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Sample records for taagepera leaves party

  1. Rein Taagepera lahkub Res Publicast / Kristjan Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Kristjan, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Res Publica asutaja Rein Taagepera, Jaan Einasto, Mare Taagepera ja Lauri Aaspõllu lahkuvad Res Publicast, kuna erakond on nende väitel muutunud paremtsentrist paremäärmuslikuks. Vt. samas: Erakonnad hoiavad uksed valla

  2. Rein Taagepera : "Euroopa peab muutuma föderatsiooniks" / Rein Taagepera ; interv. Teet Korsten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 16. aug. lk. 5. Eesti/USA politoloog muutustest Eestis, Uppsala ülikooli Skytte auhinnast, konverentsist "Diasporaa roll Eesti iseseisvuse taastamisel?". Arvamust avaldab parlamendiliige Peeter Tulviste. Lisa: Rein Taagepera CV

  3. Balti "Ungari tee" taotlus 1965 / Rein Taagepera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2010-01-01

    1965. aastal H. Raagi, H. Susi ja R. Taagepera poolt koostatud ja levitatud satelliitsusmemorandumist, milles toodi välja idee kehtestada Balti riikides rahvademokraatia; Zbigniew Brzezinski rollist memorandumi vahendajana ning selle avaldamisele järgnenud vastukajadest ja tegevustest kuni aastani 1973

  4. Baltic Quest for a Hungarian Path, 1965 / Rein Taagepera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2013-01-01

    1965. aastal H. Raagi, H. Susi ja R. Taagepera poolt koostatud ja levitatud satelliitsusmemorandumist, mille idee oli kehtestada Balti riikides rahvademokraatia ja riikidele spetsiaalne satelliitrežiim; Zbigniew Brzezinski rollist memorandumi vahendajana; memorandumi mõju nende autorite eludele

  5. Taagepera avastas mõned loodusseadused / Margus Välja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Välja, Margus, 1958-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti teadlane Rein Taagepera rääkis Los Angelese Eesti Majas kolmest ühiskondlikust loodusseadusest, mille avastamisel võis olla määrav tähtsus, et talle anti 2008. a. Uppsala ülikooli Skytte sihtasutuse väljaantav Skytte auhind

  6. Riigikogulased ongi teistmoodi asendis. Aga mitte nii teistmoodi, kui nad hetkel arvavad / Rein Taagepera ; interv. Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2007-01-01

    Politoloog Rein Taagepera vastab Riigikogu suurust, tööd ning seaduseelnõu, mis vabastab parlamendiliikmed kuluhüvitiste avalikustamisest, puudutavatele küsimustele. Lisa: Soome parlamendist õpitakse kulutamist, mitte tööl käimist; Rein Taagepera: teadlane, presidendikandidaat, Res Publica looja

  7. R. Taagepera ja M. S. Shugart valimissüsteemidest / Peet Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Peet, 1948-

    1989-01-01

    Rein Taagepera ja Matthew Soberg Shugarti raamatust "Häältest mandaatideni: valimissüsteemide mõjud ja mõjutajad", mis ilmus inglise keeles 1989. a. Londonis (Seats and votes: the effects and determinants of electoral systems) ning annab ülevaate parlamendivalimistel kasutatavate süsteemide tüüpidest, komponentidest, nende uurimise ajaloost ja hetkeseisust

  8. Major trends in party system in Ukraine for 1998-2014 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Nosenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current party system of Ukraine, defined its main features and trends with regard of parliamentary elections 2014 was investigated. The classification, which distinguish the parliamentary system was determined. It is established that the party system has undergone significant changes compared to previous years. Thus, according to classification Mayra Ukrainian party system evolved from a secondary party system to a system of small parties because the two largest parties have 47.5% of votes in parliament. Meyer’s Index fell by almost a factor of 2, indicating that the party system became more competitive, the process of forming a coalition will be longer, and the stability of the government will be lower than in previous years. The calculated effective indices of the number of parties suggested Laakso, Taagepera and Golosov also show that the party system became more fragmented. Based on the analyzed results of parliamentary elections for 1998­2014 years, it has found that increasing or decreasing the percentage threshold of 1%, not significantly affected by the number of parties represented in Parliament; none of the parties could not be present in every convocation; there is uncertainty in electoral preferences.

  9. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  10. Runtime party switch in an inter-organizational collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourmirza, S.

    2016-01-01

    During the execution of an inter-organizational business-to-business (B2B) collaboration, a collaborating party may drop out for technical reasons or for business reasons. In such a case, the leaving party must be replaced, at runtime, by a new party. Ideally, the new party can pick up where the old

  11. Christmas party

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The Christmas party organized by the Staff Association took place on Saturday 3 December. 200 children from 5 to 7 years old attended a magic show which filled them with wonder. Then they were served a snack in the Novae restaurant. Finally, just before their parents came to pick them up, Father Christmas gave them a present. The Staff Association wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  12. Danish Party Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Political parties have as their main assignment the creation of linkage between citizens and government. They provide one of several channels of participation in modern democracies. Yet, the general trend across the Western world is that party membership figures decline. The purpose of this article...... is to report on the state of Danish party membership; the numbers and participation. The claim of the article is that total membership figures hide evidence of membership renewal and increases, and that mere party membership figures are insufficient when evaluating political parties as channels...... of participation. Instead, membership figures at party level as well as the participation of party members need to be taken into account in order to assess parties as channels of participation. This is supported by the analyses reported here which show that even though membership figures are declining, parties...

  13. What do Parties Want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2012-01-01

    What parties want – policy, office or votes - is important to how they represent their voters, how they make strategic decisions and how they respond to external changes in society. What parties strive to accomplish is simply important to what they do. Moreover, our knowledge of what parties want...... is important to what we expect them to do. For instance, coalition theory assumes that parties have homogeneous goals, and hence are equally likely to join coalitions given the same circumstances. However, this article investigates this basic assumption of party goal homogeneity and finds that party goals do...

  14. Political Parties and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2017-01-01

    parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...... political parties with participatory internal democratic processes....

  15. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  16. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  17. Party Control, Party Competition and Public Service Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, George Alexander; James, O.; John, P.; Petrovsky, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses party effects on the performance of public services. A policy-seeking model, hypothesizing that left and right party control affects performance, and an instrumental model, where all parties strive to raise performance, are presented. The framework also suggests a mixed model in which party effects are contingent on party competition, with parties raising performance as increasing party competition places their control of government at increasing risk. These models are t...

  18. Party brands and voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    heuristics and voting models. Next, the article measures the brand value of Danish parties by utilizing a representative association analysis. Finally, this measure is used to conduct the very first empirical analysis of a party brand's effect on voting behavior. Overall, the primary finding demonstrates...

  19. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  20. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i.......e. collective intoxication) is one way the parents' dining room is transformed creatively into a space for teenage partying. Hence, the social logic of a party is to consume alcohol collectively as it symbolises commitment to both the party and to the specific group of friends. Finally, attention is drawn...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  1. Third party processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of Canada's natural gas industry to remain competitive on a global level was discussed. Third party processing is a tool that the Canadian gas industry can use to overcome the relative disadvantage of smaller, and therefore more expensive, gas processing plants in Canada, and to maintain, and even improve, its competitive position vis-a-vis its US counterparts. The principal role of a third party processor is to provide midstream services such as raw gas gathering, field compression, gas processing, sales gas transmission, and natural gas liquids fractionation. Some third party processors also provide marketing services. Third party processors add value to the gas producer by reducing risk, reducing cost, improving reliability, and improving netbacks. The many variables involved in determining the economic viability of third party processing, including the quantity and deliverability of the raw resource, facility capacity, capital investment, operating costs, technology, fee structures, operational reliability, and speed, among others, were examined and the significance of each variable was explained

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY FUNDING: MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje MATAKOVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first modern political parties were formed at the end of the 18th century and have, from those times up to now, undergone 4 developing phases; each of the phases is bound to ideal-type political party model: cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. Each of these party models differentiates in various characteristics: party foundation, number of members, and way of leading the election campaigns, but also in ways of financing. This paper describes the above mentioned 4 phases of political parties’ development and 4 phases of parties' finances development; it will be analysed in detail positive and negative sides of each of the models of party financing.

  3. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  4. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate!

  5. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  6. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  7. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  8. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  9. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  10. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held in the cafeteria and on the terrace (if the weather permits) of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks, snacks and a surprise music show by the CERN Big Bang Orchestra! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (Bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  11. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. Your Golden Jubilee Party Friday 17 September 2004 at 16:00 Restaurant 1, Main Building Programme Speech by Director-General Toast in honour of CERN Cocktails and ambient music Video projections of five decades of CERN and at 18:00 ... A surprise music show. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  12. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...

  13. 17 CFR 201.210 - Parties, limited participants and amici curiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection of investors or consumers, may be admitted as a party upon the filing of a written motion setting... proceeding may be in the public interest or for the protection of investors, may be admitted as a party upon... affecting the person's interests: (1) Procedure. Motions for leave to participate shall be in writing, shall...

  14. Third party bargaining and contract terms: a link over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Sorofman, Bernard A

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate whether prior pharmacy bargaining process strategies and pharmacy dependence on third parties affect the bargaining power of pharmacies in price negotiations with third parties. One-time survey. Random sample of 900 independent and small chain pharmacies in nine states: Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Two hundred sixteen of the returned surveys contained sufficient responses for this analysis. Survey data on pharmacy bargaining power and prior pharmacy bargaining strategies, pharmacy dependence, and market characteristics were analyzed using multiple regression in a previously developed and modified provider/third party bargaining model. Pharmacy bargaining power. Pharmacy bargaining power varied across our sample. Pharmacy bargaining power was positively related to whether a pharmacy previously bargained with the third parties, negatively related to prior requests for contract changes, and negatively related to the pharmacy's dependence on third parties in total. Pharmacy bargaining power is related to the bargaining strategies employed by pharmacies during the previous year and the dependence of pharmacies on third party payers in total. With the prevalence of "take-it-or-leave-it" contracts from third parties, prior pharmacy bargaining behavior may affect the initial terms of the contracts that pharmacies are offered.

  15. Nuclear opponents and party politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1987-01-01

    The question treated in this article is: what do the members of the Austrian parliament - of the different parties - against nuclear energy, in particular against nuclear installations in neighbour countries? Of special interest is the Green party, now also represented in the parliament. The conclusion is that even this party, though in principle definitely anti-nuclear, is of no help to nuclear opponents in general, and to the Working Group No to Zwentendorf in particular. (qui)

  16. Party rules, party resources and the politics of parliamentary democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poguntke, Thomas; Scarrow, Susan; Webb, Paul

    2016-01-01

    , then investigate what it tells us about contemporary party organization in these countries, focusing on parties’ resources, structures and internal decision-making. We examine organizational patterns by country and party family, and where possible we make temporal comparisons with older data sets. Our analyses...... suggest a remarkable coexistence of uniformity and diversity. In terms of the major organizational resources on which parties can draw, such as members, staff and finance, the new evidence largely confirms the continuation of trends identified in previous research: that is, declining membership......, but enhanced financial resources and more paid staff. We also find remarkable uniformity regarding the core architecture of party organizations. At the same time, however, we find substantial variation between countries and party families in terms of their internal processes, with particular regard to how...

  17. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  18. Between Party, Parents and Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the lived contradictions entailed in being a young member of the Chinese Communist Party (ccp) today. The focus is on how political and existential issues intersect. It explores party membership as a strategy for personal mobility among Beijing elite university students by p...

  19. Which Party Gets the Mayoralty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjæveland, Asbjørn; Serritzlew, Søren

    2010-01-01

    expands the scope of these explanatory variables. However, the study also shows that being a large party is not sufficient for a party to have a good chance of winning the mayoralty. Furthermore, norms guiding appropriate behaviour seem important in addition to instrumental behaviour. It appears......In non-presidential multiparty systems, it is not only the voters but also coalition formation after the election that decides the government of the community. Some national-level studies investigate which parties are most likely to win the Prime Minister's office. The aim of this article...... is to investigate the same question at the local level:What makes a party more likely to win the post of mayor? The article finds that party size and change in size are important along with experience and ideological centrality. The results are similar to those obtained at the national level, and this study thus...

  20. Multi-party Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2001-01-01

    We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any multi-party quantu...

  1. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  2. Intra-party democracy beyond aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    , discussing several functions intra-party deliberation is said to serve in the democratic theory literature. It then goes on to explore the deliberative credentials of political discussion between party members, drawing on group interviews with party members in two Social Democratic parties in Germany...

  3. Promoting Party Politics in Emerging Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnell, P.; Gerrits, A.

    2010-01-01

    This opening section briefly introduces international political party support, that is, assistance to political parties by international organizations, mostly from the US and Europe, to strengthen individual political parties, to promote peaceful interaction between parties and to help to create a

  4. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  5. Democracy, the Party, and Self-Emancipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raekstad, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Party is once again the subject of sustained discussion among academics and popular movements. Jodi Dean’s most recent book, Crowds and Party, is an attempt to re-think the party form for contemporary politics after the experiences and lessons of Occupy. Crowds and Party is engaging and

  6. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...

  7. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  8. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of pyrotechnic...

  9. The niche party concept and its measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thomas M; Miller, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the niche party has become increasingly popular in analyses of party competition. Yet, existing approaches vary in their definitions and their measurement approaches. We propose using a minimal definition that allows us to compare political parties in terms of their ?nicheness?. We argue that the conceptual core of the niche party concept is based on issue emphasis and that a niche party emphasizes policy areas neglected by its rivals. Based on this definition, we propose a con...

  10. Religious affiliation and indirect third-party conflict intervention: a hypothesis from the lebanese civil war

    OpenAIRE

    Shishmanian, Haig Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 148-154. Ethnically and religiously-identified groups are frequently involved in conflict. Such conflicts attract forms of third-party intervention which often favor one ethno-religious group over another by means other than direct military intervention on the part of the affiliated third-party ...

  11. Political party elites and the breakdown of democracy: the Turkish case,1973-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Demirel, Tanel

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Political Science and Public Administration and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Ph.D.) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references leaves 395-441 This study aims to analyze the behavior of Turkish political party elites during the 1973-1980 period. It is particularly concerned with the extent to which political party elites seemed to have contributed to the breakdown of Turkish democracy in ...

  12. Being a potentially responsible party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on CERCLA II- ability for the unlucky potentially responsible parties (PRPs) which is a Draconian form of strict, joint and several liability with limited statutory defenses that in most cases are impossible to establish. CERCLA vigorously employs these legal concepts, stretching a PRP's financial exposure to the limits necessary to meet the enormous financial costs of remediation

  13. The Party-state Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünberg, Nis

    society through its legacy as a socialist work unit (danwei). Using Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness, the paper reveals how SOEs are split into two tiers each tasked with the respective objectives of economic development and political stability, and thus as Party-state organizations are used to flexibly...

  14. [Ketamine as a party drug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegop, M.P.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Vantroyen, B.; Kramers, C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine is a new party drug, which is easy to obtain. For this reason, it is possible that physicians will be increasingly confronted with users that have medical problems. Relatively few cases of ketamine intoxication with a fatal outcome have been reported thus far. Ketamine is very

  15. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... then be effective as to such new contracting party. ...

  16. Inheritance and the Dynamics of Party Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Kroh, Martin; Selb, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research efforts notwithstanding, scholars continue to disagree on the nature and meaning of party identification. Traditionalists conceive of partisanship as a largely affective attachment to a political party that emerges in childhood through parental influences and tends to persist throughout life. The revisionist conception of partisanship is that of a running tally of party utilities that is updated based on current party performance. We attempt to reconcile both schools of tho...

  17. When can we trust a third party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Sidorova, N.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Koutny, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Yakovlev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations often do not want to reveal the way a product is created or a service is delivered. As a consequence, if two organizations want to cooperate, they contact a trusted third party. Each specifies how it wants to communicate with the other party. The trusted third party then needs to

  18. 28 CFR 51.7 - Political parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.7 Political parties. Certain activities of political parties are subject to the preclearance requirement of section 5. A change affecting... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political parties. 51.7 Section 51.7...

  19. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  20. The 19th Party Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2017-01-01

    veteran leaders such as Wang Qishan (69) continue to serve on the committee? Would Xi Jinping pack the Politburo and the PSC with his own close allies, or would he try to achieve a factional balance observing the interests of former leaders such as Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao? There was also much....... Such a report is usually a long document setting out the Party's priorities and policy objectives for the next five-year period. Would Xi Jinping's report signal new policy initiatives, and would it outline strategic guidelines reaching beyond 2022? This article examines these questions and assesses the future...

  1. Authentication method for authenticating a first party to a second party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    An authentication system and method is presented for authenticating a first party to a second party, where an operation is performed on condition that the authentication succeeds. The authentication method verifies whether the first party is authenticated. If the first party is not authenticated,

  2. The niche party concept and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas M; Miller, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    The concept of the niche party has become increasingly popular in analyses of party competition. Yet, existing approaches vary in their definitions and their measurement approaches. We propose using a minimal definition that allows us to compare political parties in terms of their 'nicheness'. We argue that the conceptual core of the niche party concept is based on issue emphasis and that a niche party emphasizes policy areas neglected by its rivals. Based on this definition, we propose a continuous measure that allows for more fine-grained measurement of a party's 'nicheness' than the dominant, dichotomous approaches and thereby limits the risk of measurement error. Drawing on data collected by the Comparative Manifesto Project, we show that (1) our measure has high face validity and (2) exposes differences among parties that are not captured by alternative, static or dichotomous measures.

  3. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  4. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  5. Market Reform, Programmatic (DeAlignment and Party System Stability in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. ROBERTS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although democratic regimes in Latin America since the early 1980s have been surprisingly durable, party systems in much of the region continue to experience very high levels of electoral instability. A critical juncture approach to institutional change suggests that variation in party system stability is related to the impact of market liberalization in the 1980s and 90s on the programmatic alignment –or (dealignment– of partisan competition. Market reforms that were adopted by conservative leaders and opposed by a major leftist rival aligned party systems programmatically, allowing societal opposition to be channeled into institutionalized forms of competition that were highly stable in the post-adjustment era. By contrast, «bait-and-switch» reforms adopted by populist or leftist leaders were programmatically de-aligning for party systems, leaving them vulnerable to highly destabilizing reactive sequences in the aftermath to the reform process-including mass social protests, the demise of historic conservative parties, and the outflanking of traditional populist or leftist parties by more radical, anti-neoliberal outsiders. The political dynamics of market-based economic adjustment thus heavily conditioned the ways in which party systems would process the post-adjustment revival of populist and leftist alternatives in the region.

  6. Gender differences in Assessments of Party Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more....... Female party leaders are assessed more positively by female voters than male voters both in regard to general party leader sympathy and assessment of specific characteristics, whereas it is not the case that male party leaders are assessed more positively by male voters than female voters. The impact...

  7. Party drugs - use and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Matthew

    2010-08-01

    Party drug use, the intermittent use of stimulants, ecstasy and so-called 'designer drugs' at dance parties or 'raves', is now part of the culture of many young Australians. This article discusses the risks associated with the use of 'party drugs' and describes an useful approach to general practitioner assessment and management of patients who may be using party drugs. Party drug use is associated with a range of harms, including risks associated with behaviour while drug affected, toxicity and overdose, mental health complications and physical morbidity. Multiple substance use, particularly combining sedatives, further amplifies risk. If GPs have some understanding of these drugs and their effects, they are well placed to provide an effective intervention in party drug users by supporting the reduction of harm.

  8. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party) through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistribut...

  9. Invention party of students 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    2000-02-01

    The contents of this book are lettuce and royal foxglove tree leaves, memory of summer sea, summer vacation of a freak, waste tires and a fishbowl, a spoon and a iron hand, a iron hand and emergency signal light, my friend is Macgyver, a merry cleaning time, Hojin's invention diary. I am a inventor, a happy winter vacation, the best from losing the draw. This book gives a descriptions of the cases of inventions which are made up through unique and brilliant idea.

  10. Latin American intra-party democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Adrián Martínez Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposes to determine the level of internal democracy of political parties in Latin America from perception of its members, allowing the creation of an index that has parameters for the measurement and comparison of the parties according to its democratic features. At the same time, research supports designing a profile of the parties by subjecting to analysis the relationship between ideology and internal democracy, stressing that despite the differences between left and right, parties in Latin America do not have dichotomous democratic features, while maintaining low levels despite their ideological location.

  11. How to hold an ethical pox party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz

    2018-04-01

    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties involve immediate risk of harm for children and reduce future harms, whereas opting out of vaccination places children at long-term risk of harms that increase with time, at least for some pathogens. Regarding harm to others through onward transmission of infection, this can be easily prevented in the case of pox parties-given the relatively controlled timing of infection-by quarantining attendees after the party, whereas opting out of vaccination involves risks to others that are more difficult to control. I defend three criteria for an ethical pox party: (1) that the disease is sufficiently low risk, (2) that parents consent to their child's attendance and (3) that children exposed to infection are quarantined and isolated appropriately. I argue that, if these criteria are met, pox parties are morally preferable to non-vaccination; such parties involve less risk to non-consenting others and, for some pathogens in some cases, even involve less risk for the children who participate. Thus, policies that permit non-medical exemption to vaccination should also permit ethical pox parties. Alternatively, if pox parties are not permitted, then vaccination should be mandated for those without medical contraindication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Book Review: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7......Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7...

