socialization of Sundanese script is very minimal done, although West Java government has to take legal actions in the form of regional regulations No. 5 of 2003 and the Governor's Decree no. 434 / SK.614 / dis-pk / 1999. Along with the increasing sophistication of technology, the use of interactive animations introduction Sundanese script can be used to promote literacy by explaining the meaning of the Sundanese, Sundanese script, history Sundanese script, how to write Sundanese script, as well as Sundanese script puzzle games as testing and entertainment. Application of interactive animation is the best solution which is very helpful in Sundanese script publicizes to the community, especially people of sundanese to be more interested in learning Sundanese script that became cultural heritage. Keywords : Interactive Animation , Script Sundanese Abstrak - Aksara Sunda merupakan hasil karya ortografi masyarakat Sunda yang harus dipelihara dan dilestarikan, karena aksara Sunda adalah warisan budaya yang tidak ternilai harganya. Sosialisasi aksara Sunda masih sangat minim dilakukan, meskipun pemerintah Jawa barat sudah melakukan upaya hukum dalam bentuk Peraturan daerah (Perda no.5 tahun 2003 dan Surat Keputusan Gubernur no. 434/SK.614/dis-pk/1999. Seiring dengan semakin canggihnya tekhnologi, penggunaan animasi interaktif pengenalan aksara sunda dapat digunakan untuk mensosialisasikan aksara Sunda dengan menjelaskan mengenai pengertian aksara Sunda, sejarah aksara Sunda, cara penulisan aksara Sunda, serta game puzzle aksara Sunda sebagai pengujian dan hiburannya. Penerapan animasi interaktif merupakan solusi terbaik yang sangat membantu dalam mensosialisakan aksara Sunda kepada masyarakat khususnya masyarakat Sunda agar lebih berminat mempelajari aksara Sunda yang menjadi warisan

  13. Breaking the waves: modelling the potential impact of public health measures to defer the epidemic peak of novel influenza A/H1N1.

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    Matthias An der Heiden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared phase 6 of the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. Although by the end of September 2009, the novel virus had been reported from all continents, the impact in most countries of the northern hemisphere has been limited. The return of the virus in a second wave would encounter populations that are still nonimmune and not vaccinated yet. We modelled the effect of control strategies to reduce the spread with the goal to defer the epidemic wave in a country where it is detected in a very early stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We constructed a deterministic SEIR model using the age distribution and size of the population of Germany based on the observed number of imported cases and the early findings for the epidemiologic characteristics described by Fraser (Science, 2009. We propose a two-step control strategy with an initial effort to trace, quarantine, and selectively give prophylactic treatment to contacts of the first 100 to 500 cases. In the second step, the same measures are focused on the households of the next 5,000 to 10,000 cases. As a result, the peak of the epidemic could be delayed up to 7.6 weeks if up to 30% of cases are detected. However, the cumulative attack rates would not change. Necessary doses of antivirals would be less than the number of treatment courses for 0.1% of the population. In a sensitivity analysis, both case detection rate and the variation of R0 have major effects on the resulting delay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Control strategies that reduce the spread of the disease during the early phase of a pandemic wave may lead to a substantial delay of the epidemic. Since prophylactic treatment is only offered to the contacts of the first 10,000 cases, the amount of antivirals needed is still very limited.

  14. Constructing rigorous and broad biosurveillance networks for detecting emerging zoonotic outbreaks.

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    Mac Brown

    Full Text Available Determining optimal surveillance networks for an emerging pathogen is difficult since it is not known beforehand what the characteristics of a pathogen will be or where it will emerge. The resources for surveillance of infectious diseases in animals and wildlife are often limited and mathematical modeling can play a supporting role in examining a wide range of scenarios of pathogen spread. We demonstrate how a hierarchy of mathematical and statistical tools can be used in surveillance planning help guide successful surveillance and mitigation policies for a wide range of zoonotic pathogens. The model forecasts can help clarify the complexities of potential scenarios, and optimize biosurveillance programs for rapidly detecting infectious diseases. Using the highly pathogenic zoonotic H5N1 avian influenza 2006-2007 epidemic in Nigeria as an example, we determined the risk for infection for localized areas in an outbreak and designed biosurveillance stations that are effective for different pathogen strains and a range of possible outbreak locations. We created a general multi-scale, multi-host stochastic SEIR epidemiological network model, with both short and long-range movement, to simulate the spread of an infectious disease through Nigerian human, poultry, backyard duck, and wild bird populations. We chose parameter ranges specific to avian influenza (but not to a particular strain and used a Latin hypercube sample experimental design to investigate epidemic predictions in a thousand simulations. We ranked the risk of local regions by the number of times they became infected in the ensemble of simulations. These spatial statistics were then complied into a potential risk map of infection. Finally, we validated the results with a known outbreak, using spatial analysis of all the simulation runs to show the progression matched closely with the observed location of the farms infected in the 2006-2007 epidemic.

  15. Temporal variability and social heterogeneity in disease transmission: the case of SARS in Hong Kong.

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    Anne Cori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which self-adopted or intervention-related changes in behaviors affect the course of epidemics remains a key issue for outbreak control. This study attempted to quantify the effect of such changes on the risk of infection in different settings, i.e., the community and hospitals. The 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak in Hong Kong, where 27% of cases were healthcare workers, was used as an example. A stochastic compartmental SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed model was used: the population was split into healthcare workers, hospitalized people and general population. Super spreading events (SSEs were taken into account in the model. The temporal evolutions of the daily effective contact rates in the community and hospitals were modeled with smooth functions. Data augmentation techniques and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods were applied to estimate SARS epidemiological parameters. In particular, estimates of daily reproduction numbers were provided for each subpopulation. The average duration of the SARS infectious period was estimated to be 9.3 days (+/-0.3 days. The model was able to disentangle the impact of the two SSEs from background transmission rates. The effective contact rates, which were estimated on a daily basis, decreased with time, reaching zero inside hospitals. This observation suggests that public health measures and possible changes in individual behaviors effectively reduced transmission, especially in hospitals. The temporal patterns of reproduction numbers were similar for healthcare workers and the general population, indicating that on average, an infectious healthcare worker did not infect more people than any other infectious person. We provide a general method to estimate time dependence of parameters in structured epidemic models, which enables investigation of the impact of control measures and behavioral changes in different settings.

  16. Studi Laju Transpirasi Peltophorum dassyrachis dan Gliricidia sepium Pada Sistem Budidaya Tanaman Pagar Serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Konduktivitas Hidrolik Tidak Jenuh

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    Sugeng Prijono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laju transpirasi tanaman bervariasi dengan karakter vegetasi, karakter tanah, lingkungan dan budidaya tanaman. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari perbedaan kadar lengas tanah dan laju transpirasi tanaman pagar, dan pengaruh laju transpirasi tanaman terhadap konduktivitas hidrolik tidak jenuh. Studi ini dilakukan di Daerah Karta, Lampung Utara, Indonesia selama tiga bulan. Studi ini menggunakan Rancangan Petak Terbagi, dengan dua perlakuan petak utama (jenis tanaman pagar yaitu Peltophorum dassyrachis (P dan Gliricidia sepium (G. Dua perlakuan (anak petak adalah jarak tanaman 40 cm (A dan 120 cm (B. Masing-masing perlakuan ini diulang empat kali.  Pengamatan kadar lengas tanah dilakukan dengan mengkalibrasikan hasil pengukuran Neutron Probe dengan kadar air gravimetrik. Laju transpirasi tanaman dihitung berdasarkan selisih antara kadar lengas tanah pada perlakuan tanaman pagar tanpa perakaran (T dengan kadar lengas tanah pada perlakuan tanaman pagar dengan perakaran (R. Konduktivitas hidrolik tidak jenuh diukur dengan menggunakan metode Pedo Transfer Functions. Data hasil pengamatan selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan metode analisis ragam (ANOVA, uji korelasi dan regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar lengas tanah di bawah G. sepium lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan P. dassyrachis, kecuali pengamatan hari ke-0 di kedalaman 40-70 cm. Kadar lengas tanah cenderung menurun seiring dengan waktu pengamatan pada semua jenis tanaman pagar dan jarak tanamnya. Laju transpirasi G. sepium lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan P. dassyrachis pada kedalaman tanah 0-40 cm, sedangkan pada kedalaman 40-60 cm laju transpirasi kedua jenis tanaman pagar tersebut adalah sama. Pada kedalaman tanah 0-20 cm, laju transpirasi tanaman pagar dengan jarak tanam 40 cm lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan jarak 120 cm. Sedangkan pada kedalaman tanah 20-60 cm, laju transpirasi tanaman pagar dengan jarak 120 cm lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan jarak tanam 40 cm. Hasil uji

  17. Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Intensitas Cahaya terhadap Performa DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell dengan Ekstrak Buah dan Sayur Sebagai Dye Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruz Zadit Taqwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya adalah peralatan yang dapat mengubah energi matahari menjadi energi listrik dengan menggunakan efek photovoltaic. Desain dan konstruksi dari solar cell mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan berkembangnya teknologi saat ini, hingga pada tahun 1991 ditemukan DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell. Sampai saat ini bahan yang umum digunakan sebagai dye pada pembuatan DSSC adalah ruthenium complex yang berharga mahal dan sulit untuk disintesa. Karena itu perlu dilakukannya penelitian tentang penggunaan bahan lain yang murah dan mudah untuk disintesa sebagai bahan dye, karena itu perlu diadakan pengujian terhadap performa yang dihasilkan dari DSSC dengan bahan dye tersebut dan apa saja variabel yang mempengaruhinya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi eksperimental terhadap prototype DSSC dengan variasi bahan dye sensitizer dari ekstrak kulit manggis (Garcinia mangostana, ekstrak daun bayam (Amaranthus hybridus l. ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. Pengujian prototype DSSC dilakukan dengan cara menyinarinya menggunakan cahaya lampu halogen yang diatur tegangannya menggunakan sebuah dimmer untuk mengendalikan temperatur dari lampu, sehingga lampu tersebut menghasilkan variasi tintensitas cahaya sebesar 29 W/m2, 36 W/m2 dan 49 W/m2. Selanjutnya pengujian dilakukian dengan cara yang sama, tetapi dengan ditambahkan pendingin berupa air yang mengalir dibawah permukaan prototype DSSC. Penilitian ini menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa semakin tinggi intensitas cahaya, maka semakin tinggi Pmax yang dihasilkan oleh prototype. Semakin bertambah temperatur pencahayaan maka semakin berkurang performa dari prototype DSSC. Efisiensi yang paling besar dihasilkan oleh prototype dengan bahan dye dari ekstrak kulit manggis pada intensitas 29 W/m2 sebesar 0,73%,Pendinginan yang diberikan kepada prototype mampu memperbaiki efisiensi dari prototype DSSC yang dibuat akan tetapi tidak signifikan.

  18. Mathematical model of tuberculosis epidemic with recovery time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Taufiq; Chaniago, Natasya Ayuningtia; Munzir, Said; Halfiani, Vera; Ramli, Marwan

    2017-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease which can cause death. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis which generally affects lungs and other organs such as lymph gland, intestine, kidneys, uterus, bone, and brain. The spread of TB occurs through the bacteria-contaminated air which is inhaled into the lungs. The symptoms of the TB patients are cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, appetite lose, weight lose, fever, cold, and fatigue. World Health Organization (WHO) reported that Indonesia placed the second in term of the most TB cases after India which has 23 % cases while China is reported to have 10 % cases in global. TB has become one of the greatest death threats in global. One way to countermeasure TB disease is by administering vaccination. However, a medication is needed when one has already infected. The medication can generally take 6 months of time which consists of two phases, inpatient and outpatient. Mathematical models to analyze the spread of TB have been widely developed. One of them is the SEIR type model. In this model the population is divided into four groups, which are suspectible (S), exposed (S), infected (I), recovered (R). In fact, a TB patient needs to undergo medication with a period of time in order to recover. This article discusses a model of TB spread with considering the term of recovery (time delay). The model is developed in SIR type where the population is divided into three groups, suspectible (S), infected (I), and recovered (R). Here, the vaccine is given to the susceptible group and the time delay is considered in the group undergoing the medication.

  19. Analisis Model Pembelajaran Tipe Think-Pair-Share Berbasis Pemecahan Masalah Terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi Siswa

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    Sumarli Sumarli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pembelajaran fisika sampai saat ini lebih mengutamakan penilaian hasil belajar tanpa menilai proses pembelajarannya. Selain itu, sistem penilaian prestasi siswa lebih banyak didasarkan melalui tes-tes yang sifatnya menguji kemampuan kognitif tingkat rendah sehingga menyebabkan rendahnya prestasi siswa Indonesia di bidang sains khususnya fisika yang masih di bawah rata-rata internasional. Kemampuan kognitif tingkat rendah ini belum melibatkan proses analisis siswa. Untuk melibatkan proses analisis siswa diperlukan tes yang menguji kemampuan kognitif tingkat tinggi. Namun untuk memberikan tes yang dapat menguji kemampuan kognitif tingkat tinggi diperlukan proses pembelajaran yang dapat memberikan pengalaman langsung pada siswa. Pembelajaran yang melatih keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi dapat dikembangkan melalui pembelajaran langsung dengan tujuan agar siswa dapat memperoleh ingatan dalam jangka panjang dan siswa juga dapat mengonstruk pengetahuannya sendiri, tetapi kenyataannya secara umum pembelajaran fisika didominasi dengan metode ceramah. Aktivitas siswa hanya terbatas pada mendengarkan, mencatat, menjawab pertanyaan bila guru memberikan pertanyaan, maka proses pembelajaran tersebut jelas tidak mendorong siswa untuk berpikir kritis dan kreatif dalam beraktivitas. Salah satu model pembelajaran yang sesuai dengan permasalahan tersebut adalah model pembelajaran tipe Think-Pair-Share (TPS berbasis pemecahan masalah. Model ini dapat mengembangkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi pada diri siswa, membuat siswa terlibat langsung dalam proses pembelajaran sehingga siswa belajar konstruktif tidak bersifat hapalan dan melatih siswa untuk melakukan proses berpikir dan mengungkapkan pendapat dalam memecahkan permasalahan yang ada. Dengan adanya model pembelajaran tersebut diharapkan dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi siswa yang meliputi keterampilan menganalisis, mengevaluasi, dan menciptakan seiring dengan meningkatnya

  20. Evaluation of targeted influenza vaccination strategies via population modeling.

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    John Glasser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of two earlier studies concluded, respectively, that optimal targets depend on objectives and cautioned against changing policy. Which should we believe? METHODS AND FINDINGS: In matrices whose elements are contacts between persons by age, the main diagonal always predominates, reflecting contacts between contemporaries. Indirect effects (e.g., impacts of vaccinating one group on morbidity or mortality in others result from off-diagonal elements. Mixing matrices based on periods in proximity with others have greater sub- and super-diagonals, reflecting contacts between parents and children, and other off-diagonal elements (reflecting, e.g., age-independent contacts among co-workers, than those based on face-to-face conversations. To assess the impact of targeted vaccination, we used a time-usage study's mixing matrix and allowed vaccine efficacy to vary with age. And we derived mortality rates either by dividing observed deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza by average annual cases from a demographically-realistic SEIRS model or by multiplying those rates by ratios of (versus adding to them differences between pandemic and pre-pandemic mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: In our simulations, vaccinating older children, adolescents, and young adults averts the most cases, but vaccinating either younger children and older adults or young adults averts the most deaths, depending on the age distribution of mortality. These results are consistent with those of the earlier studies.

  1. DELIGNIFIKASI BAMBU PETUNG (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER DENGAN EKSTRAK ABU JERAMI PADI DAN KAYU

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    Endah Sulistiawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan tekstil di Indonesia terus meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk. Selama ini pemenuhan tekstil sebagian besar diimpor dari beberapa negara, antara lain: India, China, dan Jepang. Di sisi lain, Indonesia merupakan negara agraris, dengan limbah pertanian yang melimpah. Juga tanaman bambu tumbuh subur dan banyak terdapat di negeri ini. Keunggulan serat tekstil bambu adalah bersifat antiseptik, tahan terhadap mikroba. Penelitian ini merupakan salah satu langkah dalam pembuatan serat tekstil alami dari bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper dan limbah pertanian yaitu abu jerami padi dan kayu, yaitu tahap delignifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini mencari waktu perendaman bambu dalam ekstrak abu yang memberikan hasil terbaik. Bambu dipotong dan dibelah tipis, berukuran panjang 15 cm, setebal 0,5 mm. Mula-mula sampel bambu ditimbang (antara 12 sampai 57 gram, lalu direndam dalam ekstrak abu (jerami padi dan kayu sebanyak 500 ml dalam sebuah botol berkapasitas 600 ml dan ditutup. Perendaman dilakukan pada suhu kamar. Waktu perendaman bervariasi dari 4 jam hingga 80 jam. Setelah perendaman selesai, hasil disaring. Sampel filtrat dititrasi untuk diketahui konsentrasi alkali aktifnya. Bambu yang telah direndam lalu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 110ºC sampai berat tetap. Selisih berat antara bambu awal dan akhir (kering dihitung, dan dianggap sebagai lignin yang terdegradasi. Dari penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dari pada ekstrak abu kayu, karena pengurangan berat padatan lebih besar. Hasil yang tertinggi pada perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi selama 76 jam, dengan selisih berat (basis kering mencapai 44,5%.

