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Sample records for t4 localmente irresecable

  1. t4 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Contreras, Elizabeth Q.; Hartung, Thomas; Hirsch, Cordula; Hogberg, Helena; Jachak, Ashish C.; Jordan, William; Landsiedel, Robert; Morris, Jeffery; Patri, Anil; Pounds, Joel G.; de Vizcaya Ruiz, Andrea; Shvedova, Anna; Tanguay, Robert; Tatarazako, Norihasa; van Vliet, Erwin; Walker, Nigel J.; Wiesner, Mark; Wilcox, Neil; Zurlo, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary In October 2010, a group of experts met as part of the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4) to exchange ideas about the current status and future of safety testing of nanomaterials. At present, there is no widely accepted path forward to assure appropriate and effective hazard identification for engineered nanomaterials. The group discussed needs for characterization of nanomaterials and identified testing protocols that incorporate the use of innovative alternative whole models such as zebrafish or C. elegans, as well as in vitro or alternative methods to examine specific functional pathways and modes of action. The group proposed elements of a potential testing scheme for nanomaterials that works towards an integrated testing strategy, incorporating the goals of the NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy by focusing on pathways of toxic response, and utilizing an evidence-based strategy for developing the knowledge base for safety assessment. Finally, the group recommended that a reliable, open, curated database be developed that interfaces with existing databases to enable sharing of information. PMID:21993959

  2. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  3. An Evaluation of Thyroid Hormones (T4, T3, and Free T4) Concentrations During Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of T 4 , T 3 , and free T 4 were measured by radioimmunoassay in normal pregnant women at trimesters, in postpartum women, and cord blood of neonate. Total T 4 were increased during pregnancy, remarkably high in the first trimester, and also somewhat increased in postpartum, and normal in neonate. Total T 3 were in normal range during pregnancy, but increased in postpartum, whereas decreased in neonate. Free T 4 were decreased in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, however normal in postpartum and neonate.

  4. Factores pronósticos y predictivos de respuesta en pacientes con carcinoma de vejiga localmente avanzado tratados con quimioterapia neoadyuvante

    OpenAIRE

    Céliz, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    La cistectomía radical es el tratamiento de elección en pacientes con carcinoma de vejiga localmente avanzado. Sin embargo, más del 50% de los pacientes presentan recurrencias y fallecen por la enfermedad. La quimioterapia neoadyuvante ha demostrado un beneficio modesto en estos pacientes, más significativo en pacientes con respuesta patológica completa tras el tratamiento. Sin embargo, aun no se ha identificado en que pacientes se obtiene un mayor beneficio. El análisis de genes que particip...

  5. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  6. T4 thyrotoxicosis: an independent disease or the effect of an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, R.M.B.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Russo, E.M.K.; Dib, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Six cases of T 4 thyrotoxicosis were observed in 250 patients with hyperthyroidism. In the 6 episodes, the thyrotoxicosis was associated with severe systemic illness or with the admnistration of propanolol, which blocked the peripheral convertion of T 4 to T 3 . These data indicate that T 4 thyrotoxicosis reflects an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T 4 produced by systemic illness or drugs. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Rapid T4 radioimmunoassay with antibody of Czechoslovak production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechacek, Z [MUNZ, Brno (Czechoslovakia) Div. of Nuclear Nedicine

    1978-06-30

    Rapid T4-RIA based on the T4-antibody produced in Institute of Experimental Endocrinology in Bratislava is described. The used T4-antibody was found as suitable preparation for the routine T4-RIA and is comparable to the foreign materials. T4 antibody was obtained by rabbit immunization and supplied as antiserum in a frozen state. It was properly diluted with 0.08M barbital buffer, pH 8.6, containing 0.a5% sodium ethylmercurythiosalicylate and 0.5% BSA.

  8. Family of autocatalytic group I introns in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shub, D.A.; Xu, M.Q.; Gott, J.M.; Zeeh, A.; Wilson, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of an intron in phage T4 encouraged the authors to look for additional group I introns in the T4 genome. Further examples would permit sequence and structural comparisons that might lend insight into their evolutionary origin. Additionally, they hoped that their locations within the T4 genome would infer a possible regulatory function in prokaryotic gene expression. They took advantage of the fact that, since G is added to the 5' end of the intron, autocatalytic group I introns could be specifically labeled in vitro for use as probes for DNA blotting experiments. If Group I introns were in more than just the td gene, multiple RNA species should be labeled when total RNA is extracted from T4-infected cells and incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP in vitro. When used as a probe for a Southern blot of T4 DNA, this RNA should hybridize to several DNA bands

  9. Re-initiation repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupido, M.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation of bacteriophage T4 with ultraviolet light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers in its DNA. These dimers hamper replication of DNA and, to a lesser extent, transcription of DNA after its infection of bacteria. A number of pathways enable phage T4 to multiply dimer-containing DNA. One of these pathways has been named replication repair and is described in this thesis. The properties of two phage strains, unable to perform replication repair, have been studied to obtain a picture of the repair process. The mutations in these strains that affect replication repair have been located on the genomic map of T4. (Auth.)

  10. Quimioterapia neoadjuvante em câncer localmente avançado do colo do útero Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cancer of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schünemann Jr

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a quimioterapia neoadjuvante no câncer localmente avançado do colo uterino, por meio da sua aceitabilidade, tolerabilidade, toxicidade, taxa de complicações cirúrgicas, taxa de resposta, taxa de operabilidade e sobrevida em 5 anos. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 60 mulheres com câncer do colo uterino localmente avançado (IIB e IIIB, submetidas à quimioterapia neoadjuvante com doxorrubicina-bleomicina-cisplatina. Aquelas que se tornaram operáveis após a quimioterapia foram submetidas à cirurgia de Wertheim-Meigs, seguida de radioterapia pélvica complementar. Nas pacientes em que a cirurgia não foi possível após a quimioterapia, realizou-se radioterapia. RESULTADOS: o seguimento médio foi de 108 meses. A taxa de resposta global à quimioterapia foi de 80%, sendo 100% para o estádio IIB e 60% para o estádio IIIB. A porcentagem de pacientes operadas, após a quimioterapia foi de 65%. A sobrevida global em 5 anos para todo o grupo foi 62%. No grupo operado (n=34, a sobrevida global foi de 82,14%, independentemente do estádio inicial. No grupo não operado (n=18, a sobrevida em 5 anos foi 16,67%. CONCLUSÕES: A quimioterapia neoadjuvante com doxorrubicina-bleomicina-cisplatina no câncer do colo uterino localmente avançado é segura, com baixo índice de complicações e permitiu uma alta taxa de operabilidade.PURPOSE: to evaluate neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer as to its acceptability, tolerability, toxicity, surgical complications, operability, response rate, and overall survival in 5 years. METHODS: sixty women with locally advanced cervical cancer (stages IIB and IIIB, who were submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were included. All patients were treated with doxorubicin-bleomycin-cisplatin. Those who had a good response, allowing a surgical approach, underwent the Wertheim-Meigs procedure. After surgery, they were submitted to pelvic radiotherapy. Those that could not be submitted

  11. Thyroid hormones in the elderly sick: "T4 euthyroidism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A W; Shakespear, R A; Hesch, R D; Cooper, E; Aickin, C M; Burke, C W

    1975-11-22

    Thyroid function and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were investigated in 79 euthyroid geriatric patients. Of the 59 inpatients and 20 outpatients 35 (59%) and 2, respectively, had low T3 levels. In contrast, 7 (12%) and 6 (30%), respectively, had raised T4 levels. Two further patients were excluded from the study because of raised levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroxine-binding globulin was greatly increased in both groups of patients, but low serum albumin levels were present in 31 (39%). Despite these changes free T3 and T4 indices closely followed total T3 and T4 levels. The difference between the two groups of patients did not correlate with body weight, diagnostic categories, age, drug treatment, or duration of stay in hospital.

  12. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  13. Introns in the genome of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    RNA from T4-infected cells yields multiple end-labeled species when incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP under self-splicing conditions. One of these corresponds to the previously characterized intron from the T4 td gene and, as shown in this work, the others represent additional group I introns in T4. Two loci distinct from the td gene were found to hybridize to the mixed GTP-labeled T4 RNA probe. These were mapped to the unlinked genes nrdB and sunY. Cloned DNA from the nrdB region that contained the intron was shown to generate characteristic group I splice products with RNA synthesized in vivo or in vitro. The splice junction of the nrdB gene was determined and the nature of the RNA reaction products characterized. In vivo expression of the nrdB gene and the open reading frame within the intron was studied using in-frame lacZ fusions and primer extension analyses. The data suggest that expression of the intron open reading frame is highly regulated during T4 infection. Possible regulatory mechanisms are discussed

  14. Nonsense mutants in the bacteriophage T4D v gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minderhout, L van; Grimbergen, J; Groot, B de [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese; Cohen (J.A.) Instituut voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1975-09-01

    Ten UV-sensitive mutants of T4D with the v phenotype were isolated. Of these ten mutants, two are amber and two opal. In UV curves and in photoreactivation and multiplicity reactivation experiments the nonsense mutants show the v phenotype in su/sup -/ hosts and almost the T4/sup +/ phenotype in su/sup +/ hosts. The mutations are located between rl and e and are alleles of v/sub 1/. In crosses with irradiated and non-irradiated phages the recombinant frequency is not reduced by uvs5. Amber uvs5 propagated in CR63 su/sup +/ is with B su/sup -/ just as sensitive to UV as uvs5 propagated in B su/sup -/, which permits the conclusion that the capsid of T4 phage particles does not contain the v gene product.

  15. Incorporation of T4 bacteriophage in electrospun fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehei, R; Kadla, J

    2013-05-01

    Antibacterial food packaging materials, such as bacteriophage-activated electrospun fibrous mats, may address concerns triggered by waves of bacterial food contamination. To address this, we investigated several efficient methods for incorporating T4 bacteriophage into electrospun fibrous mats. The incorporation of T4 bacteriophage using simple suspension electrospinning led to more than five orders of magnitude decrease in bacteriophage activity. To better maintain bacteriophage viability, emulsion electrospinning was developed where the T4 bacteriophage was pre-encapsulated in an alginate reservoir via an emulsification process and subsequently electrospun into fibres. This resulted in an increase in bacteriophage viability, but there was still two orders of magnitude drop in activity. Using a coaxial electrospinning process, full bacteriophage activity could be maintained. In this process, a core/shell fibre structure was formed with the T4 bacteriophage being directly incorporated into the fibre core. The core/shell fibre encapsulated bacteriophage exhibited full bacteriophage viability after storing for several weeks at +4°C. Coaxial electrospinning was shown to be capable of encapsulating bacteriophages with high loading capacity, high viability and long storage time. These results are significant in the context of controlling and preventing bacterial infections in perishable foods during storage. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Clinical and evolutive aspects of nasopharyngeal T4 NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalej, M.; Bouaouina, N.; Benna, F.; Frikha, H.; Jallouli, M.; Ellouze, R.; Ben Romdhane, K.; Cammoun, M.; Ben Attia, R.; Daoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the primary cancer of the head and neck localizations in the Salah Azaiz Institute (Tunisia). From 1970 to 1987, 80 patients with histologically proven T4 NO NPC, were treated with exclusive radiation (70-75 Gy to the primary lesion and 50-55 Gy to cervical lymph nodes). The T4 NO represents 7% of all NPC and 16% of the T4 treated in our Institute. Ninety percent of the patients are over 20 years old with a mean age of 52 years. The sex-ration was 4: 1. Extension to the brain was observed in 55% of the cases. Local control was 70% at 2 months after the end of irradiation. The actuarial survival at 5 years was 47%. Distant metastasis represent 13% (30% for all NPC). The main failure of treatment was local recurrence. The T4 NO is probably a particular entity concerning the age, the response to radiotherapy and the low rate of distant metastasis. (authors). 18 refs., 5 figs

  17. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII - Running the Map into the Ground. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 898-908. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Lindsay W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 capsid is an elongated icosahedron, 120 nm long and 86 nm wide, and is built with three essential proteins; gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice, gp24*, which forms pentamers at eleven of the twelve vertices, and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which DNA enters during packaging and exits during infection. The past twenty years of research has greatly elevated the understanding of phage T4 head assembly and DNA packaging. The atomic structure of gp24 has been determined. A structural model built for gp23 using its similarity to gp24 showed that the phage T4 major capsid protein has the same fold as that found in phage HK97 and several other icosahedral bacteriophages. Folding of gp23 requires the assistance of two chaperones, the E. coli chaperone GroEL and the phage coded gp23-specific chaperone, gp31. The capsid also contains two non-essential outer capsid proteins, Hoc and Soc, which decorate the capsid surface. The structure of Soc shows two capsid binding sites which, through binding to adjacent gp23 subunits, reinforce the capsid structure. Hoc and Soc have been extensively used in bipartite peptide display libraries and to display pathogen antigens including those from HIV, Neisseria meningitides, Bacillus anthracis, and FMDV. The structure of Ip1*, one of the components of the core, has been determined, which provided insights on how IPs protect T4 genome against the E. coli nucleases that degrade hydroxymethylated and glycosylated T4 DNA. Extensive mutagenesis combined with the atomic structures of the DNA packaging/terminase proteins gp16 and gp17 elucidated the ATPase and nuclease functional motifs involved in DNA translocation and headful DNA cutting. Cryo-EM structure of the T4 packaging machine showed a pentameric motor assembled with gp17 subunits on the portal vertex. Single molecule optical tweezers and fluorescence studies showed that the T4 motor packages

  19. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Andrew D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  20. Estadiamento cirúrgico do câncer de colo de útero localmente avançado Surgical staging of locally advanced uterine cervix cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Ricardo Cosiski Marana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar em que proporção o estadiamento cirúrgico difere do estadiamento clínico entre casos com carcinoma avançado do colo do útero e a porcentagem de casos com gânglios para-aórticos positivos neste grupo de pacientes. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo descritivo no qual foram incluídas 36 pacientes com diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma de colo de útero considerados localmente avançados (estadios IB2, IIB, IIIAeB e IVA. Foram submetidas a estadiamento clinico conforme as recomendações da FIGO. Todas eram candidatas ao tratamento com quimioterapia neoadjuvante. A idade variou de 40 a 73 anos, com média de 56,2±7,9 anos. O procedimento constou de linfadenectomia pélvica seguida de linfadenectomia para-aórtica se os linfonodos pélvicos fossem positivos ao exame intra-operatório. A abordagem da cavidade e linfadenectomia foram efetuados por via laparotômica ou laparoscópica, indicados aleatoriamente. Os casos foram comparados individualmente e para cada estadiamento clínico foram estabelecidos os respectivos achados cirúrgicos que foram considerados o padrão-ouro. RESULTADOS: na fase de estadiamento clínico (EC 7 casos foram classificados como IB2 (tumores com mais de 4 cm, 22 casos como EC II e 7 casos ECIII. A avaliação cirúrgica modificou o estadiamento clínico da seguinte foram: em seis casos o estadio foi diminuído, e em 13 casos os achados levaram à elevação do estadio. Houve concordância em apenas 18 casos (50%. Em seis casos (16,9% os linfonodos para-aórticos estavam comprometidos. CONCLUSÕES: o estadiamento clínico do carcinoma de colo de útero localmente avançado é incorreto em proporção alta dos casos. Esta divergência levaria a indicação de tratamento excessivo em alguns casos, mas cerca de um quarto das pacientes com gânglios para-aórticos positivos não seria adequadamente tratado com o tratamento padrão atual radioterapia com quimiossensibilização que é dirigida ao

  1. Results of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for T4 rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Harunobu; Maeda, Koutarou; Masumori, Koji; Koide, Yoshikazu; Noro, Tomohito; Honda, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Miho; Matsuoka, Shinji; Toyama, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed clinical records of 11 cases with preoperative chemoradiotherapy to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of chemoradiotherapy for T4 rectal cancer. The preoperative radiotherapy consisted of 40-50 Gy delivered in fractions of 1.8-2.0 Gy per day, five days per week. A treatment of 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg/body per day intravenously, or oral tegafur-uracil (UFT)-E (300 mg/m 2 ) with l-leucovorin (75 mg) per day, or oral S-1 (80 mg/m 2 ) per day five days per week, was given during radiotherapy. One patient died due to pelvic abscess in 63 days after chemoradiotherapy. Invasive findings to the adjacent organs identified by CT and MRI disappeared in 6 cases with complete or partial response 1 month after chemoradiotherapy. Curative surgery was performed in 7 patients. Although the adjacent organs were also removed during surgery in 7 patients, there was no histological invasion to the adjacent organs in 4 patients, and one patient had histological complete disappearance of tumor. Although complications after surgery were found in all of the patients, they were improved by conservative treatment. Two of 7 patients with curative surgery had recurrence, but the rest of them survived without recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy was expected to be an effective treatment to improve the resection rate and prognosis for T4 rectal cancer. However, it was thought that it was necessary to be careful about severe toxicity, such as pelvic abscess. (author)

  2. Treatment Outcomes for T4 Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenga, Joseph; Wilson, Michael; Adkins, Douglas R; Gay, Hiram A; Haughey, Bruce H; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Michel, Loren S; Paniello, Randal C; Rich, Jason T; Thorstad, Wade L; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about treatment outcomes for T4 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), particularly in the era of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. To evaluate oncologic outcomes for T4 OPSCC treated with primary surgical and nonsurgical therapies. Retrospective cohort study of 131 patients from a single academic hospital, who were treated for T4a or T4b OPSCC (with any N stage and without distant metastatic disease at presentation) between 1998 and 2012 and had a minimum 2-year follow-up (the median follow-up time was 34.6 months). This study was conducted between January 1, 1998, and November 1, 2012. Sixty-nine patients underwent nonsurgical therapy, 47 (68%) of whom had p16-positive tumors. Nonsurgical treatment paradigms included induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy (n = 36 [54%]), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 29 [43%]), and induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy alone (n = 2 [3%]). Sixty-two patients underwent surgical treatment, 50 (81%) of whom had p16-positive tumors. Fifty-seven surgical patients (92%) received adjuvant therapy. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), 2-year gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube rates, and major complication rates. Significant baseline differences between the surgical vs nonsurgical groups included age (mean 59.8 vs 55.4 years [P = .005]), sex (male, 95% vs 84% [P = .04]), body mass index (<18.5 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 3% vs 16% [P = .02]), and smoking history of 10 or more pack-years (48% vs 77% [P = .003]). For p16-positive patients, Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS, DSS, and DFS were significantly higher for surgically treated patients than for the nonsurgical group (χ(2)(1) = 7.335 for log-rank P = .007, χ(2)(1) = 8.607 for log-rank P = .003, and χ(2)(1) = 7.763 for log-rank P = .005, respectively

  3. Quantum thetas on noncommutative T4 from embeddings into lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the theta vector and quantum theta function over noncommutative T 4 from the embedding of RxZ 2 . Manin has constructed the quantum theta functions from the lattice embedding into vector space (x finite group). We extend Manin's construction of the quantum theta function to the embedding of vector space x lattice case. We find that the holomorphic theta vector exists only over the vector space part of the embedding, and over the lattice part we can only impose the condition for the Schwartz function. The quantum theta function built on this partial theta vector satisfies the requirement of the quantum theta function. However, two subsequent quantum translations from the embedding into the lattice part are nonadditive, contrary to the additivity of those from the vector space part

  4. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Tasha B; Nguyen, Thao P; Watt, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    T4 lysozyme (T4L) is an important model system for investigating the relationship between protein structure and function. Despite being extensively studied, a reliable, quantitative activity assay for T4L has not been developed. Here, we present an improved T4L turbidity assay as well as an affinity-based T4L expression and purification protocol. This assay is designed for 96-well format and utilizes conditions amenable for both T4L and other lysozymes. This protocol enables easy, efficient, and quantitative characterization of T4L variants and allows comparison between different lysozymes. Our method: •Is applicable for all lysozymes, with enhanced sensitivity for T4 lysozyme compared to other 96-well plate turbidity assays;•Utilizes standardized conditions for comparing T4 lysozyme variants and other lysozymes; and•Incorporates a simplified expression and purification protocol for T4 lysozyme.

  5. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  6. PROTEOLYTIC REMOVAL OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF THE T4 GENE 32 HELIX-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN ALTERS THE T4 IN VITRO REPLICATION COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.L.; Alberts, B.M.; Hosoda, J.

    1980-07-01

    The proteolytic removal of about 60 amino acids from the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 helix-destabilizing protein (gene 32 protein) produces 32*I, a 27,000-dalton fragment which still binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA. The substitution of 32*I protein for intact 32 protein in the seven-protein T4 replication complex results in dramatic changes in some of the reactions catalyzed by this in vitro DNA replication system, while leaving others largely unperturbed. (1) Like intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein promotes DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase when the T4 polymerase accessory proteins (gene 44/62 and 45 proteins) are also present. The host helix-destabilizing protein (Escherichia coli ssb protein) cannot replace the 32*I protein for this synthesis. (2) Unlike intact 32 protein, 32*I protein strongly inhibits DNA synthesis catalyzed by the T4 DNA polymerase alone on a primed single-stranded DNA template. (3) Unlike intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein strongly inhibits RNA primer synthesis catalyzed by the T4 gene 41 and 61 proteins and also reduces the efficiency of RNA primer utilization. As a result, de novo DNA chain starts are blocked completely in the complete T4 replication system, and no lagging strand DNA synthesis occurs. (4) The 32*I protein does not bind to either the T4 DNA polymerase or to the T4 gene 61 protein in the absence of DNA; these associations (detected with intact 32 protein) would therefore appear to be essential for the normal control of 32 protein activity, and to account at least in part for observations 2 and 3, above. We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of intact 32 protein functions to guide its interactions with the T4 DNA polymerase and the T4 gene 61 RNA-priming protein. When this domain is removed, as in 32*I protein, the helix destabilization induced by the protein is controlled inadequately, so that polymerizing enzymes tend to be displaced from the growing 3{prime}-OH end of a

  7. Structure and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddon, P.J.; Molineaux, S.M.; Maddon, D.F.; Zimmerman, K.A.; Godfrey, M.; Alt, F.W.; Chess, L.; Axel, R.

    1987-01-01

    The T4 molecule may serve as a T-cell receptor recognizing molecules on the surface of specific target cells and also serves as the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus. To define the mechanisms of interaction of T4 with the surface of antigen-presenting cells as well as with human immunodeficiency virus, the authors have further analyzed the sequence, structure, and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes. T4 consists of an extracellular segment comprised of a leader sequence followed by four tandem variable-joining (VJ)-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and A cytoplasmic segment. The structural domains of the T4 protein deduced from amino acid sequence are precisely reflected in the intron-exon organization of the gene. Analysis of the expression of the T4 gene indicates that T4 RNA is expressed not only in T lymphocytes, but in B cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. T4 is also expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in specific regions of the brain. It is, therefore, possible that T4 plays a more general role in mediating cell recognition events that are not restricted to the cellular immune response

  8. Results of surgical treatment of T4 non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitz, CCM; de la Riviere, AB; van Swieten, HA; Westermann, CJJ; Lammers, JWJ; van den Bosch, JMM

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Because of location and invasion of surrounding structures, the role of surgical treatment for T4 tumors remains unclear. Extended resections carry a high mortality and should be restricted for selected patients. This study clarifies the selection process in non-small cell T4 tumors with

  9. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  10. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense mechanism. VSM Yadavalli, MMO Labeodan, S Udayabaskaran, N Forche. Abstract. The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World ...

  11. Specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells was examined using an in vivo assay system with hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) inactivated by uv light. A clear dose response was observed between the level of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells and the amount of T4 endonuclease V activity added. The T4 enzyme was unstable in human cells, and its half-life was 3 hr. Fractions derived from an extract of Escherichia coli infected with T4v 1 , a mutant defective in the endonuclease V gene, showed no ability to restore the uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells. However, fractions derived from an extract of T4D-infected E. coli with endonuclease V activity were effective. The T4 enzyme was effective in xeroderma pigmentosum cells on DNA damaged by uv light but not in cells damaged by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The results of these experiments show that the T4 enzyme has a specific action on human cell DNA in vivo. Treatment with the T4 enzyme increased the survival of group A xeroderma pigmentosum cells after uv irradiation

  12. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  13. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  14. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  15. Radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyonine (T3) in blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a highly accurate, rapid and simple estimation of thyroxine (T 4 ) directly from blood serum and also relates to the accurate measurement of triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) directly from blood serum. More specifically, the invention relates to a rapid, specific and reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique for measurement of both T 4 and T 3 in unextracted serum. The method requires very small amounts of serum, e.g., 25 microliters (μl) to measure T 4 concentration in nearly all specimens representing clinical states of eu-, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, and 250 μl to measure T 3 concentrations in specimens representing most clinical states

  16. First experiences with the AMERLEX-MAB FREE T4 assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.A.; Penders, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The new Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is a quick direct free T 4 assay with good reproducability. The correlation between the Amerlex-MAB FT 4 and the free T 4 of Byk is good. In the non-thyreoidal illness patient group no deviation for the values were found. Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is cheaper, because no total T4 has to be measured. More research has to be done for special patient sera. Disturbing influences as free fatty acids, heparin and auto-antibodies have to be checked. (R.B.). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Effects of 18 months of L-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adrees, M

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Some of the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities seen in overt hypothyroidism have also been reported in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Short-term L-T4 replacement in SCH improves cardiovascular risk markers and reduces carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The haemodynamic and renal effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors and renal variables in women with SCH and normal women. To study the effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH subjects on these variables and on structural and functional changes in common carotid and brachial arteries. DESIGN: Fifty-six women with SCH before and after L-T4 replacement for 18 months and 56 normal women of similar age distribution were studied. Blood Pressure (BP), plasma lipids and homocysteine were measured and renal function evaluated [estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using standard equations and measurement of serum Cystatin-C] in women with SCH before and after 18 months of l-T4, and in healthy women. CIMT and endothelial function (using brachial artery ultrasound) were studied before and after L-T4 in a subgroup of women with SCH. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine were greater in SCH (P < 0.05), and following L-T4 replacement decreased (P < 0.05) to levels that no longer differed from normal subjects. Estimated GFR was reduced and serum Cystatin-C increased (P < 0.05) in SCH. These variables also normalized following L-T4. Following L-T4 replacement the carotid artery baseline diameter increased by 7.1% and CIMT decreased by a mean value of 13%, while brachial artery diameter increased basally by 12.5% and following endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by 17.5% (P < 0.05). However, the increment following reactive hyperaemia did not differ before or following L-T4 replacement. CONCLUSION: Normalization of

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy Biopsia do linfonodo sentinela em câncer na mama localmente avançado pós-quimioterapia neoadjuvante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Walter Aguiar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To check the rate of sentinel lymph node (SLN identification in patients with locally advanced breast cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy comparing intraoperative contact cytology (imprint and embedded in paraffin and validation of methods. METHODS: A cross-sectional validation of diagnostic test involving 34 patients from the outpatient clinic of the Maternity School Assis Chateaubriand. The patients had locally advanced breast cancer and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Those with clinically negative axilla underwent SLN biopsy, studied by imprint and histopathology in paraffin. All patients underwent axillary dissection and its histopathological study. RESULTS: The SLN identification rate was 85.3% (29/34. The sensitivity of imprint associated with paraffin on detection of metastasis compared to histopathology of the axillary content was 84.62% and specificity of 100% with false-negative rate of 12.01% and an accuracy of 92.77%. CONCLUSION: The search for metastases in the SLN by imprint and histopathological analysis in paraffin compared to the gold standard (axillary dissection had a low sensitivity with high rate of false negatives in our sample.OBJETIVO: Verificar a taxa de identificação do linfonodo sentinela (LS em pacientes portadoras de câncer na mama localmente avançado e que foram submetidos à quimioterapia neoadjuvante comparando a citologia de contato intraoperatória (imprint e a inclusão em parafina e validação dos procedimentos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de validação de teste diagnóstico envolvendo 34 pacientes oriundas do Ambulatório da Maternidade-Escola Assis Chateaubriand. As pacientes eram portadoras de câncer na mama localmente avançado e foram tratadas com quimioterapia neoadjuvante. Àquelas com axila clinicamente negativa foram submetidas à biopsia do LS, esse estudado por impint e histopatologia em parafina. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas a esvaziamento axilar e seu

  19. Study of factors related to quality of life in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer Estudio de factores de calidad de vida en los pacientes con cáncer de recto localmente avanzado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Pérez Lara

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: given the increasing concern about the physical, psychological, and social welfare of patients surgically treated for rectal cancer, we designed a study of the factors influencing quality of life in these patients. Experimental design: we prospectively analyzed factors related to quality of life in a cohort of patients using the Nottingham Health Profile and the EORTC questionnaire (QLQ-CR 38. Patients: a total of 116 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer surgically treated in our hospital from 1994 to 1999. Results: quality of life scores for the various factors studied showed that quality of life was worse in women, in patients with tumors in the middle third of the rectum, and in patients undergoing low anterior resection. Conclusions: factors influencing quality of life in patients surgically treated for locally advanced rectal cancer included sex, tumor site, and surgical technique. Since only this latter factor is modifiable, we suggest that the surgical technique be individualized in persons with mid-lower and lower-third tumors of the rectum, bearing in mind that quality of life in amputated patients is, in many respects, better than that of patients with preserved sphincters.Objetivos: debido al creciente interés por el bienestar tanto físico como psicológico y social de los pacientes intervenidos por Cáncer de recto, hemos diseñado un estudio para evaluar los factores que determinan la calidad de vida en estos pacientes. Diseño experimental: analizamos en un estudio de cohortes prospectivo, los factores relacionados con su calidad de vida, usando el Perfil de Salud de Nottingham y el cuestionario EORTC (QLQ-CR 38. Pacientes: un total de 116 pacientes con Cáncer de recto localmente avanzado intervenidos quirúrgicamente en nuestro hospital desde 1994 hasta 1999. Resultados: las puntuaciones de los tests de calidad de vida mostraron que la calidad de vida es peor en la mujer, en los pacientes con tumores

  20. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of total thyroxine (T4) in horses using a simple extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyuenyong, Siriwan; Nambo, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-07-28

    Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.

  1. Activity-based in vitro selection of T4 DNA ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumio; Funabashi, Hisakage; Mie, Masayasu; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Aizawa, Masuo; Kobatake, Eiry

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro methodologies for selection and directed evolution of proteins have concentrated not only on proteins with affinity such as single-chain antibody but also on enzymes. We developed a display technology for selection of T4 DNA ligase on ribosome because an in vitro selection method for DNA ligase had never been developed. The 3' end of mRNA encoding the gene of active or inactive T4 DNA ligase-spacer peptide fusion protein was hybridized to dsDNA fragments with cohesive ends, the substrate of T4 DNA ligase. After in vitro translation of the mRNA-dsDNA complex in a rabbit reticulocyte system, a mRNA-dsDNA-ribosome-ligase complex was produced. T4 DNA ligase enzyme displayed on a ribosome, through addition of a spacer peptide, is able to react with dsDNA in the complex. The complex expressing active ligase was biotinylated by ligation with another biotinylated dsDNA probe and selected with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. We effectively selected active T4 DNA ligase from a small amount of protein. The gene of the active T4 DNA ligase was enriched 40 times from a mixture of active and inactive genes using this selection strategy. This ribosomal display strategy may have high potential to be useful for selection of other enzymes associated with DNA

  2. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-05-20

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a "high-risk situation" (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12%); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33%). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (pbenefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients.

  3. The E. coli Global Regulator DksA Reduces Transcription during T4 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patterson-West

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 relies on host RNA polymerase to transcribe three promoter classes: early (Pe, requires no viral factors, middle (Pm, requires early proteins MotA and AsiA, and late (Pl, requires middle proteins gp55, gp33, and gp45. Using primer extension, RNA-seq, RT-qPCR, single bursts, and a semi-automated method to document plaque size, we investigated how deletion of DksA or ppGpp, two E. coli global transcription regulators, affects T4 infection. Both ppGpp0 and ΔdksA increase T4 wild type (wt plaque size. However, ppGpp0 does not significantly alter burst size or latent period, and only modestly affects T4 transcript abundance, while ΔdksA increases burst size (2-fold without affecting latent period and increases the levels of several Pe transcripts at 5 min post-infection. In a T4motAam infection, ΔdksA increases plaque size and shortens latent period, and the levels of specific middle RNAs increase due to more transcription from Pe’s that extend into these middle genes. We conclude that DksA lowers T4 early gene expression. Consequently, ΔdksA results in a more productive wt infection and ameliorates the poor expression of middle genes in a T4motAam infection. As DksA does not inhibit Pe transcription in vitro, regulation may be indirect or perhaps requires additional factors.

  4. Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    Because of the longstanding controversy regarding whether hypothyroid patients can be optimally replaced by treatment with levothyroxine (L-T4) alone, numerous studies have addressed potential benefits of combined therapy of triiodothyronine (T3) with L-T4. Results of these studies have failed to support a potential benefit of combined therapy. A strong argument for the addition of L-T3 to L-T4 monotherapy has been lacking until recent genetic studies indicated a rationale for such therapy among a small fraction of the hypothyroid patient population. Interest in this issue has focused on the importance of the deiodinases in maintaining the euthyroid state and the role of genetic polymorphisms in the deiodinase genes that would affect thyroid hormone concentrations in both blood and tissues. One such polymorphism in the D2 gene, Thr92Ala, is associated with reduced T4 to T3 activation in skeletal muscle and thyroid, linked to obesity and alterations in thyroid-pituitary feedback, and in responses to thyroid hormone treatment. Although our professional organizations continue to recommend L-T4 alone for the treatment of hypothyroidism, the possibility of a D2 gene polymorphism should be considered in patients on L-T4 monotherapy who continue to complain of fatigue in spite of dosage achieving low normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. A suggestive clue to the presence of this polymorphism could be a higher than normal free T4/free T3 ratio. Clinicians could consider adding T3 as a therapeutic trial in selected patients. Future well controlled clinical trials will be required to more fully resolve the controversy.

  5. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  6. Clinicopathological outcomes of preoperative chemoradiotherapy using S-1 plus Irinotecan for T4 lower rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Naohito; Yoshie, Hidenori; Kimura, Fumihiko; Aihara, Tsukasa; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological outcomes of patients with T4 lower rectal cancer treated using preoperative chemoradiotherapy with S-1 plus Irinotecan. Between 2005 and 2011, 35 patients with T4M0 lower rectal cancer, diagnosed initially as T4a in 12 and as T4b in 23, were treated with 45 Gy of radiotherapy concomitantly with S-1 plus Irinotecan. The median follow-up period was 50.6 months (range 2-123 months). A total of 32 patients (91.4 %) completed the radiotherapy and 26 (74.3 %) completed the full chemotherapy regimen. Radical surgery was then performed in 33 (94.3 %) of the 35 patients after the exclusion of two patients, who had macroscopic residual disease. The pathological diagnosis was downstaged from T4a to ypT0-3 in all 12 of those patients (100 %) and from T4b to ypT0-4a in 20 of those 23 patients (87.0 %). The tumor regression grade of 1a/1b/2/3 (complete response) was 10/8/15/2, respectively. In terms of long-term survival, the 5-year local relapse-free survival rate was 74.8 % and the recurrence-free survival rate was 52.0 %. This regimen may result in favorable downstaging. Moreover, in this series, pathological evidence of involvement of adjacent organs was rare following preoperative chemoradiotherapy, in the patients with disease diagnosed as T4b at the initial staging.

  7. Restriction of phage T4 internal protein I mutants by a strain of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, L.W.; Abremski, K.

    1974-01-01

    Phage T4 internal protein I(IPI), a small (ca, 10,000 MW), basic protein injected into the host with the phage DNA, is not required for infection of most hosts, but mutants defective in IPI are restricted by at least one naturally occurring strain of Escherichia coli, CT 596 (CT). Phages lacking IPI (IPI - ) appear to inject their DNA and bind it to the membrane of CT cells as well as wild-type phage T4 does, but shutoff of host protein synthesis, initiation of T4 protein synthesis, and cell killing are abnormal in the IPI - mutant infected CT host. The injection of IPI appears to be important in allowing T4 DNA to carry out early steps involved in takeover of this host. Restriction of IPI - phage growth by CT cells appears to be due, at least in part, to a defective prophage it harbors which renders the host resistant to successful infection by phage T4 which lack IPI or rII functions. Bacteria cured of this prophage can be infected by mutants defective in these functions. The resistance of CT cells to other coliphages, and the question of T-even phage internal protein diversity are discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the MyT4 Technology for Determining ART Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoe, Nádia; Macamo, Rosa; Meggi, Bindiya; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Bollinger, Timothy; Vojnov, Lara; Jani, Ilesh

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited countries, CD4 T-cell (CD4) testing continues to be used for determining antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation eligibility and opportunistic infection monitoring. To support expanded access to CD4 testing, simple and robust technologies are necessary. We conducted this study to evaluate the performance of a new Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 technology, the MyT4, compared to conventional laboratory CD4 testing. EDTA venous blood from 200 HIV-positive patients was tested in the laboratory using the MyT4 and BD FACSCalibur™. The MyT4 had an r2 of 0.82 and a mean bias of 12.3 cells/μl. The MyT4 had total misclassifications of 14.7% and 8.8% when analyzed using ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/μl, respectively. We conclude that the MyT4 performed well in classifying patients using the current ART initiation eligibility thresholds in Mozambique when compared to the conventional CD4 technology.

  10. Comentarios sobre las estructuras celulares localmente finitas

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz S., Carlos J.

    2012-01-01

    1. CONJUNTOS CON ESTRUCTURA CELULAR Un conjunto con estructura celular será para nosotros una pareja(X, ∑ ) donde ∑  denota  una colección de subconjuntos del conjunto x,  sujeta a las condiciones siguientes:  son dos a doe disyuntos y recubren X

  11. Binding of T4 endonuclease V to deoxyribonucleic acid irradiated with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawell, P.C.; Simon, T.J.; Ganesan, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Endonuclease V of bacteriophage T4 binds to uv-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) but not to unirradiated DNA. We have developed an assay to detect this binding, based on the retention of enzyme - DNA complexes on nitrocellulose filters. The amount of complex retained, ascertained by using radioactive DNA, is a measure of T4 endonuclease V activity. From our data we conclude that (1) T4 endonuclease V binds to uv-irradiated DNA but not to DNA that has been previously incised by the endonuclease, (2) equilibrium between the free and complexed form of the enzyme is attained under our reaction conditions, (3) dissociation of enzyme - DNA complexes is retarded by sodium cyanide, and (4) retention of enzyme - DNA complexes on nitrocellulose filters is enhanced by high concentrations of saline-citrate

  12. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  13. Comparison of Immunoassay methods for T3, T4 and TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Celia A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of T3, T4 and TSH have been considered very important in the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases both overt and subclinical. These subclinical diseases are actively seeking for years, both in healthy patients and hospitalized for other illnesses; and in the population over 35 years, especially women, in health checkups. The active search for these diseases requires the use of rapid and reliable techniques; that can be developed massively, with good level of detectability and comparable. The overall objective is to present the evaluation of different immunoassay techniques with respect to the RIA and IRMA: ELISA, chemiluminescence, Amplified Chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence Immunofluorescence. Compare including automatic methods and analyze the cost and feasibility of them for laboratory immunoassay. ELISA colorimetric technique for dosing was comparable to RIA T4, not for T3. Chemiluminescence (AMERLITE) compared to dosing RIA and IRMA T4 to TSH proved to be valid for both. Amplified Chemiluminescence (Immulite) compared to IRMA for TSH was no significant difference. Electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys 2010) compared to T3 and T4 RIA and IRMA for TSH, no significant differences for T4 and TSH; but no variation to T3. Immunofluorescence (AIA-600) used to compare with RIA for T3 and T4, and TSH IRMA, no significant differences for the measured analytes. Benchmarking of automatic methods suggests that the most thrifty of trials is Immunofluorescence the AIA-600, regarding calibration and control, programming time, randomization and the ability to save the value of the fluorescence deferred calculations for tests without valid at the time of realizing calibration. Analyzing the cost and feasibility of these methods for laboratory immunoassay, we must consider that their characteristics electrochemiluminescence is the fastest, but its price is prohibitive for our health systems. The AIA-600 appears to be the method of choice for its

  14. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a “high-risk situation” (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12 %); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33 %). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (p < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008). However, no difference was observed between oxaliplatin-containing and non-oxaliplatin-containing treatment regimens. G2 and G3 tumors were found to particularly benefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1404-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. Preparation of quality control samples for thyroid hormones T3 and T4 in radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.O.A.

    2006-03-01

    Today, the radioimmunoassay becomes one of the best techniques for quantitative analysis of very low concentration of different substances. RIA is being widely used in medical and research laboratories. To maintain high specificity and accuracy in RIA and other related techniques the quality controls must be introduced. In this dissertation quality control samples for thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine T3 and Thyroxin T4), using RIA techniques. Ready made chinese T4, T3 RIA kits were used. IAEA statistical package were selected.(Author)

  16. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  17. Development and evaluation of a magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay for total human thyroxine (T4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Abdalla, O. M.; Zahran, A. B.; Shabbo, N. M.; Ali, N. I.; Gubara, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this study a simple and rapid magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human thyroxine (T4) was developed using locally raised sheep thyroxine antibody and radioiodinated thyroxine (T4) tracer by chloramine-T method. The assay involves two hours incubation at ambient temperature rang (30 to 35 o C ) associated with the antibody covalently linked by the easily performed carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) method to magnetic particles obtained from SIPAC. 0.1% triton with sodium azide used as a wash buffer. L-Thyroxine Na-salt peta hydrate from sigma was used for the preparation of standards and quality control sera. The coupled magnetic anti-T4 solid phase titrated in order to find out the suitable antibody concentration (titre) to be used in the assay. Optimizations followed by validation procedures were done. When correlated with kits imported from NETRIA and AMERSHAM, results were found to be highly comparable r=0.965 and p<0.05. Shelf life was also studied, so that the local prepared T4 RIA magnetic reagents can be used for the measurement of total human thyroxine with a very low cost compared to imported kits. (Author)

  18. Focused genetic recombination of bacteriophage t4 initiated by double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor; Granovsky, Igor; Plugina, Lidiya; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Sizova, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Shlyapnikov, Michael; Shubina, Olga

    2002-10-01

    A model system for studying double-strand-break (DSB)-induced genetic recombination in vivo based on the ets1 segCDelta strain of bacteriophage T4 was developed. The ets1, a 66-bp DNA fragment of phage T2L containing the cleavage site for the T4 SegC site-specific endonuclease, was inserted into the proximal part of the T4 rIIB gene. Under segC(+) conditions, the ets1 behaves as a recombination hotspot. Crosses of the ets1 against rII markers located to the left and to the right of ets1 gave similar results, thus demonstrating the equal and symmetrical initiation of recombination by either part of the broken chromosome. Frequency/distance relationships were studied in a series of two- and three-factor crosses with other rIIB and rIIA mutants (all segC(+)) separated from ets1 by 12-2100 bp. The observed relationships were readily interpretable in terms of the modified splice/patch coupling model. The advantages of this localized or focused recombination over that distributed along the chromosome, as a model for studying the recombination-replication pathway in T4 in vivo, are discussed.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  20. Structural studies on metal-containing enzymes: T4 endonuclease VII and D. gigas formate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, H.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many biological processes require metal ions, and many of these metal-ion functions involve metalloproteins. The metal ions in metalloproteins are often critical to the protein's function, structure, or stability. This thesis focuses on two of these proteins, bacteriophage T4 endonuclease

  1. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ∗Corresponding author: Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University ... T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense ... This observation enables us to make the assumption that the population of ...

  2. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Peters

    Full Text Available Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6 was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  3. Modular architecture of the T4 phage superfamily: A conserved core genome and a plastic periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, Andre M.; Bertrand, Claire; Letarov, Andrei; Tetart, Francoise; Krisch, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among the most numerous objects in the biosphere, phages show enormous diversity in morphology and genetic content. We have sequenced 7 T4-like phages and compared their genome architecture. All seven phages share a core genome with T4 that is interrupted by several hyperplastic regions (HPRs) where most of their divergence occurs. The core primarily includes homologues of essential T4 genes, such as the virion structure and DNA replication genes. In contrast, the HPRs contain mostly novel genes of unknown function and origin. A few of the HPR genes that can be assigned putative functions, such as a series of novel Internal Proteins, are implicated in phage adaptation to the host. Thus, the T4-like genome appears to be partitioned into discrete segments that fulfil different functions and behave differently in evolution. Such partitioning may be critical for these large and complex phages to maintain their flexibility, while simultaneously allowing them to conserve their highly successful virion design and mode of replication

  4. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  5. Prognostic Value of Subclassification Using MRI in the T4 Classification Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lei [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Chen Mo; Li Wenfei; Yin Wenjing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sun Ying [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Li Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To subclassify patients with the T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), according to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the prognostic value of subclassification after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 140 patients who underwent MRI and were subsequently histologically diagnosed with nondisseminated classification T4 NPC received IMRT as their primary treatment and were included in this retrospective study. T4 patients were subclassified into two grades: T4a was defined as a primary nasopharyngeal tumor with involvement of the masticator space only; and T4b was defined as involvement of the intracranial region, cranial nerves, and/or orbit. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate for T4a patients (82.5% and 87.0%, respectively), were significantly higher than for T4b patients (62.6% and 66.8%; p = 0.033 and p = 0.036, respectively). The T4a/b subclassification was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio = 2.331, p = 0.032) and DMFS (hazard ratio = 2.602, p = 0.034), and had no significant effect on local relapse-free survival. Conclusions: Subclassification of T4 patients, as T4a or T4b, using MRI according to the site of invasion, has prognostic value for the outcomes of IMRT treatment in NPC.

  6. Comparative studies of commercially available T4-RIA-kits. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.A.E.; Lipke, P.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation of the tested commercially available T 4 -RIA-Kits have shown that: The separation of hypo-, eu- and hyperthyroid values is better with kits a) and f) than with b), c), d) and e), though all kits give acceptable values under routine operating conditions, kit b) takes less time and work than the other tested kits, depending on the kit used, the time needed for 100 determinations varies between 1,5 and 4 hr. A general recommendation for one of the tested T 4 -RIA-Kits cannot be made since the choice of a kit depends not only on the criteria discussed but also on local circumstances. (orig.) [de

  7. Repair of potentially lethal damage by introduction of T4 DNA ligase in eucaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G.F.; Napolitano, M.; Gialanella, G.

    1991-01-01

    The bacterial enzyme PvuII, which generates blunt-ended DNA double-strand breaks, and T4 DNA ligase, which seals adjacent DNA fragments in coupling to ATP cleavage, were introduced in mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts using osmolytic shock of pinocytic vesicles. Cells were then assayed for their clonogenic ability. In agreement with previous studies by others, the authors found that PvuII restriction endonuclease simulates ionizing radiation effects by causing a dose-dependent loss of reproductive capacity. They show that concomitant treatment with DNA ligase considerably increases cell survival. Survival curves were shown to be dependent on ligase enzyme dose and on ATP concentration in the hypertonic medium. They conclude that T4 DNA ligase is able to repair some potentially lethal damage produced by restriction endonucleases in eucaryotic cells. (author)

  8. Characterization of a bacteriophage T4 mutant lacking DNA-dependent ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behme, M.T.; Ebisuzaki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A DNA-dependent ATPase has previously been purified from bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli. A mutant phage strain lacking this enzyme has been isolated and characterized. Although the mutant strain produced no detectable DNA-dependent ATPase, growth properties were not affected. Burst sizes were similar for the mutant phage and T4D in polAl, recB, recC, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and various DNA-negative E. coli. UV sensitivity and genetic recombination were normal in a variety of E. coli hosts. Mapping data indicate that the genetic locus controlling the mutant occurs near gene 56. The nonessential nature of this gene is discussed

  9. Radiation-induced osteochondroma of the T4 vertebra causing spinal cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorospe, Luis; Madrid-Muniz, Carmen; Royo, Aranzazu; Garcia-Raya, Pilar [Department of Radiology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Ruiz, Fernando [Department of Neurosurgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Barea, Fernando [Department of Pathology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    A case of a radiation-induced osteochondroma arising from the vertebral body of T4 in an 18-year-old man is reported. The patient presented with a history of progressive left lower extremity weakness. At 7 years of age, he had undergone resection of a cerebellar medulloblastoma and received adjunctive craniospinal irradiation and systemic chemotherapy. Both CT and MR imaging revealed an extradural mass contiguous with the posteroinferior endplate of the T4 vertebral body. This case indicates that radiation-induced osteochondroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of myelopathy or nerve root compression and a history of radiation therapy involving the spine in childhood. (orig.)

  10. Serum TBG and T4 concentration in non-thyroidal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tobari, C.; Sekita, N.; Onodera, Y.; Asazu, M.; Someya, K.

    1983-01-01

    Routinely available radioassay kits have recently enabled the measurement of serum concentrations of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroxine (T 4 ), both total (TT 4 ) and free (FT 4 ) in various disease conditions. Serum TBG and T 4 level were measured in variety of non-thyroidal diseases, of which significance was evaluated in comparison with that in thyroidal diseases. Abnormal serum TBG concentrations in various non-thyroidal diseases and pregnancy result in abnormal serum TT 4 levels, which may cause difficulty in differentiation of these conditions from hyper- or hypothyroidal states. Serum FT 4 levels give better indicator than TT 4 , though the difference among RIA kits are considerably large. However, measurement of serum FT 4 levels alone is not sufficient to distinguish non-thyroidal disease from thyroidal diseases with abnormal thyroidal function. The differentiation has to be based on the combination of clinical findings and results of multiple thyroidal function tests

  11. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  12. Differential cross section measurement for the 6Li(n,t)4He Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guohui; Tang Guoyou; Chen Jinxiang; Shi Zhaomin

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n) 3 He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the 238 U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data

  13. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of deoxyribonucleic acids and repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and specific repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V. Namely research described here is focused on the examination of specific recognition process, in which this repair enzyme recognizes the damaged site on the DNA molecule-thymine dimer (TD). TD is frequent DNA damage induced by UV radiation in sun light and unless properly repaired it may be mutagenic or lethal for cell, and is also considered among the major causes of skin cancer. T4 endonuclease V is a DNA specific repair enzyme from bacteriophage T4 that catalyzes the first reaction step of TD repair pathway. MD simulations of three molecules - native DNA dodecamer (12 base pairs), DNA of the same sequence of nucleotides as native one but with TD, and repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V - were performed for 1 ns individually for each molecule. Simulations were analyzed to determine the role of electrostatic interaction in the recognition process. It is found that electrostatic energies calculated for amino acids of the enzyme have positive values of around +15 kcal/mol. The electrostatic energy of TD site has negative value of approximately -9 kcal/mol, different from the nearly neutral value of the respective thymines site of the native DNA. The electrostatic interaction of TD site with surrounding water environment differs from the electrostatic interaction of other nucleotides. Differences found between TD site and respective thymines site of native DNA indicate that the electrostatic energy is an important factor contributing to proper recognition of TD site during scanning process in which enzyme scans the DNA. In addition to the electrostatic energy, the important factor in recognition process might be structural complementarity of enzyme and bent DNA with TD. There is significant kink formed around TD site, that is not observed in native DNA. (author)

  15. T4 category revision enhances the accuracy and significance of stage III breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Uwe; Singer, Gad; Langer, Igor; Schötzau, Andreas; Herberich, Linda; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Wight, Edward

    2006-06-15

    Because of the considerable heterogeneity in breast carcinoma with noninflammatory skin involvement (T4b/Stage IIIB), a revision was proposed of the TNM staging system that would classify these tumors exclusively based on their tumor size and lymph node status. In the current study, the authors evaluated how implementation of this proposal will affect Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer. Two hundred seven patients who were classified with noninflammatory Stage III breast cancer were treated consecutively between 1990 and 1999 at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. To assess the extent of T4b/Stage IIIB tumors independent of the clinicopathologic feature of skin involvement, the reclassification was undertaken. Of 68 patients who had nonmetastatic T4b breast cancer, 37 patients (54.4%) had a tumor extent in accordance with Stage I/II and had improved disease-specific survival (DSS) compared with patients who had Stage III breast cancer (P = .008). Excluding those patients from Stage III led to a 17.9% reduction of the number of patients in this group (n = 170 patients). The 10-year DSS declined from 48.5% to 42.9%. Considerable numbers of patients who are classified with noninflammatory Stage IIIB breast cancer show only a limited disease extent. Through a revision of the T4 category, these low-risk patients were excluded from the highest nonmetastatic TNM stage, and overstaging could be avoided. This procedure decreased the degree of heterogeneity of the entire Stage III group and may result in a more precise assessment of this disease entity. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  16. Experimental electromagnetic effects on the model organism Escherichia coli and the bacteriophage T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiewski, Darlene Mildred

    This experimentally-based work was designed to answer the research question as to whether the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can produce observable effects upon the bacterial virus activity of T4, with such activity demonstrated through the infection of its host bacterium Escherichia coli. The biological samples were placed for three hours within a coil antenna assembly propagating oscillating fields of radio frequency electromagnetic energy generated at the frequency of 5.6 MHz, and set at right angles within a magnetic field of 1450 gauss (recognizing such conditions are not set for the maximum effective resonance for hydrogen nuclei). The laboratory technique of plaque formation was the basis upon which the statistically tested data were compiled. Exposure of the bacterium alone exhibited an increase in viral activity over the control group (40--68% higher numbers of plaque formation), while exposure of T4 alone saw a decrease (approximately 23%) in infection rates. Depending on the protocol, placement of both T4 and E. coli into the coil assembly saw a decrease of either approximately 50% or 42% in infection rates. Future research must address identification of the effects being observed.

  17. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  18. Palliative telecobalt-60 with concentrated dose in TNM classification T4 of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, M.B.; Brites, C.F.; Guimaraes, M.F.; De Jesus, E.B.; Catita, J.I.; Vilhena, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is presented of rapid, palliative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast, composed of two sessions of 6.5 or 8.5 Gy delivered at a 48-hour interval. The radiobiological equivalence of this unconventional technique is presented. Our preliminary results in a series of 80 patients were published in 1978. The present report is based on the analysis of 112 patients with T4 of the breast submitted to the flash dose, from March 1978 to December 1981. The method was used not only for relief of symptoms such as pain and hemorrhage, but also as part of intensive radiotherapy in all patients with good response and with no manifestation of distant dissemination so that they were able to resume treatment 2.5 or 3 weeks later, with conventional fractionation. Some of these patients became operable. About half of the cases had castration and/or hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy. In the group of patients with T4M0, 59.8% were alive after more than 1 year, and of them, 43.7% had no evidence of disease. These encouraging results suggest that this method be advocated in T4 of the breast because of its rapidity and good tolerance with no significant complications

  19. Quantitation of T-3 (triiodothyronine) and T-4 (thyroxine) in serum and plasma. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglowski, W.; Williams, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes an examination of the published literature concerning the quantitation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the clinical laboratory. It therefore details the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtainable in various commercial systems and those devised in the clinical laboratory. The data produced by several of the procedures often indicate that improvements in these parameters would enhance overall assay performance and increase the reliability of the clinical interpretation derivable from assay results. For T-3 and T-4 in vitro assays a very large number of systems exist and are currently being utilized in clinical laboratories in this country. For the sake of brevity some systems, while mentioned, are not reviewed in exhaustive detail. Radioimmunoassay, as the most frequently performed assay for both T-3 and T-4 is extensively reviewed. Also discussed with particular interest are assay systems which will undoubtedly impact on the future course of thyroid hormone assessment in the clinical laboratory, namely enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent immunoassay. The state of the art in T-4 measurements in neonates, because it is such a critical area for application of in vitro thyroid testing, is given detailed review. The quantitation of free thyroxine has been discussed in detail. These assays have been gaining more frequent use in the clinical laboratory and increased commercial system development

  20. Processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on UV-irradiated chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V initiates the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated T4 infected E. coli cells. The pyrimidine dimer specific nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V functions by a processive scanning on UV-irradiated DNA. Previously it has been demonstrated that introduction of endonuclease V into repair-deficient human cells causes a restoration of UV survival in these cells. This demonstrates that endonuclease V is competent to incise mammalian DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers. In order to assess the ability of endonuclease V to act processively on DNA associated as chromatin, minichromosomes were prepared for use as a substrate. Form I DNA was reconstituted with H3, H4 +/- H1 histones by sequential dialysis steps from 2.0 M NaCl to 50 mM NaCl. Time course reactions were performed with minichromosomes containing 10 and 25 dimers per molecule. In each case the rate of disappearance of form I DNA which was associated as chromatin was decreased relative to that of naked form I DNA. Concurrent with that observation, the rate and extent of appearance of form III DNA was increased with the DNA in minichromosomes relative to naked DNA. This is diagnostic of an enhancement of processivity. The inclusion of H1 in the minichromosomes resulted in a slight additional increase in processivity relative to minichromosomes consisting only of H3 and H4

  1. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  2. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziming; Sun, Hongjing; Gao, Faming; Hou, Li; Li, Na

    2012-12-01

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe@Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe@Au process.