  13. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  14. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  15. Who will attack the competitors? How political parties resolve strategic and collective action dilemmas in negative campaigning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Martin; Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz; Müller, Wolfgang C

    2017-11-01

    Negative campaigning presents parties with a collective action problem. While parties would prefer to have their competitors attacked, potential backlash effects from negative messages mean that individual politicians typically lack the incentives to carry out such attacks. We theorize that parties solve this problem by implementing a division of labour that takes into account the incentives of individual office holders, their availability for campaign activity, and media relevance. Drawing on these arguments we expect that holders of high public office and party leaders are less likely to issue attacks, leaving the bulk of the 'dirty work' to be carried out by party floor leaders and general secretaries. Examining almost 8000 press releases issued by over 600 individual politicians during four election campaigns in Austria, we find strong support for our theoretical expectations.

  16. 12 CFR 747.603 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 747.603 Section 747.603 Banks... in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.603 Prevailing party. An eligible applicant may be a “prevailing... dismissed. In appropriate situations an applicant may also have prevailed if the outcome of the proceeding...

  17. 12 CFR 263.102 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 263.102 Section 263.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... Prevailing party. Only an eligible applicant that prevailed on the merits of an adversary proceeding may...

  18. 12 CFR 308.173 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 308.173 Section 308.173 Banks....173 Prevailing party. (a) General rule. An eligible applicant who, following an adversary adjudication has gained victory on the merits in the proceeding is a “prevailing party”. An eligible applicant may...

  19. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  20. Party Governance and the Selection of Parliamentarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Beniers (Klaas)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the incentives for a party leader in office and for a parties' rank-and-file to replace a sitting member of parliament. As to the leader's decision, we show that the leader prefers to replace a critical member of parliament who votes against the leader's policy. A

  1. Psychometric Analyses of the Birthday Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The present research focuses on the psychometric properties of the Birthday Party measure for ages 3-5. The Birthday Party was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and engaging measure of early mathematical content--Number and Operation, Shape, Space, and Pattern--that can be given in either a short or a long form to English and Spanish…

  2. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

  3. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  4. Low Membership in Czech Political Parties: Party Strategy or Structural Determinants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš; Pecháček, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2007), s. 259-275 ISSN 1352-3279 R&D Projects: GA MPS 1J004/04-DP1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : political parties * party membership * antiparty sentiments * party organization Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  5. The Institutionalisation of the Romanian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Volintiru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the level of institutionalisation achieved by the Romanian political system since transitioning to democracy. Following through the key components of an institutionalised party system, the inquiry looks at the stability of interparty competition in Romania and the depth of its parties’ roots in society. These components are measured through such indicators as electoral volatility or the cohesiveness of the ideological preferences. Their levels suggest that the Romanian party system isn’t fully instituionalised, with fluctuating volatility and a rather incohesive ideological positioning of both voters and parties. This paper argues that in response to the double challenge of poor institutionalisation of the political parties and the party system as a whole, informal remedies, such as patronage of public jobs, or proprietary use of state resources, become highly attractive solutions for electoral success.

  6. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  7. Campaigning on behalf of the party? Party constraints on candidate campaign personalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses what makes political candidates run a party-focused or personalised election campaign. Prior work shows that candidates face incentives from voters and the media to personalise their campaign rhetoric and promises at the expense of party policy. This has raised concerns about...... that party control over the candidate nomination process and campaign financing constrains most political candidates in following electoral incentives for campaign personalisation. Using candidate survey data from the 2009 EP election campaign in 27 countries, we show how candidates from parties in which...... party officials exerted greater control over the nomination process and campaign finances were less likely to engage in personalised campaigning at the expense of the party programme. The findings imply that most parties, as central gatekeepers and resource suppliers, hold important control mechanisms...

  8. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    we initiate the study of {\\em secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage}, where on top of corrupting one of the parties the adversary obtains leakage from the content of the secret memory of the honest party. Our study involves the following contributions: \\BE \\item {\\em Security...... and returns its result. Almost independently of secure computation, the area of {\\em leakage resilient cryptography} has recently been evolving intensively, studying the question of designing cryptographic primitives that remain secure even when some information about the secret key is leaked. In this paper...

  9. The Chinese Communist Party in Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Yongnian, Zheng

    Contrary to the expectations of many people, China's recent economic growth has not led to the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party. In fact, the party has recently carried out a peaceful and orderly transition to the so-called fourth generation of leadership, has revitalised itself, and created...... a new, younger and better trained cadre corps. Despite this successful transformation, there continue to be many problems that the party will need to overcome if it is to remain in power, including pressures for democratization in both urban and rural areas, widespread corruption, the emergence of new...

  10. The German Environmentalist Party - The Greens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Greens are winning supporters throughout the FRG, quite a few of them are already members of the parliament of various lands. Will they cooperate with the established political parties in Bonn. Will they take over from the Free Democrats the role of holding the balance of power. In this book, Spiegel editors present their analyses of the changing concepts of the new political movement. The most outstanding members of the Environmentalist Party - the so-called Greens - define their position and state their opinions on the problems of coalition forming, and prominent members of the parties of the German Bundestag answer these statements. (orig.) [de

  11. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  12. Political Marketing Mix in Indonesia Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Simbolon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reform era has changed the paradigm of Indonesian politics. Multiparty system has demanded a political party to be able to compete for their constituents. Article aimed to convey a political marketing concept that can helppolitical parties in planning a strategy to win the election. Research method used descriptive method analysis. The results suggest that the approach of the marketing mix that includes the product, price, place, and promotion areapproaches that are very helpful in presenting a plan to win the marketing strategy of political parties in elections.

  13. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  14. Lebanon's Hizbollah Movement: The Party of God

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schad, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...

  15. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  16. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  17. Social praxis, party, and class relations today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.

  18. Recent tendency of Nuclear Third Party Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohara, Fumiaki

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have a great influence on Nuclear Third Party Legislation of many countries. Nuclear Third Party Law of Japan is due to expire as at 31st, December, 1989, under the recent circumstances in which threre exist pros and cons to nuclear installations among people. This report describes the outline of Japanese Nuclear Law compared with foreign ones and the prospect of its revision. (author)

  19. The Hobby Horse of the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Can a small, new political party increase the attention to nonhuman animal welfare? This paper traces the effect of the Party for the Animals on the Dutch parliament. This was the first animal advocacy party to enter parliament.

  20. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties: Evidence for Increased Processing in the Face of Party Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . As part of the latter processes, the presence of party cues would make individuals engage in effortful motivated reasoning to produce arguments for the correctness of their party’s position. Following psychological research, we use response latency to measure processing effort and, in support......Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From...... the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues activate group motivational processes that compel citizens to support the position of their party...

  1. Partis islamistes et démocratisation : expérience du Parti de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partis islamistes et démocratisation : expérience du Parti de la justice et du développement (Turquie). En Turquie, les élections de novembre 2002 ont été remportées par un nouveau parti politique d'orientation islamiste, l'AKP, qui détient environ les deux tiers des sièges au Parlement. La victoire de l'AKP traduit ...

  2. Party Members in Context. Social networks and local branches as context for party membership

    OpenAIRE

    Paulis, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    In this doctoral dissertation, I put party members and activists back in context. I stress theimportance of two contextual dimensions, often overlooked in the scientific literature. On theone hand, I put forward social network explanations of party membership and activism,emphasizing the importance of social interactions, relations and structures, which were scarcelyexplored as potential triggers. Like other forms of participation, party membership haspredominantly been portrayed through indi...

  3. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  4. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  5. Institute of party leadership system of the party creation of modern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Lavrenyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article based on the study of the theory and practice of party­building in Ukraine examines the role of party leader in the political process and the establishment of parties, implementation of the political power, the development of political consciousness and the formation of modern political elite of our country. It is alleged that party leader – a reputable, recognized in its political environment, the person chosen to lead the party and the ability of citizens to consolidate around a common goal, most effectively represent the interests of a particular social group. It is stated that the defining feature of the phenomenon of party leadership is that under conditions of constant political development and irreversibility of democratic transformations in Ukraine part of leaders of political parties in fact is a powerful talent pool for senior government officials, local government agencies and other administrative institutions. The process of creating games as an integral part of the political process is characterized by a certain way, the mechanism of action of consciousness and culture in the public sphere, which deals with political parties. Regularities component of modern political elite of the party elite acts ­ governing the range of persons in the political party headed by its leader that are directly involved in strategic decision­making, policy formulation of this power, as well as its participation in the political process. We study the classification model of national political parties and the institutions of the party leadership. It is proposed to assess the level of correlation of the party leaders and the general dynamics of the civil society in Ukraine. It is stated that at this time a fundamental change in Ukrainian Party elite has not happened yet. However, there is a long evolution of the institute of the party leadership – a rather difficult process of internal and external, objective and subjective, economic

  6. Parties, rituals and symbolisms in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Valencia Aguirre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing school parties from interaction spaces and principals’ narratives in six schools in the state of Jalisco. A party is a ritual where participants share symbols related to imaginary –hence the importance of conducting an analysis for understanding institutions as a symbolic framework. A core argument is that established actors are configured from symbolic practices in the institutional space (schools. The repetition of these practices awash with symbolism leads to daily rituals or micro rituals that are ratified in institutions. Methodologically, interviews and non-participant observation in school interaction spaces were used. Based on the findings, it may be stated that the nuclear family, rooted in the Christian image in which authority is a central point, becomes a fundamental factor in shaping institutional life as well as the imaginary linked to school parties.

  7. Nationalism, territory and extremism in party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More specifica......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  8. The doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The freedom of parties to consensually execute arbitration agreement is known as the principle of party autonomy. The principle provides a right for the parties to international commercial arbitration to choose applicable substantive law and these laws when chosen shall govern the contractual relationship of the parties.

  9. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...... & Shugart (1995) are first tested using a fixed-effects model. The effect of the personal reputation of the candidates, measured by personal votes, on party choice is then tested using a multilevel multinomial logit model suggested by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (2008). The paper shows that both the electoral...

  10. The ICRP working party on bioassay interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Birchall, A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there have been many developments in modelling the behaviour of radionuclides in the human body. The current generation of models are designed to be more 'realistic' than the previous generation of simple compartment models. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these models to produce dose coefficients and recognises that there is a need to give more guidance on how these models can be used to interpret bioassay data. A working party has been set up to address the issue. This paper describes some of the problems, some approaches to solving the problems and the progress of the ICRP working party. (author)

  11. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  12. Authoritarian Inheritance and Conservative Party-Building in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, James Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, with the onset of the third wave of democratization, a host of new conservative parties emerged in Latin America. The trajectories of these parties varied tremendously. While some went on to enjoy long-term electoral success, others failed to take root. The most successful new conservative parties all shared a surprising characteristic: they had deep roots in former dictatorships. They were "authoritarian successor parties," or parties founded by high-level in...

  13. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...

  14. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...

  15. Group Cohesiveness in the Black Panther Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Carolyn R.

    1977-01-01

    This study selects for study the following propositions: 1) similarity among members increased the degree of cohesiveness within the party, 2) group devotion heightened interest in accomplishing group goals and 3) the threat of an external enemy led to interdependence among members and affected both activities and leadership styles. (Author/AM)

  16. Social media, parties, and political inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, K.T.E.; Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines how social media have transformed politics in established democracies. Specifically, the authors examine the influence of the unique qualities of social media on the power balance between and within parties. They present a general theory as well as an in-depth case study of the

  17. Trends in nuclear third party liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, G.

    1992-01-01

    For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)

  18. Implementing Democratic Equality in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...

  19. LEGO for Two-Party Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper continues the recent line of work of making Yao’s garbled circuit approach to two-party computation secure against an active adversary. We propose a new cut-and-choose based approach called LEGO (Large Efficient Garbled-circuit Optimization): It is specifically aimed at large circuits...

  20. Feature Project--A Bookmaking Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Lori; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The teaching activities presented in this article focus on a bookmaking party, which gives children a format in which they can publish and share their activities in a formal way, provides them with books for recording their writing, and involves students, parents, and the community with children's writing. The paper describes the steps for…

  1. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  2. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  4. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  5. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  6. Political Market Orientation and Strategic Party Postures in Danish Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between the strategic postures and political market orientation profile of two Danish parties. Profile stability at the organisational level is used as a control variable. Design/methodology/approach – The strategic political postures of two Danish...... are used to control for organisational stability. Findings – The self-typing study revealed that Party A was perceived to follow a Relationship Builder posture, and Party B a Convinced Ideologist posture. However, both market orientation profiles resembled the organisational structures of a Convinced...... in the political sphere. More specifically it empirically links political market orientation as an issue of political marketing implementation on the one hand, and strategic postures of parties as a strategic issue on the other, following a configuration theory logic. Research limitations...

  7. Political Market Orientation and Strategic Party Postures in Danish Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between the strategic postures and political market orientation profile of two Danish parties. Profile stability at the organisational level is used as a control variable. Design/methodology/approach – The strategic political postures of two Danish...... parties are derived using a self-typing study. Based on configuration theory, ideal organisational profiles to implement these studies are juxtaposed with the actual political market orientation profile for each party, gained from two datasets analysed using Partial Least Squares. Member activity levels...... Ideologist. Thus, Party A exhibits a mismatch between strategic orientation and implemented organisational profile, based on configuration theory. The results were generally stable across political activity levels. Originality/value – The study contributes to understanding the concept of market orientation...

  8. So Close But So Far: Voting Propensity and Party Choice for Left-�Wing Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Sciarini, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    While the bulk of the literature focuses on the vote for parties from different blocs, the purpose of our article is to study the vote for two parties that are ideologically very close to each other: The Social Democrats and the Greens in Switzerland. To that end, we develop a two-step model, where...... voters first make a selection of parties that are acceptable to them and then make their electoral choice out of this set of acceptable al- ternatives. We use voting propensities as a measure of the first, consideration step and we show that they strongly depend on the distance between voters and parties...... on the Left–Right scale. With regard to the second, choice stage of the electoral process we hypothesize about the factors that may account for the varying ability of the two par- ties to convert potential voters into real voters. Our empirical tests provide encourag- ing support for our hypotheses regarding...

  9. Report of the 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research ExpeditionーActivities of the summer party(1991-1992and wintering party(1992ー

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Fukuchi

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Summer activities in the 1991/92 austral summer and winter activities in 1992 of the 33rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE are described. The JARE-33 consisted of 16 members of the summer party and 37 members of the wintering party (one member of the wintering party returned with the summer party. Two Brazilian fish physiologists joined the summer party based on the exchange scientist program of the Antarctic Treaty. The icebreaker SHIRASE left Tokyo on 14 November 1991 and arrived at Breid Bay on 18 December, where the closing of Asuka Camp was completed. Then she headed to Syowa Station and arrived there on 4 January 1992. Transportation of cargo by helicopter to Syowa Station was carried out between 23 December 1991 and 18 January 1992. A total of 848t of cargo, including pipe transport of light oil (342kl and freight by oversnow vehicles (215t, were transported. A new central building was constructed from 23 December to 17 February as the start of an 8-year reintegration project of Syowa Station. Three generator engines of 200kVA capacity were overhauled. Concurrently, various research programs such as absolute gravity measurement and field surveys including inland oversnow traverse were performed. However, there were some problems with a super conducting gravity meter while the gravity meter was being tested for winter operation. Therefore, one scientist working on the gravity meter who planned to winter-over decided to leave Syowa Station with the gravity meter. all of the summer party left Syowa Station on 17 February and headed to Sydney, Australia, while oceanographic and marine biological observations were carried out on board. Members of the summer party of JARE-33 and the wintering party of JARE-32 returned to Narita by air on 27 March 1992. The wintering party of JARE-33 worked at Syowa Station from 1 February 1992 to 31 January 1993. The scientific research programs cover the following four major disciplines : (1 upper

  10. Internal party democracy as a factor of transitional societiy consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupitzya

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of intra-party democracy appearance as a sustainable and well played phenomena can only be based on the formation of political parties as a competitive and dynamic structures that have a high degree of internal relationships and a clear understanding of a common goal that is shared by both the governing parties and the basis of parties and ordinary party members. Distribution of party members in top management, middle functional rank and ordinary members is an obvious consequence of the organizational functioning of any extensive and systematic organization.

  11. REFLECTIONS ON WAGAR ' S WORLD PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bergesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our task is to reflect upon Wagar's idea of a world party. In case such reflections are affected by the recent historical situation of the collapse of communism/existing socialism in 1989 and the implications this has for visions of progressive politics going into the 21st century. This event colors most political thinking, although for many the response has been that existing socialism was not real socialism, or that existing socialism was but the Stalinist deformation that, if avoided in the future, the 1917 project could again be resumed and human history and social relations remade anew. I don't see it that way. What existing socialism stood for in terms of the role of a vanguard party taking state power for the larger good is, now after the fall, I think off the board as a realistic program that can be sold to anyone.

  12. Simple multi-party set reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

     set reconciliation: two parties A1A1 and A2A2 each hold a set of keys, named S1S1 and S2S2 respectively, and the goal is for both parties to obtain S1∪S2S1∪S2. Typically, set reconciliation is interesting algorithmically when sets are large but the set difference |S1−S2|+|S2−S1||S1−S2|+|S2−S1| is small...

  13. Ombuds’ corner: the third party, the institution

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “The Ombuds shall provide confidential assistance for the informal resolution of interpersonal issues, in the interests of the good functioning of CERN.”*   In any institution, conflicts are inevitable. They can, however, offer an opportunity for a positive resolution. Relationships in a workplace are generally better and stronger between people who have been able to reach a positive resolution of their disagreement, than they are between people who get along moderately well. However, in disputes involving two antagonistic parties, people often forget that there is actually a third party behind the scenes: the institution. It is sometimes surprising to see that even people holding management responsibilities or hierarchical positions in projects fight each other, and completely forget that they are accountable for the good functioning of CERN. Commitment and professionalism are part of the five priority values of CERN, as expressed in its Code of Conduct: “Promot...

  14. Ordinance on nuclear third party liability (ORCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The Ordinance exempts from the application of the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability some substances with low radiation effects. It determines the amount of private insurance cover and defines the risks that insurers may exclude from cover. It establishes a special fund for nuclear damage made up of contributions from the nuclear operators. Specifications are given on the amount of the contributions and their conditions, as well as on administration of the fund. The Ordinance repeals the Ordinance of 13 June 1960 on funds for delayed atomic damage, the Order of 19 December 1960 on contributions to the fund for delayed atomic damage and the Ordinance of 30 November 1981 on cover for third party liability resulting from nuclear power plant operation [fr

  15. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  16. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Obłój Jan; Abramczuk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when ...

  17. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  18. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  19. The value of political parties to representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, Ann-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Political parties play a major role in democratic processes around the world. Recent empirical research suggests that parties are increasingly less important to citizens. Simultaneously, classic and contemporary theories of representative democracy specifically still minimally incorporate accounts

  20. Inequality and anti-globalization backlash by political parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2013-01-01

    Does income inequality increase political backlash against European and global integration? This paper reports research suggesting that it can. The article analyses party opposition to and support for trade openness, European Union integration and general internationalism of political party

  1. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  2. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  3. Third-party online payment solutions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this paper is third-party online payment solutions in China and the main purpose of this paper is to figure out the research question: What are the impacts of third-party online payment solutions on China? Generally speaking, the third-party online payment solutions, including mobile payments, usually used by customer who purchase online and usually used in transaction platform. However, in China, people can use third-party payment solutions in different platfor...

  4. The Organizational Weapon: Ruling Parties in Authoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This project examines party building in authoritarian regimes. The overarching puzzle I seek to address is: why are some autocratic ruling parties stronger organizations than others? What explains variation in the institutional capacity of autocratic rule? The collection of three essays in this dissertation outline the strategic logic of party institutionalization, in addition to providing new and original ways in which to measure this key concept of authoritarian party strength. It tests pre...

  5. 31 CFR 19.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 19.950 Section 19.950 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties...

  6. 45 CFR 99.22 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of parties. 99.22 Section 99.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.22 Rights of parties. All parties may: (a...

  7. 26 CFR 301.7430-5 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevailing party. 301.7430-5 Section 301.7430-5... Prevailing party. (a) In general. For purposes of an award of reasonable administrative costs under section... prevailing party only if— (1) The position of the Internal Revenue Service was not substantially justified...

  8. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  9. Political Party Financing and why it Matters in Tanzania | Walwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the key recommendations is that public funding for ongoing party activities and campaigns should be allocated by a mix of proportional rules and flat subsidies to all parties that meet reasonable thresholds and flat subsidies as refers here imply providing subsidies to all political parties on equal basis. The other key ...

  10. Flawed Political Party Primaries In Nigeria's Fourth Republic: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... However, through an assessment of extant secondary data, this paper submits that the experience in the Peoples Democratic Party; the ruling party, during the 2007 General Elections was a case of deliberate imposition of candidates by powerful party leaders.

  11. 6 CFR 13.17 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rights of parties. 13.17 Section 13.17 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.17 Rights of parties. Except as otherwise limited by this part, all parties may: (a) Be accompanied...

  12. 6 CFR 13.13 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parties to the hearing. 13.13 Section 13.13 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.13 Parties to the hearing. (a) The parties to the hearing will be the Defendant and the Authority...