  2. CONSUMER PREFERENCE IN TYPE OF HOUSE APPEARANCE OFFERED BY HOUSING DEVELOPER IN SEMARANG

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    Ali Alsharef Khlil Khalifah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persaingan tajam antara bisnis properti perusahaan meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya populasi dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan rumah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis preferensi konsumen tentang penampilan rumah yang ditawarkan oleh pengembang perumahan di Semarang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini pengunjung dari pameran perumahan diselenggarakan di beberapa Mall di Semarang. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah persepsi responden tentang preferensi konsumen dalam jenis penampilan rumah dengan analisis deskriptif karena dalam analisis deskriptif akan mencerminkan pendapat sebenarnya dari responden penelitian. Berdasarkan hasil dan analisis, kesimpulan dalam penelitian ini adalah: Jenis rumah yang konsumen paling sukai adalah tipe minimalis dan yang kedua adalah tipe Vernakular. Hal ini karena bentuk Minimalist yang ramping dan menarik di hampir setiap ruang. Tipe Minimalis juga memiliki keunikan yang sangat sederhana dan menarik juga modern. Jenis minimalis sangat populer dan harga yang lebih rendah. Sementara itu, jenis vernakular lebih hampir oleh pengusaha yang berasal dari masyarakat kelas tinggi dan mereka mengatakan jenis vernakular besar dan mewah, juga georgeous. [Title: Consumer Preference in Type of House Appearance Offered by Housing Developer in Semarang] Competition among companies property enhances along with increasing population coupled with the increasing needs of house. The purpose of this study is to analyze the consumer preference in type of house appearance offered by housing developer in Semarang. The method used in this research is qualitative methods because the qualitative methods more better in explaining the phenomena in practices. The analytical method used is depending on respondent perception about consumer preference in type of house appearance with descriptive analysis. The house type that the consumer prefer mostly is minimalist type and the second is Vernacular type. This is because the spare

  3. Development of a forecasting model for brucellosis spreading in the Italian cattle trade network aimed to prioritise the field interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, L; Candeloro, L; Conte, A; De Massis, F; Giovannini, A

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus is an important zoonosis that constitutes a serious hazard to public health. Prevention of human brucellosis depends on the control of the disease in animals. Livestock movement data represent a valuable source of information to understand the pattern of contacts between holdings, which may determine the inter-herds and intra-herd spread of the disease. The manuscript addresses the use of computational epidemic models rooted in the knowledge of cattle trade network to assess the probabilities of brucellosis spread and to design control strategies. Three different spread network-based models were proposed: the DFC (Disease Flow Centrality) model based only on temporal cattle network structure and unrelated to the epidemiological disease parameters; a deterministic SIR (Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered) model; a stochastic SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) model in which epidemiological and demographic within-farm aspects were also modelled. Containment strategies based on farms centrality in the cattle network were tested and discussed. All three models started from the identification of the entire sub-network originated from an infected farm, up to the fifth order of contacts. Their performances were based on data collected in Sicily in the framework of the national eradication plan of brucellosis in 2009. Results show that the proposed methods improves the efficacy and efficiency of the tracing activities in comparison to the procedure currently adopted by the veterinary services in the brucellosis control, in Italy. An overall assessment shows that the SIR model is the most suitable for the practical needs of the veterinary services, being the one with the highest sensitivity and the shortest computation time.

  4. MANAJEMEN KOMUNIKASI PASANGAN PEKERJA RUMAH TANGGA DI JAKARTA DALAM MENGHADAPI KRISIS KEUANGAN KELUARGA

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    Dyah Sri Subandiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In some big cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya and Bandung, communication patterns began to change with a shift in values and culture. One important dimension of family communication is adaptation to change. Communication theory used in the Family, the Family Adaptation, Communication Patterns, and Financial Crisis This research is a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data collection techniques using face-to-face in-depth interviews and continuously to get information from informants. Because the interviews were conducted more than once, it is also called intensive interviews.The findings showed three communication strategies in the face of the financial crisis (1 proactive, trying actively to discuss financial issues, (2 prediction in the form of social gathering needs brother, and (3 social networks, namely improving communication with the utilization of information technology.While internally, the couple's communication patterns are applied is interactional. There is no openness and reciprocity between the two. Starting with a new pattern of nonverbal communication continued to verbal communication. Beberapa kota besar seperti Jakarta, Surabaya dan Bandung, pola komunikasi mulai berubah seiring dengan terjadinya pergeseran nilai-nilai dan budaya. Salah satu dimensi penting dalam komunikasi keluarga adalah adaptasi terhadap perubahan. Teori yang digunakan Komunikasi dalam Keluarga, Adaptasi dalam Keluarga, Pola Komunikasi, dan Krisis Keuangan Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan menggunakan pendekatan fenomenologi. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan wawancara tatap muka secara mendalam dan terus menerus untuk menggali informasi dari informan. Karena wawancara dilakukan lebih dari satu kali, maka disebut juga intensive interviews.Temuan penelitian menunjukkan tiga strategi komunikasi dalam menghadapi krisis keuangan yakni (1 proaktif, mencoba aktif untuk membicarakan masalah keuangan, (2 prediksi kebutuhan

  5. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  6. Combined Administration of Taurine and Monoisoamyl Dmsa Protects Arsenic Induced Oxidative Injury in Rats

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    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA, administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG. These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co

  7. Accumulation of lead (Pb) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a lake downstream a former shooting range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariussen, Espen; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans Christian; Pettersen, Marit Nandrup; Holth, Tor Fredrik; Salbu, Brit; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav

    2017-01-01

    An environmental survey was performed in Lake Kyrtjønn, a small lake within an abandoned shooting range in the south of Norway. In Lake Kyrtjønn the total water concentrations of Pb (14µg/L), Cu (6.1µg/L) and Sb (1.3µg/L) were elevated compared to the nearby reference Lake Stitjønn, where the total concentrations of Pb, Cu and Sb were 0.76, 1.8 and 0.12µg/L, respectively. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) from Lake Kyrtjønn had very high levels of Pb in bone (104mg/kg w.w.), kidney (161mg/kg w.w.) and the gills (137mg/kg d.w), and a strong inhibition of the ALA-D enzyme activity were observed in the blood (24% of control). Dry fertilized brown trout eggs were placed in the small outlet streams from Lake Kyrtjønn and the reference lake for 6 months, and the concentrations of Pb and Cu in eggs from the Lake Kyrtjønn stream were significantly higher than in eggs from the reference. More than 90% of Pb accumulated in the egg shell, whereas more than 80% of the Cu and Zn accumulated in the egg interior. Pb in the lake sediments was elevated in the upper 2-5cm layer (410-2700mg/kg d.w), and was predominantly associated with redox sensitive fractions (e.g., organic materials, hydroxides) indicating low potential mobility and bioavailability of the deposited Pb. Only minor amounts of Cu and Sb were deposited in the sediments. The present work showed that the adult brown trout, as well as fertilized eggs and alevins, may be subjected to increased stress due to chronic exposure to Pb, whereas exposure to Cu, Zn and Sb were of less importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloy Bearing Al for Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdul-Ameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Hoe, Teh Guan; Che, Fa Xing; Abood, Adnan Naama

    2012-08-01

    This work investigates the effects of 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions on bulk alloy microstructure and tensile properties as well as on the thermal behavior of Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu (SAC105) lead-free solder alloy. The addition of 0.1 wt.% Al reduces the amount of Ag3Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) particles and leads to the formation of larger ternary Sn-Ag-Al IMC particles. However, the addition of 0.5 wt.% Al suppresses the formation of Ag3Sn IMC particles and leads to a large amount of fine Al-Ag IMC particles. Moreover, both 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions suppress the formation of Cu6Sn5 IMC particles and lead to the formation of larger Al-Cu IMC particles. The 0.1 wt.% Al-added solder shows a microstructure with coarse β-Sn dendrites. However, the addition of 0.5 wt.% Al has a great effect on suppressing the undercooling and refinement of the β-Sn dendrites. In addition to coarse β-Sn dendrites, the formation of large Sn-Ag-Al and Al-Cu IMC particles significantly reduces the elastic modulus and yield strength for the SAC105 alloy containing 0.1 wt.% Al. On the other hand, the fine β-Sn dendrite and the second-phase dispersion strengthening mechanism through the formation of fine Al-Ag IMC particles significantly increases the elastic modulus and yield strength of the SAC105 alloy containing 0.5 wt.% Al. Moreover, both 0.1 wt.% and 0.5 wt.% Al additions worsen the elongation. However, the reduction in elongation is much stronger, and brittle fracture occurs instead of ductile fracture, with 0.5 wt.% Al addition. The two additions of Al increase both solidus and liquidus temperatures. With 0.5 wt.% Al addition the pasty range is significantly reduced and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) endotherm curve gradually shifts from a dual to a single endothermic peak.

  9. The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2009-07-01

    '-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD, the second step. Similarly, Escherichia coli hemH (FC deficient strains transformed with human and Wolbachia FC homologues showed significantly different sensitivities to NMMP. This approach enables functional complementation in E. coli heme deficient mutants as an alternative E. coli-based method for drug screening.Our studies indicate that the heme biosynthetic genes in the Wolbachia of B. malayi (wBm might be essential for the filarial host survival. In addition, the results suggest they are likely candidate drug targets based upon significant differences in phylogenetic distance, biochemical properties and sensitivities to heme biosynthesis inhibitors, as compared to their human homologues.

  10. Síndrome metabólico: concepto y aplicación práctica

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    Juan Carlos Lizarzaburu Robles

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome metabólico (SM es un conjunto de anormalidades metabólicas consideradas como un factor de riesgo para desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular y diabetes. Los componentes del SM se han definido según diferentes guías y consensos. Las definiciones propuestas por el National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III y la International Diabetes Federation (IDF son las más utilizadas en las diferentes publicaciones; sin embargo, se han realizado actualizaciones para diferentes poblaciones según la etnia y ubicación geográfica, como es el caso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes (ALAD, que define un perímetro abdominal determinado para la región América Latina. En el año 2009, la publicación Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome sugirió un consenso para el diagnóstico de SM tratando de unificar los criterios de las diferentes organizaciones. Respecto a la fisiopatología del SM, la resistencia a insulina ha sido considerada como base del desarrollo del conjunto de anormalidades que lo conforman, sugiriendo a la obesidad abdominal o central como responsable del desarrollo de la insulino resistencia. Las adipoquinas producidas por el tejido adiposo abdominal actuarían directa o indirectamente en el desarrollo de los componentes del síndrome. Es importante mencionar que el síndrome metabólico ha sido considerado un equivalente diagnóstico de prediabetes, por ser predictor de diabetes. El incremento en la prevalencia del SM a nivel mundial le ha otorgado una gran importancia en la prevención y control de riesgo de la enfermedad cardiovascular y la diabetes. En el presente artículo revisaremos importantes aspectos sobre la definición y diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico.

  11. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Saibaba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Department of Radiation Oncology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka (India); Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu, E-mail: ksatyamoorthy@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  12. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  13. Metal contamination in wildlife living near two zinc smelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Pattee, O.H.; Sileo, L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    blood cell ALAD activity was greatly reduced, one kidney contained acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, and the other kidney had 280 mg kg-1 Pb (wet wt). The livers from two cuckoos from Palmerton had elevated Pb concentrations (18 and 25 mg kg-1, wet wt). Most of the songbirds seemed to be healthy.

  14. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

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    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  15. Prespektif Pemikiran Ki Hadjar Dewantara Dalam Pendidikan Karakter Dan Kaitannya Dengan Pendidikan Islam

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    Fauziah Mashari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas pendidikan karakter dalam perspektif Ki Hadjar Dewantara yang merupakan Bapak Pendidikan Nasional, dan kaitannya dengan pendidikan Islam. Di dalam pembangunan karakter yang dipentingkan adalah keikhlasan, kejujuran, jiwa kemanusiaan yang tinggi, sesuainya kata dengan perbuatan, prestasi kerja, kedisiplinan, jiwa dedikasi dan selalu berorientasi kepada hari depan dan pembaharuan. Pembinaan karakter akhlaq-ul kari>mah harus ditanamkan kepada seluruh lapisan dan tingkatan masyarakat, mulai dari tingkat atas sampai ke lapisan bawah. Lapisan atas itu kemudian memberikan teladan yang baik pada masyarakat dan rakyatnya. Tetapi manakala para pemimpin memberikan contoh yang buruk, maka akan berlaku pepatah yang menyatakan, “kalau guru kencing berdiri, murid akan kencing berlari; andai kata guru kencing berdiri, niscaya murid akan kencing menari-nari.” Berdasarkan latar belakang masalah tersebut diatas, tulisan ini bermaksud mencari jawaban dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan mendasar berikut: (1 bagaimana pengertian pendidikan karakter Ki Hadjar Dewantara? (2 bagaimana pengertian pendidikan agama? (3 bagaimana kaitan pendidikan karakter Ki Hadjar Dewantara dengan pendidikan Islam? Uraian dari jawaban yang dimaksud akan menunjukkan secara gamblang bahwa gagasan Ki Hadjar Dewantara tentang pendidikan karakter seiring dan sejalan dengan pendidikan Islam. || This article discusses character education in the perspective of Ki Hadjar Dewantara who is Father of National Education, and its relation to Islamic education. What is necessary for constructing the character is sincerity, honesty, spirit of humanity, suitability of words and deeds, work performance, discipline, dedication and spirit. Character building of akhlāq-ul karīmah must be imparted to all layers and levels of society, from top to bottom layer. Then, the top layer gives good examples to the society and its people. When the leaders have bad examples, so there is a strong and

  16. Insidens Riwayat Hipertensi dan Diabetes Melitus pada Pasien Penyakit Jantung Koroner di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang

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    Putri Yuriandini Yulsam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyakit jantung koroner (PJK merupakan salah satu penyakit non-infeksi yang menjadi sorotan dunia. Hal ini terkait dengan adanya perubahan gaya hidup seiring dengan perkembangan zaman. WHO pada tahun 2008 memperkirakan 17,3 juta jiwa meninggal akibat penyakit kardiovaskular, 7,3 juta jiwa diakibatkan oleh PJK dan 6,2 juta akibat strok. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran insidens riwayat hipertensi dan diabetes melitus pada pasien PJK di RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan rancangan potong lintang yang dilakukan di Bagian Rekam Medik RS. Dr. M. Djamil Padang yang berlangsung dari Februari 2012 sampai Maret 2013. Populasi penelitian sebanyak 184 rekam medik, tetapi yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi sebanyak 124 sampel Pengolahan data dilakukan secara manual dan ditampilkan dalam bentuk tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan distribusi frekuensi pasien PJK berdasarkan usia yaitu kelompok usia 51-56 tahun sebesar 30,64% dan sebagian besar adalah laki-laki (75%. Prevalensi riwayat hipertensi pada pasien PJK didapatkan sebesar 46,77%, sedangkan riwayat diabetes melitus sebesar 10,48%.Kata kunci: penyakit jantung koroner, hipertensi, diabetes mellitus AbstractCoronary heart disease (CHD is one of the non-infectious disease that become the world spotlight. It is associated with a change in lifestyle paralel to the era development. WHO in 2008 estimated that 17,3 million people died from cardiovascular disease, 7,3 million attributable to CHD, and 6,2 million died due to stroke. The objective of this study was to describe the incident history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in patient with CHD in Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang. This was a descriptive study with cross sectional design which carried out in Medical Record of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang from February 2012 until March 2013. The population in this study were 184 medical record, but the samples had

  17. Studi Pengaruh Pemasangan NGR 40 Ohm pada Uprating Transformator 2 GI Gianyar Terhadap Gangguan Hubung Singkat 1 Phasa Tanah

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    Arya Surya Darma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of ever-increasing burden on the GI Gianyar then the transformer unit 2 with a capacity of 30 MVA will be uprating with a capacity of 60 MVA transformer. To maintain the continuity and reliability of the flow of electrical power to the consumer , NGR (Neutral Grounding Resistance and relay SBEF is used as the safety equipment of the short circuit 1 phase to ground was not in to the neutral point of the transformer. Uprating of transformers that have been done changes on 1 phase fault current to ground when using a direct earthing systems with a value to become 1838.21 A. While the value of the short-circuit current 1 phase to ground after pairing NGR 40 Ohm value is fixed at 288.675 A, so that the current setting and time relay SBEF fixed at 90 A and 7.067 seconds. The analysis result from the effect of installation NGR and rele SBEF on the transformer 60 MVA against short circuit 1 phase to ground has the ability good protection for the value of the fault current is able to be reduced from 1838,21 A into 288.675 A after pairing NGR 40 Ohm and time is needed SBEF to handle distractions 7.067 seconds. Intisari- Seiring dengan perkembangan beban yang terus meningkat di GI Gianyar maka transformator unit 2 berkapasitas 30 MVA akan di lakukan uprating (penggantian dengan transformator berkapasitas 60 MVA. Untuk menjaga kontinyuitas dan keandalan aliran daya listrik sampai ke konsumen (beban, NGR (Neutral Grounding Resistance dan rele SBEF dipergunakan sebagai peralatan pengaman dari gangguan hubung singkat phasa tanah agar arus gangguan 1 phasa ke tanah tidak sampai mengalir ke titik netral transformator. Dari uprating transformator yang sudah di lakukan terjadi perubahan pada arus gangguan 1 phasa ke tanah jika menggunakan sistem pentanahan langsung (solid grounding menjadi 1838,21 A. Sedangkan nilai dari arus hubung singkat 1 phasa ke tanah setelah dipasangkan NGR 40 Ohm nilainya tetap sebesar 288,675 A

  18. KATALOG SEBAGAI MEDIA PROMOSI BAGI UMKM KOELON KALIE KROBOKAN SEMARANG

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    Dimas Irawan Ihya' Ulumuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sampah merupakan zat yang bersifat organik maupun anorganik yang dihasilkan dari setiap aktifitas manusia, seperti rumah tangga, industri, maupun komersil. Persoalan sampah di Indonesia, terutama di perkotaan merupakan masalah serius. Dinas Kebersihan Kota Semarang mencatat bahwa sampah perkotaan dari tahun ke tahun semakin meningkat seiring laju pertumbuhan jumlah penduduk. Sampah mengakibatkan permasalahan yang komplek, antara lain pembuangan sampah liar yang dapat menimbulkan berbagai penyakit, kota kotor, bau tidak sedap, mengurangi daya tampung sungai dan lain-lain. Tahun 2012, berdiri UMKM “Koelon Kalie” yang bertujuan meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat dengan mengelola sampah plastik menjadi produk yang mempunyai nilai jual. Permasalahannya adalah belum adanya kegiatan promosi yang dilakukan dan hanya melalui mulut ke mulut konsumen dalam memasarkan produk. Media katalog merupakan media yang terjangkau dan efektif. Di dalam media katalog berisi informasi mengenai produk. Informasi yang dicantumkan yaitu nama, spesifikasi, dan harga produk tersebut. Gambaran produk dapat dilihat dengan jelas melalui informasi foto produk yang ditampilkan di media katalog. Berkebalikan dengan media mulut ke mulut yang hanya bisa didengarkan tanpa adanya gambaran produk dengan jelas. Melalui media katalog, konsumen mendapat informasi lebih jelas mengenai gambaran produk olahan sampah plastik. Kata Kunci: katalog, media promosi, UMKM Abstract Trash are an organic and inorganic substance that generated from any human activity, such as household, industrial, and commercial. Trash issues in Indonesia, especially in urban area is a serius problem. Department of Semarang City Sanitation noted that urban trash from year to year increases along with population growth rate. The trash resulting complex problems, such as illegal waste disposal, appear various diseases, dirty city, odor, reduce the capacity of river and others. In 2012, arise MSMEs

  19. Muatan Nilai-nilai Multikultural dan Antimultikultural dari Mimbar Masjid di Kota Solo

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    Zakiyuddin Baidhawy

    2014-12-01

    khotbah dan ceramah keagamaan tersirat intensitas gerakan pemurnian. Seiring dengan gerakan, berkhotbah keagamaan tersirat perlawanan terhadap budaya lokal (Jawa, yang dianggap sebagai sumber utama ketidakmurnian agama. Akhirnya, perkembangan Islam di Solo menyiratkan kecenderungan radikalisasi agama sebagaimana tercermin dalam sikap permusuhan terhadap budaya lokal, orang asing, dan non-Muslim.Kata kunci: multikulturalisme, anti-multikulturalisme, radikalisasi, masjid, ceramah keagamaan

  20. Evaluating the effects of common control measures for influenza A (H1N1 outbreak at school in China: A modeling study.