  3. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  4. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  5. Treatment of patients with unresectable squamous head and neck cancer with induction chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy; Traitement de patients atteints d'un cancer irresecable de la tete et du cou avec une chimiotherapie d'induction suivie d'une radiotherapie hyperfractionnee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesia, R.; Majem, M.; Barretina Ginesta, M.P.; Montes, A.; Cardenal, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Medical Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Galiana, R.; Guedea, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Manos, M. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of ENT, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Monner, A. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Perez, J. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Clinical Investigation Unit, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: the contribution of induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy (h.f.R.T.) in unresectable squamous head and neck cancer has been evaluated in a single institution as an assistancial protocol. Patients and methods: from March 1994 to June 2000 all consecutive patients with unresectable disease were treated with four courses of platin plus fluorouracil based CT followed by h.f.R.T.. Tumor resectability and response was assessed by a multidisciplinary committee. Results: ninety-nine patients (pts) were treated. All of them had stage IV-M0 disease: 67 T4, 88 N2-N3. Tumor location: 62 oropharynx, 22 hypopharynx, eight oral cavity and seven larynx. Tumor response at the end of treatment: 61 patients complete response, 17 partial response, two stable disease, 10 progressive disease and nine unevaluated. With a median follow-up of 70 months the 5-year loco-regional control and overall survival was 30.3% (95% CI: 21.9-38.6) and 21.6% (95% CI: 13.4-29.8), respectively. Loco-regional control and overall survival is significantly influenced by prior response to induction CT. Main grade 3-4 toxicity related to CT was stomatitis, but there were five patients with an ischemic event. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: 47 stomatitis, 20 epithelitis. Chronic toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: six emergency tracheotomies due to laryngeal edema, five pneumonia and one mucous/soft-tissue necrosis. There were eight toxic related deaths. Conclusion: induction CT followed by h.f.R.T. might increase the overall survival rate in unresectable disease. H.f.R.T. resulted in a high rate of acute toxicity and its use would not be warranted in those patients with no response to induction CT who had a low probability of long-term control. (authors)

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  7. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  8. Architecture of the bacteriophage T4 activator MotA/promoter DNA interaction during sigma appropriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Lun; James, Tamara D; Knipling, Leslie; Waddell, M Brett; White, Stephen; Hinton, Deborah M

    2013-09-20

    Gene expression can be regulated through factors that direct RNA polymerase to the correct promoter sequence at the correct time. Bacteriophage T4 controls its development in this way using phage proteins that interact with host RNA polymerase. Using a process called σ appropriation, the T4 co-activator AsiA structurally remodels the σ(70) subunit of host RNA polymerase, while a T4 activator, MotA, engages the C terminus of σ(70) and binds to a DNA promoter element, the MotA box. Structures for the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of MotA are available, but no structure exists for MotA with or without DNA. We report the first molecular map of the MotA/DNA interaction within the σ-appropriated complex, which we obtained by using the cleaving reagent, iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA (FeBABE). We conjugated surface-exposed, single cysteines in MotA with FeBABE and performed cleavage reactions in the context of stable transcription complexes. The DNA cleavage sites were analyzed using ICM Molsoft software and three-dimensional physical models of MotA(NTD), MotA(CTD), and the DNA to investigate shape complementarity between the protein and the DNA and to position MotA on the DNA. We found that the unusual "double wing" motif present within MotA(CTD) resides in the major groove of the MotA box. In addition, we have used surface plasmon resonance to show that MotA alone is in a very dynamic equilibrium with the MotA element. Our results demonstrate the utility of fine resolution FeBABE mapping to determine the architecture of protein-DNA complexes that have been recalcitrant to traditional structure analyses.

  9. Stimulation of the synthesis of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein by ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, H.M.; Van Houwe, G.

    1976-01-01

    The synthesis of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 product, P32, has been followed by gel electrophoresis of lysates of infected cells which have been irradiated with ultraviolet light. In wild-type infections irradiation after the commencement of late gene expression results in a rapid stimulation of the rate of P32 synthesis. Within four minutes after irradiation P32 is synthesized at 11 times the rate of the unirradiated control infection. P32 seems to be the only T4 protein which exhibits such u.v. inducibility. This inducibility is dependent on the function of genes 46 and 47 and to a lesser extent on several other T4 genes thought to be involved in repair (P43, w and y). An infection defective in both P43 and P46 shows essentially no stimulation of the rate of P32 synthesis after irradiation. In the absence of DNA replication the parental DNA is degraded after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The extent of P32 induction in such an infection is also proportional to the dose. It is suggested that the production of gaps during repair of u.v.-irradiated DNA is responsible for the stimulation of P32 synthesis. A model is proposed in which such regions of single-stranded DNA compete for P32 by binding it nonspecifically, thus reducing the amount of P32 free to block the expression of gene 32. Because the expression of gene 32 is self-regulatory this would result in increased P32 synthesis. The possible role of P32 in the repair of u.v.-damaged DNA is discussed. (author)

  10. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W.; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F.; Kuo, S.H.; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei; Hong, R.L.; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade ≥ 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  11. Laser shock peening on a 6056-T4 aluminium alloy for airframe applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Glaser, D

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1356 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1... Laser Shock Peening on a 6056-T4 Aluminium Alloy for Airframe Applications Daniel Glaser, Claudia Polese, Rachana D. Bedekar, Jasper Plaisier,Sisa Pityana, Bathusile Masina, Tebogo Mathebula, and Enrico Troiani Keywords: Laser Shock Peening...

  12. Characterization of bacteriophage KVP40 and T4 RNA ligase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shenmin; Kiong Ho, C.; Miller, Eric S.; Shuman, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2 (Rnl2) exemplifies a subfamily of RNA strand-joining enzymes that includes the trypanosome RNA editing ligases. A homolog of T4 Rnl2 is encoded in the 244-kbp DNA genome of vibriophage KVP40. We show that the 335-amino acid KVP40 Rnl2 is a monomeric protein that catalyzes RNA end-joining through ligase-adenylate and RNA-adenylate (AppRNA) intermediates. In the absence of ATP, pre-adenylated KVP40 Rnl2 reacts with an 18-mer 5'-PO 4 single-strand RNA (pRNA) to form an 18-mer RNA circle. In the presence of ATP, Rnl2 generates predominantly AppRNA. Isolated AppRNA can be circularized by KVP40 Rnl2 in the absence of ATP. The reactivity of phage Rnl2 and the distribution of the products are affected by the length of the pRNA substrate. Whereas 18-mer and 15-mer pRNAs undergo intramolecular sealing by T4 Rnl2 to form monomer circles, a 12-mer pRNA is ligated intermolecularly to form dimers, and a 9-mer pRNA is unreactive. In the presence of ATP, the 15-mer and 12-mer pRNAs are converted to AppRNAs, but the 9-mer pRNA is not. A single 5' deoxynucleotide substitution of an 18-mer pRNA substrate has no apparent effect on the 5' adenylation or circularization reactions of T4 Rnl2. In contrast, a single deoxyribonucleoside at the 3' terminus strongly and selectively suppresses the sealing step, thereby resulting in accumulation of high levels of AppRNA in the absence of ATP. The ATP-dependent 'capping' of RNA with AMP by Rnl2 is reminiscent of the capping of eukaryotic mRNA with GMP by GTP:RNA guanylyltransferase and suggests an evolutionary connection between bacteriophage Rnl2 and eukaryotic RNA capping enzymes

  13. Template-directed ligation of tethered mononucleotides by t4 DNA ligase for kinase ribozyme selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Nickens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro selection of kinase ribozymes for small molecule metabolites, such as free nucleosides, will require partition systems that discriminate active from inactive RNA species. While nucleic acid catalysis of phosphoryl transfer is well established for phosphorylation of 5' or 2' OH of oligonucleotide substrates, phosphorylation of diffusible small molecules has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study demonstrates the ability of T4 DNA ligase to capture RNA strands in which a tethered monodeoxynucleoside has acquired a 5' phosphate. The ligation reaction therefore mimics the partition step of a selection for nucleoside kinase (deoxyribozymes. Ligation with tethered substrates was considerably slower than with nicked, fully duplex DNA, even though the deoxynucleotides at the ligation junction were Watson-Crick base paired in the tethered substrate. Ligation increased markedly when the bridging template strand contained unpaired spacer nucleotides across from the flexible tether, according to the trends: A(2>A(1>A(3>A(4>A(0>A(6>A(8>A(10 and T(2>T(3>T(4>T(6 approximately T(1>T(8>T(10. Bridging T's generally gave higher yield of ligated product than bridging A's. ATP concentrations above 33 microM accumulated adenylated intermediate and decreased yields of the gap-sealed product, likely due to re-adenylation of dissociated enzyme. Under optimized conditions, T4 DNA ligase efficiently (>90% joined a correctly paired, or TratioG wobble-paired, substrate on the 3' side of the ligation junction while discriminating approximately 100-fold against most mispaired substrates. Tethered dC and dG gave the highest ligation rates and yields, followed by tethered deoxyinosine (dI and dT, with the slowest reactions for tethered dA. The same kinetic trends were observed in ligase-mediated capture in complex reaction mixtures with multiple substrates. The "universal" analog 5-nitroindole (dNI did not support ligation when

  14. Glasgow Prognostic Score as a Prognostic Clinical Marker in T4 Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masaichi; Kubo, Naoshi; Masuda, Go; Yamashita, Yoshito; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-09-01

    Patients with clinical T4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have an unfavorable prognosis, mainly indicated by the response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), crucial to estimating long-term survival. Other prognostic measures include systemic inflammatory or immunonutritional indices such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) that have not been sufficiently documented. This study retrospectively evaluated 91 patients with T4 ESCC treated at our Hospital between 2000 and 2013. All patients initially received CRT, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and cisplatin or nedaplatin with concurrent 2-Gy/fraction radiation (total dose, 40-60 Gy). Curative tumor resection was undertaken in suitable patients on completing CRT. Patients were classified as GPS0, GPS1, or GPS2 based on C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 10 mg/l and albumin ≥ 35 g/l, CRP >10 mg/l or albumin l, or CRP >10 mg/l and albumin l, respectively. PNI was calculated as 10-times the serum albumin (g/dl)+0.005 × total lymphocyte count (/mm(3)). The impact of the pre-treatment GPS and PNI on the prognosis of patients with T4 ESCC was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Sixty (67%) patients responded to CRT (9 complete responses and 51 partial responses). Forty-one (45%) patients also underwent surgical resection of the residual tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate and median survival time were 27.0% and 11.8 months, respectively. In the cohort of CRT-plus-surgical resection, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher than in the groups treated with CRT-alone (51.1% vs. 6.5%; p GPS1/2 (HR=2.151, p=0.015), and surgical resection (HR=0.282, pGPS is a useful, simple survival marker for patients with T4 ESCC undergoing multimodal therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. T-4 handbook of material properties data bases. Volume 1c. Equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, K.S.

    1984-11-01

    This manual is a compilation of descriptions of the equations of state (EOS) in the T-4 computerized library of material properties tables. The introduction gives a brief descriptions of the library and of the physics theories and models which were used to calculate the equations of state. Then each EOS is described in detail. First, various physical parameters of each theoretical EOS are tabulated and compared with experiments when available. Then the method of generating the EOS is briefly described. Finally, the tabels are plotted in terms of pressure and energy vs density along line of constant temperature

  16. 2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2012-01-01

    . Results: Suggested explanations for persisting symptoms include: awareness of a chronic disease, presence of associated autoimmune diseases, thyroid autoimmunity per se, and inadequacy of L-T4 treatment to restore physiological thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in serum and tissues...

  17. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV + phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity

  18. Advancements in the treatment of hypothyroidism with L-T4 liquid formulation or soft gel capsule: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Ragusa, Francesca; Biricotti, Marco; Materazzi, Gabriele; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The most recent advance concerning levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy is the development of novel oral formulations: the liquid preparation, and the soft gel capsule. Areas covered: This review evaluates the most recent clinical studies about these new formulations. The liquid formulation has been shown to overcome: the food and beverages intereference with L-T4 tablets absorption, caused by food or coffee at breakfast; malabsorption induced by the increased gastric pH, resulting from atrophic gastritis, or due to proton-pump inhibitors; and malabsorption after bariatric surgery. The use of liquid L-T4 has been studied also in pregnancy, newborns and infants, suggesting a better bioequivalence than tablets. Finally, liquid L-T4 is more active than tablets in the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroid patients without malabsorption, drug interference, or gastric disorders, leading to a hypothesized higher absorption of liquid L-T4 also in these patients. Few studies have evaluated soft gel L-T4 with promising results in patients with malabsorption related to coffee or gastritis. Expert opinion: Liquid L-T4 (and soft gel capsules) are more active than the tablet L-T4 in the control of TSH in hypothyroid patients with gastric disorders, malabsorption, or drug interference, but also in patients without absorption disorders.

  19. Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-07-01

    Levothyroxine therapy is the traditional lifelong replacement therapy for hypothyroid patients. Over the last several years, new evidence has led clinicians to evaluate the option of combined T(3) and T(4) treatment to improve the quality of life, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action in hypothyroidism. The aim of this review is to assess the physiological basis and the results of current studies on this topic. We searched Medline for reports published with the following search terms: hypothyroidism, levothyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid, guidelines, treatment, deiodinases, clinical symptoms, quality of life, cognition, mood, depression, body weight, heart rate, cholesterol, bone markers, SHBG, and patient preference for combined therapy. The search was restricted to reports published in English since 1970, but some reports published before 1970 were also incorporated. We supplemented the search with records from personal files and references of relevant articles and textbooks. Parameters analyzed included the rationale for combination treatment, the type of patients to be selected, the optimal T(4)/T(3) ratio, and the potential benefits of this therapy on symptoms of hypothyroidism, quality of life, mood, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action. The outcome of our analysis suggests that it may be time to consider a personalized regimen of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. Further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify this important issue. Innovative formulations of the thyroid hormones will be required to mimic a more perfect thyroid hormone replacement therapy than is currently available.

  20. Co-existence of freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in a typical subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui

    2017-11-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play an important role in microbial community dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, yet their ecological characteristics in estuarine ecosystems are unclear. Here, virioplankton communities in a typical subtropical estuary, the Jiulong River estuary (JRE) in China, were investigated. The abundance of virioplankton ranged from 1.01 ± 0.05 × 107 to 1.62 ± 0.09 × 107 particles mL-1 in JRE, and the population size of viruses was correlated with temperature and nutrient levels. Three tailed viral morphotypes (myovirus, siphovirus and podovirus) were observed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the g23 sequences in the JRE fell into three previously established groups (Marine, Paddy and Lake Groups) and two potential Estuary Groups. This demonstrates the co-existence of typical freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in the estuarine ecosystem, suggesting the movement of viruses and their hosts among biomes. Additionally, the spatial variation of g23 sequences suggests a geographic distribution pattern of T4-like myoviruses in the JRE, which might be shaped by the environmental gradient and/or their host distribution. These results provide valuable insights into the abundance, diversity and distribution patterns of virioplankton, as well as the factors influencing them, in subtropical estuarine ecosystems. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  2. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin Kutter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 hours after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. Hibernation mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 1011 progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially-present cell are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a scavenger response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 hours after infection. The scavenger

  3. Experimental and computational studies on the DNA translocation mechanism of the T4 viral packaging motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy; Arya, Gaurav; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is a double stranded DNA virus that infects E.coli by injecting the viral genome through the cellular wall of a host cell. The T4 genome must be ejected from the viral capsid with sufficient force to ensure infection. To generate high ejection forces, the genome is packaged to high density within the viral capsid. A DNA translocation motor, in which the protein gp17 hydrolyzes ATP and binds to the DNA, is responsible for translocating the genome into the capsid during viral maturation of T4. This motor generates forces in excess of 60 pN and packages DNA at rates exceeding 2000 base pairs/second (bp/s)1. Understanding these small yet powerful motors is important, as they have many potential applications. Though much is known about the activity of these motors from bulk and single molecule biophysical techniques, little is known about their detailed molecular mechanism. Recently, two structures of gp17 have been obtained: a high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure showing a monomeric compacted form of the enzyme, and a cryo-electron microscopic structure of the extended form of gp17 in complex with actively packaging prohead complexes. Comparison of these two structures indicates several key differences, and a model has been proposed to explain the translocation action of the motor2. Key to this model are a set of residues forming ion pairs across two domains of the gp17 molecule that are proposed to be involved in force generation by causing the collapse of the extended form of gp17. Using a dual optical trap to measure the rates of DNA packaging and the generated forces, we present preliminary mutational data showing that these several of these ion pairs are important to motor function. We have also performed preliminary free energy calculations on the extended and collapsed state of gp17, to confirm that these interdomain ion pairs have large contributions to the change in free energy that occurs upon the collapse of gp17 during the

  4. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defence mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VSS Yadavalli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World Health Organisation has recently advocated that countries encourage HIV infected individuals to commence antiretroviral treatments once their T4 cell count drops below 350 cells per ml of blood (this threshold was formerly 200 cells per ml of blood. This recommendation is made because when the T4 cell count is low, the T4 cells are unable to mount an effective immune response against antigens and any such foreign matters in the body, and consequently the individual becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections and lymphomas. A stochastic catastrophe model is developed in this paper to obtain the mean, variance and covariance of the uninfected, infected and lysed T4 cells. The amount of toxin produced in an HIV infected person from the time of infection to a later time may also be obtained from the model. Numerical illustrations of the correlation structures between uninfected and infected T4 cells, and between the infected and lysed T4 cells are also presented.

  5. [After the Action T4 : "Regionalized euthanasia" in the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, F; V Cranach, M; Fangerau, H; Becker, T

    2017-09-01

    In Bavarian psychiatric hospitals approximately 15,000 people with mental handicaps and mental illnesses were killed after the so-called Action T4. The Heil- und Pflegeanstalt (psychiatric hospital) Günzburg was a so-called Zwischenanstalt (interim institution). The aim of the study was to analyze its role in carrying out "regionalized euthanasia". Based on defined criteria the patient records of deceased patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital between July 1941 and December 1943 were analyzed to establish whether criteria for "regionalized euthanasia" were fulfilled. During the study period 45 patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital probably died following actions by direct or indirect intention to kill using malnutrition, neglect, medication overdose or a combination of these actions. The Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital was involved in "regionalized euthanasia".

  6. Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behaviors of AA2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Steve Korakan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded joints of AA2024-T4 Al alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Tests were performed in an aerated 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 7 at 20±2°C. Corrosion rate and corrosion morphology of weld regions were evaluated and compared to those of the parent metal. The microstructure of weld nugget, thermomechanical affected zone, heated affected zone, and parent metal were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was observed that corrosion initiated at FSW related spots and the sizes of local corrosion increased with time.

  7. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ''BSA'' and horse serum protein ''HSP''), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  8. Pecularities of mutagenesis of T4Br bacteriophage under the direct and indirect radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Different lethal and mutagenic effects were shown when bacteriophage T4Br + (470 r/min) was irradiated in broth (direct effect) and a buffer solution (direct and indirect action). The survival rate of the bacteriophage in the buffer solution was 0.1 percent for a dose rate of 60 kr; in the broth it was 10 percent. The frequency of mutation of the bacteriophage also showed the greater effect of the irradiation in the buffer solution than in the broth (25 and 5 r-mutants respectively at a dose rate of 10 kr). An analysis of the ratio of the r-groups when the bacteriophage was treated in various ways revealed differences between mutagenesis produced in the broth and the buffer, and spontaneous mutagenesis. (V.A.P.)

  9. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ``BSA`` and horse serum protein ``HSP``), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund`s complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund`s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  10. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  11. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    /processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...

  12. Thyroid hormone uptake and T4 derived T3 formation in different skeletal muscle types of normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeveld, C. van; Kassenaar, A.A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate conversion of T 4 to T 3 in skeletal muscle tissue. For this purpose the rats were depleted of thyroid hormones by thyroid ablation with 0.75 mCi 131 I and were perfused 2 weeks later, when the skeletal muscle tissue consumed oxygen at a normal rate due to one subcutaneous dose of 10 μg T 3 /100 g b. w. 3 days before the perfusion experiments were started. T 4 * of high specific activity (> 2000 μCi/μg) was added to the perfusate. In the muscle (mixed type) a mean T 4 → T 3 conversion of 2% (range 0.5-3.9) was found after 120 min of perfusion. T 3 generation from T 4 in skeletal muscle did not correspond with T 3 muscle uptake. This observation makes a significant overestimation of T 3 by selective uptake of a small contamination of T 3 * in the T 4 * preparation highly improbable. In red muscle the T 4 and T 3 uptake was about 50 % higher than in white muscle. The observed Tetracsup(c) and T 3 sup(c) were significantly higher in red than in white muscle. The uptake of thyroid hormones by both muscle types was not changed in hyperthyroid rats. The Tetrac and T 3 formation from T 4 , however, was increased in red muscles of hyperthyroid rats. The results show that thyroid hormone metabolism can vary markedly depending upon the type of muscle studied and they present a basis for a better understanding of clinical and biochemical evidence for a different susceptibility of red and white muscle fibers to thyroid hormones. (Abbreviations: *= 125 I; **= 131 I; T 3 sup(c)=T 4 derived T 3 ; Tetracsup(c)=T 4 derived Tetrac) (author)

  13. Structure-Function Analysis of the DNA Translocating Portal of the Bacteriophage T4 Packaging Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special five-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1 and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the E. coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and fit the dodecamer into the cryoEM density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone-shaped with the wider end containing the “wing” and “crown” domains inside the phage head. A long “stem” encloses a central channel, and a narrow “stalk” protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and portal. The “tunnel” loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. PMID:24126213

  14. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucha-Malecka, A. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Skladowski, K. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  15. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  16. Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radio-chemotherapy beneficial in T4 anal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L; Viret, F; Giovaninni, M; Lelong, B; Bories, E; Delpero, J R; Pesenti, C; Caillol, F; de Chaisemartin, C; Minsat, M; Monges, G; Sarran, A; Resbeut, M

    2011-07-01

    This study retrospectively describes the outcome of a series of 38 patients (pts) with T4 anal carcinoma exclusively treated by radio and chemotherapy. From 1992 to 2007, 38 pts with UST4-N0-2-M0 anal carcinoma were treated with exclusive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. All patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose 45 Gy) with a concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). Eleven patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). After 2-8 weeks, a 15-20 Gy boost was delivered either with EBRT (20 pts) or interstitial (192)Ir brachytherapy (18 pts). Mean follow-up was 66 months. After chemoradiation therapy (CRT), 13 pts (34%) had a complete response, 23 pts (60%) a response >50% (2 pts were not evaluated). The 5-year-disease-free survival was 79.2 ± 6.5%, and the 5-year overall survival was 83.9 ± 6%. Eight patients developed tumor progression (mean delay 8.8 months), six of them requiring a salvage surgery with definitive colostomy for local relapse. Late severe complication requiring colostomy was observed in 2 pts. The 5-year-colostomy-free survival was 78 ± 6.9%. Patients who received primary chemotherapy had a statistically significant better 5-year colostomy-free survival (100% vs. 38 ± 16.4%, P = 0.0006). T4 anal carcinoma can be treated with a curative intent using a sphincter-sparing approach of CRT, and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Structure-function analysis of the DNA translocating portal of the bacteriophage T4 packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-03-06

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special 5-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1, and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and we fit the dodecamer into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone shaped with the wider end containing the "wing" and "crown" domains inside the phage head. A long "stem" encloses a central channel, and a narrow "stalk" protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and the portal. The "tunnel" loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. © 2013.

  18. Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas T-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamela, A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the New Terminal Area of the Barajas airport. Its first part indicates the participants in the design and construction, as well as some general data. In the second part, organised like a data chart, technical data, such as general information, construction aspects, parking area, data about the building itself and others, are expressed in a concise way. The third part analyzes the construction aspects of the NAT Building, related to the power efficiency. The paper ends with a note that the author of the project has considered of interest about the functionality of the T4. Drawings, details and photographs that show the work in their total magnitude are also included.El articulo que se presenta trata de la Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Barajas y está diferenciado en una primera parte, donde se indican los créditos del proyecto y de la construcción, así como algunos datos generales. En el punto 2 y organizado como ficha, aparecen de forma escueta los datos técnicos, tales como: información general, sobre la construcción, sobre los aparcamientos, sobre el edificio terminal y otras. En el punto 3 se analizan los aspectos de la edificación NAT, relacionados con la eficiencia energética y finaliza el artículo con una nota sobre la funcionalidad de la T4, que el autor del proyecto ha considerado de interés. Se incluyen planos detalles y fotografías que muestran la obra en su total magnitud.

  19. The Coxiella Burnetii type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) component DotA is released/secreted during infection of host cells and during in vitro growth in a T4BSS-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Mahapatra, Saugata; Lutter, Erika I; Shaw, Edward I

    2017-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described. To address this, we used the acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM) along with cell culture infection and immunological techniques to identify the cellular and extracellular localization of T4BSS components. Interestingly, we found that DotA and IcmX were secreted/released in a T4BSS-dependent manner into the ACCM. Analysis of C. burnetii-infected cell lines revealed that DotA colocalized with the host cell marker CD63 (LAMP3) at the PV membrane. In the absence of bacterial protein synthesis, DotA also became depleted from the PV membrane. These data are the first to identify the release/secretion of C. burnetii T4BSS components during axenic growth and the interaction of a T4BSS component with the PV membrane during infection of host cells. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Early determination of the congenital hypothyroidism by means of the cuantification of STH and T4 by radioimmunoassay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Penados, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    It was investigated the advantages and disadvantages and conditions of working for the diagnosis of the congenital hypothyroidism by RIA, and its future implementation. It was determined concentration of neonatal STH and neonatal T4 in whole blood of 517 new borns, obtained by capilar punction and recollected in filter paper. 261 samples were found with levels of T4 between normal limits and STH between 0 and 12.5 u U/ml correspond to a normal thyroid function. 29 samples with normal T4 and STH above 30 u U/ml, correspond to a possible primary hypothyroidism. 171 samples with normal T4 and STH between 12.5 and 30 u U/ml were found. (Author)

  1. The peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersinga, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delineate several physiological, pathological and pharmacological factors involved in the peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ), using radioimmunoassay. The determination of normal values of these tests under basal circumstances and after stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing-hormone is presented, and some physiological factors which may modulate the conversion of T 4 are discussed. Results are presented of the thyroid function tests in patients with thyroid disease and with acute non-thyroidal diseases. (Auth.)

  2. Fast algorithms for coordinate processors in Galois field for multiplicity t = 4.5 and t > 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Fast algorithms for solving the coordinate equations for special-purpose processors at multiplicity t = 4.5 and t > 5 are described. Block diagrams of coordinate processor for t 4 in Galois field GF(2 m ) is presented which is solved by a table method. Economical algorithms for solving the coordinate equations by serial methods at t > 5 are described. The algorithms and devices proposed could be applied when creating fast processors in high energy physics spectrometers. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  4. The mechanisms of action of E. coli endonuclease III and T4 UV endonuclease (endonuclease V) at AP sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J; Linn, S

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of DNA containing AP sites with either T4 UV endonuclease or with E. coli endonuclease III followed by a human class II AP endonuclease releases a putative beta-elimination product. This result suggests that both the T4 endonuclease and E. coli endonuclease III class I AP endonucleases catalyze phosphodiester bond cleavage via a lyase- rather than a hydrolase mechanism. Indeed, we have not detected a class I AP endonuclease which hydrolytically catalyzes phosphodiester bond cleavage...

  5. Reduction and repopulation of recipient T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama, J.W.; van den Bergh, R.L.; Naipal, A.; D'Amaro, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Jansen, J.; de Gast, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In eight recipients of allogeneic bone marrow grafts who had sex-mismatched donors, the reduction and subsequent repopulation of T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes of recipient origin were studied. The origin of the donor-recipient T4+ and T8+ T cells was studied using quinacrine staining of Y chromatin combined with T-cell typing for T4 and T8. Following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), T cells reached their nadir at a median of five (range 1-8) days after BMT. T8+ T cells decreased at a faster rate from the peripheral blood than T4+ T cells. The first T cells that appeared in the circulation at day 12 were predominantly T4+, and a large number of them were of recipient origin. Thereafter, they gradually decreased, and the numbers of T cells of donor origin increased. In the patients who had no or only minor complications, T4+ and T8+ T cells of donor origin repopulated the blood at similar rates. This pattern, however, was modified by severe graft-versus-host disease or by cytomegalovirus infection

  6. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam; McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline; Berger, Bernard; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Sultana, Shamima; Krause, Lutz; Huq, Sayeda; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Bruttin, Anne; Reuteler, Gloria; Brüssow, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3×10 9 and 3×10 7 plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  7. Anisotropic deformation behavior of as-extruded 6063-T4 alloy under dynamic impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Tuo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Joint Center for Intelligent New Energy Vehicle, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiao; Liu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Guo, Pengcheng; Tang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The deformation behavior of 6063-T4 aluminum alloy bar was investigated by compression tests conducted at a wide strain rate range of 10{sup −4} to 9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} with loading directions at 0°, 45° and 90° to the axis of the extruded bar. It is found that the flow stresses of 0° specimens are always the highest and those of the 45° specimens are the lowest at the same conditions. The flow stress exhibits obvious strain rate sensitivity (SRS), which differs from static to dynamic deformation. The Schmid factors (SFs) for each type of texture components were calculated. For the {112}<111> texture component, the max Schmid factors are 0.27, 0.49 and 0.41 for 0°, 45° and 90° specimens. For the {110}<111> texture component, they are 0.27, 0.43 and 0.41 for the three directions. The initial texture changes significantly with increasing strain, the strain rate has slight influence on the texture evolution. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicate that as the strain rate increases, the density of the dislocation increases and its distribution becomes more homogeneous. It is necessary to consider the anisotropic deformation behavior and microstructure evolution in material selection and structure design for the impact components.

  8. SIGNIFICANCE OF THYROID PROFILE (Serum T3, T4 & TSH IN INFERTILE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relation of female infertility to thyroid dysfunction. Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Gynae & Obst deptt., Subharti Medical College & Hospital Meerut. Serum T3, T4 and TSH estimation was done by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. Results: Serum T3 level in control group was 1.8 ± 0.64 nmol/L while it was 10.5 ± 0.5 nmol/L in hyperthyroid (p value 0.05, i.e., not significant. Serum TSH in control group was 3.5 ± 1.71 mIU/L, while it was 0.14 ± 0.01 mIU/L (p value <0.001, i.e., highly significant in hyperthyroidism, 8.4 ± 1.06 mIU/L in hypothyroidism (p value <0.001, i.e., highly significant. Out of 65 patients of study group thyroid dysfunction was associated with 25 (38.5% infertile women. 23 (35.4% women had hypothyroidism, 2 (3.1% women had hyperthyroidism and 40 women (61.5% were with euthyroid state, while in control group all the 25 women had euthyroid profile. Conclusions: Every infertile woman with ovulatory dysfunction should also investigated thyroid profile along with other investigations, to open better prospects of conception for such desperate infertile women.

  9. Partial replicas of uv-irradiated bacteriophage T4 genomes and their role in multiplicity reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayssiguier, C.; Kozinski, A.W.; Doermann, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    A physicochemical study was made of the replication and transmission of uv-irradiated T4 genomes. The data presented in this paper justify the following conclusions. (i) For both low and high multiplicity of infection there was abundant replication from uv-irradiated parental templates. It exceeded by far the efficiency predicted by the hypothesis that a single lethal hit completely prevents replication of the killed phage DNA: i.e., some dead phage particles must replicate parts of their DNA. (ii) Replication of the uv-irradiated DNA was repetitive as shown by density reversal experiments. (iii) Newly synthesized progeny DNA originating from uv-irradiated templates appeared as significantly shorter segments of the genomes than progeny DNA produced from non-uv-irradiated templates. A good correlation existed between the number of uv hits and the number of random cuts that would be needed to reduce replication fragments to the length observed. (iv) The contribution of uv-irradiated parental DNA among progeny phage in multiplicity reactivation was disposed in shorter subunits than was the DNA from unirradiated parental phage. It is important to emphasize that it was mainly in the form of replicative hybrid. These conclusions appear to justify excluding interparental recombination as a prerequisite for multiplicity reactivation. They lead directly to some form of partial replica hypothesis for multiplicity reactivation

  10. Molecular identification of t4 and t5 genotypes in isolates from acanthamoeba keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledee, D R; Iovieno, A; Miller, D; Mandal, N; Diaz, M; Fell, J; Fini, M E; Alfonso, E C

    2009-05-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening ocular infection. Outbreaks have been associated with contaminated water and contact lens wear. The epidemiology and pathology may be associated with unique genotypes. We determined the Rns genotype for 37 clinical isolates from 23 patients presenting at the University of Miami Bascom Palmer Eye Institute with confirmed AK infections in 2006 to 2008. The genus-specific ASA.S1 amplicon allowed for rapid genotyping of the nonaxenic cultures. Of the 37 isolates, 36 were of the T4 genotype. Within this group, 13 unique diagnostic fragment 3 sequences were identified, 3 of which were not in GenBank. The 37th isolate was a T5, the first in the United States and second worldwide to be found in AK. For five patients with isolates from the cornea and contact lens/case, identical sequences within each patient cluster were observed, confirming the link between contact lens contamination and AK infection. Genotyping is an important tool in the epidemiological study of AK. In this study, it allowed for the detection of new strains and provided an etiological link between source and infection. Additionally, it can allow for accurate categorizing of physiological differences, such as strain virulence, between isolates and clades.

  11. Oral T4-like phage cocktail application to healthy adult volunteers from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Shafiqul Alam, E-mail: sasarker@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); McCallin, Shawna; Barretto, Caroline [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Berger, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.berger@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Pittet, Anne-Cecile [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Sultana, Shamima, E-mail: shamima@icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Krause, Lutz, E-mail: ltz.krause@gmail.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Huq, Sayeda, E-mail: sayeeda@mail.icddrb.org [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), 68 Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sharani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Bibiloni, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Bibiloni@agresearch.co.nz [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruttin, Anne, E-mail: anne.bruttin@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Reuteler, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.reuteler@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland); Bruessow, Harald, E-mail: harald.bruessow@rdls.nestle.com [Nestle Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26 (Switzerland)

    2012-12-20

    The genomic diversity of 99 T4-like coliphages was investigated by sequencing an equimolar mixture with Illumina technology and screening them against different databases for horizontal gene transfer and undesired genes. A 9-phage cocktail was given to 15 healthy adults from Bangladesh at a dose of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} plaque-forming units and placebo respectively. Phages were detected in 64% of the stool samples when subjects were treated with higher titer phage, compared to 30% and 28% with lower-titer phage and placebo, respectively. No Escherichia coli was present in initial stool samples, and no amplification of phage was observed. One percent of the administered oral phage was recovered from the feces. No adverse events were observed by self-report, clinical examination, or from laboratory tests for liver, kidney, and hematology function. No impact of oral phage was seen on the fecal microbiota composition with respect to bacterial 16S rRNA from stool.

  12. Pourquoi le Grundgedanke (T. 4.0312 de Wittgenstein est si “Fondamental”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclerc

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La pensée fondamentale de Wittgenstein affirme que les constantes logiques ne représentent pas, ne fonctionnent pas sémantiquement comme des noms. En apparence triviale, cette pensée, nous le montrerons, à des ramifications étonnantes dans la philosophie du premier Wittgenstein, en particulier en ce qui concerne sa conception de la logique. Notre but est d'interpréter l'aphorisme en question (T. 4.0312 en montrant comment il se rapporte aux thèses et théories les plus importantes du Tractatus, et comment il permet de les faire tenir ensemble d'une façon cohérente, justifiant par là son caractère "fondamental". Nous tentons également d'apporter une réponse aux questions suivantes : les propositions complexes sont-elles encore - comme les propositions atomiques - des "images" de la réalité ? et quelle est cette "logique des faits" dont parle Wittgenstein dans l'aphorisme sous examen ?

  13. Phage T4 SegB protein is a homing endonuclease required for the preferred inheritance of T4 tRNA gene region occurring in co-infection with a related phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brok-Volchanskaya, Vera S; Kadyrov, Farid A; Sivogrivov, Dmitry E; Kolosov, Peter M; Sokolov, Andrey S; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Kryukov, Valentine M; Granovsky, Igor E

    2008-04-01

    Homing endonucleases initiate nonreciprocal transfer of DNA segments containing their own genes and the flanking sequences by cleaving the recipient DNA. Bacteriophage T4 segB gene, which is located in a cluster of tRNA genes, encodes a protein of unknown function, homologous to homing endonucleases of the GIY-YIG family. We demonstrate that SegB protein is a site-specific endonuclease, which produces mostly 3' 2-nt protruding ends at its DNA cleavage site. Analysis of SegB cleavage sites suggests that SegB recognizes a 27-bp sequence. It contains 11-bp conserved sequence, which corresponds to a conserved motif of tRNA TpsiC stem-loop, whereas the remainder of the recognition site is rather degenerate. T4-related phages T2L, RB1 and RB3 contain tRNA gene regions that are homologous to that of phage T4 but lack segB gene and several tRNA genes. In co-infections of phages T4 and T2L, segB gene is inherited with nearly 100% of efficiency. The preferred inheritance depends absolutely on the segB gene integrity and is accompanied by the loss of the T2L tRNA gene region markers. We suggest that SegB is a homing endonuclease that functions to ensure spreading of its own gene and the surrounding tRNA genes among T4-related phages.

  14. MMSET deregulation affects cell cycle progression and adhesion regulons in t(4;14) myeloma plasma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Jose L.R.; Walker, Brian; Jenner, Matthew; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Brown, Nicola J.M.; Ross, Fiona M.; Avramidou, Athanasia; Irving, Julie A.E.; Gonzalez, David; Davies, Faith E.; Morgan, Gareth J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The recurrent immunoglobulin translocation, t(4;14)(p16;q32) occurs in 15% of multiple myeloma patients and is associated with poor prognosis, through an unknown mechanism. The t(4;14) up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET) genes. The involvement of MMSET in the pathogenesis of t(4;14) multiple myeloma and the mechanism or genes deregulated by MMSET upregulation are still unclear. Design and Methods The expression of MMSET was analyzed using a novel antibody. The involvement of MMSET in t(4;14) myelomagenesis was assessed by small interfering RNA mediated knockdown combined with several biological assays. In addition, the differential gene expression of MMSET-induced knockdown was analyzed with expression microarrays. MMSET gene targets in primary patient material was analyzed by expression microarrays. Results We found that MMSET isoforms are expressed in multiple myeloma cell lines, being exclusively up-regulated in t(4;14)-positive cells. Suppression of MMSET expression affected cell proliferation by both decreasing cell viability and cell cycle progression of cells with the t(4;14) translocation. These findings were associated with reduced expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression (e.g. CCND2, CCNG1, BRCA1, AURKA and CHEK1), apoptosis (CASP1, CASP4 and FOXO3A) and cell adhesion (ADAM9 and DSG2). Furthermore, we identified genes involved in the latter processes that were differentially expressed in t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient samples. Conclusions In conclusion, dysregulation of MMSET affects the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, cell adhesion and survival. PMID:19059936

  15. T4 bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles for E. coli capturing: Influence of bacteriophage loading, temperature and tryptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2017-03-01

    This work demonstrates the use of bacteriophage conjugated magnetic particles (Fe 3 O 4 ) for the rapid capturing and isolation of Escherichia coli. The investigation of T4 bacteriophage adsorption to silane functionalised Fe 3 O 4 with amine (NH 2 ), carboxylic (COOH) and methyl (CH 3 ) surface functional groups reveals the domination of net electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in governing bacteriophage adsorption. The bare Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 with high T4 loading captured 3-fold more E. coli (∼70% capturing efficiency) compared to the low loading T4 on Fe 3 O 4 -COOH, suggesting the significance of T4 loading in E. coli capturing efficiency. Importantly, it is further revealed that E. coli capture is highly dependent on the incubation temperature and the presence of tryptone in the media. Effective E. coli capturing only occurs at 37°C in tryptone-containing media with the absence of either conditions resulted in poor bacteria capture. The incubation temperature dictates the capturing ability of Fe 3 O 4 /T4, whereby T4 and E. coli need to establish an irreversible binding that occurred at 37°C. The presence of tryptophan-rich tryptone in the suspending media was also critical, as shown by a 3-fold increase in E. coli capture efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 /T4 in tryptone-containing media compared to that in tryptone-free media. This highlights for the first time that successful bacteria capturing requires not only an optimum tailoring of the particle's surface physicochemical properties for favourable bacteriophage loading, but also an in-depth understanding of how factors, such as temperature and solution chemistry influence the subsequent bacteriophage-bacteria interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular interactions and residues involved in force generation in the T4 viral DNA packaging motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy D; Smith, Douglas E; Arya, Gaurav

    2014-12-12

    Many viruses utilize molecular motors to package their genomes into preformed capsids. A striking feature of these motors is their ability to generate large forces to drive DNA translocation against entropic, electrostatic, and bending forces resisting DNA confinement. A model based on recently resolved structures of the bacteriophage T4 motor protein gp17 suggests that this motor generates large forces by undergoing a conformational change from an extended to a compact state. This transition is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions between complementarily charged residues across the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains of gp17. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate in detail the molecular interactions and residues involved in such a compaction transition of gp17. We find that although electrostatic interactions between charged residues contribute significantly to the overall free energy change of compaction, interactions mediated by the uncharged residues are equally if not more important. We identify five charged residues and six uncharged residues at the interface that play a dominant role in the compaction transition and also reveal salt bridging, van der Waals, and solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions mediated by these residues in stabilizing the compact form of gp17. The formation of a salt bridge between Glu309 and Arg494 is found to be particularly crucial, consistent with experiments showing complete abrogation in packaging upon Glu309Lys mutation. The computed contributions of several other residues are also found to correlate well with single-molecule measurements of impairments in DNA translocation activity caused by site-directed mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The colloidal thyroxine (T4) ring as a novel biomarker of perchlorate exposure in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, F.; Sharma, Bibek; Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.; Carr, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in colloidal thyroxine (T4) immunoreactivity can be used as a biomarker of perchlorate exposure in amphibian thyroid tissue. Larval African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to 0, 1, 8, 93, and 1131 ??g perchlorate/l for 38 and 69 days to cover the normal period of larval development and metamorphosis. The results of this study confirmed the presence of an immunoreactive colloidal T4 ring in thyroid follicles of X. laevis and demonstrated that the intensity of this ring is reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by perchlorate exposure. The smallest effective concentration of perchlorate capable of significantly reducing colloidal T4 ring intensity was 8 ??g perchlorate/l. The intensity of the immunoreactive colloidal T4 ring is a more sensitive biomarker of perchlorate exposure than changes in hind limb length, forelimb emergence, tail resorption, thyrocyte hypertrophy, or colloid depletion. We conclude that the colloidal T4 ring can be used as a sensitive biomarker of perchlorate-induced thyroid disruption in amphibians. ?? Copyright 2006 Oxford University Press.

  18. Tools-4-Metatool (T4M): online suite of web-tools to process stoichiometric network analysis data from Metatool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Daniela; Vázquez, Sara; Higuera, Clara; Morán, Federico; Montero, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    Tools-4-Metatool (T4M) is a suite of web-tools, implemented in PERL, which analyses, parses, and manipulates files related to Metatool. Its main goal is to assist the work with Metatool. T4M has two major sets of tools: Analysis and Compare. Analysis visualizes the results of Metatool (convex basis, elementary flux modes, and enzyme subsets) and facilitates the study of metabolic networks. It is composed of five tools: MDigraph, MetaMatrix, CBGraph, EMGraph, and SortEM. Compare was developed to compare different Metatool results from different networks. This set consists of: Compara and ComparaSub which compare network subsets providing outputs in different formats and ComparaEM that seeks for identical elementary modes in two metabolic networks. The suite T4M also includes one script that generates Metatool input: CBasis2Metatool, based on a Metatool output file that is filtered by a list of convex basis' metabolites. Finally, the utility CheckMIn checks the consistency of the Metatool input file. T4M is available at http://solea.quim.ucm.es/t4m. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticles as Materials in Sensor Applications: Variables That Influence Their Organization and Assembly on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinny L. Liu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize a specific target. However, in order for T4 nanoparticles to be utilized as a sensor probe, it is necessary to understand and control the variables that determine their assembly and organization on a surface. The aim of this work is to discuss some of variables that we have identified as influencing the behavior of T4 nanoparticles on surfaces. The effect of pH, ionic strength, substrate characteristics, nanoparticle concentration and charge was addressed qualitatively using atomic force microscopy (AFM.

  20. T cell antigen receptor expression by subsets of Ly-2-L3T4- (CD8-CD4-) thymocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, A; Ewing, T; Owens, T

    1988-01-01

    . No positive cells were detected among Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes from V beta 8-negative SJL mice. In contrast to the adult thymus, Ly-2-L3T4- cells from embryonic CBA thymus lacked F23.1-positive cells. Subsets of adult CBA Ly-2-L3T4- thymocytes were separated to determine which expressed V beta 8. The major...... B2A2-M1/69- and Pgp-1+ all included strongly F23.1-positive cells. A minor subset, negative for most markers except Pgp-1 and presumed on the basis of this phenotype and some reconstitution studies to include the earliest intrathymic precursors, contained 28% F23.1-positive cells. However, no F.23...

  1. Enhancement of ultraviolet-DNA repair in denV gene transfectants and T4 endonuclease V-liposome recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibitel, J.T.; Yee, V.; Yarosh, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The phage T4 denV gene, coding for the pyrimidine-dimer specific T4 endonuclease V, was transfected into human repair-proficient fibroblasts, repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts, and wild type CHO hamster cells. Transfectants maintained denV DNA and expressed denV mRNA. Purified T4 endonuclease V encapsulated in liposomes was also used to treat repair-proficient and -deficient human cells. The denV transfected clones and liposome-treated cells showed increased unscheduled DNA synthesis and enhanced removal of pyrimidine dimers compared to controls. Both denV gene transfection and endonuclease V liposome treatment enhanced post-UV survival in xeroderma pigmentosum cells but had no effect on survival in repair-proficient human or hamster cells. The results demonstrate that an exogenous DNA repair enzyme can correct the DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells and enhance DNA repair in normal cells. (author)

  2. Actions of a proline analogue, L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C, on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Magdaleno

    Full Text Available It is well established that L-proline has several roles in the biology of trypanosomatids. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, this amino acid is involved in energy metabolism, differentiation processes and resistance to osmotic stress. In this study, we analyzed the effects of interfering with L-proline metabolism on the viability and on other aspects of the T. cruzi life cycle using the proline analogue L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C. The growth of epimastigotes was evaluated using different concentrations of T4C in standard culture conditions and at high temperature or acidic pH. We also evaluated possible interactions of this analogue with stress conditions such as those produced by nutrient starvation and oxidative stress. T4C showed a dose-response effect on epimastigote growth (IC(50 = 0.89+/-0.02 mM at 28 degrees C, and the inhibitory effect of this analogue was synergistic (p<0.05 with temperature (0.54+/-0.01 mM at 37 degrees C. T4C significantly diminished parasite survival (p<0.05 in combination with nutrient starvation and oxidative stress conditions. Pre-incubation of the parasites with L-proline resulted in a protective effect against oxidative stress, but this was not seen in the presence of the drug. Finally, the trypomastigote bursting from infected mammalian cells was evaluated and found to be inhibited by up to 56% when cells were treated with non-toxic concentrations of T4C (between 1 and 10 mM. All these data together suggest that T4C could be an interesting therapeutic drug if combined with others that affect, for example, oxidative stress. The data also support the participation of proline metabolism in the resistance to oxidative stress.

  3. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  4. Intervalos de referencia para concentraciones séricas de T3 y T4. Estudio preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Miranda Pantoja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la determinación cuantitativa de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 reviste gran importancia en el diagnóstico y la evaluación del hipertiroidismo, en especial del hipertiroidismo aislado causado por T3.Objetivo: establecer los intervalos de referencia de T3 y T4 en el laboratorio de medicina nuclear del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima de Cienfuegos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y prospectivo realizado mediante el método de radioinmunoanálisis, competencia que se establece entre la T3 y T4 sin marcar, y la marcada por un número limitado de los sitios de unión del anticuerpo específico. Al hacer reaccionar una cantidad fija de trazador y anticuerpo con diferentes cantidades del ligando sin marcar, la cantidad de trazador unido por el anticuerpo será inversamente proporcional a la concentración del ligando sin marcar. Resultados: los valores obtenidos se describen según una distribución gaussiana (media aritmética = 117, desviación estándar =31 para T4; media aritmética = 2,64, desviación estándar = 0,64 para T3, comprobado mediante un test de Chi cuadrado. Los rangos de valores normales obtenidos fueron de de 55 – 178 nmol/L y 1,4 – 3,9 nmol/L para T4 y T3 respectivamente. Conclusiones: los intervalos de referencia obtenidos resultaron más amplios que los propuestos por el productor, sobre todo en el caso de T4.

  5. Comparison of the cleavage of pyrimidine dimers by the bacteriophage T4 and Micrococcus luteus uv-specific endonucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.K.; Haseltine, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison was made of the activity of the uv-specific endonucleases of bacteriophage T4 (T4 endonuclease V) and of Micrococcus luteus on ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA substrates of defined sequence. The two enzyms cleave DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers with the same frequency. The products of the cleavage reaction are the same. The pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase activity of both enzymes is more active on double-stranded DNA than it is on single-stranded DNA

  6. Circadian variations of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in surgical and functional pinealectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Buntner, B.; Jarzab, B.; Kucharzewski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the regulatory influence of surgical and functional pinealectomy on circadian variations of thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) in male Wistar rats. The serum hormone levels were estimated with RIA method, and the circadian rhythm secretion was analyzed by means of cosinor method. Our study shows that there are marked differences in circadian fluctuations of T 3 and T 4 between the two generally used models of pinealectomy. (author). 55 refs, 4 figs

  7. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala; Niveis sericos de tiroxina (T4-RIA) e triiodotinonina (T3-RIA) em ovinos alimentados cm Leucaena Leucocephala LAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, J M; Rodriguez, N M [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria; Cardoso, W M [Maranhao Univ., Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Escola de Medicina Veterinaria; Velez, C E.S.

    1988-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab.

  8. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  9. The efficacy of superselective intra-arterial infusion in patients with T4 oral cancer. Comparison with conventional chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Keiichi; Arasaki, Akira; Kano, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Since 1985, we have applied systematic treatment to improve radicality and postoperative oral dysfunction, as well as maxillofacial deformity. However, most T4 cases of oral cancer have remained difficult to treat, and diverse methods and results for progressive cancer have been reported by many institutions. For high-grade malignancy cases, we changed the treatment from bleomycin or cisplatin in induction chemotherapy to targeted intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin with radiation-combined therapy. In this study, we compared the effects of conventional therapy with targeted intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin for T4 cases of oral cancer. In this retrospective review, we analyzed a subset of patients who were treated with induction chemotherapy using bleomycin (BLM) and targeted intra-arterial infusions of carboplatin (CBDCA) with radiation-combined therapy patients who received treatment between June 1985 and December 2006. Of the 105 patients who had T4 disease, the proportion with grade IIb to IV in the carboplatin with radiation-combined therapy (88.9%) was higher than that in induction chemotherapy (45.0%). Targeted chemoradiation therapy followed by surgical salvage is a highly effective approach for the regional control of patients with T4, although additional strategies are required to address the problem of distant metastases. (author)

  10. Thyroxine (T 4-RIA) and triiodothyronine (T 3-RIA) serum levels in sheep fed on Leucaena Leucocephala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, J.M.; Rodriguez, N.M.; Cardoso, W.M.; Velez, C.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala on thyroxine and triiodothyronine serum concentration. Results indicate that ovine T 4 and T 3 serum levels do not decrease with Leucaena leucocephala feeding, sohen proreided for 41 days. (author). 10 refs, 1 tab

  11. Investigation of the T4 and T6 heat treatment cycles of semi-solid processed aluminium alloy A356

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moller, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of the solution treatment time at 540 C from 6 hours to 1 hour does not alter the T4 or T6 tensile properties of the SSM processed A356 alloy. Slightly better impact properties are obtained with the shorter solution treatment. This could lead to time and energy...

  12. Esophageal motion characteristics in thoracic esophageal cancer: Impact of clinical stage T4 versus stages T1-T3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Kobayashi, MS

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The EM and the ITV margins in cT4 were significantly smaller than those in cT1-T3. The NM and the ITV margins of abdominal LNs were much larger than those of cervicothoracic LNs and the esophagus. In clinical radiation therapy planning for esophageal cancer, we should take cT stage into consideration.

  13. Development and characterization of radioimmunoassay methods for the measurement of iodothyronines (T4, T3 and rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, E.M.K.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Barros Maciel, R.M. de; Fonseca, R.M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The experience acquired in the development of radioimmunoassay for T 4 , T 3 and rT 3 in unextrated serum is described. Antisera were produced in rabbits using iodothyronines conjugated to bovine serum albumin: the antisera selected provided the development of sensitive and specific radioassay methods. Stable high activity T 3 , T 4 and rT 3 tracers were prepared by iodination of 3,5 T 2 , T 3 and 3,3' T 2 by the chloramine-T method, and purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G25. Binding of those iodothyronines to endogenous serum proteins was blocked by including 8-aniline-1-naphtalene sulphonic acid (ANSA) in the T 4 and T 3 assays and thymerosal in the rT 3 assay. Normal values were defined in 46 healthy euthyroid adults of both sexes: T 4 = 7,1 +- 1,3μg/dl; T 3 = 139 +- 35ng/dl and rT 3 = 18,0 +- 7,9ng/dl. (Author) [pt

  14. A clinical study on 125I T3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxin (T4) in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, E.S.; Park, Y.H.; Cho, C.H.; Park, I.S.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Total of 94 cases of hyperthyroidism were classified as toxic diffuse goiter (77 case) as toxic adematous goiter (8 case) and as toxic multinodular goiter (9 case) on the levels of T 3 - 125 I resin uptake rate and the measurement of serum T 4 levels. Various clinical symptoms and diagnostic characteristics were discussed. (author)

  15. Recovery of the accumulation ability of thiomethyl-β-galactoside in Escherichia coli after bacteriophage T4 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saijo, N.; Okamoto, K.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of uv-irradiated and unirradiated T4 phage infection on the β-galactoside accumulation ability in Escherichia coli have been examined by the use of 14 C-labeled thiomethyl-β-galactoside (TMG). Under conditions where a synchronous adsorption of phage takes place, the cellular ability for TMG accumulation is found to be largely inhibited immediately after phage adsorption but it recovers with time to a new level, which is dependent on the multiplicity of infection. When cells are infected with uv-irradiated T4 at the same multiplicity as that of unirradiated phage, the cellular accumulation ability is more severely inhibited and there is no recovery from the inhibition. The recovery process in T4-infected cells is mostly sensitive to puromycin. These results suggest that the initial inhibition of the TMG accumulation ability is probably caused by the adsorption of phage coats, and the subsequent restoration occurs through the action of a phage-directed protein(s). In the recovery process, no new transport system appears to be involved. The restored ability of TMG accumulation is resistant to the action of superinfecting uv phage. However, different mechanisms appear to be operating in T4-infected cells for the establishment of resistance to ghosts and for the recovery from the phage coat-induced inhibition

  16. Observation on the stability of the solid phase microparticles separating technique in T3, T4 radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Xunmin

    1995-01-01

    The solid phase T 3 ,T 4 RIA is adopted at various laboratories. The data analysis from the effective dose and quality control of samples indicates that the separation technique is of good effect and high stability. It is an effective separation technique for the quality control in RIA

  17. The development of T3-RIA, T4-RIA and TSH-IRMA for in vitro testing of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borza, V.; Neacsu, G.; Chariton, Despina

    1998-01-01

    Thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) are two principal thyroid hormones; the release of this hormones and control of different stages of their synthesis are performed by thyrotropin (TSH), secreted by pituitary gland. Also, T 3 and T 4 exert negative feed-back on the pituitary, inhibiting the release of TSH. The measurement of T 3 , T 4 content in un-extracted serum, correlated with TSH values are useful results for investigating the pituitary-thyroid axis. This paper describes radioimmunological procedures for the measurement of T 3 and T 4 using as separation method of the bound and free radiolabeled antigen, the precipitation of antigen-antibody complex by polyethyleneglycol (PEG). Antisera against T 3 , T 4 were produced by immunizing sheep with conjugates of the hormones and bovine albumin; T 3 and T 4 standards were made in horse serum free of these hormones. Binding of T 3 and T 4 to TBG in serum was inhibited by addition of 8-aniline-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANS). The separation of antigen-antibody complex was carried out using 25.5% PEG 6000. In order to develop a simple T 3 solid phase radioimmunoassay, in this paper the immobilization of anti-T 3 antibodies on polystyrene tubes is presented. The best results were obtained with an exposure time of anti-T 3 antibodies (diluted in buffer solution, pH 8.4-8.6) of 40 h at 4 o C. Also, in this study the preparation of 125 I labeled monoclonal antibody (Mab)-anti-TSH is described, which will be used as a component of a TSH-IRMA kit; this kit is to be realized in our department. 125 I - Mab anti-TSH has the following characteristics: specific activity = 20 - 24 μCi/μg and radioactive concentration ≅ 25 μCi/ml; also, the immunological properties of tracer were verified. The major results of this activity is that the total dependence on important kits will be eliminated and also, the costs will be reduced. (authors)

  18. The breast cancer antigen 5T4 interacts with Rab11, and is a target and regulator of Rab11 mediated trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Janelle L; Dave, Keyur; Gorman, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2018-06-01

    5T4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with limited expression in normal adult tissues and expression in some solid tumours. It is unclear whether 5T4 is preferentially expressed by stem or differentiated cell types. Modes of 5T4 regulation are unknown despite its ongoing development as a cancer immunotherapy target. Our aims were to clarify the differentiation status of 5T4 expressing cells in breast cancer and to understand the mechanism underlying 5T4 membrane presentation. We analysed 5T4 expression in breast cancer cell populations by flow cytometery and found that 5T4 is highly expressed on differentiated cells, where it localizes to focal adhesions. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified interactions between 5T4 and the membrane trafficking proteins Rab11, Rab18 and ARF6. Mechanistically we found that Rab11 and Rab18 have oppositional roles in controlling expression and surface presentation of 5T4. 5T4 depletion stabilizes Rab11 protein expression with a consequent stimulation transferrin surface labelling, indicating that 5T4 represses endocytic activity. Successful immunotherapeutic targeting of 5T4 requires surface presentation and different immunotherapy strategies require surface presentation versus endocytosis. While breast cancer cells with high 5T4 surface expression and rapid cell surface turnover would be susceptible to antibody-drug conjugates that rely on intracellular release, 5T4 positive cells with lower expression or lower turnover may still be responsive to T-cell mediated approaches. We find that endocytosis of 5T4 is strongly Rab11 dependent and as such Rab11 activity could affect the success or failure of 5T4-targetted immunotherapy, particularly for antibody-drug conjugate approaches. In fact, 5T4 itself represses Rab11 expression. This newly uncovered relationship between Rab11 and 5T4 suggests that breast tumours with high 5T4 expression may not have efficient endocytic uptake of 5T4-targetted immunotherapeutics

  19. Selenium deficiency inhibits the conversion of thyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) in chicken thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-lei; Wang, Cong-wu; Tan, Si-ran; Liang, Yang; Yao, Hai-dong; Zhang, Zi-wei; Xu, Shi-wen

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) influences the metabolism of thyroid hormones in mammals. However, the role of Se deficiency in the regulation of thyroid hormones in chickens is not well known. In the present study, we examined the levels of thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum and the mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken thyroids. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze the relationships between the selenoproteins. The results indicated that Se deficiency influenced the conversion of T4 to T3 and induced the accumulation of T4 and FT4. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of the selenoproteins were generally decreased by Se deficiency. The PCA showed that eight selenoproteins (deiodinase 1 (Dio1), Dio2, Dio3, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), selenoprotein i (Seli), selenoprotein u (Selu), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), and Gpx2) have similar trends, which indicated that they may play similar roles in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results showed that Se deficiency inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3 and decreased the levels of the crucial metabolic enzymes of the thyroid hormones, Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3, in chickens. In addition, the decreased selenoproteins (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Txnrd2, Seli, Selu, Gpx1, and Gpx2) induced by Se deficiency may indirectly limit the conversion of T4 to T3 in chicken thyroids. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the role of Se in the thyroid function of chickens.