  13. Valimissüsteemi tuleks muuta / Rein Taagepera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2007-01-01

    Autor on seisukohal, et praegune Riigikogu valimise süsteem on liiga keeruline ja seda tuleks lihtsustada. Ta vaatleb, mis juhtuks siis, kui Eesti oleks jagatud 101 valimisringkonnaks, kus enim hääli saanud kandidaat võidab, või kui Eesti oleks üksainus valimispiirkond, kus 101 enim hääli saanud kandidaati võidavad

  14. The purifying bridge of Res Publica / Rein Taagepera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2004-01-01

    Res Publica edust Eesti poliitilisel maastikul. Autor käsitleb Res Publicat kui puhastava toimega ja silla funktsiooni täitvat parteid, mis üritab siduda tervikuks Keskerakonna ja Reformierakonna seisukohad

  15. Peaks Venemaa tükeldama / Rein Taagepera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taagepera, Rein, 1933-

    2001-01-01

    Ettekanne "Should Russia Break Up" Ameerika Politoloogia Ühingu aastakoosolekul Washingtonis 3.septembril 2000.a. Venemaa majanduslik ja poliitiline olukord seoses kolme revolutsiooni toimumisega: demokratiseerimine, turumajanduse sissetoomine ning dekoloniseerimine. Venemaa territoriaalse arengu võimalused

  16. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  17. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  18. Electrophysiological correlates of cocktail-party listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Detecting, localizing, and selectively attending to a particular sound source of interest in complex auditory scenes composed of multiple competing sources is a remarkable capacity of the human auditory system. The neural basis of this so-called "cocktail-party effect" has remained largely unknown. Here, we studied the cortical network engaged in solving the "cocktail-party" problem, using event-related potentials (ERPs) in combination with two tasks demanding horizontal localization of a naturalistic target sound presented either in silence or in the presence of multiple competing sound sources. Presentation of multiple sound sources, as compared to single sources, induced an increased P1 amplitude, a reduction in N1, and a strong N2 component, resulting in a pronounced negativity in the ERP difference waveform (N2d) around 260 ms after stimulus onset. About 100 ms later, the anterior contralateral N2 subcomponent (N2ac) occurred in the multiple-sources condition, as computed from the amplitude difference for targets in the left minus right hemispaces. Cortical source analyses of the ERP modulation, resulting from the contrast of multiple vs. single sources, generally revealed an initial enhancement of electrical activity in right temporo-parietal areas, including auditory cortex, by multiple sources (at P1) that is followed by a reduction, with the primary sources shifting from right inferior parietal lobule (at N1) to left dorso-frontal cortex (at N2d). Thus, cocktail-party listening, as compared to single-source localization, appears to be based on a complex chronology of successive electrical activities within a specific cortical network involved in spatial hearing in complex situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear third party liability under Polish law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewaszkiewic-Petrykowska, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr

  20. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  1. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1976-12-01

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  2. The Tibetan Policy of Chinese Communist Party

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 朝美

    2001-01-01

    This study is a part of the master degree thesis on Tibet that covers the religious policy of CCP (Chinese Communist Party) toward Tibet. For the last 50 years of 20th century, various policies by CCP have been undertaken into Tibet. Up to now, however, they are not always successful. On the contrary, it can be recognized that antagonistic feeling of Tibetan people against Hanzu race has been even accelerated. This is why one of reasons for it may be attributed to the religious policy of CCP ...

  3. Le Parti paysan d’union sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Bensoussan, David

    2015-01-01

    La fondation, le 11 juillet 1945 à Paris, du Parti paysan n’a sans doute guère suscité l’attention des contemporains alors immergés dans le contexte tumultueux de l’immédiat après-guerre. Il faut d’ailleurs attendre la parution, quelque temps plus tard, le 6 octobre, du premier numéro de L’Unité Paysanne, organe hebdomadaire de cette nouvelle formation politique, pour que sa naissance soit publiquement officialisée. Sans vouloir surévaluer l’importance d’une organisation qui n’arrivera jamais...

  4. Third-Party Software's Trust Quagmire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, J; Hurlburt, G

    2015-12-01

    Current software development has trended toward the idea of integrating independent software sub-functions to create more complete software systems. Software sub-functions are often not homegrown - instead they are developed by unknown 3 rd party organizations and reside in software marketplaces owned or controlled by others. Such software sub-functions carry plausible concern in terms of quality, origins, functionality, security, interoperability, to name a few. This article surveys key technical difficulties in confidently building systems from acquired software sub-functions by calling out the principle software supply chain actors.

  5. Turkish Political Market and the Perception of Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the Turkish political market and determine where and how Turkish political parties are perceived by voters. The study uses a two-dimensional map to determine the voter perceptions of the parties in the Turkish political market based on a survey questionnaire applied to 400 young voters. It also investigates whether there are any major differences in the perception of parties in the political space based on voter ideologies. The study finds that young voters have clear perceptions of the positions of Turkish parties. It also finds that voter perceptions of parties vary based on voters’ ideological positions.

  6. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  7. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  8. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  9. Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge; Ishai, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented by ...... the usefulness of the above results by presenting a novel application of MPC over (non-field) rings to the round-efficient secure computation of the maximum function. Basic Research in Computer Science (www.brics.dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation.......Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented...... by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite fields. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: – Generality. Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). – Efficiency. The best...

  10. LES PARTIES DU CONTRAT DE CONCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian OLARU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential feature of the administrative contract, which is part of the concession contract, differentiates from the civil contract with at least one of the topics of administrative contract that is a physical person of public law. Thus, if the subject of civil contract can be any physical or juridical person that has full the capacity to exercise, then, in the case of the administrative contract, at least one subject must have the special “quality”, namely to be a public authority or a moral person of public law. If one of the contracting parties is a public figure and the other is a person of private law, the contract may be administrative. “This condition is necessary, but not sufficient”. By the definition given to concession in article 1 line 1 of the Law on concessions, the legislator determines not only the name of the contracting parties, which formed the juridical report (the conceded, the concessionaire but also the subject concession contract, which makes it different from other administrative contracts. Moreover, in the article 4 of the cited law, it is determined the scope of the public authorities, juridical persons of public law that may have the quality of conceded, while article 5 provides the scope of persons who may have the quality of concessionaire.

  11. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Picturing the Party: Instagram and Party Campaigning in the 2014 Swedish Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Filimonov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Swedish parties’ activities on Instagram during the 2014 elections. Understanding party campaign communication as highly strategic, that is, communication to persuade and mobilize voters in order to win the elections, we ask whether Instagram was used to (1 broadcast campaign messages, (2 mobilize supporters, (3 manage the party’s image, and (4 amplify and complement other campaign material (i.e., hybrid campaign use. With this study, we follow previous studies on the use of digital communication platforms in the hands of campaigning political actors, but we direct our attention to a new platform. We conducted a content analysis of 220 party postings on Instagram, collected during the hot phase of the campaign. The result shows that the platform was mainly used for broadcasting rather than for mobilization. The image the parties were presenting leaned toward personalization with a strong presence of top candidates in their postings. Top candidates were primarily displayed in a political/professional context. Finally, half of the analyzed postings showed signs of hybridized campaign practices. The presented findings give a first glimpse on how political parties use and perform on Instagram.

  13. 76 FR 69595 - Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... material change in the product's design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts...)) defines a ``children's product,'' in relevant part, as a consumer product designed or intended primarily... testing by a third party) be designed to show the similarity between the products? Also, sampling...

  14. Political Parties and the Institutionalization of Education: A Comparative Analysis of Party Manifestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Anja P.

    2011-01-01

    Education has been featured prominently in recent election campaigns in different countries. This article explains this observation by the idea of a world culture and the global institutionalization of education. It compares party manifestors of 25 OECD countries from 1946 onward, analyzing how education developed in election campaigns over time…

  15. Party Organizational Change: Formal Distribution of Power between National and Regional Levels in Italian Political Parties (1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Calossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years an increasing number of scholars have centred their attention on the relationships between party national structures and party sub-national branches. A relevant part of the specialized literature has interpreted party change as the by-product of the denationalization of party politics. The aim of this contribution is to investigate to what extent eight relevant Italian parties have followed patterns of organizational change, after the reforms of the municipal, provincial and regional election sys-tems; and the process of devolution of administrative powers begun during the Nineties. By focusing on two analytical dimensions (the level of involvement and the level of autonomy of party regional units, we analyse diachronically continuity and change in party formal organization, through an in-depth analysis of the statutes adopted from 1992 to 2012

  16. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  17. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  18. Third party objection and action against enforcement: Request for exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a right of a third party to prevent enforcement on the basis of a claim and evidence that rights or assets seized in enforcement proceeding belong to him (third party and not to the enforcement debtor. In most of jurisdictions that were subject of analysis of this paper, this right of a third party is exercised by filing an objection to the court conducting enforcement proceedings. The claim of the third party is directed towards the enforcement creditor as well as against the enforcement debtor. In the event the claim of the third party is being contested, the court instructs the third party to initiate litigation proceedings for determining whether the third party is entitled to exclusion of such rights or assets from enforcement, especially if such third party holds property rights or some other rights over the assets that are being subject to enforcement proceedings. In majority of analyzed jurisdictions, enforcement proceedings are being suspended provided the third party, in the objection being filed makes prima facie likely, on the basis of credible evidence, that his assets were seized in the enforcement proceedings. However, according to the law of the Republic of Serbia, a credible objection of a third party does not result in suspension of enforcement proceedings, something that is being criticized in this paper. As a result of this provision of the law, a bona fide third party is forced to endure the enforcement although his claim has been made likely and subsequently confirmed in the litigation proceedings. The author, in particular, points to the legal consequences of mala fide enforcement creditor that knew that the assets that are being subject of the enforcement proceedings do not belong to the enforcement debtor. The author is of the opinion that, in such cases, the enforcement creditor should be obliged to pay to the third party damages that such party suffered as a result of enforcement proceedings being

  19. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  20. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  1. Public funding of political parties when campaigns are informative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian

    dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties......The paper considers public funding of political parties when some voters are poorly informed about parties’ candidates and campaigns are informative. For symmetric equilibria, it is shown that more pub- lic funding leads parties to chose more moderate candidates, and that an increase in the funding’s...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...

  2. Changing the Rules of the Game : the development and reform of party law in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, F.F.

    2017-01-01

    Party law, or the legal regulation of political parties, has become a prominent feature of party systems. Some party laws are designed to have a much larger political impact than others. It remains unknown why some countries adopt party laws that have substantial implications for party

  3. Report of the ITER Council's Ways and Means Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Beginning in 1988 and continuing through 1990, the four Parties involved, under the auspices of the IAEA, have been cooperating in the ITER Conceptual Design Activities. In order to develop ways and means to comply with the objective of the cooperation, a Working Party was chartered by the Council in July, 1989. This report contains the outcome of the Working Party's effort to fulfil the Council's charge and subsequent additional guidance, which are also given in this document. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  4. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  5. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  6. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  7. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    negatively affect immigrants the most. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of labour market reforms in Denmark, where one of the most successful populist right-wing parties in Europe – the Danish People's Party – held a pivotal position in the period 2001–11, the article traces the intentions...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  8. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab......We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal...

  9. From Protest to Political Parties: Online Deliberation in New Parties in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge Bravo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new parties that emerged following the 15-M movement and against the austerity measures in Spain want to build parties open to the participation and deliberation for all the citizenry. To what extent are these ideals being fulfilled? The aim of this article is to describe and assess some of the main online deliberative processes of the two most important parties, Podemos and Barcelona En Comú, following commonly accepted criteria in the literature for measuring online deliberation. Specifically, we have examined the two most-voted proposals from the online platform Plaza Podemos and the online development of the electoral programme of Barcelona En Comú. Thus, we have conducted a content analysis of 713 (Plaza Podemos and 563 (Barcelona En Comú posts. Both platforms meet the structural and technical criteria for fostering deliberation, but the external impact is high only in the case of Barcelona En Comú. The deliberative quality of the communication is good but not the criteria of reflexivity, inclusion and plurality.

  10. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  11. Party-state relationship, an effect of the political competition. The party system and patronage in Romanian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lonean

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the party-state relationship in post-communist Romania. It shows the connections between the existence of patronage, corruption and the states’ weak administrative capacity, on one hand, and the dynamics of the political party system, as an explanatory variable, on the other hand. The instability of the political parties in Romania and their changing relations within the system make the electorates’ task of anticipating and sanctioning their politics impossible. Consequently, the political parties have the possibility of extracting resources from the state without being held accountable in elections, as an effect of their dynamic, but non-robust competition.

  12. Improvement of nuclear third party liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year

  13. CERN clubs join the fiftieth anniversary party!

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN's clubs are planning to celebrate the Organization's 50th anniversary by organising a variety of special events. It's raining projects! CERN's clubs have chosen to celebrate the Organization's Golden Jubilee, each in its own style, by organising a whole host of anniversary events. While the Cine-Club continues to screen films made in the Member States on Thursday evenings, other clubs are organising special races and tournaments to honour CERN's 50th year. The CERN Rugby Club led the way in early April when it hosted a children's tournament which brought the Laboratory firmly into the view of its many young participants. On 24 April, the Cycling Club moves to centre stage as it takes its members on a unique 50-km discovery trip around the countryside above the tunnel of the future LHC. The Croquet Club, the Running Club, the Horse Riding Club and the Golf Club will all be joining the party in May and June. After that, football, softball, cycling, pétanque and sailing are just some of the items on a sp...

  14. Monday (after work) is party time!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In this interview with Hermann Schmickler, CERN accelerator expert and, more recently, manager of the Open Day organising team, the Bulletin looks behind the scenes of the organisation of CERN’s most popular events for the public.  After the huge endeavour, the “Bosons&More” party awaits you too!   The Open Days core team. “In the early days of the preparations when we still had some spare time, we decided to take photos in two different dress codes to illustrate the spirit of “Bosons&More”: formal evening dress and festival type clothes,” says Herman Schmickler. What will your dress code be on Monday evening?   When Hermann is asked “what did you like best” about this whole adventure, he has no hesitation: “The team,” he says. “We have a wonderful team of very motivated people.” Let’s make a rough calculation: the core team compris...

  15. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  16. Secure Two-Party Computation with Low Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit

    2011-01-01

    We propose a 2-party UC-secure computation protocol that can compute any function securely. The protocol requires only two messages, communication that is poly-logarithmic in the size of the circuit description of the function, and the workload for one of the parties is also only poly-logarithmic...

  17. Developing Product Lines with 3rd-party components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, M.

    2007-01-01

    The trends toward product line development and toward adopting more 3rd-party software are hard to combine. The reason is that productlines demand fine control over the software (e.g., for diversity management), while 3rd-party software (almost by definition) provides only little or no control. A

  18. Risk based approach and interactions between interested parties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... interested parties in QSE management systems. Hanae DAHMAN EL ... relevant interested parties participating in the logistics chain and who contribute to the ... huge logistic crossroads of loads and flows: supply of aircraft in kerosene, ... Swissport which represents the global supplier of services to the ...

  19. STEM and the Evolution of the Astronomical Star Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Munive, P.; Franco, J.; Jones, A. P.; Shaner, A. J.; Buxner, S.; Bleacher, L.

    2015-12-01

    The astronomical star party has long been a powerful and effective way to engage the public and enhance cohesiveness within the amateur astronomy community. Early star parties tended to be strictly small, local events. But with improvements in transportation, larger regional star parties became popular. These advanced the considerable capabilities for citizen science in the amateur community, shared technology and engineering innovations in the field of telescope making, and refined numerous mathematical techniques in areas such instrument design and ephemeris generation, covering the full breadth of STEM. Advancements in astrophotography showcased at these events brought the star party from STEM to STEAM. Now, the advent of social media, web streaming, and virtual presence has facilitated the phenomenon of very large, networked star parties with international scope. These mega star parties take public engagement to a new, far greater levels, giving a vastly larger and more diverse public the opportunity to directly participate in exciting first-hand STEM activities. This presentation will recount the evolution of the star party and will focus on two examples of large, multinational, networked star parties, International Observe the Moon Night and Noche de las Estrellas. We will look at lessons learned and ways to participate.

  20. 34 CFR 81.19 - Costs and fees of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs and fees of parties. 81.19 Section 81.19 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GENERAL EDUCATION PROVISIONS ACT-ENFORCEMENT General Provisions § 81.19 Costs and fees of parties. The Equal Access to Justice Act, 5 U.S.C. 504...

  1. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  2. Inequality and anti-globalization backlash by political parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Does inequality fuel anti-globalization backlash? This paper answers this question by analyzing how income inequality affects the embrace or eschew of globalization by political parties. It focuses on party opposition to and support for trade openness, European-Union integration, and general

  3. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  4. 25 CFR 11.906 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.906 Rights of parties. (a) In all hearings and proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part the following rights will be observed unless modified by the particular... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rights of parties. 11.906 Section 11.906 Indians BUREAU...

  5. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer's and third party liability. 240.13 Section 240.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.13 Customer's and third party...

  6. the doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    provoke discussions in many fora on the applicability of party autonomy in international ... questions, this article analyses the principle of party autonomy. The ultimate aim of .... 12 Odoe, (n 1) 48; English Arbitration Act 1996 s 6. 13 Odoe ibid ...

  7. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appearing to be a 'reincarnation' of the one-party system and military rule that held sway for about three to four decades in Africa (from the 1960s). In the process of this transformation, African ruling parties have been grossly destabilising opposition and perceived dissenters through clientelism, patronage politics and ...

  8. Supreme matters: tea parties and the activism of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzbauer, H.

    2010-01-01

    An essay on the impact of Tea Parties on the appointment of Supreme Court Justices. According to recently released statistics, one-fifth of all US citizens are Tea Party Supporters: predominately white conservatives convinced of the 'evils' of the Obama administration. Taking their cue from the

  9. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  10. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  11. The gender of party leadership and its impact on voter's asessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Even though most political parties are still male dominated, an increasing number of women reach the top position of party leader. Furthermore, party leadership is increasingly regarded as an important part of party images due to the personalization of politics. Does the gender of the party leader...... leader characteristics appreciated by men and women. If this holds, the gender of party leadership matters to women because they value woman party leaders higher, not because they value other characteristics than men....

  12. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  13. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  14. Matrix revolutions? An analysis of party organization and ICT use by political parties in the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, M.; Sudulich, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the characteristics of political parties' websites in the Republic of Ireland and seeks to evaluate whether parties' organizational structures influence the manner in which they present themselves online. Ireland has been chosen as a research environment because there is

  15. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... entrepreneurship has been present. Theoretically, the study argues that the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ can be usefully borrowed from the public policy literature by researchers of party policy preferences and intra-party politics. Empirically, it adds to the small but growing body of research on climate...

  16. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  17. Church parties in the Arian controversy: problems of typologization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Zakharov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of typologization of the church parties of the 4th century. This historical phenomenon arises within the framework of a long church conflict, called the Arian crisis. The designations of the church parties used by contemporaries are polemical concepts and do not correspond to the self-consciousness of their supporters. In the early Christian heresiological tradition and in the modern historiography, the basis of church parties’ classification is their theological position. However, it is necessary to take into account other consolidating factors, such as Eucharistic communion and church-political activity. The formation of church parties, as a rule, was directly related to the development of the synodal institution. Analysis of sources in the 4th century allows us to distinguish, in addition to the extensive currents - macro-parties - claiming a universal or regional consensus based on the heritage of one of the representative and authoritative councils, some small consolidated groups - micro-parties, which gather for little councils and constantly coordinate their actions within the ecclesiastical confrontation. Micro-parties could exist both within the limits of macro-party, in many respects determining the trends of it’s development, and beyond it’s boundaries. In the latter case, it is actually a marginal church group rallied around one or more extraordinary theologian, sometimes even without the episcopal rank.

  18. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  19. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  20. Modelling the dynamics of two political parties in the presence of switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabadza, F; Alassey, Tobge Yawo; Muchatibaya, Gift

    2016-01-01

    This paper generalizes the model proposed by Misra, by considering switching between political parties. In the model proposed, the movements of members from political party B to political party C and vice versa, are considered but the net movement is considered by assuming that [Formula: see text] (a constant), which implies that the movement of members is either from party B to party C or from party C to party B. In this paper we remodel these movements through switching functions to capture how individuals switch between parties. The results provide a more comprehensive synopsis of the dynamics between two political parties.

  1. 13 CFR 120.920 - Required participation by the Third Party Lender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Third Party Loan collateral. Third Party Loans usually are collateralized by a first lien on the Project... BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.920 Required participation by the Third Party Lender. (a) Amount of Third Party Loans. A Project financing must include one or more...

  2. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  3. Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2015-09-01

    Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-party arbitration in international trade: problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Legal disputes regarding international trade frequently involve more than two parties. This leads to problems, as the preferred means of dispute resolution within international trade - arbitration - tends to be ill-equipped to handle such disputes. The topic of the paper is arbitration as a means...... of dispute resolution in a multy-party set-up. Both the possible legal bases and the problems encountered are considere. It is concluded that arbitration is still the only real option to the parties in international business disputes and that many of the shortcomings  may be contered by skilful drafting...