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    Tianmu Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza A (H1N1 outbreaks have become common at schools in China since 2009. However, the effects of common countermeasures for school influenza outbreak have not been quantified so far, including isolation, vaccination, antivirus and school closure. We conducted a mathematically modeling study to address this unsolved issue.We collected data of all small-scale school outbreaks caused by influenza A that occurred in Changsha city between January 2009 and December 2013. Two outbreaks (one was in 2009 and the other one was in 2013 were used for simulating the effects of single and combined use of common measures, including isolation (Iso, therapeutics (T, prophylactics (P, vaccinating 70% of susceptible individuals prior to the outbreak (VP70, vaccinating 70% of susceptible individuals every day during the outbreak (VD70 and school closure of one week (S1w. A susceptible-exposed-infectious/asymptomatic-recovered (SEIR model was developed to implement the simulations based on the natural history of influenza A.When no control measures are taken, the influenza is expected to spread quickly at school for the selected outbreak in 2013; the outbreak would last 56 days, and the total attack rate (TAR would reach up to 46.32% (95% CI: 46.12-46.52. Of all single control measures, VP70 is most effective to control the epidemic (TAR = 8.68%, followed by VP50, VD70, VD50 and Iso. The use of VP70 with any other measure can reduce TAR to 3.37-14.04% and showed better effects than any other combination of two kinds of measures. The best two-measure combination is 'S1w+VP70' (TAR = 3.37%, DO = 41 days. All combinations of three kinds of measures were not satisfactory when Vp70 and VD70 were excluded. The most effective three-intervention combination was 'Iso+S1w+VP70' (with TAR = 3.23%. When VP70 or VD70 is included, the combinations of four or five kinds of interventions are very effective, reducing TAR to lower than 5%. But the TAR of combination of 'T

  1. Dynamic modelling of costs and health consequences of school closure during an influenza pandemic

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    Xue Yiting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this article is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of school closure during a potential influenza pandemic and to examine the trade-off between costs and health benefits for school closure involving different target groups and different closure durations. Methods We developed two models: a dynamic disease model capturing the spread of influenza and an economic model capturing the costs and benefits of school closure. Decisions were based on quality-adjusted life years gained using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The disease model is an age-structured SEIR compartmental model based on the population of Oslo. We studied the costs and benefits of school closure by varying the age targets (kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and closure durations (1–10 weeks, given pandemics with basic reproductive number of 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5. Results The cost-effectiveness of school closure varies depending on the target group, duration and whether indirect costs are considered. Using a case fatality rate (CFR of 0.1-0.2% and with current cost-effectiveness threshold for Norway, closing secondary school is the only cost-effective strategy, when indirect costs are included. The most cost-effective strategies would be closing secondary schools for 8 weeks if R0=1.5, 6 weeks if R0=2.0, and 4 weeks if R0= 2.5. For severe pandemics with case fatality rates of 1-2%, similar to the Spanish flu, or when indirect costs are disregarded, the optimal strategy is closing kindergarten, primary and secondary school for extended periods of time. For a pandemic with 2009 H1N1 characteristics (mild severity and low transmissibility, closing schools would not be cost-effective, regardless of the age target of school children. Conclusions School closure has moderate impact on the epidemic’s scope, but the resulting disruption to society imposes a potentially great cost in terms of lost productivity from parents’ work absenteeism.

  2. Geophysical Investigation of Upper Mantle Anomalies of the Australian-Antarctic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. H.; Choi, H.; Kim, S. S.; Lin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Australian-Antarctic Ridge (AAR) is situated between the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR) and Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR), extending eastward from the Australian-Antarctic Discordance (AAD). Much of the AAR has been remained uncharted until 2011 because of its remoteness and harsh weather conditions. Since 2011, four multidisciplinary expeditions initiated by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) have surveyed the little-explored eastern ends of the AAR and investigated the tectonics, geochemistry, and hydrothermal activity of this intermediate spreading system. Recent isotope studies using the new basalt samples from the AAR have led to the new hypothesis of the Southern Ocean mantle domain (SOM), which may have originated from the super-plume activity associated with the Gondwana break-up. In this study, we characterize the geophysics of the Southern Ocean mantle using the newly acquired shipboard bathymetry and available geophysical datasets. First, we computed residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomalies (RMBA), gravity-derived crustal thickness, and residual topography along the AAR in order to obtain a geological proxy for regional variations in magma supply. The results of these analyses revealed that the southern flank of the AAR is associated with shallower seafloor, more negative RMBA, thicker crust, and/or less dense mantle in comparison to the conjugate northern flank. Furthermore, this north-south asymmetry becomes more prominent toward the central ridge segments of the AAR. Interestingly, the along-axis depths of the entire AAR are significantly shallower than the neighboring ridge systems and the global ridges of intermediate spreading rates. Such shallow depths are also correlated with regional negative geoid anomalies. Furthermore, recent mantle tomography models consistently showed that the upper mantle (< 250 km) below the AAR has low S-wave velocities, suggesting that it may be hotter than the nearby ridges. Such regional-scale anomalies of the

  3. PENGEMBANGAN KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS MAHASISWA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN PROBLEM BASED INSTRUCTION PADA MATA KULIAH FISIKA LINGKUNGAN

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    P. Dwijananti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini bertujuan mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir mahasiswa pada matakuliah Fisika Lingkunganagar dapat berpartisipasi dalam pemecahan masalah pencemaran lingkungan yang selama ini menjadi topik yang menarik untukdapat dicari pemecahannya. Model pembelajaran yang digunakan Problem Based Intruction ( PBI Mahasiswa diberikesempatan melakukan penyelidikan di dalam dan di luar kelas, data diperoleh dari Lembar Kerja Mahasiswa (LKM,lembarpengamatan afektif dan psikomotorik dan tes Mahasiswa aktif mempresentasikan dan melakukan diskusi untuk memecahakanmasalah, serta menarik kesimpulan melalui proses berpikir kritis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kemampuan berpikir kritismahasiswa yang dapat dikembangkan pada model pembelajaran ini adalah: mengklasifikasi, mengasumsi, memprediksi,menghipotesis, mengevaluasi, menganalisis, dan membuat kesimpulan. Dengan nilai rata-rata tiap siklus I, siklus II dan siklus III,berturut-turut: 63,10; 76,32; dan 79,80. Peningkatan nilai rata-rata kemampuan berpikir kritis seiring dengan meningkatnya jumlahsiswa yang termasuk kategori sangat kritis dan kritis dalam hierarki kategori kemampuan berpikir kritis. This classroom action research is aimed to develop the students' critical thinking ability in Physics Environment class in order toparticipate in “problems solving of environment pollutions” which lately has become a demand. The learning model of the researchis Problem Based Instruction (PBI. The students were assigned for indoor and outdoor investigation followed by classroomdiscussion. The data about students' activities were collected from students' worksheets, affective and psychomotor observations,as well as cognitive tests. According to observation results, students were actively involved in classroom discussion to solve theproblems presented by each group; they can conclude the solutions through critical thinking process. The result of the researchshows that the students

  4. PERFORMANSI SISTEM AGROFORESTRI TRADISIONAL DI DESA TELAGA LANGSAT, KABUPATEN BANJAR

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    Adistina Fitriani

    2016-09-01

    satu sistem agroforestry, yaitu sistem agrisilvikultur dengan dua sub sistem , yakni sub sistem agroforestri kebun karet dan kebun buah campuran.  Sejarah perkembangan proses terbentuknya sistem agroforestri di lokasi penelitian pada mulanya adalah hutan alam  dan atau semak belukar. Kemudian dibuka oleh masyarakat untuk usaha perladangan tanaman semusim. Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, selain menanam tanaman semusim, juga menanam tanaman buah-buahan berkayu dan tanaman penghasil getah (karet. Dalam perkembangannya tanaman buah-buahan tersebut menjadi bentuk kebun buah campuran yang terdiri dari berbagai pohon buah-buahan yang tersebar secara acak dan tidak beraturan, sedangkan penanaman karet cenderung ditanam secara beraturan dan seumur.  Kata Kunci : Performansi, Tradisional, Sistem Agroforestri

  5. STUDI PUSTAKA UNTUK MENEMUKAN HUBUNGAN ANTARA EVOLUSI PERANGKAT LUNAK DENGAN FRAMEWORK COBIT 4.1

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    Novan Satya Prathama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi (TI telah mengalami kemajuan yang begitu pesat sekarang ini. Dengan adanya kemajuan di bidang TI ini maka setiap orang dapat mengakses data atau informasi dengan mudah dan cepat. Sudah banyak perusahaan yang menjadikan TI sebagai salah satu aset penting di dalamnya. Namun aspek TI sendiri tidak akan selamanya berwujud sama dari waktu ke waktu. Perubahan diperlukan guna memenuhi kebutuhan yang diperlukan seiring berjalannya waktu atau berdasarkan faktor penyebab lain. Pengembangan strategi bisnis selalu dikaitkan dengan pengembangan strategi TI. Namun terkadang dalam pelaksanaannya tidak sesuai dengan sumber daya TI yang digunakan. COBIT (Control Obejctive for Information and Related Technology adalah standar control SI yang sifatnya umum serta dapat diterima dan diterapkan oleh organisasi. Evaluasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan framework COBIT 4.1 untuk menyusun dan menerapkan audit sistem informasi dengan tujuan untuk memberi masukan dan rekomendasi bagi pihak manajemen perusahaan untuk perbaikan sistem nantinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan studi pustaka dan analisa terhadap framework COBIT 4.1 dengan evolusi perangkat lunak. Sehingga diperoleh sub domain yang tepat

  6. PERUMUSAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN MELALUI PENENTUAN PRIORITAS TRAPEZOIDAL FUZZY NUMBER (Studi Kasus Industri Minuman Tradisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nurhasanah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The competition in industries is increasing rapidly. This, in turn, encourages companies to define their marketing strategies appropriately. PT. X is a small-to-medium scale company which produces traditional beverage as its main product. The main problem in PT. X is the limited budget for expanding its business and for applying its marketing strategies. At the moment, the market growth is about 16,67% ,while the market relative to the competitor is about 0,07. Boston Consulting Group matrix says that this company is in a Question Mark position. Beside, according to 7 experts there are 13 strategy variations for defining the priorities. Using the Trapezoidal Fuzzy Number, we found three strategies that meaningful to be applied in this company. First by adding the new market with product diversification (72,72, second by partnering investment (71,50, and the last by breakingthrough the existing market (70,93. The first strategy is applied by defining the variation of the products packaging and creating the product's diversification. The second one is applied by proactively, searching the information about investors, who are willing to be its partners. The last one is applied by assuring the quality and avaluibilty of the products to the customers. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Persaingan di dunia industri semakin ketat seiring dengan terus meningkatnya laju pertumbuhan industri. Persaingan ini mengakibatkan setiap industri lebih jeli dalam merumuskan strategi pemasaran perusahaannya. PT. X merupakan industri minuman tradisional yang berada pada skala Industri Kecil Menengah. Permasalahan utama industri ini adalah terbatasnya dana untuk mengembangkan usaha dan menjalankan kegiatan pemasaran. Saat ini pertumbuhan pasar industri sebesar 16,67%, sedangkan pangsa pasar relatif terhadap pesaing utama adalah 0,07. Matriks Boston Consulting Group menyatakan bahwa perusahaan berada pada posisi tanda tanya. Terdapat 13 variasi yang ditawarkan untuk

  7. Dinamika Tata Kelola Kebijakan Industri Penyiaran dan Telekomunikasi Indonesia Menuju Konvergensi

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    Vience Mutiara Rumata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Konvergensi antara penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di Indonesia tidak terhindarkan seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK serta ketatnya persaingan dalam industri keduanya. Kedua industri telah mengintegrasi TIK sebagai nilai tambah dari layanan ataupun produk yang ditawarkannya. Meski demikian, tata kelola kedua industri ini masih terpisah yakni melalui UU Penyiaran tahun 2002 dan UU Telekomunikasi tahun 1999. Di saat RUU konvergensi telematika belum menemukan titik terang, regulator berupaya merevisi kedua UU tersebut. Studi ini bertujuan untuk memahami relasi kekuasaan serta pandangan para pemangku kebijakan dalam mengatur industri penyiaran dan telekomunikasi di era konvergensi. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara mendalam kepada narasumber yang dipilih secara purposif yakni Kemkominfo, KPI, BRTI, dan DPR, selama Januari-Februari 2015. Setiap institusi memiliki path dependence yang berbeda antar satu dengan yang lain, sehingga membentuk pola distribusi kekuasan berbeda dalam prosedur pembuatan kebijakan. Proposal revisi UU baik dari Kemkominfo dan KPI tidak mengatur hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan konvergensi. Akan tetapi, perebutan otoritas antar kedua institusi tersebut justru menjadi fokus dalam proposal tersebut. Kemkominfo, sebagai inisiator UU Telekomunikasi, berencana untuk mengubah revisi UU tersebut menjadi UU konvergensi.     Abstract The convergence between broadcasting and telecommunication in Indonesia is inevitable as the growing information and communication technology and competition within both industries. Nevertheless, the policy governance of these industries remains distinctively separated under the 2002 Broadcasting Law and the 1999 Telecommunication Law. Whilst the regulators failed to enact the convergence bill, the only way is to synergize the revision of both laws.. This study aims to understand the point of views as well as power relation among regulators in

  8. Complex Tectono-Magmatic Interaction along the George V Transform Fault, South-East Indian Ridge, 140°E, and Implications for Mantle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briais, A.; Ruellan, E.; Ceuleneer, G.; Maia, M.

    2017-12-01

    The 300 km-offset George V Transform Fault (TF) is the westernmost of the major, right-stepping transform faults that offset the South-East Indian Ridge between 140°E and 155°E. All these TFs have multiple shear zones with intra-transform ridge segments (ITRS), mostly unmapped yet. We present the results of the analysis of geophysical and petrological data collected during the STORM cruise (South Tasmania Ocean Ridge and Mantle). The data cover the western shear zone and part of two ITRSs. They reveal a complex interaction between tectonic processes at the plate boundary and near-axis volcanic activity along and across the transform fault. The western TF shear zone consists of two segments offset by a 50 km-long, 15 km-wide, up to 2000 m-high serpentinite massif. We infer that the massif is a push-up resulting from transpression along the transform, due to the lengthening of the western ITRS, with a mechanism similar to the processes currently uplifting the mylonitic massif along the St. Paul TF in the Equatorial Atlantic (1). The western ITRS is relatively shallow and magmatically robust, which is unexpected in a TF system. The bathymetric and backscatter maps also reveal a series of recent off-axis oblique volcanic ridges. Rocks dredged on one of these ridges consist of picrites (i.e. basalts rich in olivine phenocrysts). These observations suggest that the TF there is not magma starved like many mid-ocean ridge transforms, but is the locus of significant primitive melt supply. Such an unexpected production of high-Mg melt might be related to the presence of a mantle thermal anomaly beneath the easternmost SEIR, and/or to a western flow of mantle across the TF. *STORM cruise scientific party: A. Briais, F. Barrere, C. Boulart, D. Brunelli, G. Ceuleneer, N. Ferreira, B. Hanan, C. Hémond, S. Macleod, M. Maia, A. Maillard, S. Merkuryev, S.H. Park, S. Révillon, E. Ruellan, A. Schohn, S. Watson, and Y.S. Yang. (1) Maia et al. 2016 Nature Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  9. INDEXING BASISDATA CITRA DENGAN METODE KUANTISASI VEKTOR MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA FAIR SHARE AMOUNT

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    Ary Mazharuddin Shidiqy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Basisdata merupakan sesuatu yang selalu dipakai pada penyimpanan data-data baik dalam jumlah sedikit maupun banyak. Alasan penyimpanan dalam basisdata adalah keamanan data dan kemudahan dalam pencarian jika akan digunakan. Seiring berjalannya waktu, basisdata berkembang semakin kompleks. Kompleksitas tersebut dalam hal konsep maupun ragam data yang mampu disimpan di dalamnya. Jika dulu data yang dapat disimpan hanya berupa tulisan dan angka, maka sekarang basisdata tidak hanya mampu menyimpan tulisan dan angka, tapi juga gambar. Karena tidak semua data dapat dicari dengan metode yang sama, maka diperlukan metode pencarian data sesuai dengan tipe data yang dimaksud. Pada Tugas Akhir ini dikembangkan metode pencarian yang bisa diterapkan pada pencarian gambar dalam basisdata. Metodologi yang digunakan dalam pembuatan Tugas Akhir ini terdiri dari beberapa tahapan. Pertama dilakukan pembuatan codebook sebagai acuan untuk melakukan indexing basisdata. Codebook ini dihasilkan dari algoritma Fair Share Amount (FSA. Tahapan selanjutnya adalah melakukan penyimpanan data dengan menggunakan acuan codebook yang sudah dibuat. Untuk mencari gambar, dilakukan dengan memasukkan parameter pencarian berupa gambar ke aplikasi dan