  20. COMPARACIÓN DE LOS NIVELES SÉRICOS DE TSH Y T4 LIBRE EN BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Osorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar los niveles de TSH y T4 libre (T4L en bovinos, diferenciados por género y edad, y conocer su comportamiento frente a dichas variables. Se obtuvieron 133 muestras de sangre de bovinos F1 en estado de ayuno y con ellas se establecieron cuatro grupos (36 machos y 20 hembras menores de 18 meses y 47 machos y 30 hembras mayores de 24 meses. Se determinaron los niveles de TSH y T4L mediante inmunoensayo enzimático. Los valores promedio de TSH (μUI/ml fueron de 1,86 para las hembras jóvenes y adultas, 1,88 para los machos jóvenes y 1,99 para los machos adultos. El valor P del test F fue mayor a 0,05 en todos los grupos y, por lo tanto, no hay diferencia estadísticamente significativa, con una confiabilidad del 95%. Los valores promedio de T4L (ng/dl para hembras jóvenes, hembras adultas, machos jóvenes y machos adultos fueron de 0,84; 0,62; 0,67 y 0,85, respectivamente. El valor P del test F fue menor a 0,05 en todos los grupos, indicando diferencia estadísticamente significativa, con 95% de confiabilidad. En conclusión, no se encontraron efectos de sexo y edad sobre las concentraciones de TSH, mientras que los niveles de T4L exhiben diferencia significativa entre estas variables; en efecto, entre los bovinos jóvenes, las hembras tienen niveles más elevados; por su parte, en los adultos, son los machos los que presentan valores superiores.

  1. The epidemiologic study: the serum levels of TSH, T4, T3 and autoantibodies in the Polish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardas, A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1986-1990 epidemiologic studies on the thyroid diseased frequency in the Polish population were undertaken. During this studies the serum levels of TSH, T 4 , T 3 and autoantibodies were estimated in more then 30 thousand people. TSH was estimated in 30749, T 4 in 30928, T 3 in 30621 and autoantibodies in 31265 randomly chosen people in 5 districts. We have arbitrarily established the normal range for TSH to be between 0.4-3.8 μIU/ml, for T 4 4.4-12.5 μg and for T 3 0.9-1.95 ng/ml. The tested group has been divide in 4 subgroup: girls and boys from 1 to 15 years of age of the Chernobyl accident, men and women from 15 to 50 years of age at the date of the accident. TSH values in the normal range were found in 85 to 92% of the tested population, depending on the subgroup. T 4 vales in the normal range were found in 85 to 92% of the tested groups. T 3 vales in the normal range were found in 86 to 93% of the tested groups. The absence on any kind of autoantibodies was established in 89.7% of the tested population. TSH values was above the normal range (above 3.8 μIU/ml) in 3.4% of boys, 4.3% girls, 3.2% men and 3.8% women. TSH vales below the normal range (less the 0.4 μIU/ml) were found in 4.3% boys, 5% girls, 10% men and 11.2% women. T 4 values above the normal range (higher then 12.5 μg%) were found in 12.9% boys, 12.6% girls, 4.6% men and 5.9% women. T 4 vales below the normal range (less then 4.4 μg%) were detected in 0.9% boys, 1.4% girls, 2.4% men and 2.0% women. T 3 values higher then 1.95 ng/ml were found in 10.8% of boys, 11.5% girls, 2.6% men and 3.5% women. The percentage of values above of below the arbitrarily chosen normal range depends on the age and sex group. (author). 5 refs, 4 tabs

  2. A Clinical Study on 125IT3 Resin Uptake Rate and Serum Thyroxin(T4) in Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MooN, Ern Soo; Park, Yoh Han; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, In Soo; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1978-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism may be defined as those clinical conditions which result from an increase in the circulating levels of one or both thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism in broad sense could be classified with toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter on the basis of the circulating thyroid hormone levels. For this study, the subject included 94 cases with hyperthyroidism were presented in 77 with toxic diffuse goiter, 8 with toxic adenomatous goiter, and 9 with toxic multinodular goiter on the levels of 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxine (T 4 ). The observed results were as follows: 1) In the cases of hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter, 20.21% of the patients were male and 79.79% female. The majority of the patients were in 2nd to 4th decades of their lives. 2) There were objective signs clearly manifested in hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter which were rare in the multinodular goiter. The clinical signs in toxic diffuse and toxic adenomatous goiter included wide pulse pressure, tachycardia, systolic murmur, exophthalmos, tremor and warm skin etc. 3) The most frequent complaints of the patients with hyperthyroidism were palpitation, weight loss, increased appetite, perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, exertional dyspnea, and menstrual disturbance etc. There was no clear difference in the incidence of symptoms between toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter, but there was clear difference between toxic multinodular goiter. 4) Considering of results of 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate and serum T 4 level in toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter and toxic multinodular goiter, 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate was 49.15±9.94% (mean) and serum T 4 21.29±7.04 ug/dl (mean) in toxic diffuse goiter. In toxic multinodular goiter, 125 I T 3 resin uptake rate was 32.47±6.74% (mean) and serum T 4 level 11.03

  3. HUBUNGAN KANDUNGAN KLOR SERUM DENGAN HORMON T3/T4 PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DI DAERAH GONDOK ENDEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukati Saidin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ASSOCIATION OF SERUM CHLOR CONTENT WITH T3/T4 HORMONEIN SCHOOL CHILDREN IN IODINE DEFICIENCY REGION.Background: The National Mapping Survey of IDD (1998 found that 7% of sub districts In Indonesia was regarded as severe endemic goitre area (TGR>30%. The high TGR prevalence, beside as a result of low iodized salt consumption (< 30 ppm, It was assumed as the effect of exposure of goitrogenic agent such as chlorine. Based on observation in Karawang sub district showed people had food habit to consume fish contaminated by insecticide used for killing milk fish predator or salted fish which had also contaminated by insecticide used during process of fish drying. Insecticide raw material consists of chlorine which can not be broken by heat or oxidation. Previous study by Gaitan E. (1986 found that chlorine component could inhibit iodine metabolism to form mono and di-iodotyrosine as precursor of T3 and T4 hormones.Objectives: The aim of this study was to find an association of serum chlorine as a reflection of chlorine consumption from daily food with T3 and T4 hormone.Methods: Research design was case control. Study was conducted in Karawang district, West Java. The subject were elementary school children in the fourth, fifth and sixth grades with positive goitre at grade I and II by palpation. Sample size was 140 children divided into two groups, case group (70 children and control group (70 children. Main data collected was chlorine consumption from daily food, serum chlorine, serum T3 and T4 hormones as well as anthropometries.Results: The result showed that chlorine consumption from food was relatively greater in case group (135.9 ugr/day than in control group (129.9 ug/day but statistically it was not significant. Serum chlorine content in case group (1 14.8 mmol/L was significantly higher than in control group (102.1 mmol/L. Serum T4 hormone in case group (7.3 ug/dl was significantly lower than in control group (9.5 ug/dl. Serum T3 hormone in

  4. Inactivation of T4-phages by heat and γ-irradiation treatment in respect to sludge hygienization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farniok, C.; Turanitz, K.; Stehlik, G.; Meyrath, J.

    1977-04-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation, heat treatment and combined heat/irradiation treatments on T 4 -bacteriophages were studied and evaluated in surviving fractions. To ascertain the extent of inactivation, the formation of plaque was studied in the host organism Escherichia coli K 12 D 10. A 90-minute heat treatment of the bacteriolysat at 55 0 C did not inactivate the bacteriophages, whereas the number of plaque-forming bacteriophages was decreased by 50% at 60 0 C. At 65 0 C a linear correlation of heating period and the logarithm of relative number of phages was observed. After 30 minutes exposure to 70 0 C only few bacteriophages were traced in the plaque test. By inactivation of T 4 -phages after exposure to γ-irradiation a linear correlation of irradiation dose and the logarithm of the relative number of surviving bacteriophages was found. The combined method of heat and irradiation treatments resulted in a synergistic effect. (author)

  5. Enhanced unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated human skin explants treated with T4N5 liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarosh, D.B.; Kibitel, J.T.; Green, L.A.; Spinowitz, A.

    1991-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes cultured from explants of skin cancer patients, including biopsies from xeroderma pigmentosum patients, were ultraviolet light-irradiated and DNA repair synthesis was measured. Repair capacity was much lower in xeroderma pigmentosum patients than in normal patients. The extent of DNA repair replication did not decline with the age of the normal patient. Treatment with T4N5 liposomes containing a DNA repair enzyme enhanced repair synthesis in both normal and xeroderma pigmentosum keratinocytes in an irradiation- and liposome-dose dependent manner. These results provide no evidence that aging people or skin cancer patients are predisposed to cutaneous malignancy by a DNA repair deficiency, but do demonstrate that T4N5 liposomes enhance DNA repair in the keratinocytes of the susceptible xeroderma pigmentosum and skin cancer population

  6. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhondali, Zahra; Badavi, Mohammad; Dianat, Mahin, E-mail: dianat@ajums.ac.ir; Faraji, Farzaneh [Physiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR), myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes). This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage); P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water); A group (apelin 200 µg.kg{sup -1}.day{sup -1}, ip); PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage)]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4). All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (12 mg/kg). Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively). The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  7. Co-administration of Apelin and T4 Protects Inotropic and Chronotropic Changes Occurring in Hypothyroid Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akhondali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: One of the most important thyroid hormone targets is the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic changes, such as decreased resting heart rate (HR, myocardial contractility, and cardiac output, and increased diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance, have been observed in hypothyroid patients. Moreover, in these patients, ECG changes include sinus bradycardia and low voltage complexes (P waves or QRS complexes. Objective: This study aimed at evaluating the prophylactic effect of apelin on HR changes and QRS voltage that occur in propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Method: In this study, 48 adult male Wistar rats weighing 170-235g were randomly divided into 6 groups: Control group (normal saline ip injection + tap water gavage; P group (PTU 0.05%, in drinking water; A group (apelin 200 µg.kg-1.day-1, ip; PA group [co-administration of PTU and apelin]; PT group [co-administration of PTU + T4 (0.2 mg/g per day, gavage]; and PAT group (co-administration of PTU, apelin and T4. All experiments were performed for 28 consecutive days, and then the animals were anesthetized with an ip injection of ketamine (80 mg/kg and xylazine (12 mg/kg. Lead II electrocardiogram was recorded to calculate HR and QRS voltage. Results: Heart rate and QRS voltage increased more significantly in the hypothyroid group that consumed both apelin and T4 (201 ± 4 beat/min, 0.71 ± 0.02 mv vs. hypothyroid 145 ± 9 beat/min, 0.563 ± 0.015 mv; respectively. Conclusion: The co-administration of apelin and T4 showed a protective effect on QRS voltage and HR in PTU‑induced hypothyroid rats.

  8. Metal ions-binding T4 lysozyme as an intramolecular protein purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřa, Evžen; Bäumlová, Adriana; Chalupská, Dominika; Dubánková, Anna; Klíma, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 1116-1123 ISSN 0961-8368 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-07058Y; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phage T4 * lysozyme * endolysin * histidine tag * protein purification * crystal structure Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2016

  9. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, total and free T4 during the neonatal period: Establishing regional reference intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sheikhbahaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH, the most common etiology of preventable mental retardation in children, is estimated to be more prevalent among Asian population. Aims: Since thyroid function tests (TFTs varied among different ages and geographical regions, in this study, the neonatal thyroid reference intervals in a healthy neonatal population is determined for the first time in Iran. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study performed on 246 healthy term newborns aged between 2 days and 1 month. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture from all subjects. The median, 2.5 th , 5 th , 95 th , and 97.5 th percentile of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, as well as the total and free T4 were assessed among different age groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Predictive Analytics Software (PASW Statistics 18 was used for the analysis. Results: Serum TSH, total and free T4 concentration peaked in 5 th to 7 th days of life, continued over 2 weeks, then decreased and started reaching to adult reference range. A significant negative correlation between age and serum concentration of TSH (P = 0.02, total T4 (P = 0.01 and free T4 (P = 0.01 was found. Conclusion: This study yielded fairly different values for TFTs compared compared values found in other countries and also different from values reported for laboratory kits we used. These differences were assumed to be due to variations in ethnicity, age, and laboratory methods used. Due to the lack of international standardization, conducting multicenter studies helps in making a more precise evaluation of thyroid status in neonates.

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for T4 and/or M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Yoshinori; Seki, Shigeki [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akira

    2000-07-01

    A phase II study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Fifty-four patients with clinical T4 and/or M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were enrolled. Patients received protracted infusions of fluorouracil 400 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours on days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12, 2-hour infusions of cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 and 8, and concurrent radiotherapy at a dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Filgrastim was prophylactically administered to 35 patients. This schedule was repeated twice every 5 weeks, for a total radiation dose of 60 Gy followed by two courses of fluorouracil (800 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours for 5 days) and cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1). There were 36 patients with T4 disease and 33 with M1 LYM. Forty-nine patients (91%) completed the chemoradiotherapy segment. The 18 patients (33%) who achieved a complete response included nine (25%) of the 36 with T4 disease and nine (50%) of the 18 with non-T4 disease. Major toxicities were leukopenia and esophagitis; there were four (7%) treatment-related deaths. Prophylactic filgrastim reduced the incidence of grade 3 or worse leukopenia without improving dose-intensity or response. With a median follow-up duration of 43 months, median survival time was 9 months. The 3-year survival rate was 23%. Despite its significant toxicity, this combined modality seemed to have curative potential even in cases of locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. (author)

  11. Degradation of Phytate Pentamagnesium Salt by Bacillus sp. T4 Phytase as a Potential Eco-friendly Feed Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inkyung; Lee, Jaekoo; Cho, Jaiesoon

    2012-01-01

    A bacterial isolate derived from soil samples near a cattle farm was found to display extracellular phytase activity. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strain was named Bacillus sp. T4. The optimum temperature for the phytase activity toward magnesium phytate (Mg-InsP6) was 40°C without 5 mM Ca2+ and 50°C with 5 mM Ca2+. T4 phytase had a characteristic bi-hump two pH optima of 6.0 to 6.5 and 7.4 for Mg-InsP6. The enzyme showed higher specificity for Mg-InsP6 than sodium phytate (Na-InsP6). Its activity was fairly inhibited by EDTA, Cu2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ba2+ and Zn2+. T4 phytase may have great potential for use as an eco-friendly feed additive to enhance the nutritive quality of phytate and reduce phosphorus pollution. PMID:25049504

  12. Changes in Serum TSH and T4 Levels after Switching the Levothyroxine Administration Time from before Breakfast to before Dinner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Levothyroxine is commonly used in the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine is most often administered in the morning, on an empty stomach, in order to increase its oral absorption. However, many patients have difficulties taking levothyroxine in the morning. Aim. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of changing levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner on the serum levels of TSH and T4. Subjects and Methods. Fifty patients between 18 and 75 years old with hypothyroidism were included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received two tablets per day (one levothyroxine tablet and one placebo tablet 30 minutes before breakfast and 1 hour before dinner. After two months, the administration time for the tablets was changed for each group, and the new schedule was continued for a further two-month period. The serum TSH and T4 levels were measured before and after treatment in each group. Results. Changing the levothyroxine administration time resulted in 1.47 ± 0.51 µIU/mL increase in TSH level (p=0.001 and 0.35 ± 1.05 µg/dL decrease in T4 level (p=0.3. Conclusions. Changing the levothyroxine administration time from before breakfast to before dinner reduced the therapeutic efficacy of levothyroxine.

  13. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi; Cohen, Roger B.; Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N.; Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Lin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  14. Phase II Study of Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy With S-1 in Patients With T4 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Tomoko; Murakami, Ryuji; Toya, Ryo; Teshima, Keiko; Nakahara, Aya; Hirai, Toshinori; Hiraki, Akimitsu; Nakayama, Hideki; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazutoshi; Obayashi, Takehisa; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Oya, Natsuo; Shinohara, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, in patients with T4 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Only patients with histologically proven T4 oral SCC were included. Radiotherapy (total dose, 30 Gy) was delivered in 2-Gy daily fractions over a period of 3 weeks. Concurrently, S-1 (80 mg/m 2 /day) was administered orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Results: We enrolled 46 patients. All underwent radiotherapy as planned; however, oral S-1 was discontinued in 3 patients who manifested acute toxicity. Grade 3 toxicities were mucositis (20%), anorexia (9%), and neutropenia (4%). We encountered no Grade 4 adverse events or serious postoperative morbidity requiring surgical intervention. After CCRT, 32 of the 46 patients underwent radical resection; in 17 (53%) of the operated patients, the pathologic response was complete. During follow-up ranging from 7 to 58 months (median, 22 months), tumor control failed in 5 (16%) of the 32 operated patients; there were 3 local and 2 regional failures. Of the 14 non-operated patients, 8 (57%) manifested local (n = 7) or regional failure (n = 1). The 3-year overall survival rate for all 46 patients was 69%; it was significantly higher for operated than for non-operated patients (82% vs. 48%; p = 0.0288). Conclusion: Preoperative CCRT with S-1 is feasible and effective in patients with T4 oral SCC. Even in inoperable cases, CCRT with S-1 provides adequate tumor control.

  15. Aging Behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC Composite in T4 and T6 Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Melby Chacko; Jagannath Nayak

    2014-01-01

    The aging behaviour of 6061 Al-15 vol% SiC composite was investigated using Rockwell B hardness measurement. The composite was solutionized at 350°C and quenched in water. The composite was aged at room temperature (T4 treatment) and also at 140°C, 160°C, 180°C and 200°C (T6 treatment). The natural and artificial aging behaviour of composite was studied using aging curves determined at different temperatures. The aging period for peak aging for different temperatures was identified. The time ...

  16. Interlaboratory survey for T3 and T4 assays in Italy: results from a two semester period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilo, A.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Chiesa, M.R.; Piro, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of external quality control schemes (EQCS) is generally acknowledged in clinical chemistry; these schemes allow not only the evaluation of the between-laboratory variability of the assay under study, but also make it possible the improvement of the analytical performances of the participants laboratories. Recently interlaboratory surveys have been extended to radioimmunoassays. Starting from january 1980, a national EQCS hormone assays was organized in Italy; triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) have been the first assays considered due to their large diffusion

  17. Mutated and Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle Arrayed F1-V Immunogens from Yersinia pestis as Next Generation Plague Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Kirtley, Michelle L.; van Lier, Christina J.; Sha, Jian; Yeager, Linsey A.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is a highly virulent infectious disease with 100% mortality rate, and its causative organism Yersinia pestis poses a serious threat for deliberate use as a bioterror agent. Currently, there is no FDA approved vaccine against plague. The polymeric bacterial capsular protein F1, a key component of the currently tested bivalent subunit vaccine consisting, in addition, of low calcium response V antigen, has high propensity to aggregate, thus affecting its purification and vaccine efficacy. We used two basic approaches, structure-based immunogen design and phage T4 nanoparticle delivery, to construct new plague vaccines that provided complete protection against pneumonic plague. The NH2-terminal β-strand of F1 was transplanted to the COOH-terminus and the sequence flanking the β-strand was duplicated to eliminate polymerization but to retain the T cell epitopes. The mutated F1 was fused to the V antigen, a key virulence factor that forms the tip of the type three secretion system (T3SS). The F1mut-V protein showed a dramatic switch in solubility, producing a completely soluble monomer. The F1mut-V was then arrayed on phage T4 nanoparticle via the small outer capsid protein, Soc. The F1mut-V monomer was robustly immunogenic and the T4-decorated F1mut-V without any adjuvant induced balanced TH1 and TH2 responses in mice. Inclusion of an oligomerization-deficient YscF, another component of the T3SS, showed a slight enhancement in the potency of F1-V vaccine, while deletion of the putative immunomodulatory sequence of the V antigen did not improve the vaccine efficacy. Both the soluble (purified F1mut-V mixed with alhydrogel) and T4 decorated F1mut-V (no adjuvant) provided 100% protection to mice and rats against pneumonic plague evoked by high doses of Y. pestis CO92. These novel platforms might lead to efficacious and easily manufacturable next generation plague vaccines. PMID:23853602

  18. Mutated and bacteriophage T4 nanoparticle arrayed F1-V immunogens from Yersinia pestis as next generation plague vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Tao

    Full Text Available Pneumonic plague is a highly virulent infectious disease with 100% mortality rate, and its causative organism Yersinia pestis poses a serious threat for deliberate use as a bioterror agent. Currently, there is no FDA approved vaccine against plague. The polymeric bacterial capsular protein F1, a key component of the currently tested bivalent subunit vaccine consisting, in addition, of low calcium response V antigen, has high propensity to aggregate, thus affecting its purification and vaccine efficacy. We used two basic approaches, structure-based immunogen design and phage T4 nanoparticle delivery, to construct new plague vaccines that provided complete protection against pneumonic plague. The NH₂-terminal β-strand of F1 was transplanted to the COOH-terminus and the sequence flanking the β-strand was duplicated to eliminate polymerization but to retain the T cell epitopes. The mutated F1 was fused to the V antigen, a key virulence factor that forms the tip of the type three secretion system (T3SS. The F1mut-V protein showed a dramatic switch in solubility, producing a completely soluble monomer. The F1mut-V was then arrayed on phage T4 nanoparticle via the small outer capsid protein, Soc. The F1mut-V monomer was robustly immunogenic and the T4-decorated F1mut-V without any adjuvant induced balanced TH1 and TH2 responses in mice. Inclusion of an oligomerization-deficient YscF, another component of the T3SS, showed a slight enhancement in the potency of F1-V vaccine, while deletion of the putative immunomodulatory sequence of the V antigen did not improve the vaccine efficacy. Both the soluble (purified F1mut-V mixed with alhydrogel and T4 decorated F1mut-V (no adjuvant provided 100% protection to mice and rats against pneumonic plague evoked by high doses of Y. pestis CO92. These novel platforms might lead to efficacious and easily manufacturable next generation plague vaccines.

  19. Preparation of quality control samples for its use in the radioimmunoassay de T3, T4 and TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalley E, C.; Delgado S, B.; Ruiz J, A.; Zambrano A, F.

    1991-09-01

    The use of quality control samples is necessary to evaluate, in a very simple way, the quality of the assays in the radioimmunoanalysis, since allows to settle down a quality control intra and inter analysis. In this work the methodology used for the preparation of these samples with low, media and high concentration for hormones related with the thyroid is shown, being obtained the following concentrations: 50, 200 and 500 ng/dl for T 3 ; 5.6, 7.8 and 14.4 μ g/dl for T 4 and 5.4, 13.4 and >50 μ U I/ml for TSH. (Author)

  20. Tool material effect on the friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 Alloy Matrix MMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Bozkurt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study on the effect of material properties tool on friction stir butt welding of AA2124-T4 alloy matrix MMC. Uncoated tool, coated tool with a CrN, and coated tool with AlTiN were used to weld aluminum MMC plates. Macrostructure and microstructure observations, ultimate tensile strength, wear resistance, and chemical analysis were carried out to determine the appropriate tool for joining these composite plates. Results showed that the good welded joints could be obtained when a tool is coated with AlTiN.

  1. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of the phytochemical resveratrol as a preventive agent against the growth of t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) ALL line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by ...

  2. Early protection events in swine immunized with an experimental live attenuated classical swine fever marker vaccine, FlagT4G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Holinka

    Full Text Available Prophylactic vaccination using live attenuated classical swine fever (CSF vaccines has been a very effective method to control the disease in endemic regions and during outbreaks in previously disease-free areas. These vaccines confer effective protection against the disease at early times post-vaccination although the mechanisms mediating the protection are poorly characterized. Here we present the events occurring after the administration of our in-house developed live attenuated marker vaccine, FlagT4Gv. We previously reported that FlagT4Gv intramuscular (IM administered conferred effective protection against intranasal challenge with virulent CSFV (BICv as early as 7 days post-vaccination. Here we report that FlagT4Gv is able to induce protection against disease as early as three days post-vaccination. Immunohistochemical testing of tissues from FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals showed that tonsils were colonized by the vaccine virus by day 3 post-inoculation. There was a complete absence of BICv in tonsils of FlagT4Gv-inoculated animals which had been intranasal (IN challenged with BICv 3 days after FlagT4Gv infection, confirming that FlagT4Gv inoculation confers sterile immunity. Analysis of systemic levels of 19 different cytokines in vaccinated animals demonstrated an increase of IFN-α three days after FlagT4Gv inoculation compared with mock infected controls.

  3. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  4. Thyroxine (T4) radioimmunoassay using filter paper dried blood sample: an attempt for screening of neonates for hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Hussain, R.; Ahmed, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a sensitive but simple and less expensive method suitable for estimation of thyroxine (T 4 ) level. Deficiency of iodine during fetal life results in neonatal hypothyroidism and critinism. Frequency of neonatal hypothyroidism is 1 in 5000 to 7000 in countries having iodine deficiency. It is therefore important to diagnose the neonatal hypothyroidism as soon as possible after birth. The estimation of thyroxine has been found to the a reliable index for diagnosis of hypothyroidism and has long been used for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. In the present study, instead of serum sample, a 6 mm disc of filter paper containing dried blood sample was used. The test was carried out in the laboratory with 40 samples. As compared to the sensitivity of serum sample technique which is 15.19 n mol/L, the filter paper technique has the sensitivity of 17.23 n mol/L. The work revealed that the T 4 concentration do not depend upon the amount of blood on the filter paper. Effect of temperature on filter paper disc was evaluated at 4 o c, at 25 o c and at 37 o c. Results obtained showed significant variation and the best result was obtained for the sample kept at 4 o c. The method is simple, rapid, less expensive and needs a small amount of blood and is, therefore, a useful technique for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 4 tables (author)

  5. Bacteriophage T4 gene 32 participates in excision repair as well as recombinational repair of UV damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosig, G.

    1985-01-01

    Gene 32 of phage T4 has been shown previously to be involved in recombinational repair of UV damages but, based on a mutant study, was thought not to be required for excision repair. However, a comparison of UV-inactivation curves of several gene 32 mutants grown under conditions permissive for progeny production in wild-type or polA- hosts demonstrates that gene 32 participates in both kinds of repair. Different gene 32 mutations differentially inactivate these repair functions. Under conditions permissive for DNA replication and progeny production, all gene 32 mutants investigated here are partially defective in recombinational repair, whereas only two of them, P7 and P401, are also defective in excision repair. P401 is the only mutant whose final slope of the inactivation curve is significantly steeper than that of wild-type T4. These results are discussed in terms of interactions of gp32, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, with DNA and with other proteins

  6. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  7. Serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Lin.) raised in Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.O.A. da.

    1991-08-01

    Through the use of radioimmunoassay (RIA) it was determined blood serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) (n=78) for two different water buffalo racial groups. Blood serum was collected from young and adult animals belonging to two farms in Castanhal country, state of Para, Brazil, through the year of 1988. The serum levels of T 3 and T 4 were statistically correlated with climatic parameters, e.g., pluviometric precipitation, environmental temperature, humidity, light intensity variation and physiological factors such as age, breed and sex. It was identified two seasons during experiment, one season the rainfall period with high precipitation rates and the other one was considered as dry season, with low precipitation rates. The average rate of temperature and humidity have shown no significant statistic difference between the two seasons. On the other hand, it was found a significant relationship between luminosity and seasons, since when the luminosity decreases the pluviometric rates increases. (author). 51 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  8. Behaviour of hormone parameters and equivalent iodide clearance (TcTu) on suppressive T4 treatment of enthyroid struma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greis, W.

    1978-01-01

    84 patients with euthyroid diffuse struma were stabilised at the individually necessary thyroxine dose by means of TcTU, T 4 , and NTR. As long-term medication, 100μg l-thyroxin were required in 143% of the patients, 150 μg in 83.3% of the patients, and 200 μg in 2.4% of the patients. After 8 to 12 weeks of therapy, the TcTU as an estimate of the iodide clearance was suppressed to 0.1 to 3.5 ( x +- s). T 4 and NTR values were near the upper limit of the normal at a normal T 3 level. After administration of 150 μg thyroxine per day for 12 weeks and 200μg thyroxine for 4 weeks, TcTU is suppressed to a comparable extent while the weaker suppressive effect of a 12 weeks' medication with 100μg thyroxine could not be improved even by a prolonged therapy. After one year of treatment, calculations of the thyroid surface in scintiscans showed a successful therapy in 82% of the patients while the circumference of the neck had become smaller only in 60% of the patients. Therapy was generally less successful in patients over 18 years of age. (orig.) [de

  9. Interaction of bacteriophage T4 and T7 single-stranded DNA-binding proteins with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Leila; Williams, Mark C; Rouzina, Ioulia

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages T4 and T7 are well-studied model replication systems, which have allowed researchers to determine the roles of many proteins central to DNA replication, recombination and repair. Here we summarize and discuss the results from two recently developed single-molecule methods to determine the salt-dependent DNA-binding kinetics and thermodynamics of the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins (SSBs) from these systems. We use these methods to characterize both the equilibrium double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and ssDNA binding of the SSBs T4 gene 32 protein (gp32) and T7 gene 2.5 protein (gp2.5). Despite the overall two-orders-of-magnitude weaker binding of gp2.5 to both forms of DNA, we find that both proteins exhibit four-orders-of-magnitude preferential binding to ssDNA relative to dsDNA. This strong preferential ssDNA binding as well as the weak dsDNA binding is essential for the ability of both proteins to search dsDNA in one dimension to find available ssDNA-binding sites at the replication fork

  10. Top-down controls on bacterial community structure: microbial network analysis of bacteria, T4-like viruses and protists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Kim, Diane Y; Sachdeva, Rohan; Caron, David A; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing ecological relationships between viruses, bacteria and protists in the ocean are critical to understanding ecosystem function, yet these relationships are infrequently investigated together. We evaluated these relationships through microbial association network analysis of samples collected approximately monthly from March 2008 to January 2011 in the surface ocean (0–5 m) at the San Pedro Ocean Time series station. Bacterial, T4-like myoviral and protistan communities were described by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding the major capsid protein (g23) and 18S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Concurrent shifts in community structure suggested similar timing of responses to environmental and biological parameters. We linked T4-like myoviral, bacterial and protistan operational taxonomic units by local similarity correlations, which were then visualized as association networks. Network links (correlations) potentially represent synergistic and antagonistic relationships such as viral lysis, grazing, competition or other interactions. We found that virus–bacteria relationships were more cross-linked than protist–bacteria relationships, suggestive of increased taxonomic specificity in virus–bacteria relationships. We also found that 80% of bacterial–protist and 74% of bacterial–viral correlations were positive, with the latter suggesting that at monthly and seasonal timescales, viruses may be following their hosts more often than controlling host abundance. PMID:24196323

  11. Computational study of hydration at the TD damaged site of DNA in complex with repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinak, Miroslav [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    An analysis of the distribution of water around DNA surface focusing on the role of the distribution of water molecules in the proper recognition of damaged site by repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V was performed. The native DNA dodecamer, dodecamer with the thymine dimer (TD) and complex of DNA and part of repair enzyme T4 Endonuclease V were examined throughout the 500 ps of molecular dynamics simulation. During simulation the number of water molecules close to the DNA atoms and the residence time were calculated. There is an increase in number of water molecules lying in the close vicinity to TD if compared with those lying close to two native thymines (TT). Densely populated area with water molecules around TD is one of the factors detected by enzyme during scanning process. The residence time was found higher for molecule of the complex and the six water molecules were found occupying the stabile positions between the TD and catalytic center close to atoms P, C3' and N3. These molecules originate water mediated hydrogen bond network that contribute to the stability of complex required for the onset of repair process. (author)

  12. Thyroxine (T4) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thryoxine, Serum 485 p. Lab Tests ...

  13. t4 Workshop Report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleensang, Andre; Maertens, Alexandra; Rosenberg, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Lamb, Justin; Auerbach, Scott; Brennan, Richard; Crofton, Kevin M.; Gordon, Ben; Fornace, Albert J.; Gaido, Kevin; Gerhold, David; Haw, Robin; Henney, Adriano; Ma’ayan, Avi; McBride, Mary; Monti, Stefano; Ochs, Michael F.; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sharan, Roded; Stierum, Rob; Tugendreich, Stuart; Willett, Catherine; Wittwehr, Clemens; Xia, Jianguo; Patton, Geoffrey W.; Arvidson, Kirk; Bouhifd, Mounir; Hogberg, Helena T.; Luechtefeld, Thomas; Smirnova, Lena; Zhao, Liang; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Kanehisa, Minoru; Carmichael, Paul; Andersen, Melvin E.; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite wide-spread consensus on the need to transform toxicology and risk assessment in order to keep pace with technological and computational changes that have revolutionized the life sciences, there remains much work to be done to achieve the vision of toxicology based on a mechanistic foundation. A workshop was organized to explore one key aspect of this transformation – the development of Pathways of Toxicity (PoT) as a key tool for hazard identification based on systems biology. Several issues were discussed in depth in the workshop: The first was the challenge of formally defining the concept of a PoT as distinct from, but complementary to, other toxicological pathway concepts such as mode of action (MoA). The workshop came up with a preliminary definition of PoT as “A molecular definition of cellular processes shown to mediate adverse outcomes of toxicants”. It is further recognized that normal physiological pathways exist that maintain homeostasis and these, sufficiently perturbed, can become PoT. Second, the workshop sought to define the adequate public and commercial resources for PoT information, including data, visualization, analyses, tools, and use-cases, as well as the kinds of efforts that will be necessary to enable the creation of such a resource. Third, the workshop explored ways in which systems biology approaches could inform pathway annotation, and which resources are needed and available that can provide relevant PoT information to the diverse user communities. PMID:24127042

  14. Avaliação computacional de enfisema pulmonar em TC: comparação entre um sistema desenvolvido localmente e um sistema de uso livre Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hebert da Silva Felix

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar um sistema de visão computacional em imagens de TCAR, desenvolvido localmente e denominado SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP. Comparar esse sistema a um sistema computacional de acesso livre. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 33 imagens de TCAR de 11 pacientes com DPOC com cortes tomográficos em ápice, hilo e base. O SISDEP foi comparado a Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program quanto à segmentação do parênquima pulmonar; precisão das medidas da área de secção transversal dos pulmões em mm², densidade pulmonar média (DPM, porcentagem da relative area (RA, área relativa dos voxels com densidade OBJECTIVE: To present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema, and to compare this system with a freeware system tool. METHODS: Thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm², mean lung density (MLD, relative area (RA of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 hounsfield units (ra -950, 15th percentile point (perc15 and visualization of hyperinflated areas using a color mask. RESULTS: Although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r² = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively. The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyperinflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas

  15. Histamine combined with melphalan in isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of locally advanced soft tissue sarcomas: preclinical studies in rats Histamina combinada ao melfalano na perfusão de membro isolado para o tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles localmente avançado: estudos pré-clínicos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Brunstein

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential benefit of histamine combined with melphalan in the isolated limb perfusion (ILP as an alternative to TNF-alfa and melphalan combination, for the treatment of irressectable soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs in Brown Norway (BN rats. METHODS: 20 BN rats had small fragments of syngeneic BN-175 fibosarcoma inserted on the right hind limb. In 7-10 days the tumor reached a median diameter of 12-15 mm and they were randomly divided in four groups (sham, melphalan, histamine and escalating doses of histamine combined to melphalan being submitted to experimental ILP for 30 minutes. Tumors were measured daily with a caliper and the volume was calculated. RESULTS: Response curves showed a significant effect of the combination of histamine 200 mg/mL with melphalan, with 66% overall response, including 33% complete responses (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o potencial benéfico da histamina combinada ao melfalano, na perfusão de membro isolado (PMI, como alternativa à combinação TNF-alfa mais melfalano, no tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles irressecaveis em extremidades, em ratos de linhagem Brown Norway (BN. MÉTODOS: 20 ratos BN foram submetidos a implantação de fragmentos de fibrosarcoma singênico BN-175 na pata traseira direita. Em cerca de 7-10 dias o tumor atingiu um diâmetro médio de 12-15 mm e foram aleatóriamente divididos em quatro grupos (controle, melfalano, histamina em doses progessivas combinada ao melfalano e histamina sendo submetidos a PMI experimental por 30 minutos. Os tumores foram então medidos diariamente com o uso de paquímetro e o volume tumoral calculado. RESULTADOS: As curvas de resposta mostram um efeito significativo da combinação de Histamina na concentração de 200 mg/mL ao melfalano, com 66% de resposta global incluindo 33% de respostas completas (p < 0.01. Não houve efeitos colaterais sistêmicos e localmente apenas edema leve e transitório nos animais tratados com histamine

  16. Analysis of capsid portal protein and terminase functional domains: interaction sites required for DNA packaging in bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; Rao, V B; Black, L W

    1999-06-04

    Bacteriophage DNA packaging results from an ATP-driven translocation of concatemeric DNA into the prohead by the phage terminase complexed with the portal vertex dodecamer of the prohead. Functional domains of the bacteriophage T4 terminase and portal gene 20 product (gp20) were determined by mutant analysis and sequence localization within the structural genes. Interaction regions of the portal vertex and large terminase subunit (gp17) were determined by genetic (terminase-portal intergenic suppressor mutations), biochemical (column retention of gp17 and inhibition of in vitro DNA packaging by gp20 peptides), and immunological (co-immunoprecipitation of polymerized gp20 peptide and gp17) studies. The specificity of the interaction was tested by means of a phage T4 HOC (highly antigenicoutercapsid protein) display system in which wild-type, cs20, and scrambled portal peptide sequences were displayed on the HOC protein of phage T4. Binding affinities of these recombinant phages as determined by the retention of these phages by a His-tag immobilized gp17 column, and by co-immunoprecipitation with purified terminase supported the specific nature of the portal protein and terminase interaction sites. In further support of specificity, a gp20 peptide corresponding to a portion of the identified site inhibited packaging whereas the scrambled sequence peptide did not block DNA packaging in vitro. The portal interaction site is localized to 28 residues in the central portion of the linear sequence of gp20 (524 residues). As judged by two pairs of intergenic portal-terminase suppressor mutations, two separate regions of the terminase large subunit gp17 (central and COOH-terminal) interact through hydrophobic contacts at the portal site. Although the terminase apparently interacts with this gp20 portal peptide, polyclonal antibody against the portal peptide appears unable to access it in the native structure, suggesting intimate association of gp20 and gp17 possibly

  17. Effects of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) on the thyrotropin (TSH) response to TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boado, R.J.; Ulloa, E.R.; Zaninovich, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Wistar rats were treated with 7.8 or 260 nmols T4/100 g BW, 1.5 or 260 nmols T3/100 g BW, or saline as control. Twenty minutes later 1 μg TRH/100 g BW was injected iv. Heparinized blood samples were drawn at times 0 and 30 minutes (10 min post-TRH) for determination of plasma TSH, T4 and T3 by RIA. Other group of rats were administered with 150 μCi of 3',5'- 125 I-T4 prepared by iodination of 3,5-diiodothyronine. Thirty minutes later the hypophyses were removed, and chromatographed. Other group of animals were treated with 5 mg of iopanoic acid (IOP)/100 g BW. Thereafter, rats were injected iv with 260 nmols T4 or T3/100 g BW and the TRH-test performed as described above. In the control group there was a 11-fold increase in plasma TSH at 10 minutes post-TRH. In rats treated with 260 nmols T4 the post-TRH increment in plasma TSH was 5+-1-fold (p 125 I-T3 in the hypophyses 30 minutes after 125 I-T4 administration. The present data indicate that T4 is capable of depressing the release of TSH in response to TRH stimulation in normal rats. (M.E.L.) [es

  18. Mass spectrometric measurements of driver gas arrival in the T4 free-piston shock-tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, R. R.; Takahashi, M.; Stalker, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Available test time is an important issue for ground-based flow research, particularly for impulse facilities such as shock tunnels, where test times of the order of several ms are typical. The early contamination of the test flow by the driver gas in such tunnels restricts the test time. This paper reports measurements of the driver gas arrival time in the test section of the T4 free-piston shock-tunnel over the total enthalpy range 3 17 MJ/kg, using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The results confirm measurements made by previous investigators using a choked duct driver gas detector at these conditions, and extend the range of previous mass spectrometer measurements to that of 3 20 MJ/kg. Comparisons of the contamination behaviour of various piston-driven reflected shock tunnels are also made.

  19. T4 fibrations over Calabi–Yau two-folds and non-Kähler manifolds in string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a geometric model of eight-dimensional manifolds and realize them in the context of type II string theory. These eight-manifolds are constructed by non-trivial T4 fibrations over Calabi–Yau two-folds. These give rise to eight-dimensional non-Kähler Hermitian manifolds with SU(4 structure. The eight-manifold is also a circle fibration over a seven-dimensional G2 manifold with skew torsion. The eight-manifolds of this type appear as internal manifolds with SU(4 structure in type IIB string theory with F3 and F7 fluxes. These manifolds have generalized calibrated cycles in the presence of fluxes.

  20. Selective inhibition by harmane of the apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease activity of phage T4-induced UV endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, H R; Persson, M L; Bensen, R J; Mosbaugh, D W; Linn, S

    1981-11-25

    1-Methyl-9H-pyrido-[3,4-b]indole (harmane) inhibits the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity of the UV endonuclease induced by phage T4, whereas it stimulates the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity of that enzyme. E. coli endonuclease IV, E. coli endonuclease VI (the AP endonuclease activity associated with E. coli exonuclease III), and E. coli uracil-DNA glycosylase were not inhibited by harmane. Human fibroblast AP endonucleases I and II also were only slightly inhibited. Therefore, harmane is neither a general inhibitor of AP endonucleases, nor a general inhibitor of Class I AP endonucleases which incise DNA on the 3'-side of AP sites. However, E. coli endonuclease III and its associated dihydroxythymine-DNA glycosylase activity were both inhibited by harmane. This observation suggests that harmane may inhibit only AP endonucleases which have associated glycosylase activities.

  1. Single-molecule packaging initiation in real time by a viral DNA packaging machine from bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafabakhsh, Reza; Kondabagil, Kiran; Earnest, Tyler; Lee, Kyung Suk; Zhang, Zhihong; Dai, Li; Dahmen, Karin A; Rao, Venigalla B; Ha, Taekjip

    2014-10-21

    Viral DNA packaging motors are among the most powerful molecular motors known. A variety of structural, biochemical, and single-molecule biophysical approaches have been used to understand their mechanochemistry. However, packaging initiation has been difficult to analyze because of its transient and highly dynamic nature. Here, we developed a single-molecule fluorescence assay that allowed visualization of packaging initiation and reinitiation in real time and quantification of motor assembly and initiation kinetics. We observed that a single bacteriophage T4 packaging machine can package multiple DNA molecules in bursts of activity separated by long pauses, suggesting that it switches between active and quiescent states. Multiple initiation pathways were discovered including, unexpectedly, direct DNA binding to the capsid portal followed by recruitment of motor subunits. Rapid succession of ATP hydrolysis was essential for efficient initiation. These observations have implications for the evolution of icosahedral viruses and regulation of virus assembly.

  2. Clinical significance of two-step magnetic radioimmunoassay for determining serum free T3 and free T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bing

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of the serum free T 3 (FT 3 ), free T 4 (FT 4 ), total triodothyronine (TT 3 ), total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and thyrotropin (TSH) are determined for 355 cases of normal persons, pregnant women and various thyropathetic patients. The normal values of FT 3 and FT 4 are 2.0-8.5 pmol/l, and 9.5-26.5 pmol/l, respectively. Neither FT 3 nor FT 4 is affected by the thyroxine combined with globulin (TBG), which is of unique diagnostic value for those with variable TBG (such as pregnant women hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, etc.), FT 3 and FT 4 are the most sensitive indices for diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, respectively. In addition, FT 3 and FT 4 can greatly contribute to the observation of curative effectiveness under treatment

  3. T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M Adriaenssens

    Full Text Available The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics.

  4. Label-free and sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity via coupling DNA strand displacement reaction with enzymatic-aided amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Tao, Mangjuan; Shi, Zhilu; Zhang, Xiafei; Jin, Yan; Li, Baoxin

    2015-11-15

    Several fluorescence signal amplification strategies have been developed for sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) activity, but they need fluorescence dye labeled DNA probe. We have addressed the limitation and report here a label-free strategy for sensitive detection of PNK activity by coupling DNA strand displacement reaction with enzymatic-aided amplification. A hairpin oligonucleotide (hpDNA) with blunt ends was used as the substrate for T4 PNK phosphorylation. In the presence of T4 PNK, the stem of hpDNA was phosphorylated and further degraded by lambda exonuclease (λ exo) from 5' to 3' direction to release a single-stranded DNA as a trigger of DNA strand displacement reaction (SDR). The trigger DNA can continuously displace DNA P2 from P1/P2 hybrid with the help of specific cleavage of nicking endonuclease (Nt.BbvCI). Then, DNA P2 can form G-quadruplex in the presence of potassium ions and quadruplex-selective fluorphore, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM), resulting in a significant increase in fluorescence intensity of NMM. Thus, the accumulative release of DNA P2 led to fluorescence signal amplification for determining T4 PNK activity with a detection limit of 6.6×10(-4) U/mL, which is superior or comparative with established approaches. By ingeniously utilizing T4 PNK-triggered DNA SDR, T4 PNK activity can be specifically and facilely studied in homogeneous solution containing complex matrix without any external fluorescence labeling. Moreover, the influence of different inhibitors on the T4 PNK activity revealed that it also can be explored to screen T4 PNK inhibitors. Therefore, this label-free amplification strategy presents a facile and cost-effective approach for nucleic acid phosphorylation related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic recombination induced by DNA double-strand break in bacteriophage T4: nature of the left/right bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Plugina, Lidiya; Sizova, Svetlana; Kudryashova, Elena; Granovsky, Igor

    2008-06-01

    The experimental system combining double-strand breaks (DSBs), produced site-specifically by SegC endonuclease, with the famous advantages of the bacteriophage T4 rII mutant recombination analysis was used here to elucidate the origin of the recombination bias on two sides of the DSB, especially pronounced in gene 39 (topoisomerase II) and gene 59 (41-helicase loader) mutants. Three sources were found to contribute to the bias: (1) the SegC endonuclease may remain bound to the end of the broken DNA and thus protect it from exonuclease degradation; (2) in heteroduplex heterozygotes (HHs), arising as the recombinant products in the left-hand crosses, the transcribed strands are of rII mutant phenotype, so they, in contrast to the right-hand HHs, do not produce plaques on the lawn of the lambda-lysogenic host; and (3) the intrinsic polarity of T4 chromosome, reflected in transcription, may be a cause for discrimination of promoter-proximal and promoter-distal DNA sequences. It is shown that the apparent recombination bias does not imply one-sidedness of the DSB repair but just reflects a different depth of the end processing. It is inferred that the cause, underlying the "intrinsic" bias, might be interference between strand exchange and transcription. Topoisomerase and helicase functions are necessary to turn the process in favor of strand exchange. The idea is substantiated that the double-stranded to single-stranded DNA transition edge (not ss-DNA tip) serves as an actual recombinogenic element.

  6. Single substitution in bacteriophage T4 RNase H alters the ratio between its exo- and endonuclease activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Natalia; Sivogrivov, Dmitry; Latypov, Oleg; Mayorov, Sergey; Kuznitsyn, Rafail; Kajava, Andrey V; Shlyapnikov, Mikhail; Granovsky, Igor

    2015-11-01

    The article describes substitutions in bacteriophage T4 RNase H which provide so called das-effect. Phage T4 DNA arrest suppression (das) mutations have been described to be capable of partially suppressing the phage DNA arrest phenotype caused by a dysfunction in genes 46 and/or 47 (also known as Mre11/Rad50 complex). Genetic mapping of das13 (one of the das mutations) has shown it to be in the region of the rnh gene encoding RNase H. Here we report that Das13 mutant of RNase H has substitutions of valine 43 and leucine 242 with isoleucines. To investigate the influence of these mutations on RNase H nuclease properties we have designed a novel in vitro assay that allows us to separate and quantify exo- or endonuclease activities of flap endonuclease. The nuclease assay in vitro showed that V43I substitution increased the ratio between exonuclease/endonuclease activities of RNase H whereas L242I substitution did not affect the nuclease activity of RNase H in vitro. However, both mutations were necessary for the full das effect in vivo. Molecular modelling of the nuclease structure suggests that V43I substitution may lead to disposition of H4 helix, responsible for the interaction with the first base pairs of 5'end of branched DNA. These structural changes may affect unwinding of the first base pairs of gapped or nicked DNA generating a short flap and therefore may stabilize the DNA-enzyme complex. L242I substitution did not affect the structure of RNase H and its role in providing das-effect remains unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA scanning mechanism of T4 endonuclease V. Effect of NaCl concentration on processive nicking activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V is a pyrimidine dimer-specific endonuclease which generates incisions in DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers by a processive reaction mechanism. A model is presented in which the degree of processivity is directly related to the efficacy of the one-dimensional diffusion of endonuclease V on DNA by which the enzyme locates pyrimidine dimers. The modulation of the processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on superhelical covalently closed circular DNA (form I) which contains pyrimidine dimers has been investigated as a function of the ionic strength of the reaction. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to separate the three topological forms of the DNA which were generated in time course reactions of endonuclease V with dimer-containing form I DNA in the absence of NaCl, and in 25, 50, and 100 mM NaCl. The degree of processivity was evaluated in terms of the mass fraction of form III (linear) DNA which was produced as a function of the fraction of form I DNA remaining. Processivity is maximal in the absence of NaCl and decreases as the NaCl concentration is increased. At 100 mM NaCl, processivity is abolished and endonuclease V generates incisions in DNA at the site of dimers by a distributive reaction mechanism. The change from the distributive to a processive reaction mechanism occurs at NaCl concentrations slightly below 50 mM. The high degree of processivity which is observed in the absence of NaCl is reversible to the distributive mechanism, as demonstrated by experiments in which the NaCl concentration was increased during the time course reaction. In addition, unirradiated DNA inhibited the incision of irradiated DNA only at NaCl concentrations at which processivity was observed

  8. DNA unwinding by ring-shaped T4 helicase gp41 is hindered by tension on the occluded strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The replicative helicase for bacteriophage T4 is gp41, which is a ring-shaped hexameric motor protein that achieves unwinding of dsDNA by translocating along one strand of ssDNA while forcing the opposite strand to the outside of the ring. While much study has been dedicated to the mechanism of binding and translocation along the ssDNA strand encircled by ring-shaped helicases, relatively little is known about the nature of the interaction with the opposite, 'occluded' strand. Here, we investigate the interplay between the bacteriophage T4 helicase gp41 and the ss/dsDNA fork by measuring, at the single-molecule level, DNA unwinding events on stretched DNA tethers in multiple geometries. We find that gp41 activity is significantly dependent on the geometry and tension of the occluded strand, suggesting an interaction between gp41 and the occluded strand that stimulates the helicase. However, the geometry dependence of gp41 activity is the opposite of that found previously for the E. coli hexameric helicase DnaB. Namely, tension applied between the occluded strand and dsDNA stem inhibits unwinding activity by gp41, while tension pulling apart the two ssDNA tails does not hinder its activity. This implies a distinct variation in helicase-occluded strand interactions among superfamily IV helicases, and we propose a speculative model for this interaction that is consistent with both the data presented here on gp41 and the data that had been previously reported for DnaB.

  9. Influence of carbamazepin and diclofenac on the radio-T3/T4-distribution and the maximal binding capacity of thyroid hormone binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternad, H.; Albrecher, B.; Langsteger, W.; Eber, O.

    1993-01-01

    Marked changes in plasma thyroid function parameters due to medication have been described in literature. We, therefore, studied the influence of routine administration of carbamazepine and diclofenac upon the radio T3/T4 distribution to specific thyroid transport proteins as well as their maximal binding capacity (MBC) for T4. Both drugs have been found to lead to changes in T3 and T4 distribution but not to any influence upon MBC. The parameters of thyroid function mostly revealed reduced FT3 and FT4 values while bTSH was affected only by carbamazepine administration. (authors)

  10. Evaluación de la capacidad de reconocimiento de los anticuerpos monoclonales conjugados: IOR T3, T4 Y T8 Assessment of recognition ability of conjugate monoclonal antibodies: IOR T3, T4 and T8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Pérez Toledo

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available En la infección por VIH la evaluación secuencial de los valores de linfocitos CD3, CD4 y CD8 aportan información para el establecimiento del estado clínico y el pronóstico de los pacientes. Disponer de reactivos óptimos, producidos en nuestro país, para su uso en citometría de flujo, implica un ahorro sin que se afecte la calidad. El Laboratorio Diagnóstico del Instituto de Medicina Tropical (IPK correlacionó el porcentaje de linfocitos reconocidos por los anticuerpos monoclonales (AcMs conjugados producidos por el Centro de Inmunología Molecular (CIM (CIMAB SA, La Habana, Cuba [ior T3, T4 y T8] frente a sus similares de la casa comercial DAKO AG (Dinamarca, en muestras de pacientes en diferentes estadios de la enfermedad, tomados aleatoriamente. Los resultados del coeficiente de correlación para cada AcM utilizando una regresión simple, fueron los siguientes: CD3=0,932; CD4=0,986; CD8=0,958. Con este estudio se demostró que los AcMs conjugados de la serie ior (CIMAB SA se comportan, en cuanto a porcentaje de reconocimiento, de forma similar a los de la casa comercial DAKO, lo que posibilita el diagnóstico y monitoreo de los pacientes VIH/SIDA cubanosIn VIH infection, sequential assessment of CD3, CD4, and CD8 lymphocytes values, provide information to stablishment of clinical status and prognosis of patients. Availability of optimal reagents of national manufacture to use in flow cytometry, means a saving without to affect quality. Diagnostic Laboratory of "Pedro Kourí" Institute of Tropical Medicine (IPK to correlates percentage of lymphocytes recognized by conjugate monoclonal antibodies (MAB, produced by Center of Molecular Immunology (CMI (CIMAB S.A. Havana, Cuba [ior T3, T4, and T8] versus homologous of DAKO AG commercial firm (Denmark in randomized patient´s samples in different diseases stage. Results of correlation coefficient to each MAB, using single regression were as follow: CD3=0,932; CD4=0,986; CD8=0,958. This

  11. Increased yield of PCR products by addition of T4 gene 32 protein to the SMART PCR cDNA synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalva, C; Touriol, C; Seurat, P; Trempat, P; Delsol, G; Brousset, P

    2001-07-01

    Under certain conditions, T4 gene 32 protein is known to increase the efficiency of different enzymes, such as Taq DNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, and telomerase. In this study, we compared the efficiency of the SMART PCR cDNA synthesis kit with and without the T4 gene 32 protein. The use of this cDNA synthesis procedure, in combination with T4 gene 32 protein, increases the yield of RT-PCR products from approximately 90% to 150%. This effect is even observed for long mRNA templates and low concentrations of total RNA (25 ng). Therefore, we suggest the addition of T4 gene 32 protein in the RT-PCR mixture to increase the efficiency of cDNA synthesis, particularly in cases when low amounts of tissue are used.