  5. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  6. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  7. Political parties and politics on the Internet: An analysis of the websites of Catalan political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Padró-Solanet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the use of New Information and Communications Technologies (NICT by the political parties, going beyond approaches focusing on the potential of these technologies for political transformation and renovation. In order to do this a set of variables that characterise the strategic position of the Catalan parties is employed: ideology, organisation and position in the electoral market. The analysis shows three different forms of usage of the Internet. One group of parties (PSC, CDC-CiU uses it to promote participation and campaigning activities; a second group (ICV, Cs, to generate new resources, and finally, a third group (PSC, ERC uses it to build contact networks. The size, and to a lesser degree the type of organisation, stand out as the major explanatory variables. The major parties use the Internet to promote campaign activities and participation; in contrast, smaller parties tend to make use of the Internet to generate new sources of financing and workforce. Depending on the type of organisation, the parties of the masses seem to be more likely to use the Internet to set up and activate an extensive contact network which recreates the characteristic associative realm of these parties in cyberspace.

  8. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  9. Enforcement of mandatory third party access based on antitrust law; Zwangsdurchleitung mittels Kartellrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, K. [Bundeskartellamt, Berlin (Germany). 8. Beschlussabteilung

    1998-04-01

    Access of third parties to power transmission systems which up to now is governed in Germany by ownership rights will not run smoothly in future, although the general policy decision ended the dispute about the if, however leaving open aspects of the how. The problems arising in designing the how are currently displayed to the public by the disputes about conditions and model solutions reported from the telecommunications area, where deregulation is ahead of the developments in the energy sector. Obviously, the contention point is not technical feasibility of third party access, but the economic aspects and the conditions offered to competing suppliers depending on access to a transmission network. Hence it can be expected that there will be conflicts of interest that will have to be decided. The legal basis for conflict management is outlined in the recent amendment to the EnWG (German energy industry act), and jurisdiction will primarily rely on paragraph 6 of the act, referring to antitrust review. The contribution here gives an outline of the legal framework conditions governing enforcement of third party access to transmission systems in the future deregulated energy market. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Oeffnung bisher geschlossener Netze fuer Drittwettbewerber verlaeuft auch dann, wenn ueber das `Ob` kein Streit mehr besteht, nicht konfliktfrei. Dies wird zur Zeit dem deutschen Publikum im Bereich der Telekommunikation mit fast taeglich neuen Varianten vorgefuehrt. Es geht dabei offensichtlich nicht um die technische Machbarkeit der Drittnutzung, sondern um die wirtschaftlichen Konditionen fuer Konkurrenten, die fuer ihr Leistungsangebot auf den Zugang zum Netz angewiesen sind. Konflikte ueber die Bedingungen dieses Zugangs sind daher vorprogrammiert, und es stellt sich die Frage, nach welchen Regeln und durch welche Gremien oder Institutionen solche Konflikte entschieden werden sollen. Der Beitrag umreisst die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen, die im neuen En

  10. International legal status of refugees in the territory of one party to armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesla Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The international law of armed conflicts provides a legal protection to refugees if they find themselves in the territory of warring parties. Refugees are regarded as protected persons, particularly in international armed conflicts. Refugees are people forced to leave their country to find a shelter in a foreign country as a result of political events or the treat of prosecution. The legal status of refugees was regulated first by Convention relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951. The legal status of refugees in armed conflicts was regulated by Geneva Convention relating to Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 1949 and by Protocol I of 1977. Both acts regulate the status of refugees who, at the moment of the beginning of hostile activities find themselves in the territory of one party to the conflict i.e., the occupied territory. So it is therefore about foreigners who have been granted a refugee status before the start of the conflict. According to the same Convention, party to the conflict, at which territory the refugees find themselves in, cannot consider them, neither treat them as foreigners nor hostile citizens, just because they belong to a hostile state. Protocol I, expended the protection of refugees in the way it is regulated, that the persons treated like refugees or stateless persons, before the start of hostilities, would be under the protection of provisions of IV Geneva Convention in all circumstances and without any adverse distinction. We should particularly emphasize the right of refugees, not to be driven out to the country where their lives or freedom could be endangered because of their belonging to a group or because of their political opinion.

  11. Impossibility of secure two-party classical computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbeck, Roger

    2007-01-01

    We present attacks that show that unconditionally secure two-party classical computation is impossible for many classes of function. Our analysis applies to both quantum and relativistic protocols. We illustrate our results by showing the impossibility of oblivious transfer

  12. motor vehicle lessors' liability for damages to third parties: acomment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of defining the scope of application of the Ethiopian law on liability for damages ... Federal Supreme Court in a recent case has rendered a decision that allows. ♧ .... 3.1 Whether Third Party Practice Exonerates Joint and Several. Liability.

  13. Energy-political ideas of environmentalist parties in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, R.

    1990-01-01

    By and large the green-alternative parties embrace the same energy policies: They reject nuclear energy, they demand a radically new approach to energy politics and they want to realise their programmes within a comprehensive restructuring of the political and economic order of the respective states. The reasons for this categorical NO to nuclear energy seen in its social and environmental compatibility. In the following we will explain how this type of party works and functions. The reasons for the formation of these parties and the profile of green-alternative parties on a national and international level are described in detail as well as the resonance in society and their chances of success in general. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. 17 CFR 201.150 - Service of papers by parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... motion, brief, or other written communication, shall be served upon each party in the proceeding in... age and discretion then residing therein; (2) Mailing the papers through the U.S. Postal Service by...

  15. 47 CFR 76.935 - Participation of interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parties. In order to regulate basic tier rates or associated equipment costs, a franchising authority must..., 120, or 180-day time periods that franchising authorities have to review rates under § 76.933. ...

  16. Anteneh Geremew Gemeda Abstract Ethiopia is party to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia submitted four reports to the Committee and received .... the technical and financial resources and the State Party which is in need of .... the initial report and the third periodic report were each two years overdue and the consolidated.

  17. ISLAMIC PARTIES AND THE POLITICS OF CONSTITUTIONALISM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukrimin Mukrimin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between religion and the state in Indonesia by exploring how Islam is used by political parties to shape the politics. The study shows that Islamic politics is a complementary in both nationhood and statehood in Indonesia. From the early days of the new-born nation-state, Muslims in Indonesia had played significant role in shaping the nation; nonetheless, they have never dominated the political power. Fragmentation among Muslims themselves and internal political parties is among the reason why religious (Islamic parties failed in bringing religious identity to the state arena. Political subordination-inclusion-ignorance-confrontation is the circular game that features Islamic politics in Indonesia. The debatable issue on shari‘ah law, which is frequently used by Islamic parties, always becomes the core problem of the relation between Islam and the state. Even though Islam has played an important role in colouring the Indonesian politics, its existence remains complementary.

  18. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  19. Islamist Parties and Democratization : Lessons from Turkey's Justice ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Turkish elections of November 2002 brought a new Islamic-oriented political party to power, with ... They will endeavor to explain the Turkish experience in terms of general causal ... IDRC at the ICLEI Resilient Cities 2018 conference.

  20. Managing water utility financial risks through third-party index insurance contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeff, Harrison B.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2013-08-01

    As developing new supply capacity has become increasingly expensive and difficult to permit (i.e., regulatory approval), utilities have become more reliant on temporary demand management programs, such as outdoor water use restrictions, for ensuring reliability during drought. However, a significant fraction of water utility income is often derived from the volumetric sale of water, and such restrictions can lead to substantial revenue losses. Given that many utilities set prices at levels commensurate with recovering costs, these revenue losses can leave them financially vulnerable to budgetary shortfalls. This work explores approaches for mitigating drought-related revenue losses through the use of third-party financial insurance contracts based on streamflow indices. Two different types of contracts are developed, and their efficacy is compared against two more traditional forms of financial hedging used by water utilities: Drought surcharges and contingency funds (i.e., self-insurance). Strategies involving each of these approaches, as well as their use in combination, are applied under conditions facing the water utility serving Durham, North Carolina. A multireservoir model provides information on the scale and timing of droughts, and the financial effects of these events are simulated using detailed data derived from utility billing records. Results suggest that third-party index insurance contracts, either independently or in combination with more traditional hedging tools, can provide an effective means of reducing a utility's financial vulnerability to drought.

  1. Secure Two-Party Computation with Low Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Faust, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 2-party UC-secure protocol that can compute any function securely. The protocol requires only two messages, communication that is poly-logarithmic in the size of the circuit description of the function, and the workload for one of the parties is also only poly-logarithmic in the size...... on the knowledge of exponent in an RSA group, and build succinct zero-knowledge arguments in the CRS model....

  2. Asynchronous Multi-Party Computation with Quadratic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Przydatek, Bartosz

    2008-01-01

    We present an efficient protocol for secure multi-party computation in the asynchronous model with optimal resilience. For n parties, up to t < n/3 of them being corrupted, and security parameter κ, a circuit with c gates can be securely computed with communication complexity O(cn^2k) bits, which...... circuit randomization due to Beaver (Crypto’91), and an abstraction of certificates, which can be of independent interest....

  3. Political Party Development in the Arab World | Page 2 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Iraqi Communist Party [Arabic language]. Documents. í€ l'épreuve du gouvernement urbain, les transformations du Parti de la Justice et du développement au Maroc. Documents. Rassemblement yéménite pour la réforme (al-Islâh) : la difficile construction d'un projet d'alternance. Documents. Socialist Union of Popular ...

  4. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  5. Web party effect: a cocktail party effect in the web environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Fantoni, Carlo; Gerbino, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information seeking, and provide evidence in favor of the latter alternative. Participants in our experiment navigated a representative set of real websites of variable complexity, in order to reach an information goal located two clicks away from the starting home page. The time needed to reach the goal was accounted for by a novel measure of home page complexity based on a part of (not all) web options: the number of links embedded within web navigation elements weighted by the number and type of embedding elements. Our measure fully mediated the effect of several standard complexity metrics (the overall number of links, words, images, graphical regions, the JPEG file size of home page screenshots) on information seeking time and usability ratings. Furthermore, it predicted the cognitive demand of web navigation, as revealed by the duration judgment ratio (i.e., the ratio of subjective to objective duration of information search). Results demonstrate that focusing on relevant links while ignoring other web objects optimizes the deployment of attentional resources necessary to navigation. This is in line with a web party effect (i.e., a cocktail party effect in the web environment): users tune into web elements that are relevant for the achievement of their navigation goals and tune out all others.

  6. Web party effect: a cocktail party effect in the web environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rigutti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information seeking, and provide evidence in favor of the latter alternative. Participants in our experiment navigated a representative set of real websites of variable complexity, in order to reach an information goal located two clicks away from the starting home page. The time needed to reach the goal was accounted for by a novel measure of home page complexity based on a part of (not all web options: the number of links embedded within web navigation elements weighted by the number and type of embedding elements. Our measure fully mediated the effect of several standard complexity metrics (the overall number of links, words, images, graphical regions, the JPEG file size of home page screenshots on information seeking time and usability ratings. Furthermore, it predicted the cognitive demand of web navigation, as revealed by the duration judgment ratio (i.e., the ratio of subjective to objective duration of information search. Results demonstrate that focusing on relevant links while ignoring other web objects optimizes the deployment of attentional resources necessary to navigation. This is in line with a web party effect (i.e., a cocktail party effect in the web environment: users tune into web elements that are relevant for the achievement of their navigation goals and tune out all others.

  7. Web party effect: a cocktail party effect in the web environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information seeking, and provide evidence in favor of the latter alternative. Participants in our experiment navigated a representative set of real websites of variable complexity, in order to reach an information goal located two clicks away from the starting home page. The time needed to reach the goal was accounted for by a novel measure of home page complexity based on a part of (not all) web options: the number of links embedded within web navigation elements weighted by the number and type of embedding elements. Our measure fully mediated the effect of several standard complexity metrics (the overall number of links, words, images, graphical regions, the JPEG file size of home page screenshots) on information seeking time and usability ratings. Furthermore, it predicted the cognitive demand of web navigation, as revealed by the duration judgment ratio (i.e., the ratio of subjective to objective duration of information search). Results demonstrate that focusing on relevant links while ignoring other web objects optimizes the deployment of attentional resources necessary to navigation. This is in line with a web party effect (i.e., a cocktail party effect in the web environment): users tune into web elements that are relevant for the achievement of their navigation goals and tune out all others. PMID:25802803

  8. Complete Fairness in Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, S. Dov; Hazay, Carmit; Katz, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In the setting of secure two-party computation, two mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some function of their inputs while preserving, to the extent possible, various security properties such as privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property is fairness which guarantees, informa...... for such functions must have round complexity super-logarithmic in the security parameter. Our results demonstrate that the question of completely fair secure computation without an honest majority is far from closed.......In the setting of secure two-party computation, two mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some function of their inputs while preserving, to the extent possible, various security properties such as privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property is fairness which guarantees......-party setting. We demonstrate that this folklore belief is false by showing completely fair protocols for various nontrivial functions in the two-party setting based on standard cryptographic assumptions. We first show feasibility of obtaining complete fairness when computing any function over polynomial...

  9. Role of political parties in the formation of civil society in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сирожжон Насипкулович Бердикулов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of political parties in the development of civil society and the rule of law, as well as issues of political parties differ from other public organizations, the concept of a multi-party system, the importance of a multi-party system in ensuring political pluralism, inter-party competition, constructive opposition, the expression of the interests of the electorate, the space of political parties in parliament and local councils (soviets

  10. Multi-party semi-quantum key distribution-convertible multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Fei; Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing (MSQSS) protocol which allows a quantum party (manager) to share a secret among several classical parties (agents) based on GHZ-like states. By utilizing the special properties of GHZ-like states, the proposed scheme can easily detect outside eavesdropping attacks and has the highest qubit efficiency among the existing MSQSS protocols. Then, we illustrate an efficient way to convert the proposed MSQSS protocol into a multi-party semi-quantum key distribution (MSQKD) protocol. The proposed approach is even useful to convert all the existing measure-resend type of semi-quantum secret sharing protocols into semi-quantum key distribution protocols.

  11. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  12. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  13. Trends in parental leave in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eydal, Guðný; Gíslason, Ingólfur; Rostgaard, Tine

    2015-01-01

    are witnessing a paradigm shift in some of these countries, away from an emphasis on gender equality to a more traditional family approach, with the mother as the main parent, thinly guised as ‘free choice’ of individual families. Furthermore, the article asks why the changes in question have taken place......The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the development of parental leave in the Nordic countries in the last decade or so and explain the different roads taken by individual countries in this regard. Focusing on the recent development, mainly on father’s quota, we discuss whether we...... and examines the positions of different political parties towards the issue. The article shows that the Nordic countries are developing somewhat different policies and the gap between both policies and politics in the Nordic countries seems to be increasing rather than closing up....

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  15. Means of discourse manipulations in political party programs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different mass media sources, members of any society are well aware of political developments and events and politicians. Every person has his or her own formed political beliefs and affirmations, interpreters other people's actions during political developments and evaluates events that take place. Political forces, in turn, see a person (a potential elector as an object of external information influence. This lets them use political communication when competing for the power. In the modern democratic society this competition is carried out via parliamentarian debates, politicians' speeches, examining political parties' programs, political agitation and voting. General audience-oriented political discourse implements its function of political information influence. As the goal of any political party's program (as an independent form of text in the system of political discourse is to win the elections and come to power, thus the audience influence function is one of the most fundamental and serve as the basis for the text. The text of a program itself is characterized by its persuasive orientation towards the audience, which reveal itself in such methods as convincing, argumentation, manipulation and evaluation. All the political programs pertain to parties which are at the power or which are in opposition. The main characteristic of oppositional programs is the criticism of the power, vice versa, the dominant party's programs confirm the correctness of their policy. All the political programs are multi-authored. The written form of any political program lets put into practice a detailed text analysis. This article presents the analysis of the texts of two leading Spanish political parties (the Spanish socialist worker's party and the people's party of Spain.

  16. Hotel Overbooking and Cooperation with Third-Party Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Dong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbooking strategy is also examined. A model of a Stackelberg game between the hotel and third-party websites and a Nash game among the third-party websites are developed to analyze the process. Results indicate that the compensation coefficient has a slight influence on hotel pricing strategy, but causes a sharp decrease in overbooking level. As the hotel demands to lessen the probability of denying under higher compensation rate, the third-party websites would exert less sales effort to reduce the demand of online customers. Results also show that under a given market demand, hotel effort only serves to redistribute market shares among the hotel and third-party websites, without influencing hotel pricing and overbooking decisions. Specifically, the market shares of the third-party websites decrease in the effort level of the hotel resulting from an increase in the hotel market share. Finally, in the numerical example where one hotel and two websites are analyzed, hotel overbooking strategy improves hotel profit by 4.20%, whereas profit improvements for Websites 1 and 2 are as high as 5.26% and 5.21%, respectively. Managerial implications of the study are also provided.

  17. Choosing memories? Russian political parties as actors of historical policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikin Daniil Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article takes an attempt to analyse the transformation of relations between the state power and political parties in Russia within the framework of implementation the politics of memory. On the basis of the content analysis, the article analyses the specifics of using the images of the past in the activities of the 7th State Duma’s political parties: mentioning the historical periods, frequency of mentions, the function of a statement containing positive, neutral or critical assessments of the past, the theme of the continuity of historical experience of the Russian statehood, ways of implementation of some elements of the politics of memory. To sum up, the stumbling block for the main parliamentary parties becomes the Soviet past concerning which there are only separate points of correlation of all political forces. Today we can talk about the process set by the parties to develop the systematic strategies for comprehending the past. The article also analyses the history of the political parties in the context of the politics of memory.

  18. Peoples Democratic Party in the Fourth Republic of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Their nature and functions make political parties central to democratic governance especially in the new democracies of Africa that face the challenge of building strong and enduring democratic institutions. It is accepted that the existing trend in most of these democracies of one big party dominating the political space weakens democracy and undermines its prospects for consolidation. Big parties—usually the ruling ones—exhibit tendencies such as absence of internal democracy that are antithetical to democratic governance. While observations such as these are incontestable, there is little understanding into the nature, character, ideology, and internal structure of big parties generally. In this article, I attempt to address this concern. Specifically, I examine the nature, structure, and ideology of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP, Nigeria’s ruling party at the federal level with considerable strength at local level between 1999 and 2015. Relying on data obtained from multiple sources, I investigate the process of its formation, the nature of its ideology, internal organization, its electoral strength, and how absence of internal democracy contributed significantly to its defeat in 2015 general elections.

  19. The energy policy message of the Hamburg SPD party congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    On October 26-28 this year, the Social Democratic (SPD) party congress was held in Hamburg; its new party platform, the so-called ''Hamburg Program,'' constitutes a landmark for the party. The Program's chapter on ''Sustainable Progress and Qualitative Growth'' refers to energy policy in the section about ''Turning Point in Energy Policy; Environmental Protection.'' Emphasis is given to the fact that energy, like air and water, is a basis of life of our civilization, and that the present ways of wasting energy and resources have no future. For this reason, the turnaround in energy policy initiated by the SPD must be advanced in the key issue of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy resources and from polluting to non-polluting resources. The ultimate goal is a solar age. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the Social Democratic Party finds that nuclear fission appeared to many as the big hope for energy available forever, but that these hopes cannot come true. To put it in a nutshell: The SPD is fast embarking on the road into a solar age. The party does see the growing world population and the rising energy requirement as well as the resulting challenges. However, its energy policy concept is too rigidly focused on Germany and the country's pioneering role. At the present time, nuclear power stands no chance in the SPD, although the Hamburg declaration includes a cautious reminder of the fact that, until 1986, the SPD was among the proponents of nuclear power. (orig.)

  20. The Finns Party: Euroscepticism, Euro Crisis, Populism and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Herkman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many European countries, populist right-wing parties have been most noticeable representatives of Euroscepticism. In Finland, the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset has been a constant promoter of organisational Euroscepticism through its leader, Timo Soini. The party broke through in Finland’s ‘big bang elections’ of 2011, when the most debated issue was the European economic crisis, which was dominated by Eurosceptic Soini. Research concerning the relationship between the media, populism and Euroscepticism usually focus on national or European Parliament elections. This study analyses the media portrayal of the Eurosceptic Finns Party during times other than elections, focusing on the Finland’s overall Euro crisis press coverage in 2010–2012. The analysis shows that the populist Finns Party has been a minor player in that coverage, which was dominated by the Euro positive political and economic elites. Differences between newspapers indicate that journalistic routines and political context direct media coverage toward particular framings, even when the media proclaims itself politically independent and neutral.

  1. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  2. Economic Conditions affect Support for Prime Minister Parties in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    between unemployment, economic growth and support for prime minister parties is re-examined in two datasets. The first is a dataset of Scandinavian elections, and the second is a yearly Danish vote function, which was constructed using election polls. Across both datasets, it is found that if one simply......Previous research has not been able to identify a relationship between objective economic indicators and support for governing parties in the Scandinavian countries. This is potentially problematic, as it suggests that political leaders are not held electorally accountable for the economic...... correlates support for the prime minister's party with economic conditions, there is no relationship; however, if one specifies a statistical model, which takes the Scandinavian context into account, it is possible to identify a statistically significant effect of economic conditions on electoral support...

  3. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  4. The Romanian Social Democratic Party versus the authoritarian monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.

  5. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among...... political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  6. THE THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana MUNTEANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasing organic trade worldwide, the organic standards and the certification of the organic practices are ever more important and relevant for both business and consumers. The certification by third parties of the organic operators is meant to ensure the application of an organic standard. However, the documented fraud cases are proof that the current system can undergo further improvement. The current paper gives an overview of the mechanisms of certification and inspection worldwide and discusses the issues raised by third party certification of the organic operators in the European context. Moreover, the paper reviews the major arguments for the effectiveness of the third party certification and also points to the improvement possibilities of the systems.