  10. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

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    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  11. SARANA PENGUJIAAN MUTU MAKANAN PADA BEBERAPA PABRIK MAKANAN YANG MEMPRODUKSI PRODUK OLAHAN HASIL PETERNAKAN DAN PERIKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya industri makanan dan minuman maka berbagai jenis produk makanan instan/siap saji banyak membanjiri pasar. Di satu sisi konsumen diuntungkan dengan kemudahan pengadaan dan penyajian namun di sisi lain dapat menimbulkan kerugian berupa kemungkinan terjadinya penurunan atau penyimpangan mutu keamanan produk, terutama makanan yang berisiko tinggi sebagai penyebab penyakit dan keracunan. Yaitu produk : sapi, ayam, kambing dll. Penelitian ini merupakan survei eksplorasi yang dilakukan di pabrik makanan yang mengolah makanan dengan resiko tinggi yaitu pabrik produk olahan hasil peternakan dan perikanan. Pengambilan sampel ditentukan secara purposif, berdasarkan data dari Ditjen POM tahun 1997 ada 26 pabrik yang tersebar di 4 wilayah yaitu : Jakarta 5 pabrik, Botabek (Bogor, Tangerang dan Bekasi 10 pabrik, Bandung 6 pabrik serta Surabaya dan sekitarnya 5 pabrik Pengamatan dilakukan dengan mendatangi tiap pabrik untuk mendapatkan data berupa jenis pengujian yang dilakukan, yang meliputi jenis pengujian yang dilakukan sendiri, jenis pengujian yang dilakukan di tempat lain serta sarana yang dipunyai pabrik untuk melakukan uji mutu produk. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 18 pabrik ( 78,3 % mempunyai sertifikat analisis bahan baku. Pengujian mutu terhadap bahan baku secara fisika umumnya dilakukan semua pabrik. Jenis pengujian bahan baku yang dilakukan sendiri, di luar dan yang tidak melakukan yaitu meliputi: pengujian kimia dilakukan oleh 2 pabrik (8,7%, 8 pabrik (34,8% dan 13 pabrik (56,5%; mikrobiologi 9 pabrik (39,13%, 10 pabrik (43,48% dan 13 pabrik (17,3%. Untuk pengujian produk jadi yang dilakukan sendiri, di luar dan yang tidak melakukan yaitu meliputi: pengujian kimia   dilakukan pada 3 pabrik (13,04%, 17 pabrik (73,91% dan 3 pabrik (13,04%; pengujian mikrobiologi dilakukan pada 9 pabrik (39,13 %, 10 pabrik (43,48% dan 13 pabrik (17,39%. Peralatan uji kimia yang dimiliki oleh pabrik yaitu : Spektrofotometer UV dimiliki

  12. DEVELOPING OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIAL BASED ON MOBILE LEARNING IN THE WAVE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rif’ati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced and modern era, technological sophistication led to learning which initially runs, in which teachers and students meet each other and communicate in the classroom, can be implemented through of information technology. Along with the development of information, where books and teachers who initially as a primary source of learning, are now beginning to experience growth from the internet. Mobile learning defined as mobile devices that are used in the learning process. The wave course is one of subject that must be taken by students of physics education in the third semester. This course emphasizes the concepts of wave were reviewed mathematically and the phenomenon that occurs in everyday life. Mobile learning developed in this study in the form of electronic teaching materials on subjects of waves. The aim of this study was to develop electronic teaching material in the form of mobile learning. The sample of this study is 80 students in the third semester students who are taking waves courses. The results show that mobile learning that has been developed has score 3.8 and included valid criteria. Pada era yang serba maju dan modern, kecanggihan teknologi menyebabkan pembelajaran yang awalnya berjalan satu arah, dimana guru dan siswa saling bertemu dan berkomunikasi di dalam kelas, dapat dilaksanakan melalui bantuan teknologi.informasi. Seiring dengan perkembangan informasi, buku dan guru yang awalnya sebagai sumber belajar utama, saat ini sudah mulai mengalami perkembangan dimana sumber belajar yang berasal dari internet sudah mulai sering dimanfaatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. Mobile larning didefinisikan sebagai perangkat mobile yang dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Mata kuliah gelombang sendiri merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib ditempuh oleh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan fisika semester 3. Mata kuliah ini menekankan pada konsep gelombang yang ditinjau secara matematis dan fenomenanya yang terjadi

  13. SISTEM PAKAR DIAGNOSA KEKURANGAN VITAMIN PADA TUBUH MANUSIA BERBASIS WEB

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    Ai Ilah Warnilah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Along with the development of technology, also developed a system thet is able to adopt technology and the humant human thinking procces is an expert system which contains specific knowledge so that everyone can use to solve a specific problem, in this case is the health problem with vitamin deficiency in the human body. When there is a health disoreder, especially vitamin deficiency rether the people will a come to a doctor or nutritionist for a consultation. Sometimes there are also weaknes when entrusting to specialist such as limited hours of practice and the events that forced many patients have to queue and require a sizeeable fee. In this case, we as the people who use the service need more of an expert who can faciliate in the diagnosis of vitamin deficiency in the body as early prevention. Therefore as an alternative solution is to create an expert sysem aplication that can identify / diagnose a vitamin deficiency based on body sympton with forward chaining methode. Displayed in the form of a website using PHP programing with MYSQL database, so the consultation will be easeier, cost-eeffective and can be used anytime, anywhere. Keywords : Expert system, Deficiency, Forward chaining Abstrak - Seiring perkembangan teknologi,dikembangkan pula suatu sistem teknologi yang mampu mengadopsi proses dan cara berpikir manusia yaitu sistem pakar yang mengandung pengetahuan tertentu sehingga setiap orang dapat menggunakan untuk memecahkan masalah yang bersifat spesisfik, dalam hal ini adalah permasalahan kesehatan menangani kekurangan vitamin pada tubuh manusia. Masalah kesehatan khususnya kekurangan vitamin lebih tepatnya orang akan datang ke dokter atau ahli gizi untuk berkonsultasi. Namun terdapat kelemahan jika memepercayakan kepada dokter ahli seperti terbatasnya jam praktek dan kejadian banyak pasien yang memaksa harus harus melakukan antrian serta memerlukan biaya yang lumayan besar. Dalam hal ini, kita selaku orang yang

  14. ARANSEMEN DAN KRITIK SOSIAL LAGU-LAGU KOES PLUS VOLUME 1 TAHUN 1969

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    Didik Ardi Santoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemak­naan lagu Koes Plus secara simbolik atau puitik dapat dimaknai seba­gai hubungan yang saling mengembang­kan atau membangun sehingga seorang masyarakat dapat menikmati harkat dan martabatnya sebagai manusia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah : (1 untuk mengkaji aransemen lagu Koes Plus Volume I Tahun 1969, (2 untuk mengkaji substansi kritik sosial pada aransemen dan lagu Koes Plus Volume I Tahun 1969. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan analisis isi (content analisis.  Hasil dari penelitian ini menemukan, lagu Koes Plus ciri khas yang unik dan menarik yaitu pada lirik dan aransemennya, disamping itu juga mempunyai peran penting dalam mempengaruhi khalayak  baik dari segi informasi maupun pesan yang akan disampaikan kepada khalayak. Penulis juga mendeskripsikan berapa kandungan kritik  sosial dalam lagu Koes Plus Volume I, serta mendapatkan kajian-kajian yang  didapatkan mengenai berbagai hal yang ada kaitannya dengan analisis kritik sosial. Kritik sosial pada lagu Koes Plus Volume I tahun 1969 adalah terkait masalah religius, harmoni alam, cinta, cinta tanah air (nasionalisme, kebahagiaan dan kesedihan, dan persahabatan. Saran bagi  perkembangan lagu Koes Plus secara musikalitas dapat dikatakan dan ditemukan banyak perubahan seiring waktu. Untuk itu kita sebagai penerus juga pewaris lagu-lagu Koes Plus hendaknya dapat ikut menjaga dan melestarikannya.Purpose going search for absolute perfection song Koes Plus symbolically or with shocking can be appraised is designated as a partnership of mutual expands or build so that a community can enjoy human dignity and dignity as a human being. The purpose of this research is: (1 to examine lineup song Koes Plus Volume I in 1969, (2 to examine substantial social critic in arrangement and songs Koes Plus Volume I. Results of research is found, the song Koes Plus the characteristics of a unique and interesting on the lyrics and aransemen, furthermore, also has a very important role in influencing

  15. Projected treatment capacity needs in sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard A; MacDonald, Emily; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Nygård, Karin; Vold, Line; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2015-01-30

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa requires immediate and sustained input from the international community in order to curb transmission. The CDC has produced a model that indicates that to end the outbreak by pushing the reproductive number below one, 25% of the patients must be placed in an Ebola Treatment Unit (ETC) and 45% must be isolated in community settings in which risk of disease transmission is reduced and safe burials are provided. In order to provide firmer targets for the international response in Sierra Leone, we estimated the national and international personnel and treatment capacity that may be required to reach these percentages. We developed a compartmental SEIR model that was fitted to WHO data and local data allowing the reproductive number to change every 8 weeks to forecast the progression of the EVD epidemic in Sierra Leone. We used the previously estimated 2.5x correction factor estimated by the CDC to correct for underreporting. Number of personnel required to provide treatment for the predicted number of cases was estimated using UNMEER and UN OCHA requests for resources required to meet the CDC target of 70% isolation. As of today (2014-12-04), we estimate that there are 810 (95% CI=646 to 973) EVD active cases in treatment, with an additional 3751 (95% CI=2778 to 4723) EVD cases unreported and untreated. To reach the CDC targets today, we need 1140 (95% CI=894 to 1387) cases in ETCs and 2052 (95% CI=1608 to 2496) at home or in a community setting with a reduced risk for disease transmission. In 28 days (2015-01-01), we will need 1309 (95% CI=804 to 1814) EVD cases in ETCs and 2356 (95% CI=1447 to 3266) EVD cases at reduced risk of transmission. If the current transmission rate is not reduced, up to 3183 personnel in total will be required in 56 days (2015-01-29) to operate ETCs according to our model. The current outbreak will require massive input from the international community in order to curb the

  16. PERANCANGAN PASAR IKAN HIGIENIS (PIH DI REMBANG (Pendekatan Karakteristik Budaya Berdagang Masyarakat Pesisir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianto P. Prihatmaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing contain the Final Duty scheme process supported by research of Hibah A3 of Architecture UII. Scheme selected is Hygienic Fish Market scheme (PIH in Rembang, Central Java. Because Rembang Regency which is located in Pantura ( Pantai Utara Jawa - Coastal of North Java inclusive of one of biggest fishery supply in Central Java. Its Fishery Potency which progressively rapidly grow to make fishery as very promising business farm. Along the increasing of amount of ship arrival in Pelabuhan Perikanan Pantai (PPP Tasikagung mount also activity of fish commerce in the region. Landing, processing and fish marketing become one groove the coherent activity at culture of society of coastal Rembang area. Existence of facility of Place of Fish Auction ( TPI which is given high priority to all wholesaler felt still less be optimal for society. This PIH is designed PIH with the cultural characteristic approach trade the society of coastal area into its building scheme concept. This characteristic cover the horizontalitas which is in the form of landing activity, unloading till the transportation of fish to TPI and fisherman house, floating market (adrift market and existence of strong integration between landing activity, processing and fish marketing by home industrial. With the the approach felt able to peep out the building which responsive to tread of about, physical goodness and also social. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penulisan ini akan memaparkan proses perancangan Tugas Akhir yang didukung oleh penelitian Hibah A3 Arsitektur UII. Perancangan yang dipilih adalah perancangan Pasar Ikan Higienis (PIH di Rembang, Jawa Tengah. Hal ini dikarenakan Rembang yang terletak di jalur Pantura (Pantai Utara Jawa merupakan salah satu daerah penyuplai hasil perikanan di Jawa Tengah. Potensi perikanannya yang semakin berkembang pesat menjadikan perikanan sebagai lahan bisnis yang sangat menjanjikan. Seiring meningkatnya jumlah kedatangan kapal di

  17. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  18. 3D Gravimetric Modeling of the Spreading System North and Southeast of the Rodriguez Triple Junction (Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyde, I.; Girolami, C.; Barckhausen, U.; Freitag, R.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent fields along mid-ocean ridges can be metal-rich and thus of great importance for the industries in the future. By order of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and in coordination with the International Seabed Authority (ISA), BGR explores potential areas of the active spreading system in the Indian Ocean. A main goal is the identification of inactive seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) with the aid of modern exploration techniques. Important contributions could be expected from bathymetric, magnetic, and gravity datasets, which can be acquired simultaneously time from the sea surface within relatively short ship time. The area of interest is located between 21°S and 28°S and includes the southern Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the northern Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). In this study we analyzed the marine gravity and bathymetric data acquired during six research cruises. The profiles running perpendicular to the ridge axis have a mean length of 60 km. Magnetic studies reveal that the parts of the ridges covered are geologically very young with the oldest crust dating back to about 1 Ma. To extend the area outside the ridges, the shipboard data were complemented with data derived from satellite radar altimeter measurements. We analyzed the gravity anomalies along sections which cross particular geologic features (uplifted areas, accommodation zones, hydrothermal fields, and areas with hints for extensional processes e.g. oceanic core complexes) to establish a correlation between the gravity anomalies and the surface geology. Subsequently, for both ridge segments 3D density models were developed. We started with simple horizontally layered models, which, however, do not explain the measured anomalies satisfyingly. The density values of the crust and the upper mantle in the ridge areas had to be reduced. Finally, the models show the lateral heterogeneity and the variations in the thickness of the oceanic crust. There are areas characterized by

  19. A USABILITY OF GRAPHIC DESIGN WITH LOCAL CONTENT IN THE INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA DESIGN FOR INDONESIAN STORYTELLING

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    Listia Natadjaja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As the computer becomes a trend%2C interactive multimedia design can be one media to communicate the cultural knowledge. A folktale can be a one of the powerful materials to show a country’s culture. The folktale content can be understood effectively by implementing some cultural information background. The main aim of using the local content is to give a vision of the richness culture through graphic design in interactive multimedia technology. By implementing local graphic design based on the cultural background%2C user can have different feeling about the graphic style and the Indonesian richness culture. This method can also help the user to understand the interactive multimedia content easily. Finally%2C graphic design with local content is very effective for a transferring the richness culture. In order to make a good interactive multimedia design content based on a cultural background%2C a designer should need to understand about users%2C culture%2C technology and the whole design process. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Seiring dengan berkembangnya penggunaan komputer menjadi suatu trend%2C interaktif multimedia desain dapat menjadi suatu media untuk mengkomunikasikan suatu pengetahuan mengenai suatu kebudayaan. Cerita rakyat%2C dapat merupakan kekuatan untuk menunjukan budaya suatu negara. Isi dari suatu cerita rakyat dapat dimengerti secara efektif dengan implementasi beberapa latar belakang budaya. Tujuan utama dari penggunaan muatan lokal adalah untuk memberikan suatu visi tentang kekayaan budaya melalui desain grafis dalam teknologi interaktif multimedia. .Dengan mengimplementasikan desain grafis lokal berdasar pada latar belakang budaya%2C pengguna multimedia dapat mempunyai perasaan yang berbeda terhadap gaya desain dan kekayaan budaya Indonesia. Metode ini diharapkan juga dapat membantu pengguna untuk mengerti isi suatu interaktif multimedia secara mudah. Pada akhirnya%2C dapat dikatakan bahwa muatan lokal sangatlah bermanfaat

  20. Komodifikasi Tari Barong di Pulau Bali (Seni Berdasarkan Karakter Pariwisata

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    Anggraeni Purnama Dewi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK           Artikel ini berjudul “Komodifikasi Tari Barong di Pulau Bali”, yang mengungkap bagaimana keterkaitan antara seni tradisional yang bersifat religius yang pada awalnya hanya dipersembahkan untuk upacara ritual keagamaan, namun kini  menjadi industri pariwisata yang bernilai komersial. Pulau Bali atau yang terkenal dengan sebutan Pulau Dewata atau Pulau Seribu Pura kerap kali menjadi tujuan utama dari para wisatawan, baik lokal maupun mancanegara sebagai tempat berlibur. Selain pesona alam yang indah, Bali memang sangat kaya akan adat istiadat dan budayanya.             Seiring dengan tuntutan pemasaran produk pariwisata, maka kenyataan yang ada di Bali saat ini terkait dengan seni pertunjukan adalah, bagaimana mengemas seni tradisional yang bernilai religius menjadi seni pariwisata yang bernilai komersial yang dapat dipertontonkan secara bebas kepada para wisatawan. Salah satu seni pertunjukan yang telah dikomodifikasi menjadi seni pariwisata adalah tari tradisional Barong.             Kata Kunci: Komodifikasi Tari Barong, Seni Pertunjukan, Industri, Pariwisata ABSTRACT                The title of this article is "The Commodification of Barong Dance in Bali". This article reveals how the relationship between the traditional art of a religious nature that was originally only offered for religious rituals, but now becoming commercially valuable tourism industry. The Bali island or which is known as the island of the gods, or island of thousand temples, often becomes the main purpose of the tourists, both local and foreign tourists as a vacation destination. Besides of natural charm and beautiful beaches, Bali is very rich in tradition and culture.               Along with the demands of the tourism product marketing, Bali islandthat currently associated with the performing arts is, how to package the valuable traditional religious art becomes art tourism commercial

  1. Reconstruction of Furniture Production as Potential and Reputable Intellectual Property Rights (IPR Creative Design Model