  12. In vivo effects of monoclonal anti-L3T4 antibody on immune responsiveness of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Reduction of irradiated cercariae-induced resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.A.; Colley, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Mice can be partially protected against challenge infections of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae by either single or multiple exposure to irradiated cercariae (x-cerc). The participation of L3T4+ lymphocytes on this resistance phenomenon was evaluated by selectively depleting this cell population through in vivo administration of mAb anti-L3T4 at three different times in relationship to the challenge infections. Treatment with anti-L3T4 before challenge such that depletion was effective during the time of cercarial skin penetration and dermal/s.c. residence significantly reduced the level of resistance induced by x-cerc sensitization. When treatment was delayed until after challenge, depletion of L3T4+ cells coincided with either the lung or post-lung/liver phases of schistosomular migration, and normal levels of x-cerc-induced resistance were induced. In contrast to once-immunized mice, mice hyperimmunized by five exposures to x-cerc and then depleted of L3T4+ cells at the time of challenge still expressed resistance to the challenge. These data suggest that when mice are sensitized only once with x-cerc the challenge infection provides a necessary immunologic boost which requires L3T4+ cells for effective expression of resistance. The requirement for this anamnestic effect by the challenge infection can be circumvented by hyperimmunization. Evaluation of the immune response of one-time sensitized or hyperimmunized mice demonstrated that cellular Ag-specific proliferative responses and mitogen-induced lymphokine production were abrogated after any of the various in vivo regimens of anti-L3T4 antibody. In contrast, immunoblot analysis of humoral responsiveness revealed a correlation between the expression of resistance and the ability of sera from immunized and anti-L3T4 treated mice to recognize a 75-kDa parasite antigenic component

  13. Survival of T4aN0 and T3N+ laryngeal cancer patients: a retrospective institutional study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoueir, Nadim; Matar, Nayla; Farah, Chadi; Francis, Evana; Tabchy, Bassam; Haddad, Amine

    2015-01-01

    We aim to assess the correlation of tumor and nodal staging to survival in pT3N+ and T4aN0 laryngeal cancer with subgroup analysis within stage IVa (pT4N0 and pT3N2). Retrospective cohort study with systematic review of the literature. Hotel Dieu de France University Hospital (tertiary referral center). Laryngeal cancer patients' registries were reviewed from 1998 to 2012 selecting pT3N+ and pT4aN0 patients treated by primary total layngectomy. Overall survivals were compared using Log rank and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A systematic review was performed by 2 reviewers including all the articles reporting the outcome of these categories of patients. Online databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were used. Reference sections of identified studies were examined for additional articles. Thirteen T3N+ patients and 19 T4aN0 patients treated by primary total laryngectomy were included. Five-year overall survival for T3N+, T3N2 and T4aN0 was respectively 33%, 32.1% and 73.7%. Due to the small sample, the difference was not significant. The systematic review revealed three articles reporting overall survival outcome for the T4N0 group and 6 articles for the T3N+. At 5years, the survival ranged from 62.5% to 73% in T4N0 and from 32.2% to 77% in T3N+. In advanced stage laryngeal cancer, T4aN0 tends toward a better survival than T3N+ especially when compared to T3N2 although they are grouped in the same TNM stage IVa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ModA and ModB, two ADP-ribosyltransferases encoded by bacteriophage T4: catalytic properties and mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Bernd; Depping, Reinhard; Gineikiene, Egle; Kaliniene, Laura; Nivinskas, Rimas; Rüger, Wolfgang

    2004-11-01

    Bacteriophage T4 encodes three ADP-ribosyltransferases, Alt, ModA, and ModB. These enzymes participate in the regulation of the T4 replication cycle by ADP-ribosylating a defined set of host proteins. In order to obtain a better understanding of the phage-host interactions and their consequences for regulating the T4 replication cycle, we studied cloning, overexpression, and characterization of purified ModA and ModB enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that amino acids, as deduced from secondary structure alignments, are indeed decisive for the activity of the enzymes, implying that the transfer reaction follows the Sn1-type reaction scheme proposed for this class of enzymes. In vitro transcription assays performed with Alt- and ModA-modified RNA polymerases demonstrated that the Alt-ribosylated polymerase enhances transcription from T4 early promoters on a T4 DNA template, whereas the transcriptional activity of ModA-modified polymerase, without the participation of T4-encoded auxiliary proteins for middle mode or late transcription, is reduced. The results presented here support the conclusion that ADP-ribosylation of RNA polymerase and of other host proteins allows initial phage-directed mRNA synthesis reactions to escape from host control. In contrast, subsequent modification of the other cellular target proteins limits transcription from phage early genes and participates in redirecting transcription to phage middle and late genes.

  15. Acute myocardial infarction during induction chemotherapy for acute MLL t(4;11 leukemia with lineage switch and extreme leukocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In patients with acute leukemias hemorrhage is the most frequent problem. Vein thrombotic events may appear rarely but arterial thromboses are exceptionally rare. We present a patient with acute leukemia and bilateral deep leg vein thrombosis who developed an acute myocardial infarction (AMI during induction chemotherapy. The etiology and treatment of AMI in patients with acute leukemia, which is a rare occurrence, is discussed. Case Outline. In April of 2012 a 37-year-old male presented with bilateral deep leg vein thrombosis and malaise. Laboratory data were as follows: Hb 118 g/L, WBC 354x109/L (with 91% blasts in differential leukocyte count, platelets 60Ч109/L. Bone marrow aspirate and immunophenotype revealed the presence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis was as follows: 46,XY,t(4;11(q21:q23 [2]/62-82,XY,t(4;11[18]. Molecular analysis showed MLL-AF4 rearrangement. The patient was on low molecular weight heparin and combined chemotherapy according to protocol HyperCVAD. On day 10 after chemotherapy he got chest pain. Three days later AMI was diagnosed (creatine kinase 66 U/L, CK-MB 13U/L, troponin 1.19 μg/L. Electrocardiogram showed the ST elevation in leads D1, D2, aVL, V5 and V6 and “micro q” in D1. On echocardiography, hypokinesia of the left ventricle and ejection fraction of 39% was found. After recovering from AMI and restoring left ventricle ejection fraction to 59%, second course of HyperCVAD was given. The control bone marrow aspirate showed 88% of blasts but with monoblastic appearance. Flow cytometry confirmed a lineage switch from lymphoblasts to monoblasts. In further course of the disease he was treated with a variety of chemotherapeutic combinations without achieving remission. Eventually, palliative chemotherapy was administered to reduce the bulk of blasts. He died five months after the initial diagnosis. Conclusion. AMI in young adults with acute leukemia is a very rare complication

  16. Non-Watson–Crick interactions between PNA and DNA inhibit the ATPase activity of bacteriophage T4 Dda helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Alan J.; Corey, David R.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a DNA mimic in which the nucleobases are linked by an N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine backbone. Here we report that PNA can interact with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a non-sequence-specific fashion. We observed that a 15mer PNA inhibited the ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity of a bacteriophage T4 helicase, Dda. Surprisingly, when a fluorescein-labeled 15mer PNA was used in binding studies no interaction was observed between PNA and Dda. However, fluorescence polarization did reveal non-sequence-specific interactions between PNA and ssDNA. Thus, the inhibition of ATPase activity of Dda appears to result from depletion of the available ssDNA due to non-Watson–Crick binding of PNA to ssDNA. Inhibition of the ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity was observed for several PNAs of varying length and sequence. To study the basis for this phenomenon, we examined self-aggregation by PNAs. The 15mer PNA readily self-aggregates to the point of precipitation. Since PNAs are hydrophobic, they aggregate more than DNA or RNA, making the study of this phenomenon essential for understanding the properties of PNA. Non-sequence-specific interactions between PNA and ssDNA were observed at moderate concentrations of PNA, suggesting that such interactions should be considered for antisense and antigene applications. PMID:11842106

  17. Early recognition of autonomous thyroid tissue by a combination of quantitative thyroid pertechnetate scintigraphy with the free T4 equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Welcke, U.

    1980-01-01

    A suspicion of AFTT can be raised in 80% of still euthyroid patients by a combined evaluation of an equivalent to the free T 4 (FTE) and an equavilant to the clearance using a quantitative evaluation of the thyroid technetium scan (TcTU). The suppression test not only confirms the autonomy in a qualitative manner but also provides an estimate of the volume of autonomous tissue because The TcTU after suppression strictly correlates linearly with the volume of the AFTT. Since after iodine administration FTE increases proportionally to the volume of AFTT, the procedure can be of some prognostic value: those with autonomous tissue in excess of a critical volume will almost certainly develop hyperthyroidism following a certain minimum rate of iodine administration. A prospective study of patients under age 50 whose thyroids contained various amounts of AFTT has shown that prophylactic dietary iodine supplementation will not cause hyperthyroidism to develop provided the additional iodine intake does not exceed 100 μg per day. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Mass spectrometric measurements of the freestream composition in the T4 free-piston shock-tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, R. R.; Takahashi, M.; Stalker, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    The freestream composition is an important parameter in ground-based aerodynamic testing, and direct measurement of it is very important. This paper reports extensive composition measurements in the freestream of the T4 free-piston shock-tunnel, employing a recently improved time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A wide range of nozzle reservoir conditions were used. The results show good agreement between measured and theoretical values for nitric oxide over the entire enthalpy range reported (2.5 13 MJ/kg). This provides confidence that the chemistry model is correctly predicting sudden freezing of NO in the nozzle expansion. On the other hand, no monatomic species have been measured other than those produced by dissociative ionisation within the mass spectrometer, even at flow conditions where significant freestream dissociation is expected. Furthermore, excess diatomic oxygen is detected at high enthalpies. These observations are consistent with the possibility that oxygen recombination is not correctly predicted in the nozzle expansion, with sudden freezing occurring significantly later than predicted. However, the observations are also consistent with possible catalytic recombination in the skimmer system. The possibility for producing an empirical correlation between the freestream composition and the reservoir entropy has also been observed.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Carboxy-Terminal Region of the Bacteriophage T4 Proximal Long Tail Fiber Protein Gp34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Granell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Long tail fibers of bacteriophage T4 are formed by proteins gp34, gp35, gp36, and gp37, with gp34 located at the phage-proximal end and gp37 at the phage-distal, receptor-binding end. We have solved the structure of the carboxy-terminal region of gp34, consisting of amino acids 894–1289, by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction and extended the structure to amino acids 744–1289 using data collected from crystals containing longer gp34-fragments. The structure reveals three repeats of a mixed α-β fibrous domain in residues 744 to 877. A triple-helical neck connects to an extended triple β-helix domain (amino acids 900–1127 punctuated by two β-prism domains. Next, a β-prism domain decorated with short helices and extended β-helices is present (residues 1146–1238, while the C-terminal end is capped with another short β-helical region and three β-hairpins. The structure provides insight into the stability of the fibrous gp34 protein.

  20. Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Bacteriophasge T4 UvsY Recombination Mediator Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Beernink, H.; Rould, M.; Morrical, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 UvsY protein is considered to be the prototype of recombination mediator proteins, a class of proteins which assist in the loading of recombinases onto DNA. Wild-type and Se-substituted UvsY protein have been expressed and purified and crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 (angstrom) using in-house facilities and to 2.2 (angstrom) at NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The crystals belong to space group P422, P4 2 22, P42 1 2 or P4 2 2 1 2, the ambiguity arising from pseudo-centering, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.93, c = 269.8 (angstrom). Previous biophysical characterization of UvsY indicates that it exists primarily as a hexamer in solution. Along with the absence of a crystallographic threefold, this suggests that the asymmetric unit of these crystals is likely to contain either three monomers, giving a solvent content of 71%, or six monomers, giving a solvent content of 41%

  1. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  2. Hierarchical finite element modeling of SiCp/Al2124 T4 composites with dislocation plasticity and size dependent failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yeong Sung; Kim, Yong Bae

    2012-01-01

    The strength of particle reinforced metal matrix composites is, in general, known to be increased by the geometrically necessary dislocations punched around a particle that form during cooling after consolidation because of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the particle and the matrix. An additional strength increase may also be observed, since another type of geometrically necessary dislocation can be formed during extensive deformation as a result of the strain gradient plasticity due to the elastic plastic mismatch between the particle and the matrix. In this paper, the magnitudes of these two types of dislocations are calculated based on the dislocation plasticity. The dislocations are then converted to the respective strengths and allocated hierarchically to the matrix around the particle in the axisymmetric finite element unit cell model. the proposed method is shown to be very effective by performing finite element strength analysis of SiC p /Al2124 T4 composites that included ductile in the matrix and particle matrix decohesion. The predicted results for different particle sizes and volume fractions show that the length scale effect of the particle size obviously affects the strength and failure behavior of the particle reinforced metal matrix composites

  3. Balanced Electrostatic and Structural Forces Guide the Large Conformational Change Associated with Maturation of T = 4 Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tsutomu; Tsuruta, Hiro; Johnson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Nudaurelia capensis omega virus has a well-characterized T = 4 capsid that undergoes a pH-dependent large conformational changes (LCC) and associated auto-catalytic cleavage of the subunit. We examined previously the particle size at different pH values and showed that maturation occurred at pH 5.5. We now characterized the LCC with time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering and showed that there were three kinetic stages initiated with an incremental drop in pH: 1), a rapid (electrostatic and structural forces shapes the energy landscape of the LCC with the latter requiring annealing of portions of the subunit. Equilibrium experiments showed that many intermediate states could be populated with a homogeneous ensemble of particles by carefully controlling the pH. A titration curve for the LCC was generated that showed that the virtual pKa (i.e., the composite of all titratable residues that contribute to the LCC) is 5.8. PMID:20371334

  4. Measurement of serum free thyroxine using fT4(fraction) determined by solidphase radioimmunoassay: First clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, C.; Walter, H.; Moll, E.; Boerner, W.

    1983-01-01

    The novel solidphase RIA SPAC ET permits the simultaneous determination of TF 4 , TT 4 and fT 4 -fraction. The duration until the complete results of this assay can be obtained is a little bit less than for parallel radioimmunologic FT 4 - and TT 4 -determinations. The results of our quality control survey indicate that the precision of the precommercial kits tested should be improved. In addition, the normal range of FT 4 from 5.5 pg/ml to 12.5 pg/ml should be adapted in the final assay version of the approximately 30% higher normal ranges which are common with alternative FT 4 -radioimunoassays. In comparison to FT 4 -I, TT 4 /TBG-ratio and other FT 4 -radioimmunoassays, the diagnostic accuracy of FT 4 determined by SPAC ET is equally good. Estrogen-mediated TBG elevations on oral contraceptives are well compensated. In pregnancy, the known tendency towards lower FT 4 levels can be seen with the beginning of the second trimester. While there are no changes of FT 4 levels on medication with acetylosalicyclic acid, a slight tendency towards lower FT 4 determined by SPAC ET can be seen on therapy with phenytoin. Under treatment with heparin, FT 4 by SPAC ET is elevated. This is more reasonable than the decreases of FT 4 concentrations observed with radioimmunoassays using FT 4 analogues as tracers. RIA SPAC ET is an interesting alternative to routinely used direct and indirect methods for determination of free thyroxine. (orig.) [de

  5. The chiral critical point of $N_f$=3 QCD at finite density to the order $(\\mu/T)^4$

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    QCD with three degenerate quark flavours at zero baryon density exhibits a first order thermal phase transition for small quark masses, which changes to a smooth crossover for some critical quark mass m^c_0, i.e. the chiral critical point. It is generally believed that as an (even) function of quark chemical potential, m_c(mu), the critical point moves to larger quark masses, constituting the critical endpoint of a first order phase transition in theories with m\\geq m^c_0. To test this, we consider a Taylor expansion of m_c(mu) around mu=0 and determine the first two coefficients from lattice simulations with staggered fermions on N_t=4 lattices. We employ two different techniques: a) calculating the coefficients directly from a mu=0 ensemble using a novel finite difference method, and b) fitting them to simulation data obtained for imaginary chemical potentials. The mu^2 and mu^4 coefficients are found to be negative by both methods, with consistent absolute values. Combining both methods gives evidence that...

  6. The structure of gene product 6 of bacteriophage T4, the hinge-pin of the baseplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Leiman, Petr G; Shneider, Mikhail M; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V; Rossmann, Michael G

    2009-06-10

    The baseplate of bacteriophage T4 is a multicomponent protein complex, which controls phage attachment to the host. It assembles from six wedges and a central hub. During infection the baseplate undergoes a large conformational change from a dome-shaped to a flat, star-shaped structure. We report the crystal structure of the C-terminal half of gene product (gp) 6 and investigate its motion with respect to the other proteins during the baseplate rearrangement. Six gp6 dimers interdigitate, forming a ring that maintains the integrity of the baseplate in both conformations. One baseplate wedge contains an N-terminal dimer of gp6, whereas neighboring wedges are tied together through the C-terminal dimer of gp6. The dimeric interactions are preserved throughout the rearrangement of the baseplate. However, the hinge angle between the N- and C-terminal parts of gp6 changes by approximately 15 degrees , accounting for a 10 A radial increase in the diameter of the gp6 ring.

  7. Analysis of the Lankford coefficient evolution at different strain rates for AA6016-T4, DP800 and DC06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Matthias; Merklein, Marion

    2017-10-01

    In the automotive sector, a major challenge is the deep-drawing of modern lightweight sheet metals with limited formability. Thus, conventional material models lack in accuracy due to the complex material behavior. A current field of research takes into account the evolution of the Lankford coefficient. Today, changes in anisotropy under increasing degree of deformation are not considered. Only a consolidated average value of the Lankford coefficient is included in conventional material models. This leads to an increasing error in prediction of the flow behavior and therefore to an inaccurate prognosis of the forming behavior. To increase the accuracy of the prediction quality, the strain dependent Lankford coefficient should be respected, because the R-value has a direct effect on the contour of the associated flow rule. Further, the investigated materials show a more or less extinct rate dependency of the yield stress. For this reason, the rate dependency of the Lankford coefficient during uniaxial tension is focused within this contribution. To quantify the influence of strain rate on the Lankford coefficient, tensile tests are performed for three commonly used materials, the aluminum alloy AA6016-T4, the advanced high strength steel DP800 and the deep drawing steel DC06 at three different strain rates. The strain measurement is carried out by an optical strain measurement system. An evolution of the Lankford coefficient was observed for all investigated materials. Also, an influence of the deformation velocity on the anisotropy could be detected.

  8. Effective inhibition of lytic development of bacteriophages λ, P1 and T4 by starvation of their host, Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzyn Alicja

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophage infections of bacterial cultures cause serious problems in genetic engineering and biotechnology. They are dangerous not only because of direct effects on the currently infected cultures, i.e. their devastation, but also due to a high probability of spreading the phage progeny throughout a whole laboratory or plant, which causes a real danger for further cultivations. Therefore, a simple method for quick inhibition of phage development after detection of bacterial culture infection should be very useful. Results Here, we demonstrate that depletion of a carbon source from the culture medium, which provokes starvation of bacterial cells, results in rapid inhibition of lytic development of three Escherichia coli phages, λ, P1 and T4. Since the effect was similar for three different phages, it seems that it may be a general phenomenon. Moreover, similar effects were observed in flask cultures and in chemostats. Conclusion Bacteriophage lytic development can be inhibited efficiently by carbon source limitation in bacterial cultures. Thus, if bacteriophage contamination is detected, starvation procedures may be recommended to alleviate deleterious effects of phage infection on the culture. We believe that this strategy, in combination with the use of automated and sensitive bacteriophage biosensors, may be employed in the fermentation laboratory practice to control phage outbreaks in bioprocesses more effectively.

  9. Structure and function of the small terminase component of the DNA packaging machine in T4-like bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Siyang; Gao, Song; Kondabagil, Kiran; Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B. (CUA); (Purdue)

    2012-04-04

    Tailed DNA bacteriophages assemble empty procapsids that are subsequently filled with the viral genome by means of a DNA packaging machine situated at a special fivefold vertex. The packaging machine consists of a 'small terminase' and a 'large terminase' component. One of the functions of the small terminase is to initiate packaging of the viral genome, whereas the large terminase is responsible for the ATP-powered translocation of DNA. The small terminase subunit has three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central oligomerization domain, and a C-terminal domain for interacting with the large terminase. Here we report structures of the central domain in two different oligomerization states for a small terminase from the T4 family of phages. In addition, we report biochemical studies that establish the function for each of the small terminase domains. On the basis of the structural and biochemical information, we propose a model for DNA packaging initiation.

  10. Overexpression, purification, and partial characterization of ADP-ribosyltransferases modA and modB of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, B; Depping, R; Rüger, W

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing experimental evidence that ADP-ribosylation of host proteins is an important means to regulate gene expression of bacteriophage T4. Surprisingly, this phage codes for three different ADP-ribosyltransferases, gene products Alt, ModA, and ModB, modifying partially overlapping sets of host proteins. While gene product Alt already has been isolated as a recombinant protein and its action on host RNA polymerases and transcription regulation have been studied, the nucleotide sequences of the two mod genes was published only recently. Their mode of action in the course of the infection cycle and the consequences of the ADP-ribosylations catalyzed by these enzymes remain to be investigated. Here we describe the cloning of the genes, the overexpression, purification, and partial characterization of ADP-ribosyltransferases ModA and ModB. Both proteins seem to act independently, and the ADP-ribosyl moieties are transferred to different sets of host proteins. While gene product ModA, similarly to the Alt protein, acts also on the alpha-subunit of host RNA polymerase, the ModB activity serves another set of proteins, one of which was identified as the S1 protein associated with the 30S subunit of the E. coli ribosomes.

  11. Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. El-Morsy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of rotational and traverse speeds on the 1.5 mm butt joint performance of friction stir welded 2024-T4 aluminum alloy sheets have been investigated. Five rotational speeds ranging from 560 to 1800 rpm and five traverse speeds ranging from 11 to 45 mm/min have been employed. The characterization of microstructure and the mechanical properties (tensile, microhardness, and bending of the welded sheets have been studied. The results reveal that by varying the welding parameters, almost sound joints and high performance welded joints can be successfully produced at the rotational speeds of 900 rpm and 700 rpm and the traverse speed of 35 mm/min. The maximum welding performance of joints is found to be 86.3% with 900 rpm rotational speed and 35 mm/min traverse speed. The microhardness values along the cross-section of the joints show a dramatic drop in the stir zone where the lowest value reached is about 63% of the base metal due to the softening of the welded zone caused by the heat input during joining.

  12. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Spot Welded 2A12-T4 Aluminum Alloy

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    Huijie Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy was friction stir spot welded, and the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. A softened microstructural region existed in the joint, and it consisted of stir zone (SZ, thermal mechanically affected zone (TMAZ, and heat affected zone (HAZ. The minimum hardness was located in TMAZ, and the average hardness value in SZ can be improved by appropriately increasing welding heat input. The area of complete bonding region at the interface increased with increasing welding heat input because more interface metals were mixed. In a certain range of FSSW parameters, the tensile shear failure load of the joint increased with increasing rotation speed, but it decreased with increasing plunge rate or decreasing shoulder plunging depth. Two kinds of failure modes, that is, shear fracture mode and tensile-shear mixed fracture mode, can be observed in the tensile shear tests, and the joint that failed in the tensile-shear mixed fracture mode possessed a high carrying capability.

  13. Brucella Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Tian, Mingxing; Bao, Yanqing; Hu, Hai; Liu, Jiameng; Yin, Yi; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Yu, Shengqing

    2017-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the Brucella rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS virB operon promoter was notably increased in the Brucella rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of vjbR in the Brucella rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant Δ rfbE contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the Brucella rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the Brucella smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the Brucella rough mutant increases transcription of the virB operon, resulting in overexpression of the T4SS gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the molecular

  14. Brucella Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the Brucella rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS virB operon promoter was notably increased in the Brucella rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of vjbR in the Brucella rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant ΔrfbE contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the Brucella rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the Brucella smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the Brucella rough mutant increases transcription of the virB operon, resulting in overexpression of the T4SS gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the

  15. Characterization of antigen-specific, Ia-restricted, L3T4+ cytolytic T lymphocytes and assessment of thymic influence on their self specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, H.; Munitz, T.I.; Singer, A.

    1985-01-01

    The goals of the present study were: (a) to generate antigen-specific L3T4+ cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), (b) to determine their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction specificity, and (c) to assess the influence of thymic MHC determinants on their self specificity. The authors found that L3T4+ CTL specific for either trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified self determinants or minor histocompatibility antigens could be generated from Lyt-2- responder T cells provided that the response cultures were supplemented with supernatants rich in helper factors. Such antigen-specific L3T4+ CTL were Ia-restricted by the criteria that they lysed only Ia+ target cells and that their lysis of Ia+ target cells was specifically inhibited by anti-Ia monoclonal antibodies. The relative frequency of L3T4+ pCTL was found to be only 5-10% of the total anti-TNP pCTL present in the spleens of normal mice. Finally, the authors utilized radiation bone marrow chimeras to assess the influence of the thymic haplotype on the self-Ia specificity of L3T4+ CTL. Both bulk culture and limiting dilution experiments revealed that the self-Ia specificity of L3T4+ anti-TNP CTL from F1----parent and A----B allogeneic chimeras was not markedly skewed toward the haplotype of the chimeric thymus. These results contrast with those obtained previously for L3T4+ anti-TNP Th cells and demonstrate that in the radiation bone marrow chimera model of T cell differentiation, the self specificity of Th cells but not pCTL is markedly influenced by the haplotype of the chimeric thymus

  16. Reconciling the Log-Linear and Non-Log-Linear Nature of the TSH-Free T4 Relationship: Intra-Individual Analysis of a Large Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Karen M; Brown, Suzanne J; Hadlow, Narelle C; Wardrop, Robert; Walsh, John P

    2016-03-01

    The TSH-T4 relationship was thought to be inverse log-linear, but recent cross-sectional studies report a complex, nonlinear relationship; large, intra-individual studies are lacking. Our objective was to analyze the TSH-free T4 relationship within individuals. We analyzed data from 13 379 patients, each with six or more TSH/free T4 measurements and at least a 5-fold difference between individual median TSH and minimum or maximum TSH. Linear and nonlinear regression models of log TSH on free T4 were fitted to data from individuals and goodness of fit compared by likelihood ratio testing. Comparing all models, the linear model achieved best fit in 31% of individuals, followed by quartic (27%), cubic (15%), null (12%), and quadratic (11%) models. After eliminating least favored models (with individuals reassigned to best fitting, available models), the linear model fit best in 42% of participants, quartic in 43%, and null model in 15%. As the number of observations per individual increased, so did the proportion of individuals in whom the linear model achieved best fit, to 66% in those with more than 20 observations. When linear models were applied to all individuals and averaged according to individual median free T4 values, variations in slope and intercept indicated a nonlinear log TSH-free T4 relationship across the population. The log TSH-free T4 relationship appears linear in some individuals and nonlinear in others, but is predominantly linear in those with the largest number of observations. A log-linear relationship within individuals can be reconciled with a non-log-linear relationship in a population.

  17. Molecular Dissection of the Homotrimeric Sliding Clamp of T4 Phage: Two Domains of a Subunit Display Asymmetric Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manika Indrajit; Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-26

    Sliding clamp proteins are circular dimers or trimers that encircle DNA and serve as processivity factors during DNA replication. Their presence in all the three domains of life and in bacteriophages clearly indicates their high level of significance. T4 gp45, besides functioning as the DNA polymerase processivity factor, also moonlights as the late promoter transcription determinant. Here we report a detailed biophysical analysis of gp45. The chemical denaturation of gp45 probed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, tryptophan fluorescence anisotropy, and blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests that the protein follows a three-state denaturation profile and displays an intermediate molten globule-like state. The three-state transition was found to be the result of the sequential unfolding of the two domains, the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the C-terminal domain (CTD), of gp45. The experiments involving Trp fluorescence quenching by acrylamide demonstrate that the CTD undergoes substantial changes in conformation during formation of the intermediate state. Further biophysical dissection of the individual domain reveals contrasting properties of the two domains. The NTD unfolds at low urea concentrations and is also susceptible to protease cleavage, whereas the CTD resists urea-mediated denaturation and is not amenable to protease digestion even at higher urea concentrations. These experiments allow us to conclude that the two domains of gp45 differ in their dynamics. While the CTD shows stability and rigidity, we find that the NTD is unstable and flexible. We believe that the asymmetric characteristics of the two domains and the interface they form hold significance in gp45 structure and function.

  18. Biological significance of facilitated diffusion in protein-DNA interactions. Applications to T4 endonuclease V-initiated DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, D.R.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Facilitated diffusion along nontarget DNA is employed by numerous DNA-interactive proteins to locate specific targets. Until now, the biological significance of DNA scanning has remained elusive. T4 endonuclease V is a DNA repair enzyme which scans nontarget DNA and processively incises DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers which are produced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there exists a direct correlation between the degree of processivity of wild type and mutant endonuclease V molecules and the degree of enhanced UV resistance which is conferred to repair-deficient Eshcerichia coli. This was accomplished by first creating a series of endonuclease V mutants whose in vitro catalytic activities were shown to be very similar to that of the wild type enzyme. However, when the mechanisms by which these enzymes search nontarget DNA for its substrate were analyzed in vitro and in vivo, the mutants displayed varying degrees of nontarget DNA scanning ranging from being nearly as processive as wild type to randomly incising dimers within the DNA population. The ability of these altered endonuclease V molecules to enhance UV survival in DNA repair-deficient E. coli then was assessed. The degree of enhanced UV survival was directly correlated with the level of facilitated diffusion. This is the first conclusive evidence directly relating a reduction of in vivo facilitated diffusion with a change in an observed phenotype. These results support the assertion that the mechanisms which DNA-interactive proteins employ in locating their target sites are of biological significance

  19. Role of gene 59 of bacteriophage T4 in repair of uv-irradiated and alkylated DNA in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.; Wu, J.L.; Yeh, Y.C.

    1975-01-01

    Nonsense mutants in gene 59 (amC5, am HL628) were used to study the role of this gene in the repair of uv-damaged and alkylated DNA of bacteriophage T4 in vivo. The higher sensitivity to uv irradiation and alkylation of gene 59 mutants after exposure to these agents was established by a comparison of the survival fractions with wild type. Zonal centrifugal analysis of both parental and nascent mutant intracellular DNA molecules after uv irradiation showed that immediately after exposure the size of single-stranded DNA fragments was the same as the wild-type intracellular DNA. However, the capability of rejoining fragmented intracellular DNA was greatly reduced in the mutant. In contrast, the wild-type-infected cells under the same condition resumed DNA replication and repaired its DNA to normal size. Methyl methanesulfonate induced more randomly fragmented intracellular DNA, when compared to uv irradiation. The rate of rejoining under these conditions as judged from their sedimentation profiles was also greatly reduced in mutant-infected cells. Further evidence is presented that uv repair is not a simple consequence of arrested DNA replication, which is a phenotype of the mutant when infected in a nonpermissive host, Escherichia coli B(su - ), but rather that the DNA repair function of gene 59 is independent of the replication function. These and other data presented indicate that a product(s) of gene 59 is essential for both repair of uv lesions and repair of alkylation damage of DNA in vivo. It is suggested that gene 59 may have two functions during viral development: DNA replication and replication repair of DNA molecules

  20. The direct measurement of free T4 in the eluate of dried blood. Usefulness as a confirmatory screening test for neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travert, G.; Lemonnier, F.; Fernandez, Y.

    1984-01-01

    In France neonatal screening for hypothyroidism is performed by mean of radioimmunoassay for TSH in dried blood spots, collected on the 5th day of life. In order to be able to get more data from the day 5 blood sample and thus confirm congenital hypothyroidism in all cases when elevated TSH levels have been found, we developed a simple radioimmunoassay for free T4 in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper. We used reagents from the Amerlex FT4 RIA kit. The ready for use supplied anti-T4 antibody suspension and 125 I-T4 derivative solution are respectively 2-fold and 3-fold diluted in 0,154 M phosphate saline buffer-pH 7,4. Whole blood free T4 standards are prepared by adding serum standards in the kit to an equal volume of washed and packed red blood cells. Free T4 concentrations in these dried standards are expressed as picomoles per liter of whole blood. One blood spot 4.25 mm in diameter, equivalent to about 5-6 μl test blood or standard is incubated for 1 hour at room temperature in 500 μl of antibody suspension. The assay sensitivity (smallest detectable FT4 level) is 1.4 pmol.l -1 . Within assay and between assays coefficients of variation are respectively 9,5 and 13%. Free T4 levels measured in eluates of dried blood closely correlate (r=0,946) with plasma levels in the same subjects. Free T4 in 690 five day old neonates shows a non gaussian distribution, with a mean value: 13,6 pmol.l -1 and standard deviation: 4,3 (range 3,6-30 pmol.l -1 ). In 13 newborns with congenital hypothyroidism, day 5 free T4 levels were found within the range: 0 to 3,5 pmol.l -1 , and thus did not overlap with free T4 measured in age-matched euthyroid neonates [fr

  1. The current status of the treatment for T4 maxillary sinus cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Matsuura, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status in Japan of the treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the T4 maxillary sinus (MS-SCC) and its use to plan clinical trials in the future. The data for 128 patients with previously untreated MS-SCC were obtained from 28 institutions from 2006 to 2007. Of the 128 patients, 118 patients with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 118 patients, 73 patients had T4a disease, and 45 with T4b. Thirty-nine patients (33.1%) were treated with total maxillectomy, 25 (21.2%) with partial maxillectomy, 22 patients (18.6%) with RADPLAT, 19 patients (16.1%) with IV-CRT, and 13 patients (11.0%) with others. The 5-year overall survival rate and local control rate for 118 patients were 49.8% and 48.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with T4aN0M0 and T4bN0M0 were 67.5% and 29.8%, respectively. This study was retrospective, but we could understand the tendency of treatment choice and treatment results. It will be useful information to plan clinical trials in the future. (author)

  2. Effects of potassium iodide in concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in serum of subjects with sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Soto, Max Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The saturated potassium iodide solution (SSKI) as treatment for sporotrichosis may cause hypothyroidism by suppressing the synthesis of thyroid hormones (tT3 and tT4 ) and the iodine excess could lead to thyrotoxicosis. Evaluating the changes in serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 in euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis treated with SSKI. For the selection of euthyroid patients, TSH, tT3 and tT4 concentrations were measured for those adults and children diagnosed with sporotrichosis. Each paediatric patient was administered SSKI orally in increasing doses of 2-20 drops/3 times/day and 4-40 drops/3 times/day in adults. Serum concentrations of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were measured 20 days after started the treatment and 15 days posttreatment. Eight euthyroid patients aged between 2 to 65 years old were included. After 20 days of treatment, two suffered subclinical hypothyroidism, one developed subclinical hyperthyroidism, and one hyperthyroxinaemia euthyroid. At 15 days posttreatment only four patients were evaluated and all serum levels of TSH, tT3 and tT4 were normal. Some euthyroid patients with sporotrichosis can develop hyperthyroidism or subclinical iodine-induced hypothyroidism, during the administration of 3 or 6 g SSKI/day. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Ergothioneine, histidine, and two naturally occurring histidine dipeptides as radioprotectors against gamma-irradiation inactivation of bacteriophages T4 and P22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, P.E.; Hartman, Z.; Citardi, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Bacteriophages P22, T4+, and T4os (osmotic shock-resistant mutant with altered capsids) were diluted in 0.85% NaCl and exposed to gamma irradiation (2.79 Gy/min) at room temperature (24 degrees C). T4+ was more sensitive to inactivation than was P22, and the T4os mutant was even more sensitive than T4+. Catalase exhibited a strong protective effect and superoxide dismutase a weaker protection, indicating that H 2 O 2 or some product derived therefrom was predominant in causing inactivation of plaque formation. Low but significant (0.1-0.3 mM) reduced glutathione (GSH) enhanced phage inactivation, but a higher (1 mM) GSH concentration protected. A similar effect was found for the polyamine, spermidine. In contrast, 0.1 mM L-ergothioneine (2-thiol-L-histidine betaine) exhibited strong protection and 1 mM afforded essentially complete protection. L-Ergothioneine is present in millimolar concentrations in some fungi and is conserved up to millimolar concentrations in critical tissues when consumed by man. L-Histidine and two histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine, protected at a concentration of 1 mM, a level at which they are present in striated muscles of various animals

  4. Kinetic studies on binding of thyroid hormones (L-T3 and L-T4) to the receptors of lymphocyte cells isolated from uraemia subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sultani, A.S.J.

    1989-01-01

    The levels of L-T 3 , L-T 4 and TSH in uremic sera have been measured by (RIA), and shown to have a decrease in both L-T 3 and L-T 4 levels with normal level of TSH for most specimens used in this study. Kinetics properties for binding of thyroid hormones L-T 3 and L-T 4 with nuclear receptors of human lymphocyte cells extracted from uremic patient have been studied and compared this result with control and hypothyroidism subjects and we obtained that uremic condition have a large effect on these nuclear receptors properties. Dissociation constant (K d ) and maximal binding capacity (MBC) of both L-T 3 and L-T 4 with these nuclear receptors have been determined, and we obtained that uremic condition did not affect on (K d ) values for both L-T 3 and L-T 4 but it affected on (MBC) values compared with normal subject. 8 tabs.; 25 figs.; 203 refs

  5. Comparative study of the parameters of thyroid function TSH, PB131J, T3, T4 in healthy persons and patients after thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, W.

    1979-01-01

    Goals of the investigation were: 1. Study of the parameters TSH, PB 131 I, T 4 , T 3 in strumectomized patients with different functional states of the thyroid after surgery, and comparison with a normal collective. 2. Study of the correlation between pituitary and thyroid behaviour of strumectomized patients by comparing PB 131 I and TSH, T 4 and TSH, and T 3 and TSH. 3. Comparison of in-vivo- and in-vitro tests (TRH, T 4 , T 3 ) in order to assess the thyroid function after strumectomy and for early detection of impending relapses. 466 patients have been grouped according to the functional state of their thyroids. The mean values obtained for each group were compared with those of a normal collective. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  7. Phase II trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus expressing 5T4 and high dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitcham Josephine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-2 (IL-2 induces durable objective responses in a small cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC but the antigen(s responsible for tumor rejection are not known. 5T4 is a non-secreted membrane glycoprotein expressed on clear cell and papillary RCCs. A modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA encoding 5T4 was tested in combination with high-dose IL-2 to determine the safety, objective response rate and effect on humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Methods 25 patients with metastatic RCC who qualified for IL-2 were eligible and received three immunizations every three weeks followed by IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg after the second and third vaccinations. Blood was collected for analysis of humoral, effector and regulatory T cell responses. Results There were no serious vaccine-related adverse events. While no objective responses were observed, three patients (12% were rendered disease-free after nephrectomy or resection of residual metastatic disease. Twelve patients (48% had stable disease which was associated with improved median overall survival compared to patients with progressive disease (not reached vs. 28 months, p = 0.0261. All patients developed 5T4-specific antibody responses and 13 patients had an increase in 5T4-specific T cell responses. Although the baseline frequency of Tregs was elevated in all patients, those with stable disease showed a trend toward increased effector CD8+ T cells and a decrease in Tregs. Conclusion Vaccination with MVA-5T4 did not improve objective response rates of IL-2 therapy but did result in stable disease associated with an increase in the ratio of 5T4-specific effector to regulatory T cells in selected patients. Trial registration number ISRCTN83977250

  8. Probing the folded state and mechanical unfolding pathways of T4 lysozyme using all-atom and coarse-grained molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wenjun, E-mail: wjzheng@buffalo.edu; Glenn, Paul [Department of Physics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The Bacteriophage T4 Lysozyme (T4L) is a prototype modular protein comprised of an N-terminal and a C-domain domain, which was extensively studied to understand the folding/unfolding mechanism of modular proteins. To offer detailed structural and dynamic insights to the folded-state stability and the mechanical unfolding behaviors of T4L, we have performed extensive equilibrium and steered molecular dynamics simulations of both the wild-type (WT) and a circular permutation (CP) variant of T4L using all-atom and coarse-grained force fields. Our all-atom and coarse-grained simulations of the folded state have consistently found greater stability of the C-domain than the N-domain in isolation, which is in agreement with past thermostatic studies of T4L. While the all-atom simulation cannot fully explain the mechanical unfolding behaviors of the WT and the CP variant observed in an optical tweezers study, the coarse-grained simulations based on the Go model or a modified elastic network model (mENM) are in qualitative agreement with the experimental finding of greater unfolding cooperativity in the WT than the CP variant. Interestingly, the two coarse-grained models predict different structural mechanisms for the observed change in cooperativity between the WT and the CP variant—while the Go model predicts minor modification of the unfolding pathways by circular permutation (i.e., preserving the general order that the N-domain unfolds before the C-domain), the mENM predicts a dramatic change in unfolding pathways (e.g., different order of N/C-domain unfolding in the WT and the CP variant). Based on our simulations, we have analyzed the limitations of and the key differences between these models and offered testable predictions for future experiments to resolve the structural mechanism for cooperative folding/unfolding of T4L.

  9. Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Strelkov, S V; Mesyanzhinov, V V; Rossmann, M G

    1997-06-15

    Oligomeric coiled-coil motifs are found in numerous protein structures; among them is fibritin, a structural protein of bacteriophage T4, which belongs to a class of chaperones that catalyze a specific phage-assembly process. Fibritin promotes the assembly of the long tail fibers and their subsequent attachment to the tail baseplate; it is also a sensing device that controls the retraction of the long tail fibers in adverse environments and, thus, prevents infection. The structure of fibritin had been predicted from sequence and biochemical analyses to be mainly a triple-helical coiled coil. The determination of its structure at atomic resolution was expected to give insights into the assembly process and biological function of fibritin, and the properties of modified coiled-coil structures in general. The three-dimensional structure of fibritin E, a deletion mutant of wild-type fibritin, was determined to 2.2 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. Three identical subunits of 119 amino acid residues form a trimeric parallel coiled-coil domain and a small globular C-terminal domain about a crystallographic threefold axis. The coiled-coil domain is divided into three segments that are separated by insertion loops. The C-terminal domain, which consists of 30 residues from each subunit, contains a beta-propeller-like structure with a hydrophobic interior. The residues within the C-terminal domain make extensive hydrophobic and some polar intersubunit interactions. This is consistent with the C-terminal domain being important for the correct assembly of fibritin, as shown earlier by mutational studies. Tight interactions between the C-terminal residues of adjacent subunits counteract the latent instability that is suggested by the structural properties of the coiled-coil segments. Trimerization is likely to begin with the formation of the C-terminal domain which subsequently initiates the assembly of the coiled coil. The interplay between the stabilizing effect of the C

  10. Double-strand break repair and genetic recombination in topoisomerase and primase mutants of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Kudryashova, Elena

    2014-09-01

    The effects of primase and topoisomerase II deficiency on the double-strand break (DSB) repair and genetic recombination in bacteriophage T4 were studied in vivo using focused recombination. Site-specific DSBs were induced by SegC endonuclease in the rIIB gene of one of the parents. The frequency/distance relationship was determined in crosses of the wild-type phage, topoisomerase II mutant amN116 (gene 39), and primase mutant E219 (gene 61). Ordinary two-factor (i×j) and three-factor (i k×j) crosses between point rII mutations were also performed. These data provide information about the frequency and distance distribution of the single-exchange (splice) and double-exchange (patch) events. In two-factor crosses ets1×i, the topoisomerase and primase mutants had similar recombinant frequencies in crosses at ets1-i distances longer than 1000 bp, comprising about 80% of the corresponding wild-type values. They, however, differ remarkably in crosses at shorter distances. In the primase mutant, the recombinant frequencies are similar to those in the wild-type crosses at distances less than 100 bp, being a bit diminished at longer distances. In two-factor crosses ets1×i of the topoisomerase mutant, the recombinant frequencies were reduced ten-fold at the shortest distances. In three-factor crosses a6 ets1×i, where we measure patch-related recombination, the primase mutant was quite proficient across the entire range of distances. The topoisomerase mutant crosses demonstrated virtually complete absence of rII(+) recombinants at distances up to 33 bp, with the frequencies increasing steadily at longer distances. The data were interpreted as follows. The primase mutant is fully recombination-proficient. An obvious difference from the wild-type state is some shortage of EndoVII function leading to prolonged existence of HJs and thus stretched out ds-branch migration. This is also true for the topoisomerase mutant. However, the latter is deficient in the ss

  11. Size versus polarizability in protein-ligand interactions: binding of noble gases within engineered cavities in phage T4 lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, M L; Breyer, W A; Griswold, I J; Matthews, B W

    2000-09-29

    To investigate the relative importance of size and polarizability in ligand binding within proteins, we have determined the crystal structures of pseudo wild-type and cavity-containing mutant phage T4 lysozymes in the presence of argon, krypton, and xenon. These proteins provide a representative sample of predominantly apolar cavities of varying size and shape. Even though the volumes of these cavities range up to the equivalent of five xenon atoms, the noble gases bind preferentially at highly localized sites that appear to be defined by constrictions in the walls of the cavities, coupled with the relatively large radii of the noble gases. The cavities within pseudo wild-type and L121A lysozymes each bind only a single atom of noble gas, while the cavities within mutants L133A and F153A have two independent binding sites, and the L99A cavity has three interacting sites. The binding of noble gases within two double mutants was studied to characterize the additivity of binding at such sites. In general, when a cavity in a protein is created by a "large-to-small" substitution, the surrounding residues relax somewhat to reduce the volume of the cavity. The binding of xenon and, to a lesser degree, krypton and argon, tend to expand the volume of the cavity and to return it closer to what it would have been had no relaxation occurred. In nearly all cases, the extent of binding of the noble gases follows the trend xenon>krypton>argon. Pressure titrations of the L99A mutant have confirmed that the crystallographic occupancies accurately reflect fractional saturation of the binding sites. The trend in noble gas affinity can be understood in terms of the effects of size and polarizability on the intermolecular potential. The plasticity of the protein matrix permits repulsion due to increased ligand size to be more than compensated for by attraction due to increased ligand polarizability. These results have implications for the mechanism of general anesthesia, the migration

  12. Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley Souza [Clinica de Endocrinologia e Metabologia (CEPCEM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Pesquisa]. E-mail: pedrorosario@globo.com; Borges, Michelle A.R.; Costa, Graciela B.C.; Resende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L.; Barroso, Alvaro L.; Purish, Saulo [Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tireoide. Servico de Endocrinologia; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2007-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of {sup 131}I. Patients and methods: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor {<=} 5 cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with {sup 131}I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied. Of these, 23 patients with detectable Tg on T4 (> 1 ng/ml) during the first year after initial therapy were selected. Results: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3. Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS. Eleven patients with negative US and CT received a new {sup 131}I dose (without DxWBS), and RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3 patients. Among the patients with negative RxWBS, 7 remained free of apparent disease and Tg was declining (5 with undetectable Tg on T4 at the end of the study). One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases. Conclusions: All patients with Tg on T4 > 5 ng/ml presented apparent disease. In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended. Among patients with detectable Tg on T4 {<=} 5 ng/ml and negative US and CT, only 12% presented ectopic uptake on RxWBS. These cases could be followed up by monitoring Tg on T4, and RxWBS and FDG-PET should only be performed if this marker does not decrease after 1-2 years. (author)

  13. Management of low-risk patients with thyroid carcinoma and detectable thyroglobulin on T4 after thyroidectomy and ablation with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley Souza; Borges, Michelle A.R.; Costa, Graciela B.C.; Resende, Leonardo L.; Padrao, Eduardo L.; Barroso, Alvaro L.; Purish, Saulo; Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the positive predictive value of detectable Tg during T4 therapy (Tg on T4) in patients with thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and remnant ablation, discussing the work-up in this situation and the empirical indication of 131 I. Patients and methods: Initially, 234 low-risk patients [tumor ≤ 5 cm, completely resected, no extensive extrathyroid invasion (pT4)] submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation with 131 I (3.7-5.5 GBq) who presented no ectopic uptake on RxWBS were studied. Of these, 23 patients with detectable Tg on T4 (> 1 ng/ml) during the first year after initial therapy were selected. Results: Metastases were detected by neck US in 7 patients, by chest CT in 2 and by US and CT in 3. Four of five patients with lung metastases upon CT had a positive RxWBS. Eleven patients with negative US and CT received a new 131 I dose (without DxWBS), and RxWBS showed ectopic uptake in 3 patients. Among the patients with negative RxWBS, 7 remained free of apparent disease and Tg was declining (5 with undetectable Tg on T4 at the end of the study). One patient presented an increase in Tg and FDG-PET was positive for lymph node and bone metastases. Conclusions: All patients with Tg on T4 > 5 ng/ml presented apparent disease. In these cases, even when US and CT are negative, the administration of a therapeutic dose of 131 I (without DxWBS) and FDG-PET are recommended. Among patients with detectable Tg on T4 ≤ 5 ng/ml and negative US and CT, only 12% presented ectopic uptake on RxWBS. These cases could be followed up by monitoring Tg on T4, and RxWBS and FDG-PET should only be performed if this marker does not decrease after 1-2 years. (author)

  14. Restoration of ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells by the concomitant treatment with bacteriophage T4 endonuclease V and HVJ (Sendai virus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet (uv)-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, belonging to complementation groups, A, B, C, D, and E, was restored to the normal level by concomitant treatment of the cells with T4 endonuclease V and uv-inactivated HVJ (Sendai virus). The present results suggest that T4 endonuclease molecules were inserted effectively into the cells by the interaction of HVJ with the cell membranes, the enzyme was functional on human chromosomal DNA which had been damaged by uv irradiation in the viable cells, all the studied groups of xeroderma pigmentosum (variant was not tested) were defective in the first step (incision) of excision repair

  15. Effect of water-cooling treatment times on properties of friction stir welded joints of 7N01-T4 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. H.; Wang, Y.; Fang, X. F.; Liang, P.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Y. H.; Liu, X. M.

    2018-02-01

    Due to the deformation caused by residual stress in the welding process, welded components need treatment to reduce welding distortion. In this paper, several different times of flame-heating and water-cooling treatment were subjected to the friction stir welding joints of 15mm thick 7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy sheets to study the microstructure variation of friction stir welding joints of 7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy, and to analyze the effect on micro-hardness, tensile and fracture mechanical properties. This investigation will be helpful to optimize treatment methods and provide instruction on industrial production.

  16. Hydro-mechanical properties of the red salt clay (T4) - Natural analogue of a clay barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkley, W.; Popp, T.; Salzer, K.; Gruner, M.; Boettge, V.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic formations is worldwide the only accepted solution to warranty long term safety. Besides clay and crystalline rocks, salt is one of the potential host-rock candidates, mainly favored in Germany. As salts rocks are highly soluble their barrier integrity against water inflow from the cap rock is questionable. Argillaceous cap rocks or intercalated clay layers may act as protective shield in the hanging wall above a repository, thus providing a multi-barrier system. The aims of our study are twofold: 1) to characterize the mineralogical, hydraulic and rock-mechanical properties of the so-called Red Salt Clay (T4) as natural analogue of a clay barriers represented by different states of induration corresponding to various depth of burial diagenesis; 2) to demonstrate the favoured barrier properties of an argillaceous layer in the top of a salt formation undergoing dynamic processes such as rock bursts. The so-called Red Salt Clay (T4) is deposited as clay rich clastic sediment at the base of the Aller-series forming a persistent lateral layer above the lower Zechstein-series. The thickness of the clay-formation becomes smaller with decreasing distance from the border of the basin, i.e. from ∼15 m at Rossleben, over 7 m at Bernburg to 3.5 m at Zielitz, all in Saxony-Anhalt, D). The mineralogical composition of the Red Salt Clay varies, e.g. average composition for the Teutschenthal area: clay minerals 54% (Chlorite: 8%; Illite/Muscovite: 46%); quartz: 22%; anhydrite: 15%; accessory gypsum; Halite: 6%, Hematite: ∼ 2%). The geochemical and mineralogical composition of the Red Salt Clay represents a final state of natural salt-clay-systems, thus standing as a natural analogue for bentonite-based sealing systems in contact with high-saline solutions (e.g. saturated NaCl-solution, solutions with various Mg 2+ -, K + -, SO 4 2- - concentrations). The

  17. Phase 2 study of dovitinib in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma with or without t(4;14) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Scheid (Christof); D. Reece (Donna); M. Beksaç (Meral); A. Spencer (Andrew); N. Callander (Natalie); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); G. Kalimi (Ghulam); C. Cai (Can); M. Shi (Michael); J.W. Scott (Jeffrey W.); A.K. Stewart (Keith)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Approximately 15% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) exhibit a t(4;14) translocation, which often results in constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of

  18. Antigen-specific T8+ human clone of cells with a nonspecific augmenting function on the T4 cell-B cell helper interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brines, R.D.; Sia, D.Y.; Lehner, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authors isolated a T8 + T3 + Ia + clone of cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy subject. The clone was expanded and maintained with autologous feed cells, interleukin 2, and a streptococcal antigen. The T8 + clone of cells responded specifically to the streptococcal antigen, in the absence of accessory cells,and released a soluble factor. Both the cloned cells and the corresponding soluble factor expressed augmenting helper but not suppressor activity. The augmenting helper activity for B cell antibody synthesis was demonstrable only in the presence of autologous T 4 cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure antibodies. Although stimulation of the T8 + cloned cells was antigen-specific, the resulting soluble factor elicited nonspecific antibody synthesis in the presence of T4 and B cells. The T8 + cloned cell-derived factor was adsorbed by B cells but not by T4 cells. Preliminary studies suggest that the factor has the properties of a B cell growth factor. They suggest that the T8 + population consists of functionally heterogeneous cell subsets, some that have suppressor function and others that augment the T4 + helper-inducer activity in B cell antibody synthesis

  19. Increasing doses effect of L-T4 and L-T3 in the hypothalamus - hypophysis - thyroid in patients carrier of congenital and acquired hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, H.

    1987-01-01

    The pituitary and peripheral response to L-T4 and L-T3 therapy were studied in 12 patients with congenital goitrous hypothyroidism, in 10 patients with an ectopic thyroid and onset of hypothyroidism at 3-8 years of age, and in 6 patients with adult-onset hypothyroidism, after they had had their chronic thyroid hormone replacement therapy discontinued for 30 days. They were first treated with increasing L-T4 (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg daily) followed by L-T3 (0.05 and 0.2 mg daily) after stopping thyroid medication for another month. Ten normal subjects were treated identically. Since all patients received similar doses of thyroid hormones (μg/Kg of body weight) and had similar serum levels of T4 and T3 on each dose of L-T4 or L-T3, this paper concludes that congenitally hypothyroid patients have persistent pituitary resistance, but no peripheral resistance, to thyroid hormone. (author)

  20. Dampak Intervensi Sumber Iodium Alami Spirulina sp terhadap Kadar T4 Bebas (FT4 dan Tiroglobulin (TG pada Wanita Usia Subur di Daerah Kalibawang Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Agus Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSRACT Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD is still a public health problem in Indonesia. Salt iodization was one of IDD prevention programme to prevent IDD, however the national coverage for iodized salt is still less than 90%. Alternative solution to solve IDD elimination is needed to find a better iodine sources. One of nutrient rich source from the sea that was developed to improve the nutritional status is Spirulina sp. Spirulina has high bioavailability due to the simple structure of the cell wall, so that the nutrients contained iodine will be more easily absorbed by the body. The aim of this research was to describe the effect of Spirulina sp to free T4 and thyroglobulin level in women of child bearing age in Kalibawang Kulon Progo regency. This is an experimental study using double blind randomized control trial (RCT. Subjects are euthyroid child bearing woman (18-40 years old, with TSH levels of 3 to 6.2 μIU/L. They were divided into 2 groups with subjects in control group were given placebo while the treatment group were given Spirulina sp (1 gr/day for 3 months. Serum for free T4 and thyroglobulin was analysed using ELISA. The results showed that there were significant changes in free T4 level in both groups after intervention (P <0.05, but there were no significant differences between the two groups at the beginning and end of treatment (P> 0.05 in thyroglobulin. The intervention using Spirulina sp has potential effect to increase free T4 level, however it did not effect thyroglobulin level. Keywords: FreeT4, RCT, Spirulina sp, Thyroglobulin   ABSTRAK   Masalah kekurangan asupan iodium dan gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium (GAKI masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. Program iodisasi garam merupakan salah satu program yang dijalankan oleh pemerintah Indonesia untuk menanggulangi GAKI, namun sampai saat ini cakupan angka nasional untuk garam beriodium belum mencapai 90%. Dibutuhkan metode baru yang efektif dalam membantu program

  1. Study on the thyroid function of thoroughbred horses by means of 'in vitro' 125I-T3 modified and 125I-T4 tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.W. de

    1975-01-01

    Sera of 71 animals, divided in groups of males and females, in repose and after activity were studied. The method to establish the percentage of the 125 I-lyothyronine retention in resin (Test 125 I-T 3 or T 3 ) was modified by the use of 0.2 ml of serum on the resin column, after addition of the marked hormone. This modification served to prove that thoroughbred equines show binding of the I-lyothyronine to the serum four times reduced, indicating, therefore, that these animals have four times more ligation sites of triidothyronin saturation in the serum, when compared with the results obtained from human beings. The variance analysis applied to the T 3 Test showed no significant results at the 95% level as regards to activity. For the 71 animals, the author has found an average of 50.30% of the 125 I-Lyothyronine in resin retention, being the confidence interval for this group between 48.75% and 51.85% to a 95% confidence coefficient. Evaluating the results of the T 4 Test by means of the variance analysis, we noticed that the male and female groups in repose differed statistically from the groups after activity to a 95% confidence coefficient. The author has grouped the results of the T 4 Test of 32 equines, 18 males and 14 females, in repose, obtaining an average of 0.61 mcg and 0.51 mcg and 0.71 mcg T 4 /100 ml as confidence interval to a 95% confidence coefficient. We have listed 39 results of T 4 Test, being 23 males and 61 Females, after activity, obtaining an average of 2.01 mcg of thyroxin by 100 ml of serum and 1.72 mcg and 2.30 T 4 /100 ml as confidence interval to a 95% confidence coefficient

  2. Functional correlates of TSH, fT3 and fT4 in Alzheimer disease: a F-18 FDG PET/CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Ursini, Francesco; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Gaetano; Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Tavolozza, Mario; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-07-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination. Values for TSH, fT3 and fT4 were in the normal range. The relationships were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) using age, sex, MMSE, scholarship and CSF values of amyloid and tau as covariates. We found a significant positive correlation between TSH values and cortical glucose consumption in a wide portion of the anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally (BA32) and left frontal lobe (BA25) (p FWE-corr <0.001; p FDRcorr <0.000; cluster extent 66950). No significant relationships were found between cortical F-18 FDG uptake and T3 and T4 serum levels. The results of our study suggest that a cortical dysfunction in anterior cingulate and frontal lobes may affect serum values of TSH in AD patients.