  7. Between Confessionalism and Liberal Conservatism : The Christian Democratic Parties of Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie; Ten Napel, Hans_Martien; Hanley, David

    1994-01-01

    According to Horner (1981), the Christian Democratic parties of the Low Countries are still confessional parties (Konjessionsparteien) , whereas their sister parties in Germany and Italy are evolving towards liberal conservative catch-all parties (Volksparteien). In this chapter Horner's thesis will

  8. 11 CFR 109.37 - What is a “party coordinated communication”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions for Political Party Committees § 109.37 What is a “party coordinated communication”? (a) Definition. A political party communication is coordinated with a candidate, a candidate's authorized... paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) of this section. (1) The communication is paid for by a political party...

  9. Italy's green party: on the road to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, A.

    1988-01-01

    Italy's Green Party (Lista Verde) does not consider itself a political party but it is changing the environmental consciousness of the nation. There are new eight popular television shows covering environmental problems and a national weekly newspaper devotes a regular column to ecology. Environmental associations, including the Environmental League, have been started in the 1980s. The Greens have also succeeded in halting Italy's nuclear power programme. In a national referendum held in 1987 almost 80% of the voters agreed with the Greens' views. No fewer than 14 more popular referenda are planned throughout Italy on environmental issues. (UK)

  10. Membership ballots and the value of intra-party democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether this is ......On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether...

  11. Is supporting populist political parties a mental disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, J.

    2015-01-01

    It’s just over a month until the UK general election and many Brits seem to have lost trust in their traditional politicos. Whether it’s the UK Independence Party (UKIP) scapegoating the European Union and immigrants, a rise in nationalism (the Scottish National party), or Russell Brand’s teenage anarchism, faith in facile, and sometimes ugly, solutions is on the march. It’s a huge relief, therefore, to hear that the editors of the DSM (the main reference book for psychiatric classification),...

  12. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    welfare chauvinism occurs as a result of legislative changes that explicitly exclude recipients from social protection or reduce the level thereof on the basis of ethnicity. Indirect welfare chauvinism is the result of policy measures that apply to both natives and immigrants, but which deliberately...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  13. Actively Secure Two-Party Evaluation of Any Quantum Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first two-party protocol allowing Alice and Bob to evaluate privately even against active adversaries any completely positive, trace-preserving map , given as a quantum circuit, upon their joint quantum input state . Our protocol leaks no more to any active adversary than an ideal ...... functionality for provided Alice and Bob have the cryptographic resources for active secure two-party classical computation. Our protocol is constructed from the protocol for the same task secure against specious adversaries presented in [4]....

  14. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Ferdinando; Gambardella, Elio.

    1974-06-01

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA) [fr

  15. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  16. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  17. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  18. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  19. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  20. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  1. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  2. Activities of the summer party of the 31st Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in 1989–1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sano

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The 31st Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE consisted of 55 members, of which the 30 members of the wintering party at Syowa Station were led by Y. NAITO, 8 members of the wintering party at Asuka Station by K. SHIRAISHI and 17 members of the summer party by M. SANO. In addition, two Chinese scientists and two Belgian scientists participated. The icebreaker SHIRASE, leaving Tokyo on 14 November 1989,after calling at Fremantle, Western Australia, arrived at Breid Bay on 17 December. The helicopter and surface transportation of 173t of cago including two AS-350 helicopters, 8 wintering members and 14 members of the summer SΦr Rondane Mountains expedition from the ship to Asuka Station were completed by 30 December. The ship reached Syowa Station on 14 January 1990,it needed 15 days to approach Syowa Station because the pack ice and first ice in Lutzow-Holm Bay were very thick and heavy compared with a normal year. Unloading of 624t of the cargo, and the summer operations including field research work, relief of the observation team, and construction and renewal of some facilities were completedby 31 January 1990. The SHIRASE left Syowa Station 1 February and arrived again at Breid Bay on 7 February, and picked up the field party and two AS-350 helicopters. On the way from Breid Bay to Sydney, Australia, the ship stopped over at Amundsen Bay for field work between 12-19 February 1990. The SHIRASE arrived at Sydney on 20 March 1990. Members of the summer party of JARE-31 and the wintering party of JARE-30 returned to Narita by air on 28 March 1990. The SHIRASE arrived at Tokyo on 13 April 1990. The following scientific activities were carried out during the summer operations of JARE-31 : a geological, biological and geodetic observations by helicopter in the SΦr Rondane Mountains region; b biological and oceanographic observations in the Syowa Station area; c an oversnow traverse for unmanned meteorology and upper atmosphere physics observations

  3. Third party liability insurance for international transport of nuclear substances in countries party to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, F.

    1977-01-01

    The number of international transports of radioactive materials has been increasing at an accelerating rate for several years. These transports are subject to specific safety rules which must be complied with in order to obtain nuclear third party liability cover. In general nuclear transports are insured under a policy which differs from that for installations. Transport policy criteria have been harmonized to some extent, in particular, in the frame of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Certificates established by the competent national authorities testifying to the existence of insurance must in principle be approved by the countries crossed which are parties to the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  4. Gains from Early Support of a New Political Party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardi, Marco; Mossucca, Rossella; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    start Silvio Berlusconi in his bid to become prime minister in 1994 did better than competitors over the following years. Using balance sheet data for the period 1985 ‐2010, we find that the 100 firms which supported the foundation of his party in 1994 did better than the competitors in terms of value...

  5. Billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, S; Buffington, D E; Memoli, G A

    1999-01-01

    To describe the steps pharmacists must complete when seeking compensation from third party payers for pharmaceutical care services. Government publications; professional publications, including manuals and newsletters; authors' personal experience. Pharmacists in increasing numbers are meeting with success in getting reimbursed by third party payers for patient care activities. However, many pharmacists remain reluctant to seek compensation because they do not understand the steps involved. Preparatory steps include obtaining a provider/supplier number, procuring appropriate claim forms, developing data collection and documentation systems, establishing professional fees, creating a marketing plan, and developing an accounting system. To bill for specific patient care services, pharmacists need to collect the patient's insurance information, obtain a statement of medical necessity from the patient's physician, complete the appropriate claim form accurately, and submit the claim with supporting documentation to the insurer. Although many claims from pharmacists are rejected initially, pharmacists who work with third party payers to understand the reasons for denial of payment often receive compensation when claims are resubmitted. Pharmacists who follow these guidelines for billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services should notice an increase in the number of paid claims.

  6. The construction of Uhuru party group identity in Zimbabwe: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ZANU-PF concept of Chimurenga is heterogeneous as it draws upon various other ideologies, such as Maoism, and the dogma of 'the children of the soil'. That heterogeneity is homogenized so as to enable the party to portray itself as perfect deliverer and guarantor of Black liberation, and rival political formations as ...

  7. Constitutional reform processes and political parties : principles for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in

  8. Monitoring multi-party contracts for E-business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.

    2004-01-01

    "Monitoring multi-party contracts for E-business" investigates the issues involved in the performance of econtract monitoring of business automations in business to business e-commerce environment. A pro-active monitoring contract model and monitoring mechanism have been designed and developed. A

  9. Party financing and referendum campaigns in EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klingeren, M.; Orozco, M.; van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), part of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam (UvA). It comprises 1) an up-to-date inventory of party finance rules within the EU Member States, 2) an overview of the regulations

  10. The Data Party: Involving Stakeholders in Meaningful Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of Extension includes the involvement of stakeholders in research and program needs assessment, design, implementation, evaluation, and reporting. A data party can be used to enhance this stakeholder involvement specifically in data analysis. This type of event can not only increase client participation in Extension programming and…

  11. 29 CFR 458.77 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS... witnesses, and to introduce into the record documentary or other relevant evidence, except that the...) copies of documentary evidence shall be submitted and a copy furnished to each of the other parties...

  12. Party choice and family influence in the age of modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

    2017-01-01

    they wish to constitute themselves as. In this process, upbringing and cultural background are less predominant, which lead to the hypothesis that; young people’s choice of party as first time voters is first and foremost a result of their self-reflections and search for their political self. A selection...

  13. The Impact of Having Children on Party Member Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    party member survey of 2012, analyses show: First, the cost of having children is more important when explaining more demanding activities than the less demanding activities, and, second, the impact of the cost of having children in the household is larger when including the intensity of participation...

  14. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... other information about persons who are ineligible. The EPLS system includes the printed version...

  15. Extended KCI attack against two-party key establishment protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an extended Key Compromise Impersonation (KCI) attack against two-party key establishment protocols, where an adversary has access to both long-term and ephemeral secrets of a victim. Such an attack poses serious threats to both key authentication and key confirmation properties of a

  16. A family of multi-party authentication protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, C.J.F.; Mauw, S.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a family of multi-party authentication protocols and discuss six novel protocols, which are members of this family. The first three generalize the well-known Needham-Schroeder-Lowe public-key protocol, the Needham-Schroeder private-key protocol, and the Bilateral Key Exchange protocol.

  17. Star Parties in Mexico extended to Colombia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Franco, José

    2016-10-01

    The preparation for The International Year of Astronomy 2009 stirred our interest in preparing star parties in Mexico. The lunar eclipse of February 20th 2008 was the perfect event for the first massive observation in Mexico City that attracted over 25,000 people. To accompany this event there were additional attractions: a massive astronomical lecture, more than 100 telescopes were set up for people to watch the sky, exhibits of astronomical images, children hands-on projects, rock concert, dance performance, and chats with astronomers. Already in 2009 a collective program was organized to involve more than 30 sites in Mexico to hold star parties at the same time once a year. These star parties were more in the spirit of science fairs, that include lectures, astronomy exhibits, children projects, as well as concerts and other cultural displays. The scope of each one of them depended on the local support from volunteers and from the local authorities. After the International Year of Astronomy the group that organized these star parties decided to continue its activities. The main attraction in these fairs has been the opportunity to see the Moon, Jupiter and Saturn (if observable) through a telescope. For this program the presence of the amateur astronomers has been crucial. They have brought their instruments to the sites and have generously taught the public how to look through the telescopes and pointed out to the interesting features on the sky.

  18. Corruption and re-election chances of incumbent parties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of information about corruption depends on whether the incumbent parties field different candidates from those in previous elections. In Africa, South and Central America, however, the effect also depends on whether the elections are free or fair. A key finding is that press freedom reduces the re-election chances ...

  19. A Timely Idea: Third Party Billing for Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaller, Kathy Dye; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    Federal allocations for special education programs are below 10% whereas the federal contribution to state medicaid programs ranges from 50-80%. Third-party billing provides a more equitable distribution of the costs among federal, state, and local governments, in addition to including private-sector contributions. (MLF)

  20. 27 CFR 8.23 - Third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Prohibited Practices § 8.23 Third party arrangements. Industry member requirements, by agreement or otherwise, with non-retailers which result in a retailer being required to purchase the industry member's products are within the exclusive outlet provisions...

  1. The French Election Marks The End Of France's Traditional Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Perrineau, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    For the first time in more than 60 years, the republic’s top presidential candidates don’t belong to either of the major parties. After an unprecedented electoral campaign characterized by multiple political upheavals, the first round of France’s presidential elections has confirmed that the republic is in the midst of a radical renewal. [First paragraphs

  2. 78 FR 76092 - Section 752 and Related Party Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... This document contains proposed amendments to the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) under section... in 26 CFR Part 1 Income Taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed Amendments to the... economic risk of loss due to its relationship with a related party, Indeck Energy. The Tax Court held that...

  3. The party political make-up of EU legislative bodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Hix, Simon; Crombez, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This research note provides an overview of the party political make-up of EU legislative bodies for the period 1979-2004 (Commission: 1979-2007) in terms of the left-right and pro-/anti-Europe dimensions. The various methods of measuring political positions are discussed and compared. Measures for

  4. 26 CFR 1.7476-1 - Interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES The Tax Court § 1.7476-1 Interested parties. (a) In general—(1) Notice requirement. Before the Internal Revenue Service can issue an advance determination as to the qualified status of certain...

  5. 26 CFR 1.7476-2 - Notice to interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1.7476-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES The Tax Court § 1.7476-2 Notice to interested parties. (a) In general... Internal Revenue Service before the date on which section 410 applies to the plan. (b) Nature of notice...

  6. Gendering the vote for populist radical-right parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Why do more men than women vote for populist radical-right (PRR) parties? And do more men than women still vote for the PRR? Can attitudes regarding gender and gender equality explain these differences (if they exist)? These are the questions that Spierings and Zaslove explore in this article. They

  7. Getting Something for Nothing: Trump, Fraud, and the Tea Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, David

    2017-01-01

    David Bordelon identifies himself as one of the majority of Americans who voted to keep Trump out of office. In this article he discusses his confusion by the Tea Party's fixation on welfare fraud, and inability to recognize it in President Trump's behavior. The author says that he can only hope that his confusion will be shared, and progress to…

  8. 31 CFR 210.9 - Parties to the reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties to the reclamation. 210.9 Section 210.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE...

  9. After the Arab Spring : Are Secular Parties the Answer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boduszynski, Mieczyslaw; Fabbe, Kristin; Lamont, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    After the “Arab Spring” and the initial democratic reforms in Turkey under the Justice and Development Party (AKP), why has democratic progress remained so elusive in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)? In recent years, that question has preoccupied numerous scholars, commentators, and policy

  10. Mwalimu Nyerere's Thoughts on Party System and Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, the philosopher-statesman, was a man of great vision and strong belief in the role of the leading party in the relations between the people and the state. Whether under capitalism or socialism, under mono-partism or multi-partism, the state is a coercive instrument. Mwalimu considered ...

  11. Measurement study of multi-party video conferencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Kuipers, F.A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    More and more free multi-party video conferencing applications are readily available over the Internet and both Server-to-Client (S/C) or Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technologies are used. Investigating their mechanisms, analyzing their system performance, and measuring their quality are important objectives

  12. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only contributed to corruption, violent conflict, poverty, human rights abuses and the throttling of social justice. The contradiction in Africa's democratisation is further shown by the increasing metamorphoses of many African ruling political parties into what can be called 'democratic authoritarianism'. The process of this met-.

  13. Party-political and electoral system of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Decresci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oriental Republic of Uruguay is seen by many as a pioneer among Latin American nations to modernize its state and its policy. Since the late nineteenth century to the twentieth, Uruguayan political actors operate significant changes such as the separation of church and state, labor regulation, divorce law, women's vote, etc. Because of this and the progressive modernization, it was called the “Switzerland of the Americas”. Today, it still stands out in this area by regularizing abortion, homoaffective marriage, liberalization and access to marijuana. Moreover, noteworthy that such measures were achieved largely because of governance that the executive enjoys in the midst of this political system. Thus, this work aims to analyze such Uruguayan political system. In short, a political system is understood by the government system, the electoral system and the party system. That said, it will be analyzed in the political scenario of the country, their characteristics, party and election rules, political parties, party dynamics and relations between the powers.

  14. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  16. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  18. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  19. Women's participation in parliament: 'Glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 'glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection on participation of women in parliament and other political institutions are examined in this article. 'Glass ceiling' syndrome, which means invisible, but almost impenetrable border that women face in professional life, keeping them away from positions of influence and progress in career, is the main reason for the small number of women involved in politics. According to the focus of the research, there are three groups of barriers to women's political participation. Most researchers examine the influence of the political system, institutional and legal mechanisms, the question of their transparency and functional improvement. Significantly less frequent approach came from authors who are concentrated on the social and economic barriers, financial conditions and the broader social context. The third group consists of those who are considering the ideological and psychological barriers, patriarchal cultural patterns, traditional gender roles, self-confidence, ambition and women's desire to be involved in politics. Political parties are key actors in the process of discrimination against women, because they do not allow them to be selected in a number of political functions. There are many factors that determine that the issue of gender equality is variously interpreted in political parties. The most present are contextual and ideological factors, referring to a different definition of the status of women on the political agenda, the social climate in terms of gender equality and respect for human rights, the level of social development and political freedom. Then come organizational factors pertaining to the structure of parties, the manner in which the leadership is elected, whether there are internal women's pressure groups and lobbying, and are women leaders are visible on high positions in decision-making process. Finally, there are institutional-legal factors, which include the type

  20. Candidates stick to party guns. In lieu of new healthcare plans, Bush, Gore follow party reform proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J; Hallam, K

    2000-07-03

    As the Democratic and GOP nominating conventions approach next month, presumptive nominees Al Gore and George W. Bush are offering no new healthcare plans, both preferring to ride the healthcare waves already set in motion by their respective party's leadership. And the really interesting thing is, the plans aren't that different. Call it creeping incrementalism.

  1. The Third Party and Beyond. An Analysis of the Different Parties, in particular The Fifth, Involved in Online Dispute Resolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    In a society that virtualises, with most of the current youth being online substantial parts of the day, to say that in the not so far future ODR will handle a large part of the disputes is not a daring prophecy. The relations between the various parties involved in ODR are more diverse and

  2. 11 CFR 109.33 - May a political party committee assign its coordinated party expenditure authority to another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL COORDINATED AND INDEPENDENT EXPENDITURES (2 U.S.C. 431(17... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a political party committee assign its... committee includes a subordinate committee of a State committee and includes a district or local committee...

  3. Did the Tea Party Movement Fuel the Trump-Train? The Role of Social Media in Activist Persistence and Political Change in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deana A. Rohlinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, the Tea Party movement played a role in Trump’s rise to power. Indeed, it is difficult to ignore the similarities in the populist claims made by Tea Partiers and those made by Trump throughout his campaign. Yet, we know very little about the potential connections between the Tea Party Movement and the “Trump-train” that crashed through the White House doors in 2017. We take a first step at tracing the connection between the two by examining who stayed involved in the Tea Party Movement at the local level and why. Drawing on interview and participant observation data with supporters of the Florida Tea Party Movement (FTPM over a 2-year time period, we use qualitative comparative analysis (QCA to assess the factors that determine whether individuals stay with or leave the movement and how the structure of the movement, which relied heavily on social media, contributed to this decision. We find that individuals who identified as libertarian left the FTPM, while those who identified as “fiscal conservatives” stayed. The FTPM’s reliance on social media further explains these results. Individuals who left the movement blamed the “openness” of social media, which, in their view, enabled the Republican Party to “hijack” the FTPM for its own purposes. Individuals who stayed in the movement attributed social media’s “openness” with the movement’s successes. We find that social media helped politically like-minded people locate one another and cultivate political communities that likely sustained activist commitment to changing the Republican Party over time.

  4. Monopolizing, Mutualizing, or Muddling Through: Factions and Party Management in Contemporary Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Chambers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In democracies throughout the world, intra-party factions manifest themselves in parties and governments. Formal and informal institutions have, however, proved crucial in managing factionalism. This is especially true in Thailand’s emerging parliamentary democracy where the management of factionalism has become a major objective for Thai parties. This study explores factions and factionalism as well as how different types of parties try to manage intra-party dissension especially in the case of Thailand. The findings suggest that management style tends to be a function of a party’s organization, with parties which practice a collegial style tending to be the more successful in controlling intra-party cliques over time. At the same time, the most important tools which party leaderships can use to control factions are the careful use of constitutional provisions and manipulation of party finance.

  5. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  6. Nuclear insurance and third-party liability. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair

    1986-04-01

    As for any other insurance policy, nuclear insurance involves two parties, the insurer and the insured. The coverage provided for can be against any misfortune or peril; material or physical losses, financial losses, third party liability or even the insured himself as in the case of life or personal insurance. In property and liability insurance, the element of certainty does not exist. Accidents cannot be predicted, the insured will only be able to financially recover the present worth of the property insured as evaluated at the time of the accident and to the extent of the damage arising from the event insured against, which in most cases will be lower than the full value of the property.

  7. The liberal party and the achievement of national Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, P E

    2009-01-01

    The process that led to the implementation of a full national health insurance system in Canada was as complicated and contested as the battles that were fought over Medicare in Saskatchewan. The federal Liberal party had to first adopt health insurance as a serious component of its electoral platform, devise a strategy for dealing with provinces which had constitutional jurisdiction over health, and finally wrestle with those within the party--and within the cabinet--who continued to question whether Canada was financially prepared to administer such a costly program. The strategies were devised and the battles were fought privately, but had an important effect on the timing and shape of a national health insurance system.

  8. Public Attitudes towards Parties in Portugal: A Longitudinal Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Pequito Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the case of the often claimed “crisis of parties” in Portugal, and argues that such controversy rests at least in part on “ambiguous” evidence. We will try to answer two fundamental research questions: 1 What motivates popular support for political parties (or lack thereof? 2 Why does antiparty rhetoric resonate with some citizens, but not with others? The empirical data and statistical regression models used allow the following conclusion: in the eyes of Portuguese citizens, parties have become a kind of “necessary evil”, being criticized for “what they actually do” and supported for “what they are supposed to do”.

  9. Political Market Orientation and the Network Party Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    and Saglie (2003). This is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. Whilst the underlying conceptualisation draws......The conceptualisation of a political market orientation (PMO) draws on current marketing thought by focussing on the relationships that exist between the party2 and relevant internal and external stakeholders (Ormrod 2005, 2011a). However, the specific way in which the PMO model is linked...... on the management-based ‘relationship marketing’ approach (Bannon 2005; Henneberg and O’Shaughnessy 2009), by striving for contextual sensitivity it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties...