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    husen hendriyana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with recent rapid development of science, technology, art and culture, through research institutions from the central to the local level, the government seriously activates enhancement and protection of the intellectual products of the nation. Such as protection of intellectual property rights against irresponsible plagiarism. This is due to that the appearance, process, or invention steps of the creative furniture designer in the society or in the academic environment have the potential and the opportunity to be registered as Intellectual Properties (IP or gain Intellectual Property Rights (IPR. Besides aiming to lift up the state or institutions achievement and attainment of intellectual property rights internationally, the added value also can be developed in the direction of economic upgrade. Research on furniture products designs have been numerously carried out with various objects and cases, yet the diversity of the subject character and creative processes still have not well defined so they enrich the model of creative process design. This study aims to identify, classify and formulate a potential furniture design model of creative process and IPR standard, through methods PAR. The results of this study are (1 prototype of furniture design products, (2 the creative process model and the construction methods process of furniture design with a concept or a specific theme; (3 Registration of IPR; (4 Scientific manuscript. Seiring dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni dan budaya yang marak dewasa ini, melalui lembaga penelitian dari tingkat pusat sampai ketingkat daerah, pemerintah semakin serius menggalangkan peningkatan dan perlindungan terhadap produk intelektual anak bangsa. Salah satu contoh di antaranya adalah perlindungan terhadap hak kekayaan intelektual dari perilaku plagiarism yang tidak bertanggung jawab. Hal ini tiada lain bahwa, bentuk, proses, maupun invention steps dari para pelaku kreatif desain mebel

  2. DAMPAK PERKEMBANGAN KAWASAN PENDIDIKAN DI TEMBALANG SEMARANG JAWA TENGAH (The Impact Development of Education Area in Tembalang Semarang Jawa Tengah

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    Budi Prasetyo Samadikun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kawasan Tembalang merupakan salah satu wilayah pemekaran Kota Semarang Propinsi Jawa Tengah yang peruntukannya sebagai daerah pusat pengembangan pendidikan serta  pertumbuhan perumahan dan permukiman.  Pada tahap awal,  perkembangan kampus (kawasan pendidikan di wilayah ini masih berdampak positif, khususnya pada pertumbuhan/perbaikan infrastruktur. Seiring dengan berjalannya waktu, ternyata mulai timbul dampak negatif pada lingkungan di sekitar kawasan kampus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji tahapan dan bentuk perubahan yang terjadi di Kawasan Tembalang, serta mengkaji kondisi eksisting permukiman dan infrastruktur di wilayah ini. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian survei dengan menggabungkan metode kuantitatif dan metode kualitatif. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik purposive, teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner, wawancara mendalam, dan observasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat beberapa tahapan dan bentuk perubahan yang terjadi selama empat tahap mencakup aspek kependudukan, matapencaharian, kondisi sosial-ekonomi-budaya, suplai kebutuhan, tata guna lahan, kondisi infrastruktur, dan lingkungan. Nilai skoring terhadap infrastruktur eksisting bernilai baik untuk kondisi transportasi dan drainase, kondisi bangunan dinilai buruk, dan kondisi persampahan dinilai sedang.  ABSTRACT Tembalang region is one of expansion area in Semarang City that used for regional center of educational development and growth of housing and settlements. In the early stages, the development of the campus in the region still poses a positive impact, especially on the growth/improvement of infrastructure. Further developments, it began to be a negative impact on the environment around the campus area. The objectives of this research are to examine the changing phase and shape that occur in Tembalang region, and to assess the existing condition of settlements and infrastructure  in the region. This

  3. Prajurit Profesional-Patriot: Menuju TNI Profesional pada Era Reformasi

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    Syamsul Ma’arif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discuses about The Indonesian National Defense Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia/TNI who has been experiencing a shift from praetorian military to professional military because of fundamental change within Indonesian society after the end of the Soeharto’s regime in 1998 which is followed by a transition of power from New Order to reformed government. That shift can be seen through some issues related to territorial institutions, military business, and relation between TNI and The Ministry of Defense (Departemen Pertahanan. This paper argues that that shift and its related issues can be explained by patriot professional military thesis. This thesis combines certain aspects of Huntington’s old professionalism and Stepan’s new professionalism. As a patriot professional military TNI has professional characteristics as well as strong commitment to take a part in nondefense tasks according to decisions of civilian government. To become patriot professional military TNI needs to develop itself in a condition with objective civilian control that promotes military professionalism, and highly respects the civilian supremacy. This paper approached its problem with sociology of military, and made its inquiry with qualitative method. Tulisan ini membahas fenomena TNI yang tengah mengalami pergeseran dari militer praetorian menuju militer profesional seiring terjadinya perubahan mendasar dalam masyarakat Indonesia karena peralihan kekuasaan dari Orde Baru ke pemerintahan Reformasi pasca-berakhirnya pemerintahan Soeharto pada 1998. Pergeseran tersebut dapat dilihat dari isu-isu terkait keberadaan lembaga teritorial, bisnis militer, serta hubungan antara TNI dengan Departemen Pertahanan. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa pergeseran tersebut dapat dijelaskan dengan tesis militer profesional patriot. Tesis ini merupakan kombinasi aspek-aspek tertentu dari tesis Huntington mengenai profesionalisme militer yang disebut profesionalisme lama dengan

  4. KECENDERUNGAN MASALAH GIZI BURUK DI INDONESIA

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    Abas Basuni Jahari

    2014-09-01

    Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah hasil Pemantauan Status Gizi (PSG Jawa Barat tahun 2004, Hasil Survei Gizi di Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD pasca-Tsunami, 2005, dan survei masalah gizi mikro  di  7  provinsi  tahun  2006.  Hasil  menunjukkan  bahwa  dari  21,3  persen  anak  balita  yang  termasuk kategori rawan, 10 persen di antaranya sangat rawanuntuk menjadi status BB/U Rendah (Gizi Kurang. Kemudian, secara umum dari 32,9 persen anak balita berstatus BB/U Rendah yang ada pada posisi rawan, 13,2 persen di antaranya ada pada posisi sangat rawan untuk menjadi status BB/U Sangat Rendah (Gizi Buruk.  Berdasarkan  TB/U,  proporsi  anak  balita  dengan TB/U  Normal  yang  rawan  untuk  menjadi  status TB/U Pendek meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya umur. Secara umum 39,9 persen anak balita yang berstatus  TB/U  pendek  ada  pada  posisi  rawan,  di  antaranya 17,8  persen  ada  pada  posisi  sangat  rawan untuk  menjadi  status  TB/U  Sangat  Pendek.  Namun,  berdasarkan  BB/TB,  hanya  9  persen  anak  balita berstatus BB/TB Normal yang ada dalam posisi rawan,3,9  persen di antaranya ada pada posisi sangat rawan untuk menjadi status BB/TB Kurus. Karena jumlah anak balita berstatus gizi baik (normal yang ada pada posisi rawan terus meningkat mengikuti pertambahan usia, maka upaya perbaikan gizi yang bersifat preventif sudah harus dilaksanakan sejak usia dini,tidak hanya untuk anak balita kurang gizi tetapi juga bagi  anak  balita  yang  dikategorikan  berstatus  gizi  baik.  Arah  kebijakan  pemerintah  hendaknya  melalui kegiatan  yang  bersifat  PREVENTIF  dan  PROMOTIF  yang  PROAKTIF,  harus  diimplementasikan  secara benar, baik di pusat maupun di daerah. Kata kunci: SKPG, Posyandu, status gizi

  5. Analisis Kesesuaian Kursi Pembatik Terhadap Kondisi Antropometri Pekerja Batik Tulis

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    Joni Setiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKSejak diakuinya Batik sebagai warisan budaya tak benda oleh UNESCO, perkembangan industri batik mengalami perkembangan seiring dengan peningkatan permintaan pasar. Pada saat ini peralatan utama untuk membatik (kursi, gawangan, canting, kompor, meja cap, canting cap, wajan cap, dan lain-lain masih menggunakan peralatan batik yang lama, yang belum diteliti mengenai usability dan safety-nya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji ukuran kursi dan gawangan pembatikan yang beredar di pasaran apakah telah sesuai dengan kebutuhan pembatik dan sesuai dengan konsep ergonomi. Pengumpulan data kursi dan gawangan dari berbagai tempat industri batik. Data yang diperlukan diwakili oleh N = 30 buah. Data-data ini kemudian dilakukan analisis statistik dengan metode histogram. Penggunaan kursi pembatikan di industri batik masih sangat jauh dari kondisi ideal (minimum tinggi 370 mm, lebar 380 mm dan kedalaman 380 mm. Ukuran tinggi kursi pembatik yang ada, rata-rata hanya berketinggian alas duduk 263,7 mm, lebar alas duduk 353 mm, kedalaman alas duduk 305 mm, dan tanpa menggunakan sandaran punggung.Kata kunci: kursi pembatikan, ergonomi, antropometriABSTRACTSince the approval of batik as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO, the improvement of batik industry have evolved along with the increase in market demand. At this time the main equipment for batik processes are still using the old batik equipment that has not been studied regarding its usability and safety. The purpose of this study was to assess the size of the seat and gawangan batik on the market whether in accordance with the requirements in accordance with the concept of batik and ergonomics. The data collected from several places batik industry. The data required to make is represented by N = 30 pieces. These data are then performed statistical analysis with the histogram method. The use of seat batik batik industry is still very far from ideal conditions. The size of the existing

  6. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1pdm in Italy: age, risk and population susceptibility.

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    Stefano Merler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common pattern emerging from several studies evaluating the impact of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza (A/H1N1pdm conducted in countries worldwide is the low attack rate observed in elderly compared to that observed in children and young adults. The biological or social mechanisms responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection are still to be deeply investigated. METHODS: The level of immunity against the A/H1N1pdm in pre and post pandemic sera was determined using left over sera taken for diagnostic purposes or routine ascertainment obtained from clinical laboratories. The antibody titres were measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. To investigate whether certain age groups had higher risk of infection the presence of protective antibody (≥1∶40, was calculated using exact binomial 95% CI on both pre- and post- pandemic serological data in the age groups considered. To estimate age-specific susceptibility to infection we used an age-structured SEIR model. RESULTS: By comparing pre- and post-pandemic serological data in Italy we found age- specific attack rates similar to those observed in other countries. Cumulative attack rate at the end of the first A/H1N1pdm season in Italy was estimated to be 16.3% (95% CI 9.4%-23.1%. Modeling results allow ruling out the hypothesis that only age-specific characteristics of the contact network and levels of pre-pandemic immunity are responsible for the observed age-specific risk of infection. This means that age-specific susceptibility to infection, suspected to play an important role in the pandemic, was not only determined by pre-pandemic levels of H1N1pdm antibody measured by HI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results claim for new studies to better identify the biological mechanisms, which might have determined the observed pattern of susceptibility with age. Moreover, our results highlight the need to obtain early estimates of differential susceptibility with age in

  7. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    sebagai biomarker kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan 24 subyek penelitian yaitu 24 orang dengan penyakit periodontal dan 6 orang tidak menderita penyakit periodontal. Pembagian penyakit periodontal berdasarkan indeks periodontal. Cairan krevikular gingival diambil dari bagian mesial gigi posterior atas dengan menggunakan paper point dan diukur kadar deoksipiridinolin dengan menggunakan teknik ELISA. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada peningkatan kadar deoksipiridinolin seiring dengan tingkat keparahan penyakit periodontal. Hasil statistik juga menunjukkan ada perbedaan rata-rata antara subyek penelitian yang tidak menderita penyakit dengan subyek yang menderita penyakit periodontal (p<0,05. Kesimpulan: Kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penderita penyakit periodontal.

  8. Microbial abundance and diversity in water, and immune parameters of red tilapia reared in bioflocs system with different fish density (25 fish/m3, 50 fish/m3, and 100 fish/m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frid Agustinus

    2010-07-01

    perbedaan yang nyata. Semua perlakuan menunjukkan kecenderungan peningkatan kelimpahan bakteri seiring dengan masa pemeliharaan. Terdapat 4 genus bakteri yang hanya ditemukan pada kolam bioflok yaitu Acinetobacter sp., Corynobacterium sp., Listeria sp., dan Pseudomonas sp yang diduga berperan dalam pembentukan bioflok. Persentase indeks fagositik pada ikan dengan perlakuan bioflok lebih tinggi dibanding kontrol, yang mengindikasikan peran bioflok sebagai stimulus sistem imun.Kata kunci: bioflok, nila merah, bakteri, gambaran darah.

  9. Pemanfaatan Produk Budaya Modern dalam Bentuk Game untuk Mobile Gadget sebagai Media Pelestarian Budaya Tradisional (Dengan Studi Kasus Kue Tradisional Jawa Barat

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    Khairani Larasati Imania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kue tradisional merupakan salah satu produk budaya yang pantas diperlakukan secara setara dengan aset kebudayaan lainnya, antara lain dengan cara diakui dan dilestarikan keberadaanya. Namun demikian, seiring dengan perkembangan zaman dan terjadinya globalisasi menyebabkan masuknya nilai-nilai budaya asing ke tanah air. Di satu sisi, globalisasi tersebut menyebabkan makin tergerusnya nilai-nilai budaya lokal. Hal ini kemudian berdampak pada eksistensi kue tradisional yang makin menghilang. Terutama dengan banyak masuknya kue-kue lain yang merupakan produk budaya asing yang dikhawatirkan dapat menggantikan posisi kue-kue tradisional di hati masyarakat. Pada sisi lain, globalisasi memberikan pengaruh yang cukup baik pula. Di antaranya yaitu dengan makin mudahnya persebaran perkembangan teknologi. Masyarakat mau tidak mau menjadi semakin mawas akan keberadaan media-media digital, dan mulai terbiasa dengannya. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan upaya pengenalan kembali nilai-nilai budaya lokal, pada kasus ini kue tradisional dengan studi kasus jajanan pasar di Jawa Barat, kepada remaja dengan memanfaatkan perkembangan teknologi. Game dirasa merupakan bentuk teknologi yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai media pengenalan budaya kepada remaja dengan metoda pendekatan yang menyenangkan dan tidak menggurui.Kata kunci: budaya; game; globalisasi; kue tradisional; remaja.Traditional cake is one of cultural product that deserves to be treated equally with other cultural asset. One of the attempts that can be done is by giving it acknowledgement and sustaining its’ existences. However, the rapid development of technology causes globalization and foreign value to infiltrate this country. On one side, globalization causes the local cultural to be scraped and forgotten. This might as well lead to the vanishing existence of traditional cake, particularly with the spread of other foreign cake and the apprehension that they would take over traditional cake in citizen

  10. ANALISIS DAN DESAIN SISTEM INFORMASI SIMPAN PINJAM PADA KOPERASI SEJAHTERA BERSAMA BANDUNG

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    Pratiwi Pratiwi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – Sejahtera Bersama Credit Unions is one of the co-operative in Bandung, which is engaged in the savings and loan. Organization should be a place for the growth of community's economic still has some drawbacks so that performance is not optimal. Kind of Information systems in here is still not effective because it is used combination with a manual process for the loan process, it takes a long time for any transactions, but along with the rapid development of technology, then it should be the cooperative problem given a touch of technology as a solution for example as built system information to enable any existing operational. Design method loan information system created using ancillary equipment such as methodology of waterfall, HIPO diagram and three kind of UML diagrams which is usecase diagram, activity diagram and class digram, and then design of database relationships using Microsoft Access 2007 and programming language using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. Loan information system is expected to improve the performance of the cooperative itself, because the system is designed with the aim to shorten the time of the transaction so that the cooperative operations can run more effectively Keywords : information systems, Credit Unions, Technology Abstrak – Koperasi Sejahtera Bersama Bandung merupakan salah satu koperasi di Kota Bandung yang bergerak di bidang simpan pinjam. Organisasi yang seharusnya menjadi wadah untuk pertumbuhan ekonomi masyarakat ini masih memiliki beberapa kekurangan sehingga kinerjanya belum optimal. Sistem informasi yang berjalan disini masih belum efektif karena masih di kombinasikan dengan proses manual untuk proses pinjamannya, hal tersebut memakan waktu lama untuk setiap transakasinya, namun seiring dengan pesatnya perkembangan teknologi, maka sudah seharusnya masalah perkoperasian tersebut diberi sentuhan teknologi sebagai solusi contohnya seperti dibangun sistem informasi untuk memudahkan setiap

  11. ANALISIS KUALITAS PELAYANAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN INTEGRASI IMPORTANCE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS (IPA DAN MODEL KANO (Studi Kasus di PT. Perusahaan Air Minum Lyonnaise Jaya Jakarta

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    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari, air merupakan hal yang penting untuk diperhatikan karena seiring dengan pertambahan penduduk maka kebutuhan air tidak dapat dipungkiri akan semakin meningkat. Maka dalam menyikapi hal tersebut PT PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (Palyja hadir di Jakarta untuk meningkatkan penyediaan dan pelayanan air bersih. Dari 306 Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (PDAM yang ada di Indonesia, hanya 10 % yang dalam keadaan sehat. Dengan melihat kondisi tersebut maka Palyja perlu untuk mengarah pada inovasi-inovasi. Di dalam penelitian ini dilakukan studi kualitas layanan dengan integrasi Importance Performance Analysis (IPA dan Model Kano. Pendekatan ini bertujuan untuk membantu Palyja dalam mengevaluasi kepuasan pelanggan mereka, bukan hanya untuk mengidentifikasi apakah harapan konsumen telah terpenuhi atau belum tetapi juga mengidentifikasi atribut-atribut layanan yang fungsional dan disfungsional. Sehingga dari integrasi tersebut dapat diketahui atribut layanan apa yang perlu mendapat prioritas untuk ditingkatkan. Selanjutnya dari model ini, dapat diidentifikasi rekomendasi perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan Palyja. Dari hasil integrasi tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa atribut yang perlu mendapat prioritas untuk ditingkatkan adalah penerapan fasilitas air Palyja yang dapat langsung diminum oleh konsumen. Tentunya dengan memperhatikan kualitas air yang bersih dan aman untuk diminum. Kata Kunci : Kualitas Pelayanan, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA, Model Kano, Palyja     In order to meet daily needs, water is important to note because along with the increase of population, the water demand will inevitably increase. So in addressing these PT PAM Lyonnaise Jaya (Palyja present in Jakarta to improve the provision and water services. Of the 306 Regional Water Company (PDAM that exist in Indonesia, only 10% are in good health. By looking at current economic conditions, Palyja need to lead to innovations. Within this study, quality of

  12. STUDI EKSPERIMEN PEMILIHAN BIOMASSA UNTUK MEMPRODUKSI GAS ASAP CAIR ( LIQUID SMOKE GASES SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAWET

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    Sugeng Slamet

    2015-04-01

    kopi pada temperatur 150oC lebih banyak menghasilkan senyawa asam 93%. Kandungan asam efektif dalam mematikan dan menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba pada produk makanan dengan cara senyawa asam itu menembus dinding sel mikroorganisme yang menyebabkan sel mikroorganisme mati peningkatan kapasitas hasil seiring dengan meningkatnya temperatur uap biomassa. Kata kunci: Asap cair, pirolisis, kondensasi, pengawet alami, fenol,senyawa asam.