  3. Conditional cancer-specific mortality in T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer: implications for long-term prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Mahal, Brandon A.; Nguyen, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) following a diagnosis of prostate cancer may improve after patients have survived a number of years after diagnosis. We sought to determine long-term conditional PCSM for patients with stage T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer. We identified 66,817 patients diagnosed with stage IV (T4N0M0, N1M0, or M1) prostate cancer between 1973 and 2011 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Conditional five-year PCSM was evaluated for each group of patients at 5, 10, and 15 years of survival according to the Fine & Gray model for competing risks after adjusting for tumor grade, age, income level, and marital status. Race-stratified analyses were also performed. There were 13,345 patients with T4 disease, 12,450 patients with N1 disease, and 41,022 patients with M1 disease. Median follow-up among survivors in the three groups was 123 months (range: 0–382 months), 61 months (range: 0–410 months), and 30 months (range: 0–370 months), respectively. Conditional PCSM improved in all three groups over time. Among patients with T4 disease, 5-year PCSM improved from 13.9 % at diagnosis to 11.2, 8.1, and 6.5 % conditioned on 5, 10, or 15 years of survival, respectively (p < 0.001 in all cases). In patients with N1 disease, 5-year PCSM increased within the first five years and decreased thereafter, from 18.9 % at diagnosis to 21.4 % (p < 0.001), 17.6 % (p = 0.055), and 13.8 % (p < 0.001), respectively. In patients with metastatic disease, 5-year PCSM improved from 57.2 % at diagnosis to 41.1, 28.8, and 20.8 %, respectively (p < 0.001). White race was associated with a greater increase in conditional survival compared to non-white race among those with T4 or N1 disease. While patients with T4, N1, or M1 prostate cancer are never “cured,” their odds of cancer-specific survival increase substantially after they have survived for 5 or more years. Physicians who take care of patients with prostate cancer

  4. Efecto de la raza y la edad sobre las concentraciones de hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 de bovinos en condiciones tropicales Effect of the breed and age on the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 concentrations in bovines under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Campos Gaona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar el efecto en condiciones de trópico seco de la edad y del grupo racial sobre las concentraciones séricas de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4, se muestrearon 158 animales de los grupos raciales Holstein, Lucerna, Hartón del Valle, Cebú Brahman y mestizo F1 (Cebú Brahman x Pardo Suizo, distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad desde el nacimiento hasta el destete (8 meses. La concentración media de T3 fue 2.25 mmol/L y la de T4, 57.37 mmol/L. La correlación entre T3 y T4 fue de 0.53. Se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa para el efecto grupo racial, grupo de edad (PTo study the effect of age and breed on blood concentration of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 under the dry tropic conditions, 158 animals from the groups Holstein, Lucerna, Hartón del Valle, Brahman and crossbred F1 Brahman x Brown Swiss were sampled. The animals were allocated in four age groups from newborns calves until eight month old. The average T3 concentration was of 2.25 mmolL-¹ and the T4 was of 57.37 mmolL-¹. The correlation between T3 and T4 was of 0.53. A statistical significant difference (p<0.001 was found for the effects of age breed and group, but not difference was found for the interaction between breed and age (p=0.286. The breeds with higher blood concentrations of T3 and T4 were Holstein and Lucerna. The lowest concentration was found among the crossbred group. The higher concentration of T3 and T4 of thyroid hormones was found in the newborn group. As the calves grow, the concentrations of T3 and T4 decrease progressively. This study found that under dry tropic conditions, in a thermo-neutral borderline zone (according to the THI index the young bovines show clear differences in the concentration of the thyroid hormones

  5. Pathogenetic, Clinical, and Prognostic Features of Adult t(4;11(q21;q23/MLL-AF4 Positive B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marchesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Translocation t(4;11(q21;q23 leading to formation of MLL-AF4 fusion gene is found in about 10% of newly diagnosed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adult patients. Patients expressing this chromosomal aberration present typical biological, immunophenotypic, and clinical features. This form of leukemia is universally recognized as high-risk leukemia and treatment intensification with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in first complete remission (CR could be a valid option to improve prognosis, but data obtained from the literature are controversial. In this review, we briefly describe pathogenetic, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of adult t(4;11(q21;q23/MLL-AF4 positive ALL and provide a review of the clinical outcome reported by the most important cooperative groups worldwide.

  6. Effect of Exchanging Advancing and Retreating Side Materials on Mechanical Properties and Electrochemical Corrosion Resistance of Dissimilar 6013-T4 and 7003 Aluminum Alloys FSW Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhixia; Liang, Haimei; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Keng

    2018-03-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was used to weld dissimilar joints between Al 6013-T4 and Al7003 alloys in this work. The effect of exchanging advancing (AS) and retreating (RS) side material on microstructure, mechanical behaviors and electrochemical corrosion resistance was discussed. Results showed that different joint cross sections were obtained when exchanging AS and RS materials. The material on the AS would be more deformed during the welding process. When the Al6013 placed on the AS, the plastic flow of weld is more sufficient. Whether on the AS or RS, the Al6013-T4 side is the weak region for both tensile specimens and hardness samples. The fracture position corresponds to the minimum hardness position. Also, more strengthening phase can be retained in the joint, and the joint of A6R7 has better corrosion resistance.

  7. One-stage surgery in combination with thoracic endovascular grafting and resection of T4 lung cancer invading the thoracic aorta and spine

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Seijiro; Goto, Tatsuya; Koike, Terumoto; Okamoto, Takeshi; Shoji, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kei; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    A novel strategy of one-stage surgery in combination with thoracic endovascular grafting and resection for T4 lung cancer invading the thoracic aorta and spine is described. A 56-year-old man with locally advanced lung cancer infiltrating the aortic wall and spine underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation, followed by en bloc resection of the aortic wall and spine with thoracic endovascular grafting. He developed postoperative chylothorax, but there were no stent graft-relat...

  8. SODA-IIoT4Factory: Blockchain to keep the A.I. of your Intrusion Detection System up-to-date

    OpenAIRE

    Planchon , Frederic; Costa , Fernand; Nicaise , Vincent; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Co-designed with FPC Ingénierie, SODA-IIoT4Factory offers a secure way to update CyPRES rule engines & cyber security/attack models.CyPRES is an intelligent IDS that strengthens industrial information systems. It learns then verifies the operation and behaviour of the system to the lowest level of detail. It detects the first signs of attacks before damage is incurred.

  9. Significance of lymphadenectomy with splenectomy in radical surgery for advanced (pT3/pT4) remnant gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Hiroki; Oda, Eri; Hirota, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Shinji; Tomiyasu, Shinjiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Arita, Tetsumasa; Yagi, Yasushi; Baba, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    To date, the optimal surgical strategy for remnant gastric cancer has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to clarify the significance of lymphadenectomy with splenectomy in remnant gastric cancer surgery. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Kumamoto Regional Medical Center. The primary endpoint was overall survival after surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathologic features, surgical treatments, and long-term prognosis of remnant gastric cancer patients treated with total gastrectomy. A total of 80 patients with gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy and who underwent total gastrectomy were enrolled in the study. Splenectomy was performed in 38 patients. Lymph node metastasis in the splenic hilum was not observed in the patients with pT1/pT2 tumors, whereas nodal metastasis at the splenic hilum was detected in 30.4% of the patients with pT3/pT4 tumors. The survival rate of the patients with pT3/pT4 tumors who underwent splenectomy was significantly higher than that of the patients who did not undergo splenectomy, although there was no difference in the patients with pT1/pT2 tumors. Among the patients classified as R0, the survival rate of the patients with pT3/pT4 tumors who underwent splenectomy was significantly higher than that of the patients who did not undergo splenectomy. Lymphadenectomy with splenectomy in radical surgery is beneficial for patients with advanced (pT3/pT4) remnant gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Phage T4 endonuclease SegD that is similar to group I intron endonucleases does not initiate homing of its own gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey S; Latypov, Oleg R; Kolosov, Peter M; Shlyapnikov, Michael G; Bezlepkina, Tamara A; Kholod, Natalia S; Kadyrov, Farid A; Granovsky, Igor E

    2018-02-01

    Homing endonucleases are a group of site-specific endonucleases that initiate homing, a nonreciprocal transfer of its own gene into a new allele lacking this gene. This work describes a novel phage T4 endonuclease, SegD, which is homologous to the GIY-YIG family of homing endonucleases. Like other T4 homing endonucleases SegD recognizes an extended, 16bp long, site, cleaves it asymmetrically to form 3'-protruding ends and digests both unmodified DNA and modified T-even phage DNA with similar efficiencies. Surprisingly, we revealed that SegD cleavage site was identical in the genomes of segD - and segD + phages. We found that segD gene was expressed during the T4 developmental cycle. Nevertheless, endonuclease SegD was not able to initiate homing of its own gene as well as genetic recombination between phages in its site inserted into the rII locus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of serum levels of T3 and T4 during the dry and postpartum periods with ovarian rebound in primiparous and multiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Davasaztabrizi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is one of the major endocrine glands which plays an important role in vital balance of the body by secreting two hormones, T3 and T4. Because effects of these two hormones affect the activity of many body organs, in this survey the effects of these two hormones on the return of ovarian activity in Holstein cows were examined. For this purpose, 60 primiparous cows (having one pregnancy and 60 multiparous (having two or more pregnancies were considered for this survey. In both groups, the blood samples were taken 10 days before parturition and 10 to 20 days after parturition.  After centrifugation and serum separation, samples were stored at -20 o C. Afterwards in laboratory, T3 and T4 values were measured by using ELISA kit. The results indicate that the values of T3 and T4 in primiparous cows in the prenatal and postpartum period were more than multiparous cows (p

  12. The T4 Phage DNA Mimic Protein Arn Inhibits the DNA Binding Activity of the Bacterial Histone-like Protein H-NS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chun-Han; Wang, Hao-Ching; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The T4 phage protein Arn (Anti restriction nuclease) was identified as an inhibitor of the restriction enzyme McrBC. However, until now its molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study we used structural approaches to investigate biological properties of Arn. A structural analysis of Arn revealed that its shape and negative charge distribution are similar to dsDNA, suggesting that this protein could act as a DNA mimic. In a subsequent proteomic analysis, we found that the bacterial histone-like protein H-NS interacts with Arn, implying a new function. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that Arn prevents H-NS from binding to the Escherichia coli hns and T4 p8.1 promoters. In vitro gene expression and electron microscopy analyses also indicated that Arn counteracts the gene-silencing effect of H-NS on a reporter gene. Because McrBC and H-NS both participate in the host defense system, our findings suggest that T4 Arn might knock down these mechanisms using its DNA mimicking properties. PMID:25118281

  13. Concentration of T3 and T4 in blood of non-irradiated and irradiated different doses rats non-fed for two days before being sacrificed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkumatov, L.M.; Krylova, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The possibilities of changing T 3 and T 4 concentration in blood of non-irradiated and irradiated males with doses of 8, 6, 4, 2, 1 and 0.5 Gy non-fed for two days before being sacrificed over 2, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation are studied. The irradiation was conducted at the Ingur facility with the 137 Cs-source by the exposure dose rates of 2.4 x 10 -5 A/kg which provided for the absorbed dose rate of 8.6 x 10 -4 Gy/s. It is shown that the blood of rats irradiated with the doses of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 Gy no regular changes in the T 3 and T 4 concentration as compared to the non-irradiated rats were noticed, if they were not fed for two days before decapitation. This testifies to the fact, that the effect of ionizing radiation on thyroid function is mediated by anorexia syndrome. The decrease in the T 4 concentration after 8 Gy is most likely connected with enterotoxemy developed in difficult cases of acute radiation sickness [ru

  14. Type-IVC Secretion System: A Novel Subclass of Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) Common Existing in Gram-Positive Genus Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, George F.

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of pathogens are being found to possess specialized secretion systems which they use in various ways to subvert host defenses. Type IV secretion system (T4SS) is one of versatile secretion systems essential for the virulence and even survival of some bacteria species, and they enable the secretion of protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope. T4SS was once believed to be present only in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we present evidence of a new subclass of T4SS, Type-IVC secretion system and indicate its common existence in the Gram-positive bacterial genus Streptococcus. We further identified that VirB1, VirB4, VirB6 and VirD4 are the minimal key components of this system. Using genome comparisons and evolutionary relationship analysis, we proposed that Type-IVC secretion system is movable via transposon factors and mediates the conjugative transfer of DNA, enhances bacterial pathogenicity, and could cause large-scale outbreaks of infections in humans. PMID:23056296

  15. HUBUNGAN KADAR TIROGLOBULIN, TSH DAN fT4 SERUM PADA ANAK USIA SEKOLAH DI TIGA KABUPATEN DENGAN TINGKAT ENDEMISITAS DEFISIENSI-IODIUM BERBEDA (ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE SERUM THYROGLOBULIN, TSH, AND fT4 AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN IN THREE DISTRICTS WITH DIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wibowo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Iodine deficiency lowers circulating thyroxine (T4 and raises serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, where free T4 (fT4 and TSH have strong corelation with thyroglobulin (Tg. The results from population studies indicate, Tg appears to be a valuable indicator of thyroid status, but it has yet to be fully explored. This study aimed to measure the association between serum Tg with TSH and fT4 as alternatif indicators thyroid status in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional study of sample of 398 schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in three districts with different iodine-deficiency endemicity level, i.e. Pati as a mild endemic district, Purbalingga as a moderate endemic district, and Malang as a severe endemic district. Children’s blood have taken 3 cc as a sample for the determination of Tg, TSH, and fT4. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was used to determine Tg, TSH and fT4. Mean of serum Tg 14.3 ± 11.1 ng/mL (cut-off 2-50 ng/mL, TSH 3.7 ± 2.2 µIU/mL (cut-off 0.3-6.2, fT4 1.4 ± 0.4 ng/dL (cut-off 0.8-2.0 ng/dL. Correlation analysis was showed the significance of Tg and TSH (p< 0.05 and Tg with fT4 (p< 0.05. The significance analysis of Tg with TSH and fT4 may be evaluated as indicator  for thyroid function in school-aged children in iodine-deficiency endemic areas.   Keywords: thyroglobulin (Tg, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (fT4, school-aged children ABSTRAK Defisiensi iodium menurunkan tiroksin (T4 yang beredar dalam darah dan meningkatkan Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, di mana T4 bebas (fT4 dan TSH memiliki hubungan erat dengan tiroglobulin (Tg. Hasil studi populasi menunjukkan, Tg tampak menjadi indikator berharga untuk status tiroid di daerah endemik defisiensi iodium, tetapi belum sepenuhnya dieksplorasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur hubungan antara kadar Tg serum dengan kadar TSH dan fT4 sebagai indikator alternatif status tiroid pada anak usia sekolah. Ini merupakan penelitian

  16. Gender-specific differences in cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder in pathologic tumor stage T4a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias; Bastian, Patrick J; Brookman-May, Sabine; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Tilki, Derya; Otto, Wolfgang; Bolenz, Christian; Gilfrich, Christian; Trojan, Lutz; Herrmann, Edwin; Moritz, Rudolf; Tiemann, Arne; Müller, Stefan C; Ellinger, Jörg; Buchner, Alexander; Stief, Christian G; Wieland, Wolf F; Höfner, Thomas; Hohenfellner, Markus; Haferkamp, Axel; Roigas, Jan; Zacharias, Mario; Nuhn, Philipp; Burger, Maximilian

    2013-10-01

    Bladder cancer (UCB) staged pT4a show heterogeneous outcome after radical cystectomy (RC). No risk model has been established to date. Despite gender-specific differences, no comparative studies exist for this tumor stage. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) of 245 UCB patients without neoadjuvant chemotherapy staged pT4a, pN0-2, M0 after RC were analyzed in a retrospective multi-center study. Seventeen patients were excluded from further analysis due to carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the prostatic urethra and/or positive surgical margins. Average follow-up period was 30 months (IQR: 14-45). The influence of different clinical and histopathologic variables on CSS was determined through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Two risk groups were generated using factors with independent effect in multivariate models. Internal validity of the prediction model was evaluated by bootstrapping. Eighty-four percent of the patients (n = 192) were male; 72% (n = 165) showed lymphovascular invasion (LVI). The 5-year CSS rate was 31%, and significantly different between male and female (35% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression modeling, female gender (HR = 1.83, P = 0.008), LVI (HR = 1.92, P = 0.005), and absence of adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.61, P = 0.020) significantly worsened CSS. Two risk groups were generated using these 3 criteria, which differed significantly between each other in CSS (5-year-CSS: 46% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). The c-index value of the risk model was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.53-0.68, P < 0.001). Prognosis in UCB staged pT4a is heterogeneous. Female gender and LVI are adverse factors. Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to improve outcome. The present analysis establishes the first risk model for this demanding tumor stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Substitution of 125-I-T3, 125-I-T4 and 125-I-TSH produced in the ININ, in commercial boxes for radioimmunoessay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado S, B.; Zambrano A, F.; Lavalley E, C.; Ferro F, G.; Lezama C, J.

    1991-03-01

    Due to the half, relatively short life, of the I-125 used in the radioinmunoanalisis (he/she LAUGHS) of hormones realcionadas with the thyroid, frequently it is observed that they are the other reagents of commercial cases without using, reason for the one which you piede the possibility to use in their entirety statements kits for the CREEK, what causes lost economic and another type of deficiencies. Presently work the results are presented obtained on the characteristics of quality of commercial stuches for the CREEK of hormones of the thyroid profile (T3, T4 and TSH), after substituting to the different radiotrazadores in this cases. The marcaje of the hormones with I-125 was made by means of the method of the cloramina T with 25 seconds of reaction for each hormone, purifying the T3 and the T4 for cromatografia liquidates of high efficiency and to the TSH for cromatografia of likeness in a column of cellulose microcristalina of 6 x 0.8 cm. the substitution of the radiotrazador is made in the commercial cases and the protocol was continued proposed by the makers, giving a coefficient of correlation of -0-997, as a result after the comparison of the straight line among the cases without and with substitution of the radiotrazador; besides certain parameters of quality of the such rehearsals as: the maximum unions (50%+-5) and inespecifica (<5%), slope of the straight line (-2.1 + - 0.2), and other coming from the use of samples of control of quality. We can conclude that at the moment we have in the ININ radiotrazadores of T3, T4 and TSH of good quality, like to be substituted in commercial cases and to use this way to the maximum these games of reagents that are so expensive. (Author)

  18. Efecto de la raza y la edad sobre las concentraciones de hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4 de bovinos en condiciones tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Campos Gaona

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar el efecto en condiciones de trópico seco de la edad y del grupo racial sobre las concentraciones séricas de las hormonas tiroideas T3 y T4, se muestrearon 158 animales de los grupos raciales Holstein, Lucerna, Hartón del Valle, Cebú Brahman y mestizo F1 (Cebú Brahman x Pardo Suizo, distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad desde el nacimiento hasta el destete (8 meses. La concentración media de T3 fue 2.25 mmol/L y la de T4, 57.37 mmol/L. La correlación entre T3 y T4 fue de 0.53. Se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa para el efecto grupo racial, grupo de edad (P<0.001 pero no para la interacción grupo racial x edad (p=0.286. Los grupos raciales con concentraciones más elevadas fueron Holstein y Lucerna; la concentración más baja se presentó en los bovinos mestizos. La mayor concentración de hormonas tiroideas según la edad ocurrió en recién nacidos, luego descendió progresiva y linealmente. El trabajo encontró que en condiciones de trópico seco, en zona límite de termoneutralidad según el índice ITH, los bovinos jóvenes presentanron diferencias marcadas en las concentraciones de hormonas tiroideas

  19. Regulation of CD95 expression and CD95-mediated cell death by interferon-gamma in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(4;11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörrie, J; Schuh, W; Keil, A; Bongards, E; Greil, J; Fey, G H; Zunino, S J

    1999-10-01

    The regulatory effects of IFNgamma on CD95 expression and CD95-mediated cell death were investigated in three high-risk pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines that carry the chromosomal translocation t(4;11)(q21;q23). These leukemias are characteristically refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic treatments operating through the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms leading to increased cell survival and resistance to cell death in these leukemias are largely unknown. Interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), a potent inhibitor of hematopoiesis, acts in part by upregulating CD95 and sensitizing cells to CD95-induced apoptosis. The t(4;11) lines SEM, RS4;11, and MV4;11 expressed low levels of CD95, but were completely resistant to CD95-mediated death. Addition of IFNgamma markedly upregulated CD95 expression in SEM (8-9-fold), RS4;11 (2-3-fold), and MV4;11 (2-3-fold) lines. However, after treatment with IFNgamma, only an 11% increase in sensitivity to CD95-mediated cell death was observed in SEM cells, whereas RS4;11 and MV4;11 cells remained resistant. Cycloheximide, but not actinomycin D or brefeldin A, increased CD95-specific cell death only in IFNgamma-treated RS4;11 cells by approximately 12%. Abundant levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, known to inhibit CD95-signaling in some cells, were present suggesting a possible role for both molecules in the resistance to CD95-mediated cell death. Resistance of the leukemic blasts to CD95-mediated cell death and the failure of IFNgamma to substantially sensitize the CD95-signaling pathway may contribute to the highly malignant phenotype of pro-B ALL with translocation t(4;11).

  20. The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T4 terminase docks on the prohead portal clip region during DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Thomas, Julie A.; Black, Lindsay W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage ATP-based packaging motors translocate DNA into a pre-formed prohead through a dodecameric portal ring channel to high density. We investigated portal–terminase docking interactions at specifically localized residues within a terminase-interaction region (aa279–316) in the phage T4 portal protein gp20 equated to the clip domain of the SPP1 portal crystal structure by 3D modeling. Within this region, three residues allowed A to C mutations whereas three others did not, consistent with informatics analyses showing the tolerated residues are not strongly conserved evolutionarily. About 7.5 nm was calculated by FCS-FRET studies employing maleimide Alexa488 dye labeled A316C proheads and gp17 CT-ReAsH supporting previous work docking the C-terminal end of the T4 terminase (gp17) closer to the N-terminal GFP-labeled portal (gp20) than the N-terminal end of the terminase. Such a terminase–portal orientation fits better to a proposed “DNA crunching” compression packaging motor and to portal determined DNA headful cutting. PMID:24074593

  1. Specific assay measuring binding of /sup 125/I-Gp 120 from HIV to T4/sup +//CD4/sup +/ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, K.; Nygren, A.; Ramstedt, U.; Gidlund, M.; Wigzell, H.; Arthur, L.O.; Robey, W.G.; Morein, B.

    1987-02-26

    The HIV (HTLV-III) envelope glycoprotein, Gp120, was isolated from virus-infected tissue culture cells using affinity chromatography. A radioimmunoassay was developed to determine the degree of iodinated Gp120 to target CD4/sup +/ (T4/sup +/) cells. /sup 125/I-Gp120 could be shown to selectively bind to CD4/sup +/ cells only. The Gp120 remained bound to these cells after repeated washes. Monoclonal anti-CD4 antibodies block the binding of Gp120 to CD4/sup +/ cells. Monoclonal antibodies to other cell surface components do not interfere with /sup 125/I-Gp120 binding. All IgG antibodies from HIV seropositive donors tested block /sup 125/I-GP120 binding, though with variable titers. The authors believe that this assay provides further proof for the use of CD4 (T4) as a component of the receptor for HIV. It represents a safe, objective and sensitive method for the analysis of Gp120-CD4 interactions, as well as the potential of antibodies to interfere with this binding. (Auth.). 24 refs.; 2 figs.; 8 tabs.

  2. Assessment of Serosal Invasion and Criteria for the Classification of Pathological (p) T4 Staging in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confusions, Controversies and Criticisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Colin J. R., E-mail: colin.stewart@health.wa.gov.au; Hillery, Simon [Department of Histopathology, SJOG Hospital, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Platell, Cameron [Colorectal Surgery Unit, SJOG Hospital, Perth, Western Australia and University of Western (Australia); Puppa, Giacomo [Division of Pathology, ‘G. Fracastoro’ City Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    2011-01-04

    Transmural spread by colorectal carcinoma can result in tumor invasion of the serosal surface and, hence, more likely dissemination within the peritoneal cavity and potentially to additional metastatic sites. The adverse prognostic significance of serosal invasion is widely accepted and its presence may be considered an indication for chemotherapy in patients with node negative disease. However, controversy persists regarding the most appropriate criteria for diagnosis and there are also practical difficulties associated with histological assessment in some cases. Therefore, serosal invasion may be under-diagnosed in a significant proportion of tumors, potentially leading to sub-optimal treatment of high-risk patients. The examination of multiple microscopic sections combined with ancillary studies such as cytology preparations, elastin stains, and immunohistochemistry may prove beneficial in selected problematic cases, but these are not used routinely. The relative prognostic significance of serosal invasion and of direct tumor spread to other organs, both of which are incorporated within the pT4 category of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, remains unclear. Further studies are required to demonstrate whether recent adjustments to the TNM staging of pT4 tumors are appropriate.

  3. Radiotherapy may improve overall survival of patients with T3/T4 transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour relapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Li-Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the upper urinary tract is a relatively uncommon malignancy, the role of adjuvant radiotherapy is unknown. Methods We treated 133 patients with TCC of the renal pelvis or ureter at our institution between 1998 and 2008. The 67 patients who received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT following surgery were assigned to the radiation group (RT. The clinical target volume included the renal fossa, the course of the ureter to the entire bladder, and the paracaval and para-aortic lymph nodes, which were at risk of harbouring metastatic disease in 53 patients. The tumour bed or residual tumour was targeted in 14 patients. The median radiation dose administered was 50 Gy. The 66 patients who received intravesical chemotherapy were assigned to the non-radiation group (non-RT. Results The overall survival rates for the RT and non-RT groups were not significantly different (p = 0.198. However, there was a significant difference between the survival rates for these groups based on patients with T3/T4 stage cancer. A significant difference was observed in the bladder tumour relapse rate between the irradiated and non-irradiated bladder groups (p = 0.004. Multivariate analysis indicated that improved overall survival was associated with age grade 3 hematologic symptoms also occurred. Conclusion EBRT may improve overall survival for patients with T3/T4 cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter and delay bladder tumour recurrence in all patients.

  4. Effect of secondary structure on the interactions of peptide T4 LYS (11-36) in mixtures of aqueous sodium chloride and 2,2,2,-Trifluoroethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Camille O.; Spiegelberg, Susanne; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2001-10-01

    The potential of mean force for protein-protein interactions is key to the development of a statistical-mechanical model for salt-induced protein precipitation and crystallization, and for understanding certain disease states, including cataract formation and {beta}-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Fluorescence anisotropy provides a method for quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions due to reversible association. Monomer-dimer equilibria for the peptide T4 LYS(11-36) were studied by fluorescence anisotropy. This peptide, derived from the {beta}-sheet region of the T4 lysozyme molecule, has the potential to form amyloid fibrils. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in peptide secondary structure, and was used in aqueous solutions at concentrations from 0 to 50% (v/v) at 25 and 37 C to examine the role of peptide conformation on peptide-peptide interactions. The association constant for dimerization increased with rising TFE concentration and with falling temperature. The peptide-peptide potential of mean force was computed from these association constants. Circular-dichroism measurements showed that the secondary structure of the peptide plays an important role in these strong attractive interactions due to intermolecular hydrogen-bond formation and hydrophobic interactions.

  5. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun-Ru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples.

  6. Prevention and reversal of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in mice by administration of anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody at different stages of disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, S J; Kyriakos, M; Sharp, G C; Braley-Mullen, H

    1988-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be induced in CBA/J mice following the transfer of spleen cells from mouse thyroglobulin (MTg)-sensitized donors that have been activated in vitro with MTg. Since L3T4+ T cells are required to transfer EAT in this model, the present study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) GK1.5 in preventing or arresting the development of EAT. Spleen cells from mice given mAb GK1.5 prior to sensitization with MTg and adjuvant could not transfer EAT to normal recipients and cells from these mice did not proliferate in vitro to MTg. Donor mice given GK1.5 before immunization did not develop anti-MTg autoantibody and recipients of cells from such mice also produced little anti-MTg. GK1.5 could also prevent the proliferation and activation of sensitized effector cell precursors when added to in vitro cultures. When a single injection of mAb GK1.5 was given to recipients of in vitro-activated spleen cells, EAT was reduced whether the mAb was given prior to cell transfer or as late as 19 days after cell transfer. Whereas the incidence and severity of EAT was consistently reduced by injecting recipient mice with GK1.5, the same mice generally had no reduction in anti-MTg autoantibody. Since EAT is consistently induced in control recipients by 14-19 days after cell transfer, the ability of mAb GK1.5 to inhibit EAT when injected 14 or 19 days after cell transfer indicates that a single injection of the mAb GK1.5 can cause reversal of the histopathologic lesions of EAT in mice. These studies further establish the important role of L3T4+ T cells in the pathogenesis of EAT in mice and also suggest that therapy with an appropriate mAb may be an effective treatment for certain autoimmune diseases even when the therapy is initiated late in the course of the disease.

  7. Dosagem de tiroxina total (T4 sérica pelo método de quimioluminescência em gatos clinicamente sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bomfim Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A dosagem de tiroxina total sérica em gatos é o exame de escolha para o diagnóstico do hipertireoidismo que é considerada a doença endócrina mais comum em gatos domésticos. Fatores como luminosidade e temperatura já foram incriminados como causa de variação das concentrações de hormônios tireoidianos em cães. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar valores séricos de referência para a tiroxina total em gatos saudáveis pelo método de quimioluminescência no Rio de Janeiro; comparar estes valores aos atualmente utilizados por laboratórios no Brasil e no exterior; além de analisar o efeito da idade e do sexo sobre os valores de tiroxina sérica total nos animais avaliados. A tiroxina sérica foi dosada em 119 amostras por meio de ensaio imunoenzimático por quimioluminescência. A faixa etária dos 119 felinos incluídos neste estudo variou de cinco meses a 18 anos (média de 7,11 ± 3,64. O menor valor de concentração sérica de T4 encontrado foi de 0,44 µg/dL e o maior valor foi de 4,6 µg/dL. A faixa de referência para a tiroxina nesta população ficou entre 0,75 e 3,5 µg/dL. De acordo com as amostras coletadas neste estudo, os valores médios da concentração de T4 para gatos machos e fêmeas foram considerados os mesmos para um erro α = 0,05. A idade, no entanto, apresentou um efeito significativo na concentração de T4 (p < 0,05 e correlação positiva.

  8. Participation of L3T4 in T cell activation in the absence of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens. Inhibition by anti-L3T4 antibodies is a function both of epitope density and mode of presentation of anti-receptor antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Fazekas de St Groth, B

    1987-01-01

    two monoclonal antibodies, KJ16-133.18 and F23.1, that recognize a determinant encoded by the T cell receptor V beta 8 gene family. These antibodies were used to select two clones of T cells with surface phenotype Thy-1.2+, L3T4+, Lyt-2-, KJ16-133.18+, F23.1+, IA-, IE-. One of these clones (E9.D4......The recognition of many class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated antigens by T cells requires the participation of the L3T4 molecule. It has been proposed that this molecule acts to stabilize low affinity binding to antigen in association with MHC and thereby increases the avidity...... of T cell/antigen interactions. By using antibodies against the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to activate T cells, thereby circumventing the requirement for antigen presenting cells and MHC-associated antigen, we have been able to study the function of L3T4 in the absence of class II MHC. We have used...

  9. The effect of vitamin E and selenium on serum injection on serumic levels of T3 and T4 hormones in the Arabian horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezapour

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted evaluate the effect of vitamin E and Selenium injection on serumic levels of thyroid hormones in the Arabian horse. Twelve Arabian stallions of approximately equal age were selected and based on their age (4 and 5 years old, allocated to tow groups each consisting of six animals. In each group, three of the six horses were injected by vitamins E and selenium at a dose rate of 1cc/30 kg intramuscularly every tow days and the other three animals which were chosen as the controls were similarly injected by normal saline solution. Two days alter each injection; blood samples of the horses in each group were collected using venoject from the jugular vein. After separating the blood serum by centrifuging, the levels of T3 and T4 were measured using the ELISA technique. Following the first injection, the serumic levels of thyroid hormones demonstrated a significant increase in comparison with the controls (p

  10. Radiation-induced damage in T4 bacteriophage: the effect of superoxid radicals and molecular oxygen. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuni, A.; Chevion, M.; Halpern, Y.S.; Ilan, Y.A.; Czapski, G.

    1978-01-01

    The sensitivity of T4 bacteriophage towards γ irradiation has been studied in phosphate buffer suspensions. The spectrum of the water radicals was controlled by a careful choice of the appropriate saturating gas and the addition of radical scavengers. Thus, it was possible to distinguish between the effects of molecular oxygen and the superoxide radicals formed through its reactions. About 90 percent of the damage was caused by the water radicals formed in the bulk suspensions. These probably affected the phage proteins; only the remainder of the damage involved the viral DNA. The oxygen enhancement ratio observed was not connected in any way with the formation of the superoxide radicals. The results confirmed that the OH radicals are the reactive species, while e - /sub aq/ as well as the superoxide radical do not contribute to the radiodamage

  11. The effect of control of diabetes mellitus on plasma T4, T3, rT3 levels and half muscle relaxation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.A.; Hafiez, A.A.; Sayed, S.N.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Youssef, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    25 diabetics of the maturity onset type who showed no clinical evidence of either peripheral neruropathy or diabetic amyotrophy were selected for this study. All patients were subjected to the following investigations: estimation of half muscle relaxation period of the quadriceps muscle knee-jerk, measurement of plasma levels of thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and reverse triiodothronine (rT 3 ), determination of fasting and two hours postprandial blood sugar levels. The quadriceps muscle relaxation period in uncontrolled diabetics was significantly longer than in normals. Control of diabetes by glibenclamide or gliclazide did not cause a significant change in muscle relaxation period. There was also no significant difference between the effects of the two drugs. (author)

  12. Ex vivo and in vivo evaluation of microemulsion based transdermal delivery of E. coli specific T4 bacteriophage: A rationale approach to treat bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Yadav, Pragya; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta K

    2017-09-30

    This study is focused on the development and evaluation of transdermal delivery of E. coli-specific T4 bacteriophages both ex-vivo and in-vivo using microemulsion as delivery carrier in eradicating the infection caused by E. coli. Microemulsions were prepared by mixing selected oil, surfactants and aqueous phase containing bacteriophages. The formulations were subjected to physicochemical characterization, ex-vivo and in-vivo permeation, stability studies, histological and immunofluorescence examination. The colloidal system exhibits a uniform size distribution, of finite size (150-320nm). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the encapsulation of bacteriophage in the aqueous globule. Ex-vivo permeation across skin was successfully achieved as 6×10 6 PFU/mL and 6.7×10 6 PFU/mL of T4 permeated from ME 6% and 10%, respectively. ME 6% was found to be thermodynamically stable and in-vivo permeation resulted in 5.49×10 5 PFU/mL of bacteriophages in the blood of the E. coli challenged rats, while 2.48×10 5 PFU/mL was detected in germ free rats, at the end of the study. Infected rats that were treated with bacteriophage were survived while significant mortality was observed in others. Histological and IL-6 immunofluorescence examination of the tissues revealed the efficacy/safety of the therapy. The microemulsion-based transdermal delivery of bacteriophage could be a promising approach to treat the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective inhibition by methoxyamine of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity associated with pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylases from Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liuzzi, M.; Weinfeld, M.; Paterson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The UV endonucleases from Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4 possess two catalytic activities specific for the site of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated DNA: a DNA glycosylase that cleaves the 5'-glycosyl bond of the dimerized pyrimidines and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease that thereupon incises the phosphodiester bond 3' to the resulting apyrimidinic site. The authors have explored the potential use of methoxyamine, a chemical that reacts at neutral pH with AP sites in DNA, as a selective inhibitor of the AP endonuclease activities residing in the M. luteus and T4 enzymes. The presence of 50 mM methoxyamine during incubation of UV-treated, [ 3 H]thymine-labeled poly(dA) x poly(dT) with either enzyme preparation was found to protect completely the irradiated copolymer from endonucleolytic attack at dimer sites, as assayed by yield of acid-soluble radioactivity. In contrast, the dimer-DNA glycosylase activity of each enzyme remained fully functional, as monitored retrospectively by release of free thymine after either photochemical-(5 kJ/m 2 , 254 nm) or photoenzymic- (Escherichia coli photolyase plus visible light) induced reversal of pyrimidine dimers in the UV-damaged substrate. The data demonstrate that the inhibition of the strand-incision reaction arises because of chemical modification of the AP sites and is not due to inactivation of the enzyme by methoxyamine. The results, combined with earlier findings for 5'-acting AP endonucleases, strongly suggest that methoxyamine is a highly specific inhibitor of virtually all AP endonucleases, irrespective of their modes of action, and may therefore prove useful in a wide variety of DNA repair studies

  14. Comparison of serum levels of Tri‐iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayereh Khadem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological changes in thyroid gland during pregnancy have been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic causes of preeclampsia.Objective: The aim of this study was comparison of serum levels of Tri‐iodothyronine (T3, Thyroxine (T4, and Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone (TSH in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this case‐control study, 40 normal pregnant women and 40 cases of preeclampsia in third trimester of pregnancy were evaluated. They were compared for serum levels of Free T3 (FT3, Free T4 (FT4 and TSH. The data was analyzed by SPSS software with the use of t‐student, Chi‐square, Independent sample T-test and Bivariate correlation test. p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age was not statistically different between two groups (p=0.297. No significant difference was observed in terms of parity between two groups (p=0.206. Normal pregnant women were not significantly different from preeclampsia cases in the view of FT3 level (1.38 pg/ml vs. 1.41 pg/ml, p=0.803, FT4 level (0.95 pg/ml vs. 0.96 pg/ml, p=0.834 and TSH level (3.51 μIU/ml vs. 3.10 μIU/ml, p=0.386. Conclusion: The findings of the present study do not support the hypothesis that changes in FT3, FT4 and TSH levels could be possible etiology of preeclampsia

  15. Exercise training versus T3 and T4 hormones treatment: The differential benefits of thyroid hormones on the parasympathetic drive of infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rayane Brinck; Zimmer, Alexsandra; de Castro, Alexandre Luz; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Casali, Karina Rabello; Dias, Ingrid Gonçalves Machuca; Godoy, Alessandra Eifler Guerra; Litvin, Isnard Elman; Belló-Klein, Adriane; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether beneficial effects of thyroid hormones are comparable to those provided by the aerobic exercise training, to verify its applicability as a therapeutic alternative to reverse the pathological cardiac remodeling post-infarction. Male rats were divided into SHAM-operated (SHAM), myocardial infarction (MI), MI subjected to exercise training (MIE), and MI who received T3 and T4 treatment (MIH) (n = 8/group). MI, MIE and MIH groups underwent an infarction surgery while SHAM was SHAM-operated. One-week post-surgery, MIE and MIH groups started the exercise training protocol (moderate intensity on treadmill), or the T3 (1.2 μg/100 g/day) and T4 (4.8 μg/100 g/day) hormones treatment by gavage, respectively, meanwhile SHAM and MI had no intervention for 9 weeks. The groups were accompanied until 74 days after surgery, when all animals were anesthetized, left ventricle echocardiography and femoral catheterization were performed, followed by euthanasia and left ventricle collection for morphological, oxidative stress, and intracellular kinases expression analysis. Thyroid hormones treatment was more effective in cardiac dilation and infarction area reduction, while exercise training provided more protection against fibrosis. Thyroid hormones treatment increased the lipoperoxidation and decreased GSHPx activity as compared to MI group, increased the t-Akt2 expression as compared to SHAM group, and increased the vascular parasympathetic drive. Thyroid hormones treatment provided differential benefits on the LV function and autonomic modulation as compared to the exercise training. Nevertheless, the redox unbalance induced by thyroid hormones highlights the importance of more studies targeting the ideal duration of this treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 18F-FDG-PET for evaluation of the response to concurrent chemoradiation therapy with intensity-modulated radiation technique for Stage T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.-C.; Lin, C.-Y.; Wang, H.-M.; Huang, S.-F.; Liao, C.-T.; Kang, C.-J.; Ng, S.-H.; Chan, S.-C.; Fan, K.-H.; Chen, I.-H.; Lin, W.-J.; Cheng, A.-J.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article evaluates [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) findings as a predictor for local responders (R) vs. nonresponders (NR) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with Stage T4 lesions, before and at 3 months after completion of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: From January 2002 to November 2003, 39 T4 NPC patients were enrolled. All had magnetic resonance imaging and 18 F-FDG-PET, both before and 3 months after CCRT. Any residual/recurrent lesions were confirmed histopathologically. Results: Of the 39 eligible patients, after a follow-up of 24.2 ± 9.5 months, 35 became disease-free and 4 had residual or recurrent disease. Marginal differences in standard uptake values (SUV) were observed (10.9 ± 5.3 vs. 15.6 ± 3.4, p = 0.058) between R and NR before treatment, and value changes of SUV before and after CCRT were not significantly different. However, highly significantly lower values of SUV were noted for R than for NR 3 months after completion of CCRT (2.1 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 3.2, p 0.001). One hundred percent positive and negative predictive values were observed for SUV values of 4.0, set 3 months after completion of CCRT. Conclusions: Neither the pretreatment SUV nor the changes of SUV between pretreatment and posttreatment were significant predictors for local response. SUV at 3 months after completion of CCRT was a significant determinator for local response. The cutoff of 4.0 for SUV at 3 months after completion of CCRT was useful to be offered as a diagnostic reference for recurrent or residual tumor for NPC treatment

  17. To Be or Not To Be T4: Evidence of a Complex Evolutionary Pathway of Head Structure and Assembly in Giant Salmonella Virus SPN3US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazla Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Giant Salmonella phage SPN3US has a 240-kb dsDNA genome and a large complex virion composed of many proteins for which the functions of most are undefined. We recently determined that SPN3US shares a core set of genes with related giant phages and sequenced and characterized 18 amber mutants to facilitate its use as a genetic model system. Notably, SPN3US and related giant phages contain a bolus of ejection proteins within their heads, including a multi-subunit virion RNA polymerase (vRNAP, that enter the host cell with the DNA during infection. In this study, we characterized the SPN3US virion using mass spectrometry to gain insight into its head composition and the features that its head shares with those of related giant phages and with T4 phage. SPN3US has only homologs to the T4 proteins critical for prohead shell formation, the portal and major capsid proteins, as well as to the major enzymes essential for head maturation, the prohead protease and large terminase subunit. Eight of ~50 SPN3US head proteins were found to undergo proteolytic processing at a cleavage motif by the prohead protease gp245. Gp245 undergoes auto-cleavage of its C-terminus, suggesting this is a conserved activation and/or maturation feature of related phage proteases. Analyses of essential head gene mutants showed that the five subunits of the vRNAP must be assembled for any subunit to be incorporated into the prohead, although the assembled vRNAP must then undergo subsequent major conformational rearrangements in the DNA packed capsid to allow ejection through the ~30 Å diameter tail tube for transcription from the injected DNA. In addition, ejection protein candidate gp243 was found to play a critical role in head assembly. Our analyses of the vRNAP and gp243 mutants highlighted an unexpected dichotomy in giant phage head maturation: while all analyzed giant phages have a homologous protease that processes major capsid and portal proteins, processing of ejection

  18. Collateral circulation via the circle of Willis in patients with carotid artery steno-occlusive disease: evaluation on 3-T 4D MRA using arterial spin labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iryo, Yasuhiko; Hirai, Toshinori; Nakamura, Masanobu; Inoue, Yasuteru; Watanabe, Masaki; Ando, Yukio; Azuma, Minako; Nishimura, Shinichiro; Shigematsu, Yoshinori; Kitajima, Mika; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether 3-T four-dimensional (4D) arterial spin-labelling (ASL) -based magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is useful for assessing the collateral circulation via the circle of Willis in patients with carotid artery steno-occlusive disease. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and prior written informed consent from all patients were obtained. The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 13 patients with carotid artery steno-occlusive disease. All underwent 4D-ASL MRA at 3 T and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) preparation scheme with look-locker sampling was used for spin labeling. At 300-ms intervals seven dynamic scans were obtained with a spatial resolution of 0.5×0.5×0.6 mm 3 . The collateral flow via the circle of Willis was read on 4D-ASL MRA and DSA images by two sets of two independent readers each. κ statistics were used to assess interobserver and intermodality agreement. Results: On DSA, collateral flow via the anterior communicating artery (AcomA) was observed in six patients, via the posterior communicating artery (PcomA) in four patients, and via both the AcomA and PcomA in three patients. With respect to the qualitative evaluation of 4D-ASL MRA images, interobserver agreement was excellent for all items (κ=1). 4D-ASL MRA and DSA consensus readings agreed on the type of collateral flow pattern in 10 of the 13 patients (77%). Intermodality agreement was good (κ=0.606; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.215–0.997). Conclusion: 3 T 4D-ASL MRA may be a useful tool for the evaluation of the collateral circulation in patients with carotid artery steno-occlusive disease. -- Highlights: •3-T 4D-ASL MRA has high spatial and temporal resolution. •There is no need for the use of contrast agents in this technique. •4D-ASL MRA is useful for assessing the collateral flow associated with carotid artery stenosis. •Intermodality agreement between 4D

  19. Concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 em bodes submetidos ao estresse calórico Plasma concentrations of testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 in bucks submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC nas concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4, oito bodes, das raças Saanen (n=4 e Alpina (n=4, foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais nos perfis hormonais devido ao fotoperíodo, durante toda fase experimental, incluindo a de adaptação em condições de termoneutralidade (30 dias, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16h de luz e 8h de escuro e de dias curtos (8h de luz e 16h de escuro a cada 30 dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas duas vezes por semana durante cinco semanas. No conjunto das raças, o EC não influenciou (P>0,05 as concentrações de testosterona (1,8±0,2 vs 1,3±0,2ng/ml e nem a de T4 (52,7±2,8 vs 50,0±2,8ng/ml. Houve declínio (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on plasma testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 concentrations, eight Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 bucks were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of hormonal profiles throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days altering long (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The blood samples were collected twice a week during five weeks. In both breeds, there was no effect of HS (P>0.05 on plasma concentrations of testosterone (1.8±0.2 vs 1.3±0.2ng/ml and T4 (52.7±2.8 vs 50.0±2.8ng/ml. There was a decline (P<0.01 of plasma T3 concentrations (1.3±0.1 vs 1.0±0.1ng/ml after HS treatment, but this reduction was only

  20. Substitution of 125-I-T3, 125-I-T4 and 125-I-TSH produced in the ININ, in commercial boxes for radioimmunoessay; Substitucion de 125-I-T3, 125-I-T4 y 125-I-TSH producidas en el ININ, en estuches comerciales para radioinmunoanalisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado S, B; Zambrano A, F; Lavalley E, C; Ferro F, G; Lezama C, J

    1991-03-15

    Due to the half, relatively short life, of the I-125 used in the radioinmunoanalisis (he/she LAUGHS) of hormones realcionadas with the thyroid, frequently it is observed that they are the other reagents of commercial cases without using, reason for the one which you piede the possibility to use in their entirety statements kits for the CREEK, what causes lost economic and another type of deficiencies. Presently work the results are presented obtained on the characteristics of quality of commercial stuches for the CREEK of hormones of the thyroid profile (T3, T4 and TSH), after substituting to the different radiotrazadores in this cases. The marcaje of the hormones with I-125 was made by means of the method of the cloramina T with 25 seconds of reaction for each hormone, purifying the T3 and the T4 for cromatografia liquidates of high efficiency and to the TSH for cromatografia of likeness in a column of cellulose microcristalina of 6 x 0.8 cm. the substitution of the radiotrazador is made in the commercial cases and the protocol was continued proposed by the makers, giving a coefficient of correlation of -0-997, as a result after the comparison of the straight line among the cases without and with substitution of the radiotrazador; besides certain parameters of quality of the such rehearsals as: the maximum unions (50%+-5) and inespecifica (<5%), slope of the straight line (-2.1 + - 0.2), and other coming from the use of samples of control of quality. We can conclude that at the moment we have in the ININ radiotrazadores of T3, T4 and TSH of good quality, like to be substituted in commercial cases and to use this way to the maximum these games of reagents that are so expensive. (Author)

  1. Studies of viral DNA packaging motors with optical tweezers: a comparison of motor function in bacteriophages φ29, λ, and T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas E.; Fuller, Derek N.; Raymer, Dorian M.; Rickgauer, Peter; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Anderson, Dwight L.; Catalano, Carlos E.; Kottadiel, Vishal; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2007-09-01

    A key step in the assembly of many viruses is the packaging of double-stranded DNA into a viral procapsid (an empty protein shell) by the action of an ATP-powered portal motor complex. We have developed methods to measure the packaging of single DNA molecules into single viral proheads in real time using optical tweezers. We can measure DNA binding and initiation of translocation, the DNA translocation dynamics, and the filling of the capsid against resisting forces. In addition to studying bacteriophage φ29, we have recently extended these methods to study the E. coli bacteriophages λ and T4, two important model systems in molecular biology. The three systems have different capsid sizes/shapes, genome lengths, and biochemical and structural differences in their packaging motors. Here, we compare and contrast these three systems. We find that all three motors translocate DNA processively and generate very large forces, each exceeding 50 piconewtons, ~20x higher force than generated by the skeletal muscle myosin 2 motor. This high force generation is required to overcome the forces resisting the confinement of the stiff, highly charged DNA at high density within the viral capsids. However, there are also striking differences between the three motors: they exhibit different DNA translocation rates, degrees of static and dynamic disorder, responses to load, and pausing and slipping dynamics.

  2. Combining EPR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography to elucidate the structure and dynamics of conformationally constrained spin labels in T4 lysozyme single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consentius, Philipp; Gohlke, Ulrich; Loll, Bernhard; Alings, Claudia; Heinemann, Udo; Wahl, Markus C; Risse, Thomas

    2017-08-09

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling is used to investigate the structure and dynamics of conformationally constrained spin labels in T4 lysozyme single crystals. Within a single crystal, the oriented ensemble of spin bearing moieties results in a strong angle dependence of the EPR spectra. A quantitative description of the EPR spectra requires the determination of the unit cell orientation with respect to the sample tube and the orientation of the spin bearing moieties within the crystal lattice. Angle dependent EPR spectra were analyzed by line shape simulations using the stochastic Liouville equation approach developed by Freed and co-workers and an effective Hamiltonian approach. The gain in spectral information obtained from the EPR spectra of single crystalline samples taken at different frequencies, namely the X-band and Q-band, allows us to discriminate between motional models describing the spectra of isotropic solutions similarly well. In addition, it is shown that the angle dependent single crystal spectra allow us to identify two spin label rotamers with very similar side chain dynamics. These results demonstrate the utility of single crystal EPR spectroscopy in combination with spectral line shape simulation techniques to extract valuable dynamic information not readily available from the analysis of isotropic systems. In addition, it will be shown that the loss of electron density in high resolution diffraction experiments at room temperature does not allow us to conclude that there is significant structural disorder in the system.

  3. denV gene of bacteriophage T4 restores DNA excision repair to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banga, S.S.; Boyd, J.B.; Valerie, K.; Harris, P.V.; Kurz, E.M.; de Riel, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The denV gene of bacteriophage T4 was fused to a Drosophila hsp70 (70-kDa heat shock protein) promoter and introduced into the germ line of Drosophila by P-element-mediated transformation. The protein product of that gene (endonuclease V) was detected in extracts of heat-shocked transformants with both enzymological and immunoblotting procedures. That protein restores both excision repair and UV resistance to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of this organism. These results reveal that the denV gene can compensate for excision-repair defects in two very different eukayotic mutants, in that the mus201 mutants are typical of excision-deficient mutants in other organisms, whereas the mei-9 mutants exhibit a broad pleiotropism that includes a strong meiotic deficiency. This study permits an extension of the molecular analysis of DNA repair to the germ line of higher eukaryotes. It also provides a model system for future investigations of other well-characterized microbial repair genes on DNA damage in the germ line of this metazoan organism

  4. Restoration of u.v.-induced excision repair in Xeroderma D cells transfected with the denV gene of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrand, J.E.; Squires, S.; Bone, N.M.; Johnson, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The heritable DNA repair defect in human Xeroderma D cells, resulting in failure to incise at u.v. light-induced pyrimidine dimers, has been partially but stably corrected by transfection of immortalised cells with the denV pyrimidine dimer glycosylase gene of bacteriophage T4. Transfectants selected either for a dominant marker on the mammalian vector carrying the prokaryotic gene or for dominant marker plus resistance to killing by u.v. light, were shown to express the denV gene to varying degrees. denV expression results in significant phenotypic change in the initially repair-deficient, u.v.-hypersensitive cells. Increased resistance to u.v. light and more rapid recovery of replicative DNA synthesis following u.v. irradiation were correlated with improved repair DNA synthesis and with a novel dimer incision capability present in denV transfected Xeroderma cells but not as evident in transfected normal cells. Most transfectants contain a single integrated copy of the denV gene; increase in denV copy number does not result in either increased gene expression or enhanced survival to u.v. light. Results show that expression of a heterologous prokaryotic repair gene can partially compensate for the genetic defect in a human Xeroderma D cell. (author)

  5. Formation of highly stable chimeric trimers by fusion of an adenovirus fiber shaft fragment with the foldon domain of bacteriophage t4 fibritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Forge, Vincent; Goeltz, Pierrette; Mitraki, Anna

    2004-03-05

    The folding of beta-structured, fibrous proteins is a largely unexplored area. A class of such proteins is used by viruses as adhesins, and recent studies revealed novel beta-structured motifs for them. We have been studying the folding and assembly of adenovirus fibers that consist of a globular C-terminal domain, a central fibrous shaft, and an N-terminal part that attaches to the viral capsid. The globular C-terminal, or "head" domain, has been postulated to be necessary for the trimerization of the fiber and might act as a registration signal that directs its correct folding and assembly. In this work, we replaced the head of the fiber by the trimerization domain of the bacteriophage T4 fibritin, termed "foldon." Two chimeric proteins, comprising the foldon domain connected at the C-terminal end of four fiber shaft repeats with or without the use of a natural linker sequence, fold into highly stable, SDS-resistant trimers. The structural signatures of the chimeric proteins as seen by CD and infrared spectroscopy are reported. The results suggest that the foldon domain can successfully replace the fiber head domain in ensuring correct trimerization of the shaft sequences. Biological implications and implications for engineering highly stable, beta-structured nanorods are discussed.