  10. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  11. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  12. Group Membership Modulates the Neural Circuitry Underlying Third Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morese, Rosalba; Rabellino, Daniela; Sambataro, Fabio; Perussia, Felice; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior. Finally, exploratory analysis during anti-social punishment behavior showed brain activation recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with altered regulation of emotions.

  13. 1986 Agreement on third party liability in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Agreement intends to facilitate the settlement of disputes, if they are due to an event (caused by the peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy) which occurs on the territory of one State and gives rise to damage on the territory of the other State. Unlike the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland has neither ratified the Paris Convention of 29th July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy nor the Brussels Supplementary Convention of 31st January 1963. This might result in diverging interpretations by the German and Swiss courts, in particular, regarding the competent courts and the laws applicable if a third party liability problem were to arise between both countries. The Agreement therefore aims to settle these matters directly by treaty between the States before the courts are confronted by an occurrence of damage and have to seek a solution which conforms to international private law. (NEA) [fr

  14. Good patriots. The nation according to the Spanish conservative party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    embedded a culture of dialogue and the conflicts became more accentuated at the end of their first term (Tusell, 2000: 239). The Spanish president, José María Aznar, interpreted the results as a big electoral support for his project and started a new orientation in some areas such as the relation...... national parties, PP and Partido Socialista (PSOE, social democrats) agreed to fight against terrorism and the nationalist environment together. In that context, Aznar undertook the definition of the nation maintaining this division and tried to find a way of formulating Spanish nationalism and getting...... some accept by the citizens. In this paper I will examine the discursive formation constituted by PP to redefine the Spanish nationalism using the idea of constitutional patriotism, which emanates from the academic debate, in competition with the social democrat party, that aspires also to apply...

  15. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  16. Limits to Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta Cordero-Moss

    2014-01-01

    International contracts are often written in a standardised manner and without taking into consideration the applicable law. This may create the illusion that the contract is the only basis for the parties' rights and obligations, especially when the contract contains an arbitration clause. Using two typical contract clauses as an illustration (force majeure clause and entire agreement clause), this article analyses the extent to which an international contract, eventhough it contains an arbi...

  17. Knowledge Integrated Business Process Management for Third Party Logistics Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The growing importance of logistics as well as the increasing dynamic complexity of markets, technologies, and customer needs has brought great challenges to logistics. In order to focus on their core competency in such a competitive environment, more and more companies have outsourced a part or the entirety of the logistics process to third party logistics (3PL) service providers. 3PL has played a crucial role in managing logistics processes within supply chain management. Logistics processe...

  18. Contract law: relationship between dermatologists and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, A V

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between third-party payers and dermatologists is generally governed by a written contract. That relationship can be more beneficial to the dermatologist, and chances of liability may be decreased, both for breach of contract and for malpractice, if the dermatologist pays close attention to the language in the contract. All contracts are generally negotiable; detrimental language in the contract often may be removed or changed. This article presents information to help prepare dermatologists to review and negotiate contracts.

  19. Constitutional reform processes and political parties: principles for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in constitution-building processes. The publication shows that although country-specific reform processes may be unique in terms of objectives, context, popular involvement, and achievements, they go ...

  20. Newspapers and Parties: How Advertising Revenues Created an Independent Press

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Petrova

    2009-01-01

    Does economic development promote media freedom? Do higher advertising revenues tend to make media outlets independent of political groups?in?uence? Using data on the 19th century American newspapers, I show that in places with higher advertising revenues, newspapers were more likely to be independent from political parties. Similar results hold when local advertising rates are instrumented by regulations on outdoor advertising and newspaper distribution. I also show that newly created newspa...

  1. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics) di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-01-01

    Market segmentation is fundamental in marketing strategy and the first step of market-based strategy preparation, to strengthen its marketing efficiency, and creating opportunities for sales growth and profits. This also applies to market segmentation logistics service providers (TPL - Third Party Logistics), the market is highly developed in the last decade, so that the logistics service providers has to develop marketing strategies properly. The purpose of this research is to gain a better ...

  2. Reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Daniel A; Rothmund, Tobias; Twardawski, Mathias; Thalla, Natasha; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-11-01

    Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Although the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members. This implies that people will show reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment, favoring in-group over out-group members especially when their capacity for deliberation is impaired. Here we test this hypothesis directly, examining whether intergroup bias in third-party punishment emerges from reflexive, as opposed to deliberative, components of moral cognition. In 3 experiments, utilizing a simulated economic game, we varied participants' group relationship to a transgressor, measured or manipulated the extent to which they relied on reflexive or deliberative judgment, and observed people's punishment decisions. Across group-membership manipulations (American football teams, nationalities, and baseball teams) and 2 assessments of reflexive judgment (response time and cognitive load), reflexive judgment heightened intergroup bias, suggesting that such bias in punishment is inherent to human moral cognition. We discuss the implications of these studies for theories of punishment, cooperation, social behavior, and legal practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Young children remedy second- and third-party ownership violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2015-09-01

    When responding to ownership violations, children can focus on the victim's needs, the perpetrator's punishment, or both. Recent studies show that 3- and 5-year-olds are equally likely to respond to second- and third-party violations, and 3-year-olds return objects to their rightful owners. Children's interventions are consistent with justice for victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  5. Imitating the newcomer. How, when and why established political parties imitate the policy positions and issue attention of new political parties in the electoral and parliamentary arena : the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon Pieter

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies, how, when and why established political parties imitate new political parties. It examines new party effects on both the policy positions of established parties and the attention established political parties spend on issues. It examines this effect in both the electoral and

  6. Political Parties and Popular Representation in Myanmar’s Democratisation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Stokke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of political parties in Myanmar’s democratisation process. We argue that the substance of democratisation depends on popular representation through political parties but question their capacity to provide such representation. Examining capacity through the concept of party institutionalisation, we find that most parties have not been able to build effective organisational structures. However, we also find a degree of party institutionalisation in the form of rootedness in society. Political cleavages between those favouring authoritarian rule over democratic rule and Burman nationhood over ethnic notions of nationhood have produced divisions between state-centred parties associated with Myanmar’s authoritarian legacy and society-centred pro-democracy and ethnic parties. Although being less dichotomous than in the past, we argue that these cleavages continue to provide a basis for party identity and rootedness in society. We conclude that further development of political parties and popular representation will be shaped by the relations between parties, the state, and society – where individual parties are shaped according to their tendencies towards state-centred cartel parties or society-centred mass parties.

  7. Comparative Party System Analysis in Central and Eastern Europe: the Case of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnis Saarts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the party systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE has puzzled many scholars. High instability of the party systems and their specific evolution makes the application of theoretical models designed predominately for Western European party politics problematic. The paper puts forward the argument that we should further elaborate and specify the models for a small N comparative party system analysis in CEE countries and to incorporate some region specific components into the framework. The essential dimensions included into proposed comparative framework are as follows: (1 the stability of the party system, (2 party system fragmentation, (3 parties´ penetration into society, (4 the ideology and origins of the major parties, (5 the dominant cleavage constellations framing the party competition (6 the strength of the party organizations. The above-mentioned dimensions are expected to capture the most important aspects that make the difference between the party systems in general, and each dimension is complemented with the specific additional variables suitable for party system analysis in CEE in particular. The framework will be tested on the Baltic States, which party systems are often regarded to be very similar to each other. However, the analysis will demonstrate that based on the above-mentioned framework, very significant and noteworthy differences will be revealed.

  8. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  9. The nuclear safety convention. Results for Argentine as contracting party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    A powerful mechanism for increasing safety worldwide is through the development and adoption of legally binding Safety Conventions. Since 1986 four Conventions were ratified in the areas of Nuclear, Radiation and Waste Safety. The Nuclear Safety Convention establishes an international co-operation mechanism to maintain safety nuclear installations, focused on: to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation including, where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation; to establish and maintain effective defences in nuclear installations against potential radiological hazards in order to protect individuals, society and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation from such installations and to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. Each contracting party shall take, within the framework of its national law, the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures and other steps necessary for implementing its obligations under this Convention. Moreover, each contracting parties shall submit for review prior to each review meeting, a National Report on the measures it has taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. The contracting parties concluded that the review process had proven to be of great value to their national nuclear safety programmes. (author)

  10. Separate issues of rights and obligations of loan agreement parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Ночовкіна

    2015-05-01

    Paper main body. Peculiarities of rights and duties of loan agreement parties mainly connected to gratuitous nature of such relations. The scope and content of rights and duties of the counterparts according to the agreement depends upon its legal structure (real or consensus. At characterization of the loan agreement parties’ duties we should address as to the regulations of Chapter 60 of Ukrainian Civil Law and to the regulations governing hire (rent relations. The Clauses of Chapter 58 of Ukrainian Civil Law shall be applied only if the opposite not determined by Chapter “Loan” and does not contradict gratuitous nature of loan relations. The main responsibility of the loaner according to the agreement is the transfer of piece of property to a user for gratuitous usage. At real transaction the loaner performs this function at the moment of agreement conclusion. At consensus model of transaction the duty of the loaner to transfer piece of property arise first of all.Conclusions. In order to improve legal regulation of certain duties of loan agreement parties we should: 1 in legal regulations to determine such terms as “ordinary costs”, “capital repairs” and “minor repairs”; 2 we should clearly indicate which regulations of Clause 58 “Hire(rent” can be applied to govern the loan agreement. Such improvement will allow to eliminate any disputes at allocation of rights and duties of the parties during insurance of loaned property, at repair of property and reimbursement of repair expenses.

  11. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Museums & Mermaids: Bringing Climate Literacy to the Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinger, D.

    2014-12-01

    If science is for everyone, then it needs to be taught in environments that are welcoming to people who may not feel at home in a traditional classroom. A team of scientists and educators at the American Museum of Natural History have developed a new course, Our Earth's Future, which prepares participants to contribute intelligently and fluently to informal "cocktail party" conversations about climate and climate change. The course, taught after hours at the museum, culminates in an actual cocktail party in one of the museum's halls where participants can practice their skills. Participants' knowledge of climate change and attitudes towards climate change were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed before and after the two five-week course sessions.Climate literacy can also be included in existing events that are not obviously science-focused. Venues such as festivals, galleries, and underground art parties may be willing to broaden their definition of culture to include science - but only if they are asked. Given the increase in public discourse around the topic of climate change, there is an opportunity to reach people who wouldn't attend a formal science lecture, but might attend a film screening or a fundraiser that had some scientific content. Qualitative audience assessments done after the annual "Mermaid Lagoon," a fundraiser for ocean related causes that includes a scientific segment along with dance and theatrical performances, show increased enthusiasm and support for climate science when it is presented in a relevant, fun, and non-intimidating manner.

  13. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. [New cerebroside from leaves of pineapple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Hong-Ying; Du, Li-Jun; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-Ming; Wang, Wei

    2007-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectral methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. Compound 1 was isolated from the leaves of pineapple. It was identified as 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R, 4E, 11E)-2-[(2(R)-hydroxydocosanoyl) amido]-4, 11-hexadecanediene-1, 3-diol. Compound 1 was a new compound.

  15. Nurses' leaving intentions: antecedents and mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Yamashita, Noriko; Oba, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to investigate how nurses' work values, perceptions of environmental characteristics, and organizational commitment are related to their leaving intentions. Nurse leaving is a serious international problem as it contributes to the nursing shortage that threatens the welfare of society. The characteristics of nurses, the work environment and nurses' feelings towards their jobs (or organizations) have an impact on their leaving intentions. A convenience sample of 849 Registered Nurses was recruited from three public hospitals in the central-west region of Japan during 2006 and 319 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 39%). Data were analysed using regression analysis. Nurses' work values and their perceptions of their workplace environment interacted to influence leaving intentions. When there was a match between the importance nurses placed on being able to challenge current clinical practices and the number of the actual opportunities to do so, leaving intentions were low. When there was a mismatch, intention to quit the job became stronger. In addition, organizational commitment intervened between nurses' perceptions of the match in clinical challenges and leaving intention. Nurses' leaving intentions, deserve extensive exploration of their causes. Such exploration should include attending to both nurses' needs and organizational characteristics, investigating how the match between them could affect nurses' leaving intention, and exploring factors that intervene between nurses' perceptions of the match and leaving intention.

  16. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products... Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY: Environmental... certification, auditing and reporting of third-party certifiers, recordkeeping, enforcement, laminated products...

  17. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  18. A contextual analysis of party system formation in Nigeria, 1960-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the parties and party systems in Nigeria since independence. The article argues that the country has witnessed four different types of party systems corresponding to the four democratisation attempts that saw the emergence of constitutional governments since 1960. Special focus is awarded to the transformations of the four party systems and developments in their various institutional designs including regulating the number of parties that participate in the electoral politics of the country. In trying to achieve its objective, the article adopts chronological and thematic approaches. Chronologically, the paper investigates these party systems in successive order beginning with the First Republic when the elements of party politics were first adopted in Nigeria. Thematically, the article focuses on those issues that influenced the formation and transformation of the party systems from the First Republic in 1960 to the present Fourth Republic.

  19. Ecologies of Ideologies: Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our exp...

  20. Tracing the territorial dynamics of party fragmentation in Mexico (1991-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald SONNLEITNER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Mexican politics evolved from a closed, corporative and hegemonic-party authoritarianism, towards a more plural and competitive multi-party system. In the nineties, three relevant parties structured electoral politics. But this system soon fragmented and reached an average of 5.6 effective parties in 2015. What causes and drives political and partisan fragmentation in Mexico? Which have been the main temporal and territorial dynamics? How did they reshape Mexico’s electoral geography?

  1. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A.; Heffron, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  2. The Puzzle of Democratic Monopolies: Single Party Dominance and Decline in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    How to explain political monopolies in democratic institutional settings? Dominant parties in countries with robust formal democratic institutions are surprisingly frequent, yet poorly understood. Existing theories explain away the puzzle by characterizing dominant parties as `catch-all' parties that survive on the basis of historically imbued mass voter legitimacy. This dissertation develops a theory of how dominant parties in fact routinely win free and fair elections despite counter-majori...

  3. Coalitions and Competition in Malaysia – Incremental Transformation of a Strong-party System

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith L. WEISS

    2013-01-01

    "The seeming entrenchment of a two-coalition system in Malaysia solidifies the centrality of strongly institutionalised parties in the polity. The primary parties in Malaysia reach deeply into society and nest within dense networks of both intra-party and external organisations. Given this order - which differentiates Malaysia from its neighbours in the region - political liberalisation, if it happens, should be expected largely via electoral politics, and, specifically, through inter-party c...

  4. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  5. Évolution des partis politiques dans le monde arabe | Page 4 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orient et en Afrique du Nord subir diverses mutations. Le soutien dont bénéficiaient les partis nationalistes a diminué au profit des partis islamistes. Ce sont ces derniers qui sont désormais les plus dynamiques et les plus contestataires des partis ...

  6. 76 FR 55261 - Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht. This temporary safety zone is established to ensure the safety of... Events will sponsor the Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht on September 17, 2011, in the navigable...

  7. Mediated Leader Effects: The Impact of Newspapers’ Portrayal of Party Leadership on Electoral Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, L.; van der Meer, T.; van der Brug, W.

    2018-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that party leaders matter in democratic elections. As very few voters have direct contact with party leaders, media are voters’ primary source of information about these leaders and, thus, the likely origin of leader effects on party support. Our study focuses on these

  8. The Soviet Union and the Socialist and Social Democratic Parties of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    British forces, Craxi stated, "Those missiles are not on the moon," Corriere della Sera, May 30, 1985. • 7 .- P.- N" It.- ’j -9.’-V 1.r". k7 17- -. W...Party (PIP) Progressive Labor Party of St. Lucia (PLP) People’s Electoral Movement (MEP), Venezuela Consultative Parties-in-Exile Bulgarian Social

  9. Évolution des partis politiques dans le monde arabe | Page 2 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orient et en Afrique du Nord subir diverses mutations. Le soutien dont bénéficiaient les partis nationalistes a diminué au profit des partis islamistes. Ce sont ces derniers qui sont désormais les plus dynamiques et les plus contestataires des partis ...

  10. Évolution des partis politiques dans le monde arabe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orient et en Afrique du Nord subir diverses mutations. Le soutien dont bénéficiaient les partis nationalistes a diminué au profit des partis islamistes. Ce sont ces derniers qui sont désormais les plus dynamiques et les plus contestataires des partis ...

  11. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... Environmental protection, Composite wood products, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping, Third-party...

  12. Party policy position of Die Linke. A continuation of the PDS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Plassa, R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the German party Die Linke emerged as the result of the PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism; the successor of the Communist Party) merging with the WASG (Wahlalternative Arbeit und Soziale Gerechtigkeit; a break away left wing of the Social Democrats). This article compares the policy

  13. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, S.; Krouwel, A.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the ‘Green’ family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  14. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Krouwel, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the Green' family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  15. 78 FR 23545 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Registration Form AGENCY... evaluate whether third party conformity assessment bodies meet the requirements to test for compliance to specified children's product safety rules. Third party conformity assessment bodies found to meet the...

  16. Third-party brachytherapy source calibrations and physicist responsibilities: Report of the AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Wayne M.; Bice, William S. Jr.; DeWerd, Larry A.; Hevezi, James M.; Huq, M. Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rivard, Mark J.; Seuntjens, Jan P.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group was formed to investigate and recommend quality control and quality assurance procedures for brachytherapy sources prior to clinical use. Compiling and clarifying recommendations established by previous AAPM Task Groups 40, 56, and 64 were among the working group's charges, which also included the role of third-party handlers to perform loading and assay of sources. This document presents the findings of the working group on the responsibilities of the institutional medical physicist and a clarification of the existing AAPM recommendations in the assay of brachytherapy sources. Responsibility for the performance and attestation of source assays rests with the institutional medical physicist, who must use calibration equipment appropriate for each source type used at the institution. Such equipment and calibration procedures shall ensure secondary traceability to a national standard. For each multi-source implant, 10% of the sources or ten sources, whichever is greater, are to be assayed. Procedures for presterilized source packaging are outlined. The mean source strength of the assayed sources must agree with the manufacturer's stated strength to within 3%, or action must be taken to resolve the difference. Third party assays do not absolve the institutional physicist from the responsibility to perform the institutional measurement and attest to the strength of the implanted sources. The AAPM leaves it to the discretion of the institutional medical physicist whether the manufacturer's or institutional physicist's measured value should be used in performing dosimetry calculations

  17. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  18. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  19. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity.

  20. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  2. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  3. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  4. Integration between manufacturers and third party logistics providers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, Olga W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent of the integration between manufacturers and third party logistics (TPL) providers at present and how the integration is expected to develop in the near future. The focus is on studying what tasks are part of the cooperation, what...... of the eight business processes studied. Further integration in the same processes is expected, based on ICT tools and with a focus on cost. ICT competences are primarily seen as a qualifier not a differentiator. Because the future TPL industry is expected to be characterised by more standardised services...

  5. Conservative Party Modernisation and David Cameron's Politics of the Family

    OpenAIRE

    Hayton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of David Cameron's electoral appeal is his carefully cultivated image as a ‘family man’. Cameron has repeatedly stressed the importance of the family to his political views and stated his desire to see marriage rewarded through the tax system. At the same time, Cameron has presented himself as a modernising leader, keen to demonstrate that he and his party are in touch with contemporary society. Central to this effort to detoxify the Conservative brand has been an emphasis on so...

  6. Party Finances: Between Dependence on the State and Its Embezzlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Matiuța

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the financial behavior of political parties in Romania and the revenues collected in recent years, on the basis of available official data, as well as the practices of embezzling public money and using state resources for electoral purposes, by referring to several corruption scandals related to their funding. It suggests that, as laws became clearer and more restrictive, the methods of those engaged in corrupt practices seem to be refined as well and that a coherent legal framework along with the firm punishment of those guilty of violating laws could lessen the scourge of corruption.

  7. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality......This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....

  8. Establishment of the PIN within the Colombian party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ortiz López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the legislative elections held in Colombia in 2010 and one of their main results, the establishment of the National Integration Party (PIN. The authors offer an analysis of articles that appeared in printed media, taking into consideration such variables as financing, legal constitution, popular acceptance and settling time. In this way, the authors attempt to demonstrate how the PIN managed to get a place in the political system and what are the consequences of this development, in particular, as the Department of Valle del Cauca is concerned.

  9. When Two of the Same Are Needed: A Multilevel Model of Intragroup Ethnic Party Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    diversification of minority groups. In states with multiple levels of governments, intra-ethnic rival parties emerge if minorities are local majorities in certain regions. Intra-ethnic party competition is limited, however, through the national electoral system, and especially high legal thresholds can restrict......Parties of ethno-regional minorities have been created in a large number of ethnically diverse countries, but sometimes one such party is not enough. While previous work has investigated the consequences of intragroup party competition, this study looks at the causes of internal political...

  10. Political parties and the EU in national election campaigns: who talks about Europe, and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senninger, Roman; Wagner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    addressed as well as their framing. We argue that issue-based strategies and government participation may provide important reasons why parties only mobilize selectively on EU issues. We test our expectations using data from party press releases in Austrian general election campaigns in 2008 and 2013. We......This paper examines political party mobilization on European Union issues during national election campaigns. We consider which actors talk about the EU, specifically which parties and which actors within parties, as well as how these actors talk about the EU, specifically the types of EU issues...

  11. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  12. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  13. Two-party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, W P; Evans, P G; Lawrie, B; Legré, M; Lougovski, P; Ray, W; Williams, B P; Qi, B; Smith, A M

    2015-03-23

    We present and demonstrate a novel protocol for distributing secret keys between two and only two parties based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS). We demonstrate our new protocol with N = 3 parties using phase-encoded photons. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. Our implementation allows for an accessible transition between N-party QSS and arbitrary two party QKD without modification of hardware. In addition, our approach significantly reduces the number of resources such as single photon detectors, lasers and dark fiber connections needed to implement QKD.

  14. Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Shaw, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. [Modeling polarimetric BRDF of leaves surfaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-Hui; Wang, Pei-Juan; Zhu, Qi-Jiang; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to model a physical polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (pBRDF), which can character not only the non-Lambertian but also the polarized features in order that the pBRDF can be applied to analyze the relationship between the degree of polarization and the physiological and biochemical parameters of leaves quantitatively later. Firstly, the bidirectional polarized reflectance distributions from several leaves surfaces were measured by the polarized goniometer developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The samples of leaves include two pieces of zea mays L. leaves (young leaf and mature leaf) and a piece of E. palcherrima wild leaf. Non-Lambertian characteristics of directional reflectance from the surfaces of these three leaves are obvious. A Cook-Torrance model was modified by coupling the polarized Fresnel equations to simulate the bidirectional polarized reflectance properties of leaves surfaces. The three parameters in the modified pBRDF model, such as diffuse reflectivity, refractive index and roughness of leaf surface were inversed with genetic algorithm (GA). It was found that the pBRDF model can fit with the measured data well. In addition, these parameters in the model are related with both the physiological and biochemical properties and the polarized characteristics of leaves, therefore it is possible to build the relationships between them later.

  16. Analysis of Construction Accidents in Turkey and Responsible Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜRCANLI, G. Emre; MÜNGEN, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world’s biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972–2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00–12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  17. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, John C. [Tourgee and Associates Inc., 11459 Cronhill Drive, Suite A, Owings Mills, MD 21117 (United States)]. E-mail: jbirkmire@taiengineering.com; Lay, James R. [5644 High Tor Hill, Columbia, MD 21045 (United States)]. E-mail: jim.lay21045@gmail.com; McMahon, Mona C. [General Physics Corporation, 6095 Marshalee Drive, Suite 300, Elkridge, MD 21075 (United States)]. E-mail: mmcmahon@gpworldwide.com

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  18. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  19. Affective Media, Cyberlibertarianism and the New Zealand Internet Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jutel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand Internet Party tested key notions of affective media politics. Embracing techno-solutionism and the hacker politics of disruption, Kim Dotcom’s party attempted to mobilize the digital natives through an irreverent politics of lulz. While an electoral failure the party’s political discourse offers insights into affective media ontology. The social character of affective media creates the political conditions for an antagonistic political discourse. In this case affective identification in the master signifier “The Internet” creates a community of enjoyment threatened by the enemy of state surveillance as an agent of rapacious jouissance. The Internet Party’s politics of lulz was cast as a left-wing techno-fix to democracy, but this rhetoric belied a politics of cyberlibertarianism. Dotcom’s political intervention attempted to conflate his private interests as a battle that elevates him to the status of cyberlibertarian super-hero in the mold of Edward Snowden or Julian Assange.

  20. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkmire, John C.; Lay, James R.; McMahon, Mona C.

    2007-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally

  1. Party Political Panthers: Hegemonic Tamil Politics and the Dalit Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gorringe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi (VCK, Liberation Panther Party has successfully transformed from the largest Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu into a recognised political organisation. Social movement theorists like Gamson (1990 view political recognition and engagement as one of the main aims and successes of social mobilisation. Despite the obvious achievements of the VCK, however, activists and commentators express disappointment or disillusionment with its performance. The Panthers clearly reject the caste hierarchy, but they increasingly adopt hegemonic forms of politics which can undermine their aims. This paper, thus, engages with the questions of movement institutionalisation by tracing the political trajectory of the VCK and charting its resistance to and compliance with Dravidian hegemony. It argues that institutionalisation needs to be understood within particular socio-political contexts and notes how the hegemony of Dravidian politics partly explains the disjuncture between activist and political perceptions. It portrays how the dominant political parties have set the template for what it means to ‘do’ politics in Tamil Nadu which serves as both an opportunity and a constraint for potential challengers.

  2. Analysis of construction accidents in Turkey and responsible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcanli, G Emre; Müngen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world's biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972-2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00-12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases.

  3. Golkar Party's Political Communications the New Paradigm Bakrie Leadership 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin Muchtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study base on the efforts of the Golkar Party's to the process of interpretation, socialization, and implementation of the new paradigm, the paradigm guide to reformations Golkar Party's become to democratic, independent, solid, strong, foundamental, and responsive. How Golkar party's political communication about socialization and implementation of a new paradigm of Golkar Party's leadership Aburizal Bakrie-year period from 2009 to 2012.The aim of this research is to study and overview of the process of socialization and implementation new paradigm Golkar Party's of the Aburizal Bakrie’s leadership. This contect described to using constructivist paradigm through the theory of Performance of Communication and Structuration. Research using the case study method. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The data also collected from informants. The results of this research show: 1 The Golkar Party's has a very significant infrastructure, so the making easier to socialization new paradigm to internal party, but Golkar Party's can not erase stigma society as the New Order party. Socializing new paradigm Golkar Party's to be done in integrated, systematic and continuous addressed to all cadres of various levels from the center to the village. 2 the new paradigm Golkar Party's ideals as the basis and foundation values stand for the Golkar Party's, the implementation is faced with the reality of the condition of the various political considerations and the interests of power, so it can not shown the Golkar Party's political communication with the direction of the reality, Golkar Party's must be have to political communication with the role of multi faces.

  4. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF among working women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Results: Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Conclusion: Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months.

  6. Maternity and family leave policies in rural family practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguy, S; Crouse, B J

    1998-09-01

    To help recruit and retain physicians, especially women, rural family practice groups need to establish policies regarding maternity and other family leaves. Also important are policies regarding paternity leave, adoptive leave, and leave to care for elderly parents. We surveyed members of the American Academy of Family Physicians in rural practice in 1995 to assess the prevalence of leave policies, the degree to which physicians are taking family leave, and the characteristics of ideal policies. Currently, both men and women physicians are taking family leaves of absence, which indicates a need for leave policies. Furthermore, a lack of family leave policies may deter women from entering rural practice.

  7. Labour Supply Responses to Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers' take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  8. Late adolescents' conceptualizations of home-leaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D; Hotch, D F

    1981-02-01

    Separation from the family, a key developmental task, has received scant attention from developmentalists. In this study, college students' dissimilarity ratings and ratings on 22 bipolar adjective scales were obtained for a set of 20 definitions of home-leaving. Results of a cluster analysis revealed that conceptualizations of the definitions are organized in terms of eight clusters. Ratings on the 22 adjective scales provided an empirical means for interpreting the typological structure of the home-leaving definitions. Convergence the results of this inductive study of home-leaving and elements of ego development theory was noted.

  9. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  10. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    involved’ perform better during the early years than their peers with less involved fathers. This paper analyses data of four OECD countries — Australia; Denmark; United Kingdom; United States — to describe how leave policies may influence father’s behaviours when children are young and whether...... their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...

  11. 78 FR 8833 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... creates a new qualifying exigency leave category for parental care. In military caregiver leave, the Final... covered employers to take job- protected, unpaid leave, or to substitute appropriate accrued paid leave... CFR Part 825 The Family and Medical Leave Act; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 25...

  12. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... employing agency may not be sufficient to meet the needs of the leave recipient; or (3) In the judgment of... specified leave recipient. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, annual leave may be transferred only to a leave recipient employed by the leave donor's employing agency. (b) Except as provided...

  13. La politique internationale du Parti des Travailleurs: de la fondation du parti à diplomatie du gouvernement Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analiza el discurso y las posiciones en política internacional del Partido de los Trabajadores y de Luiz Inácio Lula de la Silva, desde la fundación del Partido y a través de las campañas presidenciales a partir de 1989, hasta las elecciones victoriosas de 2002, poniendo el acento en su evolución gradual. Presentación y discurso son las principales cuestiones de política exterior, y comprenden desde el dominio económico hasta el rol de la diplomacia presidencial._______________________ABSTRACT:Historical and analytical evaluation of the Brazilian Workers'' Party (PT views in matters dealing with Brazil''s international relations positions and foreign affairs practices. Particular emphasis is given to the declarations made by Luiz Inácio Lula de la Silva over the four presidential campaigns since 1989, until his coming to power in 2002. Stressing the gradual evolution in those matters of both the Party and its leader towards more ''realistic'' approaches, the article also presents and discusses some of the main issues of Brazil''s foreign affairs agenda, particularly in its economic aspects (multilateral and hemispheric trade negotiations and the role of the presidential diplomacy.  

  14. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  15. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  16. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... needs of individual emergency leave recipients, an employing agency may allow an employee to receive... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel... recipient. An emergency leave recipient may receive a maximum of 240 hours of donated annual leave at any...

  17. Creating A Nationwide Nonpartisan Initiative for Family Caregivers in Political Party Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Ben; Lynn, Joanne; Walker, Victoria; Morgan, Les; Montgomery, Anne; Blair, Elizabeth; Baird, Davis; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Kirschenbaum, Naomi

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers have been slow to support family caregivers, and political agendas mostly fail to address the cost burdens, impact on employment and productivity, and other challenges in taking on long-term care tasks. This project set out to raise policymakers' awareness of family caregivers through proposals to Republican and Democratic party platforms during the 2016 political season. The Family Caregiver Platform Project (FCPP) reviewed the state party platform submission process for Democratic and Republican parties in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We built a website to make each process understandable by caregiver advocates. We designed model submissions to help volunteers tailor a proposal and recruited caregiver advocates participating in their state process. Finally, we mobilized a ground operation in many states and followed the progress of submissions in each state, as well as the formation of the national platforms. In 39 states, at least one party, Republican or Democrat, hosted a state party platform process. As of September 2016 FCPP volunteers submitted proposals to 29 state parties in 22 states. Family caregiver language was added to eight state party platforms, one state party resolution, two bipartisan legislative resolutions, and one national party platform. The FCPP generated a non-partisan grassroots effort to educate and motivate policymakers to address caregiving issues and solutions. Democratic party leaders provided more opportunities to connect with political leaders, with seven Democratic parties and one Republican party, addressing family caregiver issues in their party platforms. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from th...

  19. Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason F.; Thunström, Linda

    Do parents leave a smaller carbon footprint? While becoming a parent is transformational as one focuses more on the future, the time constraints are more binding right now. Using a unique data set that allows us to compare CO2 emissions from Swedish two-adult households with and without children......, we find becoming a Swedish parent causes a person to leave a larger carbon ootprint—due to changes in transportation patterns and food consumption choices....

  20. Intra-Household Allocation of Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbi, Paula Eugenia; Parys, Juliane; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    We introduce childcare sharing in a collective model of household behavior to investigate which factors make spouses increase or decrease their share of parental leave. The concern about future consumption motivates parents to invest in their human capital and to limit their leave duration. Using relative income and the age difference between spouses as distribution factors, we cannot reject Pareto efficiency in childcare sharing. Higher relative incomes and larger age differences shift the c...

  1. Properties of leaves particleboard for sheathing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryawan, Arif; Rahmawaty

    2018-03-01

    Manufacturing particleboard (PB) made of leaves was carried out to make non-structural building components, such as insulation, partition, wall, and sheathing. Raw materials used dry leaves originated from plantation (palm oil leaves) and forest plantation (magahony leaves). The adhesive used was interior type thermosetting commercial resins, namely 10% urea-formaldehyde (UF) based on oven dry leaves. Hardener used for UF resin was 1% and 3% ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) 20% (w/w), respectively. Technically, the target density of PB was 0.8 g/cm3 with the dimension’s size of (250 x 250 x 10) mm3. The pressure, temperature, and time of pressing of the hot press were 25 kgf/cm2, 120C, and 10 minutes, respectively. After conditioning for one week, the PB then was evaluated their physical and mechanical properties according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) A 5908 (2003). Results of this work showed: 1) Both types of PB (palm oil and mahagony leaves) were feasible to be produced for non-structural applications; 2) Addition of hardener enhanced the physical and mechanical properties of PB; 3) It was recommended to enhance the performance of the PB by manipulation of the raw materials and the design.

  2. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  3. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  4. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  5. Efficient Solutions to Two-Party and Multiparty Millionaires’ Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The millionaires’ problem is the basis of secure multiparty computation and has many applications. Using a vectorization method and the Paillier encryption scheme, we first propose a secure two-party solution to the millionaires’ problem, which can determine x=y,  xy in one execution. Subsequently, using the vectorization and secret splitting methods, we propose an information-theoretically secure protocol to solve the multiparty millionaires’ problem (a.k.a. secure sorting problem, and this protocol can resist collusion attacks. We analyze the accuracy and security of our protocols in the semihonest model and compare the computational and communication complexities between the proposed protocols and the existing ones.

  6. The rights of avoidance of third parties and 'protection laws'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, E.

    1981-01-01

    After having given an account of the rights of avoidance of third parties and their foundation in the law the author cites an atypical example of a right of avoidance, i.e. the corporation suit in the environmental protection law in the German Laender Bremen and Hesse. The corporations can only denounce the violation of the environmental protection law. These regulations constitute the protection law, namely in favour of the interests of nature protection, i.e. public interests. It is natural that the corporation has only be concerned an independent right of conducting a case. The (altruistic) corporation suit is therefore a complaint suit aiming at administration control and not a means of an individual legal protection. (HSCH) [de

  7. Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal

    2001-09-01

    Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.

  8. A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tang; Y. Wang; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; W. Hao; X. Ning; K. Lv; Z. Shi; M. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which ar...

  9. A novel quantum solution to secure two-party distance computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen-wan; Shi, Run-hua; Wang, Pan-hong; Zhang, Shun

    2018-06-01

    Secure Two-Party Distance Computation is an important primitive of Secure Multiparty Computational Geometry that it involves two parties, where each party has a private point, and the two parties want to jointly compute the distance between their points without revealing anything about their respective private information. Secure Two-Party Distance Computation has very important and potential applications in settings of high secure requirements, such as privacy-preserving Determination of Spatial Location-Relation, Determination of Polygons Similarity, and so on. In this paper, we present a quantum protocol for Secure Two-Party Distance Computation by using QKD-based Quantum Private Query. The security of the protocol is based on the physical principles of quantum mechanics, instead of difficulty assumptions, and therefore, it can ensure higher security than the classical related protocols.

  10. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants. PMID:29046613

  11. Candidate nomination, intra-party democracy, and election violence in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Merete Bech; Wahman, Michael; Skaaning, Svend-Erik

    2018-01-01

    . When local-level or national-level competition between parties is low, as in much of Africa, electoral politics become a matter of intra-party rather than inter-party competition. Nominations are a part of the electoral process often left to the discretion of poorly institutionalized parties, free......This article introduces a special issue on candidate nomination, intra-party democracy, and election violence in Africa. Although a burgeoning literature on African democratization has focused on the topic of electoral violence, little attention has been given to violence during party nominations...... of the involvement of electoral management bodies and external monitors, and violence often results. Rather than developing an elaborate theoretical framework on the causes of nomination violence, our ambition in this introduction is to introduce the concept of nomination violence and situate it in the literatures...

  12. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters’ likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters’ party ambivalence.

  13. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters' likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters' party ambivalence.

  14. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants.

  15. Secure multi-party quantum summation based on quantum Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Yi; Ye, Tian-Yu

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel secure multi-party quantum summation protocol based on quantum Fourier transform, where the traveling particles are transmitted in a tree-type mode. The party who prepares the initial quantum states is assumed to be semi-honest, which means that she may misbehave on her own but will not conspire with anyone. The proposed protocol can resist both the outside attacks and the participant attacks. Especially, one party cannot obtain other parties' private integer strings; and it is secure for the colluding attack performed by at most n - 2 parties, where n is the number of parties. In addition, the proposed protocol calculates the addition of modulo d and implements the calculation of addition in a secret-by-secret way rather than a bit-by-bit way.

  16. FORMATION OF THE ENTITY'S ACCOUNTING POLICIES WITH REGARD TO RELATED PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article solved the problem concerning the development and practical application of accounting policies with regards to related parties. One element of the company’s accounting policies is to establish the principles of classification of related parties and their list considering materiality relations. In addition, the company must determine its related entities for the purposes of transfer pricing. Based the criteria definition and classification of related parties, proposed that the significance of the impact of one party to another based on the content of operations, their volume, the results and how such operations significantly affect the financial, investment and commercial activities. Only an analysis of all the factors together contribute to reliable estimates list of related parties. The critical analysis are made of methods for determining transfer prices for transactions, designed piece order of accounting policies, which reflected information about related parties.

  17. Mauritania: an authoritarian regime and the reconfiguration of the party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ojeda García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation raises the question of whether Mauritania should be considered an authoritarian regime. The explanatory variable used is not the only factor, but in Mauritania’s case it is one that has been given little attention. It is an analysis of the party system and its level of institutionalisation through five indicators: the social rooting of the parties; personalism and the profile of the leader; the level of volatility; the calling and participation of the opposition parties in the boycott of the elections and the ultimate acceptance by those parties of their results. It starts from the premise that representative democracy is built on a party political structure and draws conclusions about the low level of institutionalisation of the party system and the authoritarianism of the Mauritanian regime.

  18. Assessing the Influence of Political Parties on Public Opinion: The Challenge from Pretreatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slothuus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Despite generations of research, political scientists have trouble pinpointing the influence of political parties on public opinion. Recently, scholars have made headway in exploring whether parties in fact shape policy preferences by relying on experimental designs. Yet, the evidence from...... this work is mixed. I argue that the typical experiment faces a design problem that likely minimizes the extent to which parties apparently matter. Because parties have policy reputations, experimental participants may already know from real-world exposure to political debate where the parties stand before...... they are told in the experiment—they are “pretreated.” This study investigates how real-world political context interferes with party cue stimulus in experiments. In two experiments I show that two types of “pretreatment” from outside the experiment—exposure-based and reputation-based—dramatically moderate...

  19. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  20. Vote Buying or Campaign Promises? Electoral Strategies When Party Credibility is Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip; Vlaicu, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    What explains significant variation across countries in the use of vote buying instead of campaign promises to secure voter support? This paper explicitly models the tradeoff parties face between engaging in vote buying and making campaign promises, and explores the distributional consequences of this decision, in a setting where party credibility can vary. When parties are less credible they spend more on vote buying and target vote buying more heavily toward groups that do not believe campa...

  1. The role of the party leadership to activization the political process of modern Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Morar

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the conceptual position of the party leadership as a factor in activation processes of political transformation in societies. The place of the party leaders in the political processes in Ukraine, which belongs to the transitional societies. It is proved that the main factor determining the place and role of party leaders in the political processes of transformation of societies dynamics. Where society is experiencing political transformation implemented constitutional...

  2. Competitive and Cooperative Degree in Supply Chain: Supplier Selection between Competitors and Third-Party Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xianjia; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Part 5: Modelling and Simulation; International audience; This work explores the firm’s supplier selection question that the competitor firm and the third-party supplier can supply the substitutable component. We consider a supply chain with two competing original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and two third-party suppliers. The two OEMs produce the competing products which are comprised by two main components. Each OEM only can produce one component in-house and each third-party supplier onl...

  3. Crescent and Electoral Strength: Islamic Party Portrait of Reform Era In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILI ROMLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of Islamic political parties in the reform era in Indonesia after the fall of Suharto (1998, considered as resurgence of political stream. There are several factors that led to the revival of Islamic parties after the New Order, the theological factor, historical, sociological, and reform factor. The presence of Islamic political parties after the New Order was apparently diverse and fragmented. In the political elite of Islam itself in establishing a political party based on Islam and there is also based on nationality, and in establishing political party was using substantially approach and there is also that use formalistic approach. In the reform era elections, political Islam has failed, in which Islamic parties do not receive optimal support from voters Islam. The failure of Islamic parties in election of reform era is caused of factor among Muslims has been change the orientation of political views. Islamic parties in the reform era stuck in a political myth quantity, and Islamic parties are also fragmented and fractured in to small forces.

  4. Information Technology & Applications Corporation v. United States: An Interested Party's "Substantial Chance" at APA Standing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slicker, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .... Building on CICA's "interested party" definition with Information Technology's refinement of "substantial chance" rule, the Federal Circuit has effectively translated "APA standing" into the language...

  5. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-02

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  6. Measuring party nationalisation: A new Gini-based indicator that corrects for the number of units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The study of the territorial distribution of votes in elections has become an important field of the political party research in recent years. Quantitative studies on the homogeneity of votes and turnout employ different indicators of territorial variance, but despite important progresses...... in measurement, many of them are sensitive to size and number of political parties or electoral districts. This article proposes a new 'standardised party nationalisation score', which is based on the Gini coefficient of inequalities in distribution. Different from previous indicators, the standardised party...