  13. Studi Etnobotani Pengobatan Tradisional untuk Perawatan Wanita di Masyarakat Keraton Surakarta Hadiningrat

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    Rini Verary Shanthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Keraton Surakarta memiliki budaya pengobatan tradisional. Pengetahuan tentang tradisi tersebut tersimpan dalam naskah kuno. Seiring dengan kemajuan jaman dan perkembangan pengobatan modern, tradisi pegobatan tradisional mulai menurun. Tujuan dari penelitian ini, untuk mengkaji etnobotani pengobatan tradisional untuk perawatan wanita di Keraton Surakarta. Kajian penelitian meliputi keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan obat komposisi dari ramuan tradisional dan mengkaji tingkat pengetahuan masyarakat Keraton Surakarta dalam penggunaan ramuan tradisional. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Keraton Surakarta dan kelurahan Baluwarti. Pengumpulan data etnobotani dengan wawancara, studi litelatur, survey, dan kuisioner. Data keanekaragaman jenis tumbuhan obat diperoleh dari kajian Serat Husada dan hasil wawancara dengan informan. Jenis ramuan tradisional, diulas mengenai komposisi bahan, organ tumbuhan, cara meramu, dan cara pemakaian. Data tingkat pengetahuan masyarakat diambil melalui kuisioner. Jumlah responden sebanyak 60 orang. Analisis data menggunakan Analysis of Variances (ANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukan 120 spesies tumbuhan obat dari 55 famili digunakan untuk ramuan tradisional. Terdapat 61 jenis ramuan yang digunakan untuk 17 macam perawatan wanita. Hasil kuisioner menunjukkan kecenderungan menurunya tingkat pengetahuan dan penggunaan ramuan tradisional oleh wanita usia muda. Hal ini karena pengaruh kemajuan jaman dan perkembangan pengobatan modern.Surakarta Palace develops its own traditional medication culture. The knowledge of the tradition is well-preserved in ancient manuscripts. In line with the modern medicine development, the practice of  traditional medical treatment has declined. And therefore the aim of the current study was to evaluate the traditional medical treatment for women in Surakarta Royal Palace. The purpose of the study was to examine the diversity of medicinal plant, the composition of traditional ingredients, and the knowledge

  14. Profiles of traditional farms: soil texture, total inorganic N and bacteria-producing estate

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    Yuni Puji Hastuti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pond traditional system is the pond in still activity with a symple management system.  This activity indicated by low technology and relatively low production level.  Aquaculture activities in traditional pond not loss from nitrification and denitrification prosess, however this process is more low production rather than semiintensive and intensive system. This study aims to observe abundance of bacteria nitrification along with changes soil texture, and N-organic in the soil of traditional pond. Chemical and biological analyses were done using spectroscopy and Most Probable Number methods to determine the amount of nitrite and ammonium production of bacteria.  Based of the result, each stratum traditional ponds have relatively similar abundance in nitrite producing bacteria of 7.08-7.47 Log CFU/g.  Increasing abundance in ammonium producing bacteria was found in all stratum, range from 5.63 Log cfu/g to 8.12 Log cfu/g. From the first day of preparation, traditional ponds have a lot of nitrite and ammonium producing bacteria.Keywords: traditional, pond, nitrification, abundance of bacteri. ABSTRAKTambak sistem tradisional merupakan tambak yang dalam kegiatannya masih menggunakan sistem manajemen sederhana.  Hal ini ditandai dengan penerapan teknologi sederhana, dan tingkat produksi relatif rendah.  Kegiatan budidaya di tambak tradisional tidak akan terlepas dari proses nitrifikasi dan denitrifikasi, namun demikian proses ini relatif lebih rendah aktivitasnya daripada tambak sistem semiintensif dan intensif.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mempelajari kelimpahan bakteri penghasil senyawa nitrit, amonium seiring dengan perubahan tekstur tanah, dan N-organik pada tanah tambak tradisional. Media pertumbuhan bakteri dikondisikan bebas oksigen (oxygen free nitrogen/OFN method , sedangkan kelimpahan bakteri dianalisis dengan rumus most porbable number (MPN. Berdasarkan hasil, setiap strata tanah tambak tradisional memiliki jumlah bakteri

  15. Pengaruh Nilai Tukar Terhadap Ekspor Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Indonesia [The Effect of Exchange Rates on Exports and its Impact on Indonesia's Economic Growth

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    Annaria Magdalena Marpaung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's export policy has been promoted since 1983. Since then, exports have been a concern in spurring economic growth along with the changing industrialization strategy from the emphasis on import substitution industry to the export promotion industry. In line with the 2017 economic growth target of 5.4%, the study on exports is interesting to examine given that exports are one of the factors driving Indonesia's economic growth. The objectives of the study were to analyze the effect of exchange rate on exports and their impact on Indonesia's economic growth. The data analysis was done by path analysis, using historical data from 1970 to 2015. The results showed: (a The exchange rate (Rp/USD partially has a positive and significant influence on the export volume of Indonesia, with a total influence of 71.57%,( b Partial export changes have a positive and significant impact on economic growth Indonesia, with a total influence of 65.29%, (c Partial exchange rates have a positive but insignificant effect on economic growth in Indonesia, with a total influence of 1.19% and (d Changes in exchange rates and export changes have a positive effect on the economic growth of Indonesia, with direct effect of 77.38% and indirect effect of 6.36% and both exogenous variables have an effect of 71.02% on the economic growth of Indonesia. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak:  Pengutamaan ekspor Indonesia sudah digalakkan sejak tahun 1983. Sejak saat itu, ekspor menjadi perhatian dalam memacu pertumbuhan ekonomi seiring dengan berubahnya strategi industrialisasi dari penekanan pada industri substitusi impor ke industri promosi ekspor. Sejalan dengan target pertumbuhan ekonomi tahun 2017 sebesar 5,4%, maka kajian tentang ekspor menarik untuk diteliti, dimana ekspor merupakan salah satu faktor yang mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi. Perilaku ekspor dipengaruhi oleh kurs. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh nilai tukar terhadap ekspor dan dampaknya terhadap

  16. Chemical Castration Using Iron (III Chloride Hexahydrate (KEBIRI KIMIAWI MENGGUNAKAN FERIKLORIDA HEKSAHIDRAT

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    Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical castration is a method that can be applied easily without any surgical intervention in animals. This study utilized iron (III chloride hexahydrate (FeCl3.6H2O as a new material for chemical castration in mice. Twenty seven adult male mice were divided into five groups: FeCl3 20% (n = 6, FeCl3 10% (n = 6, FeCl3 5.0% (n = 6, FeCl3 2.5% (n = 6, and control NaCl 0.9% (n = 3. A 0.2 mL of NaCl 0.9% or FeCl3 in various concentrations was injected intra-testicularly on each testis of the mice. Post-castration survival rate with LD50 values was obtained at the concentrations between 2.5-5.0% of FeCl3 groups, and 100% mice survived in the control group. The size of testis and concentration of spermatozoa decreased, in contrast with the increased concentration of FeCl3 solution used seven days post-injection compared to the control group. ABSTRAK Kebiri/kastrasi kimiawi secara injeksi intra-testis merupakan metode pengebiriam yang dapat dilakukan dengan mudah tanpa prosedur bedah pada hewan. Penelitian ini memanfaatkan larutan besi (ferri/III klorida (FeCl3 sebagai bahan baru untuk tindakan kebiri kimiawi pada mencit. Mencit jantan dewasa umur lima bulan sebanyak 27 ekor dibagi dalam lima kelompok yaitu FeCl3 20% (n=6, FeCl3 10% (n=6, FeCl3 5,0% (n=6, FeCl3 2,5% (n=6 dan kontrol NaCl 0,9% (n=3. Larutan FeCl3 sebanyak 0,2 mL diinjeksikan secara intra-testikel pada setiap organ testis. Daya hidup pascakebiri injeksi nilai LD 50 diperoleh pada kelompok FeCl3 konsentrasi di antara 2,5-5,0 % dan kelompok kontrol 100 % hidup. Organ testis dalam skrotum mengalami pengecilan ukuran dan konsentrasi spermatozoa mengalami penurunan seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi larutan FeCl3 yang digunakan setelah tujuh hari pasca injeksi dibandingkan dengan kontrol.

  17. Effect of Sucrose as Carbon Source and Probiotic Administrations on Bacterial Population Dinamic and Water Quality in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Culture

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    . Sukenda

    2007-07-01

    dilakukan penambahan sumber karbon (sukrosa, penambahan probiotik dan penambahan sukrosa + probiotik pada masing-masing wadah yang berisi 25 liter air dan udang Vanamei, Litopenaeus vannamei. Pakan yang diberikan berupa pellet komersial dengan kadar protein 30% setiap hari sebanyak 5% dari biomassa awal. Dari hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa populasi bakteri pada media budidaya meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya waktu pemeliharaan. Peningkatan jumlah populasi bakteri ini diikuti oleh semakin menurunnya nilai DO secara umum. Selain bakteri heterohof, tumbuh juga bakteri golongan Vibrio dengan persentase kemunculan yang berbeda pada setiap perlakuan. Penambahan sukrosa dalam media budidaya mendukung proliferasi bakteri secara umum, heterotrof, probiotik dan golongan Vibrio. Secara spesifik, timbul juga interaksi antara bakteri probiotik dengan bakteri Vibrio. Tumbuhnya bakteri probiotik berimplikasi negatif terhadap populasi Vibrio. Selain itu pertumbuhan bakteri secara umum juga berimplikasi terhadap fluktuasi kadar amonia perairan. Kata kunci : karbon, sukrosa, probiotik, udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei

  18. ZERO-FIELD NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE FOR STUDY OF ANTIFERROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF FeF3 MATERIALS

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    G. R. F. Suwandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR has been used as a research tool in many fields. In this study, the magnetic properties, especially anti-ferromagnetic properties of FeF3 materials were investigated. Zero-field custom-built NMR method was used to investigate the anti-ferromagnetic properties in the materials. Experiments have been carried out by varying the sample temperatures from 8 K to 220 K. Ordinary spin echo pulse sequence 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF were used. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the signals in NMR spectrum were analyzed and the peak showed the resonance frequency. The result showed that resonance frequencies decrease with increasing in temperature. The frequency of the spectrum was around 85.41 MHz in the zero-temperature limit, and this corresponds with Fe hyperfine field at zero-temperature limit was 2.14 T. The temperature dependence of the local magnetization does not fit T2 Bloch’s Law very well. Instead, it fits the exponential form having an energy gap in the dispersion relation of the spin wave. It is obtained from the result that FeF3 is antiferromagnetic materials with energy gap of 11.466 meV and anisotropy energy of 1.045 meV.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR telah banyak digunakan sebagai “research tool” pada berbagai bidang kajian di fisika. Pada studi ini, akan dilakukan eksperimen untuk menguji sifat magnetik, khususnya antiferromagnetik pada material FeF3. Telah dilakukan eksperimen dengan memvariasikan temperatur pada sampel dari 8 K hingga 220 K. Pulse sequence yang digunakan adalah 90⁰RF–τ–180⁰RF. Dengan memanfaatkan Fast Fourier Transform, sinyal echo ini dapat dianalisis dalam bentuk spektrum NMR dengan puncak spektrum menunjukkan frekuensi resonansinya. Diperoleh bahwa frekuensi resonansi akan menurun seiring dengan kenaikan temperatur. Posisi frekuensi pada temperatur 0 K adalah sebesar 85,41 MHz, hal ini memperlihatkan bahwa medan hyperfine dari Fe sebesar 2,14 T pada temperatur 0 K. Kurva

  19. Model Metric untuk Mengukur Fleksibilitas Model Proses Bisnis

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    Endang Wahyu Pamungkas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Organisasi bisnis dunia saat ini banyak memanfaatkan sistem informasi digital untuk memberikan pemahaman mengenai manajemen proses bisnis yang mereka jalani. Pemanfaatan sistem Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP merupakan contoh teknologi dalam manajemen proses bisnis. Melalui sistem ini perusahaan dapat membangun dan mengembangkan proses bisnis. Selain itu, perusahaan juga dapat menyesuaikan proses bisnis secara cepat terhadap perubahan yang terjadi seiring bertambahnya kebutuhan dan informasi, berubahnya kondisi pasar, atau perubahan kebijakan. Sehubungan dengan perubahan proses bisnis yang sering terjadi, maka aspek fleksibilitas terhadap model proses yang dibangun harus ditingkatkan. Dalam mendukung peningkatan fleksibilitas tersebut tentunya dibutuhkan sebuah model untuk mengukur tingkat flesibelitas model proses bisnis. Model tersebut yang kemudian dapat digunakan oleh analis untuk melakukan perbandingan sehingga dapat diperoleh model proses bisnis yang paling fleksibel dan cocok dengan perusahaan. Hal ini dapat dianalisa dengan melibatkan aspek-aspek fleksibel yang telah diteliti pada penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya. Dalam paper ini akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aspek fleksibitas dalam model proses bisnis untuk menghasilkan model metric yang dapat melakukan kuantifikasi tingkat fleksibilitas pada model proses bisnis. Model metric yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini mampu melakukan perhitungan fleksibelitas pada model proses bisnis secara kuantitatif. Kata kunci: ERP, fleksibilitas, metadata, model metric, model proses bisnis, variasi Abstract Recently, business organizations in the world are making use of digital information systems to provide an understanding of the business process management in which they live. Utilization of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP system is an example of technology in business process management. Through this system, some companies can build and develop business process and can quickly adjust

  20. Análisis económico de la implementación estrategias de control para la enfermedad de la malaria en Tumaco (Colombia.

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    Jhoana Patricia Romero Leiton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presenta un análisis de un problema de control óptimo para la transmisión de la enfermedad de malaria en las poblaciones de humanos y mosquitos en el municipio Tumaco (Nariño, se consideró transmisión vectorial y vertical (madre-hijo de la enfermedad. Para la población humana el sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias es de tipo SEIR (Susceptible - Expuesto- Infectado -Recuperado, mientras que para la población de mosquitos es de tipo SI (Susceptible-Infectado, con población total variable. Las variables de control consideradas fueron: fumigación de interiores, uso de toldillos, tratamiento profiláctico durante el embarazo y tratamiento antimalárico; todas sujetas a una función de costo a minimizar. Estas variables de control fueron escogidas a partir de las propuestas realizadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS en cooperación con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF, el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (UNDP y el Banco Mundial en 1998, a través del lanzamiento de la asociación para hacer retroceder el paludismo the Roll Back Malaria Global Partnership. Con las variables control se implementaron dos estrategias distintas: en la primera se suministró tratamiento profiláctico durante el embarazo así como tratamiento antimalárico, en la segunda aplicó las cuatro variables de control de manera simultánea. Las simulaciones numéricas del problema de control óptimo fueron realizadas usando datos la literatura consultada y del Sistema Nacional de vigilancia en Salud Pública (SIVIGILA en el pacífico nariñense, durante el periodo comprendido entre finales del año 2000 y todo el año 2001, periodo en el cual se registró un crecimiento acelerado de casos de malaria en este municipio. Los resultados sugieren que para zonas rurales de Tumaco la estrategia más efectiva y menos costosa para controlar la malaria es la implementación de las cuatro

  1. EKSISTENSI GRUP MUSIK KASIDAH “NASIDA RIA” SEMARANG DALAM MENGHADAPI MODERNISASI

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    Umi Cholifah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grup musik Kasidah Nasida Ria adalah grup musik bercirikan keIslaman dari Kota Semarang yang cukup legendaris. Seiring dengan berkembangnya musik-musik modern, grup musik ini menghadapi tantangan baru yang mempengaruhi eksistensinya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membahas bagaimana eksistensi grup musik Kasidah Nasida Ria Semarang dalam menghadapi modernisasi, serta faktor-faktor yang menjadi pendorong dan penghambat perkembangan grup musik ini dalam menghadapi modernisasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah grup musik Kasidah Nasida Ria Semarang. Teknik pengumpulan data meliputi observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa grup musik Kasidah Nasida Ria Semarang masih eksis, terbukti masih tampil di televisi dan di berbagai acara. Eksistensi ini didukung oleh motivasi dari pimpinan dan para personel; sifat syairnya yang religius; tanggapan masyarakat; dan faktor lingkungan. Walaupun masih eksis, grup Kasidah Nasidaria mengalami masa surut karena adanya faktor penghambat antara lain, kurangnya publikasi dan promosi, isu-isu yang tidak bertangggung jawab;  plagiarisme, serta persaingan dengan jenis musik lain. Grup musik Kasidah Nasidaria Semarang perlu lebih terbuka terhadap perkembangan teknologi serta berinovasi dalam kesenian keagamaan agar mampu bertahan. Pemerintah juga perlu melakukan pembinaan untuk mengembangkan kesenian-kesenian keagamaan. Nasida Ria is a popular kasidah music group based in Semarang. This group has strong Islamic character and has spawned many hits. Along with the development of modern music, the band is facing new challenges that affect their existence.The objective of this study is to discuss how the existence of Music Group Kasidah Nasida Ria Semarang in present modernization as well as the factors driving and inhibiting the development of this band in facing modernization. In this study, the author uses a qualitative approach

  2. Perkembangan Pola Pemecahan Masalah Anak Usia Sekolah dalam Memecahkan Permasalahan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam

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    E. Juliyanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenelitian yang mengungkap pola pemecahan masalah sudah banyak dilakukan, tetapi belum ada yang mengungkap perkembangan pola pemecahan masalah manusia, khususnya untuk pemecahan masalah dalam bidang fisika. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perkembangan pola pemecahan masalah pada anak usia sekolah. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui tes tertulis dan wawancara dengan mengajukan permasalahan yang berkaitan dengan fisika dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Jenis Penelitian ini adalah studi perkembangan dengan metode Cross-Sectional. Subyek penelitian ini berjumlah 25 orang anak usia sekolah kelas IV SD hingga kelas XII SMA, dengan mengambil tiga orang setiap tingkatan kelas kecuali kelas XII SMA yang hanya diambil satu orang. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan pada anak rentang kelas IV SD hingga XII SMA ditemukan empat pola pemecahan masalah, yaitu Intuitive Problem Solving, Primitive Problem Solving, Hipotetic Problem Solving, dan Expert Problem Solving. Pola-pola tersebut menunjukkan sebuah tahapan perkembangan pemecahan masalah pada anak usia sekolah. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan memecahkan masalah berkembang seiring perkembangan manusia. ABSTRACTThere are many study to reveal pattern of problem solving, but there is no study that reveal the development of human problem solving, especially in physics problem solving. This study aims  at describing the development of problem solving pattern of school-age children. Data were obtained through a written test and interview by asking question related to daily physics problem. This study was study of the development that used the Cross-Sectional method. Subject of this study were 25 school-age children of fourth grade until twelfth grade. There were three students taken from each grade level except the twelfth grade which was only supports by onestudent. Results of this study showed that there were four patterns of problem solving of fourth grade until twelfth grade

  3. Perkembangan Pendidikan Meunasah dan Dayah di Aceh

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    Mujianto Solichin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meunasah dan Dayah dalam masa perjalanannya tumbuh seiring perkembangan kerajaan-kerajaan Islam di Aceh yang memiliki peran strategis dalam pembentukan kebudayaan Islam di wilayah kekuasaan mereka masing-masing. Ini membuktikan bahwa kerajaan-kerajaan Melayu baik di Malaka (Malaysia maupun di Aceh (Nangroe Aceh Darussalam memiliki jaringan arkeologi sejarah kebudayaan dan peradaban yang terbentuk berdasarkan motivasi agama dan menjadikan tradisi Melayu sebagai identitas pemersatu mereka. Kehadiran lembaga-lembaga klasik Islam tersebut di atas terus mengalami perluasan secara fungsional, pergeseran sistem karena tuntutan perkembangan zaman, pun juga tuntutan sosial kehidupan masyarakat yang saat ini tidak lagi membutuhkan pemecahan problematika kehidupan melalui ilmu-ilmu agama semata, namun juga integrasi antara agama, ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Memodernisasikan Meunasah dan Dayah sebagai upaya menyelamatkan institusi Islam tua ini agar tidak menjadi “cagar budaya”, tentu bisa belajar dari pengalaman model-model modernisasi madrasah berdasarkan pengalaman Mesir (Masjid-Madrasah-Universitas al-Azhar, Turki (Maktab-Sekolah Remaja-Sekolah perempuan-Sekolah Imam-Khatib, dan Saudi Arabia (Madrasah-Sekolah Hasyimiyah. || Meunasah and Dayah in their development along with Islamic kingdoms in Aceh have a strategic role in the formation of Islamic culture in their own territories. This proves that the Malay kingdoms either in Malacca (Malaysia as well as in Aceh (NAD had a network of archaeological history of culture and civilization formed based on religious motivation and made the Malay tradition as their unifying identity. The existence of the classical Islamic institutions mentioned above continue to functionally expand and the system shifted because of the demands of the current time. It was also because of the social demands of the society that is no longer in need of solving the problems of life through a mere religious science, but also

  4. Instalasi Buku dari Batu sebagai Representasi Reinkarnasi Ilmu dalam Pengkaryaan Tiga Dimensi Seni Patung Kontemporer

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    Gabriel Aries Setiadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penemuan tulisan telah membawa cahaya peradaban kedalam kehidupan manusia, penemuan yang telah ada lebih dari 5000 tahun yang lampau tersebut memungkinkan pelestarian buah pikiran maupun pengalaman, dan pewarisan kebijaksanaan yang telah diperoleh kepada generasi berikutnya. Tulisan-tulisan tersebut awalnya hanya berupa lembaran atau lempengan yang terpisah, namun seiring dengan perubahan jaman dan kebutuhannya maka lempengan batu dan tanah berubah menjadi lembaran kulit, daun, maupun kayu. Media kulit, kayu, serta daun kemuadian tidak lagi dipakai dan kertas menjadi media utama. Kumpulan kertas tersebut disatukan dalam jumlah yang banyak yang kita kenal saat ini sebagai wujud buku. Sesuai kebutuhan zamannya, wujud buku secara fisik sudah mengalami beberapa kali perubahan namun secara fungsi buku tetap sebagai medium untuk dibaca dan dituliskan sesuatu. Berdasarkan fakta tersebut, kita perlu menyadari bahwa peran buku selama sejarah manusia akan tetap sama, yaitu sebagai media transfer ilmu pengetahuan, baik dengan cara penulisan ilmiah, novel, dongeng, maupun ayat-ayat kitab suci. Peranan buku terhadap perubahan sangatlah signifikan. Berapa banyak buku yang dapat mempengaruhi pemikiran orang lain. Berapa banyak orang yang dapat dipengaruhi pikirannya oleh satu buku yang berkualitas. Berapa banyak perubahan yang diawali oleh satu tulisan. Buku sebagai objek karya merupakan kumpulan sebuah tulisan perwujudan buah pikiran maupun pengalaman yang tersusun dari berbagai kalimat, terdiri atas kata-kata yang terbentuk akibat susunan huruf dan menghasilkan makna. Secara harfiah buku itu sendiri terdiri atas sampul depan, halaman-halaman isi yang dilambangkan dengan tumpukan lembaran kertas, ketebalan jilid, judul buku dan pengarang pada sampul depan dan pada ketebalan jilid. Seiring  perkembangan buku secara fisik, dari awal penciptaannya hingga kini, telah banyak tulisan tentang perasaan, ide,dan  pengalaman diungkapkan. Selama itu pula telah

  5. Hispanos en las dos Américas: Prevalencia en la Diabetes

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    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El número de diabéticos adultos en el mundo era de 135 millones en 1995, pero 30 años después, para el año 2025 esta cifra será más del doble, pues se calcula que estará en 300 millones, incremento que se hará más que todo a expensas de los países en vía de desarrollo(1. De esa población enferma, en América Latina había 15 millones al despuntar el milenio y habrá 20 millones para el año 2010.

    Además de la raza y de sus eventuales componentes genéticos o del envejecimiento de la población mundial, un factor determinante en el incremento de la prevalencia de éste (y de otros trastornos metabólicos es el cambio en los hábitos de vida; es decir, que la urbanización, modernización y seguramente el paso a un nuevo estrato socio-económico, determinan también este nuevo porcentaje de diabéticos en el mundo, que excede en mucho el simple crecimiento de la población mundial.

    Años ha, antes del avance incontenible de los estudios epidemiológicos, sabíamos que países de gran altura (por su enclave andino como Bolivia y Perú, tenían baja incidencia de diabetes mellitus; pero que la situación en el atrasado campo de esos países en vía de desarrollo no era la misma que en las grandes ciudades de esas mismas naciones sub-desarrolladas.

    En una tabla publicada en las Guías ALAD 2000(2 se ve claramente la diferencia: Muy bajas prevalencias (< 3% en poblaciones como Huaraz (Perú, El Alto (Bolivia, Aymaras (Chile, o Choachí (Colombia cuando se comparan con las tasas prevalentes en Sao Paulo, Bogotá o Lima, pero que nunca son tan altas como en los casos de Ciudad de México, San Luis de Potosí o Santa Cruz, la ciudad industrial de Bolivia (que pasan la barrera del 10%; les sigue en orden descendente el porcentaje que se ve en ciudades como Córdoba o Asunción. El común denominador de la baja prevalencia es la altura de la población (> 3000 metros sobre el nivel del mar y el hecho de ser rurales y

  6. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

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    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    .ABSTRAK: Di era informasi dan kommunikasi teknologi (ICT kini, pembangunan ICT dan industri berkembang begitu pesat dan dikaitkan dengan daya membeli yang tinggi. Hari ini, masyarakat dunia menghadapi cabaran dalam meningkatkan prestasi persekitaran, terutamanya dengan perubahan cuaca, pemanasan global, dan pengurusan sumber. Industri ICT merupakan penyumbang sebahagian besar daripada ekonomi global yang berkaitan dengan inovasi, reka cipta dan perkembangan pesat hampir semua aspek manusia. Di sebaliknya pula, industri ICT bertanggung jawab terhadap pelepasan CO2 global. Masalah persekitaran global secara langsung mempengaruhi polisi tenaga dan industri banyak negara. Pembangunan pesat ICT menyebabkan meningkatnya penggunaan tenaga dan pertambahan masalah persekitaran. Penggunaan tenaga oleh ICT dianggarkan mencapai jumlah 15% daripada jumlah penggunaannya di seluruh dunia pada tahun 2020. Oleh itu, banyak negara yang membentuk polisi ICT Hijau supaya kecekapan tenaga dapat ditingkatkan seiring dengan perubahan cuaca. Kerajaan terutamanya di negara-negara membangun dan negara Islam lain haruslah mengamalkan polisi baru yang wajar agar tenaga digunakan secara efisien di bidang ICT. Kajian ini membentangkan masalah persekitaran yang kini berkaitan dengan menhijaukan ICT dan usaha-usaha untuk meyelesaikannya. Beberapa kajian berbentuk peringatan berasaskan paradigma penggunaan tenaga terkini, berdasarkan kepada amalan terbaru ICT yang dipinda. Kajian memberikan garis panduan kepada pembuat-pembuat keputusan dan para professional ICT untuk mempertingkatkan usaha mereka ke arah ICT hijau dan menyelesaikan masalah alam sekitar. Pandangan Islam terhadap alam sekitar dan usaha melindunginya dipertimbangkan, memandangkan ianya memberi pendapat yang menyeluruh, stabil dan adil berdasarkan sumber-sumber Islam iaitu Quran dan Sunnah. Banyak ayat-ayat Al-Quran dan hadis-hadis memperjelaskan (secara langsung atau tidak langsung cara yang betul dalam menangani dan melindungi sumber alam

  7. Faktor Risiko Penyakit Ginjal Kronik Berdasarkan Analisis Cross-sectional Data Awal Studi Kohort Penyakit Tidak Menular Penduduk Usia 25-65 Tahun di Kelurahan Kebon Kalapa, Kota Bogor Tahun 2011

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    Eva Sulistiowati

    2015-11-01

    dan <60 mL/min/1,73 m2. PGK terjadi bila eLFG <60 mL/min/1,73 m2. Subjek dengan e-LFG <60 mL/min/1,73 m2 berjumlah 44 orang (2,3%, persentasenya meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya umur. Analisis multivariat menunjukkan bahwa kelompok umur 49-65 tahun (OR=13,57; 95% CI: 4,73-38,97, status ekonomi kuintil ke 1 (OR=4,44; 95% CI: 1,14-17,39, hipertensi (OR=3,71;95% CI: 1,82-7,59, jenis kelamin laki-laki (OR=2,97; 95% CI: 1,49-5,92, diabetes melitus (OR=2,54; 95% CI=1,24-5,20, dan obesitas(OR=2,51; 95% CI: 1,20-5,25 mempunyai hubungan yang signifikan dengan terjadinya PGKKata kunci : faktor risiko, laju filtrasi glomerulus, PGK

  8. PERANAN WANITA MELAYU DALAM PROSES PENJAGAAN IBU BAPA TUA: DILEMA DAN CABARAN DALAM ERA GLOBALISASI (ROLES OF MALAY WOMEN IN THE PROCESS OF CARING FOR ELDERLY PARENTS: DILEMMA AND CHALLENGES IN THE ERA OF GLOBALISATION

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    Khadijah Alavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan bilangan warga tua (60 tahun ke atas di beberapa negara Asia Tenggara termasuk Malaysia dan Indonesia semakin membimbangkan. Kepadatan penduduk warga tua di Malaysia dijangka akan meningkat kepada 2.2 juta orang pada tahun 2020. Statistik juga menunjukkan bahawa kadar kelahiran terus menurun beberapa dekad kebelakangan ini. Statistik ini menghuraikan satu fenomena global berkaitan dengan anak dewasa yang menjaga ibu bapa tua mereka. Fenomena anak dewasa yang menggalas beban penjagaan (kerjaya, menjaga keluarga sendiri, dan menjaga ibu bapa tua kurang dikaji dan diperbincangkan. Artikel ini meninjau pengalaman penjagaan yang dilalui oleh anak dewasa (wanita yang menjaga warga tua dengan menggunakan teori peranan. Pengumpulan data telah dilaksanakan terhadap 8 orang responden menggunakan kaedah temu bual mendalam dan 399 orang responden menggunakan kaedah tinjauan. Hasil kajian daripada kedua-dua pendekatan menunjukkan bahawa wanita lebih banyak terlibat dalam penjagaan warga tua. Ibu bapa tua juga mengharapkan bantuan dan sokongan daripada anak perempuan. Fenomena ini boleh memberi implikasi kepada kerjaya wanita, keluarga dan pembangunan negara. Artikel ini merumuskan bahawa dalam era globalisasi, majikan perlu mengambil kira masa anjal di tempat kerja, peningkatan sistem sokongan formal dan informal bagi membantu wanita dalam mengharungi dilema dan cabaran penjagaan warga tua, anak, keluarga dan kerjaya wanita, di samping untuk mencapai masyarakat penyayang dan budaya ikram yang boleh dipupuk seiring dengan pembangunan negara maju.A drastic increase in the number of elderly people (above 60 years in several countries in Southeast Asia including Malaysia and Indonesia has raised concerns. The numbers of elderly population in Malaysia are projected to grow to 2.2 million by the year 2020. Statistics also shows that the birth rate in Malaysia has been decreasing in the last few decades. Both these statistics describe a global

  9. HYDROTALSIT Zn-Al-EDTA SEBAGAI ADSORBEN UNTUK POLUTAN ION Pb(II DI LINGKUNGAN Zn-Al-EDTA Hydrotalcite as Adsorbent for Pb(II Ion Pollutant in The Environment

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    Roto Roto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Polusi ion Pb(II di dalam lingkungan perairan cenderung naik seiring peningkatan jumlah industri smelter dan daur ulang aki bekas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA sebagai adsorben ion Pb(II dalam air secara mendalam. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-NO3 disintesis dengan metode kopresipitasi dan hidrotermal pada temperatur 100 °C selama 15 jam. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA diperoleh dengan penukaran ion. Keasaman larutan, kinetika dan kapasitas adsorpsi diteliti. Hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA memiliki d003 sebesar 14,52 Å sementara Zn-Al-NO3 sebesar 8,90 Å. Spektra FTIR menunjukkan keberadaan serapan gugus C=O pada bilangan gelombang 1684,77 cm-1. Kondisi optimum adsorpsi ion Pb(II terjadi pada pH 4, waktu kontak 60 menit dan kapasitas adsorpsi diperoleh 2,07 mg/g pada konsentrasi awal 10 mg/L dengan berat adsorben 0,100 g. Adsorpsi ion Pb(II oleh hidrotalsit Zn-Al-EDTA mengikuti reaksi pseudo orde dua dengan tetapan laju adsorpsi sebesar 8,90 g mmol-1min-1. Adsorpsi ion Pb(II oleh Zn-Al-EDTA terjadi karena  pembentukan khelat Pb-EDTA di dalam struktur hidrotalsit. Hasil ini diharapkan mampu memberikan kontribusi yang lebih luas di dalam pengendalian konsentrasi Pb(II di lingkungan. ABSTRACT Polution by Pb(II ion in the water environment tends to increase due the increase in the number of lead smelter and lead acid battery recycling industries. This work aims at studying in details the ability of Zn-Al-EDTA hydrotalcite as adsorbent for Pb(II ion in the environment. The Zn-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite was synthesized first by coprecipitation method followed by hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C for 15 h. The Zn-Al-EDTA hydrotalcite was later obtained by ion exchange process. The solution pH, kinetics and adsorption capacity were studied. The XRD data showed that Zn-Al-EDTA and Zn-Al-NO3 hydrotalcites have d003 of 14.52 and 8.90 Å, respectively. The FTIR spectra suggested that C=O group was observed with absorption band at 1684

  10. KAJIAN METAMORFOSIS PERFORMANCE ART SERTA ASPEK SOSIALNYA

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    Satriana Didiek Isnanta

    2006-01-01

    . Dalam konteks seni, penggunaannya sering dipahami sebagai tawaran kemungkinan baru dalam menciptakan atau mengalami kesenian. Salah satunya adalah adanya metamorfosis performance art menjadi multimedia performance dan yang terakhir bermetamorfosis menjadi video performance. Video performance, lahir dari sejarah panjang perkembangan performance art sekitar tahun 1909 lewat manifesto kelompok Futurist di Paris yang beranggotakan penyair, pelukis, dan pemain teater, dengan menggunakan tubuh sebagai medium, performance art melakukan dematerialisasi dalam seni. Video performance dalam presentasinya, tubuh sudah tidak lagi menjadi bagian, tetapi yang hadir kemudian adalah tubuh yang virtual (maya. Kehadiran tubuh tidak benar-benar nyata, tetapi kehadirannya dapat terasa dari tampilan visual yang keluar dari projector. Di sini, performance art telah termediasi dan bermetamorfosa. Selain persoalan fusi seni dan teknologi yang mendorong metamorfosis performance art menjadi video performance seperti di atas, tulisan ini juga membahas aspek-aspek sosial seiring kemunculan dan perkembangan performance art di Indonesia. Pertama performance art sebagai seni penyadaran dan perlawanan dengan mendekonstruksi realitas sosial dan kemapanan seni rupa itu sendiri. Kedua adanya fenomena ambient media dalam praktik periklanan global (termasuk Indonesia yang membelokkan arah perjuangan ”genue” performance art dari media penyadaran menjadi seni ”kitsch” sebagai ujung tombak periklanan untuk kepentingan pasar. Kata kunci: performance art, video art, seni media baru, ambient media.