  6. Experimental investigation and finite element simulation of laser beam welding induced residual stresses and distortions in thin sheets of AA 6056-T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain-ul-abdein, Muhammad; Nelias, Daniel; Jullien, Jean-Francois; Deloison, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Laser beam welding has recently found its application in the fabrication of aircraft structures where fuselage panels, made of thin sheets of AA 6056-T4 (an aluminium alloy), are welded with stiffeners of the same material in a T-joint configuration. The present work simulates laser beam welding induced residual stresses and distortions using industrially employed thermal and mechanical boundary conditions. Various measurements performed on small-scale welded test specimens provide a database of experimental results that serves as a benchmark for qualification of the simulation results. The welding simulation is performed with the commercial finite element software Abaqus and a Fortran programme encoding a conical heat source with Gaussian volumetric distribution of flux. A sequentially coupled temperature-displacement analysis is undertaken to simulate the weld pool geometry, transient temperature and displacement fields. The material is assumed to follow an elasto-plastic law with isotropic hardening behaviour (von Mises plasticity model). A comparison between the experimental and simulation results shows a good agreement. Finally, the residual stress and strain states in a T-joint are predicted.

  7. Designing a nine cysteine-less DNA packaging motor from bacteriophage T4 reveals new insights into ATPase structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondabagil, Kiran; Dai, Li; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Ha, Taekjip; Draper, Bonnie; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-11-01

    The packaging motor of bacteriophage T4 translocates DNA into the capsid at a rate of up to 2000 bp/s. Such a high rate would require coordination of motor movements at millisecond timescale. Designing a cysteine-less gp17 is essential to generate fluorescently labeled motors and measure distance changes between motor domains by FRET analyses. Here, by using sequence alignments, structural modeling, combinatorial mutagenesis, and recombinational rescue, we replaced all nine cysteines of gp17 and introduced single cysteines at defined positions. These mutant motors retained in vitro DNA packaging activity. Single mutant motors translocated DNA molecules in real time as imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We discovered, unexpectedly, that a hydrophobic or nonpolar amino acid next to Walker B motif is essential for motor function, probably for efficient generation of OH(-) nucleophile. The ATPase Walker B motif, thus, may be redefined as "β-strand (4-6 hydrophobic-rich amino acids)-DE-hydrophobic/nonpolar amino acid". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phage T4 endonuclease V stimulates DNA repair replication in isolated nuclei from ultraviolet-irradiated human cells, including xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    The repair mode of DNA replication has been demonstrated in isolated nuclei from uv-irradiated human cells. Nuclei are incubated in a mixture containing [ 3 H]thymidine triphosphate and bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate in a 1:5 ratio. The 3 H at the density of parental DNA in alkaline CsCl density gradients is then a measure of repair. In nuclei prepared from WI38 cells 30 min after irradiation, repair replication is uv-dependent and proceeds at approximately the in vivo rate for 5 min. Repair replication is reduced in irradiated nuclei or in nuclei prepared immediately after irradiation. It is Mg 2+ -dependent and stimulated by added ATP and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. No repair replication is observed in nuclei from xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group A) cells. However, upon addition of coliphage T4 endonuclease V, which specifically nicks DNA containing pyrimidine dimers, repair replication is observed in nuclei from irradiated xeroderma pigmentosum cells and is stimulated in WI38 nuclei. The reaction then persists for an hour and is dependent upon added ATP and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The repair label is in stretches of roughly 35 nucleotides, as it is in intact cells. Added pancreatic DNase does not promote uv-dependent repair synthesis. Our results support the view that xeroderma pigmentosum (group A) cells are defective in the incision step of the DNA excision repair pathway, and demonstrate the utility of this system for probing DNA repair mechanisms

  9. Off-resonance R1ρ relaxation outside of the fast exchange limit: An experimental study of a cavity mutant of T4 lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhnev, Dmitry M.; Orekhov, Vladislav Yu.; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Kay, Lewis E.

    2003-01-01

    An 15 N off-resonance R 1ρ spin relaxation study of an L99A point mutant of T4 lysozyme is presented. Previous CPMG-based relaxation dispersion studies of exchange in this protein have established that the molecule interconverts between a populated ground state and an excited state (3.4%) with an exchange rate constant of 1450 s -1 at 25 deg. C. It is shown that for the majority of residues in this protein the offset dependence of the R 1ρ relaxation rates cannot be well fit using models which are only valid in the fast exchange regime. In contrast, a recently derived expression by Trott and Palmer (J. Magn. Reson., 154, 157-160, 2002) which is valid over a wider window of exchange than other relations, is shown to fit the data well. Values of (signed) chemical shift differences between exchanging sites have been extracted and are in reasonable agreement with shift differences measured using CPMG methods. A set of simulations is presented which help establish the exchange regimes that are best suited to analysis by off-resonance R 1ρ techniques

  10. Near Total Laryngectomy: A Versatile Approach for Voice Restoration in Advanced T3 and T4 Laryngeal Cancer: Functional Results and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maamoun, S.I.; Amira, A.; Younis, A.

    2004-01-01

    Creation of a tunneled mucosal shunt between the trachea and pharynx that is controlled by remaining intrinsic laryngeal musculature with its nerve supply is an acceptable voice restoration procedure for advanced T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer. Such a tunnel will allow unilateral direction of air from lung to pharynx during phonation and will prevent aspiration since deglutition is a vagal mediated response which will induce contraction of tubed laryngeal musculature preventing aspiration. We previously reported our preliminary experience with the technique and we adopted the voice restoration approach based on the concept of the near total laryngectomy thereafter. Methods: Forty five patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were included in this study (between January 1998 and February 2001). They were 42 males and 3 females with a mean age of 52.6 years. Criteria for selection were a normal vocal process and arytenoid cartilage on the opposite side of the lesion as evidenced by endoscopy and CT scan with no major sub glottic extension. In two patients supraglottic laryngectomy was carried out and in four other patients, complete tumor extirpation necessitated total laryngectomy. Accordingly, near total laryngectomy was carried out in the remaining 39 patients. Following a near total laryngectomy, where all laryngeal mucosa and cartilages are resected sparing the contralateral arytenoid cartilage with the overlying mucosa and surrounding musculature, the shunt was created by tubing the remaining mucosa with augmentation by pyroform sinus mucosa if necessary. The resulting tube was fashioned over 14 FG catheter for diameter control only and the remaining muscles were sutured over the tube. A permanent tracheostomy was established. Voice training was started postoperatively following resumption of oral feeding. Results: Only one patient died in the immediate postoperative period due to massive myocardial infarction. One patient developed

  11. Characterization of the biomechanical properties of T4 pili expressed by Streptococcus pneumoniae--a comparison between helix-like and open coil-like pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelain, Mickaël; Koutris, Efstratios; Andersson, Magnus; Wiklund, Krister; Björnham, Oscar; Schedin, Staffan; Axner, Ove

    2009-07-13

    Bacterial adhesion organelles, known as fimbria or pili, are expressed by gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria families. These appendages play a key role in the first steps of the invasion and infection processes, and they therefore provide bacteria with pathogenic abilities. To improve the knowledge of pili-mediated bacterial adhesion to host cells and how these pili behave under the presence of an external force, we first characterize, using force measuring optical tweezers, open coil-like T4 pili expressed by gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae with respect to their biomechanical properties. It is shown that their elongation behavior can be well described by the worm-like chain model and that they possess a large degree of flexibility. Their properties are then compared with those of helix-like pili expressed by gram-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), which have different pili architecture. The differences suggest that these two types of pili have distinctly dissimilar mechanisms to adhere and sustain external forces. Helix-like pili expressed by UPEC bacteria adhere to host cells by single adhesins located at the distal end of the pili while their helix-like structures act as shock absorbers to dampen the irregularly shear forces induced by urine flow and to increase the cooperativity of the pili ensemble, whereas open coil-like pili expressed by S. pneumoniae adhere to cells by a multitude of adhesins distributed along the pili. It is hypothesized that these two types of pili represent different strategies of adhering to host cells in the presence of external forces. When exposed to significant forces, bacteria expressing helix-like pili remain attached by distributing the external force among a multitude of pili, whereas bacteria expressing open coil-like pili sustain large forces primarily by their multitude of binding adhesins which presumably detach sequentially.

  12. Correlation of Weld Appearance with Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy Welded by Fiber Laser with Filler Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Fei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two typical cross-section of welds, including nail shape and near X shape, are obtained in the process of fiber laser welding 2024-T4 Al alloy with filler wire. The correlations of the two weld appearances and other elements (such as microstructure, microhardness, and joint's tensile properties were analyzed. The results show that the weld with near X shape cross-section during the welding process is more stable than that with nail shape cross-section, and the welding spatter of the former is smaller than that of the latter. The microstructure of the weld zone is columnar grains and equiaxed grains, the columnar grains are formed near the fusion line and growing along the vertical direction of the fusion line, the equiaxed grains are distributed in the center of the weld zone. The secondary dendrite of the grains in the center of the weld with nail shape cross-section grows better, and gradually forms to equiaxed dendrite, while the grains size of the weld with near X shape cross-section is relatively finer, exhibiting equiaxed cellular grain. Compared with the joint with nail shape cross-section of the weld, the joint with near X shape cross-section of the weld have some different characteristics, the precipitation strengthening phase θ(Al2Cu content in weld zone of the latter is more than that of the former, the average microhardness value of the weld zone of the latter is higher than that of the former, the softening phenomenon of heat affect zone (HAZ of the latter is weaker than that of the former, and the joint's tensile strength and plasticity of the latter are lower than that of the former slightly.

  13. Adenovirus fibre shaft sequences fold into the native triple beta-spiral fold when N-terminally fused to the bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon trimerisation motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; Teixeira, Susana; Belrhali, Hassan; Forsyth, V Trevor; Mitraki, Anna; van Raaij, Mark J

    2004-09-03

    Adenovirus fibres are trimeric proteins that consist of a globular C-terminal domain, a central fibrous shaft and an N-terminal part that attaches to the viral capsid. In the presence of the globular C-terminal domain, which is necessary for correct trimerisation, the shaft segment adopts a triple beta-spiral conformation. We have replaced the head of the fibre by the trimerisation domain of the bacteriophage T4 fibritin, the foldon. Two different fusion constructs were made and crystallised, one with an eight amino acid residue linker and one with a linker of only two residues. X-ray crystallographic studies of both fusion proteins shows that residues 319-391 of the adenovirus type 2 fibre shaft fold into a triple beta-spiral fold indistinguishable from the native structure, although this is now resolved at a higher resolution of 1.9 A. The foldon residues 458-483 also adopt their natural structure. The intervening linkers are not well ordered in the crystal structures. This work shows that the shaft sequences retain their capacity to fold into their native beta-spiral fibrous fold when fused to a foreign C-terminal trimerisation motif. It provides a structural basis to artificially trimerise longer adenovirus shaft segments and segments from other trimeric beta-structured fibre proteins. Such artificial fibrous constructs, amenable to crystallisation and solution studies, can offer tractable model systems for the study of beta-fibrous structure. They can also prove useful for gene therapy and fibre engineering applications.

  14. Giant magnon solution and dispersion relation in string theory in AdS3×S3×T4 with mixed flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoare, B.; Stepanchuk, A.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    We address the question of the exact form of the dispersion relation for light-cone string excitations in string theory in AdS 3 ×S 3 ×T 4 with mixed R–R and NS–NS 3-form fluxes. The analogy with string theory in AdS 5 ×S 5 suggests that in addition to the data provided by the perturbative near-BMN expansion and symmetry algebra considerations there is another source of information for the dispersion relation – the semiclassical giant magnon solution. In earlier work in (arXiv:1303.1037) and (arXiv:1304.4099) we found that the symmetry algebra constraints, which are consistent with a perturbative expansion, do not completely determine the form of the dispersion relation. The aim of the present paper is to fix the dispersion relation by constructing a generalisation of the known dyonic giant magnon soliton on S 3 to the presence of a non-zero NS–NS flux described by a WZ term in the string action (with coefficient q). We find that the angular momentum of this soliton gets shifted by a term linear in world-sheet momentum p. We also discuss the symmetry algebra of the string light-cone S-matrix and show that the exact dispersion relation, which should have the correct perturbative BMN and semiclassical giant magnon limits, should also contain such a linear momentum term. The simplicity of the resulting bound-state picture provides a strong argument in favour of this dispersion relation

  15. Environmental T4-Family Bacteriophages Evolve to Escape Abortive Infection via Multiple Routes in a Bacterial Host Employing "Altruistic Suicide" through Type III Toxin-Antitoxin Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihe; Akusobi, Chidiebere; Fang, Xinzhe; Salmond, George P C

    2017-01-01

    Abortive infection is an anti-phage mechanism employed by a bacterium to initiate its own death upon phage infection. This reduces, or eliminates, production of viral progeny and protects clonal siblings in the bacterial population by an act akin to an "altruistic suicide." Abortive infection can be mediated by a Type III toxin-antitoxin system called ToxIN Pa consisting of an endoribonuclease toxin and RNA antitoxin. ToxIN Pa is a heterohexameric quaternary complex in which pseudoknotted RNA inhibits the toxicity of the toxin until infection by certain phages causes destabilization of ToxIN Pa , leading to bacteriostasis and, eventually, lethality. However, it is still unknown why only certain phages are able to activate ToxIN Pa . To try to address this issue we first introduced ToxIN Pa into the Gram-negative enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 ( S 39006) and then isolated new environmental S 39006 phages that were scored for activation of ToxIN Pa and abortive infection capacity. We isolated three T4-like phages from a sewage treatment outflow point into the River Cam, each phage being isolated at least a year apart. These phages were susceptible to ToxIN Pa -mediated abortive infection but produced spontaneous "escape" mutants that were insensitive to ToxIN Pa . Analysis of these resistant mutants revealed three different routes of escaping ToxIN Pa , namely by mutating asiA (the product of which is a phage transcriptional co-activator); by mutating a conserved, yet functionally unknown, orf84 ; or by deleting a 6.5-10 kb region of the phage genome. Analysis of these evolved escape mutants may help uncover the nature of the corresponding phage product(s) involved in activation of ToxIN Pa .

  16. A Case of AML Characterized by a Novel t(4;15(q31;q22 Translocation That Confers a Growth-Stimulatory Response to Retinoid-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin M. Watts

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the case of a 30-year-old woman with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML who was treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA as part of investigational therapy (NCT02273102. The patient died from rapid disease progression following eight days of continuous treatment with ATRA. Karyotype analysis and RNA-Seq revealed the presence of a novel t(4;15(q31;q22 reciprocal translocation involving the TMEM154 and RASGRF1 genes. Analysis of primary cells from the patient revealed the expression of TMEM154-RASGRF1 mRNA and the resulting fusion protein, but no expression of the reciprocal RASGRF1-TMEM154 fusion. Consistent with the response of the patient to ATRA therapy, we observed a rapid proliferation of t(4;15 primary cells following ATRA treatment ex vivo. Preliminary characterization of the retinoid response of t(4;15 AML revealed that in stark contrast to non-t(4;15 AML, these cells proliferate in response to specific agonists of RARα and RARγ. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the levels of nuclear RARγ upon ATRA treatment. In summary, the identification of the novel t(4;15(q31;q22 reciprocal translocation opens new avenues in the study of retinoid resistance and provides potential for a new biomarker for therapy of AML.

  17. The different requirement of L-T4 therapy in congenital athyreosis compared with adult-acquired hypothyroidism suggests a persisting thyroid hormone resistance at the hypothalamic-pituitary level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattini, Brunella; Cosmo, Caterina Di; Montanelli, Lucia; Piaggi, Paolo; Ciampi, Mariella; Agretti, Patrizia; Marco, Giuseppina De; Vitti, Paolo; Tonacchera, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Levothyroxine (l-T4) is commonly employed to correct hormone deficiency in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and in adult patients with iatrogenic hypothyroidism. To compare the daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 in athyreotic adult patients affected by CH and adult patients with thyroid nodular or cancer diseases treated by total thyroidectomy. A total of 36 adult patients (27 females and nine males) aged 18-29 years were studied; 13 patients (age: 21.5±2.1, group CH) had athyreotic CH treated with l-T4 since the first days of life. The remaining 23 patients (age: 24±2.7, group AH) had hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy (14 patients previously affected by nodular disease and nine by thyroid carcinoma with clinical and biochemical remission). Patient weight, serum free thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg, and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured. Required l-T4 dosage was evaluated. At the time of the observations, all patients presented free thyroid hormones within the normal range and TSH between 0.8 and 2 μIU/ml. Patients had undetectable Tg and anti-thyroid antibodies. The daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 to reach euthyroidism in patients of group CH was significantly higher than that in those of group AH (2.16±0.36 vs 1.73±0.24 μg/kg, Phypothyroidism, patients of group CH required a daily l-T4 dose/kg higher than group AH patients, despite higher levels of TSH. The different requirement of replacement therapy between adult patients with congenital and those with surgical athyroidism could be explained by a lack of thyroid hormones since fetal life in CH, which could determine a different set point of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Role of allosteric switch residue histidine 195 in maintaining active-site asymmetry in presynaptic filaments of bacteriophage T4 UvsX recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Joshua N; Morrical, Scott W

    2009-01-16

    Recombinases of the highly conserved RecA/Rad51 family play central roles in homologous recombination and DNA double-stranded break repair. RecA/Rad51 enzymes form presynaptic filaments on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that are allosterically activated to catalyze ATPase and DNA strand-exchange reactions. Information is conveyed between DNA- and ATP-binding sites, in part, by a highly conserved glutamine residue (Gln194 in Escherichia coli RecA) that acts as an allosteric switch. The T4 UvsX protein is a divergent RecA ortholog and contains histidine (His195) in place of glutamine at the allosteric switch position. UvsX and RecA catalyze similar strand-exchange reactions, but differ in other properties. UvsX produces both ADP and AMP as products of its ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity--a property that is unique among characterized recombinases. Details of the kinetics of ssDNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis reactions indicate that UvsX-ssDNA presynaptic filaments are asymmetric and contain two classes of ATPase active sites: one that generates ADP, and another that generates AMP. Active-site asymmetry is reduced by mutations at the His195 position, since UvsX-H195Q and UvsX-H195A mutants both exhibit stronger ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity, with lower cooperativity and markedly higher ADP/AMP product ratios, than wild-type UvsX. Reduced active-site asymmetry correlates strongly with reduced ssDNA-binding affinity and DNA strand-exchange activity in both H195Q and H195A mutants. These and other results support a model in which allosteric switch residue His195 controls the formation of an asymmetric conformation of UvsX-ssDNA filaments that is active in DNA strand exchange. The implications of our findings for UvsX recombination functions, and for RecA functions in general, are discussed.

  19. Molecular breakpoint cloning and gene expression studies of a novel translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2 associated with Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater Howard R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi syndrome (MIM #176270; PWS is caused by lack of the paternally-derived copies, or their expression, of multiple genes in a 4 Mb region on chromosome 15q11.2. Known mechanisms include large deletions, maternal uniparental disomy or mutations involving the imprinting center. De novo balanced reciprocal translocations in 5 reported individuals had breakpoints clustering in SNRPN intron 2 or exon 20/intron 20. To further dissect the PWS phenotype and define the minimal critical region for PWS features, we have studied a 22 year old male with a milder PWS phenotype and a de novo translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2. Methods We used metaphase FISH to narrow the breakpoint region and molecular analyses to map the breakpoints on both chromosomes at the nucleotide level. The expression of genes on chromosome 15 on both sides of the breakpoint was determined by RT-PCR analyses. Results Pertinent clinical features include neonatal hypotonia with feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, short stature, late-onset obesity, learning difficulties, abnormal social behavior and marked tolerance to pain, as well as sticky saliva and narcolepsy. Relative macrocephaly and facial features are not typical for PWS. The translocation breakpoints were identified within SNRPN intron 17 and intron 10 of a spliced non-coding transcript in band 4q27. LINE and SINE sequences at the exchange points may have contributed to the translocation event. By RT-PCR of lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, we find that upstream SNURF/SNRPN exons and snoRNAs HBII-437 and HBII-13 are expressed, but the downstream snoRNAs PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438A/B snoRNAs are not. Conclusion As part of the PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNA cluster is highly conserved between human and mice, while no copy of HBII-438 has been found in mouse, we conclude that PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNAs is likely to play a major role in the PWS- phenotype.

  20. Serum levels at moment of breeding of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and progesterone in Saanen goats females during normal and induced heat and testosterone in 12 Saanen goats males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Nereu C.; Vulcano, Luiz C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Oba, Eunice

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the level of triiodothyronine(T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ) and progesterone in the serum of females Saanen goats. The progesterone levels were: 0.59 and 0.79 ng/μl considering breeding during normal and induced heat respectively. The T 3 values were: 192.8 and 251.32 ng/dl while T 4 values were: 36.38 and 31.68 ng/dl in the same condition above. The average testosterone level at the moment of breeding in the serum of 12 males was 1.38 pg/ml. (author)

  1. T3 may be a better agent than T4 in the critically ill hypothyroid patient: evaluation of transport across the blood-brain barrier in a primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernow, B.; Burman, K.D.; Johnson, D.L.; McGuire, R.A.; O'Brian, J.T.; Wartofsky, L.; Georges, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone transport across the blood brain barrier in hypothyroid patients is clinically important yet poorly understood. To study this question, 200 micrograms of thyroxine (T4), 100 micrograms of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 100 micrograms of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3) were administered separately to 3 baboons, first iv and at a later date intrathecally (IT). Six animals were used. Three received the iv injections and three received the IT injections. In each of the 18 experiments, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum specimens were collected serially for 6 h after injection. Mean maximal elevations from baseline in CSF iodothyronine levels were 100 +/- 10 ng/dl after iv T4, 3921 +/- 293 ng/dl after iv T3 and 31 +/- 17 ng/dl after iv reverse T3. When given IT in the same dosages, the mean maximal increases in serum iodothyronine concentrations were: 1670 +/- 600 ng/dl for T4, 806 +/- 405 ng/dl for T3, and 210 +/- 43 ng/dl for reverse T3. In every animal studied, rapid bidirectional transfer of T3 from serum to CSF and CSF to serum occurred, whereas iv T4 resulted in delayed minimal increments in CSF T4 concentration. Isotopic experiments were also performed and the results analyzed using a kinetic model. When 125 I-T3 was given iv, the equilibrium point in CSF was observed within 90 min with 1.7% of the administered dose/L able to be counted in CSF at any moment in time. When labeled T4 was given iv, only 0.6% of the administered dose/L was counted in CSF and the equilibrium point was not reached until 360 min. These data suggest: T4, T3, and reverse T3 are all capable of bidirectional transfer across the blood brain barrier, T3 may be a better agent than T4 in treating patients with myxedema coma because T3 crosses more rapidly and more completely from serum to CSF

  2. The concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T4), triiodthyronine (T3) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R.; Tomala, J.; Adamska, S.; Bielecka, W.; Mikulska, M.; Kalacinska, M.; Sieron, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T 4 ) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT 3 ) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT 3 and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T 4 by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T 3 , T 4 and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T 4 and WWT 3 were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis. (author)

  3. t(4;11 (q21;q23 in acute myeloid leukemia-M0 following treatment [EW92 Protocol] for Ewing's sarcoma Leucemia mielóide aguda-M0 com t(4;11 (q21;q23 após tratamento para sarcoma de Ewing com o protocolo EW92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha J. Marques Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 7-year-old girl with Ewing's Sarcoma (ES who developed a poorly differentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0 20 months after beginning the EW92 protocol for the treatment of the primary tumor. She received a total dose of 1500 mg of etoposide, a tumor cumulative radiation dose of 35Gy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF was as predicted in the protocol regimen. At onset of secondary malignancy her laboratorial analysis revealed immature blast cells characterized by CD34+/CD33-/a-MPO+ and a t(4;11(q21;q23 abnormality. This serious complication of ES treatment, which associates etoposide, irradiation and G-CSF schedule, should be weighed against its therapeutic benefits.Nós descrevemos o caso clínico de uma criança do sexo feminino, com 7 anos de idade, portadora de sarcoma de Ewing, que evoluiu com leucemia aguda mielóide pouco diferenciada (LMA-M0 após vinte meses de tratamento utilizando o protocolo EW92. Ela recebeu uma dose total de 1.500 mg de etoposídio, irradiação tumoral na dose total de 35G, e fator de estimulação de colônia granulocítica (G-CSF conforme programação do protocolo terapêutico. Os exames laboratoriais, por ocasião do diagnóstico da segunda malignidade, mostraram células blásticas imaturas caracterizadas pela expressão de CD34+/CD33-/aMPO+ e a translocação t(4;11 (q 21;q23. A exclusão do G-CSF nos esquemas terapêuticos que associam etoposídio e irradiação tumoral se justifica devido a esta séria complicação no tratamento do sarcoma de Ewing.

  4. Case report: When measured free T4 and free T3 may be misleading. Interference with free thyroid hormones measurements on Roche® and Siemens® platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Krzysztof C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 59-year old female patient presented with apathy and 6 kg weight gain. Investigations revealed severe primary hypothyroidism (TSH>100 μIU/ml. L-thyroxine (L-T4 was started and titrated up to 75 μg, once daily, with clinical improvement. Other investigations revealed very high titres of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies. After three months, there was a fall in TSH to 12.74 μIU/ml, however, with unexpectedly high free T4 (FT4 - 6.8 ng/ml and free T3 (FT3 - 6.7 pg/ml concentrations [reference range (rr: 0.8-1.9 ng/ml and 1.5-4.1 pg/ml (Siemens®, respectively]. At this stage L-T4 was stopped, and this was followed by a rapid increase in TSH (to 77.76 μIU/ml and some decrease in FT4 and FT3, however FT4 concentration remained elevated (2.1 ng/ml. Following this, L-T4 was restarted. On admission to our Department, she was clinically euthyroid on L-T4, 88 μg, once daily. Investigations on Roche® platform confirmed mildly elevated TSH - 5.14 (rr: 0.27-4.2 μIU/ml with high FT4 [4.59 (rr: 0.93-1.7 ng/ml] and FT3 [4.98 (rr: 2.6-4.4 pg/ml] concentrations. Other tests revealed hypoechogenic ultrasound pattern typical for Hashimoto thyroiditis. There was no discrepancy in calculated TSH value following TSH dilution (101% recovery. Concentrations of FT4 and FT3 were assessed on the day of discontinuation of L-T4 and after four days by the means of Abbott® Architect I 1000SR platform. These revealed FT4 and FT3 concentrations within the reference range [e.g., FT4 - 1.08 ng/ml (rr: 0.7-1.48] vs 4.59 ng/ml (rr: 0.93-1.7, Roche®, FT3 - 3.70 pg/ml (rr: 1.71-3.71 vs 4.98 (rr: 2.6-4.4, Roche®], confirming assay interference. Concentrations of ferritin and SHBG were normal. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of possible assay interference, including the measurements of FT4 and FT3 in the differential diagnosis of abnormal results of thyroid function tests that do not fit the patient clinical

  5. Thermal neutron calibration of a tritium extraction facility using the 6Li(n,t)4He/197Au(n,γ)198Au cross section ratio for standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    Absolute tritium activities in a neutron-activated metallic lithium samples have been measured by liquid scintillation methods to provide data needed for the determination of capture-to-fission ratios in fast breeder reactor spectra and for recent measurements of the 7 Li(n,n't) 4 He cross section. The tritium extraction facility used for all these experiments has now been calibrated by measuring the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He/ 197 Au/n,γ) 198 Au activity ratio for thermal neutrons and comparing the result with the well-known cross sections. The calculated-to-measured activity ratio was found to be 1.033 +- 0.018. 2 figures, 20 tables

  6. Duplication 4p and deletion 4p (Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome) due to complementary gametes from a 3:1 segregation of a maternal balanced t(4;13)(p16;q11) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, S S; Corbani, M; Andrade, J A D; Smith, M de A C; Brunoni, D; Melaragno, M I

    2004-08-30

    We present clinical and cytogenetic data on a family with a t(4;13)(p16;q11) translocation present in four generations. The balanced translocation resulted in one individual with monosomy 4p and one individual with trisomy 4p, due to 3:1 segregation. The male patient with trisomy 4p was fertile and transmitted the extra chromosome to his daughter. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Breast conserving treatment of locally advanced carcinoma T2 and T3 after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by quadrantectomy and high dose-rate brachytherapy, as a boost, complementary teletherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy; Tratamento conservador dos carcinomas de mama localmente avancados T2 e T3, apos quimioterapia neoadjuvante, com quadrantectomia e braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose como reforco de dose, teleterapia complementar e quimioterapia adjuvante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fristachi, Carlos Elias [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Onco-Ginecologia e Mastologia]. E-mail: cefristachi@uol.com.br; Miziara Filho, Miguel Abrao; Soares, Celia Regina; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Pelosi, Edilson Lopes; Martins, Homero Lavieri Martins [Instituto do Cancer Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho (ICAVC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Baracat, Fausto Farah [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE), SP (Brazil). Servico de Ginecologia e Mastologia; Piato, Sebastiao [Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Obstetricia e Ginecologia (DOGI)

    2005-07-01

    Objective: to assess the treatment of breast cancer T2 and T3(T > = 4 cm), through neoadjuvant chemotherapy, quadrantectomy and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy as a boost, complementary radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, considering its method problems, its esthetics results, the aspect of local control, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Patients and method: this clinical prospective descriptive study was based on the evaluation of 26 patients ranging from 30 to 70 years old, with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, clinical stage IIB and IIIA, responsive to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Early and late radiotherapy complications were evaluated according to the criteria established by the RTOG/EORTC (Radiotherapy and Oncology Group /European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) groups. Esthetics evaluation was done in accordance with the criteria set by a plastic surgeon. Local control was evaluated by clinical method, mammography and ultrasonography. Overall survival (OS) and the disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed according to Kaplan-Meier methodology. All the patients were treated at the Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Cancer Institute, from June/1995 to November/2001, and evaluated in March, 2002, with median follow-up of 28.7 months. Results: early complications were observed in 8 patients (30.6%). Two patients were classified as G3 and G4 (RTOG/EORTC). Six patients had late complications and three of them (11.5%) were classified as G3 and G4. One patient (3.8%) had local recurrence, 64 months after having local treatment. Esthetics results were considered good or regular in 16 patients (60.5%) out of 24 patients who were examined. Overall survival and disease-free survival in 24, 36 and 60 months were 100%, 92.3% and 83.1% respectively. Conclusion: early and late radiotherapy complications were considerate high when compared to literature, but esthetic results were considered acceptable. RL, OS and DFS were comparable to other

  8. NMR studies of echinomycin bisintercalation complexes with d(A1-C2-G3-T4) and d(T1-C2-G3-A4) duplexes in aqueous solution: sequence-dependent formation of Hoogsteen A1 x T4 and Watson-Crick T1 x A4 base pairs flanking the bisintercalation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, X.; Patel, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on two-dimensional proton NMR studies of echinomycin complexes with the self-complementary d(A1-C2-G3-Tr) and d(T1-C2-G3-A4) duplexes in aqueous solution. The exchangeable and nonexchangeable antibiotic and nucleic acid protons in the 1 echinomycin per tetranucleotide duplex complexes have been assigned from analyses of scalar coupling and distance connectivities in two-dimensional data sets records in H 2 O and D 2 O solution. An analysis of the intermolecular NOE patterns for both complexes combined with large upfield imino proton and large downfield phosphorus complexation chemical shift changes demonstrates that the two quinoxaline chromophores of echinomycin bisintercalate into the minor groove surrounding the dC-dG step of each tetranucleotide duplex. Further, the quinoxaline rings selectively stack between A1 and C2 bases in the d(ACGT) complex and between T1 and C2 bases in the d(TCGA) complex. The intermolecular NOE patterns and the base and sugar proton chemical shifts for residues C2 and G3 are virtually identical for the d(ACGT) and d(TCGA) complexes. A large set of intermolecular contacts established from nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between antibiotic and nucleic acid protons in the echinomycin-tetranucleotide complexes in solution are consistent with corresponding contacts reported for echinomycin-oligonucleotide complexes in the crystalline state. The authors demonstrate that the G x G base pairs adopt Watson-Crick pairing in both d(ACGT) and d(TCGA) complexes in solution. By contrast, the A1 x T4 base pairs adopt Hoogsteen pairing for the echinomycin-d(A1-C2-G3-Tr) complex while the T1 x A4 base pairs adopt Watson-Crick pairing for the echinomycin-d(T1-C2-G3-A4) complex in aqueous solution. These results emphasize the role of sequence in discriminating between Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen pairs at base pairs flanking the echinomycin bisintercalation site in solution

  9. Meiotic and pedigree segregation analyses in carriers of t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) differing in localization of breakpoint positions at 4p subband 4p16.3 and 4p16.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midro, Alina T; Zollino, Marcella; Wiland, Ewa; Panasiuk, Barbara; Iwanowski, Piotr S; Murdolo, Marina; Śmigiel, Robert; Sąsiadek, Maria; Pilch, Jacek; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare meiotic segregation in sperm cells from two carriers with t(4;8)(p16;p23.1) reciprocal chromosome translocations (RCTs), differing in localization of the breakpoint positions at the 4p subband-namely, 4p16.3 (carrier 1) and 4p16.1 (carrier 2)-and to compare data of the pedigree analyses performed by direct method. Three-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm cells and FISH mapping for the evaluation of the breakpoint positions, data from pedigrees, and direct segregation analysis of the pedigrees were performed. Similar proportions of normal/balanced and unbalanced sperm cells were found in both carriers. The most common was an alternate type of segregation (about 52 % and about 48 %, respectively). Unbalanced adjacent I and adjacent II karyotypes were found in similar proportions about 15 %. The direct segregation analysis (following Stengel-Rutkowski) of the pedigree of carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was performed and results were compared with the data of the pedigree segregation analysis obtained earlier through the indirect method. The probability of live-born progeny with unbalanced karyotype for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1) was moderately high at 18.8 %-comparable to the value obtained using the indirect method for the same carriership, which was 12 %. This was, however, markedly lower than the value of 41.2 % obtained through the pedigree segregation indirect analysis estimated for carriers of t(4;8)(p16.3;p23.1), perhaps due to the unique composition of genes present within the 4p16.1-4p 16.3 region. Revealed differences in pedigree segregation analysis did not correspond to the very similar profile of meiotic segregation patterns presented by carrier 1 and carrier 2. Most probably, such discordances may be due to differences in embryo survival rates arising from different genetic backgrounds.

  10. Estudio sedimentológico de un sector del río Guadalquivir en las proximidades de Andujar (provincia de Jaén los depósitos de la terraza + 6m (T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Aubin, J.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the current river channel of the Guadalquivir river and deposits of the terrace T4 ( + 6 m near Andújar are described. The study of morphological parameters evidence that they are balanced; this indicates that morphology and channel pattern are contolled mainly by local causes. Changes in discharge and bedload are responsible for gradual variations of channel patterno In contrast, overflow causes sharp changes. A general displacement of the river course towards the S. and SW. was deduced from careful study of maps, air photographs, etc., corresponding to various dates. T4 ( + 6 m terrace deposits exhibit 2 typical vertical sequences (called 1 and 2 respectively of channel and flood-plain facies. A model of terrace growth is proposed which is domonated by point bar deposits.En este trabajo, se analizan las características del cauce actual del río Guadalquivir, en un sector próximo a Andújar, así como los depósitos correspondientes a la terraza + 6 m (T4. Se estudian los principales parámetros morfológicos, observándose buen equilibrio entre ellos, lo que denota que su morfología y trazado están condicionados, fundamentalmente, por factores locales. Las variaciones paulatinas del cauce se producen por cambios en el caudal o en la carga, mientras que las variaciones bruscas, suelen ser consecuencia de desbordamientos. A partir de la comparación de datos de varias épocas (cartografía, foto-aérea, etc., se establece un desplazamiento general del río hacia el S. o SO. En los depósitos de la terraza + 6 m (T4, se distinguen dos secuencias diferentes (tipo 1 y 2, constituidas por asociación de facies de canal y de llanura de inundación. Se establece un modelo para la construcción de la terraza, en el que predominan los depósitos de acreción lateral, caracterizando barras de meandro.

  11. Conversion of the thyroxin (T4) in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronin (T3) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronin (T3 reverse) in human leukocytes suspensions. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, A.C.; Douglas, C.R.; Marone, M.M.; Scalissi, N.M.; Correa, P.H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones was studied in suspensions of human leukocytes through the evaluation of in vitro generation of T 3 and rT 3 (RIA) from non-radioactive T 4 . Increased in vitro generation of T 3 and rT 3 was observed in suspensions from hyperthyroid patients, while a significant decrease was evidenced when leukocytes from hypothyroid patients were used. These alterations are apparently due to the excess and lack of thyroid hormones, respectively, since they could be reserved in both cases by specific clinical treatment. (author) [pt

  12. Effects of shugan jieyu panacea on behavior and levels of ACTH in plasma and T3, T4, TSH and rT3 in serum in depression rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huijing; Li Yang; Yao Jinghui; Li Youtian

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Shugan Jieyu Panacea (SJP) on behavior and the levels of ACTH in plasma and T 3 , T 4 , TSH, rT 3 in serum in depression model rats and explore the mechanism. Methods: The model rats were lonely fed and received chronic moderate intensive unpredictable stimulation. Normal control group, depressed model group, high dosage SJP group, middle dosage SJP group, low dosage SJP group and fluoxetine group were set up. Different drugs were used in various groups for 21 d, then the body mass, sugar consumption and the behavior changes of the rats were determined and the levels of ACTH in plasma and T 3 , T 4 , TSH, rT 3 in serum were detected with radioimmunoassay. Results: Compared with normal group,the body mass was decreased (P 4 , rT 3 markedly decreased (P 3 was increased (P<0.05) in high, middle, low dosage SJP groups after treatment. At the same time, there was no obvious difference between SJP groups and fluoxetine groups. Conclusion: SJP can significantly improve the depression in rats, its mechanism may be connected with adjusting the function of HPAA and HPTA. (authors)

  13. Comparison of susceptibility to pitting corrosion of AA2024-T4, AA7075-T651 and AA7475-T761 aluminium alloys in neutral chloride solutions using electrochemical noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung-Hwan; Pyun, Su-Il

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility to pitting corrosion of AA2024-T4, AA7075-T651 and AA7475-T761 aluminium alloys was investigated in aqueous neutral chloride solution for the purpose of comparison using electrochemical noise measurement. The experimentally measured electrochemical noises were analysed based upon the combined stochastic theory and shot-noise theory using the Weibull distribution function. From the occurrence of two linear regions on one Weibull probability plot, it was suggested that there existed two stochastic processes of uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion; pitting corrosion was distinguished from uniform corrosion in terms of the frequency of events in the stochastic analysis. Accordingly, the present analysis method allowed us to investigate pitting corrosion independently. The susceptibility to pitting corrosion was appropriately evaluated by determining pit embryo formation rate in the stochastic analysis. The susceptibility was decreased in the following order: AA2024-T4 (the naturally aged condition), AA7475-T761 (the overaged condition) and AA7075-T651 (the near-peak-aged condition)

  14. Clearing of suspensions of Micrococcus lysodeikticus catalysed by lysozymes from hen, goose, and turkey egg whites, human milk, and phage T4. Assessment of potential as signal generators for homogeneous enzyme immunoassays for urinary steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Delwyn G; Blackwell, Leonard F

    2007-01-01

    Lysozymes (3.2.1.17) from goose (Anser anser) egg white, turkey (Melagris gallopavo) egg white, phage T4 and human milk were compared with hen egg white lysozyme in their ability to clear a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeikticus. All of the lysozymes, except hen egg white lysozyme, catalysed the clearing of the Micrococcus lysodeikticus suspension in a biphasic fashion. Compared to hen egg white lysozyme, the total absorbance or transmission change over 5 and 20 minutes was less in all cases, except for human lysozyme. Human lysozyme was, therefore, a potential alternative, more rapid signal generator for the measurement of urinary estrone glucuronide excretion rates because of its structural similarity to hen egg white lysozyme. The apparent K(M) values for hen egg white lysozyme increased with the enzyme concentration.

  15. Hypothyroid Patients Encoding Combined MCT10 and DIO2 Gene Polymorphisms May Prefer L-T3 + L-T4 Combination Treatment - Data Using a Blind, Randomized, Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Faber, Jens; Steffensen, Rudi

    2017-01-01

    on the cellular membrane transport-facilitating monocarboxylate transporter (MCT10) gene (rs17606253), and asked in which of the 2 treatment periods patients felt better (i.e., which treatment was preferred). RESULTS: 27 out of 45 patients (60%) preferred the combination therapy. Two polymorphisms (rs225014 (DIO2......, Thr92Ala) and rs17606253 (MCT10)) were combined yielding 3 groups: none vs. 1 of 2 vs. both SNPs present, and 42 vs. 63 vs. 100% of our patients in the 3 groups preferred the combined treatment (Jongheere-Terpstra trend test, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that the combination...... of polymorphisms in DIO2 (rs225014) and MCT10 (rs17606253) enhances hypothyroid patients' preference for L-T4 + L-T3 replacement therapy. In the future, combination therapy may be restricted or may be even recommended to individuals harbouring certain polymorphisms....

  16. Measurements of differential cross sections for the reactions 6,7Li(n,d)5,6He and 6,7Li(n,t)4,5He at 14.1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Shoji; Hata, Kazuhiro; Ando, Yoshiaki; Shibuya, Shinji; Shibata, Keiichi.

    1989-08-01

    A summary of our measured cross sections for the 14.1 MeV neutron-induced reactions on lithium isotopes has been presented. Our data were measured with two counter telescopes, each of which consisted of two gas proportional counters and silicon ΔE and E detectors. Measured energy spectra of deuterons and tritons from 6 Li(n,d)n 4 He and 7 Li(n,t)n 4 He, respectively, were analyzed by a simple final-state interaction theory. Measured angular distributions for these reactions as well as 6 Li(n,t) 4 He and 7 Li(n,d) 6 He were analyzed by exact finite-range distorted wave Born approximation (EFR-DWBA) calculations. Spectroscopic factors extracted from the EFR-DWBA analyses have been compared with theoretical predictions. (author)

  17. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen) administration to a patient with metastatic well differentiated thyroid carcinoma in whom six weeks of T-4 withdrawal led to a sub-optimal TSH response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, L.E.; Achong, D.; Bidot, P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: A 72 y.o. white man was diagnosed with follicular thyroid carcinoma in 1991. He was partially treated with partial thyroidectomy. Pulmonary nodules evident on Radiograph were explained to the patient as 'benign in nature'. No I-131 therapy or follow up was scheduled. Seven years later, the pulmonary nodules proved to be metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Endogenous TSH levels failed to raise following T-4 withdrawal, most likely secondary to endogenous production of T-4 by metastatic cancer. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen) stimulation before I-131 therapy was considered to improve I-131 tumor uptake. Materials and method: In an emergency room visit in June 1997 for an unrelated condition, a chest X-rays detected pulmonary nodules. He had no dyspnea, no hemoptysis, and no chest pain. CT guided biopsy demonstrated metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Pleural fluid was positive for presence of Thyroglobulin. Left hemi-thyroidectomy was performed on September 1997. His TSH was 14 mIU/mL six weeks after T-4 withdrawal. Serum thyroglobulin (sTG) level was 10100 ng/mL on 10/20/97 (Nl. less than 0.5 mIU/mL), Antithyroglobulin antibody test was negative. A Thallium-201 whole body scan demonstrated mild pulmonary uptake similar to the chest X-Rays findings (the lesser the Tl-210 uptake by the tumor, the better the response to I-131). The patient was enrolled in a compassionate use protocol for Thyrogen. Thyrogen 0.9 mg q/24h was administered. Results: The TSH after each dose of Thyrogen was > 100 mIU/mL. 199.7 mCi of I-131 were administered orally. A post therapy whole body scan (WBS) demonstrated multiple functional metastases in both lungs, some of them not shown in the previous Tl-201 scan. His sTG dropped to 2515 ng/mL on 1/29/1998, and a CT demonstrated reduction in size of the pulmonary nodules. A Tl-201 WBS dated 6/1/98 showed uptake in the left hilar region, with poor uptake in previously positive Tl-201 nodules. However, follow up Tl-201 demonstrated progressive

  18. Simultaneous quantification of T4, T3, rT3, 3,5-T2 and 3,3'-T2 in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to study exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopeng; Walter, Kyla M; Miller, Galen W; Lein, Pamela J; Puschner, Birgit

    2018-06-01

    Environmental toxicants that interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling can impact growth and development in animals and humans. Zebrafish represent a model to study chemically induced TH disruption, prompting the need for sensitive detection of THs. Simultaneous quantification of 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodo-l-thyronine (rT3), 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (3,5-T2) and 3,3'-diiodo-l-thyronine (3,3'-T2) in zebrafish larvae was achieved by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode. Solid-phase extraction with SampliQ cartridges and derivatization with 3 m hydrochloric acid in n-butanol reduced matrix effects. Derivatized compounds were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C 18 column with mobile phases consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in deionized water and 0.1% acetic acid in methanol. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 0.6 pg injected on column. The method was validated by evaluating recovery (77.1-117.2%), accuracy (87.3-123.9%) and precision (0.5-12.4%) using diluted homogenized zebrafish embryos spiked with all target compounds. This method was then applied to zebrafish larvae collected after 114 h of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including PCB 28, PCB 66 and PCB 95, or the technical mixture Aroclor 1254. Exposure to PCB 28 and PCB 95 increased the T4:T3 ratio and decreased the T3:rT3 ratio, demonstrating that this method can effectively detect PCB-induced alterations in THs. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome of 85 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 prospectively treated in the UKALLXII/ECOG2993 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David I.; Moorman, Anthony V.; Chilton, Lucy; Paietta, Elisabeth; Enshaie, Amir; DeWald, Gordon; Harrison, Christine J.; Fielding, Adele K.; Foroni, Letizia; Goldstone, Anthony H.; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; McMillan, Andrew K.; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.; Wiernik, Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M.

    2013-01-01

    The biology and outcome of adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia are poorly understood. We describe the outcome and delineate prognostic factors and optimal post-remission therapy in 85 consecutive patients (median age 38 years) treated uniformly in the prospective trial UKALLXII/ECOG2993. The immunophenotype of this leukemia was pro-B (CD10NEG). Immaturity was further suggested by high expression of the stem-cell antigens, CD133 and CD135, although CD34 expression was significantly lower than in t(4;11)-negative patients. Complete remission was achieved in 77 (93%) patients but only 35% survived 5 years (95% CI: 25–45%); the relapse rate was 45% (95% CI: 33–58%). Thirty-one patients underwent allogeneic transplantation in first remission (15 sibling donors and 16 unrelated donors): with 5-year survival rates of 56% and 67% respectively, only 2/31 patients relapsed. This compares with a 24% survival rate and 59% relapse rate in 46 patients who received post-remission chemotherapy. A major determinant of outcome was age with 71% of patients aged <25 years surviving. Younger patients had lower relapse rates (19%) but most received allografts in first complete remission. In conclusion, multivariate analysis did not demonstrate an advantage of allografting over chemotherapy but only five younger patients received chemotherapy. Prospective trials are required to determine whether poor outcomes in older patients can be improved by reduced-intensity conditioning allografts. NCT00002514 www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23349309

  20. Dissimilar Impact Welding of 6111-T4, 5052-H32 Aluminum Alloys to 22MnB5, DP980 Steels and the Structure-Property Relationship of a Strongly Bonded Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bert; Vivek, Anupam; Presley, Michael; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2018-03-01

    The ability to weld high-strength aluminum to high-strength steel is highly desired for vehicle lightweighting but difficult to attain by conventional means. In this work, vaporizing foil actuator welding was used to successfully weld four Al/Fe combinations consisting of high-strength alloys: AA5052-H32, AA6111-T4, DP980, and 22MnB5. Flyer velocities up to 727 m/s were reached using 10 kJ input energy. In lap-shear testing, samples primarily failed in base aluminum near the aluminum's native strength, showing that the welds were stronger than a base metal and that the base metal was not significantly weakened by the welding process. A particularly strong weld area was studied by transmission electron microscopy to shed light on the microstructural features of strong impact welds. It was found to be characterized by a continuously bonded, fully crystalline interface, extremely fine (nanoscale) grains, mesoscopic as well as microscopic wavy features, and lack of large continuous intermetallic compounds.

  1. Finite element analysis of metallurgical phase transformations in AA 6056-T4 and their effects upon the residual stress and distortion states of a laser welded T-joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zain-ul-abdein, Muhammad; Nelias, Daniel; Jullien, Jean-Francois; Boitout, Frederic; Dischert, Luc; Noe, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft industry makes extensive use of aluminium alloy AA 6056-T4 in the fabrication of fuselage panels using laser beam welding technique. Since high temperatures are involved in the manufacturing process, the precipitation/dissolution occurrences are expected as solid state phase transformations. These transformations are likely to affect the residual distortion and stress states of the component. The present work investigates the effect of metallurgical phase transformations upon the residual stresses and distortions induced by laser beam welding in a T-joint configuration using the finite element method. Two separate models were studied using different finite element codes, where the first one describes a thermo-mechanical analysis using Abaqus; while the second one discusses a thermo-metallo-mechanical analysis using Sysweld. A comparative analysis of experimentally validated finite element models has been performed and the residual stress states with and without the metallurgical phase transformations are predicted. The results show that the inclusion of phase transformations has a negligible effect on predicted distortions, which are in agreement with the experimental data, but an effect on predicted residual stresses, although the experimentally measured residual stresses are not available to support the analyses.

  2. The DNA-mimic antirestriction proteins ArdA ColIB-P9, Arn T4, and Ocr T7 as activators of H-NS-dependent gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkina, Olga E; Goryanin, Ignatiy I; Zavilgelsky, Gennadii B

    2016-11-01

    The antirestriction proteins ArdA ColIb-P9, Arn T4 and Ocr T7 specifically inhibit type I and type IV restriction enzymes and belong to the family of DNA-mimic proteins because their three-dimensional structure is similar to the double-helical B-form DNA. It is proposed that the DNA-mimic proteins are able to bind nucleoid protein H-NS and alleviate H-NS-silencing of the transcription of bacterial genes. Escherichia coli lux biosensors were constructed by inserting H-NS-dependent promoters into a vector, thereby placing each fragment upstream of the promoterless Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE operon. It was demonstrated that the DNA-mimic proteins ArdA, Arn and Ocr activate the transcription of H-NS-dependent promoters of the lux operon of marine luminescent bacteria (mesophilic Aliivibrio fischeri and psychrophilic Aliivibrio logei), and the dps gene from E. coli. It was also demonstrated that the ArdA antirestriction protein, the genes of which are located on transmissive plasmids ColIb-P9, R64, PK101, decreases levels of H-NS silencing of the PluxC promoter during conjugation in the recipient bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical outcome during the peri-operative (thyroidectomy) period of severely hyperthyroid patients with normalized pre-operative free-T4 levels: Importance of I-131 therapy as a part of pre-operative preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siguan-Crisaldo, M.A.L.; Mercado-Asis, L.B.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroidectomy is performed for hyperthyroidism on patients who do not respond to or are not compliant with medical therapy and in patients with very large goiters causing compressive symptoms. All thyrotoxic patients undergoing thyroidectomy usually are first treated with anti-thyroid drugs to normalize free thyroid hormone levels and render them euthyroid before surgery in order to prevent complications particularly thyroid storm and circulatory collapse. In this case series, we describe the clinical outcome during the perioperative (thyroidectomy) period of three severely hyperthyroid patients, two females and one male, with ages ranging from 13 to 38 years. All patients had grade III goiter, and only one had exophthalmos. The mean duration of goiter was 3.6 years. All of them were given preoperative treatment consisting of propylthiouracil (PTU) at 450-600 mg/day; iodone, 3 tablets daily and propranolol at 30-120 mg/day for one month. All of them had normalized preoperative thyroid function tests. In addition to the preoperative medications mentioned above, all three patients received radioactive iodine therapy before surgery. The first two patients received relatively low doses of 8.0 and 7.5 mCi of I-131 respectively. Unfortunately the first patient had supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), post skin cutting and the other one went into thyroid storm. The third patient who received a cumulative dose of 23.5 mCi of I-131 before surgery had an uneventful postoperative course. It is concluded that normalization of thyroid hormone parameters, especially free T4 is not sufficient for an uneventful and uncomplicated peri-thyroidectomy period in severely hyperthyroid patients with large goiters. Effective radioactive iodine therapy might prove to be helpful in inducing thyroid tissue fibrosis, thus leading to true clinical euthyroidism and excellent clinical course postoperatively. (author)

  4. Primary radical ablative surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction for T4 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with mandibular invasion: oncologic and functional results and their predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuzard, Olivier; Dassonville, Olivier; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Berguiga, Riadh; Leysalle, Axel; Benezery, Karen; Peyrade, Frédéric; Saada, Esma; Hechema, Raphael; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Demard, François; Santini, José; Bozec, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and to determine their predictive factors in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) invading the mandibular bone (T4) who underwent primary radical surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction. Between 2001 and 2013, all patients who underwent primary surgery and mandibular fibula free-flap reconstruction for OCSCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. Predictive factors of oncologic and functional outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. 77 patients (55 men and 22 women, mean age 62 ± 10.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Free-flap failure and local and general complication rates were 9, 31, and 22 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, ASA score (p = 0.002), pathologic N-stage (p = 0.01), and close surgical margins (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of overall survival. Six months after therapy, oral diet, speech intelligibility, and mouth opening functions were normal or slightly impaired in, respectively, 79, 88, and 83 % of patients. 6.5 % of patients remaining dependent on enteral nutrition 6 months after therapy. With acceptable postoperative outcomes and satisfactory oncologic and functional results, segmental mandibulectomy with fibula free-flap reconstruction should be considered the gold standard primary treatment for patients with OCSCC invading mandible bone. Oncologic outcomes are dependent on three main factors: ASA score, pathologic N-stage, and surgical margin status.

  5. The role of the C-domain of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein in ssDNA binding and dsDNA helix-destabilization: Kinetic, single-molecule, and cross-linking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Kiran; Anderson, Brian; Perdana, Hendrik; Malinowski, Matthew A.; Win, Aye T.; Williams, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    The model single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4, gene 32 protein (gp32) has well-established roles in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. gp32 is a single-chain polypeptide consisting of three domains. Based on thermodynamics and kinetics measurements, we have proposed that gp32 can undergo a conformational change where the acidic C-terminal domain binds internally to or near the single-stranded (ss) DNA binding surface in the core (central) domain, blocking ssDNA interaction. To test this model, we have employed a variety of experimental approaches and gp32 variants to characterize this conformational change. Utilizing stopped-flow methods, the association kinetics of wild type and truncated forms of gp32 with ssDNA were measured. When the C-domain is present, the log-log plot of k vs. [NaCl] shows a positive slope, whereas when it is absent (*I protein), there is little rate change with salt concentration, as expected for this model.A gp32 variant lacking residues 292–296 within the C-domain, ΔPR201, displays kinetic properties intermediate between gp32 and *I. The single molecule force-induced DNA helix-destabilizing activitiesas well as the single- and double-stranded DNA affinities of ΔPR201 and gp32 truncated at residue 295 also fall between full-length protein and *I. Finally, chemical cross-linking of recombinant C-domain and gp32 lacking both N- and C-terminal domains is inhibited by increasing concentrations of a short single-stranded oligonucleotide, and the salt dependence of cross-linking mirrors that expected for the model. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence in support of this model that have been obtained through structural probes. PMID:29634784

  6. Análisis de factibilidad de introducir en el mercado ecuatoriano una marca nueva de lubricantes automotrices fabricada localmente.

    OpenAIRE

    Egas Mendoza, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Un lubricante es una película que separa dos superficies (las cuales se pueden encontrar en constante movimiento), a fin de disminuir el impacto directo, el desgaste protegiendo al motor de fricciones o daños. Son derivados de petróleo mezclados con aditivos para realzar su calidad. (Albarracín, 2007). Bases lubricantes marcan el tipo de Viscosidad, la resistencia a la oxidación, y el punto de fluidez que tendrá en aceite final para establecer su aplicación, uso y calidad. Estas Bases pueden ...

  7. Answer to preoperative chemie radiation in locally advanced rectum cancer; Respuesta a quimioradiacion preoperatoria en cancer de recto localmente avanzado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas Mendez, Silvia [Costa Rica

    2006-07-01

    Study the pre-operative combined therapy effect in the treatment of the rectum cancer cases of the Servicio de Cirugia General 2 of the Hospital Mexico. The study covers since January of 2003 until December of 2005. It has like specific objectives to analyze the effect in the tumour stages, the sphincters preservation and the recurrence. In the conclusions, it notes that the pre-operative chemie-radiation in the rectum cancer is indicated in II and III stages, in which it has showed most advantages for the patient. It describes that the time between the end of pre-operative combined treatment and the surgery must has at least six weeks to guarantee the effect in the tumour and to reduce the treatment toxicity. It concludes besides, that the complication rate after the pre-operative combined therapy and the total meso rectum excision is approximately of 33%; however, the pelvic septic complications can reduce with an ostomy of protection. It focus that the technique of sphincters preservation has showed to be effective and secure if it does a previous selection to the patients in appropriate form. To get an suitable stages must count with trans rectum endoscopic ultrasound and a tomography of suitable quality. It concludes, also, in intervened tumours after of neo-adjuvancy they don't need free distal margins of illness higher to 2 cm. The total meso rectum excision is the updated surgical recommendation in the rectum cancer. [Spanish] Estudia el efecto de la terapia combinada preoperatoria en el tratamiento de los casos de cancer rectal del Servicio de Cirugia General 2 del Hospital Mexico; desde enero del 2003 hasta diciembre del 2005. Tiene como objetivos especificos analizar el efecto en el estadiaje del tumor, la preservacion de esfinteres y la recurrencia. Entre las conclusiones anota que la quimioradiacion preoperatoria en el cancer rectal esta indicada en estadios II y III, en los cuales ha demostrado mayores ventajas para el paciente. Describe que el tiempo entre la finalizacion del tratamiento combinado preoperatorio y la cirugia debe de ser al menos seis semanas para garantizar el efecto en el tumor y disminuir la toxicidad del tratamiento. Concluye, ademas, que la tasa de complicacion posterior a la terapia combinada preoperatoria y la escision mesorectal total es de aproximadamente 33%; sin embargo, las complicaciones septicas pelvicas pueden disminuirse con una ostomia de proteccion. Enfoca que la tecnica de preservacion de esfinteres ha demostrado ser segura y efectiva si se hace una seleccion previa de los pacientes en forma adecuada. Para lograr un estadiaje adecuado debe contarse con un ultrasonido endoscopico transrectal y una tomografia de adecuada calidad. Concluye, tambien, que en tumores intervenidos posterior a neoadyuvancia no se necesitan margenes distales ibres de enfermedad mayores a 2 cm. La escision mesorectal total es la recomendacion quirurgica actual de manejo en el cancer rectal.