  7. Social Movements and New Forms of Political Organization: Podemos as a Hybrid Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chironi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the restructuring of the party systems in several European countries was accompanied or preceded by massive waves of anti-austerity protests. Although the causal relation between these mobilizations and the rise of new parties has already been assessed, the organizational features remain understudied. To fill this gap, here we analyse the impact of the cycle of anti-austerity and pro-real democracy protests which emerged in 2011 with the birth and organizational development of the Spanish party Podemos. Bridging two subfields of social and political sciences—movement studies and party studies—we pay particular attention to the dichotomy between horizontality and verticality within Podemos' organization. In particular, we address the issues of social movement effects as well as party foundation and organizational development. Our main findings suggest that movement mobilization played a large role in shaping Podemos' foundational choices, particularly with reference to the fundamental principles of the party and its strategic positioning. Podemos is also experimenting new democratic methods internally. Nonetheless, empirical analysis shows that, overall, the influence of movements' organizational models on the organizational structure of the party has been limited. Yet, the result is a “hybrid” party that finds a balance between the horizontalism of social movements and the efficiency of parties.

  8. From Party Systems to Party Organizations: The Adaptation of Latin American Parties to Changing Environments De sistemas partidarios a la organización partidaria. La adaptación de partidos latinoamericanos a ambientes cambiantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wills-Otero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review Article:Alcántara Sáez, Manuel (ed. (2008, Politicians and Politics in Latin America, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Greene, Kenneth F. (2007, Why Dominant Parties Lose. Mexico’s Democratization in Comparative Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press. Levitsky, Steven (2003, Transforming Labor-based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press. The study of party systems and political parties is one of the largest subfields in political science. Classic studies in advanced democracies focused primarily on party systems and developed theories about the causes and consequences of different types of systems. In recent years, new academic work begun to differentiate parties within systems by understanding their organizational structure, their internal dynamics, the different ways in which they interact with their constituencies, and the strategies that they use to attract voters. Studies show that parties within the same system behave and react differently given their internal conditions. This article reviews three scholarly books that deal with this issue. The works analyze the internal dynamics of Latin American political parties and their capacity to respond and adapt their structures when environmental challenges take place. Review Article:Alcántara Sáez, Manuel (ed. (2008, Politicians and Politics in Latin America, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Greene, Kenneth F. (2007, Why Dominant Parties Lose. Mexico���s Democratization in Comparative Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press. Levitsky, Steven (2003, Transforming Labor-based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press. El estudio de los sistemas de partidos y partidos políticos es una de las áreas más amplias en la ciencia política. Trabajos clásicos llevados a cabo en democracias avanzadas, enfocaron su atenci

  9. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn this exploratory study, we profile variations in home leaving, homereturning,and home staying behaviour among four ethnocultural groups in Canada -British, Chinese, Indian, and South European. Data collected in a 1999-2000survey of 1,907 young adults (ages 19-35 residing in the Vancouver area areused. Our principal foci are ethnocultural and gendered aspects of home leavingtrajectories, specifically: ages at home leaving and returning, and reasons forhome leaving, home returning and home staying. Special attention is paid toreturners/boomerangers, given an increasing overall trend in home returning inCanada. We find that: (a both ethnocultural origin and gender are importantdeterminants of home leaving trajectory, (b there is a distinct (but far from tidydifference between European-origin and Asian-origin groups in home leavingtrajectory, (c British-Canadians leave home at the youngest ages and Indo-Canadians at the oldest ages, (d the main reason for home leaving isindependence for British-Canadians; schooling for Chinese-Canadians, andmarriage for Indo-Canadians, (e among all four groups, home returners leavehome initially at younger ages and, with the exception of Indo-Canadian youngmen, who typically leave home for school, and (f gender differences in homeleaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than amongpersons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of theindividualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups inCanada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on thetopic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.FrenchDans cette étude préliminaire, nous donnons le profil de plusieurscomportements relatifs au fait de quitter la maison, d’y retourner et d’y rester dequatre groupes ethnoculturels au Canada, notamment les Britanniques, lesChinois, les Indiens et les ressortissants du sud de l’Europe. On s’est servi

  10. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  11. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  12. Immigration politics Italian style: the paradoxical behaviour of mainstream and populist parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, T

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the role of electoral politics in managing immigration as a policy option in Italy. Italy was late in passing its first comprehensive immigration legislation (1990). A small, liberal party waged a campaign against the proposed immigration law. A party known for right-wing posturing did not mobilize against the law. These political postures were not anticipated by conventional wisdom. Conventional wisdom suggests that immigration should not be an electoral issue and that consensus solutions should be sought. It is argued that the Italian response supports the view that in a fragmented, multi-party system, minor parties will be more likely to mobilize. Two mass media studies were used as the basis for this article's analysis. The studies provide detailed evidence on party willingness to publicly discuss immigration and the ways the issues are framed. The Italian case illustrates the tendency for mainstream, pro-system parties to politicize the issue and extremist, anti-system parties to depoliticize it. The DC and PCI, as mass parties, behaved traditionally and supported moderately open immigration policies, but in closed forums. The minor parties had a stake in shifting electoral support, so the PSI took an outspoken stand and the PARI publicized its exclusion from the policy-making process and its support for more restrictive policies. It was the constituencies and the leadership structure that facilitated these strategies. The author differs from Betz's party analysis by arguing that party ideology may not be a useful guide for predicting stands on immigration, and that it is difficult to generalize about immigration.

  13. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-11-19

    This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. The sample included 58 young people aged 17-23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings--primarily during weekend social occasions--particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions.

  14. The dewetting properties of lotus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Sheng, Xianliang; Jiang, Lei

    2009-02-03

    The high dewetting abilities of lotus leaves can be transited to a complete wetting state by soaking the leaves in water at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. However, after being dried by N2 gas, the high dewetting behavior of lotus leaves may be mostly restored. This indicates that experimental procedure might considerably affect the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves. To discover the mechanism underlying this interesting dewetting phenomena, the dewetting force was used to characterize the dewetting abilities of surfaces, and model studies to mimic the papillae were done. Surface hydrophobicity, sizes, rise angles, and secondary structures of the models' sides affected their dewetting force with water. So we suggested that the dewetting states, Cassie or Wenzel's state, of lotus surfaces depend much on the depth of water, i.e., the hydraulic pressure. On the other hand, the primary structures of papillae in Cassie's state led to a high receding angle with respect to the plane of the leaf during the dewetting measurement. The secondary structures and micro/nano arrays of papillae increased the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves, since no water intruded between papillae. However, the structures of papillae in Wenzle's state significantly reduced the dewetting abilities of lotus leaves after being soaked at a depth of 50 cm for 2 h. Therefore, as for novel designs of microdevices floating on water, including the use of the high dewetting properties of suphydrophobic materials, surface (primary or secondary) microstructure and external pressure, such as static hydraulic pressure, must be taken into account.

  15. Maternal Employment Effects of Paid Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Bergemann, Annette; Riphahn, Regina T.

    2015-01-01

    We study the short, medium, and longer run employment effects of a substantial change in the parental leave benefit program in Germany. In 2007, a means-tested parental leave transfer program that had paid benefits for up to two years was replaced by an earnings related transfer which paid benefits for up to one year. The reform generated winners and losers with heterogeneous response incentives. We find that the reform speeds up the labor market return of both groups of mothers after benefit...

  16. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  17. Preparing Apigenin from Leaves of Adinandra nitida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxiang Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Adinandra nitida were used as raw material, and a new industrially significant method of preparing apigenin was established by hydrolyzing a water extract and recrystallizing it with ethanol in order to obtain a new source for the production of this flavone. A yield of about 2.5 % (dry mass was obtained with the purity of 93.05 %, determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, the main flavonoids in leaves of Adinandra nitida and the product after acid hydrolysis were identified as camellianin A and apigenin, respectively, by ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV/VIS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS.

  18. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing one...

  19. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the birth of...

  20. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...; and extends FMLA military caregiver leave to family members of certain veterans with serious injuries... Medical Leave Act of 1993, Final Rule on November 17, 2008 (2008 final rule). 73 FR 67934. A. What the... covered servicemember (referred to as ``military caregiver leave''). These two leave entitlements are...

  1. Robust Optimization of Fourth Party Logistics Network Design under Disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fourth Party Logistics (4PL network faces disruptions of various sorts under the dynamic and complex environment. In order to explore the robustness of the network, the 4PL network design with consideration of random disruptions is studied. The purpose of the research is to construct a 4PL network that can provide satisfactory service to customers at a lower cost when disruptions strike. Based on the definition of β-robustness, a robust optimization model of 4PL network design under disruptions is established. Based on the NP-hard characteristic of the problem, the artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA and the genetic algorithm (GA are developed. The effectiveness of the algorithms is tested and compared by simulation examples. By comparing the optimal solutions of the 4PL network for different robustness level, it is indicated that the robust optimization model can evade the market risks effectively and save the cost in the maximum limit when it is applied to 4PL network design.

  2. Sex, Attractiveness, and Third-Party Punishment in Fairness Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual. PMID:24709987

  3. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is fundamental in marketing strategy and the first step of market-based strategy preparation, to strengthen its marketing efficiency, and creating opportunities for sales growth and profits. This also applies to market segmentation logistics service providers (TPL - Third Party Logistics, the market is highly developed in the last decade, so that the logistics service providers has to develop marketing strategies properly. The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of different industries that exist today and map the needs of the logistics services of TPL customers. Based on exploration research conducted, it can be found in conformities relating to the logistics industry from several companies, ie appropriateness to the complexity of logistics activities of some companies and degree of investment of TPL services company in conducting the activity. Logistics service provider market segmentation can be based on variable complexity of logistics activities, whether it is high, medium or low and variable degrees of investment in the company whether minor, major, or integrated/total. Companies in different industries can have the same logistic service requirements and companies in the same industry can have different logistic service requirements. Client companies for logistics service providers which product handling are classified as semi-complex is the most attractive customer segments for being penetrated. The industries are classified into this segment is automotive, food and beverage, animal food, ceramic, and plantation. 

  4. Sex, attractiveness, and third-party punishment in fairness consideration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    Full Text Available Social evaluation of others is often influenced by the physical attractiveness of the person being judged, leading to either a beauty premium or penalty depending on the circumstances. Here we asked Chinese participants to act as an interest-free third party in a dictator game and to evaluate the fairness level of monetary allocation by attractive and less attractive proposers of the same or opposite sex. We also instructed participants to express their willingness to punish the proposers by using a visual analogue scale. Results confirmed that the reasonableness evaluation was mainly affected by the reasonableness of offers. However, participants' intention to punish the proposers was affected by the level of reasonableness in the asset distribution and by both the sex and attractiveness of the proposers. Overall, male proposers were punished more severely than female proposers. Moreover, the same-sex proposers were punished more severely than opposite-sex proposers when they were physically attractive; this pattern was reversed when the proposers were less physically attractive. These results demonstrate social responses following an individual's unfair asset distribution can be affected by both social norms and the personal characteristics of the individual.

  5. Spain and the Western Sahara: the Political Party Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Vaquer i Fanés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Spanish army’s hasty withdrawal from Western Sahara in 1975, the two main parties since Spain acquired its democracy have differed over what stance should be taken with respect to the Sahara issue. The aim of this article is to establish to what extentthis is the result of the opposing government/opposition dynamic and how far it is a result of the parties’ own stances, by analysing the evolution of their attitudes and approaches with respect to the Sahara issue. The hypothesis is that the Spanish parties’ position with respect to Algeria and Morocco was initially very much determined by their view of the Sahara issue, but that there has been an inversion of this attitude. Thus at present, opposing stances on the Sahara issue are mainly the result of different views on Spain’s interests in the Maghreb region and, above all, of different ideas about which country Morocco or Algeria should benefit most from bilateral relations.

  6. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators.

  7. Developments in international convention on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2000-01-01

    A few years after the adoption of a Protocol to amend the world-wide Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a new ''global'' Convention on the Supplementary Compensation of Nuclear Damage (September 1997), the countries which are party to the Western Europe based Paris and Brussels Conventions are working on the revision of these instruments within the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The objective of this exercise is not only to preserve the compatibility of the Paris and Vienna provisions, which is now an imperative deriving from the application of the 1988 Joint Protocol linking these two Conventions, but also to substantially improve certain features of this regime such as its technical and geographical scope of application, the facilitation of the rights of victims to defend their claims and, of course, the level of funds effectively available to compensate the damage. This paper reviews briefly the recent evolution of the international nuclear liability regime and discusses some of the challenges which the nuclear countries are facing in this context. (author)

  8. Characterization of ParTI Phoswiches Using Charged Pion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Emily; Zarrella, Andrew; Youngs, Michael; Yennello, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    The Partial Truncated Icosahedron (ParTI) detector array consists of 15 phoswiches. Each phoswich is made of two scintillating components - a thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) crystal and an EJ-212 scintillating plastic - coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Both materials have different scintillation times and are sensitive to both charged and neutral particles. The type of particle and amount of energy deposited determine the shape of the scintillation pulse as a function of time. By integrating the fast and slow signals of the scintillation pulses, a ``Fast vs. Slow Integration'' plot can be created that produces particle identification lines based on the energy deposited in the scintillating materials. Four of these phoswiches were taken to the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland where π + , π-, and proton beams were scattered onto the phoswiches to demonstrate their particle identification (PID) capabilities. Using digitizers to record the detector response waveforms, pions can also be identified by the characteristic decay pulse of the muon daughters.

  9. Healthcare.gov shares personal data with third parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Associated Press, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid's (CMS website, HealthCare.gov, has been sending consumers’ personal data to private companies that specialize in advertising and analyzing Internet data for performance and marketing (1. What information is being disclosed was not immediately clear, but it could include age, income, ZIP code, and smoking status. It could also include a computer’s Internet address, which can identify a person’s name or address when combined with other information collected by sophisticated online marketing or advertising firms. “We deploy tools on the window shopping application that collect basic information to optimize and assess system performance,” said CMS’s Aaron Albright in a statement. “We believe that the use of these tools are common and represent best practices for a typical e-commerce site.” There is no evidence that personal information has been misused. But connections to dozens of third-party tech firms were documented by ...

  10. Imitative Learning from a Third-Party Interaction: Relations with Self-Recognition and Perspective Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Katherine H.; Akhtar, Nameera

    2008-01-01

    Young children's ability to learn something new from a third-party interaction may be related to the ability to imagine themselves in the third-party interaction. This imaginative ability presupposes an understanding of self-other equivalence, which is manifested in an objective understanding of the self and an understanding of others' subjective…

  11. Parliamentary committees in a party-centred context : structure, composition, functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mickler, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Beyond the immediately visible plenum, parliaments are highly complex institutions. They work through various venues in which decisions are prepared or even taken. The two main institutions in this regard are parliamentary party groups, which comprise legislators who are elected under the same party

  12. 31 CFR 19.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? 19.500 Section 19.500 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System...

  13. Ecologies of ideologies : Explaining party entry and exit in European parliaments, 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  14. Ecologies of Ideologies : Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly

  15. Indonesia's 2009 election; Populism, dynasties and the consolidation of the party system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mietzner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The victory of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s Democratic Party in the parliamentary elections on 9 April has important implications for the evolution of the Indonesian party system and its patterns of electoral competition. Most significantly, Yudhoyono’s success was only made possible by an

  16. 7 CFR 1.641 - How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How may parties obtain discovery of information needed for the case? 1.641 Section 1.641 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE... legal theories of an attorney. (g) Experts. Unless restricted by the ALJ, a party may discover any facts...

  17. 43 CFR 30.152 - May the parties to an agreement waive valuation of trust property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valuation of trust property? 30.152 Section 30.152 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the... parties to an agreement waive valuation of trust property? The parties to a settlement agreement or a consolidation agreement may waive valuation of trust property otherwise required by regulation or the Secretary...

  18. 37 CFR 1.99 - Third-party submission in published application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Third-party submission in published application. 1.99 Section 1.99 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Provisions Information Disclosure Statement § 1.99 Third-party submission in published application. (a) A...

  19. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  20. Social democracy : A comparative account of the left-wing party family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keman, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The Social Democratic party family is a central part of political life in the West. This book focuses on this party family as well as a unique political force in the industrialised world. It provides a critical comparative survey of when, where, how and why Social Democracy developed within

  1. Adnan Menderes, Islam and his Conflict with the One-Party Era Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelt, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer og analyserer Tyrkiets systemkamp 1950-1960 mellem den folkevalgte statsminister Adnan Menderes og det kemalistiske etablissement. Menderes var kommet til magten ved en jordskredssejr i maj 1950 og hans parti, Det demokratiske Parti, vandt stort ved de efterfølgende valg i 195...

  2. Images with impact : The electoral consequences of party leader portrayal in the media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, L.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation studies how the media portray party leaders in terms of their character traits, and when and to what extent these mediated leadership images have electoral consequences. The research focusses on the media portrayal of party leaders to establish leader effects, instead of leader

  3. 18 CFR 37.5 - Obligations of Transmission Providers and Responsible Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of Transmission Providers and Responsible Parties. 37.5 Section 37.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.5 Obligations of Transmission Providers and Responsible Parties...

  4. College Students' Willingness to Engage in Bystander Intervention at Off-Campus Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Blake R.; Jakeman, Rick C.

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have attempted to deal with the risks posed by off-campus parties with various efforts, including policies restricting the party environment, efforts to build community coalitions, as well as the creation of targeted education and training programs for students. Perhaps one of the most well-known efforts to address issues…

  5. 28 CFR 513.35 - Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures... and Procedures § 513.35 Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties. Accounting/nonaccounting of disclosures to third parties shall be made in accordance with Department of Justice regulations...

  6. 13 CFR 142.25 - Can a party or witness object to discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discovery? 142.25 Section 142.25 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.25 Can a party or witness object to discovery? Any party or prospective witness may file a motion to quash a subpoena or to limit discovery or the...

  7. Media cues and citizen support for right-wing populist parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheets, P.; Bos, L.; Boomgaarden, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Right-wing populist parties are thriving across Europe. Their success is usually attributed to demand-side voter factors and supply-side factors explaining differences in success between countries and parties, such as the role of the media. This study focuses on the interplay of these factors and

  8. Media cues and citizen support for right-wing populist parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheets, P.; Bos, L.; Boomgaarden, H.

    2013-01-01

    Right-wing populist parties are thriving across Europe. Usual explanations for the success of these parties are based on notions related to economics, national identity or cultural alienation. Some authors, however, have shown that the mass media also play a significant role. Whereas these studies

  9. Third Party Referrals in the Venture Capital Financing Process: Do Network Ties Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, J.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the role of third party referrals in the venture capital funding process. Taking network theory as our theoretical perspective we explore if and how third parties play a role in the funding process. Hereby we focus on both the network ties between new venture teams and

  10. The value of fourth-party logistics services in the humanitarian supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the value of fourth-party logistics (4PL) services in a humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, it shows a framework for a fourth-party humanitarian logistics concept. Design/methodology/approach – The research paper presents a framework of

  11. Policy agendas and births and deaths of political parties : The Dutch Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowery, D.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Peli, G.; Brasher, H.; Otjes, Simon; Gherghina, Sergiu

    The standard model of political party density emphasizing the interaction of social cleavages and district magnitude (M) is incomplete in accounting for number of parties in cases of high values of M in an arbitrary way. We explore an alternative model for such cases emphasizing the slack in the

  12. Searching for the Right Organization: Ideology and Party Structure in East-Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš; Enyedi, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2008), s. 455-477 ISSN 1354-0688 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/07/1395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : party organization * political parties * ideology Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2008

  13. Political Party Songs: Analysis of the Theme in a Song Topo By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was through these songs that followers of different political parties expressed their feelings of sadness, happiness or hope. This paper analyses one song titled Topo by the band named Setlamo which was said to be aligned to Basotho Congress Party. Informed by New Criticism theory, the paper analyses the lyrics in the ...

  14. 77 FR 31073 - Audit Requirements for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 1112 and 1118 Audit Requirements for Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies and Requirements... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1112 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2009-0061] Audit Requirements for Third... rule establishing requirements for the periodic audit of third party conformity assessment bodies as a...

  15. 27 CFR 6.42 - Indirect inducement through third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements... other thing of value by an industry member to a third party, where the benefits resulting from such... value was furnished to a retailer by the third party without the knowledge or intent of the industry...

  16. Enacting Third-Party Certification: A Case Study of Science and Politics in Organic Shrimp Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, Jason; Hatanaka, Maki

    2011-01-01

    As third-party certification has become a prominent governance mechanism, conflicting understandings of it have emerged. Proponents advance third-party certification as a technical and objective governance mechanism, while critics argue that politics and relations of power characterize it. We reject this dichotomization both in terms of how TPC is…

  17. 77 FR 31086 - Requirements Pertaining to Third Party Conformity Assessment Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... 22030 (April 20, 2011). Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Toys: Requirements for... Bodies to Assess Conformity With the Limits on Phthalates in Children's Toys and Child Care Articles, 76... initiatives, including program development for third party testing of children's products. The commenter...

  18. Third party financing of renewable energy sources. Tercera reunion sobre la financiacion de energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects.

  19. Party Animals or Responsible Men: Social Class, Race, and Masculinity on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…

  20. 78 FR 51696 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... INFORMATION CONTACT. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 770 Environmental protection, Composite wood products...