  11. Change and Continuity in Indonesian Islamist Ideology and Terrorist Strategies

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    Adam James Fenton

    2015-04-01

    seluruh aspek kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia. Proses ini terus berlangsung hingga sekarang serta menciptakan gelombang perubahan berkesinambungan dalam pemikiran, ideologi, dan praktik-praktik dalam kompleksitas yang rumit. Penafsiran kaku atas ayat-ayat Quran sebenarnya bukanlah sesuatu yang baru, berbeda dengan apa yang selama ini diasumsikan di media. Fenomena seperti ini dapat dirunut kembali pada era 1800an, khususnya pada konflik bersenjata yang terjadi antara penganjur penerapan tekstual ajaran Islam dengan para penganut ideologi tradisional dan penjajah, yang berpuncak pada Perang Padri di Sumatra Barat tahun 1821-38. Dengan ideologi serupa, para ideolog modern dari kelompok garis keras, seperti Abu Bakar Bashir, mendorong pengikutnya untuk melakukan aksi kekerasan dan teror dengan mendasarkan diri pada ideologi ala Timur Tengah dengan penafsiran dasar-dasar Islam secara kaku. Tulisan ini mendalilkan bahwa strategi kelompok yang mengusung ideologi radikal dan kekerasan terus mengalami perubahan seiring perubahan strategi penguasa dalam menghadapi mereka. Strategi kelompok radikal telah berubah dari penyerangan berskala besar terhadap simbol-simbol asing bergeser pada kekerasan berskala kecil terutama pada persoalan penerapan hukum. Pemerintah, di sisi lain, cenderung mengambil tindakan tegas terhadap mereka yang diduga terlibat kekerasan kelompok radikal. Tulisan ini juga melihat perubahan-perubahan dan kesinambungan strategi dari kelompok radikal serta evolusi ideologi Islam yang menjustifikasi aksi-aksi kekerasan. Kesimpulan lainnya adalah bahwa keterlibatan kalangan muda dalam kegiatan dialog mengenai Islam dan demokrasi menjadikan mereka terhindar sekaligus memutus rantai rekrutmen gerakan radikal dan terorisme.

  12. Strategi Komunikasi Program Internet Sehat Dan Aman Kementerian Komunikasi Dan Informatika Republik Indonesia (Studi Kasus Evaluasi Program Incakap Tahun 2015

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    Sucianty Dyah Astuti

    2016-07-01

    2008 to 2015 as a result of the evaluation of the program conducted by KemKominfo, namely: (i the change in INSAN name since 2003 into INCAKAP, (ii the change of INSAN logo , (iii the change of INSAN mascot. Seiring dengan perkembangan teknologi internet dan penggunaannya dalam kehidupan dan pergaulan, internet telah menjadi sebuah gaya hidup (life style di masyarakat. Tingginya jumlah pengguna internet di Indonesia memunculkan berbagai dampak di masyarakat baik positif maupun negatif. Untuk membuat pemahaman di masyarakat terhadap penggunaan internet pemerintah melalui Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika Republik Indonesia membuat suatu program, yaitu Internet Sehat dan Aman dengan tujuan untuk mensosialisasikan penggunaan internet secara sehat dan aman melalui pembelajaran etika berinternet sehat dengan melibatkan seluruh komponen masyarakat. Penelitian ini mengambil fokus pada evaluasi program internet sehat dan aman yang dilakukan Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika Republik Indonesia tahun 2015. Tujuan dari penelitian adalah melihat strategi komunikasi dan pencapaian tujuan dari program internet sehat dan aman yang dilakukan KemKominfo. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan riset studi kasus deskriptif. Data diperoleh melalui wawancara dan studi pustaka, sedangkan informan pada penelitian ini adalah staf KemKominfo pada bagaian Direktorat Jenderal Aplikasi Infomatika sub direktotar pemberdayaan informatika sebanyak tiga orang. Dari seluruh rangkaian proses penelitian diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan bahwa: (1 Pencapaian Program Internet Sehat dan Aman hingga tahun 2015 telah mencapai target namum belum 100%. (2 Dalam pelaksanaan program INSAN terdapat beberapa hambatan yang dihadapi KemKominfo, yaitu: (i Keterbatasan Anggaran Pemberian dan Belanja Negara (APBN, (ii keterbatasan daya jangkau akibat letak geografis indonesia yang merupakan negara kepulauan.(3 perlu dilakukan evaluasi menganai penggunaan media online dalam startegi komunikasi

  13. MEDIA KONSULTASI ONLINE SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF UPAYA PENANGANAN MASALAH REMAJA

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    Ira Mirawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kebutuhan remaja saat ini terhadap bimbingan karir dan konseling semakin tinggi, seiring dengan semakin beragamnya permasalahan remaja. Di sekolah-sekolah, kebutuhan konsultasi juga meningkat terutama sejak adanya Seleksi Nasional Masuk Perguruan Tinggi (SNMPTN yang menggunakan “jalur sekolah” atau jalur prestasi. Masalahnya, karena berbagai sebab, ternyata tidak semua remaja dapat mengungkapkan permasalahan atau berkonsultasi dengan mudah secara tatap muka. Di sisi lain penggunaan media social di kalangan remaja meningkat dengan pesat, dari 88,1 juta orang pengguna internet yang dirilis oleh Asosisasi Penyedia Jasa Internet Indonesia, 58,4% di antaranya adalah generasi muda, termasuk remaja. Oleh karena itu, adalah langkah yang tepat untuk menyediakan media konsultasi online yang dapat membuat para remaja dapat mengkonsultasikan permasalahan yang dihadapinya di manapun dan kapanpun. Penelitian ini berusaha mendeskripsikan kebutuhan para remaja di kota Bandung terhadap media konsultasi online, lalu mengembangkan prototype media konsultasi online berdasarkan deskripsi kebutuhan tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di luar bimbingan karir, masalah yang dihadapi remaja di kota Bandung di antaranya adalah masalah pertemanan, masalah percintaan, masalah keluarga, dan masalah keuangan. Pada umumnya remaja menceritakan permasalahannya pada teman mereka, bukan pada keluarga atau guru/dosen bimbingan dan konseling. Sebagian besar responden pernah mem-posting permasalahan mereka di media sosial, hanya untuk pelepasan tekanan, tanpa mengharapkan feedback dari teman atau follower mereka. Hampir seluruh responden tertarik untuk mencoba jika ada layanan konsultasi online. Mereka berharap, meskipun online, konsultasi tetap dapat dilakukan secara personal tanpa muncul di ranah yang dapat dibaca oleh orang lain, dan jangan sampai permasalahan mereka diceritakan ke publik, meskipun namanya disamarkan. Selain itu, para responden menyarankan

  14. Analisis Potensi Sumberdaya Air Daerah Aliran Sungai Singkil Menggunakan Model Tangki

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    Mustafril Mustafril

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kebutuhan air terus meningkat seiring pertumbuhan penduduk, sedangkan air yang tersedia tidak selalu sejalan antara kebutuhannya menurut volume, tempat, waktu dan kualitasnya. Model-model hidrologi berdasarkan Tank Model telah dikembangkan dalam penelitian di Indonesia dan di dunia untuk memprediksi potensi sumberdaya air dalam suatu DAS. Optimasi parameter Tank Model dapat menggunakan Artificial Neural Network (ANN yang mempunyai kemampuan untuk belajar dari data dan tidak membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk mencapai model optimal. Tujuan analisis ini untuk menentukan seberapa besar potensi sumberdaya air di DAS Singkil berdasarkan optimasi parameter Tank Model. Hasil optimasi keseimbangan air parameter Tank Model DAS Singkil meliputi: karakteristik hidrologi DAS Singkil meliputi debit minimum 3,60 mm/hari, debit maksimum 17,80 mm/hari, dan rasio debit maksimum/minimum 4,94. Indikator kesalahan Tank Model DAS Singkil meliputi: R (Coefficient of Correlation sebesar 0,6471, MAE (Mean Absolute Error dan RMSE (Root Square Mean Error masing-masing 2,18 dan 2,73. Total inflow 3.189,48 mm/tahun dan total outflow 3.155,64 mm/tahun, yang terdiri dari: surface flow 11,75 mm/tahun, subsurface flow 669,84 mm/tahun, intermediate flow 62,05 mm/tahun, subbase flow 0,74 mm/tahun, dan base flow 2.411,26 mm/tahun. Berdasarkan total baseflow volume ketersediaan air total yang mengalir di Sungai Singkil mencapai 12.164 x 106 m3/tahun. Potensi sumberdaya air DAS Singkil untuk keperluan pertanian mencapai 3.438,4 x 106 m3/tahun   Analysis of Potential Water Resources at Singkil Watershed using Tank Model Abstract. Water demand continues to increase as the population growth, while the availability of water is not always consistent with the needs in terms of volume, place, time and its quality. Tank based hydrological models have been developed in many researches in Indonesia and in the world to predict the potential of water resources in a watershed. The

  15. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

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    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath

  16. Potensi Limbah Padat sebagai Benang Gintir Berbasis Sistem Interlacing

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    Nisa Fardani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pengelolaan sampah di tempat pembuangan sampah menjadi masalah lingkungan yang besar seiring dengan pertumbuhan industri pulp dan kertas di Indonesia. Konversi limbah padat menjadi bahan bakar pelengkap untuk industri kertas juga tidak memberikan hasil yang signifikan untuk memecahkan masalah pencemaran udara pada saat karbon aktif dibebaskan dari proses pembakaran. Masalah ini secara khusus menuntut sistem pengelolaan sampah yang maju dan efektif secara terus-menerus. Baru-baru ini, optimasi pemanfaatan serat-limbah menjadi alternatif khusus untuk mengurangi tumpukan sampah di tempat pembuangan sampah. Namun, tidak semua dapat didaur ulang. Karakteristik limbah padat berserat dari industri kertas tisu cenderung menurun gramaturnya, sehingga sangat disayangkan pemanfaatannya akan berkurang bahkan setelah proses daur ulang. Di sisi lain, struktur kimianya yang telah rusak selama proses produksi tampaknya menjadi semangat baru bagi industri tekstil di masa depan dalam mengembangkan teknologi daur ulang limbah padat berserat, yang menghasilkan benang tekstil generasi baru. Fokus dalam penelitian ini ditekankan pada penemuan tas yang terbuat dari bahan serat-limbah menggunakan metode eksperimental. Identifikasi karakteristik serat-sampah berbasis padat dikembangkan melalui teknik eksplorasi multi-ply yarns berdasarkan sistem interlace. Hubungan antara penciptaan produk dan forecasting  tren pada tahun 2013 akan menjadi analisis berikutnya sebagai salah satu cara untuk memecahkan masalah sampah.Kata Kunci: limbah; multi-ply yarns; sistem interlacing.The Potential of Solid Waste as Multiply Yarn Based on Interlacing SystemsSolid-waste disposal in landfills is becoming a massive environmental problem as a result of the growth of the pulp and paper industry in Indonesia. The conversion of solid waste to complementary fuel for the paper industry is also not giving any significant results to solve air contamination, as active carbon is released

  17. Penyekat Beta sebagai Terapi Anti-Remodeling pada Gagal Jantung

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    Hilman Zulkifli Amin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Penyakit kardiovaskular merupakan penyebab kematian utama dan setiap tahunnya terjadi 50 juta kematian di seluruh dunia. Gagal jantung tercatat sebagai salah satu penyakit kardiovaskularyang sering terjadi. Pada gagal jantung, terjadi remodelling sel yang mengakibatkan penurunanfungsi pompa jantung. Seiring dengan kemajuan penelitian di bidang kardiovaskuler, penyekatbeta telah diteliti penggunaannya sebagai terapi anti-remodelling. Sampai sekarang, penelitian danstudi terkait hal tersebut masih terus dilakukan. Tujuan penulisan makalah ini untuk menjelaskanperan penyekat beta sebagai terapi anti-remodelling pada gagal jantung. Pencarian terstrukturmelalui PubMed mendapatkan 93 artikel, setelah disesuaikan dengan kriteria eksklusi dan inklusididapatkan 25 artikel. Setelah membaca artikel secara lengkap, didapatkan 11 artikel yang sesuai.Kemudian artikel tersebut ditelaah dalam menentukan validitas, relevansi, dan aplikabilitas. Dari 11artikel yang ditelaah kritis, didapatkan bahwa beta-blocker dapat berperan sebagai anti-remodellingmelalui peningkatan fungsi jantung sebagaimana terlihat pada kenaikan ejection fraction (EF,penurunan left ventricular end systolic volume (LVESV dan left ventricular end diastolic volume(LVEDV pada pasien gagal jantung. Kata Kunci: penyekat beta, anti-remodelling, gagal jantung Beta-Blocker as Anti-Remodeling Therapy in Heart Failure Abstract Cardiovascular diseases still become the leading cause of death in the world. All over the world, there are approximately 50 million deaths every year caused by cardiovascular diseases.Heart failure is known as one of cardiovascular diseases that frequently happened. In heart failurestate, there is a cell remodeling condition that implicated to lowering heart pump function. As thedevelopment progress of cardiovascular researches, beta-blocker has also been studied for its useas anti-remodeling therapy. Up to

  18. SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KEMIRI SUNAN (Reutealis trisperma DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI KATALIS NAOH

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    Holilah -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintesis biodiesel dari minyak Kemiri Sunan (Reutealis trisperma (RTO menggunakan NaOH sebagai katalis dengan variasi konsentrasi katalis yaitu 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 dan 2,0 wt% telah diteliti. Minyak kemiri sunan (Reutealis trisperma adalah bahan baku yang menarik untuk produksi biodiesel. Biodiesel disintesis dengan dua tahap reaksi yaitu esterifikasi menggunakan katalis H2SO4 dan transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan katalis NaOH. Dalam penelitian ini, diteliti pengaruh konsentrasi katalis terhadap produk biodisel serta dan karakteristiknya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkat seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi katalis dari 0,5-1,0 wt%, selanjutnya dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi katalis dari 1,5-2,0 wt% membuat yield menurun. Yield optimum dicapai pada 84,7%. FAME (fatty  acid  methyl  ester diperoleh dengan konsentrasi katalis 1 wt% pada kondisi reaksi 65°C, waktu reaksi 1 jam dan rasio metanol minyak 1:2 (wt/wt. Karakteristik biodiesel diamati dengan uji standart bahan bakar dan hasilnya dibandingkan dengan standart ASTM D6751-02. Karakteristik biodiesel yang disintesis dengan konsentrasi katalis NaOH 1% adalah angka asam (0,55 mg KOH/g, densitas (0,90 gr/cm3, viskositas pada 40°C (9,2 cSt, angka setana (54,5 dan residu karbon (0,24 wt%/wt. This research was investigated bio diesel synthesis of Reutealis trisperma oil (RTO by using NaOH as a catalist with variation of catalyst concentration as follow 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2,0 wt% . Reutealis trisperma oil is an attractive raw material for  bio diesel production. It was produced by two steps of reactions, they are esterification by using H2SO4 catalyst and transesterification by using NaOH catalyst. This study examined the effect of catalyst concentration on the yield of biodiesel and their selected properties. The result showed, that the bio diesel yield  with catalyst concentration increasing from 0,5-1,0 wt%, increased, while increasing the concentration from 1

  19. Preliminary study of rubber seed Hevea brasiliensis oil utilization for tilapia diet

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    Siti Komariyah

    2015-05-01

    protein, retensi lemak, laju pertumbuhan spesifik, glukosa, kolesterol, trigliserida, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, dan gambaran darah. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kinerja pertumbuhan, kimia darah dan gambaran darah ikan semakin menurun seiring dengan penambahan MBK dalam pakan. Hal ini disebabkan semakin menurunnya jumlah konsumsi pakan secara signifikan, yaitu 583,5 g menjadi 145,7 g dari perlakuan 0% ke 100% MBK. Glukosa darah, hemoglobin dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan pada perlakuan 0–100% MBK masing-masing adalah 48,7–22,2 mg/dL, 7,6–5,4% dan 3,5–0,8%. Sintasan ikan terendah terjadi pada perlakuan 100% MBK, yaitu 66,7%. Kinerja pertumbuhan pada perlakuan 0% MBK adalah yang paling baik sehingga MBK belum dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber lemak menggantikan minyak jagung pada pakan ikan nila. Kata kunci: radikal bebas, HCN, Oreochromis sp., minyak biji karet

  20. KARAKTERISTIK KIMIA AIR HUJAN SAAT KEBAKARAN HUTAN DI PROPINSI KALIMANTAN BARAT DAN SUMATERA SELATAN

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    Sheila Dewi Ayu Kusumaningtyas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Permasalahan kebakaran hutan di berbagai propinsi di Indonesia terutama di Kalimantan Barat dan Sumatera Selatan mulai marak seiring dengan meningkatnya laju penebangan hutan serta tingginya tekanan penduduk akan pemenuhan kebutuhan hidup melalui sumber daya kawasan hutan. Kebakaran hutan berpengaruh terhadap lingkungan berupa penurunan kualitas udara. Untuk mengetahui dampak kebakaran hutan terhadap karakterisitik kimia air hujan dan kondisi partikulat di Pontianak dan Palembang dilakukan analisa parameter anion, kation, dan pH air hujan serta Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM selama periode 2002 hingga 2008. Data kimia air hujan dan SPM diperoleh dari pengamatan Stasiun Meteorologi Supadio Pontianak dan Stasiun Klimatologi Kenten, Palembang, sedangkan analisanya dilakukan di BMKG Pusat menggunakan Kromatografi Ion. Untuk mengetahui jumlah kebakaran hutan digunakan parameter titik api dari Satelit Terra dan Aqua MODIS yang dikumpulkan dan dikelola oleh Stasiun Bumi Satelit NOAA, Kementerian Kehutanan. Dari hasil kajian diketahui bahwa kenaikan jumlah titik api baik di daerah Kalimantan Barat dan Sumatera Selatan diiringi oleh kenaikan konsentrasi deposisi asam dan SPM beberapa saat kemudian. Baik di Pontianak dan