  8. Overexpression of the catalytically impaired Taspase1 T234V or Taspase1 D233A variants does not have a dominant negative effect in T(4;11 leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Bier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosomal translocation t(4;11(q21;q23 is associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia of infants. The resulting AF4•MLL oncoprotein becomes activated by Taspase1 hydrolysis and is considered to promote oncogenic transcriptional activation. Hence, Taspase1's proteolytic activity is a critical step in AF4•MLL pathophysiology. The Taspase1 proenzyme is autoproteolytically processed in its subunits and is assumed to assemble into an αββα-heterodimer, the active protease. Therefore, we investigated here whether overexpression of catalytically inactive Taspase1 variants are able to interfere with the proteolytic activity of the wild type enzyme in AF4•MLL model systems. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The consequences of overexpressing the catalytically dead Taspase1 mutant, Taspase1(T234V, or the highly attenuated variant, Taspase1(D233A, on Taspase1's processing of AF4•MLL and of other Taspase1 targets was analyzed in living cancer cells employing an optimized cell-based assay. Notably, even a nine-fold overexpression of the respective Taspase1 mutants neither inhibited Taspase1's cis- nor trans-cleavage activity in vivo. Likewise, enforced expression of the α- or β-subunits showed no trans-dominant effect against the ectopically or endogenously expressed enzyme. Notably, co-expression of the individual α- and β-subunits did not result in their assembly into an enzymatically active protease complex. Probing Taspase1 multimerization in living cells by a translocation-based protein interaction assay as well as by biochemical methods indicated that the inactive Taspase1 failed to assemble into stable heterocomplexes with the wild type enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results demonstrate that inefficient heterodimerization appears to be the mechanism by which inactive Taspase1 variants fail to inhibit wild type Taspase1's activity in trans. Our work favours strategies targeting Taspase1's catalytic activity

  9. Systemic chemotherapy and extracorporeal photochemotherapy for T3 and T4 cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients who have achieved a complete response to total skin electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Lynn D.; Licata, Anita L.; Braverman, Irwin M.; Edelson, Richard L.; Heald, Peter W.; Feldman, Andrea M.; Kacinski, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of systemic adjuvant therapies on relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients treated with total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT). Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 1990, TSEBT (36 Gy at 1 Gy/day; 9 weeks; 6 MeV electrons) was administered with curative intent to a total of 163 CTCL (mycosis fungoides) patients using six fields supplemented by orthovoltage boosts (120 kvp, 1 Gy x 20) to the perineum, soles of feet, and apical scalp (120 kvp, 2 Gy x 3). In this group, all patients who achieved a clinical complete response or a good partial response were offered one of two competing regimens of either adjuvant doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide or adjuvant extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP). Results: When the results for the group who achieved a complete response (CR) to TSEBT were analyzed, OS for T1 and T2 patients was excellent (85-90% at 5-10 years) and not improved by either adjuvant regimen. However, T3 and T4 patients who received either adjuvant doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (75% at 3 years) or adjuvant ECP (100% at 3 years) had better overall survival than those who received neither adjuvant regimen (∼ 50% at 5 years). The difference between the OS curves for those who received ECP vs. those who received no adjuvant therapy approached statistical significance (p < 0.06), while a significant survival benefit from the addition of chemotherapy for TSEBT complete responders was not observed. Neither adjuvant therapy provided benefit with respect to relapse free survival after TSEBT. Conclusions: These results suggest that an adjuvant nontoxic regimen of extracorporeal photochemotherapy may prolong survival in advanced stage CTCL patients who have achieved a complete remission after TSEBT. The combination of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide had no significant impact on overall survival in those patients who achieved CR to TSEBT, and neither adjuvant therapy had an impact on relapse

  10. Effects of obesity, total fasting and re-alimentation on L-thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-L-triiodothyronine (rT3), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), cortisol, thyrotrophin, cortisol binding globulin (CBG), transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, P C; Bauer, M; Emmert, D; Fateh-Moghadam, A; Hofmann, G G; Horn, K; Pickardt, C R

    1979-08-01

    The effects of total fasting for 31 +/- 10 days followed by re-alimentation with an 800 calorie diet on thyroid function, i.e. T4,T3,rT3,RT3U (resin T3 uptake), and TSH, and on TBG levels in serum were studied sequentially in obese hospitalized patients (N=18). Additionally, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and free fatty acids were followed as hormonal and metabolic parameters, respectively. Further, CBG, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 were measured as representatives of other serum proteins. Results before fasting: T4, T3, TBG, cortisol, CBG, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 of the obese patients were elevated when compared with healthy normal weight controls, whereas rT3, T4/TBG ratio, T3/TBG ratio, TSH, coritsol/cbg ratio, growth hormone, prolactin, parathyrin and transferrin of the obese group were normal. RT3U and fT4 index were decreased in the obese patients. Results during fasting: Significant decreases were observed during fasting for the following parameters -- T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin complement C'3. rT3, T4/TBG ratio, RT3U, fT4 index and FFA increased. T4, tsh response to TRH stimulation, cortisol, CBG, cortisol/cbg ratio, parathyrin, growth hormone and prolactin did not change. Results during re-alimentation: T3, TBG, T3/TBG ratio, TSH response to TRH, transferrin, alpha 2-haptoglobin and complement C'3 increased. Conversely, fT3, RT3U, FFA, cortisol and cortisol/cbg ratio decreased whereas the other parameters did not change. 1) There is no evidence for primary hypothyroidism in obese patients during prolonged fasting and re-alimentation. 2) The rapid decrease of T3 and increase of RT3U after initiation of fasting are not fully explained by the observed slower decreases in TBG. 3) The alterations of T3, rT3 and RT3U resemble in their kinetics the changes in FFA levels. 4) Fasting reduced the levels of only certain serum proteins, interestingly TBG, transferrin, alpha 2

  11. T4~K REGI~E~Tf SAA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    armoured divisions now turned back towards. Sidi Rezegh along .... ground in the Tobruk salient while he launched ... For the EIAdem operation XXX Carps wouid ..... But Rommel was still unaware that his move- ments had belatedly pushed.

  12. Study of CCD Eyepiece on T-4 Theodolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    11. REVIEW OF TWO-COLOR REFRACTOMETRY OBJECTIVES .....................3 III, ACHIEVEMENTS IN TWO- COLOR REFRACTOMETRY DURING THIS CONTRA...indirectly influence the questions of star catalogs. The initial efforts under this contract were addressed toward Two- Color Refractometry . This is a...in the astroposition procedure. Future efforts on other projects will consist of the return to the Two-Color Refractometry to provide a parallel

  13. Expression of T4 Lysozyme Gene (gene e) in Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pL2 plasmid isolated from E. coli was introduced into S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis cells by electro-transformation. The lysozyme enzymes expressing by these bacteria were found to be active on Micrococcus luteus cells and thereby preventing their growth on assay plates. Thermostability of ...

  14. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    and carried out research in the area of microbial ... than a decade. As the story goes, his research output in phage .... type copy of the gene by a cross-over event between the mutations ... measurements in the above experiment; a qualitative screening to ..... determined by the method described above, the next step was to.

  15. Rectum neoplasms treatment advanced with radio and chemotherapy before - surgery; Tratamiento de cancer de recto localmente avanzado con radioterapia y quimioterapia preoperatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luongo Cespedes, A; Aguiar Vitacca, S [and others

    1993-12-01

    In Uruguay the colorectal neoplasms has a can rate of mobility. The surgery has 13-26% local recurrence. The irradiation before surgery has demonstrated to improve the resect and the local control.The objective of this protocol it is to decrease the percentage of local relapse , using radiotherapy(RT) before surgery and concomitant chemotherapy that potencies the effect of the RT, improvement this way the therapeutic quotient (AU) [Spanish] En Uruguay el cancer colorrectal tiene una lata tasa de mortalidad.La cirugia exclusiva,tiene 13-26 % de recurrencias locales.La irradiacion preoperatoria ha demostrado mejorar la resecabilidad y el control local.El objetivo de este protocolo es disminuir el porcentaje de recidiva local,utilizando radioterapia(RT) preoperatoria y quimioterapia concomitante que potencie el efecto de la RT,mejorando asi el cociente terapeutico (AU)

  16. Cirurgia de tikhoff-linberg para tratamento de condrossarcoma localmente avançado da região escápulo-umeral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Eshkenazy

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasia that most of the time affects young adults. Its location is preferentially the pelvic and scapular girdle and surgery is its treatment of choice. There are no role for chemo or radiation therapy, because of their low index of response. We describe a case of a 45 year-old male patient with an extensive low grade right umerus chondrosarcoma. In spite of the local extension, there was no invasion of the shoulder neurovascular structures. Treatment proposed was the Tikhoff-Linberg procedure, and the operation was performed with success, with no complications. Free margins were obtained. The patient is now on two years follow-up with no evidence of recurrent disease and is able to drive, fish and carry packs. He can not abduct his arm, but he could not do that even before surgery, due to severe pain. We believe this is an excellent conservative approach to such tumors, that otherwise would require a forequarter amputation, and strongly recommend the technique.

  17. Gene fusions AHRR-NCOA2, NCOA2-ETV4, ETV4-AHRR, P4HA2-TBCK, and TBCK-P4HA2 resulting from the translocations t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) and t(4;5)(q24;q31) in a soft tissue angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Viset, Trond; Heim, Sverre

    2016-11-01

    We present an angiofibroma of soft tissue with the karyotype 46,XY,t(4;5)(q24;q31),t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21)[8]/46,XY,t(1;14)(p31;q32)[2]/46,XY[3]. RNA‑sequencing showed that the t(4;5)(q24;q31) resulted in recombination of the genes TBCK on 4q24 and P4HA2 on 5q31.1 with generation of an in‑frame TBCK‑P4HA2 and the reciprocal but out‑of‑frame P4HA2‑TBCK fusion transcripts. The putative TBCK‑P4HA2 protein would contain the kinase, the rhodanese‑like domain, and the Tre‑2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domains of TBCK together with the P4HA2 protein which is a component of the prolyl 4‑hydroxylase. The t(5;8;17)(p15;q13;q21) three‑way chromosomal translocation targeted AHRR (on 5p15), NCOA2 (on 8q13), and ETV4 (on 17q21) generating the in‑frame fusions AHRR‑NCOA2 and NCOA2‑ETV4 as well as an out‑of‑frame ETV4‑AHRR transcript. In the AHRR‑NCOA2 protein, the C‑terminal part of AHRR is replaced by the C‑terminal part of NCOA2 which contains two activation domains. The NCOA2‑ETV4 protein would contain the helix‑loop‑helix, PAS_9 and PAS_11, CITED domains, the SRC‑1 domain of NCOA2 and the ETS DNA‑binding domain of ETV4. No fusion gene corresponding to t(1;14)(p31;q32) was found. Our findings indicate that, in spite of the recurrence of AHRR‑NCOA2 in angiofibroma of soft tissue, additional genetic events (or fusion genes) might be required for the development of this tumor.

  18. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lee, Sandra J; Yip, Waiki; Rao, Uma N; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Cohen, Gary I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Evans, Terry L; Brell, Joanna M; Albertini, Mark R; Atkins, Michael B; Dakhil, Shaker R; Conry, Robert M; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Flaherty, Lawrence E; Sondak, Vernon K; Carson, William E; Smylie, Michael G; Pappo, Alberto S; Kefford, Richard F; Kirkwood, John M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m 2 /d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS. Stratification factors were pathologic lymph node status, lymph node staging procedure, Breslow depth, ulceration of the primary lesion, and disease stage. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results A total of 1,150 patients were randomly assigned. At a median follow-up of 7 years, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for OBS and 0.70, (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for IFN ( P = .964). The 5-year overall survival rate was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.86) for OBS and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.86) for IFN ( P = .558). Treatment-related grade 3 and higher toxicity was 4.6% versus 57.9% for OBS and IFN, respectively ( P weeks of IV induction as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group high-dose IFN regimen is not better than OBS alone for patients with intermediate-risk melanoma as defined in this trial.

  19. Surgical treatment of the squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and floor of mouth: pos-operative radiotherapy effect; Tratamento cirurgico do carcinoma epidermoide de lingua e soalho de boca localmente avancado: efeito da radioterapia pos-operatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amar, Ali; Curioni, Otavio Alberto; Higuchi, Sergio T.; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia da Cabeca e Pescoco e Otorrinolaringologia]. E-mail: lalitos@terra.com.br

    2003-08-01

    Assessment of the postoperative irradiation effectiveness for improvement local control of squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and floor of the mouth in stages III and IV. Study Design: clinical retrospective. Material and Method: a retrospective case-series of 72 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and floor of mouth who underwent surgery. The local control rate was assessed in front of stage, surgical margins and postoperative radiotherapy. Results: local recurrences were diagnosed in 28 (38%) patients. Only T stage and lymph node metastases were related to recurrences in the primary site. Control of disease in the primary site was achieved in 80% of pn patients and postoperative radiotherapy didn't show any effect in this group. Conclusion: advanced local disease without lymph node metastases can be treated with surgery only. (author)

  20. [Study of ATP-independent stages of reaction catalyzed by phage T4 RNA-ligase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1986-01-01

    The isotope exchange between [5'-32P]pAP and A(5')ppAp catalyzed by enzyme was shown not to take place in the absence of the acceptor; i. e. the necessity of the acceptor presence during the second step of the process was demonstrated. The isotope exchange reaction between [5'32P]pAp and (pA)5p was studied. It was demonstrated that acceptor (pA)4, slightly whereas the acceptor (pU)4 completely inhibits the isotope reaction. The isotope reaction exchange between [5'-32P]pAp and (pU)4pAp does not take place. The question of existence of adenylated donor elimination mechanism in the presence of "poor" acceptors is considered on the basis of the data obtained.

  1. [Mechanism of reaction catalyzed by RNA-ligase from bacteriophage T4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebel'nyĭ, S N; Zernov, Iu P

    1987-01-01

    The dissociation constants of the complexes of RNA-ligase with acceptors, donors and the adenylylated donor A(5')ppAp have been determined on the basis of the inhibition of ATP-pyrophosphate exchange reaction. The dissociation constants of the complexes of the enzyme with "poor" acceptors (oligouridilates) have been shown to be slightly different from those with "good" acceptors (oligoadenylates). The dependence of the reaction velocity of the formation of ligation products on the concentration of acceptors (pA)4, (pU)4 and the adenylylated donor A(5)ppAp has been studied. On the basis of the data obtained the conclusion about the random addition mechanism has been drawn. The reaction takes place in the steady-state conditions in the case of (pA)4 and in the equilibrium conditions--in the case of (pU)4.

  2. Basic and clinical evaluation of thyroxine radioimmunoassay kit. I. T-4 RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunko, H; Hisada, K [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1976-02-01

    The T/sub 4/ RIA kit is based on single antibody radioimmunoassay and utilizes a resin-sponge to separate free T/sub 4/-/sup 125/I from the incubation mixture. The use of the sodium salt of trichloroacetic acid (TBG inhibitor) permits direct radioimmunoassay of T/sub 4/ without a tedious extraction procedure. The T/sub 4/ RIA kit needs only 0.05 ml of patient serum and one hour of incubation to measure T/sub 4/. The TBG inhibitior was equivalent to 5.1 ..mu..g% of T/sub 4/ in displacing radioactive T/sub 4/ from TBG in a CPBA(Res-O-Mat T/sub 4/) system, and the TBG inhibitor volume of 0.5 ml (ten times of serum) was needed to measure a high T/sub 4/ concentration serum. The change of incubation temperature was more affected on the standard curve than that of incubation time. Correlation of the T/sub 4/ value between radioimmunoassay and CPBA in 69 patients was good (r=0.88612, p<0.01) and showed a slightly higher T/sub 4/ value when measured with radioimmunoassay than CPBA (linear regression function: Y=1.17506 + 0.95766X). Correlation of T/sub 4/ between Compu-curve and conventional standard curve was excellent (r=0.9995), but a slight difference was found in both low and high T/sub 4/ concentrations. In euthyroid patients without thyroid diseases, T/sub 4/ concentration was 9.92 +- 2.66 (SD) ..mu..g% and the normal range was between 4.60 and 15.24 ..mu..g%. Reproducibility within assay was 9.9% (CV) and recovery rate was 70% when added 10 ..mu..g of T/sub 4/ and 86% when added 15 ..mu..g% of T/sub 4/. From these results, the authors concluded that radioimmunoassay of serum T/sub 4/ using the T/sub 4/ RIA kit would be a promising one, especially when measuring a large amount of samples per assays.

  3. A systematic method for analysing the protein hydration structure of T4 lysozyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kysilka, Jiří; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2013), s. 479-487 ISSN 0952-3499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/0725; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11020 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0427 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : protein hydration structure * water * X-ray crystallography * cluster algorithm * interaction enthalpy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2013

  4. SODA-IIoT4ConnectedCars: Spread updates between cars with limited Internet access

    OpenAIRE

    Boudguiga , Aymen; Quesnel , Flavien; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A blockchain infrastructure, combined with cryptographic signatures, can improve availability and accountability for the deployment of IoT updates.However, cars with limited or intermittent Internet access may have difficulties in downloading full updates fromthe blockchain. Therefore, we allow cars that successfully downloaded updates to share them with other cars by means of a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) mechanism.

  5. Constructive tensorial group field theory I: The {U(1)} -{T^4_3} model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoche, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    The loop vertex expansion (LVE) is a constructive technique using canonical combinatorial tools. It works well for quantum field theories without renormalization, which is the case of the field theory studied in this paper. Tensorial group field theories (TGFTs) are a new class of field theories proposed to quantize gravity. This paper is devoted to a very simple TGFT for rank three tensors with U(1) group and quartic interactions, hence nicknamed -. It has no ultraviolet divergence, and we show, with the LVE, that it is Borel summable in its coupling constant.

  6. Investigations on the Hot Stamping of AW-7921-T4 Alloy Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AW-7xxx alloys have been nowadays considered for greater light weighting potential in automotive industry due to its higher strength compared to AW-5xxx and AW-6xxx alloys. However, due to their lower formability the forming processes are still in development. This paper investigates one such forming process called hot stamping. The investigation started by carrying out hot tensile testing of an AW-7xxx alloy, that is, AW-7921 at temperatures between 350°C and 475°C, to measure the strength and formability. Formability was found to improve with increasing temperature and was sensitive to the strain rate. Dynamic recovery is considered as usual reason for the formability improvement. However, examining the precipitation states of the as-received condition and after hot stamping using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the dissolution of precipitates was also believed to contribute to this increase in formability. Following solution heat treatment there was no precipitation during cooling across the cooling rates investigated (5–10°C/s. Samples taken from parts hot stamped at 10 and 20 mm s−1 had similar yield strengths. A 3-step paint baking heat treatment yielded a higher postpaint baking strength than a single step treatment.

  7. Exploitation of Digital Filters to Advance the Single-Phase T/4 Delay PLL System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    will violate this design rule and it can become a major challenge for digital controllers. To deal with the above issue, this paper first exploits a virtual unit delay (z_v^-1) to emulate the viable sampling behavior in practical digital signal processors with a fixed sampling rate. This exploitation......With the development of digital signal processing technologies, control and monitoring of power electronics conversion systems have been evolving to become fully digital. As the basic element in the design and analysis phase of digital controllers or filters, a number of unit delays (z^-1) have...... been employed, e.g., in a cascaded structure. Practically, the number of unit delays is designed as an integer, which is related to the sampling frequency (e.g., 50 Hz). More common, the sampling frequency is fixed during operation for simplicity and design. Hence, any disturbance in the ac signal...

  8. The Role of recA Protein in the Multiplicity Reactivation Pathway of Phage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    shown below: HARRIS BERNSTEIN DATE Professor of Medical Molecular Microbiology i To Jane and Brian they make it all worthwhile Aeoession For NTiSi...Department of Molecular and Medical Microbiology , University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona, 85724. Media The following growth media...M. and Prescott , C. (1983) Inducable expression of a gene specific to the recF pathway for recombination in Escherichia coli K12. Mol Gen Genet 190

  9. Serum levels of T3 and T4 among workers of contraceptive pills industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, E.Z.; Emara, A.; Yassen, Y.Z.; Amr, M.M.; Jaras, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Serum levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine were determined in 24 workers engaged in contraceptive pills industry and 20 control subjects. Serum thyroxine in exposed subjects was significantly lower, compared to its level in controls. On the other hand, triiodothyronine was significantly higher in exposed workers. Thus, it is concluded that exposure to the dust of contraceptive drugs, namely estrogen and progesterone, produced disturbances in thyroid gland function and thyroid hormone metabolism. (author)

  10. Dynamics and Predictors of Serum TSH and fT4 Reference Limits in Early Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding; Hindersson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid hormones are important developmental factors and levels should be adequate both in the pregnant woman and in the fetus. However, there is no consensus on maternal thyroid test reference limits in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Estimation of week-to-week changes in and predictors of ...

  11. A canonical process for estimation of convex functions : The "invelope" of integrated Brownian motion +t4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.; Wellner, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    A process associated with integrated Brownian motion is introduced that characterizes the limit behavior of nonparametric least squares and maximum likelihood estimators of convex functions and convex densities, respectively. We call this process “the invelope” and show that it is an almost surely

  12. Constructive tensorial group field theory II: the {U(1)-T^4_4} model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoche, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we continue our program of non-pertubative constructions of tensorial group field theories (TGFT). We prove analyticity and Borel summability in a suitable domain of the coupling constant of the simplest super-renormalizable TGFT which contains some ultraviolet divergencies, namely the color-symmetric quartic melonic rank-four model with Abelian gauge invariance, nicknamed . We use a multiscale loop vertex expansion. It is an extension of the loop vertex expansion (the basic constructive technique for non-local theories) which is required for theories that involve non-trivial renormalization.

  13. Review of FRAP-T4 performance based on fuel behavior tests conducted in the PBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charyulu, M.K.

    1979-09-01

    The ability of the Fuel Rod Analysis Program - Transient (FRAP-T), a computer code developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to calculate fuel rod behavior during transient experiments conducted in the Power Burst Facility, is discussed. Fuel rod behavior calculations are compared with data from tests performed under postulated RIA, LOCA, and PCM accident conditions. Physical phenomena, rod damage, and damage mechanisms observed during the tests and not presently incorporated into the FRAP-T code are identified

  14. IT3T/4 - Editing Websites with FrontPage 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Vitè, Davide F; Wagner, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: IT3T - IT Technical Training Tutorials (Summer 2005) This tutorial will introduce Microsoft FrontPage 2003, the recommended tool available at CERN to create content for Websites. The tutorial will explain how to create a Website at CERN and how to add contents to your Website. A few advanced examples will also be provided on how to use Webforms, link Webpages to databases, how to control the access to your web site and how to use secure communication on the CERN Central Webservers. No previous knowledge of WWW or HTML or of programming languages is required. A basic knowledge of other Office applications (Word/Excel/PowerPoint) would be a convenient starting point. The tutorials are free of charge, but separate registration to each is required. Participation to any of the tutorials is open: attendance to any tutorial is not a prerequisite to attend subsequent ones. If you are interested in attending, please discuss with your supervisor and/or your DTO, and apply electronically vi...

  15. Advanced polymer PV system: PVMaT 4A1 annual report, September 1995--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoka, J; Chleboski, R; Farber, M; Fava, J; Kane, P; Martz, J [Evergreen Solar, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Purpose of this subcontract was to produce lower module and systems costs through the innovative use of polymeric materials. The Innovative Mounting System (IMS) was developed and testing begun during the first year of this contract. IMS reduces the cost of installed PV systems by reducing labor and materials costs both in the factory and in field installation. It incorporates several advances in polymers, processing methods and product design. An advanced backskin material permits elimination of the conventional Al perimeter frame by protecting and sealing the edge and by direct bonding of multifunctional mounting bars. Electrical interconnection is easier and more reliable with a new junction box. Feasibility of a non-vacuum, high-throughput lamination method was also demonstrated, involving a novel transparent encapsulant with UV stabilization package that can be laminated in air and which should lead to longer field life than conventional designs. The first-year program culminated in the fielding of prototype products with the new encapsulant, backskin, junction box, frameless edge seal, and IMS. Feedback and marketing information from potential customers were solicited. Result promises a $0.50/watt manufacturing and system cost reductions as well as increased system lifetime. The second year will complete refinement and test of the encapsulant and backskin, complete the new lamination method, and refine product designs.

  16. Free T4, Free T3, and Reverse T3 in Critically Ill, Thermally Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    with myxedema suggest that the pituitary was either suppressed by steroids or coma , that is, T, concentrations in a range of 0.25 mcg per other factors...tyrosine in patients with altered thyroid function. J. C(i. of tyrosine in thyrotoxicosis and myxedema . Metabolism, 20: Endocrinol., 24: 691, 1964. .384-391

  17. Effect of combination therapy with thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine versus T4 monotherapy in patients with hypothyroidism, a double-blind, randomised cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Jensen, Ebbe Winther; Kvetny, Jan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of hypothyroidism with 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) is controversial. A recent meta-analysis concludes that no evidence is present in favour of using T(3). However, the analysis included a mixture of different patient groups and dose-regimens. OBJECTIVE: To compare the eff...

  18. Effect of irradiation on foodstuffs Pt. 4. A literature study. Der Einfluss der Strahlenbehandlung auf Lebensmittel. T. 4. Eine Literaturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluender, U; Boegl, W

    1980-01-01

    In the present study of the relevant literature the results of irradiation experiments with 32 foodstuffs have been compiled and discussed. This study is intented to give a survey on chemical changes in irradiated food, and neither microbiological nor toxicological and physiological aspects were taken into account. The results published by the authors of the original papers have been compiled in form of a dictionary which contains all important data such as radiation source, irradiation conditions, treatment and characteristics of the sample, investigation methods, results of the chemical and organoleptical changes etc. In addition, the effects of irradiation both on individual food substances and individual groups of foodstuffs have been summarized. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on sensory characteristics and the atmospheric influence during irradiation are given seperately. The last chapter contains a comparison between the chemical changes of food due to irradiation treatment and those caused by conventional methods. The final discussion of the results will be published seperately.

  19. A T4SS Effector Targets Host Cell Alpha-Enolase Contributing to Brucella abortus Intracellular Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, María I; Morrone Seijo, Susana M; Guaimas, Francisco F; Comerci, Diego J

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus , the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, invades and replicates within cells inside a membrane-bound compartment known as the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV). After trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways, BCVs mature into endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartments permissive for bacterial replication. Brucella Type IV Secretion System (VirB) is a major virulence factor essential for the biogenesis of the replicative organelle. Upon infection, Brucella uses the VirB system to translocate effector proteins from the BCV into the host cell cytoplasm. Although the functions of many translocated proteins remain unknown, some of them have been demonstrated to modulate host cell signaling pathways to favor intracellular survival and replication. BPE123 (BAB2_0123) is a B. abortus VirB-translocated effector protein recently identified by our group whose function is yet unknown. In an attempt to identify host cell proteins interacting with BPE123, a pull-down assay was performed and human alpha-enolase (ENO-1) was identified by LC/MS-MS as a potential interaction partner of BPE123. These results were confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. In bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with B. abortus , ENO-1 associates to BCVs in a BPE123-dependent manner, indicating that interaction with translocated BPE123 is also occurring during the intracellular phase of the bacterium. Furthermore, ENO-1 depletion by siRNA impaired B. abortus intracellular replication in HeLa cells, confirming a role for α-enolase during the infection process. Indeed, ENO-1 activity levels were enhanced upon B. abortus infection of THP-1 macrophagic cells, and this activation is highly dependent on BPE123. Taken together, these results suggest that interaction between BPE123 and host cell ENO-1 contributes to the intracellular lifestyle of B. abortus .

  20. Phosphate buffer and salt medium concentrations affect the inactivation of T4 phage by platinum(II) complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw

    1985-01-01

    -Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...

  1. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    . The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here......BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...

  2. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as

  3. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds esp...

  4. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  5. submitter Performance Test of an 8 kA @ 10-T 4.2-K ReBCO-CORC Cable

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Tim; Mentink, Matthias; van der Laan, Danko; Dhalle, Marc; ten Kate, Herman

    2016-01-01

    CERN is developing high-current ReBCO conductor on round core (CORC) cables for application in future detector and accelerator magnets. A characterization test on a ReBCO-CORC cable sample and its joints is performed in the 10-T FRESCA cable test facility at CERN. The sample is taken from the first 12-m-long CORC production. Key is the characterization of the field- and temperature-dependent critical currents of the CORC cable at 1.9 K and 4.2 K. Secondary objectives include evaluating the response of the CORC cable to quenches and the performance of cylindrical low resistive cable terminals especially designed and manufactured for use on CORC cables. The 7.6-mm CORC cable features 8 kA at 4.2 K and 10 T, and the joint terminals show a 25 ± 5 - nΩ resistance for 20-cm length.

  6. The lectin domain of UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-T4 directs its glycopeptide specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, H; Reis, C A; Bennett, E P

    2000-01-01

    The initiation step of mucin-type O-glycosylation is controlled by a large family of homologous UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-transferases). Differences in kinetic properties, substrate specificities, and expression patterns of these isoenzymes provide for diff...

  7. Inefficacy of marketed contact lens disinfection solutions against keratitis-causing Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhundi, Sahreena; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-amoebic effects of marketed contact lens disinfecting solutions. Using amoebistatic, amoebicidal, and cysticidal assays, nine different contact lens solutions were tested including: ReNu MultiPlus, DuraPlus, Ultimate Plus, OptiFree Replenish, OptiFree Express, Kontex Clean, Kontex Normal, Kontex Multisol extra+, Kontex Soak. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating Acanthamoeba castellanii with aforementioned contact lens disinfection solutions as per manufacturer's instructions in the growth medium for up to 48h at 30°C. To determine amoebicidal and cysticidal effects, amoebae were incubated with contact lens solutions in phosphate buffered saline for 24h and viability was determined by haemocytometer counting as well as re-inoculating them in the growth medium. For controls, solutions were tested against bacterial corneal pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. Of the nine contact lens solutions tested, none of them showed potent amoebicidal effects. Only DuraPlus and OptiFree Replenish exhibited trophozoite lysis of 85.3% and 73.7% respectively. In contrast, all contact lens disinfection solutions except Kontex Clean, Kontex Normal, Kontex Multisol extra+, tested showed amoebistatic effects. Importantly, none of the contact lens disinfection solutions exhibited cysticidal effects using qualitative assays, i.e., cysts treated with aforementioned solutions re-emerged as viable amoebae upon inoculation in the growth medium. However, more than 3-log reduction was observed when ReNu MultiPlus, DuraPlus and OptiFree Express were tested against P. aeruginosa which is in accordance with the ISO Stand-Alone Primary acceptance criteria. These findings are of great concern for contact lens users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparação entre os volumes pulmonares irradiados com técnica bidimensional e tridimensional conformada na radioterapia de pacientes com tumores de pulmão localmente avançados Comparison between irradiated lung volumes with two-dimensional and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy techniques for locally advanced lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar e quantificar os volumes pulmonares irradiados utilizando planejamentos bidimensional (2D e tridimensional (3D conformado na radioterapia de tumores de pulmão. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Em 27 pacientes portadores de câncer de pulmão foi feito planejamento 3D e outro correspondente em 2D. As doses prescritas variaram de 45 a 66 Gy. Foram avaliadas as doses no volume alvo planejado (PTV, volume tumoral macroscópico (GTV e pulmões (volume de pulmão que recebe 20 Gy ou 30 Gy - V20 e V30, respectivamente, e dose média. Os órgãos de risco adjacentes (medula espinhal, esôfago e coração receberam doses abaixo dos limites de tolerância. RESULTADOS: O GTV variou de 10,5 a 1.290,0 cm³ (média de 189,65 cm³. Nos planejamentos 2D foi utilizado, em média, um total de 59,33 campos, e nos planejamentos 3D, 75,65 campos. Em todas as situações analisadas houve significante (p OBJECTIVE: To compare and quantify irradiated lung volumes using two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D conformal planning for radiotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2D and 3D conformal radiotherapy plannings were performed for 27 patients with lung cancer. Prescribed doses ranged from 45 to 66 Gy. The analysis covered the doses to planning target volume (PTV, gross tumor volume (GTV and lungs (lung volume receiving 20 Gy or 30 Gy - V20 and V30, respectively, and mean dose. The doses to adjacent organs at risk (spinal cord, esophagus and heart were maintained below the tolerance limits. RESULTS: GTV ranged from 10.5 to 1,290.0 cm³ (mean, 189.65 cm³. On average, a total of 59.33 fields were utilized in the 2D planning and 75.65 fields in the 3D planning. Lung volumes were significantly preserved (P < 0.05 with the 3D conformal planning in all the evaluated cases, with about 15% decrease in the irradiated lung volumes. Lungs without tumor were most benefited from this technique. CONCLUSION: 3D radiotherapy allowed a better sparing of the lungs, both in cases of early and advanced tumors. 3D radiotherapy should be used in the treatment of patients with lung cancer, even in cases of large tumors.

  9. Locally advanced lung cancer non small cell (CBPLANPC): determination of the volumes of and tac mi bi radiotherapy: randomized phase II; Cancer de pulmon localmente avanzado no a pequeñas celulas(CBPLANPC): determinacion de los volumenes de radioterapia por mibi y tac: ensayo fase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarneti, A.; Alonso, O.; De Rosa, A.; García Fontes, M.; Luongo Gardi, A.; Castillo, C.; Delgado, L.; Pintado, D.; Dalla Rossa, M.; Guerrero, L.; Lillo, O.; Luongo Gardi, M.; Castaño, A.; Luongo, A.; De Trapani, E.; Torres, M. [Departamentos de Oncología, Imagenología, Medicina Nuclear del Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-12-15

    Full text: However there are few clinical situations that allow treatment appropriate surgical. Chemoradiation treatment has shown results above, however the amount of radiation treatment in general is large, determines morbidity and limited in part to receive the final dose as already reported in previous Congresses Uruguayans Oncology 2000 and 2002 where it rarely Local control was obtained. They inform you of the need to limit treatment volumes radiant disease or biological tumor volume (VTB) using complementary imaging procedures. Objective: To determine the radiation treatment volumes contributing MIBI clarify the VTB. Compare those figures with those established by the TAC. To analyze the intra and extra faults VTB and analyze treatment with RT type ''Involved Field'' or involved field RT (IF) Materrial and Methods: This project Conclusions: This proposal identifies problems and opportunities, proposes institutional development of the SOR network under one management model.

  10. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi, E-mail: fukumitsun@yahoo.co.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira [Department of Otolaryngology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30-83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22-82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4-89.6 GyE over 30-64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  11. PROTEIN PROFILING OF XENOPUS LAEVIS BRAIN CELLS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO T4-SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS: POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO THE ASSESSMENT/DIAGNOSIS OF XENOBIOTICS THAT PERTURB THE THYROID PATHWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    To address USEPA's need for a cost effective, non-mammalian screening assay for thyroid axis disrupting chemicals, a multi-endpoint strategy combining molecular and in vivo protocols in an amphibian model is being applied at MED-Duluth. To support the molecular phase goals of thi...

  12. Determinants of serum T4 and T3 at the time of diagnosis in nosological types of thyrotoxicosis: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Knudsen, Nils; Pedersen, Inge Bülow

    2013-01-01

    The study gives new insight into the hormonal presentation of thyrotoxicosis and showed that young age, positive TRAb levels, but also residency in the area with higher iodine intake was positively associated with biochemical disruption in GD.......The study gives new insight into the hormonal presentation of thyrotoxicosis and showed that young age, positive TRAb levels, but also residency in the area with higher iodine intake was positively associated with biochemical disruption in GD....

  13. Mercury. Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Pt. 4; Quecksilber gestern, heute, morgen. Mercury ''revisited'' (ein letztes Wiedersehen mit Quecksilber). T. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweinsberg, Fritz

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant since ancient times - and a priority pollutant today. Concentration and residence time of Hg in the atmosphere especially from coal-fired power plants is assessed diversely; new sources were disclosed, e.g. Athabasca oil sands, Canada. The global Hg cycle is influenced by a warming climate and after polar sunrise: Gaseous elemental mercury is photochemically oxidized to Hg(II). Of special relevance is the formation of methyl-Hg by anaerobic microorganisms in aqueous systems, followed by accumulation in the food-chain. The toxicological effect of methyl-Hg is well documented: Minamata Disease, the Iraqi outbreak, the Faroer and Seychellen-Islands studies. In consuming fish risk and benefits have to be balanced: methyl-Hg vs. omega-3 fatty acids (negative confounding). It is of special importance that the prenatal life is more sensitive to methyl-Hg than is adult life. Methyl-Hg is a well-known neurotoxin, but it also may conceal cardiovascular risk. Anyway, healthy eating includes fish low in methyl-Hg and high in omega-3 fatty acids, e.g. salmon, herring, shrimp. Vaccination may not cause infection, even without Thimerosal. Energy-saving bulb shine thank Hg, and we see sharp. (orig.)

  14. Can histopathologic assessment of circumferential margin after preoperative pelvic chemoradiotherapy for T3-T4 rectal cancer predict for 3-year disease-free survival?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawdsley, Suzannah; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Grainger, Juliet; Richman, Paul; Makris, Andreas; Harrison, Mark; Ashford, Richard; Harrison, Richard A.; Osborne, Melanie; Livingstone, Jeremy I.; MacDonald, Peter; Mitchell, Ian C.; Meyrick-Thomas, John; Northover, John; Windsor, Alastair; Novell, Richard; Wallace, Marina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study set out to determine the impact of a positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) (R1-R2) and pathologic downstaging on local recurrence and survival in patients with borderline resectable or unresectable rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 150 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT using low-dose folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil. CRT was followed 6-12 weeks later by surgical excision. The CRM rate and incidence, site, and pattern of local and systemic recurrences were recorded. The median follow-up was 25 months. Results: The overall median survival was 37 months, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 34%. Of the 150 patients, 122 underwent curative resection; 12% had a complete pathologic response, and downstaging to pT1-T2 occurred in an additional 16%. A negative CRM (R0) was achieved in 65% overall (98 of 150). Local recurrence occurred in 10% of those with R0 resection and 62% of those with R1-R2 resections. Distant metastases occurred in 29% of those with R0 resections and 75% of those with R1-R2 resections. The 3-year disease-free and 3-year overall survival rate was 9% and 25% and 52% and 64%, respectively, for patients with and without a histologically positive CRM. Conclusion: After 5-fluorouracil-based CRT, a positive CRM predicted for a high risk of subsequent local recurrence and a 3-year disease-free survival rate of only 9%. For this reason, the CRM should be considered a major prognostic factor and should be validated in future trials as an early alternative clinical endpoint

  15. Extra skeletal Soft Tissue Ewing?s Sarcoma with Variant Translocation of Chromosome t (4; 22) (q35; q12)-A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraj, Prashanth; H, Srinivas C; Rao, Raghavendra; Manohar, Sandesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ewing’s sarcomas is a rare primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) which has an annual incidence of 2.9 /million population in USA 1Jeffery Toretsky et al (2008) They are very uncommon in African and Asian population .lt is commonly associated with reciprocal translocation between chromosome 11 and 12 t (11:12) or less frequently the t(21 ;22)(q22;ql 2) translocation. It is highly aggressive tumor which is PAS- and CD99 (MIC2)-positive relatively few variant translocations have ...

  16. Innate B cells: oxymoron or validated concept? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/T4CAVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl F Ware

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available B lymphocytes promote the initial innate interferon response to viral pathogens without the need for antigen receptor activation. B cell dependent IFN production requires the cytokine, lymphotoxin-β. The LTβ pathway is well known to regulate lymphoid organogenesis and homeostasis by differentiating stromal cells and macrophages. However, in response to viral pathogens these same B cell-regulated populations rapidly produce type 1 interferons. Thus, B cells act as innate effector cells via LTβ homeostatic pathways, which serve as innate host barriers to viral pathogens.

  17. Conception of dairy cows in different seasons of the year in relation to thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekeova, E.; Elecko, J.; Hendrichovsky, V.; Hajurka, V.; Choma, J.; Krajnicakova, M.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation took place in March, June and November following estrus synchronization with cloprostenol. The concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the blood serum were determined by RIA using commercial kits. It is derived from the results that conception of dairy cows is in indirect proportion to the thyroid hormone levels. (M.D.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 22 refs

  18. Definition of reference ranges for free T4, TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in healthy subjects of the Jaén Health District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo Carrillo, Pablo; Santiago Fernández, Piedad; García Fuentes, Eduardo; Ureña Fernández, Tomás; Gutiérrez Alcántara, Carmen; Sánchez-Malo, Carolina; Gassó Campos, Manuela; Martínez Ramírez, María José

    2017-10-01

    The treatment guidelines for thyroid dysfunction recommend defining reference ranges for thyroid hormones in each area through assessment of local population data considering the iodine nutritional status. The aim of this study was to define the reference ranges of free thyroxine (FT4), TSH, and thyroglobulin levels in a general population from Jaen, an area of southern Spain with an adequate iodine nutritional status, and whether they were associated with urinary iodine levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,003 subjects of the general population of the Jaen Health District. Levels of urinary iodine, FT4, TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured according to age and sex. Median and mean urinary iodine levels were 110.59μg/L and 130.11μg/L respectively. Median TSH level was 1.83μIU/mL (p2.5=0.56μIU/mL, p97.5=4.66μIU/mL). Median FT4 level was 0.84ng/dL (p2.5=0.62ng/dL, p97.5=1.18ng/dL). TPO antibodies were detected in 5.7% of subjects. There was no correlation between urinary iodine levels and FT4, TSH or TPO antibodies. Subjects with positive TPO antibodies had higher TSH levels (3.34μIU/L versus 2.14μIU/mL, P=.001; odds ratio=2.42). Urinary iodine levels in Jaen are optimal according to World Health Organization standards. Reference ranges of FT4, TSH, and thyroglobulin do not differ from those reported in the literature and are no associated to urinary iodine levels. The prevalence of positive TPO antibodies was similar to that reported in other Spanish areas. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30–83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22–82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4–89.6 GyE over 30–64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  20. Differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen. Pt. 4. Acute abdomen in children; Differenzialdiagnose des akuten Abdomens. T. 4. Akutes Abdomen im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staatz, Gundula [Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany). Sektion Kinderradiologie; Schneider, Karl [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2010-06-15

    The diagnostic work-up of adults with acute abdominal pain has changed significantly within the last decade and computed tomography is often used as the first imaging modality of choice. In pediatric patients with an acute abdomen, ultrasound and abdominal X-rays remain the first line procedures. Because of the radiation risk, computed tomography is only recommended in selected cases and when strongly indicated. This review is the fourth and final part within a series of reviews dealing with the diagnostic strategy in the work-up of patients with an acute abdomen. (orig.)

  1. [Contributions of the measurement of TSH, T4 and thyroglobulin, of 99m Tc scintigraphy and of cervical ultrasonography to the early diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, M J; Gibold, C; Deltour, G; Pennaforte, F

    1988-01-01

    Over 10 years, extending from 1978, 200,000 newborns of the Champagne-Ardennes Region have been tested within the screening program for congenital hypothyroidism. Congenital hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 96 infants (28 boys, 68 girls): 73 thyroid dysgenesis (50 ectopic glands and 23 undetectable thyroid tissue) and 23 thyroid dyshormonogenesis (14 permanent and 9 transient defects). Our local frequency was 1/2,600, significantly higher than the French and European frequencies. There was a marked shortening of the age at diagnosis during the 10 year period (mean age: 45 days between 1978 and 1980, 18 days in 1987). The TSH measurement was found to be the most sensitive tool for the diagnosis. Scintigraphy and more recently ultrasonography were performed in order to characterize the anatomical variety. For the last year, the following protocol was used: high frequency ultrasonography at first, then 123I or 99 m Tc scintigraphy (using parallel colimator and digital acquisition) depending on whether the thyroid gland was seen on ultrasound or not. Treatment of thyroid dyshormonogenesis was withdrawn after 5 years for reassessment.

  2. GEAN T4 Simulations of Electromagnetic Showers Initiated by 30MeV y-Rays Entering the Atmosphere at Different Altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopov, N.; Grigoryan, A.; Karyan, G.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the GEANT4 simulation for electromagnetic showers initiated by 30 MeV photons entering into the atmosphere at different altitudes (h). Charged and neutral components of the shower have been studied in various radial slices (R) with the detecting level corresponding to the altitude of Aragats mount, where the experimental setups of Cosmic Ray Division (CRD) of Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhI) are operating. Qualitative observations of the energy spectra, as well as the tabulated parameters describing the fluxes at different values of h and R are used to make a comparison with those from the experimental data. The experimental data on particle fluxes are considered to be correlated with the atmospheric conditions such as pressure, temperature, presence of the charged clouds initiating the lightnings etc. (author)

  3. Thr92Ala polymorphism in the type 2 deiodinase is not associated with T4 dose in athyroid patients or patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, K. A.; Hoftijzer, H. C.; van der Deure, W. M.; Peeters, R. P.; Fliers, E.; Appelhof, B. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Visser, T. J.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: The type 2 deiodinase (D2)-Thr92Ala polymorphism has been associated with decreased D2 activity in some in vitro experiments but not in others. So far no association between the D2-Thr92Ala polymorphism and serum thyroid hormone levels has been observed in humans, but in a recent

  4. Selective uptake measurements of thyroid nodules with 132I before and after pituitary suppression with T4 and T3, comparison with the TRH assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitenmueller, K.

    1977-01-01

    75 patients with suspected hormone-producing autonomous adenoma were examined by the extended TRH assay (BTSH determination, TSH rise 30 min. p.i., and T3 rise 120 min. p.i. 400 μg TRH i.v.) and selective uptake measurements of three different areas of the thyroid using 132 I. The TRH stimulation test alone or the 132 I uptake test alone before and after suppression do not give a clear diagnosis. A clear differentiation of thyroid diseases is only possible if both tests are applied and their results combined. For a differential diagnosis of nodular hyperthyroidism resp. autonomous adenoma, also the TSH stimulation test is necessary in addition to the combination of TRH test and suppression test. (orig./AJ) [de

  5. Improved endothelial function and lipid profile compensate for impaired hemostatic and inflammatory status in iatrogenic chronic subclinical hyperthyroidism of thyroid cancer patients on L-t4 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdag, A; Nagy, E V; Burman, K D; Paragh, G; Jenei, Z

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to compare the changes of endothelial function and haemostatic, inflammatory and metabolic parameters of short-term iatrogenic hypothyroidism to the characteristics of subclinical hyperthyroidism in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Twenty four women (mean age 42.4+/-8.1 years) had undergone total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation in treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer. We measured serum thyroglobulin, thyroid function, plasma levels of lipid parameters, homocystine, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, von Willebrandt factor activity (vWF), nitric oxide, as well as flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery during iatrogenic hypothyroidism (TSH 89.82+/-29.36 mU/L) and again in the same patients during subclinical hyperthyroidism secondary to exogenous levothyroxine administration (TSH 0.24+/-0.11 mU/L). In hypothyroidism, FMD was markedly lower than in subclinical hyperthyroidism (6.79+/-4.44 vs. 14.37+/-8.33%, phyperthyroidism was associated with improved endothelial function and lipid profile, while haemostatic and inflammatory parameters were impaired. The two opposite mechanisms may well compensate for each other at the level of the vessel wall. (c) J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  6. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals to humans.

  7. Salvage esophagectomy under bilateral thoracotomy after definitive chemoradiotherapy for aorta T4 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Nagaki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Salvage esophagectomy through a right thoracotomy followed by careful observation of the invasion site for possible aortic replacement through a left thoracotomy is an optional procedure for these patients.

  8. T4 report. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: Current status and future prospects - 2010"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartung, T.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Bosgra, S.; Carney, E.; Coenen, J.; Conolly, R.B.; Corsini, E.; Green, S.; Faustman, E.M.; Gaspari, A.; Hayashi, M.; Hayes, A.W.; Hengstler, J.G.; Knudsen, L.E.; Knudsen, T.B.; McKim, J.M.; Pfaller, W.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group

  9. Comportamiento de la TSH y la T4 en una cohorte de pacientes con arritmia cardiaca tratados con amiodarona u otros antiarrítmicos Behavior of TSH and T4 in a cohort of patients with cardiac arrhythmia treated with amiodarone or other antiarrhythmics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwing A Vargas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La amiodarona es uno de los antiarrítmicos de uso más extendido, pero de la misma forma es un medicamento con efectos adversos bien conocidos y a múltiples niveles; uno de los más importantes es el que se describe para el tejido tiroideo. Cerca de 80% de los pacientes que la toman de forma indefinida, presentarán algún efecto adverso; sin embargo, menos de 15% la suspenderán. En la glándula tiroides, los mecanismos de lesión se relacionan, por su semejanza estructural, con la levotiroxina, la liberación de altas concentraciones de yodo y la inducción de reactividad inmune, entre otras. No obstante, la mayoría de los pacientes permanece eutiroideos. Este estudio describe la variación de la función tiroidea a corto plazo, en 77 pacientes que recibieron diferentes tipos de antiarrítmicos, que no tenían factores de riesgo asociados a disfunción tiroidea, y que se reclutaron en el servicio de hospitalización. Se tomaron muestras de TSH al inicio y al cabo de tres meses de seguimiento. Se observaron niveles de TSH normales en 26% (43 pacientes y tendencia a valores más altos en el control al tercer mes en el grupo medicado con amiodarona. De manera adicional, se describió una proporción mayor de trastornos de la función de la glándula tiroides en la población masculina.Aminodarone is one of the most widespread used antiarrhythmics, but in the same way it is a medicine with well known side-effects at multiple levels; one of the most important ones is described for the thyroid tissue. Almost 80% of patients that receive it for an indefinite time will present an adverse effect; nevertheless, only less than 15% will discontinue it. Injury mechanisms are related, because of its structural similitude, to those of levothyroxine, with liberation of high iodine concentrations and induction of immune reactivity, among others. However, most patients remain in euthyrod state. This study describes thyroid function variation at short term in 77 patients that received different type of antiarrhythmics, that had no risk factors associated to thyroid dysfunction and that were recruited in the hospital ward. TSH samples were taken at the beginning of the study and at three months of follow-up. 26% (43 patients had normal TSH plasma levels with a tendency to higher value levels after 3 months in the group receiving amiodarone. Additionally, a higher proportion of thyroid gland disorders were described in the male population.

  10. Tratamiento del cáncer de cabeza y cuello en estadio avanzado inoperable mediante quimioterapia intraarterial y radioterapia concomitante

    OpenAIRE

    García Sevilla, Alba

    2017-01-01

    La quimioterapia intraarterial y radioterapia concomitante fue descrita por Robbins en 1994 en el tratamiento de pacientes con tumores irresecables de cabeza y cuello, consistiendo en una infusión supraselectiva intraarterial de cisplatino en la arteria nutricia del tumor y una infusión sistémica de tiosulfato sódico, un agente quelante que protege al resto del organismo de la toxicidad del cisplatino. Se consigue una dosis alta del quimioterápico en la zona tumoral minimizando los efectos tó...

  11. Study on the safety during transport of radioactive materials. Pt. 4. Events during transport. Final report work package 6; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 4. Ereignisse bei der Befoerderung. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie

    2014-09-15

    This report presents the results from a data collection and an evaluation of the safety significance of events in the transportation of radioactive material by all modes on public routes in Germany. Systems for reporting and evaluation of the safety significance of events encountered in the transport of radioactive material are a central element in monitoring and judging the adequacy and effectiveness of the transport regulations and their underlying safety philosophy, this allows for revision by experience feedback (lessons learned). The nationwide survey performed covering the period from the mid 1990s through 2013 identified and analysed a total of 670 transport events varying in type and severity. The vast majority of recorded transport events relate to minor deviations from the provisions of the transport regulations (e.g. improper markings and error in transport documents) or inappropriate practices and operational procedures resulting in material damage of packages and equipment such as handling incidents. Severe traffic accidents and fires represented only a small fraction (ca. 3 percent) of the recorded transport events. Four transport events were identified in the reporting period to have given rise to environmental radioactive releases. Three transport events have reportedly resulted in minor radiation exposures to the transport personnel; in one case an exposure in excess of the statutory annual dose limit for the public seems possible. Based on the EVTRAM scale, with seven significance levels, the broad majority of transport events has been classified as ''non-incidents'' (Level 0) and ''events without affecting the safety functions of the package'' (Level 1). On the INES scale most transport events would be classified as events with ''no safety significance'' (Below Scale/Level 0). The survey results show no serious deficiencies in the transport of radioactive material, supporting the conclusion that a high level of safety and protection is ensured by the existing regulatory requirements. However, there is potential for improvement notably through avoiding common administrative deviations that could be rectified by training and qualification of the involved transport personnel. Otherwise, harmonising and consolidating of transport event reports would be a preferable future goal.

  12. submitter Development of Joint Terminals for a New Six-Around-One ReBCO-CORC Cable-in-Conduit Conductor Rated 45 kA at 10T/4K

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, Tim; Mentink, Matthias; Dhalle, Marc; Ten Kate, Herman

    2016-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is developing a six-around-one conductor on round core (CORC)-strand-based cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) for use in detector and other large magnet systems. The CICC comprises six ReBCO-CORC strands helically wound around a central tube or rod and inserted in a square aluminum jacket. A major design challenge is finding a simple yet low-resistive method of injecting current homogeneously into the CORC strands of the CICC. In the production of joints for single-CORC cables, we are currently pursuing a method in which the different ReBCO layers at both ends of the CORC cable are trimmed into a staircase-like geometry. A similar trimming method is developed for joint terminals for the ReBCO-CORC-based CICC. A demonstration joint terminal is made to test the various steps of the trimming and manufacturing process before fabricating a joint terminal with real CORC strands. This paper presents an overview of CIC-joint terminal design, simulation results, and...

  13. Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Skoneczna, Iwona; Kerst, J Martijn

    2015-01-01

    and bilateral lymphadenectomy, with no evidence of any microscopic residual disease. Within 90 days of cystectomy, patients were centrally randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation to either immediate adjuvant chemotherapy (four cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, vinblastine...

  14. The electrocatalytic activity of a supramolecular assembly of CoTsPc/FeT4MPyP on multi-walled carbon nanotubes towards L-glutathione, and its determination in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, R.C.S.; Maroneze, C.M.; Tanaka, A.A.; Kubota, L.T.; Gushikem, Y.; Damos, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of a supramolecular complex based on cobalt(II) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate and iron(III) tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin adsorbed on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the oxidation of L-glutathione (GSH) was investigated at pH 7.4. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used to characterize the morphologies and composition of the materials. The modified electrode displayed efficient electrocatalytic activity in terms of oxidation of GSH at an oxidation potential of 0 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry indicated that the oxidation involves 2-electrons, with a heterogeneous rate constant of 4.9 x 10 5 mol -1 L s -1 . The response is linear from 2 to 210 μmol L -1 , the sensitivity is 1570 μA L mmol -1 , the detection limit is 0.03 μmol L -1 , and the relative standard deviation of 110 μmol L -1 GSH was 2.6% (n=10). The modified electrode was applied to the determination of GSH in erythrocytes and the results were in agreement with those obtained by a method reported in the literature. (author)

  15. Pleomorfismo, heteroicismo, heterotalismo, nomenclatura de hongos y mercadeo de productos agrícolas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buriticá Céspedes Pablo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se precisa la necesidad de citar nombres de los holomorfos con todos sus anamorfos y determinar la conveniencia de emitir legislaciones fitosanitarias para evitar el ingreso de todas las fases del ciclo de vida de un organismo fungoso, cuando no se tienen localmente.

  16. WHSC1, a 90 kb SET domain-containing gene, expressed in early development and homologous to a Drosophila dysmorphy gene maps in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region and is fused to IgH in t(4;14) multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stec, I.; Wright, T. J.; van Ommen, G. J.; de Boer, P. A.; van Haeringen, A.; Moorman, A. F.; Altherr, M. R.; den Dunnen, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a malformation syndrome associated with a hemizygous deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 4 (4p16.3). The smallest region of overlap between WHS patients, the WHS critical region, has been confined to 165 kb, of which the complete sequence is known. We

  17. 7 CFR 29.3181 - Summary of standard grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... T5GF T4F T4R T4VF T4GR T5F T5R T5VF T5GR T3FR T4D T4VR T4FR T5D T5VR T5FR T4K T4GF 8 Grades of Mixed...

  18. Múltiplas Recidivas Oligometastáticas em Doente com Tumor de Pulmão Não-Pequenas Células

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Nunes

    2017-09-01

    Apresenta-se o caso de uma doente jovem, com recidiva de adenocarcinoma primário do pulmão oligoprogressiva, mas múltipla, na mama, pele e sistema nervoso central, dois, 12 e 27 meses após cirurgia curativa, tratada localmente com cirurgia e gamma knife, com longa sobrevivência e mantendo-se clinicamente assintomática. Recebido: 09/05/2017 - Aceite: 31/08/2017

  19. In vitro and in vivo studies of the carcinogenic, toxic and genotoxic activities of the air pollutants SO sub 2 and NO sub x , separately and in combination with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines. Pt. 4. In vivo and in vitro Studien zur karzinogenen, toxischen und genschaedigenden Kombinationswirkung von Luftschadstoffen (SO sub 2 , NO sub x , polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe und N-Nitrosamine). T. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, W J; Klein, R G; Pool, B L; Schmezer, P [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Chemotherapie

    1989-04-01

    The cytotoxic activity of sulfite (product of SO{sub 2}+water) was assessed. In vitro its effects on vitality and energy household were determined in the 3 cell types used in our genotoxicity studies. It was shown: (1) Sulfite toxicity is clearly time- and dose-dependent. (2) By simultaneously determining membrane and cytoskeleton damage, a toxicity parameter is available for pRH in suspension cluture which is as sensitive as determining plating efficiency in tissue culture (FHLC, CO60). (3) The energy system is impaired by sulfite. This was shown by the depletion of intracellular ATP. Differential resistance of cells to sulfite (pRH>FHLC>CO60) is probably due to their relative contents of detoxifying sulfite oxidases. The inhalative application of SO{sub 2} (10 ppm) with and without N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) (1.7 or 3 mg/kg) to SD rats did not result in any measurable toxic effects to the liver, as was determined by measuring vitality and ATP content of explanted pRH. On the other hand, low single doses of <1 mg/kg inhaled NDMA caused a high rate of DNA single strand breaks. Inhaled SO{sub 2} (10 ppm and 50 ppm for 2 weeks) did not cause DNA damage. In contrast to our previous in vitro findings, the genotoxicity of NDMA in liver cells was not measurably affected by simultaneous SO{sub 2} inhalation in an in vivo experimental set up. (orig./MG).

  20. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano Juan; Buitrago, Giancarlo; Ramos, Pedro; Suescun Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the experience at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer among patients in stages IIIC and IV. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study (case series type) of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in stages IIIC and IV, treated at the NCI from January 1, 2003 to December 31,2006, who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment. Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes are described. Results: Seventeen patients who fulfilled the above mentioned criteria were selected. Once neoadjuvant chemotherapy ended, 5 patients (29.4%) achieved complete or partial clinical response; 4 (23.8%) remained in stable condition, and 8 (47.6%) showed signs of progressive illness. Interval debulking surgery was performed on objective response patients. Maximum cytoreduction was achieved in 5 patients (100%); first relapse was reported at month 18 of follow-up; 2 disease-free survivors were identified in December, 2007; 8 (49%) reported some degree of non-severe chemotherapy-related toxicity. No mortality was related to chemotherapy, no post surgical complications were observed and no patient required advanced support management. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by optimal interval debulking surgery among selected patients, can be an alternative treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer among women with irresecability or the critically ill. Further studies with improved design are required to confirm these findings.

  1. Reacción de hipersensibilidad a carboplatino no reversible mediante protocolo de desensibilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gómez de Rueda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los compuestos de platino son ampliamente utilizados en diferentes tumores, siendo carboplatino el indicado en carcinoma de ovario. La principal toxicidad limitante de dosis de carboplatino es la trombopenia, sin embargo, en ocasiones presenciamos reacciones de hipersensibilidad que, aunque no es un hecho demasiado frecuente (8-16%, sí puede ser grave. Por ello, han sido desarrollados protocolos de desensibilización. Comunicamos el caso de una paciente intervenida quirúrgicamente de un carcinoma seroso papilar de ovario (estadio IIIC y que posteriormente recibió quimioterapia adyuvante con carboplatino y paclitaxel. Tras veintidós meses de intervalo libre de enfermedad, mostró recaída abdominal irresecable, por lo que se instauró de nuevo tratamiento con carboplatino y paclitaxel. Durante la administración del segundo ciclo, manifestó reacción grave de hipersensibilidad a carboplatino. Se intentó esquema de desensibilización sin éxito, no pudiendo continuar con dicho tratamiento y obligando a iniciar segunda línea con trabectedina y adriamicina liposomal pegilada.

  2. Turismo, residuos sólidos y áreas protegidas: aproximación al sistema de manejo de residuos sólidos en el centro de visitantes Yewaé del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Guiro, Graison

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo se efectúo en el Centro de Visitantes Yewaé1 CVY del Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu - PNNA2, cuyos servicios ecoturísticos fueron concesionados en el año 2005 al consorcio Unión Temporal Amacayacu, conformado por las empresas Aviatur, Decameron y Cielos Abiertos y conocido localmente como Concesión Amacayacu. Los problemas están asociados a la inadecuada disposición de residuos en las canecas por parte de empleados, turistas y visitantes; a la disposición final de los residuos i...

  3. Virus de rabia en cultivos de neuronas sensoriales de ratón adulto

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hurtado; Jaime E. Castellanos; R. Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Introducción: Las neuronas sensoriales de los ganglios de la raíz dorsal (GRD) del ratón adulto, son un modelo interesante en el estudio de la infección in vitro por virus de rabia. Su importancia radica puesto que es una de las vías que tiene el virus para llegar a sistema nervioso central. El virus de la rabia usualmente entra por la mordedura de un animal infectado, inicialmente llega al músculo, replicándose localmente, pasa a terminales nerviosas adyacentes, sube a través del sistema ner...

  4. Agujeros negros cosmológicos y su relación con la segunda ley de la termodinámica

    OpenAIRE

    López Amengol, Federico Gastón

    2015-01-01

    A partir de enunciados de leyes invariantes ante inversión y traslación temporal, resultan procesos macroscópicos irreversibles. La fuente de irreversibilidad no se encuentra en las leyes mismas sino en las condiciones de borde o iniciales que exigimos a las ecuaciones que representan las leyes. En este trabajo, proponemos que el apantallamiento de corrientes electromagnéticas por el horizonte de eventos de un agujero negro en las soluciones a las ecuaciones de Maxwell determina, localmente...

  5. Problemas de clasificación de curvas en variedades riemannianas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Mateos, Víctor Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia el problema de congruencia de curvas en variedades riemannianas y se determinan invariantes que permiten decidir de modo eficiente por métodos computacionales cuándo dos tales curvas son congruentes, al menos localmente. En el caso de las variedades de curvatura constante, se estudia el conjunto de clases de equivalencia de jets de curvas hasta un orden dado módulo el grupo de isometrías. Se da también una interpretación geométrica de la curvatura total de una...

  6. A gestão estratégica e o enfrentamento da ilegalidade: um estudo de caso do combate à pirataria nas empresas farmacêuticas multinacionais no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Solange Gualberto da Mata

    2011-01-01

    As empresas multinacionais que investem em países emergentes onde as instituições responsáveis (Governo e Sociedade) que não conseguem reprimir a pirataria sofrem com a perda de mercado e se vêem compelidas a desenvolver novas estratégias para gerar valor e aumentar a sua performance. As empresas multinacionais fabricantes de medicamentos de disfunção erétil utilizam estratégias globais para se defender da pirataria. Localmente essas empresas desenvolvem estratégias de não-mercado que não são...

  7. De la atomización al asociativismo: reflexiones en torno a los sentidos de la autogestión en experiencias asociativas desarrolladas por cartoneros

    OpenAIRE

    Carenzo, Sebastián; Míguez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Esta es una reflexión sobre la construcción de abordajes socioantropológicos de la puesta en marcha de experiencias asociativas entre recolectores de residuos sólidos urbanos, llamados localmente “cartoneros”. Las prácticas organizativas de los cartoneros han sido abordadas a partir de una mirada dicotómica que opone informalidad-precarización-individualismo frente a formalidad-dignificación-solidaridad. De allí se deriva que la dinámica social más significativa está dada por el paso del trab...

  8. Estudio de materiales grafíticos comunes como aceleradores de evaporación de agua bajo irradiación luminosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph, Rainer; Hernández, Ángel; Muñoz, Romeo; Ventura, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Recientemente se ha descubierto que la tasa de evaporación de agua puede aumentar considerablemente, hasta por un factor de 3, utilizando un material de alto espectro de absorción de la luz visible como el grafeno. En el laboratorio de Nanotecnología de la Universidad Francisco Gavidia de El Salvador se han realizado pruebas con diferentes tipos de grafito disponibles localmente para determinar cuál de ellos es el más eficiente para la evaporación del agua. Este estudio tiene como objetivo ut...

  9. Turismo en el valle del Colca y sus impactos en el desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova Aguilar, Hildegardo

    2014-01-01

    El turismo es una actividad que se viene proponiendo como la salida a los cuellos de botella que aparecen en la gestión de los procesos de desarrollo en territorios marginales, tal como es el caso de los Andes. La pobreza de las poblaciones que viven en zonas montañosas obliga a repensar las formas de desarrollo, para que las mismas les permitan una transferencia real de bienes materiales y los lleven a elevar su calidad de vida. Estos bienes, por lo general, no se producen localmente y ello ...

  10. COMPROBACIÓN DE VALIDEZ Y CONFIABILIDAD DEL INSTRUMENTO CONSTRUIDO PARA EVALUAR EL VALOR DE MARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Oviedo Marín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicó la técnica estadística multivariante análisis factorial al instrumento de Ramírez F. (2012, que consta de 12 preguntas agrupadas en cuatro temas principales: Lealtad, Calidad, Notoriedad e Imagen. Con la prueba se identificó la validez de las dimensiones: mismas que resultaron confiables al aplicarles el alfa de Cronbach lo que implica que localmente, el instrumento de valor de marca no requiere ser modificado manteniendo la cantidad de ítem y de factores, obteniendo la información de una manera clara y sencilla.

  11. COMPOSICIÓN DEL ENSAMBLE DE INSECTOS DEL DOSEL DE BOSQUES SUBTROPICALES SECOS DEL CHACO SEMIÁRIDO, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Diodato; Andrea Fuster

    2016-01-01

    El dosel arbóreo constituye un complejo hábitat con gran diversidad de insectos. Los estudios sobre insectos del dosel están mayormente concentrados en bosques húmedos tropicales y son escasos en bosques secos subtropicales. El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar la entomofauna del dosel de bosques secos subtropicales, analizando su diversidad regional y localmente. Para ello se muestrearon cinco sitios localizados en la región fitogeográfica del Chaco Semiárido Argentino. Las recolecc...

  12. Nuevos datos sobre la geologia del Complejo Intrusivo Alcalino de Monchique (SW de Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Valadares, V.; González Clavijo, Emilio J.

    2004-01-01

    Los estudios microscópicos complementarios de las rocas alcalinas han permitido confirmar la estructura anular groseramente concéntrica del Complejo de Monchique, semejante a la que presentan los complejos alcalinos coetáneos de Sintra y Sines. La zona central está constituida por sienitas nefelínicas de grano grueso, rodeadas por un anillo de sienitas nefelínicas heterogéneas de grano más fino. En esta unidad exterior, y localmente separando ambas unidades, existen cuerpos menores de rocas b...

  13. DINÁMICAS FAMILIARES, PRÁCTICAS DE CUIDADO Y RESOLUCIÓN DE PROBLEMAS ASOCIADOS AL CONSUMO INTENSIVO DE PASTA BASE/PACO EN BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, MarIa Victoria; Olsen, M. Celeste; Epelez, María E.

    2012-01-01

    Partiendo de los resultados de una investigación etnográfica que venimos desarrollando desde el año 2008 con poblaciones vulnerables del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA), Argentina, en este trabajo examinamos las dinámicas vinculares de los sectores populares a la luz de las prácticas de cuidado y consumo de drogas, específicamente pasta base de cocaína -denominada localmente paco-. En particular, analizamos los modos en que el uso de drogas modela y es modelado por las característic...

  14. Fibroma desmoplásico de maxilar en paciente pediátrico: Reporte de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Gerber Mora; Sergio Castro Mora; Joseph Ulate Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    La presencia de tumefacciones en la cavidad bucal del paciente pediátrico puede ser indicativo de gran cantidad de patologías y enfermedades sistémicas, algunas incluso pueden perjudicar el bienestar del mismo. El Fibroma desmoplásico es un tumor óseo benigno, localmente destructivo, catalogado como muy poco frecuente. Se reporta el caso de un niño de 4 años con fibroma desmoplásico en el maxilar de alrededor de 2 años de evolución, observándose como una tumefacción generalizada del segundo c...

  15. Esclerodermia localizada na criança: aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos Localized scleroderma in children: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Q. Zancanaro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A esclerodermia localizada, ou morféia, acomete crianças em idade escolar e, em geral, é autolimitada, apesar de localmente desfiguradora. A literatura descreve inúmeros fatores etiopatogênicos, bem como modalidades de investigação e tratamento. Este artigo reúne os estudos mais recentes e discute sua aplicação clínica.Localized scleroderma or morphea affects school-aged children, is usually self-limited and a disfiguring condition. Several etiopathogenic factors, investigations and treatment options are described. This article reviews the recent literature and discusses its clinical applications.

  16. El barrio de la Vila de Alzira (Valencia): Un centro histórico degradado en proceso de rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Piqueras Haba, Juan

    1987-01-01

    El centro histórico de la ciudad de Alzira, conocido localmente como barrio de la Vila, se había mantenido como una unidad urbana independiente del resto de la ciudad hasta el inicio de los años sesenta gracias a una barrera natural configurada por el cauce semiseco de un meandro del río Xúquer. Como consecuencia del gran crecimiento urbano de Alzira durante las décadas sesenta y setenta, el viejo cauce fue terraplenado y sustituido por grandes avenidas, desde las que inmediatamente se produj...

  17. Qualidade pós-colheita de pomelos (Citrus paradisi Macf.) produzidos em plantações iniciais no estado do Ceará, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado,Francisca Ligia de Castro; Oliveira,Valéria Santos de; Costa,José Maria Correia da

    2011-01-01

    O estado do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil, vem ganhando atenção como o mais emergente Estado produtor de frutos no país. Citros, incluindo pomelos, tradicionalmente cultivados no sul, vem sendo plantados no Estado. No entanto, ainda não existem informações sobre qualidade de pomelos cultivados localmente. Este estudo objetivou examinar a qualidade pós-colheita de pomelos 'Star Ruby' e 'Ruby Red' quanto ao tamanho e forma, coloração da polpa, espessura da casca, rendimento do suco, sólidos solúvei...

  18. Do peixe com farinha à macarronada com frango: uma análise das transformações na rede urbana no Alto Solimões pela perspectiva dos padrões alimentares.

    OpenAIRE

    Schor, Tatiana; Tavares-Pinto, Moisés Augusto; Avelino, Francisco Carlos da Costa; Ribeiro, Marina Lelis

    2015-01-01

    As transformações e permanências nos padrões alimentares são indicativos de mudanças sociais e ambientais complexas. A passagem de uma dieta tradicional, fortemente baseada em produtos coletados, pescados, caçados, plantados ou mesmo adquiridos localmente para uma dieta de supermercado, isto é oriunda da agroindústria é um interessante indicativo do processo de modernização. A análise dessas mudanças permite entender processos diversificados tais como a urbanização. Os hábitos alimentares no ...

  19. Efeitos de alterações na zona ripária sobre a integridade de igarapés amazônicos no Baixo rio Teles Pires, Norte de Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Bleich, Monica Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Na bacia Amazônica existem muitos riachos, localmente denominados de igarapés, inseridos em paisagens heterogêneas, considerando as variações naturais das condições geomorfológicas, os períodos hidrológicos e a degradação promovida pelo desmatamento, principalmente na borda sul da bacia. Logo, o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os impactos de alterações na cobertura florestal ripária sobre a estrutura do ecossistema em igarapés de cabeceira no baixo rio Teles Pires, norte de Mato Gross...

  20. Modeling lichen communities : ecological key factors in a changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Pedro António Pinho, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2010 O fenómeno das alterações globais influencia o funcionamento de muitos dos sistemas planetários. Embora os factores ambientais associados a esse fenómeno funcionem numa escala global, os seus efeitos nos ecossistemas têm de ser estudados localmente. Este estudo é complexo não só pela necessidade de obter informação com uma elevada resolução espacial, mas também pela dificuldade de estarmos a trab...

  1. Aulas virtuais: a construção do sentido em ambientes de interação on-line

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Luiz Carlos Carvalho de

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação investiga a construção do sentido em aulas virtuais. Partimos do pressuposto de que o sentido é constituído por múltiplas semioses: linguística e paralinguística, em contextos localmente determinados, no fluxo da interação social. Guiados pela perspectiva sociocognitiva da significação, tomamos a língua em uso de participantes de aulas virtuais de instituições de ensino superior e médio para investigar a construção do sentido. Baseados numa metodologia qualitat...

  2. Ocupação cabocla e extrativismo madeireiro no alto capim: uma estratégia de reprodução camponesa

    OpenAIRE

    Medina,Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Com o avanço da atividade madeireira através da Bacia Amazônica, comunidades localizadas ao longo das fronteiras madeireiras passam a ter oportunidade de vender os direitos de extração da madeira de suas áreas. O valor localmente percebido e as decisões das populações locais sobre a forma de uso de seus recursos contrastam fortemente com as visões globalmente construídas sobre o valor da floresta tropical. Este valor local é baseado em representações que consideram a importância local dos pro...

  3. Propuesta de la aplicación de la guía oficial de la ich q10 para el levantamiento de un sistema de calidad en la industria farmacéutica

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne Obando, Carlos Rodolfo; Vega Gordilllo, Maria Veronica

    2010-01-01

    La Industria Farmacéutica es el sector industrial con mayores requerimientos y exigencias tecnológicas y de infraestructura para la producción de sus productos, debido a la estricta regulación con las que son monitoreadas y controladas, tanto localmente como internacionalmente. Este tipo de industria está dedicada a la producción y preparación de productos químicos medicinales y es catalogada entre las industrias más importantes del mundo, por la enorme cantidad de proyectos de investigación,...

  4. Conhecimento tradicional das marisqueiras de Barra Grande, área de proteção ambiental do delta do Rio Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Simone Tupinambá; Pamplin, Paulo Augusto Zaitune; Legat, Jefferson; Fogaça, Fabíola Helena dos Santos; Barros, Roseli Farias Melo de

    2012-01-01

    Na comunidade de Barra Grande localizada no litoral do Piauí, as mulheres dos pescadores, conhecidas localmente como marisqueiras, extraem do manguezal vários tipos de moluscos para comercialização e em maior escala para a subsistência. Dados sobre a atividade de mariscagem, conceitos de conservação e aspectos socioeconômicos do contexto em que ocorre a atividade de cata dos moluscos, foram revelados após a aplicação de protocolos estruturados e semiestruturados. O molusco bivalve Anomalocard...

  5. Perfil de expressão das metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs) e seus inibidores (TIMPs e RECK) em tumores odontogênicos benignos

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio César Prosdócimi

    2013-01-01

    Os tumores odontogênicos benignos compreendem um grupo de neoplasias originárias dos tecidos dentários. Pesquisas vêm buscando identificar moléculas envolvidas nos mecanismos moleculares que regulam a remodelação da matriz extracelular (MEC) e como isto influencia no comportamento localmente invasivo presente em alguns destes tumores. A Transição Epitélio-Mesenquimal (TEM conversão do fenótipo epitelial em mesenquimal) é bem caracterizada em diversos carcinomas, culminando em mestástase. MMP...

  6. Comparison of Fiber Counting by Monitor Screen and Eyepieces of Phase Contrast Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Panahi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: These minerals have been extensively used in industrial products such as cement-asbestos sheet and pipe, brake shoe, clutch, insulation materials, etc. Occupational and non - occupational exposures to this carcinogenic material have caused to develop several methods to evaluate airborne asbestos fibers. Materials and Methods: In this study, multiple microscopic method of determining the type and concentration of asbestos fibers has been used in an industry. 3TThe forty five personal3T4T 3T4Tsamples3T4T 3T4Ton3T4T 3T4Tmembrane3T4T 3T4Tfilters (MCE3T4T 3T4Twere collected3T4T 3T4Tof3T4T 3T4Tdifferent3T4T 3T4Tprocesses3T4T 3T4Tof a3T4T 3T4Tmanufacturing factory3T4T 3T4Tof 3Tcement-asbestos sheet4T. 4TThe half of each filter was prepared and then fibers counting were accomplished by ocular PCM and LCD images methods. Another part of filters was used for identification of asbestos fibers elements and types by scanning electron microscope method. Results: Fibers concentration range were determined 0.009-0.243 fibers/cc by direct counting method (Ocular PCM, while by indirect method (LCD Images, results were 0.00-0.117 fibers/cc and statistical tests showed significant difference (p<0.02. Study of elemental composition of fibers by scanning electron microscope confirmed that, the majority of fibers were chrysotile. Study of elemental composition of fibers by scanning electron microscope confirmed that majority of fibers are chrysotile. Conclusion: Due to limitation of study, use of 1.3 megapixels in indirect method, PCM direct method remains one the best methods of Asbestos fibers counting in Iran.

  7. A comparison of the effects of Portulaca oleracea seeds hydro-alcoholic extract and Vitamin C on biochemical, hemodynamic and functional parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Hadi; Pakdel, Roghayeh; Khazaei, Majid; Niazmand, Said; Bavarsad, Kowsar; Hadjzadeh, Mousa AL-Reza

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) seeds and Vitamin C on biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in cardiac tissue of rats with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty eight male rats were divided into six groups of 8 and treated for 4 weeks. T4 group received daily injection of levothyroxine sodium (20 μg/kg) and control group was given daily injection of saline. T4-Po groups were given T4 plus 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of P. oleracea seeds extract in drinking water daily. T4-Vit C group received T4 plus daily injection of Vitamin C (100 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum free T4 level, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiol levels were measured. Results: Free T4 levels were increased in all groups that were treated with T4. Weight gain was decreased in T4 and T4-Po100 groups compared to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.05). However, body weight was increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. LVDP was increased in T4 group compared to control group but, LVDP was decreased in T4-Po and T4-Vit C groups. Malondialdehyde was decreased in T4-Po groups and T4-Vit C group compared to T4 group. Total thiol groups were increased in T4-Po (200 and 400) and T4-Vit C groups compared to T4 group. Conclusion: The results showed that P. oleracea extract has a protective effect on cardiac dysfunction due to subclinical hyperthyroidism induced by levothyroxine sodium in rats. PMID:29632847

  8. SARCOMA SINOVIAL EN ADOLESCENTE. PRESENTACIÓN DE UN CASO Y REVISIÓN DE LA LITERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Faviola Corti Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma sinovial (SS es un una neoplasia maligna de estirpe mesenquimal, constituida por células fusiformes y un componente de diferenciación epitelial con grados variables de displasia, siendo menos frecuente que el rabdomiosarcoma en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. El SS afecta principalmente las extremidades, con predominio de las inferiores. De acuerdo al estadiaje quirúrgico, el estadío III/IVA, ha sido relacionado con un pronóstico mucho más precario. Para los pacientes con enfermedad irresecable al momento del diagnóstico (estadío III, la supervivencia se ha reportado entre el 50 y el 70%. El objetivo es presentar un caso clínico inusual y conocer el comportamiento de la neoplasia. Se trata de paciente femenina de 16 años, con tumoración en cara medial de tercio distal de brazo izquierdo, no móvil y dolorosa a la palpación. El ultrasonido reportó: lesión ocupante de espacio heterogénea de partes blandas, adyacente a 1/3 distal de húmero izquierdo. La biopsia reportó: Sarcoma Sinovial fibroso monofásico grado I Estadio III Primario. Se indicó quimioterapia más radioterapia, con evolución satisfactoria. Actualmente asintomática, sin evidencia de actividad tumoral. El SS es un tumor poco frecuente, su patogénesis es todavía desconocida y no están bien establecidos los factores de riesgo. El tratamiento es multidisciplinario.

  9. Sarcoma sinovial en adolescente. Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Faviola Corti Hart

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma sinovial (SS es un una neoplasia maligna de estirpe mesenquimal, constituida por células fusiformes y un componente de diferenciación  epitelial con grados variables de displasia, siendo menos frecuente que el rabdomiosarcoma en adolescentes y adultos jóvenes. El SS afecta principalmente  las extremidades, con predominio de las inferiores. De acuerdo al estadiaje quirúrgico, el estadío III/IVA, ha sido relacionado con un pronóstico  mucho más precario. Para los pacientes con enfermedad irresecable al momento del diagnóstico (estadío III, la supervivencia se ha reportado entre el  50 y el 70%. El objetivo es presentar un caso clínico inusual y conocer el comportamiento de la neoplasia. Se trata de paciente femenina de 16 años, con  tumoración en cara medial de tercio distal de brazo izquierdo, no móvil y dolorosa a la palpación. El ultrasonido reportó: lesión ocupante de espacio  heterogénea de partes blandas, adyacente a 1/3 distal de húmero izquierdo. La biopsia reportó: Sarcoma Sinovial fibroso monofásico grado I Estadio III  Primario. Se indicó quimioterapia más radioterapia, con evolución satisfactoria. Actualmente asintomática, sin evidencia de actividad tumoral. El SS es  un tumor poco frecuente, su patogénesis es todavía desconocida y no están bien establecidos los factores de riesgo. El tratamiento es multidisciplinario.

  10. Antral localization worsens the efficacy of enteral stents in malignant digestive tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Carlos; Vilella, Àngels; González Carro, Pedro; González Huix, Ferran; Espinós, Juan Carlos; Santolaria, Santos; Pérez Roldán, Francisco; Figa, Montserrat; Loras, Carmen; Andreu, Hernán

    2011-02-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction can be treated by means of enteral stenting or surgical gastrojejunalanatomosis. We evaluated in a prospective and multicentre study the efficacy of the enteral stent on food intake, the quality of life impact, and the relationship between efficacy and determined clinical and technical parameters. Seventy one patients affected by symptoms arising from gastroduodenal obstruction due to malignant tumors, with criteria of irresecability, metastatic disease or very high surgical risk, were treated by means of self expanding metal stents. We used the GOOSS index to evaluate efficacy, and the Euro Qol-5D index to evaluate quality of life. Before stenting patients with GOOSS 0 and 1 were 68 (98.5%). After stenting patients with GOOSS 2 and 3 (semisolid and solid food) were 58 (84,1%) (P<.0001). The Euro Qol-5D index measured before and a month after stenting were 10.17 and 10.04 respectively (P=.6). The median survival was 91 days (9-552). The enteral stents for localised tumors in the duodenum and the gastrojejunalanastomosis were effective in 26 patients (70.2%) and 13 patients respectively (86.6%), while the enteral stents of tumors in the antrum were effective in only 5 patients (29.4%). The palliative treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction with a uncovered metal stent produces a significant improvement of oral food intake and maintains the overall quality of life index. The antral localization is associated with a lower efficacy of the procedure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluación genética preliminar de bovinos Angus en México mediante valores de cría genómicos / Preliminary genetic evaluation of Angus cattle in Mexico using genomic breeding values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elizabeth Briones Martín del Campo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de evaluar genéticamente bovinos Angus importados a México como embriones, en comparación con una población de referencia internacional y bovinos concebidos localmente, se genotipificaron 143 animales Angus y Angus Rojo con la plataforma BeadChiplllumina BovineSNP50® y se predijeron sus valores de cría genómicos (MVP. En promedio fueron superiores a la media de la población de referencia para características de facilidad de parto directa y materna, habilidad lechera, crecimiento desde el destete hasta el año de edad, peso de la canal, desarrollo muscular, marmoleo y el índice económico de engorda en confinamiento. Los animales originados con germoplasma importado fueron superiores a los concebidos localmente para las características de crecimiento desde el destete hasta el año de edad, desarrollo muscular, marmoleo, terneza de la carne y el índice económico. La población de bovinos Angus evaluada mostró tener potencial genético para seleccionar y utilizar reproductores mejorados.

  12. Surficial clay mineral distribution on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence of input from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.

    LATERITE 3922 MIOCENE SANDSTONE (~) ARCHEANS ( GRANITE GNEISS I' --J CHARNOKITES ~ KHONOALITES) ~J 3940 -t- -4- -t- -t- ~ .. t Jr -4- + + + + Jr -t- Jr + Jr -t- -t- 4- -t- 4- Jre" + -t- + 4- + -t-.. + + 4- WADGE BANK INDIA -~ + + + + *4 t... et al., 1990). In the southern region, the shelf is marked by a low gradient physiographic feature, i.e. Wadge Bank (gradient 1:756), which has considerably enhanced the width of the shelf. The shelf break is shallowest in this region...

  13. Preparation and separation of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of thyroxine and triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, M.T.; Hsu, L.

    1987-01-01

    An enzymatic method for synthesis of labelled thyroxine glucuronide (T4G) and triiodothyronine glucuronide (T3G) from labelled thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) is presented. The synthetic glucuronides are completely digested by beta-glucuronidase, with recovery of the parent T4 or T3. They have distinctive elution patterns on HPLC and on Sephadex G25 chromatography, and can be clearly separated from T4 and T3 as well as from synthetic T4 sulfate (T4S) and T3 sulfate (T3S). On LH 20 chromatography, elution of T4G and T3G is intermediate between that of T4 and T3 and that of T4S and T3S. T3G can be well separated from other thyronines by HPLC alone, but T4G coelutes with rT3 on HPLC; these are then separated by adding a Sephadex G25 chromatography step. Biosynthetic 131 I-T3G and 125 I-T4G from the bile of a cat given 131 I-T3 and 125 I-T4 had similar HPLC chromatographic patterns to those of synthetic T3G and T4G. That the identified peaks from analysis of the bile were indeed T3G and T4G was confirmed by recovery of the parent T3 and T4 after beta-glucuronidase digestion

  14. Diagnostic significance of the serum thyroid hormone indicies in various thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.H.; Ko, S.M.; Yoon, S.R.; Ro, H.K.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the serum thyroid hormones in various thyroid function states, the author measured serum T 3 uptake, serum T 3 , serum T 4 , serum free T 4 and free T 4 index in 27 cases of normal subjects, 11 cases of hypothyroidism, 152 cases of euthyroidism and 81 cases of hyperthyroidism by the radioimmunoassay method. The results were as follows: 1) The ranges of serum thyroid hormones in normal subjects were, serum T 3 uptake; 27.4-42.1%, serum T 3 ; 93-245 ng/dl, serum T 4 ; 4.08-12.9 ng/dl and serum free T 4 ; 0.57-1.53 ng/dl (M+-2 S.D.). 2) Free T 4 index and serum T 4 show relatively high diagnostic value in euthyroidism group, and serum T 3 and T 4 in hypothyroidism group, while serum T 3 , free T 4 and T 4 show relatively high diagnostic value in hyperthyroidism group. 3) There were significant correlation between free T 4 index and serum T 4 (r=0.68) and between free T 4 index and serum free T 4 (r=0.67) in hyperthyroidism group. (author)

  15. Treating Hypothyroidism with Thyroxine/Triiodothyronine Combination Therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsson, Luba Freja; Medici, Bjarke Borregaard; la Cour, Jeppe Lerche

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded as experime......BACKGROUND: Five to ten percent of patients with hypothyroidism describe persistent symptoms despite being biochemically well regulated on levothyroxine (L-T4). Thyroxine (T4)/triiodothyronine (T3) combination therapy [L-T4/liothyronine (L-T3) or desiccated thyroid] are still regarded...

  16. Elevated serum free thyroxine by thyroxine analog radioimmunoassays in euthyroid patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fournier, L.; DeCosimo, D.; Abreau, C.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    A study was done to ascertain whether the serum free T4 measured by free T4 radioimmunoassay kits would, like equilibrium dialysis, be normal in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. Five free T4 radioimmunoassay kits were used to measure free T4 in serum samples from 19 patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and 20 healthy volunteers. Values (mean +/- SE) for T4, free T4 index, and free T4 (equilibrium dialysis) in these normal subjects and patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia, respectively, were as follows: T4, 8.1 +/- 0.2 and 18.3 +/- 0.7 μg/dL; free T4 index, 3.1 +/- 0.1 and 7.3 +/- 0.3 μg/dL; free T4, 1.4 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng/dL. The following free T4 radioimmunoassay methods were used: antibody coated microfine silica, microencapsulated antibody, two-step antibody-coated tube, and one-step 125 I-T4 analog (2 kits). The present findings in patients with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and previous observations in ill euthyroid patients suggest that serum free T4 measured by some radioimmunoassay methods must be interpreted with caution in these two clinical situations

  17. Liquid L-thyroxine versus tablet L-thyroxine in patients on L- thyroxine replacement or suppressive therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Irakoze; Tang, Siying; Astère, Manirakiza; Wang, Kan Ran; Deng, Shuhua; Xiao, Ling; Li, Qi Fu

    2018-03-23

    To compare the effectiveness of liquid L-T4 (L-thyroxine) and tablet L-T4 in patients on L-T4 replacement or suppressive therapy. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify relevant articles. All prospective or randomized controlled studies (RCTs) comparing liquid L-T4 and tablet L-T4 in patients on L-T4 replacement or suppressive therapy were included in the analysis. Overall, the initial search of the four databases identified 1278 published studies; of these, eight studies were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) levels were significantly suppressed in patients on liquid L-T4 compared with those on tablet L-T4, in patients on L-T4 suppressive therapy with L-T4 malabsorption (Mean Difference (MD) = -2.26, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -3.59, -0.93; P = 0.0009)). However, liquid L-T4 and tablet L-T4 did not show a statistically significant difference in patients on L-T4 suppressive therapy without malabsorption (MD = 0.08, 95% CI: -0.31, 0.47; P = 0.69). TSH levels were significantly normalized in patients on liquid L-T4 compared with those on tablet L-T4, in Patients on L-T4 replacement therapy with L-T4 malabsorption (MD = -3.20, 95% CI: -5.08, -1.32; P = 0.0009). However, liquid L-T4 and tablet L-T4 did not show a statistically significant difference in patients on L-T4 replacement therapy without malabsorption (MD = 0.91, 95% CI: -0.03, 1.86; P = 0.06). Liquid L-T4 is more efficient than tablet L-T4 in patients on L-T4 replacement or suppressive therapy with malabsorption. No significant differences were observed in patients without malabsorption. Further studies should be conducted to verify these findings.

  18. Diversidad isoenzimática de mangos criollos de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gálvez-López

    2007-01-01

    enzimático, por si solo, permitió diferenciar a cada uno de los mangos estudiados; sin embargo, la unión de los sistemas enzimáticos GPI-1 y GPI-2, generó patrones únicos que permitieron caracterizar a los diferentes mangos. El dendrograma indicó la existencia de 83 % de similitud entre las variedades analizadas, formando tres grupos: uno incluyó al mango Pomarrosa, diferente al resto de los individuos; otro grupo incluyó a los individuos criollos con características similares del fruto, así como alta cantidad de fibra y de azúcares y no comercializables. El tercer grupo incluyó mangos comerciales y algunos criollos que son comercializados localmente y que comparten similitudes en algunas características del fruto, como ausencia de fibra en la pulpa, alta cantidad de azúcares, entre otras.

  19. Límites, excedentes y placeres: prácticas y discursos en torno al trabajo sexual en una zona rural de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Parrini

    Full Text Available En una pequena ciudad de la costa mexicana del Pacífico se encuentra una zona de tolerancia donde un grupo de trabajadoras sexuales, separadas del resto de la ciudad por contenedores de basura, ofrece sus servicios a los hombres de la localidad. Las mujeres se presentan, material y simbólicamente, como agentes regulatorias de una sexualidad masculina que se construye desbordante e insaciable y que, de no ser por ellas, amenazaría el orden social fundado en la familia. A partir de entrevistas realizadas con trabajadoras y con autoridades municipales, en este artículo se analizan las maneras en que un sistema de sexo-género produce localmente una serie de limites cuyos ejes son, al tiempo, geográficos y subjetivos: la periferia y el control, cuerpo e intimidad, y la frontera de la animalidad.

  20. Los medios impresos como recurso para la difusión del nacionalsocialismo: sobre boletines y magazines nazis circulando en el Caribe colombiano, 1935-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN ANDRÉS LÁZARO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se ocupa de analizar la manera como, en el marco de la estrategia de propaganda y construcción de imaginarios ideada y desarrollada en los años treinta por el gobierno nacionalsocialista alemán, orientada hacia los ciudada - nos del Reich dentro y fuera del país, los alemanes residentes en la ciudad de Barranquilla, en el Caribe colombiano, se convirtieron en receptores, generado - res y difusores de contenidos a través de revistas elaboradas localmente pero de circulación nacional; contribuyendo con ello a la construcción de una imagen positiva del régimen de Hitler y articulándose con el proyecto nazi de uso de medios masivos de comunicación.

  1. Alcabalas de Sogamoso: Tensiones ante la aplicación de un nuevo método de recaudo en un pueblo del Nuevo Reino de Granada, 1805-1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elver Armando Rodriguez Nupan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el impacto de la aplicación de un nuevo método de recaudo de las alcabalas en Sogamoso entre 1805 y 1818, en el contexto de las reformas político-administrativas emprendidas por los Borbones en el Nuevo Reino de Granada a partir de la mitad del siglo XVIII. Se abordan diferentes niveles de tensión entre funcionarios, grupos sociales y élites locales emergentes, para demostrar que la aplicación tardía de las reformas borbónicas en Sogamoso, fueron recibidas localmente con el mismo descontento que causaron en todo el territorio americano.

  2. ¿Estás nervioso? Las elecciones desde una villa del Gran Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Ferraudi Curto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendo explorar la política en el Gran Buenos Aires a partir de un análisis de las elecciones legislativas de 2009 desde mi etnografía en una villa de La Matanza en proceso de urbanización. A partir de allí, intentaré dar cuenta de una serie de perspectivas que quedan opacadas en los análisis centrados en procesos electorales. Mientras éstos enfocan hacia las estrategias de campaña de los candidatos y los entramados políticos desde los cuales construyen apoyos para explicar los resultados electorales (o intentar predecirlos, el punto central de este artículo consiste en mostrar cómo las elecciones se imponen y son apropiadas localmente a partir de una perspectiva centrada en la urbanización de la villa.

  3. El desafío ético de la globalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Bauman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalización" significa que todos dependemos unos de otros. Las distancias importan poco ahora. Lo que suceda en un lugar puede tener consecuencias mundiales. Gracias a los recursos, instrumentos técnicos y conocimientos que hemos adquirido, nuestras acciones abarcan enormes distancias en el espacio y en el tiempo. Por muy limitadas localmente que sean nuestras intenciones, erraríamos si no tuviéramos en cuenta los factores globales, pues pueden decidir el éxito o el fracaso de nuestras acciones. Lo que hacemos (o nos abstenemos de hacer puede influir en las condiciones de vida (o de muerte de gente que vive en lugares que nunca visitaremos y de generaciones que no conoceremos jamás.

  4. DO PORCO NÃO SOBRA NEM O GRITO!: CLASSIFICAÇÕES E PRÁTICAS, SABERES E SABORES NO ABATE DOMÉSTICO DE PORCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Froehlich

    2012-01-01

    Esta dissertação baseia-se em trabalho de campo realizado junto a colonos do município de São Paulo das Missões. Buscou-se, partindo das idas a campo, analisar o processo de abate doméstico de porcos, chamado localmente de carneada. A finalidade alimentar, que norteia as carneadas, é o ponto de partida da reflexão. O eixo central de discussão tem como foco a alimentação, tomada do ponto de vista cultural, ou seja, um processo que é não apenas biológico, mas reveste-se de um caráter eminenteme...

  5. Presencia de B-lactamasas de espectro extendido en enterobacterias aisladas de casos de infección nosocomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pavón Romero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enterobacterias son los microorganismos etiologicos mas frecuentemente asociados a las infecciones nosocomiales (in, caracterizandose por su alta resistencia a los antibioticos B-lactamicos, mediada por la produccion de B-lactamasas de Espectro Extendido (blee. Su uso excesivo aumenta la seleccion de cepas multirresistentes, favoreciendo su propagacion e incremento de las complicaciones de casos de in. En algunos casos las cepas productoras de blee presentan resistencia adicional a aminoglucosidos, quinolonas, tetraciclinas y trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, reduciendo las opciones terapeuticas de las in. Con la finalidad de conocer localmente la magnitud de este problema, se estudiaron 87 cepas de enterobacterias aisladas de casos de in, encontrandose que el 26.43% son productoras de blee y en este caso fenotipicamente multirresistentes.

  6. Controle fuzzy espacialmente diferenciado para um sistema de irrigação

    OpenAIRE

    Feliciano, Rafaelle de Aguiar Correia

    2012-01-01

    Projetos de irrigação tradicionais não determinam localmente a disponibilidade de água no solo. Assim, podem ocorrer ciclos irregulares de irrigação: alguns insuficientes, o que provoca déficit de água; outros em demasia, o que causa falta de oxigenação nas plantas. Devido à natureza não-linear do problema e do ambiente multivariável de processos de irrigação, a lógica fuzzy é sugerida como substituta aos sistemas comerciais de irrigação tipo ON-OFF com temporização pré-definid...

  7. Cordoma Sacrococcígeo gigante: relato de caso Giant Sacrococcygeal chordoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Leal Ghezzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cordoma sacrococcígeo é uma neoplasia maligna rara que se origina de remanescentes da notocorda. A localização crítica, comportamento localmente agressivo, reconhecida resistência à radioterapia, significativa morbimortalidade cirúrgica e elevada taxa de recidiva tornam seu tratamento um desafio. Descrevemos um caso de cordoma sacrococcígeo gigante.Sacrococcygeal chordoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arised from the remmants of the notochord. The critical localization, locally aggressive behavior, well-known resistance to radiation therapy, meaningful surgical morbimortality and increased recurrence rate become its treatment a challenge. We describe a case of a giant unresectable sacrococcygeal chordoma.

  8. Genética e conservação do leão-baio (Puma concolor) no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Schlieper de Castilho

    2010-01-01

    O leão-baio (Puma concolor), segundo maior felino neotropical, tem a maior distribuição geográfica nas Américas. A subespécie que ocorre no sul do Brasil é listada como least concern e vulnerável nas listas de espécies ameaçadas da IUCN e do Ministério do Meio Ambiente brasileiro, respectivamente. Em áreas nas quais a onça-pintada (Panthera onca) foi localmente extinta, o leão-baio tem o papel de predador de topo de cadeia alimentar influenciando na manutenção de processos do ecossistema e na...

  9. The construction of the system of food sovereignty and nutrition of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo paradigma de la soberanía alimentaria surgió a mediados de la década de los noventa como propuesta de las organizaciones campesinas de América Central ante el proceso de desestructuración de las agriculturas familiares de la región. Si bien este proceso se profundizó con la ayuda alimentaria de la cooperación internacionalante los huracanes y la violencia generados por la naturaleza y los humanos, ya se había dado por la presencia de productos alimentariossubsidiados provenientes de los países industrializados y vendidos localmente a bajos precios, configurando verdaderas estrategias dedumping.

  10. ¿Cuál es el valor del patrimonio marino de un área arrecifal protegida? El contexto del Sistema Arrecifal Mesoamericano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Isabel Gutiérrez-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El arrecife coralino aporta beneficios estéticos, económicos y ecosistémicos, aunque raramente se reconoce el valor patrimonial asignado por las poblaciones dependientes. Este caso de estudio analiza dos destinos internacionales de buceo en Parques Marinos del Sistema Arrecifal Mesoamericano, donde este patrimonio marino se gestiona parcialmente en participación, sin parámetros de referencia sobre valor. Aplicando Valoración Contingente, se determinó el valor asignado localmente al arrecife. Sin aseverar que las estrategias de conservación han permeado al poblador, un 98% de entrevistados manifestó disposición al financiamiento parcial de acciones a favor del arrecife. Los principales valores del arrecife son el turístico per se, y los valores intangibles como son la propia existencia y el bienestar que de ellos se puede heredar. Se discuten implicaciones dada la creciente demanda por este ecosistema.

  11. A Political Sociology of Urban Riots

    OpenAIRE

    Mucchielli, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    El fenómeno de las revueltas urbanas apareció en Francia a finales de los años 1970, se arraigó en la década de los 80s y experimentó en 2005 una generalización inédita. Se desarrolla localmente desde esta fecha. Con algunas excepciones, se desata en la mayoría de los casos por la muerte de jóvenes en relación con una operación de policía. Este artículo propone una síntesis de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en Francia en los últimos años y trata de desglosar un marco de interpretación gl...

  12. Elementos para una sociología de los disturbios en Francia

    OpenAIRE

    Mucchielli, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    El fenómeno de las revueltas urbanas apareció en Francia a finales de los años 1970, se arraigó en la década de los 80s y experimentó en 2005 una generalización inédita. Se desarrolla localmente desde esta fecha. Con algunas excepciones, se desata en la mayoría de los casos por la muerte de jóvenes en relación con una operación de policía. Este artículo propone una síntesis de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en Francia en los últimos años y trata de desglosar un marco de interpretación gl...

  13. CRITERIOS DE SELECCIÓN EN LOS PROCESOS DE MANIPULACIÓN VEGETAL: EL APORTE DE LA ETNOBOTÁNICA A LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE RESTOS ARQUEOBOTÁNICOS DE CUCURBITA SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica S. Lema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza el estudio etnobotánico-etnoarqueológico de diversos cultivos locales de Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima, Cucurbitaceae. El objetivo es comprobar si los caracteres cuantitativos y cualitativos de las semillas procedentes de los mencionados cultivos, así como también de plantas resultantes de prácticas de cultivo o cuidado, se agrupan o no en morfotipos diferenciales que reflejen materialmente la diversidad localmente reconocida y los distintos comportamientos involucrados. La generación de dichos morfotipos se propone como una vía para explorar si es factible reconocer cultivares locales y distintas formas de relación hombre - planta en muestras arqueobotánicas. Las plantas domesticadas son el producto de la puesta en práctica de criterios de selección socialmente construidos y por lo tanto susceptibles de constituir morfotipos diferenciales que operen como portadores de significados sociales. De allí que podamos hablar de una etnobotánica etnoarqueológica generadora de modelos a contrastar en el trabajo paleoetnobotánico. Se aplicaron los descriptores morfológicos macroscópicos comúnmente empleados en paleoetnobotánica y arqueobotánica para el estudio de semillas de Cucurbita sp., así como también un conjunto nuevo de descriptores micro morfológicos. Se constató que los caracteres cuantitativos micro morfológicos son los que mejor sirven para crear morfotipos que se corresponden con los cultivares localmente reconocidos y con las prácticas de cultivo o cuidado ejercidas sobre las poblaciones vegetales.

  14. Convertirse en El Más Malo: trayectorias masculinas de violencia en las pandillas de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Baird

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Con base en 40 entrevistas de historias de vida con miembros de las pandillas de Medellín, Colombia, la presente investigación argumenta que muchos jóvenes se unen a las pandillas con el fin de emular y reproducir identidades masculinas que se consideran localmente ‘exitosas’. La acumulación de ‘capital masculino’ por parte de las pandillas, con sus significantes materiales y simbólicos de hombría, acompañados de demostraciones y manifestaciones estilísticas, lleva a los jóvenes a percibirlas como espacios de éxito masculino, lo cual impulsa la reproducción social de las pandillas. Una vez vinculados a la pandilla, se vuelven cada vez más ‘malos’, haciendo uso de la violencia para defender los intereses de la pandilla a cambio de capital masculino. Los líderes de las pandillas, conocidos localmente como los duros, tienden a ser los más malos. El ‘proceso de empandillamiento’ no debe entenderse como un comportamiento juvenil aberrante, sino más bien como un comportamiento lógico y práctico, dado que se percibe a la pandilla como un espacio aspiracional de formación de identidad para jóvenes que llegan a la mayoría de edad en un momento en que las condiciones estructurales de exclusión conspiran contra ellos.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Potential for medical error: Incorrectly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs that affect thyroid hormone transport. Oestrogen. Tamoxifen. Heroin. Methadone. Androgens. Glucocorticoids. Salicylates. Anabolic steroids. Drugs that increase hepatic metabolism of T4 and T3. Phenobarbitol. Rifampicin. Phenytoin. Carbamazepine. Decreased T4 5'-deiodinase activity. Amiodarone. Glucocorticoids.

  16. Tumores desmoides: cuadro clínico y sobrevida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Díaz-Plasencia

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar el cuadro clínico, la recurrencia y sobrevida quinquenal por tumor desmoide. Material y métodos: Analizamos 18 pacientes manejados en el Hospital Belén, Trujillo, Perú, desde 1966 a 1994. Resultados: Los antecedentes más frecuentes fueron embarazo reciente (n=8, cirugía previa (n=3 y traumatismo (n=1. La edad promedio fue de 29.5 ± 16.7 años (rango, 5 meses a 75 años. El 50% de los casos se presentó en la tercera década de la vida. Hubo 6 hombres y 12 mujeres (H:M, 1:2.El síntoma y signo más común fue tumor (100%, acompañado por dolor (66.7%, impotencia funcional (22.2% y parestesias (16.7%. El diámetro tumoral promedio fue 10.9 ± 5.6 cm. Las neoplasias se localizaron en pared abdominal (n=12, cabeza - cuello (n=3 y miembros inferiores (n=3. El tratamiento más utilizado fue el quirúrgico (n=14, y la radioterapia se utilizó en 2 casos irresecables. En los 10 pacientes que tuvo seguimiento completo la tasa de recurrencia quinquenal fue de 33.3%, siendo ésta menor con el tratamiento quirúrgico (25% que con el radioterápico (50%. Además, hubo menor recurrencia con la cirugía amplia y radical (16.7% en comparación con la resección local simple (50%. La sobrevida quinquenal en la serie total fue de 87.5%, siendo ésta menor con el tratamiento quirúrgico (83.3% que con el radioterápico (100%. Conclusiones: La localización más frecuente de estos tumores estuvo en la pared abdominal. El tratamiento quirúrgico con un margen amplio de resección ofrece un mejor control local de los tumores desmoides. (Rev Med Hered 1998; 9:69-76 .

  17. Factores pronósticos de irresecabilidad en el adenocarcinoma gástrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erian Jesús Domínguez González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el cáncer gástrico es un problema de salud a nivel mundial, su tratamiento curativo es eminentemente quirúrgico, pero el diagnóstico tardío unido a una serie de factores hacen imposible la resección tumoral en ocasiones. Objetivo: identificar los factores pronósticos de irresecabilidad en el adenocarcinoma gástrico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, analítico de cohorte en el Servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital Provincial “Saturnino Lora”, durante el periodo comprendido desde enero de 2012 hasta diciembre de 2015. Se seleccionó una muestra de 124 pacientes operados por adenocarcinoma gástrico que fueron divididos en dos cohortes de enfermos (66 que tuvieron tratamiento resecativo y 58 con tumor irresecable. La identificación de los factores pronósticos de irresecabilidad se llevó a cabo a través de la construcción de un modelo de regresión logística multivariable. Resultados: predominaron los pacientes del sexo masculino y con edades superiores a los 60 años. Los tumores del tercio medio e inferior del estómago, con tamaño menor de 5, ulcerados, tipo intestinal y moderadamente diferenciados fueron los más frecuentes. Los factores pronósticos de irresecabilidad identificados que conformaron el modelo fueron: localización mixta y tamaño mayor a 6 cm del tumor, diagnóstico preoperatorio de metástasis hepática, Borrmann IV (lesión infiltrante, adenocarcinoma pobremente diferenciado e indiferenciado y diagnóstico preoperatorio de invasión a ganglios linfáticos. Se estimó una sensibilidad de 87,9 y especificidad de 89.7 Conclusiones: fue posible la identificación de factores que inciden de manera significativa en la irresecabilidad del adenocarcinoma gástrico.

  18. Sensing of Bacterial Type IV Secretion via the Unfolded Protein Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Starr, Tregei; Winter, Maria G.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Child, Robert; Knodler, Leigh A.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Celli, Jean; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2013-01-01

    Host cytokine responses to Brucella abortus infection are elicited predominantly by the deployment of a type IV secretion system (T4SS). However, the mechanism by which the T4SS elicits inflammation remains unknown. Here we show that translocation of the T4SS substrate VceC into host cells induces

  19. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine content of desiccated thyroid tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Jones, R W; Larsen, P R

    1977-11-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured by radioimmunoassay in Pronase hydrolysates of four lots each of 1- and 2-grain tablets of desiccated thyroid (Thyroid, Armour) and thyroglobulin (Proloid, Warner-Chilcott). The methodology used was verified by studies of tablets containing known quantities of T4 and T3. One grain of desiccated thyroid contained 12 +/- 1 and 64 +/- 3 microgram (mean +/- SD) of T3 and T4 per tablet, respectively (T4/T3 molar ratio, 4.3). A 1-grain tablet of thyroglobulin contained 16 +/- 2 and 55 +/- 5 microgram of T3 and T4, respectively with a T4/T3 ratio of 2.9. Two-grain tablets generally contained twice the quantity of T3 and T4 in the 1-grain preparations. The variation in T3 and T4 content between the four lots of each tablet strength for each product was 10% or less. These estimates of T3 and T4 content are 1.5- to 2-fold greater than those previously published. This difference probably results from the more sophisticated methodology now available which does not require chromatographic separation of T3 and T4 or iodometry. Using calculations based on published estimates of T4 and T3 absorption and of the T3/T4 potency ratio, it would appear that the T3 content of desiccated thyroid and thyroglobulin provide approximately 39% and 51%, respectively, of the thyromimetic activity of these two medications.

  20. Short-term amiodarone treatment for atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation induces a transient thyroid dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Darkner, Stine; Chen, Xu

    2016-01-01

    ablation in a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. METHODS: 212 patients referred for AF ablation at two centres were randomized to 8weeks of oral amiodarone or placebo. Thyroid function tests (TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; T4, thyroxine; T3, triiodothyronine; fT4, free T4; fT3, free T3) were...

  1. Identification of VceA and VceC, two members of the VjbR regulon that are translocated into macrophages by the Brucella type IV secretion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Tsolis, Renee M.

    2008-01-01

    Survival and replication inside host cells by Brucella spp. requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS), encoded by the virB locus. However, the identity of the molecules secreted by the T4SS has remained elusive. We hypothesized that proteins translocated by the T4SS would be co-regulated with the

  2. Importance of the content and localization of tyrosine residues for thyroxine formation within the N-terminal part of human thyroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, M. T.; Sijmons, C. C.; Bakker, O.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Thyroxine (T4) is formed by coupling of iodinated tyrosine residues within thyroglobulin (TG). In mature TG, some iodinated tyrosine residues are involved preferentially in T4 formation. In order to investigate the specific role of various tyrosine residues in T4 formation, N-terminal TG fragments

  3. Thyroid Function Test in Thyroid Diseases and Pregnancy - The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M. H.; Yoon, H. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, J. C.; Chung, S. I.; Cho, B. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine(FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free T 4 and T 4 , T 3 , T 3 RU, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1) In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, T 3 , free T 4 and FTI, T 4 /TBG ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. T 4 is increased in 94%(18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79%(15/19). 2) In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI is decreased in all cases. T 4 is decreased in 87.5%(7/8), T 3 is decreased in 75%(6/8) and T 4 /TBG ratio is decreased in 62.5%(5/8). 3) In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, T , 4 free T 4 , FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and T 3 is normal in 60%(3/5) and slightly increased in 40%(2/5). 4) In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI are decreased in all cases, but T 4 and T 3 , T 4 /TBG ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free T 4 or FTI are recommended as optimal function test. 5) In normal pregnancy, free T 4 , FTI and T 4 /TBG ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6) The coefficients of correlation between T 4 and FTI were 0.862(p 4 and T 4 /TBG ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free T 4 was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free T 4 measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism or with T 3 for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  4. Contribution of maternal thyroxine to fetal thyroxine pools in normal rats near term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morreale de Escobar, G.; Calvo, R.; Obregon, M.J.; Escobar Del Rey, F.

    1990-01-01

    Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with [ 125 I]T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their [ 125 I]T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the [ 125 I]T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the net contribution of maternal T4 to the fetal extrathyroidal T4 pools. At 21 days of gestation, near term, this represents 17.5 +/- 0.9% of the T4 in fetal tissues, a value considerably higher than previously calculated. The methodological approach was validated in dams given a goitrogen to block fetal thyroid function. The specific activities of the [ 125 I]T4 in maternal and fetal T4 pools were then similar, confirming that in cases of fetal thyroid impairment the T4 in fetal tissues is determined by the maternal contribution. Thus, previous statements that in normal conditions fetal thyroid economy near term is totally independent of maternal thyroid status ought to be reconsidered

  5. Influence of experimental hyperthyroidism on skeletal muscle metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hardeveld, C; Kassenaar, A A

    1977-05-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate t