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Sample records for t4 laryngeal squamous

  1. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

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    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  2. Expression of Podoplanin in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Dysplasia.

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    Ibrahim, Badawia Bayoumy; Salem, Mostafa Mohamed; Khairy, Rasha Ahmed; Al Gunaid, Reema Abdul Rahman

    2017-05-01

    In human cancers, podoplanin expression and its correlation with tumour invasive potential raise its possible role as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for cancer. To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin in laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and dysplasia. This study included a total of 60 archived, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of 40 cases of laryngeal SCC and 20 cases of dysplastic lesions. The samples were immunohistochemically analysed for podoplanin expression. Podoplanin expression was significantly higher in laryngeal SCC (90%) than laryngeal dysplastic lesions (55%) (p-value=0.002). The expression of podoplanin was significantly increased with the higher grades of dysplasia (p-value=0.016). A significant positive correlation was detected between podoplanin expression in laryngeal SCC and depth of tumour invasion (p-value=0.035), and stage (p-value=0.026). The high expression of podoplanin in laryngeal SCC and its significant correlation with poor prognostic parameters recommends podoplanin as a prognostic marker in laryngeal SCC. In addition, increased podoplanin expression with higher grades of dysplasia, supports its role in malignant transformation and allows us to recommend its evaluation in premalignant lesions.

  3. Consequences of tumor planning target volume reduction in treatment of T2-T4 laryngeal cancer.

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    Vugts, Cornelia A J M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Philippens, Marielle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Kasperts, Nicolien; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2014-09-04

    Since lymph nodes volumes are generally four times the volume of the primary PTV, the advantage of using tight margins around the primary PTV is not clear. Therefore treatment margins of T2-T4 laryngeal carcinoma for IMRT are generally chosen in such a way that the PTV is comparable to that in conventional radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of volume reduction of the primary PTV of T2-T4 laryngeal carcinoma with regard to late toxicity despite elective irradiation of lymph node levels II to IV. Two treatment plans based on conservative (GTV-PTV = 15 mm and 20 mm cranial), and on evidence-based tight margins (GTV-PTV = 8 mm) were calculated for 16 patients. Toxicity effects were estimated based on the dose distributions. Compared to conservative margins, using tight margins resulted in: 1) significant reduction of the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for swallowing muscles and submandibular glands, 2) significant reduction of the mean dose in all organs at risk (OAR), 3) a mean dose smaller than 60 Gy for all OARs except for the laryngeal cartilages. When the lymph node levels II to IV were prescribed with an elective dose, an NTCP reduction of 53% for the swallowing muscles and of 23% for the submandibular glands was found by using tight instead of conservative margins. When positive nodes were present, NTCP reduction amounted to 29% and 15%, respectively. There is a potential benefit in realizing evidence-based tight margins for laryngeal cancer patients despite elective irradiation of lymph node levels II to IV.

  4. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

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    Mucha-Malecka, A. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Skladowski, K. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  5. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

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    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  6. Near Total Laryngectomy: A Versatile Approach for Voice Restoration in Advanced T3 and T4 Laryngeal Cancer: Functional Results and Survival

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    Maamoun, S.I.; Amira, A.; Younis, A.

    2004-01-01

    Creation of a tunneled mucosal shunt between the trachea and pharynx that is controlled by remaining intrinsic laryngeal musculature with its nerve supply is an acceptable voice restoration procedure for advanced T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer. Such a tunnel will allow unilateral direction of air from lung to pharynx during phonation and will prevent aspiration since deglutition is a vagal mediated response which will induce contraction of tubed laryngeal musculature preventing aspiration. We previously reported our preliminary experience with the technique and we adopted the voice restoration approach based on the concept of the near total laryngectomy thereafter. Methods: Forty five patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were included in this study (between January 1998 and February 2001). They were 42 males and 3 females with a mean age of 52.6 years. Criteria for selection were a normal vocal process and arytenoid cartilage on the opposite side of the lesion as evidenced by endoscopy and CT scan with no major sub glottic extension. In two patients supraglottic laryngectomy was carried out and in four other patients, complete tumor extirpation necessitated total laryngectomy. Accordingly, near total laryngectomy was carried out in the remaining 39 patients. Following a near total laryngectomy, where all laryngeal mucosa and cartilages are resected sparing the contralateral arytenoid cartilage with the overlying mucosa and surrounding musculature, the shunt was created by tubing the remaining mucosa with augmentation by pyroform sinus mucosa if necessary. The resulting tube was fashioned over 14 FG catheter for diameter control only and the remaining muscles were sutured over the tube. A permanent tracheostomy was established. Voice training was started postoperatively following resumption of oral feeding. Results: Only one patient died in the immediate postoperative period due to massive myocardial infarction. One patient developed

  7. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

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    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  8. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

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    Fresno Manuel F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44% of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38% cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62% focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033, disease stage (P = 0.006, and pathological grade (P = 0.04. There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31 and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08. Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers.

  9. Management of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Arslanoğlu, Seçil; Eren, Erdem; Özkul, Yılmaz; Ciğer, Ejder; Kopar, Aylin; Önal, Kazım; Etit, Demet; Tütüncü, G Yazgı

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma; and the association between clinicopathological parameters and thyroid gland invasion. Medical records of 75 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent total laryngectomy with thyroidectomy were reviewed, retrospectively. Preoperative computed tomography scans, clinical and operative findings, and histopathological data of the specimens were evaluated. There were 73 male and two female patients with an age range of 41-88 years (mean 60.4 years). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 62 (82.7 %) and total thyroidectomy was performed in 13 patients (17.3 %). Four patients had histopathologically proven thyroid gland invasion (5.3 %). In three patients, thyroid gland involvement was by means of direct invasion. Thyroid gland invasion was significantly correlated with thyroid cartilage invasion. Therefore, prophylactic thyroidectomy should not be a part of the treatment policy for these tumors.

  10. Survival of T4aN0 and T3N+ laryngeal cancer patients: a retrospective institutional study and systematic review.

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    Khoueir, Nadim; Matar, Nayla; Farah, Chadi; Francis, Evana; Tabchy, Bassam; Haddad, Amine

    2015-01-01

    We aim to assess the correlation of tumor and nodal staging to survival in pT3N+ and T4aN0 laryngeal cancer with subgroup analysis within stage IVa (pT4N0 and pT3N2). Retrospective cohort study with systematic review of the literature. Hotel Dieu de France University Hospital (tertiary referral center). Laryngeal cancer patients' registries were reviewed from 1998 to 2012 selecting pT3N+ and pT4aN0 patients treated by primary total layngectomy. Overall survivals were compared using Log rank and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A systematic review was performed by 2 reviewers including all the articles reporting the outcome of these categories of patients. Online databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were used. Reference sections of identified studies were examined for additional articles. Thirteen T3N+ patients and 19 T4aN0 patients treated by primary total laryngectomy were included. Five-year overall survival for T3N+, T3N2 and T4aN0 was respectively 33%, 32.1% and 73.7%. Due to the small sample, the difference was not significant. The systematic review revealed three articles reporting overall survival outcome for the T4N0 group and 6 articles for the T3N+. At 5years, the survival ranged from 62.5% to 73% in T4N0 and from 32.2% to 77% in T3N+. In advanced stage laryngeal cancer, T4aN0 tends toward a better survival than T3N+ especially when compared to T3N2 although they are grouped in the same TNM stage IVa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of miR-145 in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Karatas, Omer Faruk; Yuceturk, Betul; Suer, Ilknur; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Cansiz, Harun; Solak, Mustafa; Ittmann, Michael; Ozen, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), being an aggressive malignancy, is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant types of head and neck SCC worldwide. Incidences of laryngeal SCC have been reported to increase recently. In this study, we aimed to explore the biological effects of miR-145 on laryngeal cancer cells. The relative miR-145 level in laryngeal SCC tumor tissues and normal samples was investigated. Then, Hep-2 cells were utilized for functional analysis of miR-145. The proliferation abilities of transfected cells were measured using MTS assay. Scratch assay and single colony migration assay were performed to observe the alterations in migration behavior of transfected cells. Caspase assay and cell cycle analysis were used to investigate the underlying reasons of proliferative inhibition in cells in which miR-145 is overexpressed. Moreover, expression of SOX2 was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis in Hep-2 cells upon miR-145 transfection and its expression was evaluated in tumor and normal tissue sample of the larynx. The miR-145 expression in laryngeal SCC tumor samples has been shown to be downregulated. The miR-145 overexpression caused inhibition of proliferation and migration in Hep-2 cells through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The SOX2 level was demonstrated to be overexpressed in tumor samples and its expression was significantly decreased in miR-145 overexpressed Hep-2 cells. We have demonstrated the deregulation of miR-145 and SOX2 in laryngeal SCC. Based on these results, we propose that miR-145, as an important regulator of SOX2, carries crucial roles in laryngeal SCC tumorigenesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Ball-Valve Laryngeal Obstruction

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    Sien Hui Tan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC of the larynx, which has not been previously reported, is described. Case Report: A 60-year-old man was presented to the Otolaryngology Department with progressive dyspnoea and dysphagia to solids for over a period of 1 week. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a tumour at the laryngeal aspect of the epiglottis, which prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet each time the patient inspired. This resulted in an inspiratory stridor despite adequate glottic opening and normal mobility of the vocal cords.   Conclusion:  Therefore, in cases where a ball-valve lesion causes intermittent life-threatening airway obstruction, BSCC of the larynx, though rare, must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  13. Establishment of an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtaining laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential.

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    Chen, L W; Wang, J L; Zhang, L Y; Yang, S M; Li, C S; Yu, N; Zhao W, J D; Zhao, L D; Li, K; Liu, M B; Zhai, S Q

    2013-01-01

    To establish an animal model of spontaneous cervical lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and obtain laryngocarcinoma cells with high metastatic potential, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2 in logarithmic phase were inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice. HEP-2 cells metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes were isolated, cultured, and re-inoculated under the lingual margin mucosa of nude mice twice. The tumor formation in the tongue and in the cervical lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological examination. Carcinoma cells' ability of invasion and migration was detected by transwell assay. Human specific Alu sequences were detected by PCR, which indicated that the tumor cells originated from human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line HEP-2. Finally, an animal model of spontaneous lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was successfully established. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells with high metastatic potential to lymph nodes were obtained through repeated inoculations. .

  14. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for T4 and/or M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

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    Miyata, Yoshinori; Seki, Shigeki [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akira

    2000-07-01

    A phase II study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Fifty-four patients with clinical T4 and/or M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were enrolled. Patients received protracted infusions of fluorouracil 400 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours on days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12, 2-hour infusions of cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 and 8, and concurrent radiotherapy at a dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Filgrastim was prophylactically administered to 35 patients. This schedule was repeated twice every 5 weeks, for a total radiation dose of 60 Gy followed by two courses of fluorouracil (800 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours for 5 days) and cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1). There were 36 patients with T4 disease and 33 with M1 LYM. Forty-nine patients (91%) completed the chemoradiotherapy segment. The 18 patients (33%) who achieved a complete response included nine (25%) of the 36 with T4 disease and nine (50%) of the 18 with non-T4 disease. Major toxicities were leukopenia and esophagitis; there were four (7%) treatment-related deaths. Prophylactic filgrastim reduced the incidence of grade 3 or worse leukopenia without improving dose-intensity or response. With a median follow-up duration of 43 months, median survival time was 9 months. The 3-year survival rate was 23%. Despite its significant toxicity, this combined modality seemed to have curative potential even in cases of locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. (author)

  15. Management of the thyroid gland during total laryngectomy in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Mourad, Moustafa; Saman, Masoud; Sawhney, Raja; Ducic, Yadranko

    2015-08-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the role of routine total thyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy in patients undergoing total laryngectomy for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The study group consisted of 343 patients who underwent total laryngectomy (98 treated with surgery alone, 136 treated following radiation failure, and 109 following chemoradiation failure). Total thyroidectomy was performed in all obstructing and bilateral lesions or if there was suspicion of contralateral lobe involvement. Hemithyroidectomy was performed in all lateralized lesions. Retrospective histopathologic analysis of thyroid specimens was subsequently performed. In all, 262 patients underwent total thyroidectomy during total laryngectomy, six of which demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma evident within the thyroid gland (4 from transglottic lesions, 2 from subglottic lesions). Hemithyroidectomy was performed in 81 patients, with only one patient demonstrating evidence of squamous cell carcinoma within the thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism was observed in 88% (n = 61) of patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy alone, requiring hormone supplementation. Routine surgical management of the thyroid gland should not be performed, except in cases of subglottic primary lesions, lesions with significant subglottic extension, or transglottic lesions. Despite efforts to preserve the contralateral thyroid lobe in cases of selective lobectomy, these patients often have a high rate of hypothyroidism, and a total thyroidectomy should be considered when involvement of the thyroid gland is suspected. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Prognostic value of body mass index before treatment for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Li, Zhao-Qu; Zou, Lan; Liu, Tian-Run; Yang, An-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer often suffer from malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). A total of 473 patients with LSCC initially treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2005 and July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Low BMI before treatment was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with LSCC (P<0.001). BMI was an independent prognostic factor for patients with LSCC. Leanness before treatment was associated with poor prognosis in patients with LSCC. Good nutritional status is favorable to improve survival in patients with LSCC

  17. LOH detected by microsatellite markers reveals the clonal origin of recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Zhaoyang Cui

    Full Text Available The question of whether "recurrent" laryngeal carcinoma is truly a new tumour with a clonal origin that differs from that of the primary tumour has remained unanswered. The objective of this study was to determine whether recurrent tumours have the same genetic basis as primary tumours, as the answer to this question is important for the development of treatment strategies.Matched samples consisting of primary tumour, recurrent tumour and normal tissue were obtained from the same patient. A total of 37 patients with laryngeal cancer were examined for loss of heterozygosity (LOH on the 3p, 5p, 7q, 8p, 9p, 13p, 17p and 18q chromosomal arms using PCR to amplify microsatellite markers. All patients were routinely followed up and 5-year survival rates were calculated using directly calculating method and Kaplan-Meier's method.A total of 28 out of 37 (75.6% patients showed LOH at a minimum of one locus, and 19 out of 37 (51.3% patients showed LOH at two loci. Primary and recurrent tumours in each patient showed identical allelic loss patterns and incidence rates. Patients without LOH had a longer average time to recurrence than patients with LOH (P<0.05. Additionally, patients with LOH had a longer average smoking duration prior to surgery than patients without LOH (P<0.05. The 5-year survival rates were 32.14%in patients with LOH versus 44.4% in patients without LOH.The data indicate that primary and recurrent tumours have the same clonal origin. This result implies that we failed to radically resect the primary tumours and/or micrometastases in these patients. Consequently, some form of adjunctive therapy may be necessary. Additionally, the data indicate that the recurrence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is closely related to chromosomal aberrations (specifically LOH.

  18. Laryngitis

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    ... Symptom Checker Cough Laryngitis Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. Assessment of laryngeal functions in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

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    Taguchi, Takahide; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nagao, Jun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The laryngeal functions in patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were evaluated. We reviewed the records of 32 patients with resectable stage II to IV squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx treated with CCRT as a initial treatment between October 1998 and September 2003. A questionnaire survey and measurements of maximum phonation time, GRBAS and range of voice/speaking fundamental frequency were performed, and the method of food intake in the swallowing ability scale and the presence of tracheostoma were assessed for evaluating laryngeal functions after CCRT. After CCRT for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer, the phonatory functions appeared to be preserved in 75% of the patients in terms of sustainability; however, there were some cases presenting hoarseness and narrowed range of voice. Oral intake was possible in most cases (97%) without a history of aspiration pneumonia. In 2 cases, permanent tracheostoma had to be retained. It was concluded that laryngeal functions could be preserved in most cases after CCRT, though the tracheostoma might not be closed in some patients with laryngeal cancer. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Quality Metrics for Surgically Treated Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Graboyes, Evan M; Townsend, Melanie E; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2016-12-01

    Quality metrics for patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) exist, but whether compliance with these metrics correlates with improved survival is unknown. To examine whether compliance with proposed quality metrics is associated with improved survival in patients with laryngeal SCC treated with surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. This retrospective cohort study included patients from a tertiary care academic medical center who had previously untreated laryngeal SCC and underwent surgery with or without adjuvant therapy from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2012. Data analysis was performed from August 4, 2015, through December 13, 2015. Surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. Compliance with quality metrics from the American Head and Neck Society (AHNS), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, and institutional metrics with face validity covering pretreatment evaluation, treatment, and posttreatment surveillance was evaluated. The association between compliance with the group of metrics and overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) was explored using Cox proportional hazards analysis. The association between compliance with individual metrics and survival was similarly determined. A total of 243 patients (184 men and 59 women) were included in the study (median age, 62 years; age range, 23-87 years). No association was found between increasing levels of compliance with the AHNS or NCCN metrics and survival. The only AHNS or NCCN metric for which greater compliance correlated with improved survival on multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis controlling for pT stage, pN stage, extracapsular spread, margin status, and comorbidity was pretreatment multidisciplinary evaluation for patients with stage cT3-4 or cN1-3 disease (OS adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.94; DFS aHR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85). For the institutional metrics, multidisciplinary evaluation

  1. Ascorbic Acid Induces Necrosis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via ROS, PKC, and Calcium Signaling.

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    Baek, Min-Woo; Cho, Heui-Seung; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    Ascorbic acid induces apoptosis, autophagy, and necrotic cell death in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanisms by which ascorbic acid induces death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep2 cells. Ascorbic acid markedly reduced cell viability and induced death without caspase activation and an increase in cytochrome c. Hep2 cells exposed to ascorbic acid exhibited membrane rupture and swelling, the morphological characteristics of necrotic cell death. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in Hep2 cells treated with ascorbic acid, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine blocked ascorbic acid-induced cell death. Ascorbic acid also stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, especially PKC α/β activation, and subsequently increased cytosolic calcium levels. However, ascorbic acid-induced necrotic cell death was inhibited by Ro-31-8425 (PKC inhibitor) and BAPTA-AM (cytosolic calcium-selective chelator). ROS scavenger NAC inhibited PKC activation induced by ascorbic acid and Ro-31-8425 suppressed the level of cytosolic calcium increased by ascorbic acid, indicating that ROS is represented as an upstream signal of PKC pathway and PKC activation leads to the release of calcium into the cytosol, which ultimately regulates the induction of necrosis in ascorbic acid-treated Hep2 cells. These data demonstrate that ascorbic acid induces necrotic cell death through ROS generation, PKC activation, and cytosolic calcium signaling in Hep2 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 417-425, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Deregulation of PTEN Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Based on Tissue Microarray Digital Analysis.

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    Mastronikolis, Nicholas S; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Papadas, Theodoros A; Karameris, Andreas; Ragos, Vasileios; Peschos, Dimitrios; Mastronikolis, Stylianos N; Papadas, Athanasios T; Liatsos, Christos; Armata, Ilianna E; Fotiades, Panagiotis P

    2017-10-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (gene locus: 10q23.3) -a tumor suppressor gene- is deleted, mutated or epigenetically hyper-methylated in a variety of malignancies. PTEN acts as a negative regulator in PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling transduction pathway. Our aim was to investigate PTEN protein expression patterns in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCC). Using tissue microarray technology, fifty (n=50) primary LSCCs were cored and re-embedded into one recipient block. Immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis were implemented for evaluating protein expression levels. Abnormal protein expression (low to negative staining intensity values) was observed in 28/50 (56%) tissue cores. Overall PTEN expression was associated with the anatomical region of the malignancies (p=0.039), whereas a borderline correlation with the differentiation grade was also assessed (p=0.05). Aberrant expression of PTEN tumor-suppressor gene in LSCCs seems to affect their biological behavior. Well-differentiated tumors express moderate to high protein levels, an evidence of normal gene function, whereas loss of its expression correlates with a progressive tumor dedifferentiation. Additionally, loss of its expression is detected more frequently in specific anatomical regions of the larynx (glottis, predominantly, and partially supraglottis). Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of HPV infection in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at Thailand's largest tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsapich, Warut; Eakkasem, Nitathip; Siritantikorn, Sontana; Pithuksurachai, Paveena; Bongsabhikul, Kshidej; Chongkolwatana, Cheerasook

    2017-01-01

    Following the well-established relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical carcinoma, the carcinogenicity of this virus has also been confirmed in subsets of head and neck carcinoma (HNCA), but mainly in the oropharynx. Other subsites of HNCA with less known association to HPV have never been studied in Thailand. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Thai population. This cross-sectional study included hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients diagnosed and treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Siriraj Hospital during the September 2011-December 2013 study period. Presence of HPV genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction from pathologically-confirmed fresh specimens. Demographic data and risk factors of HPV infection were evaluated. Eighty patients were included, and 95% of those were male. Only one patient was noted with positive HPV-62 serotype. Most patients consumed tobacco and/or alcohol. Five patients had no risk factors for cancer development. Risk of HPV infection was evaluated by self-reporting questionnaire. The mean age of sexual debut was 20.17 years. Forty-eight patients had multiple sexual partners. Sixteen and seven patients had history of sexually transmitted disease infection and habitual oral sex contact, respectively. There was no oncogenic HPV DNA detected within pathologic specimens of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers in this study. Compared to rates reported from developed countries, the prevalence of HPV-related HNCA in Thailand is very low.

  4. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Ricardo Ribeiro; Carvalho, André Lopes; Longatto Filho, Adhemar; Scorsato, Anderson Paulo; López, Rossana V Mendoza; Rautava, Jaana; Syrjänen, Stina; Syrjänen, Kari

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have reported a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence of 20% to 30% in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), although clinical data on HPV involvement remain largely inconsistent, ascribed by some to differences in HPV detection methods or in geographic origin of the studies. To perform a systematic review and formal meta-analysis of the literature reporting on HPV detection in LSCC. Literature was searched from January 1964 until March 2015. The effect size was calculated as event rates (95% confidence interval [CI]), with homogeneity testing using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of study-level covariates (HPV detection method, geographic origin) on effect size. Potential publication bias was estimated using funnel plot symmetry. One hundred seventy nine studies were eligible, comprising a sample size of 7,347 LSCCs from different geographic regions. Altogether, 1,830 (25%) cases tested HPV-positive considering all methods, with effect size of 0.269 (95% CI: 0.242 to 0.297; random-effects model). In meta-analysis stratified by the 1) HPV detection technique and 2) geographic study origin, the between-study heterogeneity was significant only for geographic origin (P = .0001). In meta-regression, the HPV detection method (P = .876) or geographic origin (P = .234) were not significant study-level covariates. Some evidence for publication bias was found only for studies from North America and those using non-polymerase chain reaction methods, with a marginal effect on adjusted point estimates for both. Variability in HPV detection rates in LSCC is explained by geographic origin of study but not by HPV detection method. However, they were not significant study-level covariates in formal meta-regression. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Decreased 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) predicts poor prognosis in early-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanfang; Wu, Kexia; Shao, Yuan; Sui, Fang; Yang, Qi; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng; Ji, Meiju

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences suggest that large-scale loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic hallmark in different cancers. However, the levels of 5-hmC in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its prognostic value in this cancer remain largely unknown. Using dot-blot and quantitative RT-PCR assays, we investigate 5-hmC levels and expression of TET-1, -2 and -3 in LSCCs and explore the association of 5-hmC levels with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome...

  6. The immunohistochemical peptidergic expression of leptin is associated with recurrence of malignancy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, S; Sireci, F; Lorusso, F; DI Benedetto, D V; Speciale, R; Marchese, D; Costantino, C; Napoli, G; Tessitore, V; Cucco, D; Leone, A; Bonaventura, G; Uzzo, M L; Spatola, G F

    2015-02-01

    Leptin is a peptide that plays a key role in the control of satiety, energy expenditure, food intake and various reproductive processes. In the last years, the expression of leptin had been found in malignant cells of various origins. The aim of this study is to evaluate leptin expression in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to investigate its possible role in predicting prognosis. Leptin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in pathological and healthy tissue specimens from 24 patients with laryngeal SCC. Specimens were stained with an anti-leptin antibody. All measurements were performed using a computer-based image analysis system and scale of staining intensity was determined. All tumoural specimens showed significant immunoreactivity for leptin compared to healthy tissues (p ≤ 0.05), but showed different immunoreactivity that was related to clinicopathological features. High leptin expression was not significantly related with TNM, histological grading (HG) or advanced (III and IV) clinical stage (p > 0.05). Recurrence of malignancy was found to be significantly related with high expression of leptin by Spearman's rank correlation test (r = 0.59; p = 0.002), Fisher's test (p = 0.017) and Kaplan- Meier product-limit estimate (Log-rank test, p ≤ 0.05). In particular, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that recurrences were significantly related with nodal involvement, HG and leptin expression (p ≤ 0.05). These preliminary results suggest that leptin may be a valuable parameter for predicting prognosis in laryngeal SCC.

  7. Prevalence of HPV infection in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma at Thailand's largest tertiary referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warut Pongsapich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the well-established relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical carcinoma, the carcinogenicity of this virus has also been confirmed in subsets of head and neck carcinoma (HNCA, but mainly in the oropharynx. Other subsites of HNCA with less known association to HPV have never been studied in Thailand. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Thai population. Methods This cross-sectional study included hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients diagnosed and treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Siriraj Hospital during the September 2011–December 2013 study period. Presence of HPV genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction from pathologically-confirmed fresh specimens. Demographic data and risk factors of HPV infection were evaluated. Results Eighty patients were included, and 95% of those were male. Only one patient was noted with positive HPV-62 serotype. Most patients consumed tobacco and/or alcohol. Five patients had no risk factors for cancer development. Risk of HPV infection was evaluated by self-reporting questionnaire. The mean age of sexual debut was 20.17 years. Forty-eight patients had multiple sexual partners. Sixteen and seven patients had history of sexually transmitted disease infection and habitual oral sex contact, respectively. Conclusion There was no oncogenic HPV DNA detected within pathologic specimens of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers in this study. Compared to rates reported from developed countries, the prevalence of HPV-related HNCA in Thailand is very low.

  8. The prognostic value of systemic and local inflammation in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jie Wang,1,* Shengzi Wang,1 Xinmao Song,1,* Wenjiao Zeng,2 Shuyi Wang,3 Fu Chen,1 Hao Ding1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, 2Department of Pathology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 3Department of Pathology, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cancer-related systemic inflammation has been demonstrated to be associated with poor outcome in multiple types of cancers. Meanwhile, the local inflammation, which is characterized by dense intratumoral immune infiltrate, is a favorable predictor of survival outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the role of systemic and local inflammation in predicting outcome in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study, 120 patients who had undergone postoperative radiotherapy were enrolled. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, as calculated from pretreatment whole blood counts, were used to indicate systemic inflammation. The optimal cutoff values of NLR and PLR were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Overall survival (OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: The best cutoff was 2.79 for NLR and 112 for PLR. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that high NLR, high PLR, and low TILs density were significantly correlated with inferior OS and RFS, respectively (all P<0.05. The Cox proportional multivariate hazard model showed that a high pretreatment PLR and a low TILs density were both independently correlated with poor OS and RFS, respectively (all P<0.05. Conclusion

  9. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively......The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...

  10. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  11. Systematic review on T3 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; still far from a consensus on the optimal organ preserving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Chelis, L; Danielides, V; Vogiatzaki, T; Pantazis, T-L; Pantazis, D

    2017-01-01

    The optimal treatment of patients with T3 laryngeal carcinoma is controversially challenged by open partial laryngectomies (OPL), transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and radiation therapy alone (RT) or combined with chemotherapy (ChRT). Treatment guidelines, experts' opinions and clinical studies are highly contradictory. The aim of this study is to compare the primary outcomes of the available treatment methods and identify the sources of variance among studies. A review of the literature published in the time period 2003-2015 was conducted via the PubMed database (www.pubmed.org) and Scopus database (www.scopus.com) with the search terms "T3 laryngeal squamous cell cancer treatment". Data from clinical studies involving patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (n > 10) subjected to TLM, OPL, ChRT or RT, were pooled. In the absence of controlled studies, prospective and retrospective clinical trials with minimum 5-year follow-up were acceptable, provided that they included a description of patient eligibility criteria, so as to exclude studies with serious selection bias. Literature lacks studies with homogenous populations regarding TNM staging, preoperative/postoperative treatment or anatomical subsite. This raises substantial controversies and prohibits the conduction of a meta-analysis. Data for qualitative analysis were pooled from 8 studies (n = 1226). OPL and TLM both offer patients high survival and organ preservation rates. Preoperative induction chemotherapy seems to significantly compromise overall survival. Multicenter studies referring to homogenous populations, at least regarding staging and anatomical subsite, are needed. No safe conclusions can be drawn given the heterogeneity in patient cohorts, study design and evaluation of results in the existing literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and British Association of Surgical Oncology/European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  12. Proportion of CD4 and CD8 tumor infiltrating lymphocytes predicts survival in persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesli, Rebecca; Birkeland, Andrew C; Rosko, Andrew J; Issa, Mohamad; Chow, Kelsey L; Michmerhuizen, Nicole L; Mann, Jacqueline E; Chinn, Steven B; Shuman, Andrew G; Prince, Mark E; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; McHugh, Jonathan B; Brenner, J Chad; Spector, Matthew E

    2018-02-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been shown to be an important prognostic factor in patients with previously untreated head and neck cancer. After organ preservation therapy for laryngeal cancer and subsequent persistence/recurrence, the prognostic value of TILs is unknown. Our goal was to determine if TILs have value as a prognostic biomarker in patients with surgically salvageable persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Levels of TILs were quantified on tissue microarrays from 183 patients undergoing salvage total laryngectomy for persistent/recurrent laryngeal cancer after radiation or chemoradiation between 1997 and 2014. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted. Immunohistology evaluation included CD4, CD8, PDL-1, p16, CD31, Vimentin, EGFR, and p53. Elevated levels of either CD8 or CD4 positive TILs were associated with improved disease specific survival (CD8: HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.88, CD4: HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.21-0.89) and disease free survival (CD8: HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29-0.94, CD4: HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.27-0.99). Levels of CD8 (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.47-1.17) or CD4 (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.40-1.08) TILs were not significantly associated with overall survival. In bivariate analysis, patients with elevated CD4 and/or CD8 TILs had significantly improved disease specific survival (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21-0.83) and disease free survival (HR 0.45; 95% CI 0.24-0.84) compared to patients with low levels of CD4 and CD8. PDL-1, p16, CD31, Vimentin, EGFR, and p53 were not significant prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis, elevated CD8 TILs were associated with improved disease specific survival (HR 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.88, p = .02) and disease free survival (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.96, p = .04). CD8, and possibly CD4, positive TILs are associated with favorable disease free and disease specific survival for recurrent/persistent laryngeal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative assessment of HPV, alcohol and tobacco etiological fractions in Algerian patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariche, Nora; Hortal, Montserrat Torres; Benyahia, Samir; Alemany, Laia; Moulaï, Nabila; Clavero, Omar; Muñoz, Marleny; Ouahioune, Wahiba; Djennaoui, Djamel; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bourouba, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Despite the increasing incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in Algeria, scarce information is available on the importance of the preventable etiological factors which may drive the disease. Remarkably, a significant number of cases occur in nonsmoker and nondrinker patients; hence, suggesting that alternative risk factors, like Human papillomavirus (HPV), might be etiologically involved. To gain more insight on the risk factors associated with the disease in the country, we evaluated the etiological fraction of HPV in comparison to tobacco and alcohol intake in LSCC patients. To evaluate the etiopathologic fraction (EF) for HPV compared to history of tobacco and alcohol in LSCC, HPV DNA presence in 46 invasive and 3 non-invasive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded laryngeal tumors was screened using the SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 Assay. Demographic data and information related to exposure to the risk factors were gathered through interviewer-assisted questionnaires. We observed that 40.8% of all LSCC cases were associated with smoking, 40.8% had combined tobacco and alcohol exposure history, and 14.3% did not show prior exposure to either risk factor. 1 out of 3 in-situ carcinoma cases was positive for HPV-6. HPV prevalence was null in the invasive tumors. HPV DNA was detected in 2.38% for all studied cases. 10.2% of LSCC patients did not associate with any of the studied risk factors. Here we show that HPV etiological fraction in LSCC Algerian patients is low and smoking and alcohol remain the principal etiopathologic risk for LSCC burden in Algeria.

  14. The role of miR-145 in stem cell characteristics of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Omer Faruk; Suer, Ilknur; Yuceturk, Betul; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Hajiyev, Yusif; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael; Ozen, Mustafa

    2016-03-01

    The cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are tumorigenic cells promoting initiation, progression, and spread of the tumor. Accumulating evidences suggested the presence of CSLCs in distinct tumors including laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). MicroRNAs have been proposed as significant regulators of carcinogenesis, and several of them have been demonstrated to have direct roles in survival of CSLCs. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of miR-145, which is downregulated in LSCC, on cancer stem cell potency of laryngeal cancer cells. We initially showed the downregulation of miR-145 expression in tumor tissue samples and in CD133-enriched CSLCs. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of miR-145-transfected Hep-2 cells demonstrated the inhibitory role of miR-145 on stem cell markers like SOX2, OCT4, KLF4, and ABCG2. We, then, investigated the stem cell features of miR-145-overexpressing Hep-2 cells by sphere formation assay, single-cell cloning assay, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay, which all demonstrated the inhibition of stem cell potency upon miR-145 overexpression. Further qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated altered expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers in miR-145-overexpressing Hep-2 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated the regulatory role of miR-145 in stem cell characteristics of Hep-2 cells. Based on these results, we propose that miR-145 might carry crucial roles in LSCC tumorigenesis, prognosis, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence through regulating stem cell properties of tumor cells.

  15. Decreased 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) predicts poor prognosis in early-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfang; Wu, Kexia; Shao, Yuan; Sui, Fang; Yang, Qi; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng; Ji, Meiju

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences suggest that large-scale loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic hallmark in different cancers. However, the levels of 5-hmC in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its prognostic value in this cancer remain largely unknown. Using dot-blot and quantitative RT-PCR assays, we investigate 5-hmC levels and expression of TET-1, -2 and -3 in LSCCs and explore the association of 5-hmC levels with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of LSCC patients. Our data showed that 5-hmC was significantly decreased in LSCCs as compared with matched normal tissues. We also found a strong link between decreased 5-hmC and the reduction of TET-1 gene expression, but not TET-2 or -3, suggesting that decreased TET-1 expression was implicated in 5-hmC loss in LSCC. Moreover, Mann-Whitney U tests showed that 5-hmC content was significantly associated with smoking (P = 0.039) and tumor invasion (P = 0.004). Importantly, we found that decreased 5-hmC was significantly associated with poor survival of early-stage LSCC patients (P = 0.043). Altogether, our findings implicate that decreased 5-hmC probaly caused by the reduction of TET-1 is crucial to the clinical pathology of LSCC and is a poor prognostic factor in ealry-stage LSCC patients.

  16. Long-term outcomes after multidisciplinary management of T3 laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas: Improved functional outcomes and survival with modern therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Clifton D; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Garden, Adam S; Gunn, G Brandon; Mulcahy, Collin F; Zafereo, Mark; Phan, Jack; Lai, Stephen Y; Lewin, Jan S; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Frank, Steven J; Beadle, Beth M; Morrison, William H; El-Naggar, Adel K; Kocak-Uzel, Esengul; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Kies, Merril S; Weber, Randal S; Rosenthal, David I

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes after initial definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for T3 laryngeal cancers. We reviewed 412 patients treated for T3 laryngeal squamous cell cancer from 1985 to 2011. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 35%; disease-specific-survival (DSS) was 61%; locoregional control was 76%; and freedom from distant metastasis was 83%. Chemotherapy, age, performance status <2, node-negative status, and glottic subsite were associated with improved survival (all p < .03). Larynx preservation with induction and/or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (LP-CRT) had better laryngectomy-free survival than RT alone (LP-RT; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47-0.81; p = .0005); 10-year laryngectomy-free survival rates of the LP-CRT cohort (37%) were higher than those of the LP-RT cohort (18%). The 5-year DSS and OS rates of the LP-CRT cohort (79% and 67%) were better after total laryngectomy with postoperative RT (TL-PORT; 61% and 50%) and LP-RT (64% and 46%; p < .006 for all). In patients with T3 laryngeal cancers, LP-CRT provides better functional, oncologic, and survival outcomes than historical TL-PORT or LP-RT does. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1739-1751, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Composition of Microbiome in Larynx and the Throat Biodiversity between Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients and Control Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Gong

    Full Text Available The throat is an ecological assemblage involved human cells and microbiota, and the colonizing bacteria are important factors in balancing this environment. However, this bacterial community profile has thus been poorly investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial biology of the larynx and to analyze the throat biodiversity in laryngeal carcinoma patients compared to a control population in a case-control study. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene was used. We collected tissue samples from 29 patients with laryngeal carcinoma and 31 control patients with vocal cord polyps. The findings of high-quality sequence datasets revealed 218 genera from 13 phyla in the laryngeal mucosa. The predominant communities of phyla in the larynx were Firmicutes (54%, Fusobacteria (17%, Bacteroidetes (15%, Proteobacteria (11%, and Actinobacteria (3%. The leading genera were Streptococcus (36%, Fusobacterium (15%, Prevotella (12%, Neisseria (6%, and Gemella (4%. The throat bacterial compositions were highly different between laryngeal carcinoma subjects and control population (p = 0.006. The abundance of the 26 genera was significantly different between the laryngeal cancer and control groups by metastats analysis (p<0.05. Fifteen genera may be associated with laryngeal carcinoma by partial least squares discriminant analysis (p<0.001. In summary, this study revealed the microbiota profiles in laryngeal mucosa from tissue specimens. The compositions of bacteria community in throat were different between laryngeal cancer patients and controls, and probably were related with this carcinoma. The disruption of this bio-ecological niche might be a risk factor for laryngeal carcinoma.

  18. Inflammation and cancer: role of annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in proliferation and metastasis in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Santana Gastardelo

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1 has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA1(2-26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide, Boc2 (antagonist of FPR and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA1(2-26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA1(2-26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth

  19. A Novel Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Prognostic System for Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Combination of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Body Mass Index (COR-BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    Full Text Available Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC is a head and neck cancer type. In this study, we introduced a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, referred to as COR-BMI (Combination of red blood cell distribution width and body mass index, for LSCC patients.A total of 807 LSCC patients (784 male and 23 female, 22-87 y of age who underwent surgery were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were stratified by COR-BMI into three groups: COR-BMI (0 (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI ≥ 25; COR-BMI (1 (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI 13.1 and 18.5 ≤ BMI 13.1 and BMI < 18.5. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between COR-BMI and cancer-specific survival (CSS rate among LSCC patients.The 5-y, 10-y, and 15-y CSS rates were 71.6%, 60.1%, and 55.4%, respectively. There were significant differences among the COR-BMI groups in age (< 60 versus ≥ 60 y; P = 0.005 and T stage (T1, T2, T3, or T4; P = 0.013. Based on the results, COR-BMI (1 versus 0: HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 0.98-3.15; 2 versus 0: HR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.53-5.54, P = 0.001 was a significant independent predictor of CSS.COR-BMI is a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, which could predict long-term survival in LSCC patients who underwent surgery.

  20. Knockdown of Snail inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep-2 cells through the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Dan; Yang, Jingpu; Xue, Kai; Liu, Yan; Jin, Chunshun

    2017-12-01

    It has been well documented that Snail plays a decisive role in various tumors. However, the direct effect of Snail on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) has not been elaborated. In this study, we firstly detected the expression of Snail in 14 samples of patients with LSCC and found that its content was high in cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues. Then we established LSCC Hep-2 cells with Snail silencing and validated the knockdown efficiency by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results showed that silencing of Snail significantly inhibited the ability of adhesion, migration, and invasion of Hep-2 cells. Further study revealed that knockdown of Snail suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of Hep-2 cells, as evidenced by downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, integrin subunit beta 1 (ITGβ1), β-catenin, vimentin, N-cadherin, and fibronectin and upregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and E-cadherin. Additionally, transfection with the small interfering RNA of VDR reversed the effect induced by Snail silencing in Hep-2 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that knockdown of Snail can inhibit the EMT process of LSCC cells through the VDR signaling pathway in vitro.

  1. Radiotherapy of locally advanced laryngeal cancer: the Gliwice Center of Oncology experience, 1990-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.; Wygoda, A.; Sasiadek, W.; Tarnawski, R.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer T3 - T4, and to establish the prognostic value of the size and the location of the extra laryngeal infiltrations and of emergency tracheostomy. 296 patients with advanced squamous cell cancer of the larynx were radically treated with radiotherapy alone in Center of Oncology in Gliwice between the years 1990 and 1996. There were 221 cases of supraglottic cancer (75%) and 75 of glottic cancer (25%). The stages were as follows: supraglottic cancer: T3 - 113 (51%), T4 - 108 (49%), glottic cancer: T3 - 69 (92%), T4 - 6 (8%). Positive neck nodes were found in 100 patients with supraglottic cancer (45%), and only in 11 patients with glottic cancer (15%). In cases of extra laryngeaI invasion (T4) the pyriform recess was involved in 33%, the base of tongue and valleculae glosso-epiglotticae in 30%, the hypopharyngeal wall in 9% of cases, while a massive involvement of the larynx, the pyriform recess and the base of the tongue was found in 6% of patients. Cartilage involvement was suspected in 22% of patients. Thirty six patients (12%) underwent emergency tracheostomy. Generally, the 3-year local control rate (LC) and disease free survival rate (DSF) were 46% and 41%, respectively. The probability of LC was similar in both supraglottic and glottic cancer: 44% and 47.5% respectively. The presence of involved neck nodes significantly decreased LC and DFS rates in both groups (about 20%). For stage T4 laryngeal cancer the LC rate was correlated with the location of the extra laryngeal infiltrations. Best prognosis was connected with the suspicion of cartilage infiltration - 56% of 3-year LC rate. The worst results were noted in cases of massive infiltrations spreading from larynx through the hypopharynx - 13.5% of 3-year LC rate. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was very significantly linked to poorer treatment results. The 3-year LC rate in

  2. Competing endogenous RNA network analysis of CD274, IL‑10 and FOXP3 co‑expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Lian, Meng; Ma, Hongzhi; Wang, Ru; Ma, Zhihong; Wang, Haizhou; Zhai, Jie; Meng, Lingzhao; Feng, Ling; Bai, Yunfei; Cui, Xiaobo; Fang, Jugao

    2018-03-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common types of head and neck malignant tumor; however, there is a lack of effective molecular targets for therapy. The present study detected the expression of three immunity‑associated molecules [forkhead box (FOX)3, interleukin (IL)‑10 and cluster of differentiation (CD)274] in 133 LSCC samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC); subsequently, the association between their expression and the clinical characteristics of LSCC were analyzed. Spearman's rank correlation method, Kaplan‑Meier and Cox regression model were used to analyze the correlations of the three proteins and their clinical significance. StarBase and miRTarBase databases were used to establish the competitive endogenous (ce)RNA network of the three molecules. IHC demonstrated that the positive expression rates of FOXP3, IL‑10 and CD274 were 68.4, 73.7 and 58.6% in 133 LSCC samples, respectively. In addition, it was identified that the expression of the three proteins was closely correlated with the clinical characteristics of LSCC, including lymph node metastasis and prognosis (P<0.05). There was also a significant association of co‑expression between any two proteins (P<0.001). Furthermore, the expression levels of FOXP3, IL‑10 and CD274 were negatively associated with the survival rate of patients with LSCC (P<0.05). The results of a Cox regression model suggested that the three proteins were prognostic risk factors for LSCC (P<0.05). The ceRNA network revealed that 10 microRNAs (miRs; including miR‑16‑5p and miR‑214‑3p), 123 long non‑coding RNAs (including X‑inactive specific transcript, H19 and metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) and 408 circular RNAs (including ATP‑binding cassette subfamily C member 1 hsa_circ_001569 and ISY1 splicing factor homolog hsa_circ_001859) may regulate the expression of FOXP3, IL‑10 and CD274. The data generated from the present study may increase the

  3. Thyroxine (T4) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too much or too little T4 can indicate thyroid disease . The T4 hormone comes in two forms: Free ... is used to evaluate thyroid function and diagnose thyroid disease. Why do I need a thyroxine test? Thyroid ...

  4. Management of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sheahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx continues to be the commonest head and neck cancer in many Western countries. The larynx plays a key role for many essential functions, including breathing, voice production, airway protection, and swallowing. The goals of laryngeal cancer treatment are thus to provide best possible oncologic control, while optimizing functional outcomes. In recent decades, the treatment paradigm for advanced laryngeal cancer has shifted from one of primary surgery (total laryngectomy as gold standard, toward non-surgical organ-preserving treatment using radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, concerns have emerged regarding functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy, as well as possible decreased overall survival in patients with laryngeal cancer. The purpose of the present review is to review surgical and non-surgical options for treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer, as well as the evidence supporting each of these.

  5. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Umasankar; Madan, Karan; Jain, Deepali; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer. PMID:25983415

  6. Laryngeal metastasis from lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors of the larynx are rare. The most common tumors metastasizing to the larynx are melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Bronchogenic carcinoma metastasizing to the larynx has been rarely described. Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old, chronic smoker, who incidentally had a laryngeal growth detected during flexible bronchoscopy examination for evaluation of suspected lung cancer. Histopathological examination of the laryngeal nodule and the biopsy obtained from the main bronchus growth confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the larynx from primary lung cancer.

  7. Detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal carcinoma with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Jan W; Oosterbroek, Jaap; Jager, Elise A; de Jong, Hugo W; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P; Willems, Stefan M; Terhaard, Chris H; Philippens, Marielle E; Pameijer, Frank A

    2017-12-01

    Staging of laryngeal cancer largely depends on cartilage invasion. Presence of cartilage invasion affects treatment choice and prognosis. On MRI and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) it may be challenging to differentiate cartilage invasion from inflammation. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic properties of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) and CECT for visual detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal cancer. Prospective cohort study. Patients with T3 or T4 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy were evaluated using 0.625 mm slice CT. DCECT derived permeability and blood volume maps and CECT images were visually evaluated for the presence of invasion of the cartilaginous T-stage subsites of laryngeal cancer, by detecting continuity with the tumor-bulk of increased permeability, increased blood volume, and enhancement. Histological evaluation of the surgical total laryngectomy specimen served as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated and compared using the McNemar and Chi-squared test. From 14 included patients, a total of 462 subsites were available for T-stage analys i s, of which 84 were cartilage. The median time between CT imaging and total laryngectomy was 1 day (range 1-34 days). There was no significant difference in the detection of cartilage invasion between DCECT and CECT. The sensitivity of CECT was better for all subsites combined (0.85 vs. 0.75; p  < 0.01). DCECT does not improve visual detection of cartilage invasion in T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer compared to CECT. 2b, individual cohort study.

  8. Detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal carcinoma with dynamic contrast‐enhanced CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbroek, Jaap; Jager, Elise A.; de Jong, Hugo W.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.; Willems, Stefan M.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Philippens, Marielle E.; Pameijer, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Staging of laryngeal cancer largely depends on cartilage invasion. Presence of cartilage invasion affects treatment choice and prognosis. On MRI and contrast‐enhanced CT (CECT) it may be challenging to differentiate cartilage invasion from inflammation. The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic properties of dynamic contrast‐enhanced CT (DCECT) and CECT for visual detection of cartilage invasion in laryngeal cancer. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Patients with T3 or T4 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy were evaluated using 0.625 mm slice CT. DCECT derived permeability and blood volume maps and CECT images were visually evaluated for the presence of invasion of the cartilaginous T‐stage subsites of laryngeal cancer, by detecting continuity with the tumor‐bulk of increased permeability, increased blood volume, and enhancement. Histological evaluation of the surgical total laryngectomy specimen served as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were calculated and compared using the McNemar and Chi‐squared test. Results From 14 included patients, a total of 462 subsites were available for T‐stage analysis, of which 84 were cartilage. The median time between CT imaging and total laryngectomy was 1 day (range 1–34 days). There was no significant difference in the detection of cartilage invasion between DCECT and CECT. The sensitivity of CECT was better for all subsites combined (0.85 vs. 0.75; p < 0.01). Conclusion DCECT does not improve visual detection of cartilage invasion in T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer compared to CECT. Level of Evidence 2b, individual cohort study. PMID:29299511

  9. Delineation of the primary tumour Clinical Target Volumes (CTV-P) in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grégoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Grégoire et al., 2003, 2014), but such re...

  10. Development of TRAIL Resistance by Radiation-Induced Hypermethylation of DR4 CpG Island in Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Cheol [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Hyeok [Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Young Joo [Department of Biomedical Research Center, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Hee Jeong [Department of Pathology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Myung Woul [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyo Won [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun-A [Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Ho [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Who, E-mail: swhokim@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon, E-mail: sykim3715@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line. Results: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation.

  11. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  12. A Novel Inflammation- and Nutrition-Based Prognostic System for Patients with Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Combination of Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and Body Mass Index (COR-BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Mao, Yize; Chen, Shiqi; Yang, Ankui; Zhang, Quan

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a head and neck cancer type. In this study, we introduced a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, referred to as COR-BMI (Combination of red blood cell distribution width and body mass index), for LSCC patients. A total of 807 LSCC patients (784 male and 23 female, 22-87 y of age) who underwent surgery were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The patients were stratified by COR-BMI into three groups: COR-BMI (0) (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI ≥ 25); COR-BMI (1) (RDW ≤ 13.1 and BMI 13.1 and 18.5 ≤ BMI COR-BMI (2) (RDW > 13.1 and BMI COR-BMI and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate among LSCC patients. The 5-y, 10-y, and 15-y CSS rates were 71.6%, 60.1%, and 55.4%, respectively. There were significant differences among the COR-BMI groups in age (COR-BMI (1 versus 0: HR = 1.76; 95% CI = 0.98-3.15; 2 versus 0: HR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.53-5.54, P = 0.001) was a significant independent predictor of CSS. COR-BMI is a novel inflammation- and nutrition-based prognostic system, which could predict long-term survival in LSCC patients who underwent surgery.

  13. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  14. The epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Wünsch

    Full Text Available The city of São Paulo exhibits one of the highest incidences of laryngeal cancer in world and Brazil presents remarkable occurrence, compared with other Latin American countries. Around 8,000 new cases and 3,000 deaths by laryngeal cancer occur annually in the Brazilian population. In the city of São Paulo, incidence rates for laryngeal cancer among males have been decreasing since the late 1980s while, among females, the rates have shown a stable trend. This phenomenon is probably the expression of changes in gender behavior related to tobacco smoking. Several risk factors are involved in the genesis of laryngeal cancer. The most important are tobacco smoking and alcohol intake, but occupational hazards have also been associated with the disease, such as asbestos, strong inorganic acids, cement dust and free crystalline silica. Additionally, salted meat and total fat intake have been linked to elevated risk of laryngeal cancer. Conversely, several studies have confirmed that fruits, raw leaf vegetables and legumes protect against this cancer. Some researchers have postulated a possible association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and human papilloma virus (HPV, but this is not universally accepted. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is weakly, but consistently correlated with laryngeal cancer. Familial cancer clusters, particularly of head and neck tumors, seem to increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. Some genetic polymorphisms, such as of genes that code for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, have shown elevated risk for laryngeal cancer according to recent studies. Public health policies regarding the control of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, and also surveillance of carcinogen exposure in occupational settings, could have an impact on laryngeal cancer. No proposals for screening have been recommended for laryngeal cancer, but one diagnostic goal should be to avoid treatment delay when suspected symptoms have been observed.

  15. t4 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Contreras, Elizabeth Q.; Hartung, Thomas; Hirsch, Cordula; Hogberg, Helena; Jachak, Ashish C.; Jordan, William; Landsiedel, Robert; Morris, Jeffery; Patri, Anil; Pounds, Joel G.; de Vizcaya Ruiz, Andrea; Shvedova, Anna; Tanguay, Robert; Tatarazako, Norihasa; van Vliet, Erwin; Walker, Nigel J.; Wiesner, Mark; Wilcox, Neil; Zurlo, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary In October 2010, a group of experts met as part of the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4) to exchange ideas about the current status and future of safety testing of nanomaterials. At present, there is no widely accepted path forward to assure appropriate and effective hazard identification for engineered nanomaterials. The group discussed needs for characterization of nanomaterials and identified testing protocols that incorporate the use of innovative alternative whole models such as zebrafish or C. elegans, as well as in vitro or alternative methods to examine specific functional pathways and modes of action. The group proposed elements of a potential testing scheme for nanomaterials that works towards an integrated testing strategy, incorporating the goals of the NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy by focusing on pathways of toxic response, and utilizing an evidence-based strategy for developing the knowledge base for safety assessment. Finally, the group recommended that a reliable, open, curated database be developed that interfaces with existing databases to enable sharing of information. PMID:21993959

  16. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  17. Cisplatin, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    CDKN2A-p16 Negative; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  18. Laryngeal histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Hina A; Saeed, Noora; Khan, Nazoora; Hasan, Naba

    2016-08-17

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection, having interesting synonyms such as Cave disease, Darling's disease, Ohio Valley disease, reticuloendotheliosis, Spelunker's lung and Caver's disease. The aetiological agent is a dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, causing chronic granulomatous disease. The route of transmission is by inhalation of dust particles from soil contaminated by excrement of birds or bats, harbouring the small spores or microconidia, which is considered the infectious form of fungus. The spectrum of illness ranges from subclinical infection of the lung to progressive disseminated disease. The major bulk of histoplasmosis infections are asymptomatic or present with mild influenza like illness and involve immunocompetent individuals. However, the immunocompromised or immunodeficient cases have disseminated/haematogenous infections with multiple organs involved and are usually fatal unless treated immediately. Laryngeal involvement is associated with the disseminated form of the disease. Histoplasmosis of larynx is a rare entity and poses diagnostic difficulty to otolaryngologists because clinically it may be mistaken for malignancy. We report an unusual case of laryngeal histoplasmosis in a man aged 60 years who presented with provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis/malignancy. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Role of Pectoralis Major Myocutanuos Flap in Salvage Laryngeal Surgery for Prophylaxis of Pharyngocutaneuos Fistula and Reconstruction of Skin Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebeed, A.; Hussein, H.A.; Saber, T.Kh.; Zohairy, M.A.; Lotayef, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to minimize the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) following salvage laryngeal surgery using vascularized pedicle pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) for enhancing wound healing, rapid intake of oral feeding, reconstruction of desqauamated irradiated skin, achieving short hospital stay and protection against catastrophic blow out mortality. Patients and Methods: This case series study of sixteen patients carried out from May 2005 to July 2009, at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University where we applied PMMC flap in salvage laryngeal surgery for those with high risk to develop complications: Patients of poor general conditions (anemia, hypoproteinaemia, diabetics) and/or poor local conditions for healing (irradiated neck, extensive local or nodal recurrence with skin desquamation, infiltration or tumor fungation which need extensive resection). Five cases had been treated with primary cobalt radiotherapy laryngeal field only and 4 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes, while photon therapy was given in 4 cases as laryngeal field only and 3 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes. All cases were squamous cell carcinoma (13 cases grade 2, 2 cases grade 3 and one case grade 1) proved before radiotherapy. Supraglottic recurrence was detected in 7 cases (43.75%) and glottis in 9 cases (56.25%). Following salvage surgery, 11 cases were staged T3 NO, Nl and N2, 3 cases were T2 NO or Nl and 2 cases were T4 N2 with skin infiltration. Tracheostomy was there in 4 cases. Results: The study included fifteen males (93.75%) and one female (6.25%), age was between 38-73 years (mean=55.5 years). Five cases were operated on as total laryngectomy with excision of skin flaps + PMMC flap, 4 cases as total laryngectomy with skin flap excision + functional block neck dissection + PMMC flap and 7 cases as total laryngectomy -f block neck dissection with skin, excision (modified radical in 4 cases and radical in 3 cases

  20. RECCURENT LARYNGEAL PAPILLOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyilo Purnami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of respiratory papillomatosis was reported. The patient suffered from the disease since eight months old with chief complaint progressive hoarseness and dyspnea. It was diagnosed with respiratory papillomatosis and scheduled for performing tracheotomy and continued with the first microlaryngeal surgery (MLS. Decanulation was taken after 2nd surgery of removing papillomas. Finally was reported she got serial of surgery for 22 times during 18 years of age. It was costly and deteriorating quality of life. The problem remains persisted because of frequent recurrences and need for repetitive surgeries. Specimen biopsy for histologic examination was shown the signs of HPV infection, papilomatic coated squamous epithel with mild dysplasia and coilocytosis. The threatening of upper airway obstruction is the main important reason for patient's coming. The patency of airway assessed by Direct Laryngoscopy then the next treatment was decided with schedule of Micro Laryngeal Surgery (MLS. Finally the MLS treatment is just only for temporarily recovery. A further research to define the proper treatment in the future is required, especially for prevention of the diseases related to the viral causes of infection.

  1. Laryngeal tumours: clinical features and management challenges as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (57.14%) of the patients had emergency tracheostomy. The predominant histological type was well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma [15(42.86%)]. Only three (8.57 %) patients had total laryngectomy. Conclusion: The prevalence of laryngeal tumours in our environment was found to be 1.52% and patients ...

  2. Laryngeal cancer at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the patients (90.4%) were above 40 years. The commonest symptom at presentation was dysphonia. A significant proportion of cases (37.3%) presented with locally advanced disease. The commonest histological type of laryngeal tumour seen was squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment offered consisted of ...

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal lesions by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    1994-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with human neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Squamous papillomas and verrucous carcinomas are two types of squamous neoplasms of the larynx that present difficult problems in differential diagnosis. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes...... carcinomas contained demonstrable HPV (none of 11). Some of the squamous papillomas were recurrences, which shows the persistence of the virus. These results indicate that laryngeal papillomas may be related to HPV, but verrucous carcinomas are not......., we examined benign squamous papillomas and verrucous squamous carcinomas of the larynx for the presence of HPV. Forty-two biopsy specimens from 18 patients with laryngeal papillomas and 11 biopsy specimens from seven patients with verrucous carcinomas were obtained from the files of Pennsylvania...

  4. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  5. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  6. Laryngitis (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... for Educators Search English Español Laryngitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Laryngitis What's in this article? How Your Voice ...

  7. Impact of chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy for laryngeal preservation. A comparative study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Yukihiro; Kou, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    During the past 23 years, from June 1989 to December 2012, our treatment paradigm for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) had involved comprehensive use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by surgery. Between 1989 and 2005, chemotherapy using fluorouracil and carboplatin had been administered via intravenous drip infusion as induction chemotherapy (ICT), and more recently between 2006 and 2012 as concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). In the present study, we examined the superiority of definitive CCRT (dCCRT) over the ICT followed by definitive radiotherapy (ICT-dRT) as to the impact on the treatment of HNSCC with the stage-categories of T2-T4a, retrospectively analyzing survival rates and laryngeal preservation rates at the 3-year point between the two groups. The number of patients assigned for this study was 76, all of whom were previously untreated, and of whom 51 suffered from laryngeal carcinoma and 25 from hypopharyngeal carcinoma: 21 with Stage II, 25 with Stage III, 23 with Stage IV A, 7 with Stage IV C. The three-year overall survival rate and cause-specific survival rate were 54.5%, 73.5% in the ICT-dRT group and 69.2%, 80.5% in the dCCRT group, respectively, both of which statistically had no difference. But the dCCRT was found to contribute to obtaining a higher rate of laryngeal preservation than that of the ICT-dRT in T2 and T3 but not in T4a. In conclusion, dCCRT showed more significant efficacy for organ preservation on T2 and T3 HNSCC than ICT-dRT. (author)

  8. Detecting expression of 5T4 in CTCs and tumor samples from NSCLC patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Pirie-Shepherd

    Full Text Available The fetal oncogene 5T4 is a cell surface protein, with overexpression observed in a variety of cancers as compared to normal adult tissue. The ability to select patients with tumors that express high levels of 5T4 may enrich a clinical trial cohort with patients most likely to respond to 5T4 targeted therapy. To that end, we developed assays to measure 5T4 in both tumors and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We identified the presence of 5T4 in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of lung, in all clinical stages and grades of disease. CTCs were identified in peripheral blood from the majority of patients with NSCLC, and 5T4 was detectable in most samples. Although 5T4 was present in both CTCs and tumors in most patients, there was no concordance between relative amount in either sample type. Clinical response rates of patients treated with the therapies directed against 5T4 in early stage clinical trials, as determined by these assays, may provide important insights into the biology of 5T4 in tumors and the mechanisms of action of 5T4-targeting therapy.

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  10. Thyroid gland invasion in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangussi-Gomes, João; Danelon-Leonhardt, Fernando; Moussalem, Guilherme Figner; Ahumada, Nicolas Galat; Oliveira, Cleydson Lucena; Hojaij, Flávio Carneiro

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx has the potential to invade the thyroid gland. Despite this risk, the proposition of either partial or total thyroidectomy as part of the surgical treatment of all such cases remains controversial. To evaluate the frequency of invasion of the thyroid gland in patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma submitted to total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy and thyroidectomy; to determine whether clinic-pathological characteristics can predict glandular involvement. A retrospective case series with chart review, from January 1998 to July 2013, was undertaken in a tertiary care university medical center. An inception cohort of 83 patients with larynx/hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma was considered. All patients had advanced stage disease (clinically T3-T4) and underwent total laryngectomy or total pharyngolaryngectomy in association with thyroidectomy. Adjuvant therapy was indicated when tumor or neck conditions required. Frequency of thyroid cartilage invasion was calculated; univariate and multivariate analysis of demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics associated with cartilage invasion were performed. The overall frequency of invasion of the thyroid gland was 18.1%. Glandular involvement was associated with invasion of the following structures: anterior commissure (odds ratio=5.13; 95% confidence interval 1.07-24.5), subglottis (odds ratio=12.44; 95% confidence interval 1.55-100.00) and cricoid cartilage (odds ratio=15.95; 95% confidence interval 4.23-60.11). Invasion of the thyroid gland is uncommon in the context of laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical and pathological features such as invasion of the anterior commissure, subglottis and cricoid cartilage are more associated with glandular invasion. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  11. Radiation therapy of laryngeal cancer: a twenty year experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, N.L.K.; Oswal, V.H.; Flood, L.M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reviews a 20 year experience of radiation treatment of 286 laryngeal cancers and presents results with a minimum five year follow-up. All cases presented had glottic or supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas with no clinical evidence of nodal metastasis. A policy of primary radiotherapy, with surgery for salvage of treatment failures, produced control of primary disease and prevention of metastases superior to most other regimes documented in the literature. (author).

  12. Laryngeal nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms include: Difficulty speaking Difficulty swallowing Hoarseness Injury to the left and right laryngeal nerves at the same time can cause a breathing problem. This can be an urgent medical problem.

  13. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    OpenAIRE

    Rutter, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the ma...

  14. Imaging of laryngeal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Minerva; Leuchter, Igor; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D; Dulguerov, Pavel; Varoquaux, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Imaging of laryngeal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva, E-mail: Minerva.Becker@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Leuchter, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Leuchter@hcuge.ch [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-facial Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Platon, Alexandra, E-mail: Alexandra.Platon@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D., E-mail: Christoph.Becker@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Dulguerov, Pavel, E-mail: Pavel.Dulguerov@hcuge.ch [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-facial Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Varoquaux, Arthur, E-mail: Arthur.Varoquaux@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed.

  16. Gamma-T4 hybrid bacteriophage carrying the thymidine kinase gene of bacteriophage T4.

    OpenAIRE

    Mileham, A J; Murray, N E; Revel, H R

    1984-01-01

    Among 32 lambda-T4 recombinant phages selected for growth on a thymidylate synthetase-deficient (thyA) host, 2 were shown to carry the T4 thymidine kinase (tk) gene. The lambda-T4tk phages contain two T4 HindIII DNA fragments (2.0 and 1.5 kilobases) that hybridize to restriction fragments of T4 DNA, encompassing the tk locus at 60 kilobases on the T4 map. The T4tk insert compensates for the simultaneous host deficiencies of thymidine kinase and thymidylate synthetase in a thymidine kinase-def...

  17. Transcription of the T4 late genes

    OpenAIRE

    Geiduschek, E Peter; Kassavetis, George A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the current state of understanding of the regulated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, with a focus on the underlying biochemical mechanisms, which turn out to be unique to the T4-related family of phages or significantly different from other bacterial systems. The activator of T4 late transcription is the gene 45 protein (gp45), the sliding clamp of the T4 replisome. Gp45 becomes topologically linked to DNA through the action of its clamp-loader, ...

  18. Laryngeal cancer at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Accra Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcher, E.D.; Cheyuo, C.; Yarney, J.; Gyasi, R. K.

    2006-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the commonest head and neck cancer seen at the Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Unit Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the number of cases of laryngeal cancer seen at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, establish epidemiological parameters of the disease and to outline preventive measures. One hundred and fifteen (115) patients who were managed for laryngeal cancer from 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2003 were studied retrospectively with respect to age, sex, duration of symptoms at presentation, risk factors, symptoms complex, histopathology, stage of tumor, details of treatment offered and follow up. The age range was 17-85 years with a mean of 55.5 years (SD10.7). Majority of the patients (90.4%) were above 40 years. The commonest symptom at presentation was dysphonia. A significant proportion of cases (37.3%) presented with locally advanced disease. The commonest histological type of laryngeal tumour seen was squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment offered consisted of radiotherapy for 83 (79.8%) patients and total laryngectomy with neck dissection when necessary for 17 (16.3%) patients who also had postoperative radiotherapy. Only 58 (69.9%) patients completed radiotherapy treatment and in all 32 (24.3 %) patients did not report for any treatment. Majority of patients failed to report for post treatment follow-up. We conclude that significant number of patients with laryngeal cancer presented with locally advanced disease and dysphonia was the commonest symptom. (au)

  19. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  20. Transcription of the T4 late genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassavetis George A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the current state of understanding of the regulated transcription of the bacteriophage T4 late genes, with a focus on the underlying biochemical mechanisms, which turn out to be unique to the T4-related family of phages or significantly different from other bacterial systems. The activator of T4 late transcription is the gene 45 protein (gp45, the sliding clamp of the T4 replisome. Gp45 becomes topologically linked to DNA through the action of its clamp-loader, but it is not site-specifically DNA-bound, as other transcriptional activators are. Gp45 facilitates RNA polymerase recruitment to late promoters by interacting with two phage-encoded polymerase subunits: gp33, the co-activator of T4 late transcription; and gp55, the T4 late promoter recognition protein. The emphasis of this account is on the sites and mechanisms of actions of these three proteins, and on their roles in the formation of transcription-ready open T4 late promoter complexes.

  1. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF recep...

  2. Cortactin is associated with perineural invasion in the deep invasive front area of laryngeal carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosio, Eliane Papa; Rosa, Fabíola Encinas; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custódio

    2011-01-01

    The cortactin gene, mapped at 11q13, has been associated with an aggressive clinical course in many cancers because of its function of invasiveness. This study evaluated CTTN protein and its prognostic value in the deep invasive front and superficial areas of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. T...

  3. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal lesions by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    1994-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with human neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Squamous papillomas and verrucous carcinomas are two types of squamous neoplasms of the larynx that present difficult problems in differential diagnosis. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes, we examined benign squamous papillomas and verrucous squamous carcinomas of the larynx for the presence of HPV. Forty-two biopsy specimens from 18 patients with laryngeal papillomas and 11 biopsy specimens from seven patients with verrucous carcinomas were obtained from the files of Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Tissue sections were hybridized with an HPV DNA cocktail. The HPV-positive cases then were subtyped further with DNA probes specific for HPV subtypes 6/11, 16/18, and 31/33/35. All benign squamous papillomas (42 of 42) were positive for HPV subtype 6/11. None of the verrucous carcinomas contained demonstrable HPV (none of 11). Some of the squamous papillomas were recurrences, which shows the persistence of the virus. These results indicate that laryngeal papillomas may be related to HPV, but verrucous carcinomas are not.

  4. Inducible laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Bucca, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes an inappropriate, transient, reversible narrowing of the larynx in response to external triggers. ILO is an important cause of a variety of respiratory symptoms and can mimic asthma. Current understanding of ILO has been hampered by imprecise nomenc...

  5. Laryngeal cancer in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushan, S; Cinamon, U; Levy, D; Sokolov, M; Roth, Y

    2009-08-01

    With improved survival, more AIDS patients, especially heavy smokers and alcohol abusers, may be confronted with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Since curative treatment may require aggressive combined therapy, these patients, often suffering from immunosupression and poor general condition, present unique therapeutic challenges. The objective of the study was to describe treatment dilemmas. This case report presents a detailed description of an AIDS patient with carcinoma of the larynx. A patient with T3N0M0 laryngeal carcinoma and AIDS underwent tracheotomy and biopsy, followed by severe neck and pulmonary infection. After convalescence, radiotherapy was administered, with no evidence of a disease during a 3.5-year follow-up. During his remaining life, the patient developed severe psychoaffective disorder, his immune state deteriorated until he demised from sepsis. In conclusion, patients with HIV infection, especially having a history of tobacco or alcohol abuse, should be carefully examined for head and neck carcinoma that is likely to be more aggressive. Following surgery, AIDS patients may have worse wound healing and a greater tendency to contract infections. Radiotherapy and especially chemotherapy may cause life-threatening complications. Although early detection may increase survival, curative treatment should involve many disciplines and extra caution.

  6. CT findings of laryngeal tuberculosis : comparison with laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Sung, Ki Joon; Jung, Tae Sub; Cho, Jae Min; Yune, Heun Yune; Kim, Sun Yong

    1996-01-01

    To determine the value of CT(Computerized Tomography) in the diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis and to assess to what extent its characteristic findings different from those of laryngeal carcinoma. CT scans of twelve patients with laryngeal tuberculosis were reviewed and compared with those of fifteen patients with laryngeal cancer, retrospectively. Clinical symptoms, laryngoscopic examinations and the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis chest radiographs were also reviewed. In laryngeal tuberculosis, bilateral symmetric or asymmetric involvement was noted in nine(75%) patients, while unilateral involvement was seen in three(25%). This was significantly different from laryngeal cancer in which unilateral involvement was noted in twelve patients(80%). Diffuse thickening of the free margin of the epiglottis was a characteristic and frequent finding in tuberculosis(n=6, 50%). No deep submucosal infiltration of preepiglottic and paralaryngeal fat spaces is seen in tuberculosis in spite of large areas of involvement of laryngeal mucosa, while twelve patients(80%) with laryngeal cancer showed thickened deep infiltration which resulted in a submucosal mass. CT was useful in the diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis and its CT findings were characterized by bilateral involvement, thickening of the free margin of the epiglottis and good preservation of preepiglottic and paralaryngeal fat spaces in spite of large areas of involvement

  7. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Ralph P; Tobias, Karen M

    2009-05-01

    Laryngeal paralysis is a common cause of upper airway obstruction in older, large-breed dogs and is likely associated with a generalized polyneuropathy in most animals. Surgical therapy is frequently indicated, and UAL is currently the recommended treatment. Respiratory signs significantly improve in most patients after surgery; however, postoperative complication rates can be high, and patients have a lifelong risk of developing respiratory tract disease.

  8. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de; Neves, Luciano Rodrigues; Brasil, Osíris de Oliveira Camponês do; Pedroso, José Eduardo de Sá; Melo Junior, Jose Elson Santiago de

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease representing a challenge as regards diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: In this review, all aspects of the disease are involved, including etiology, clinical manifestations in adults and children, diagnosis, and treatment, by searching through Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases, as well as English and Portuguese articles published from 1973 to 2008. FINAL COMMENTS: Despite the breakthroughs in its diagnosis and treatment, sarcoidos...

  9. Laryngeal neurinoma. Differential diagnosis of submucosal laryngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuera, A.; Palomo, V.; Munoz, R.; Sanchez, F.

    2002-01-01

    Laryngeal neurinoma is a rare benign tumor that appears as a submucosal mass, generally in the supraglottic region. We report the case of a patient with dysphonia of long evolution caused by a neurinoma. We discuss the radiological findings of the tumor and the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of this and other submucosal laryngeal lesions. (Author) 16 refs

  10. Laryngeal Manifestations of Neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Plotkin, Scott R; Franco, Ramon A; Song, Phillip C

    2016-03-01

    To describe the range of findings in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) presenting to a laryngology clinic and to analyze the etiologic factors of vocal fold dysfunction in this cohort. Case series with chart review. Tertiary laryngology practice. All cases of NF presenting to an academic laryngology practice were retrospectively reviewed (August 2005 to May 2014), with a total of 34 cases. Demographic data, symptoms, and endoscopic examination findings were reviewed. Etiologic factors of laryngeal complaints were analyzed with reference to NF-associated pathologies and surgical history. Thirty-four patients with NF-1 or NF-2 were evaluated, and 28 of these patients (6 NF-1 and 22 NF-2) had laryngeal pathology. The most common presenting symptoms were vocal weakness (n = 21), dysphagia (n = 5), and globus (n = 4). Three patients had NF-related vocal fold masses on examination, including 2 neurofibromas and 1 schwannoma. Unilateral vocal cord paralysis was seen in 17 patients; bilateral paralysis was observed in 5 patients. Of patients with unilateral or bilateral paralysis, 20 had intracranial masses (vestibular schwannoma, meningioma, or skull base tumors), and 16 had previously undergone surgery for these lesions. Of the patients with NF-associated intracranial tumors, 87.0% presented with vocal cord paralysis, whereas only 40.0% of those without intracranial masses had paralysis (P = .0560). Seven patients underwent medialization procedures. Neurofibromatosis patients may present to laryngology clinic with primary laryngeal tumors or, more commonly, unilateral or bilateral paralysis. Otolaryngologists should be keenly aware of vocal fold paralysis caused by the NF-associated tumors, with particular attention to bilateral paralysis in NF-2. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  11. Evaluation of UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 using polystyrene plates coated with anti-thyroxine (T4) monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Elisa M; González, Ernesto C; Pérez, Pedro L; Del Río, Lesley; Tejeda, Yileidis; Perea, Yenitse; Martín, Odalys; Espinosa, Maryeris; Rivero, Jose A; Frómeta, Amarilys

    2018-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation. The Center of Immunoassay has developed the UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 to determine neonatal T4 levels in dried blood and serum samples. Both reagent kits use the same polystyrene plates coated with anti-thyroxine (T4) polyclonal antibodies as solid phase. This work shows the re-standardization of the UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 using plates coated with anti-T4 monoclonal antibodies (T4Mabs). Polystyrene plates of the modified assays were firstly coated with polyclonal IgG sheep-anti-mouse IgG for 18 hours. T4Mabs were added to the plates and incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. Different performance parameters were evaluated and correlation studies with the commercial kits done. Using polystyrene plates coated with T4Mabs increases the slope of the calibration curve in the clinical interest zone. The assay conjugates work twice diluted in respect to the ones of the commercial kits. Recovery percentages (90.8-110.7 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and 92.1-109.3 for UMELISA® T4) and intra (7.2-7.6 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and 6.9-7.2 for UMELISA® T4) and inter (7.4-8.5 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and 7.1-8.5 for UMELISA® T4) coefficients of variation were similar to the ones described for the commercial kits. Limits of detection and quantification were 9.0 and 21.1 nmol/L for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL, and 8.9 and 20.5 nmol/L for UMELISA® T4, respectively. The results also showed high overall concordance between assays (n = 244, r = 0.92, ρc = 0.91 for UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and n = 492, r = 0.92, ρc = 0.9 for UMELISA® T4). The analytical sensibility of UMELISA® T4 NEONATAL and UMELISA® T4 is improved by using polystyrene plates coated with T4Mabs, without affecting the precision and accuracy of the results. T4: L-Thyroxine; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SUMA: Ultra Micro Analytic System; UMELISA: Ultramicro enzyme

  12. Primary laryngeal tuberculosis mimicking laryngeal carcinoma: CT scan features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kettani, N Ech-Cherif; El Hassani, MR; Chakir, N; Jiddane, M

    2010-01-01

    Laryngeal tuberculosis is a rare disease. It is almost always associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. It occurs generally in adults without BCG vaccination or in cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. On laryngoscopy and imaging, it often simulates laryngeal carcinoma, and confirmation is always histological. We report the case of a 36-year-old man who presented to our hospital with dysphonia and dysphagia. Laryngoscopy revealed a lesion of the left vocal cord and the ventricular strip. CT scan found focal, regular thickening of the left vocal cord, associated with irregular thickening of the posterior laryngeal wall. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis

  13. Anaerobic Metabolism in T4 Acanthamoeba Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Daniella de Sousa Mendes Moreira; Alves, Luciano Moreira; da Costa, Tatiane Luiza; de Castro, Ana Maria; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2017-06-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are of the most common protozoa that has been isolated from a variety of environment and affect immunocompromised individuals, causing granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and skin lesions. Acanthamoeba, in immunocompetent patients, may cause a keratitis related to corneal microtrauma. These free-living amoebas easily adapt to the host environment and wield metabolic pathways such as the energetic and respiratory ones in order to maintain viability for long periods. The energetic metabolism of cysts and trophozoites remains mostly unknown. There are a few reports on the energetic metabolism of these organisms as they are mitochondriate eukaryotes and some studies under aerobic conditions showing that Acanthamoeba hydrolyzes glucose into pyruvate via glycolysis. The aim of this study was to detect the energetic metabolic pathways with emphasis on anaerobic metabolism in trophozoites of three isolates of Acanthamoeba sp belonging to the T4 genotype. Two samples were collected in the environment and one was a clinical sample. The evaluation of these microorganisms proceeded as follows: rupture of trophozoites (7.5 × 10 3 parasites/ml) and biochemical analysis with high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. The anaerobic glycolysis was identified through the detection of glucose, pyruvate, and lactate. The protein catabolism was identified through the detection of fumarate, urea, and creatinine. The fatty acid oxidation was identified through the detection of acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and propionate. The detected substances are the result of the consumption of energy reserves such as glycogen and lipids. The anaerobic glycolysis and protein catabolism pathways were observed in all three isolates: one clinical and two environmental. This study represents the first report of energetic pathways used by trophozoites from different isolates of the T4 genotype Acanthamoeba.

  14. Section four: laryngitis and dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

    2013-12-01

    Acute laryngitis is most often caused by viral illnesses through direct inflammation of the vocal cords or from irritation due to postnasal drainage. Bacterial infections, such as acute epiglottitis, also can cause dysphonia but typically have other systemic symptoms as well as respiratory distress. Chronic laryngitis is characterized by symptoms lasting more than 3 weeks. Chronic vocal cord issues can be related to overuse or stress on the vocal cords resulting in nodules or polyps. Individuals in certain occupations, such as singers, school teachers, and chemical workers, are at greater risk of chronic laryngitis. The diagnostic approach to chronic laryngitis should include visualization of the vocal cords to rule out potential malignant lesions. For acute and chronic overuse symptoms, the best treatment is vocal rest. The use of antibiotics or decongestants should be discouraged. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LARYNGEAL MALIGNANCIES AT OUR INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Mohan Mathan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Malignancies of larynx are an increasing global burden with a distribution of approximately 2-5% of all malignancies with an incidence of 3.6/1,00,000 for men and 1.3/1,00,000 for women with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1. Smoking and alcohol are major established risk factors. More than 90-95% of all malignancies are squamous cell type. Three main subsite of laryngeal malignancies are glottis, supraglottis and subglottis. Improved surgical techniques and advanced chemoradiotherapy has increased the overall 5 year survival rate. The above study is statistical analysis of laryngeal malignancies at our institution for a period of one year and analysis of pattern of distribution, aetiology, sites and subsites and causes for recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS Based on the statistical data available in the institution for the period of one year from January 2016-December 2016, all laryngeal malignancies were analysed with respect to demographic pattern, age, gender, site, subsite, aetiology, staging, treatment received and probable cause for failure of treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months period during the study. RESULTS Total number of cases studied are 27 (twenty seven. Male cases are 23 and female cases are 4, male-to-female ratio is 5.7:1, most common age is above 60 years, most common site is supraglottis, most common type is moderately-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, most common cause for relapse or recurrence is advanced stage of disease and poor differentiation. CONCLUSION The commonest age occurrence at the end of the study is above 60 years and male-to-female ratio is 5.7:1, which is slightly above the international standards. Most common site is supraglottis and not glottis. The relapse and recurrences are higher compared to the international standards.

  16. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Francesco; Missale, Francesco; Incandela, Fabiola; Filauro, Marta; Parrinello, Giampiero; Paderno, Alberto; Della Casa, Palmiro; Piazza, Cesare; Peretti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC) can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position. We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed. Significant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B ( p  = 0.04). A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A), although no statistical significance was achieved. Use of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.

  18. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTransoral laser microsurgery (TLM for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position.MethodsWe reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed.ResultsSignificant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B (p = 0.04. A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A, although no statistical significance was achieved.ConclusionUse of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.

  19. Prognostic factors in resected satellite-nodule T4 non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jagan; Sayeed, Rana A; Tomaszek, Sandra; Fischer, Stefan; Keshavjee, Shaf; Darling, Gail E

    2007-09-01

    The 1997 non-small cell lung cancer staging revisions assigned a T4 descriptor to satellite nodules in the primary tumor lobe. We reviewed our experience of satellite-nodule T4 non-small cell lung cancer following these revisions and evaluated prognostic factors for this group. All patients who underwent resection of non-small cell lung cancer between April 1997 and June 2005 with satellite nodule(s) confirmed at pathologic examination were identified from our institutional Lung Tumor Registry. Case notes and pathology reports were reviewed and data collected on possible prognostic factors. Survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival differences between groups were analyzed using the log-rank test. From 1,276 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent resection, 137 were staged pT4, and 35 were T4-satellite nodules. Median follow-up was 25 months (range, 1 to 102 months). Median main tumor size was 3.0 cm (range, 1 to 9.8 cm). Adenocarcinoma or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was the predominant histologic diagnosis (n = 28; 80%). One-, 3- and 5-year survival was 86%, 69%, and 57%, respectively; median survival was 68 months. During the same period, 137 patients undergoing resection for all T4 lesions had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival of 68%, 53%, and 18%, respectively. Adenocarcinoma or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma histologic diagnosis (adenocarcinoma or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma versus squamous, 75% versus 67% 3-year survival; p = 0.0026), female gender (66% versus 49% for males, 5-year survival; p = 0.041), and absence of vascular invasion (no invasion versus vascular invasion, 74% versus 20% 5-year survival; p = 0.0101) were significant predictors of better survival. Survival for resected T4 non-small cell lung cancer with satellite nodule(s) in the primary lobe is better than for other T4 lesions, and the T4 descriptor may unduly upstage these cases. The current T4 descriptor represents a heterogeneous population.

  20. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  1. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  2. Laryngeal Involvement of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Grobman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as “metastatic” multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options.

  3. Changes in survival in locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma over past three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Zawahry, I.M.Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the commonest carcinoma of the head and neck region with Squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) in 90 % of cases (Birchall Met al 2008) The incidence of laryngeal cancer was relatively about 160,000 new cases per year. The disease predominantly affects men; about 2.4% of all cancer cases and 2.1% of all cancer deaths worldwide ,also in United States in 2012 the Es)mated new cases is 12,360 and deaths from laryngeal cancer is 3,650. The majority of patients with SCC of larynx present with locally advanced (LA) disease.(American Cancer Society, 2012) The incidence of laryngeal cancer in the Kasr El-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University from year 2005 - 2008 is 3.1%per year. Advanced laryngeal cancer is generally considered as the disease in stages III and IV based on the primary tumor extension and/or the presence of metastatic lymph node(s) in the neck and it accounts for roughly 40% to 50% of patients with laryngeal cancer (Chen AY, et al 2006). From the second half of the 20th century total laryngectomy combined with a neck dissection was considered a treatment of choice for advanced laryngeal cancer (Genden EM et al, 2007). In most institutions, postoperative radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment following ablative surgery with radiation doses up to 60-66 Gy has also become the standard approach for patients with stage III-IV laryngeal cancer (Corvo R , 2007). However, the treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer seams to be a permanent challenge, but the management of patients with advanced laryngeal cancer has become more complex as other modalities including induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy have evolved with the goal of preserving the larynx and reserved total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for cases with less than 50% response to induction chemotherapy or in those who have persistent disease following concurrent chemo

  4. Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahannan, Abdulrahman; Slavicek, A.; Taudy, M.; Chovanec, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

  5. Sustained Benefit Lasting One Year from T4 Instead of T3-T4 Sympathectomy for Isolated Axillary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Marco Antonio S.; Wolosker, Nelson; Kaufmann, Paulo; de Campos, José Ribas Milanes; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Level T4 video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy proved superior to T3-T4 treatment for controlling axillary hyperhidrosis at the initial and six-month follow-ups of these patients. OBJECTIVE To compare the results of two levels of sympathectomy (T3-T4 vs. T4) for treating axillary sudoresis over one year of follow-up. METHODS Sixty-four patients with axillary hyperhidrosis were randomized to denervation of T3-T4 or T4 alone and followed prospectively. All patients were examined preoperatively and were followed postoperatively for one year. Axillary hyperhidrosis treatment was evaluated, along with the presence, location, and severity of compensatory hyperhidrosis and self-reported quality of life. RESULTS According to patient reports after one year, all cases of axillary hyperhidrosis were successfully treated by surgery. There were no instances of treatment failure. After six months, compensatory hyperhidrosis was present in 27 patients of the T3-T4 group (87.1%) and in 16 patients of the T4 group (48.5%). After one year, all T3-T4 patients experienced some degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis, compared to only 14 patients in the T4 group (42.4%). In addition, compensatory hyperhidrosis was less severe in the T4 patients (p hyperhidrosis, but the T4 group showed milder compensatory hyperhidrosis and greater patient satisfaction at the one-year follow-up. PMID:19060999

  6. Self evaluation of communication experiences after laryngeal cancer – A longitudinal questionnaire study in patients with laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finizia Caterina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the sensitivity to change of the Swedish Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer questionnaire (the S-SECEL, addressing communication dysfunction in patients treated for laryngeal cancer. Previous studies have highlighted the need for more specific questionnaires for this purpose. Methods 100 patients with Tis-T4 laryngeal cancer were included prior to treatment onset. Patients answered four questionnaires at six occasions during one year; the S-SECEL, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Core Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30 supplemented by the Head and Neck cancer module (QLQ-H&N35 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale. In addition, performance status was assessed. Differences within groups were tested with the Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test and between-group analyses were carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test. Magnitude of group differences was analyzed by means of effect sizes. Results The S-SECEL was well accepted with a response rate of 76%. Communication dysfunction increased at 1 month, followed by a continuous decrease throughout the year. Changes were statistically significant at most measurement, demonstrating the sensitivity of the S-SECEL to changes in communication over time. The S-SECEL and the EORTC QLQ-C30 with the QLQ-H&N35 demonstrated similar results; however the S-SECEL was more sensitive regarding communication dysfunction. The largest changes were found in the most diagnose specific items concerning voice and speech. Conclusion The S-SECEL was investigated in the largest Scandinavian longitudinal study concerning health-related quality of life (HRQL in laryngeal cancer patients. The questionnaire was responsive to change and showed convergent results when compared to established HRQL questionnaires. Our findings also indicate that the S-SECEL could be a more

  7. Pediatric mumps with laryngeal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yujiro; Oi, Yasufumi; Matsuoka, Ryo; Daimon, Yumi; Ito, Asami; Kubota, Wataru; Konishi, Kyoko; Onguchi, Toshimi; Sato, Akihiro; Yamashita, Yukio; Ishihara, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Mumps virus infection primarily affects the salivary glands and may incur various complications. Laryngeal edema is such a rare complication that few adult cases have been reported. We report the first known pediatric patient with mumps with laryngeal edema. An 8-year-old boy developed dyspnea after a rapidly progressive swelling of his face and neck. Laryngoscopy revealed edematous changes in the supraglottic and subglottic regions, and computed tomography confirmed significant laryngeal edema in addition to swelling of the cervical soft tissue and the salivary glands. Laboratory findings revealed a high serum amylase level and confirmed the diagnosis of mumps. Intravenous steroid administration alleviated the dyspnea, although the patient required temporary tracheal intubation to maintain airway patency. He did not need tracheotomy and did not experience any other complications. Laryngeal edema must be regarded as a rare, potentially life-threatening complication of mumps. When mumps is diagnosed with significant swelling of the neck, an emergency airway should be established to prevent airway obstruction.

  8. IMPLANTATION METASTASIS OF LARYNGEAL CANCER AFTER PERCUTANEOUS ENDOSCOPIC GASTROSTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Guz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell head and neck carcinoma is frequently associated with dysphagia. An adequate enteral nutrition is the key to successful treatment and rehabilitation of these patients. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in head and neck cancer patients with dysphagia. We report a rare case of implantation metastasis of laryngeal cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Our experience in treating this complication has been described. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a less-invasive procedure than open gastrostomy. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy can be accompanied by severe complications such as implantation metastasis at gastrostomy site. Careful monitoring can provide early detection of this complication and early treatment. 

  9. Use of PET/CT to detect local and regional laryngeal cancer recurrence after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegra E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia Allegra,1 Vincenzo Saita,2 Massimo De Natale,2 Nicolò Marino,2 Serena Trapasso,1 Stefania Tamburrini,3 Caterina Alessio,4 Massimo Ippolito5 1Otolaryngology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Cannizzaro Hospital, Catania, 3Department of Radiology, Pellegrini Hospital, Naples, 4Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine-Radiology, University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cannizzaro Hospital, Catania, Italy Background: Laryngeal cancer is the second most common cancer of the head and neck after cancer of the oral cavity. The primary causes of death in cases of laryngeal cancer are the recurrence of locoregional disease and distant metastasis. Anatomic and tissue alterations resulting from surgery and/or radiotherapy of primary laryngeal tumors can make it difficult to determine a locoregional recurrence or residual disease by physical examination or computed tomography (CT/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The majority of studies have shown a high accuracy in the detection of local and regional recurrence of head and neck cancer after different treatment modalities, using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-positron emission tomography (PET/CT.Aim: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT in patients with suspicion of locoregional recurrence from laryngeal carcinoma after surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study. Forty-five patients who previously underwent surgical treatment with or without adjuvant radiotherapy for primary laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and who underwent examination using FDG-PET/CT imaging after clinical and instrumental (CT/MRI suspicion of locoregional recurrence (T or N were recruited.Results: Overall specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of PET/CT were found to be 88%, 100%, and 93.3%, respectively. With respect to the suspected cases of recurrence in the primary

  10. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Isabela; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin). The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  11. Lysis of lysis-inhibited bacteriophage T4-infected cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Abedon, S T

    1992-01-01

    T4 bacteriophage (phage)-infected cells show a marked increase in latent-period length, called lysis inhibition, upon adsorption of additional T4 phages (secondary adsorption). Lysis inhibition is a complex phenotype requiring the activity of at least six T4 genes. Two basic mysteries surround our understanding of the expression of lysis inhibition: (i) the mechanism of initiation (i.e., how secondary adsorption leads to the expression of lysis inhibition) and (ii) the mechanism of lysis (i.e...

  12. Clinical experiences of NBI laryngoscope in diagnosis of laryngeal lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinmeng; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Xue; Jin, Chunshun; Sun, Changling; Liu, Xueshibojie; Cheng, Jinzhang; Zhang, Dejun

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopy is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers derived from the larynx. However, a laryngoscope with conventional white light (CWL) has technical limitations in detecting small or superficial lesions on the mucosa. Narrow band imaging especially combined with magnifying endoscopy (ME) is useful for the detection of superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and oral cavity. A total of 3675 patients who have come to the outpatient clinic and complained of inspiratory stridor, dyspnea, phonation problems or foreign body sensation, were enrolled in this study. We describe the glottic conditions of the patients. All 3675 patients underwent laryngoscopy equipped with conventional white light (CWL) and NBI system. 1149 patients received a biopsy process. And 1153 lesions were classified into different groups according to their histopathological results. Among all the 1149 patients, 346 patients (312 males, 34 females; mean age 62.2±10.5 years) were suspected of having a total of 347 precancerous or cancerous (T1 or T2 without lymphnode involvement) lesions of the larynx under the CWL. Thus, we expected to attain a complete vision of what laryngeal lesions look like under the NBI view of a laryngoscope. The aim was to develop a complete description list of each laryngeal conditions (e.g. polyps, papilloma, leukoplakia, etc.), which can serve as a criteria for further laryngoscopic examinations and diagnosis. PMID:25419362

  13. САР1 AS A SERUM MARKER FOR EARLY DETECTION OF LARYNGEAL AND HYPOPHARYNGEAL CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kakurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is often asymptomatic until it reaches the advanced stage. Currently, there are no available markers that can accurately predict the risk of progression of epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the level of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP-1 in the blood serum to identify groups of increased risk of cancer in patients with chronic laryngeal and hypopharyngeal hyperplasia associated with epithelial dysplasia. Material and methods. The blood serums from 45 patients with SCCHN (T1–4N0–3M0, 12 patients  with chronic inflammatory laryngeal and hypopharyngeal diseases and 15 heath subjects were examined. The blood analysis was performed using the CAP1 ELISA kit (Cusabio on the Biochrom Anthos 2020 Microplate IEA Reader. Results. The serum level of САР1 was higher by 75 % in patients with SCCHN (Т1N0M0 than in patients with chronic hyperplastic laryngitis. Moreover, differences in the serum level of САР1 were observed between healthy subjects and patients with chronic laryngeal hyperplasia. In SCCHN patients with regional metastases, CAP1 concentration in the blood serum was 2 times higher compared to that observed in SCCHN patients without regional metastases (p≤0.01. Conclusion. The study results showed the feasibility of using the level of CAP1 for distinguishing patients with chronic hyperplastic laryngitis from those with laryngeal cancer, as well as for early detection of SCCHN and the development of new method for prediction of disease.

  14. Dysphonia as a sign of HPV laryngeal infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longubuco, Carlos Eduardo Gama; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; de Pinho, Carla Renata Petillo; Oliveira, Nathalia Silva; Nicol, Alcina Frederica; Zamolyi, Renata Quintella; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho

    2014-12-11

    Voice dysfunction or dysphonia may be associated with several clinical conditions. Among these, laryngeal human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions should be considered as a possible causative factor. We report a case of dysphonia in a patient presenting with an HPV laryngeal lesion. We also discuss the clinical features of the disease, its histopathological findings, and treatment and rigorous follow-up. We report a case of laryngeal papilloma in a 29-year-old, Afro-descendant, male patient with dysphonia. He was a non-smoker and was not a drug user. Videolaryngostroboscopy revealed signs suggestive of pharyngolaryngeal reflux. The right vocal fold presented with a papillomatous aspect in the posterior third, which underwent excision. Histopathological examination showed a nodular lesion of the right vocal fold, conclusive of squamous papilloma with absence of malignancy. Patients presenting with persistent voice dysfunction or dysphonia should be investigated for possible laryngeal HPV infection. Diagnostic confirmation by HPV genotyping is important for follow-up of potential recurrence.

  15. T4 phages against Escherichia coli diarrhea: potential and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Bruttin, Anne; Barretto, Caroline; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Brüssow, Harald; Zuber, Sophie

    2009-05-25

    A combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments with comparative phage genomics was used for the rational design of a phage cocktail against E. coli diarrhea. Orally applied T4 coliphages representing three different subgroups (T4-, RB49- and JS98-like phages) had no negative impact on the murine gut microbiota. T4 phages were found with high titers in the cecum and colon and lower titers in the small intestine, but were not detected in the blood, liver or spleen. No adverse effects were observed after one-month exposure to phage nor were serum anti-T4 antibodies detected. T4 phages belonging to the same subgroup showed closely related genomes that differed by 12 (phage JS10 vs. JS98 reference) to 17 (phage JSE vs. RB49 reference) insertion/deletions mostly representing single small ORFs. Bioinformatic analysis did not reveal undesired genes in the T4 genomes. Sequence variability was seen over the tail fibre genes, but the variability did not correlate with phage host range. The investigated T4 phages were not only species- but also strain-specific, necessitating the use of phage cocktails consisting of 10 and 16 T4 phage isolates to cover half to two thirds of E. coli strains representing the five main pathotypes isolated from diarrhea patients.

  16. [Laryngeal tuberculosis: study of 11 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, M; Alonso, M; Aguirrebengoa, K; Moreno, G; Goicoetxea, J; Petreñas, E; Bañuelos, S; Vergez, A

    2001-01-01

    We report 11 patients with laryngeal tuberculosis seen in our hospital, January 1990 to July 2000. Eight were men and all cases presented with dysphonia and/or disphagia. In 8 pulmonary tuberculosis was associated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the sputum in 7 patients. Granulomatous laryngitis was demonstrated in the eight patients with laryngeal biopsy. The evolution with medical treatment was favourable in all patients.

  17. Predicting the local outcome of glottic squamous cell carcinoma after definitive radiation therapy: value of computed tomography-determined tumour parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, R.; Van den Bogaert, W.; Rijnders, A.; Doornaert, P.; Baert, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The T-classification has shortcomings in the prediction of local outcome of glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated by definitive radiation therapy. In this regard, the value of several CT-derived tumour parameters as predictors of local outcome was investigated. Materials and methods: The pretreatment CT studies of 119 patients with glottic SCC (T1, n=61; T2, n=40; T3, n=14; T4, n=4) treated with curative intent by radiation therapy were reviewed for tumoral involvement of specific laryngeal anatomic subsites (including laryngeal cartilages). Tumour volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. Actuarial (life-table) statistical analysis was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model.Results: In the actuarial analysis tumour volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (P=0.0062). Involvement of the cricoid cartilage (P=0.0052), anterior commissure (P=0.0203), subglottis (P=0.0481) and preepiglottic space (P=0.0134) and degree of involvement of the true vocal cord (P=0.0441) and paraglottic space at the level of the true vocal cord (P=0.0002) were also significantly correlated with local recurrence rate. In the multivariate analysis, only degree of involvement of the paraglottic space (at the level of the true vocal cord) (P=0.0001) and preepiglottic space (P=0.02) were found to be independent predictors of local recurrence. The T-category was significantly correlated with local outcome in the actuarial analysis (P=0.0001), but not in the multivariate analysis (P=0.5915). Conclusions: Several CT-derived parameters are powerful predictors of local outcome in glottic cancer treated with radiation therapy; some of these parameters are stronger linked to the local control rate than the T-classification. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Apropos of a case of cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal cancer with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeeta Trehan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma is a rare occurrence. A 55-year-old male patient with supraglottic cancer was treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Eighteen months later, he presented with ulceroproliferative growth on dorsum of the right hand. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Further investigations revealed underlying bone destruction with lung metastasis. In view of poor general condition and widespread dissemination of disease, palliative radiotherapy was delivered to the hand of the patient. He achieved satisfactory palliation in form of pain relief, control of bleeding, and discharge. The present report serves to emphasize the importance of properly diagnosing metastatic spread to unusual sites. Such metastasis is rare and is associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment is usually aimed at providing pain relief in these patients with limited life expectancy. Hence, we present a case of extensive cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma with review of the literature.

  19. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    the basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alpha and EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through......Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF...... receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated...

  20. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  1. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  2. The presence and prognostic significance of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkul, Evren; Yilmaz, Ismail; Narli, Gizem; Babayigit, Mustafa Alparslan; Gungor, Atila; Demirel, Dilaver

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of HPV in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and correlate it with patients' clinicopathological data. In total, 78 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients enrolled in this study. The presence of genotype-specific HPV DNA was evaluated using Genotyping Assay in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue which was diagnosed between 2005 and 2015. All samples were also evaluated for p16 immunohistochemical staining. HPV DNA and p16 status were assessed in terms of location, smoking, alcohol consumption, lymph node status, tumor stage, overall survival, disease-free survival, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion retrospectively. Five test samples were excluded from the study due to inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity. HPV DNA was detected in 19 of 73 (26.02%) in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus in one case (types 16 and 59) and HPV 16 in the remaining cases. Although HPV-positive cases showed slightly better 3 years survival than HPV-negative ones, this finding was not statistically significant (overall survival p = 0.417, HPV positive: 92.3%, HPV negative: 81.4%, and disease-free survival p = 0.526, HPV positive: 93.8%, HPV negative: 80.9%). The presence of HPV DNA was not significantly associated with any clinicopathological features (p > 0.05). Among 73 patients, only 4 had an immunohistochemical staining of p16 and these patients were also HPV DNA 16 positive. Although our study results revealed a slightly better survival in patients with HPV DNA positivity for HPV 16 compared to the negative ones, the difference was not statistically significant. However, an increasing rate in especially high-risk-type HPV-16 prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by RT-PCR method was observed compared to our previous study. Although the presence of HPV in laryngeal SCCs seems to be associated with slightly better

  3. Re-initiation repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupido, M.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation of bacteriophage T4 with ultraviolet light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers in its DNA. These dimers hamper replication of DNA and, to a lesser extent, transcription of DNA after its infection of bacteria. A number of pathways enable phage T4 to multiply dimer-containing DNA. One of these pathways has been named replication repair and is described in this thesis. The properties of two phage strains, unable to perform replication repair, have been studied to obtain a picture of the repair process. The mutations in these strains that affect replication repair have been located on the genomic map of T4. (Auth.)

  4. The accuracy of target delineation in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Kooij, Nina; Ligtenberg, Hans; Jager, Elise A; Schakel, Tim; Kasperts, Nicolien; Pameijer, Frank A; Terhaard, Chris H J; Janssen, Luuk M; van Diest, Paul J; Philippens, Marielle E P; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the spatial correspondence between the gross tumor volume (GTV) delineated on computer tomography (CT) and the actual tumor on histopathology. Sixteen patients with T3 or T4 laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer underwent a CT scan before total laryngectomy. The GTV was delineated on CT by three independent observers and by consensus between the three observers. After surgery, whole-mount hematoxylin-eosin stained (H&E) sections were obtained. One pathologist delineated the tumor in the H&E sections (tumorH&E). The reconstructed specimen was registered to the CT scan in order to compare the GTV to the tumorH&E in three dimensions. The overlap between the GTV and the tumorH&E was calculated and the distance between the volumes was determined. Tumor tissue was delineated in 203 of 516 H&E sections. For 14 patients a detailed analysis could be performed. The GTV volume was on average 1.7 times larger than the volume of the tumorH&E. The mean coverage of the tumorH&E by the consensus GTV was 88%. tumorH&E tissue was found at 1.6 mm to 12.9 mm distance outside the GTV depending on observer and patient. GTVs delineated on CT for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer were 1.7 times larger than the tumor. Complete coverage of the tumor by the GTV was, however, not obtained.

  5. Acanthamoeba T4 genotype associated with keratitis infections in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendana, F; Sellami, H; Trabelsi, H; Neji, S; Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2013-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection. We report five cases of AK diagnosed from 2005 to 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital, Tunisia. All were associated with improper care of contact lenses (rinsing of contact lenses with tap water and inappropriate cleaning) and lens storage. The patients displayed different clinical presentations: corneal inflammation, corneal ulceration, and corneal abscess. The diagnosis was made after direct examination, culture, and polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers. The genotype classification was based on the highly variable DF3 region in the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first study characterizing Acanthamoeba genotype in Tunisia and North Africa. All Acanthamoeba isolates were associated to the T4 genotype. Three different DF3 sequence types were related to AK infections T4/10, T4/15, and T4/16.

  6. The diversity and evolution of the T4-type bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplats, Carine; Krisch, Henry M

    2003-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that viruses are the most numerous entities in the biosphere; bacteriophages, the viruses that infect Eubacteria and Archaea, constitute a substantial fraction of this population. In spite of their ubiquity, the vast majority of phages in the environment have never been studied and nothing is known about them. For the last 10 years our research has focused on an extremely widespread group of phages, the T4-type. It has now become evident that phage T4 has a myriad of relatives in nature that differ significantly in their host range. The genomes of all these phages have homology to the T4 genes that determine virion morphology. Although phylogenetically related, these T4-type phages can be subdivided into four groups that are increasingly distant from T4: the T-evens, the pseudo T-evens, the schizo T-evens and the exo T-evens. Genomic comparisons between the various T4-type phages and T4 indicate that these genomes share homology not only for virion structural components but also for most of the essential genes involved in the T4 life cycle. This suggests that horizontal transmission of the genetic information may have played a less general role in the evolution of these phages than has been supposed. Nevertheless, we have identified several regions of the T4-type genome, such as the segment containing the tail fiber genes that exhibit evidence of extensive modular shuffling during evolution. The T4-type genomes appear to be a mosaic containing a large and fixed group of essential genes as well as highly variable set of non-essential genes. These non-essential genes are probably important for the adaptation of these phages to their particular life-style. Furthermore, swapping autonomous domains within the essential proteins may slightly modify their function(s) and contribute to the adaptive ability of the T4-type phage family. Regulatory sequences also display considerable evolutionary plasticity and this too may facilitate the adaptation of

  7. Clinical manifestation of Laryngeal Tuberculosis | Abdalla | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All tuberculous patients with laryngeal symptoms and those diagnosed histologically to have laryngeal tuberculosis were included. Results: Eight patients were studied; they were five males and three females, with age range between 12-70 years (mean 41years). Strider, dysphonia and dysphagia were the main complaints.

  8. Contemporary management of advanced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Christopher J; Gourin, Christine G

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, with an increase in chemoradiation for organ preservation and a decrease in primary surgery. This review will summarize the contemporary management of advanced laryngeal cancer and discuss treatment-related toxicity and strategies to improve outcomes. NA.

  9. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, James M; Petrov, Vasiliy; Bertrand, Claire; Krisch, Henry M; Karam, Jim D

    2006-05-23

    Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR) and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs) that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4-like phages harbour a wealth of genetic material that has

  10. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  11. Concurrent chemotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and oropharynx: A retrospective single-institution analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Saba (Nabil); D.J. Edelman (David); M. Tighiouart (Mourad); J.G. Gaultney (Jennifer G.); L.W. Davis (Lawrence); F.R. Khuri (Fadlo); A. Chen (Amy); S. Grist (Scott); D.M. Shin (Dong)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. We present outcome data from concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx and oropharyx. Methods. Eighty patients with laryngeal (n = 15) or oropharyngeal (n = 65) SCC underwent concurrent IMRT and

  12. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Ortíz, Vicente José; Paz-Delgadillo, Diana Estela; Marino-Martínez, Iván; Ceseñas-Falcón, Luis Ángel; Sandoval-de la Fuente, Anabel; Reyes-Escobedo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck comprises a group of neoplasms that share a similar anatomical origin. Most originate from the epithelium of the aerodigestive tract and 90% correspond to squamous cell carcinoma. In the last 15 years, an increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been seen, mainly types 16 and 18, which are the most frequent found in cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and types 6 and 11 in laryngeal cancer. There are reports in the literature that show HPV as the leading cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Determine the prevalence of infection with high-risk HPV in patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, unblinded study was performed. Prevalence of HPV infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA samples from tumour tissue of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. Typing was subsequently performed in HPV positive samples in order to detect types 18, 16, 11 and 6, using custom primers. A total of 45 patients were included. The association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV was established in two patients, which represented an overall prevalence of 4.4% in our population, and 10% for laringeal tumours. There is a low prevalence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx, in our population. Prospective studies on younger patients could provide more information. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  14. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative genomics of the T4-Like Escherichia coli phage JS98: implications for the evolution of T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani-Chennoufi, Sandra; Canchaya, Carlos; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald

    2004-12-01

    About 130 kb of sequence information was obtained from the coliphage JS98 isolated from the stool of a pediatric diarrhea patient in Bangladesh. The DNA shared up to 81% base pair identity with phage T4. The most conserved regions between JS98 and T4 were the structural genes, but their degree of conservation was not uniform. The head genes showed the highest sequence conservation, followed by the tail, baseplate, and tail fiber genes. Many tail fiber genes shared only protein sequence identity. Except for the insertion of endonuclease genes in T4 and gene 24 duplication in JS98, the structural gene maps of the two phages were colinear. The receptor-recognizing tail fiber proteins gp37 and gp38 were only distantly related to T4, but shared up to 83% amino acid identity to other T6-like phages, suggesting lateral gene transfer. A greater degree of variability was seen between JS98 and T4 over DNA replication and DNA transaction genes. While most of these genes came in the same order and shared up to 76% protein sequence identity, a few rearrangements, insertions, and replacements of genes were observed. Many putative gene insertions in the DNA replication module of T4 were flanked by intron-related endonuclease genes, suggesting mobile DNA elements. A hotspot of genome diversification was located downstream of the DNA polymerase gene 43 and the DNA binding gene 32. Comparative genomics of 100-kb genome sequence revealed that T4-like phages diversify more by the accumulation of point mutations and occasional gene duplication events than by modular exchanges.

  16. Human Papillomavirus Subtype 16 and the Pathologic Characteristics of Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdel Motaal Gomaa MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of cancer in the head and neck. Human papillomavirus (HPV represents a group of >150 related viruses. Infection with certain types of HPV can cause some types of cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic and histopathologic characters of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and its relationship to HPV subtype 16 (HPV-16. Study design Cross-sectional. Setting Tertiary university hospitals at 5 districts in Egypt (Minia, Cairo, Giza, Qaluobia, and Bani Seuif. Subjects and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 adult patients with laryngeal cancer who were admitted at 5 tertiary care hospitals in Egypt from January 2014 through December 2014. All patients were subjected to a comprehensive preoperative assessment, histopathologic assessments of tumor biopsies, and immunohistochemical staining for HPV-16. Results HPV-16 immunostaining was positive in 9 patients (18%. A significant correlation between HPV-16 immunoreactivity and tumor grade ( P < .001 was detected, with no significant correlation between HPV-16 immunoreactivity and other clinical and pathologic variables. Conclusion The frequency of HPV-16 in laryngeal carcinoma is 18%, and there is significant correlation between HPV-16 and tumor grade.

  17. Health insurance and stage at diagnosis of laryngeal cancer: does insurance type predict stage at diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Amy Y; Schrag, Nicole M; Halpern, Michael; Stewart, Andrew; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2007-08-01

    To examine whether patients with no insurance or Medicaid are more likely to present with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer. Retrospective cohort study from the National Cancer Database, 1996-2003. Hospital-based practice. Patients with known insurance status diagnosed as having invasive laryngeal cancer at Commission on Cancer facilities (N = 61 131) were included. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression models analyzed the likelihood of presenting at a more advanced stage. Overall stage of laryngeal cancer (early vs advanced) and tumor size (T stage) at diagnosis. Patients with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer at diagnosis were more likely to be uninsured (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-2.15) or covered by Medicaid (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 2.21-2.61) compared with those with private insurance. Similarly, patients were most likely to present with the largest tumors (T4 disease) if they were uninsured (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 2.60-3.28) or covered by Medicaid (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 3.56-4.34). Patients who were black, between ages 18 and 56 years, and who resided in zip codes with low proportions of high school graduates or low median household incomes were also more likely to be diagnosed as having advanced disease and/or larger tumors. Individuals lacking insurance or having Medicaid are at greatest risk for presenting with advanced laryngeal cancer. Results for the Medicaid group may be influenced by the postdiagnosis enrollment of uninsured patients. It is important to consider the impact of insurance coverage on stage at diagnosis and associated morbidity, mortality, quality of life, and costs.

  18. Quality indicators of laryngeal cancer care in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourin, Christine G; Frick, Kevin D; Blackford, Amanda L; Herbert, Robert J; Quon, Harry; Forastiere, Arlene A; Eisele, David W; Dy, Sydney M

    2014-09-01

    To examine associations between quality of care, survival, and costs in elderly patients treated for laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCCA). Retrospective analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare data. We evaluated 2,370 patients diagnosed with laryngeal SCCA from 2004 to 2007 using multivariate regression and survival analysis. Using quality indicators derived from guidelines for recommended care, summary measures of quality were calculated for diagnosis, initial treatment, surveillance, treatment of recurrence, end-of-life care, performance, and an overall summary measure of quality. High-quality care was associated with significant differences in survival for diagnosis [HR = 0.80, 95% CI (0.66-0.97)], initial treatment [HR = 0.75 (0.63-0.88)], surveillance [HR = 0.54 (0.44-0.66)], treatment of recurrence [HR = 1.54 (1.26-1.89)], end-of-life care [HR = 0.69 (0.52-0.92)], performance [HR = 0.41 (0.33-0.52)], and an overall summary measure of quality [HR = 0.66 (0.54-0.80)], which was significantly associated with lower mean incremental costs [-$24,958 (-$35,873 - -$14,042)]. There was a significant survival advantage for initial treatment with surgery and postoperative radiation [HR = 0.66 (0.53-0.82)] and high-volume surgical care [HR = 0.64 (0.43-0.96)] after controlling for all other variables, including quality of care. High-quality larynx cancer care in elderly patients was associated with improved survival and reduced costs; however, high-quality care for treatment of recurrence was associated with poorer survival. These data suggest that survival outcomes in elderly patients with laryngeal cancer are not entirely explained by differences in the receipt of quality care using existing treatment and performance quality indicators and also suggest a need to develop sensitive and valid quality indicators of larynx cancer care in this population. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII - Running the Map into the Ground. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 898-908. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. T-4G Methodology: Undergraduate Pilot Training T-37 Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert R.; And Others

    The report's brief introduction describes the application of T-4G methodology to the T-37 instrument phase of undergraduate pilot training. The methodology is characterized by instruction in trainers, proficiency advancement, a highly structured syllabus, the training manager concept, early exposure to instrument training, and hands-on training.…

  1. Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Lindsay W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 capsid is an elongated icosahedron, 120 nm long and 86 nm wide, and is built with three essential proteins; gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice, gp24*, which forms pentamers at eleven of the twelve vertices, and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which DNA enters during packaging and exits during infection. The past twenty years of research has greatly elevated the understanding of phage T4 head assembly and DNA packaging. The atomic structure of gp24 has been determined. A structural model built for gp23 using its similarity to gp24 showed that the phage T4 major capsid protein has the same fold as that found in phage HK97 and several other icosahedral bacteriophages. Folding of gp23 requires the assistance of two chaperones, the E. coli chaperone GroEL and the phage coded gp23-specific chaperone, gp31. The capsid also contains two non-essential outer capsid proteins, Hoc and Soc, which decorate the capsid surface. The structure of Soc shows two capsid binding sites which, through binding to adjacent gp23 subunits, reinforce the capsid structure. Hoc and Soc have been extensively used in bipartite peptide display libraries and to display pathogen antigens including those from HIV, Neisseria meningitides, Bacillus anthracis, and FMDV. The structure of Ip1*, one of the components of the core, has been determined, which provided insights on how IPs protect T4 genome against the E. coli nucleases that degrade hydroxymethylated and glycosylated T4 DNA. Extensive mutagenesis combined with the atomic structures of the DNA packaging/terminase proteins gp16 and gp17 elucidated the ATPase and nuclease functional motifs involved in DNA translocation and headful DNA cutting. Cryo-EM structure of the T4 packaging machine showed a pentameric motor assembled with gp17 subunits on the portal vertex. Single molecule optical tweezers and fluorescence studies showed that the T4 motor packages

  2. Primary candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Primary candidiasis is rare and often confused with a pre-cancerous lesion, squamous cell carcinoma, or verrucous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord following primary candidiasis. A 62-year-old man presented to our department reporting a 1-month history of hoarseness. He underwent laryngeal microscopic surgery for a presumptive diagnosis of glottic carcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed candidiasis and scattered moderate dysplasia. He was treated with itraconazole for 4 weeks, and followed up without any recurrence of candidiasis. However, the 42-month follow-up examination revealed a focal whitish lesion on the right true vocal cord, and a repeat biopsy of this area revealed squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of candidiasis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and remains well with no signs of tumor recurrence or candidiasis.

  3. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, David R; Gibb, Ewan A; Belfort, Marlene

    2010-10-28

    Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements.

  4. Mobile DNA elements in T4 and related phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belfort Marlene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile genetic elements are common inhabitants of virtually every genome where they can exert profound influences on genome structure and function in addition to promoting their own spread within and between genomes. Phage T4 and related phage have long served as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a certain class of mobile DNA, homing endonucleases, promote their spread. Homing endonucleases are site-specific DNA endonucleases that initiate mobility by introducing double-strand breaks at defined positions in genomes lacking the endonuclease gene, stimulating repair and recombination pathways that mobilize the endonuclease coding region. In phage T4, homing endonucleases were first discovered as encoded within the self-splicing td, nrdB and nrdD introns of T4. Genomic data has revealed that homing endonucleases are extremely widespread in T-even-like phage, as evidenced by the astounding fact that ~11% of the T4 genome encodes homing endonuclease genes, with most of them located outside of self-splicing introns. Detailed studies of the mobile td intron and its encoded endonuclease, I-TevI, have laid the foundation for genetic, biochemical and structural aspects that regulate the mobility process, and more recently have provided insights into regulation of homing endonuclease function. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding T4-encoded homing endonucleases, with particular emphasis on the td/I-TevI model system. We also discuss recent progress in the biology of free-standing endonucleases, and present areas of future research for this fascinating class of mobile genetic elements.

  5. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cire Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.

  6. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Cire; Regonne, Eric Joel; Ahmed, Houra; Diom, Evelyne Siga; Deguenonvo, Richard Edouard Alain; Mbaye, Aminata; Zemene, Yilkal; Ndiaye, Issa Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.

  7. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Cire; Regonne, Eric Joel; Ahmed, Houra; Diom, Evelyne Siga; Deguenonvo, Richard Edouard Alain; Mbaye, Aminata; Zemene, Yilkal; Ndiaye, Issa Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.

  8. Laryngeal Chondritis in Sheep in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurðardóttir, Ó G; Jörundsson, E; Friðriksdóttir, V

    2016-11-01

    Laryngeal chondritis is a chronic disease in sheep with low morbidity, high mortality and unresolved pathogenesis. The disease has been recognized recently in Iceland and affects both ewes and rams. Animals of different ages are affected, but lambs and yearlings predominate. The disease is seen in housed animals and most cases occur during the late winter months. We report the gross and microscopical findings in 45 cases of laryngeal chondritis in Icelandic sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Laryngeal sarkoidose hos 13-årig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlow, Louise Buchreitz; Rasmussen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown pathogenesis. It can affect numerous organs but most commonly involves the respiratory tract. On rare occasions it only involves the larynx. We describe a case of isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis in a teenage girl with symptoms of hoarseness......, snoring and dyspnoea. The diagnosis was supported by detection of granulomatous inflammation in a laryngeal biopsy. She was successfully treated by surgical excision of the granulomatous swellings of the arytenoids and epiglottis combined with inhaled corticosteroids....

  10. Laryngitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Bacterial or fungal infections Infections with certain parasites Other causes of chronic hoarseness include: Cancer Vocal ... reflux disease (GERD). Include whole grains, fruits and vegetables in your diet. These foods contain vitamins A, ...

  11. LPS-Activated Monocytes Are Unresponsive to T4 Phage and T4-Generated Escherichia coli Lysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Katarzyna; Borysowski, Jan; Zarzycki, Michał; Wierzbicki, Piotr; Kłosowska, Danuta; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data shows that bacteriophages can interact with different kinds of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether T4 bacteriophage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate affect functions of monocytes, the key population of immune cells involved in antibacterial immunity. To that end, we evaluated how T4 and E. coli lysate influence the expression of main costimulatory molecules including CD40, CD80 and CD86, TLR2, TLR4 on monocytes, as well as the production of IL-6 and IL-12 in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Separate experiments were performed on unactivated and LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. Both studied preparations significantly increased the percentage of CD14(+)CD16(-)CD40(+) and CD14(+)CD16(-)CD80(+) monocytes in unactivated PBMCs cultures, as well as the concentration of IL-6 and IL-12 in culture supernates. However, neither purified T4 nor E. coli lysate had any significant effect on monocytes in LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. We conclude that LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to phages and products of phage-induced lysis of bacteria. This study is highly relevant to phage therapy because it suggests that in patients with infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria the administration of phage preparations to patients and lysis of bacteria by phages are not likely to overly stimulate monocytes.

  12. LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to T4 phage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bocian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data shows that bacteriophages can interact with different kinds of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether T4 bacteriophage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate affect functions of monocytes, the key population of immune cells involved in antibacterial immunity. To that end we evaluated how T4 and E. coli lysate influence the expression of main costimulatory molecules including CD40, CD80 and CD86, TLR2, TLR4 on monocytes, as well as the production of IL-6 and IL-12 in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Separate experiments were performed on unactivated and LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. Both studied preparations significantly increased the percentage of CD14+CD16-CD40+ and CD14+CD16-CD80+ monocytes in unactivated PBMCs cultures, as well as the concentration of IL-6 and IL-12 in culture supernates. However, neither purified T4 nor E. coli lysate had any significant effect on monocytes in LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. We conclude that LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to phages and products of phage-induced lysis of bacteria. This study is highly relevant to phage therapy because it suggests that in patients with infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria the administration of phage preparations to patients and lysis of bacteria by phages are not likely to overly stimulate monocytes.

  13. Laryngeal neurinoma. Differential diagnosis of submucosal laryngeal tumors; Neurinoma laringeo. Diagnostico diferencial de tumoraciones submucosas laringeas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, A.; Palomo, V.; Munoz, R.; Sanchez, F.

    2002-07-01

    Laryngeal neurinoma is a rare benign tumor that appears as a submucosal mass, generally in the supraglottic region. We report the case of a patient with dysphonia of long evolution caused by a neurinoma. We discuss the radiological findings of the tumor and the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of this and other submucosal laryngeal lesions. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Prognostic role of tumor volume for radiotherapy outcome in patient with T2 laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, T.; Wygoda, A.; Skladowski, K.; Rutkowski, R.; Maciejewski, B.; Hejduk, B.; Kolosza, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tumor volume (TV) is recognized as a prognostic factor of treatment outcome for head and neck tumors but is not routinely included in the treatment decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to define its prognostic role for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. Material and methods: TV of 160 patients who underwent RT between 2002 and 2006 for T2 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. The tumor was located in the glottis and epiglottis in 82 (51 %) and 78 (49 %) patients, respectively. TV was manually contoured on pretreatment, planning, contrast-enhanced CT scans and the volumetric measurement (cm 3 ) was calculated by the volume algorithm. Results: The median TV value was 2.01 cm 3 (range 0.15-21.68 cm 3 ). The median TV was significantly lower in patients with glottic tumors (p < 0.0001), N0 (p < 0.001), or well histopatologically differentiated tumors (p = 0.01). A significant correlation between TV, hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), and total dose (TD; p < 0.001) was observed. On univariate analyses, TV influenced local control (LC; p = 0.02) and overall survival (OS, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, both age (HR 1.038, p = 0.03) and TV (HR = 1.075, p = 0.01) remained significantly related to LC and OS (age: HR 1.038, p = 0.005; TV: HR 1.097, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Large TV worsen prognosis of patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. A large TV is more common for supraglottic, poorly differentiated tumors and may suggest higher risk of nodal spread. The routine estimation of TV prior to therapy may be essential in order to select the best treatment option for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. (orig.)

  15. Microarray analysis of gene expression during bacteriophage T4 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Kimberly; Radek, Agnes; Liu, XiuPing; Campbell, John; Uzan, Marc; Haselkorn, Robert; Kogan, Yakov

    2002-08-01

    Genomic microarrays were used to examine the complex temporal program of gene expression exhibited by bacteriophage T4 during the course of development. The microarray data confirm the existence of distinct early, middle, and late transcriptional classes during the bacteriophage replicative cycle. This approach allows assignment of previously uncharacterized genes to specific temporal classes. The genomic expression data verify many promoter assignments and predict the existence of previously unidentified promoters.

  16. Genetical studies with radiation sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, J.M.

    This thesis is concerned with a study of the properties of radiation sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4. An introduction is presented which reviews the current concepts of radiation repair mechanisms, and their relationship to genetic recombination in bacteria and phage T4. Following the description of materials and methods, the results section is presented in three parts. Part I deals with the isolation and purification of a new radiation sensitive mutant of T4, called y. The properties of y are compared with those of two previously isolated radiation sensitive mutants, v 1 and x. Part II describes the properties of y under three complex radiobiological conditions, namely multiplicity reactivation, depression of viability and the Luria-Latarjet experiment. In Part III, complementation and mapping data are presented, which show that y, x, and v 1 are mutants of separate cistrons and unlinked in mapping experiments. The wild allele in each case is dominant. The sizes of cistrons y, x, and v are 3.2, 6.8, and 1.6% of the total chromosome respectively. The properties of recombinants v 1 x, v 1 y, and xy are described. In the discussion the possible mode of action of y is discussed. (author)

  17. Exclusive radiation therapy for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognoni, P.; Bossi, A.; Molteni, M.; Richetti, A.; Tordiglione, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors analyse a retrospective series of 90 consecutive patients (pts) affected with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma (T3-4, N0-3 - TNM, UICC 1978) who were radically irradiated from November 1979 to December 1986 at the Radiotherapy Department of the General Hospital of Varese. All the patients were treated with 60 Co and two opposed parallel lateral fields and progressive shrinkage: 66 conventional fractionation (2 Gy once a day, 5 times a week), 24 with an accelerated hyperfractionated regimen (1.5 Gy twice a day, 5 times a week). The median total dose delivered to the tumor and clinically involved nodes was 64 Gy (1678 reu, CRE). Median follow-up was 21 months (range: 3-113). The 5-year overall survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 40.5%. The 5-year disease-free survival, for 47 patients in complete remission at the end of radiotherapy, was 51.9% after irradiation alone and 56.7% with salvage surgery. There were no statistically significant differences in survival according to local spread (T3 vs T4), nodal status (N0 vs N1-3) and dose fractionation regimen (conventional vs accelerated hyper-fractionated). Isoeffect (CRE) values above 1751 reu obtained a 3-year loco-regional control rate was 33.3%. Relevant late sequelae were not observed. Our findings suggest that primary radiotherapy with salvage surgery in reserve could be considered as an effective choice for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma, at least in selected groups of patients

  18. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  19. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clokie, Martha R J; Millard, Andrew D; Mann, Nicholas H

    2010-10-28

    From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  20. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Andrew D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  1. Laryngeal granuloma: a complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation.

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, G. J.; Bozentka, N. E.; Gold, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    Laryngeal granuloma is an uncommon complication arising from irritation of the laryngeal structures. We present a case where bilateral laryngeal granulomas became clinically evident 3 mo after orthognathic surgery. The patient, a 19-yr-old female, developed acute dyspnea after experiencing gradual voice loss. Excision of the lesions under endotracheal general anesthesia led to an uneventful outcome. The causes, predisposing factors, diagnostic features, and treatment of laryngeal granuloma ar...

  2. Delineation of the primary tumour Clinical Target Volumes (CTV-P) in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: AIRO, CACA, DAHANCA, EORTC, GEORCC, GORTEC, HKNPCSG, HNCIG, IAG-KHT, LPRHHT, NCIC CTG, NCRI, NRG Oncology, PHNS, SBRT, SOMERA, SRO, SSHNO, TROG consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Le, Quynh-Thu; Bourhis, Jean; Budach, Volker; Chen, Amy; Eisbruch, Abraham; Feng, Mei; Giralt, Jordi; Gupta, Tejpal; Hamoir, Marc; Helito, Juliana K; Hu, Chaosu; Hunter, Keith; Johansen, Jorgen; Kaanders, Johannes; Laskar, Sarbani Ghosh; Lee, Anne; Maingon, Philippe; Mäkitie, Antti; Micciche', Francesco; Nicolai, Piero; O'Sullivan, Brian; Poitevin, Adela; Porceddu, Sandro; Składowski, Krzysztof; Tribius, Silke; Waldron, John; Wee, Joseph; Yao, Min; Yom, Sue S; Zimmermann, Frank; Grau, Cai

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Grégoire et al., 2003, 2014), but such recommendations are lacking for primary tumour delineation. For the latter, two main schools of thoughts are prevailing, one based on geometric expansion of the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) as promoted by DAHANCA, and the other one based on anatomical expansion of the GTV using compartmentalization of head and neck anatomy. For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first proposal was put forward by the leading authors of this publication (VG and CG) and discussed with opinion leaders in head and neck radiation oncology from Europe, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, North America and South America to reach a worldwide consensus. This consensus proposes two CTVs for the primary tumour, the so called CTV-P1 and CVT-P2, corresponding to a high and lower tumour burden, and which should be associated with a high and a lower dose prescription, respectively. Implementation of these guidelines in the daily practice of radiation oncology should contribute to reduce treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi-institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 874.3730 - Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). 874.3730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3730 Laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design). (a) Identification. A laryngeal prosthesis (Taub design) is a device intended to direct...

  4. Laryngeal lesions in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ogunleye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the adult population in this study, the major findings at direct laryngoscopy were laryngeal tumours 43(53.1%), laryngeal stenosis 9(11.1%), and vocal cord nodules 7(8.6%). The laryngeal tumours were confirmed histologically to be carcinomas in 36(44.4%), dysplasias 3 (3.7%), papillomas 2 (2.5%) and sarcomas in 2 ...

  5. Arytenoid lateralization for management of combined laryngeal paralysis and laryngeal collapse in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Pieter; White, Richard A S

    2012-02-01

    To identify combined laryngeal paralysis and collapse in small dogs and describe postoperative outcome after arytenoid lateralization. Case series. Small nonbrachycephalic breed dogs with laryngeal paralysis and collapse (n = 6). Medical records of small breed dogs with airway problems and undergoing laryngeal surgery (January-December 2008) were reviewed. Dogs with combined laryngeal paralysis and laryngeal collapse (LPLC) had arytenoid lateralization. The immediate, 4 week and 6 month postoperative outcomes were described. Direct visual laryngeal exam under a light plane of anesthesia revealed bilateral failure of arytenoid and vocal fold movement and concurrent bilateral medial folding with contact of the cuneiform processes in all dogs. None of the dogs had intra- or immediate postoperative complications after arytenoid lateralization. Two dogs required a 2nd contralateral procedure. Follow-up after 6 months revealed marked improvement in clinical signs related to upper airway obstruction, but all dogs continued to have mild respiratory noise. Concurrent laryngeal paralysis and collapse should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for small, nonbrachycephalic dogs with upper airway disease. Arytenoid lateralization resulted in improvement of clinical signs related to obstructive airway disease. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Comparison of Medical and Voice Therapy for reflux Laryngitis Based on Acoustic and Laryngeal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Dehestani Ardakani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reflux laryngitis is extremely common among patients with voice disorder. Medical therapy approaches are not efficient enough. The main goal of this study is to assess the acoustic and laryngeal characteristics of patients with dysphonia before and after medical or voice therapy, and to evaluate the effectiveness of each.Methods: In this retrospective study, 16 reflux laryngitis patients were assessed. Five received complete voice therapy, tow ceased voice therapy and nine received medication. Perceptual voice evaluation was performed by a speech-language pathologist, the severity of voice problem was calculated, based on the affected acoustic and laryngeal characteristics pre- and post-treatment.Results: Post-treatment evaluation in patients who received complete voice therapy indicates 80 percent improvement in the severity of disorder and 100 percent improvement in the perceptual voice evaluation. After medical therapy, we observed that voice disorder and perceptual voice evaluation are improved 44 and 66 percent respectively. The improvement was statistically significant in both treatment approaches: complete voice therapy (P=0.039 and medical therapy (p=0.017.Conclusion: In patients with reflux laryngitis, most acoustic and laryngeal characteristics were normal and satisfying after the treatment. It can be concluded that the proficiency of voice therapy in improving the acoustic and laryngeal characteristics is comparable to medical therapy

  7. Apoptosis in Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Abdul M; Lalani, Salima; Khan, Naveed A

    2017-07-01

    Here we describe features of apoptosis in unicellular Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. When exposed to apoptosis-inducing compounds such as doxorubicin, A. castellanii trophozoites exhibited cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing as observed microscopically, DNA fragmentation using agarose gel electrophoresis, and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization using annexin V immunostaining. Overall, these findings suggest the existence of apoptosis in A. castellanii possibly mediated by intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further research in this field could provide avenues to selectively induce apoptosis in A. castellanii by triggering intrinsic apoptotic cascade. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Upper airway obstruction in canine laryngeal paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, T C; Smith, M M; Gaber, C E; Kurpershoek, C

    1986-05-01

    The type and the severity of airway obstruction in 30 dogs with bilateral laryngeal paralysis was assessed, using tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL) analysis. The dogs had clinical evidence of mild-to-severe upper airway obstruction (ie, respiratory distress, exercise intolerance, stridor). Seventeen dogs had TBFVL consistent with a nonfixed (inspiratory) obstruction, 10 had TBFVL indicative of a fixed (inspiratory/expiratory) obstruction, and 3 had normal TBFVL. Analysis of TBFVL confirmed that dogs with laryngeal paralysis have upper airway obstruction that differs in type and severity. Use of TBFVL provided a quantitative evaluation of airway obstruction and demonstrated the effects of bilateral laryngeal paralysis on the breathing patterns of dogs.

  9. [Acute laryngitis and epiglottitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Olivia; Nicollas, Richard; Roman, Stéphane; Triglia, Jean-Michel

    2007-10-31

    The anatomical characteristic of the pediatric larynx allows physicians to better understand the incidence of symptomatic and severe presentations of acute laryngitis, which are frequent pediatric emergencies. Subglottis laryngitis and epiglottitis must be distinguished from each other. These two diseases are absolutely different: the first one is essentially viral and usually moderate, even though acute respiratory distress can occur. The other (epiglottitis) is bacterial, essentially caused by Haemophilus influenza B (Hi-B), and can be life threatening. The anti Hi-B vaccine leads to a decrease of frequency but does not make them disappear. Moreover, even if a child has a history of the Hi-B vaccine, diagnosis of epiglottitis can not to be ruled out. Lastly, in case of acute laryngeal dyspnea in a child, one must think about a foreign body.

  10. Undifferentiated Laryngeal Carcinoma with Pagetoid Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarioglu, Sulen; Dogan, Ersoy; Sahin, Yasemin; Uzun, Evren; Bekis, Recep; Ada, Emel; Sagol, Ozgul; Akman, Fadime

    2016-06-01

    Pagetoid spread, is used to define intraepithelial spread of cancer cells, when a massive carcinoma is identified beneath the basal membrane. There are only few reports of pagetoid spread at the head and neck region. Herein a 74 year old male patient with bilateral transglottic laryngeal high grade malignant epithelial tumor with pagetoid spread is presented. The tumor was located at the submucosa and there was spread of the CK7 and CK19 positive tumor cells into the non neoplastic mucosa, which was CK5/6 positive, sparing the basement membrane, creating a typical pagetoid pattern. Radiographic and positron emission tomography scan examination of the patient was unremarkable at presentation other than the laryngeal and neck lesions; but extensive systemic metastasis developed at 6 months following operation. To the best of our knowledge no epithelial malignancy with pagetoid spread was described at the larynx. Pagetoid spread may be a hallmark of very aggressive behavior in laryngeal carcinoma.

  11. Laryngeal electromyography in movement disorders: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimaid Paulo A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preliminary laryngeal electromyography (LEMG data and botulinum toxin treatment in patients with dysphonia due to movement disorders. Twenty-five patients who had been clinically selected for botulinum toxin administration were examined, 19 with suspected laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia (SD, 5 with vocal tremor, and 1 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. LEMG evaluations were performed before botulinum toxin administration using monopolar electrodes. Electromyography was consistent with dystonia in 14 patients and normal in 5, and differences in frequency suggesting essential tremor in 3 and Parkinson tremors in 2. The different LEMG patterns and significant improvement in our patients from botulinum toxin therapy has led us to perform laryngeal electromyography as a routine in UNICAMP movement disorders ambulatory.

  12. [Laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaoui, Y; El Kohen, A; Sefiani, S; Benchekroun, L; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    2004-01-01

    Laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas are uncommon and not well known tumors. Three histological subtypes, each of them with a different prognosis and treatment, can be identified. We report a case of a large cell laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma in 32 old-year boy who presented a right glotto-subglottic tumoral process. The patient was treated by total laryngectomy associated with bilateral functional neck dissection but without postoperative chemotherapy. A disease recurrence occured three months after surgery consisting on a massive involvment of laterocervical and sus clavicular lymph nodes. The authors discussed the clinical features, the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics, the treatment and the prognosis of laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinoma, according to literature. (full article translated in English available on www.ent-review.com).

  13. The EFTTRA-T4 experiment on americium transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Konings, R J M; Dassel, G; Pijlgroms, B J; Somers, J; Toscano, E

    2000-01-01

    In the EFTTRA-T4 experiment the irradiation behaviour of a target containing americium dispersed in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 was studied. Pellets containing 10-12 wt% sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am were fabricated by the infiltration method. However, it was found that the americium, intended to be present as AmO sub 2 sub - sub x , formed a compound, probably AmAlO sub 3 , during sintering. The T4 target was irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten from August 1996 to January 1998 (358.4 fpd's). Post-test burn-up calculations indicated that the sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am concentration is reduced to 4% of the initial value at the end of the irradiation. The fraction of the initial americium atoms that were fissioned is 28%. Non-destructive and destructive examinations of the target indicated that swelling of the target pellets occurred. This is attributed to accumulation of helium, produced by alpha decay of sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Cm that occurs in the transmutation scheme of sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am.

  14. A case of desmoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shogo; Suehiro, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Ippei; Imai, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, also known as aggressive fibromatosis, has aggressive behavior with local infiltration and tendency for recurrence. Though head and neck is reported to be one of the most common sites, a desmoid tumor in the larynx is extremely rare. A 67-year-old male visited our hospital with prolonged hoarseness and received laryngo-microsurgery with the diagnosis of laryngeal polyp. After the operation, he eventually developed a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with papilloma, confirmed by second laryngo-microsurgery and received radiation therapy. After the third laryngo-microsurgery to remove residual papilloma, white irregular mass appeared on the right vocal cord and grew rapidly beneath the glottis, causing dyspnea. After 2 additional laryngo-microsurgeries, he was diagnosed having the dermoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent near-total laryngectomy and is currently alive without disease, speaking using a vocal shunt. Only five cases of the desmoid tumors arising in the adult larynx have been reported in the English literature. In this case, repeated surgery and radiation were suspected as the causes. Also, the present report is the first to describe desmoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer with and without cartilage invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherl, Claudia; Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Semrau, Sabine; Fietkau, Rainer; Kapsreiter, Markus; Koch, Michael; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Grundtner, Philipp; Iro, Heinrich

    2017-06-01

    To compare efficacy, in terms of disease control/survival in advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal lesions, according to treatment strategy (primary surgery, PS or primary chemoradiotherapy, CRT) and invasion pattern (cartilage, CAI or soft tissue involvement, STI). Records from 463 patients with T3 and T4a carcinoma with CAI (n=221) or STI (n=242) treated at a university clinic over 18 years were retrospectively reviewed. Disease-specific survival (DSS) for the CAI group was 70.1% (PS) and 38.4% (CRT), and 76.6% and 46% for the STI group, respectively. Overall survival (OS) for STI was 56.4% (PS) and 30.6% (CRT), and for CAI 51.1% (PS) and 28.5% (CRT) respectively. Positive resection margins and regional neck metastases reduced survival. T3 lesions treated non-operatively still had significantly improved survival versus T4a by >20%. Surgery remains an indispensable part of treatment in local advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer with high survival results. It should be part of a concept that includes adjuvant (C)RT. For T3 lesions, primary CRT is also acceptable and CAI is not a contraindication for primary CRT. Regional disease is a strong prognostic factor. In spite of adjuvant treatment, DSS deteriorates by about 20% in cases with positive resection margins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Laryngeal plexiform neurofibroma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Fikret; Ozdemircan, Talip; Erisen, Levent

    2013-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetically inherited, autosomal dominant disease, characterized by multiple cafe au lait spots, cutaneous neurofibromas and "Lisch nodules." Neurofibromatosis can develop from a neural source at any age. However, neurofibroma of the larynx is extremely rare and is usually manifested by obstructive airway symptoms. We encountered a 5-year-old child presenting with stridor and dyspnea, who had a diagnosis of laryngeal plexiform neurofibroma. The purpose of our report is the consideration of laryngeal NF in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea in infants and children.

  17. Laryngeal Chondroma: An Unusual Complication Endotracheal Entubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Ozan; Koybasioglu, Ahmet; Ileri, Fikret

    2016-06-01

    Laryngeal cartilaginous framework tumors are very rare. Chondroma and chondrosarcoma are the most common types of these tumors. A 27-year-old man with a history of intubation presented with exercise-induced dyspnea. A computed tomography scan of larynx showed a rounded and circumscribed mass without infiltration of the adjacent structures which obstructs 75% of airway. Histopathological investigation of the mass revealed the chondroma of the larynx. The patients' history of intubation trauma with the subsequent progressive onset of clinical symptoms demonstrates the relationship between these 2 entities. Clinicians should consider laryngeal chondroma in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea after endotracheal intubation.

  18. Bronchial or Laryngeal Obstruction Induced by Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Bey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A child suspected of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction and asthma is examined by laryngoscopy and respiratory resistance (Rrs after exercise challenge. Immediately at exercise cessation, the visualized adduction of the larynx in inspiration is reflected in a paroxystic increase in Rrs. While normal breathing has apparently resumed later on during recovery from exercise, the pattern of Rrs in inspiration is observed to reoccur following a deep breath or swallowing. The procedure may thus help diagnosing the site of exercise-induced obstruction when laryngoscopy is not available and identify re-inducers of laryngeal dysfunction.

  19. Paediatric laryngeal malignant nerve sheath tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioni, Marco; Marioni, Gino; Della Libera, Duilio; Rizzotto, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MNSTs) are more frequently diagnosed in the extremities, the chest wall and the abdominal wall. Laryngeal MNST is an extremely rare occurrence, particularly in children. We treated a laryngeal recurrence of MNST in a 13-year-old boy with chemotherapy followed by horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy extended to left arytenoid and ipsilateral vocal fold and bilateral neck dissection. Four years later, hemithyroidectomy was performed for thyroid MNST recurrence. At present, 6 years after last intervention, the patient shows no evidence of recurrent disease.

  20. Quantum thetas on noncommutative T4 from embeddings into lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the theta vector and quantum theta function over noncommutative T 4 from the embedding of RxZ 2 . Manin has constructed the quantum theta functions from the lattice embedding into vector space (x finite group). We extend Manin's construction of the quantum theta function to the embedding of vector space x lattice case. We find that the holomorphic theta vector exists only over the vector space part of the embedding, and over the lattice part we can only impose the condition for the Schwartz function. The quantum theta function built on this partial theta vector satisfies the requirement of the quantum theta function. However, two subsequent quantum translations from the embedding into the lattice part are nonadditive, contrary to the additivity of those from the vector space part

  1. Pathogenic assays of acanthamoeba belonging to the t4 genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba genus is introduced as opportunistic and cosmopolitan parasite. Monkey and wistar rat are appropriate models for experimental study on Acanthamoeba infection. In this study Acanthamoeba spp. were isolated from hot spring (HS, windows dust (WD and a corneal sample of keratitis patient (KP and their pathogenicity surveyed by in vitro and in vivo tests.Isolates of Acanthamoeba were cultivated axenically for 12 months in PYG medium. Overall, 30 wistar rats, in 6 equal groups were used for developing experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE. The Keratitis and Granulomatous Encephalitis experiments were performed by intrastromal and intranasal inoculation of Acanthamoeba cysts, respectively. Pathogenicity of the three isolates was also evaluated by in vitro test using osmotolerance and temperature tolerance assays. Identification of genotypes were performed by PCR technique and sequencing.None of the isolates could perform AK and GAE in wistar rats, although all isolates were described as T4 genotype. Isolates obtained from KP and WD could grow only in 30 °C, but not in 37 °C and 40 °C. On the other hand, HS isolate grew in 30 °C and 37 °C but not in 40 °C. Moreover, all of isolate grew in 0.5 M mannitol but not in 1 M and 1.5 M.T4 isolates with a long-term axenic culture and different factors related to host and parasite may play role in pathogenicity of these free-living amoebae.

  2. Comparison of different techniques of laryngeal mask placement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Wig, Jyotsna

    2009-06-01

    The insertion of laryngeal mask airway is not always easy in children, and many techniques are described to improve success rate of placement. It is very important to determine the optimal insertion technique as unsuccessful prolonged insertion and multiple attempts are associated with adverse respiratory events and trauma in children. This article will review different techniques studied recently for the placement of classical laryngeal mask airway in children as well as recent findings of cuff pressure and depth of anesthesia for laryngeal mask airway placement. Laryngeal mask airway in children has undergone many modifications such as ProSeal laryngeal mask airway to improve its functioning. This article will also review different insertion techniques for ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. Rotational technique with partially inflated cuff is reported to have the highest success rate of insertion and lowest incidence of complications for classical laryngeal mask airway in children. Clinical endpoints for cuff inflation are associated with significant hyperinflation and increased leakage around the laryngeal mask airway cuff. The inferences regarding the dosage of intravenous anesthetic agents and end-tidal concentration of volatile anesthetics in children to achieve adequate depth for laryngeal mask airway placement are very difficult to draw. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is associated with a very high first attempt success and overall success of insertion in children. Rotational technique may be considered as the first technique of choice for classical laryngeal mask airway insertion in children. The routine use of cuff pressure monitoring is mandatory during the use of laryngeal mask airway in children. Modification of laryngeal mask airway in children, that is ProSeal laryngeal mask airway, is promising and improves the success rate of insertion.

  3. Repair of psoralen plus near ultraviolet light damage in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerler, B.R.; Wallace, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of bacteriophage T4 to psoralen plus NUV was investigated using a series of T4 repair defective mutants. The recombinational repair deficient mutants T4x, T4y and T4w were more sensitive than wild-type while T4v, an endonuclease V mutant, exhibited the same sensitivity as wild-type. However, endonuclease V appeared to initiate abortive repair in the absence of the x and presumably y gene products. Host repair gene products were shown not to be involved in the repair of psoralen plus NUV damages in T4. (author)

  4. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  5. [Multispiral computed tomographic semiotics of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, P V; Iudin, A L; Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, L G

    2007-01-01

    Multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) with intravenous bolus contrasting is a currently available method for radiodiagnosis of laryngeal cancer. MSCT is of much higher informative value in estimating the extent of a tumorous lesion than the traditional radiodiagnostic techniques: linear tomography, lateral X-ray study, roentgenoscopy and roentgenography of the laryngopharynx and esophagus with barium meal.

  6. Dysphagia Caused by Chronic Laryngeal Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delides, Alexander; Sakagiannis, George; Maragoudakis, Pavlos; Gouloumi, Αlina-Roxani; Katsimbri, Pelagia; Giotakis, Ioannis; Panayiotides, John G

    2015-10-01

    A rare case of a young female with chronic diffuse laryngeal edema causing severe swallowing difficulty is presented. The patient was previously treated with antibiotics and steroids with no improvement. Diagnosis was made with biopsy of the epiglottis under local anesthesia in the office.

  7. Laryngeal spindle cell liporna: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Hospital "Queen Ioanna", Sofia Bulgaria. Key words: Larynx , spindle cell, lipoma. This is a case report of a 24-year-old female patient who presented with a history of hoarseness of the voice, dysphagia and difficulty in breathing. A mass located on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis was found and removed.

  8. Progressive Dysphagia Post Laryngeal Mask Airway Intubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an important addition to the anaesthetic equipments; however its use may involve some important complications. We report an unusual and potentially serious complication arising from the use of this equipment. A 58 year old man underwent cataract surgery under general anaesthesia ...

  9. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  10. Tracheostomy and radiotherapy in the management of laryngeal carcinoma causing airway obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, P.J.D. [Sunderland District General Hospital (United Kingdom); Agrawal, R.K.; Dawes, P.J.D.K. [Newcastle General Hospital (United Kingdom); Williams, S. [Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand)

    1997-09-01

    Between 1977 and 1985, 66 patients presenting with airway obstruction due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated by tracheostomy and subsequent radiotherapy. Female survival (64% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years) was significantly better than male survival (19% at 2 years and 10% at 5 years). When four forms of management were compared, it appeared that 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was associated with better survival. Because two of the treatment groups contained few patients, these were excluded from further analysis. When adjustments were made for sex, delay between tracheostomy and treatment, and residual disease, the difference in treatment response between those receiving 60+ Gy in 28-30 fractions over 42 days and those receiving 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was not significant (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI 0.64-3.91). (author).

  11. Tracheostomy and radiotherapy in the management of laryngeal carcinoma causing airway obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, P.J.D.; Agrawal, R.K.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Williams, S.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1985, 66 patients presenting with airway obstruction due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated by tracheostomy and subsequent radiotherapy. Female survival (64% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years) was significantly better than male survival (19% at 2 years and 10% at 5 years). When four forms of management were compared, it appeared that 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was associated with better survival. Because two of the treatment groups contained few patients, these were excluded from further analysis. When adjustments were made for sex, delay between tracheostomy and treatment, and residual disease, the difference in treatment response between those receiving 60+ Gy in 28-30 fractions over 42 days and those receiving 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was not significant (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI 0.64-3.91). (author)

  12. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cohen, Roger B. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O' Malley, Bert W. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.lin@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  13. Two-year results from a Swedish study on conventional versus accelerated radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma - The ARTSCAN study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, Bjoern; Nilsson, Per; Kjellen, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Modig, Hans; Brun, Eva; Nyman, Jan; Friesland, Signe; Reizenstein, Johan; Sjoedin, Helena; Ekberg, Lars; Loeden, Britta; Mercke, Claes; Fernberg, Jan-Olof; Franzen, Lars; Ask, Anders; Persson, Essie; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Lewin, Freddi; Wittgren, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Studies on accelerated fractionation (AF) in head and neck cancer have shown increased local control and survival compared with conventional fractionation (CF), while others have been non-conclusive. In 1998 a national Swedish group decided to perform a randomised controlled clinical study of AF. Materials and methods: Patients with verified squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx (except glottic T1-T2, N0) and hypopharynx were included. Patients with prior chemotherapy or surgery were excluded. Patients were randomised to either CF (2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 7 weeks, total dose 68 Gy) or to AF (1.1 Gy + 2.0 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 4.5 weeks, total dose 68 Gy). An extensive quality assurance protocol was followed throughout the study. The primary end point was loco-regional tumour control (LRC) at two years after treatment. Results: The study was closed in 2006 when 750 patients had been randomised. Eighty-three percent of the patients had stages III-IV disease. Forty eight percent had oropharyngeal, 21% laryngeal, 17% hypopharyngeal and 14% oral cancers. There were no significant differences regarding overall survival (OS) or LRC between the two regimens. The OS at two years was 68% for AF and 67% for CF. The corresponding figures for LRC were 71% and 67%, respectively. There was a trend towards improved LRC for oral cancers treated (p = 0.07) and for large tumours (T3-T4) (p = 0.07) treated with AF. The AF group had significantly worse acute reactions, while there was no significant increase in late effects. Conclusion: Overall the AF regimen did not prove to be more efficacious than CF. However, the trend towards improved results in AF for oral cancers needs to be further investigated.

  14. The association between RCAS1 expression in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer and its healthy stroma with cancer relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutsch-Wicherek, Magdalena; Tomaszewska, Romana; Lazar, Agata; Wicherek, Lukasz; Skladzien, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to establish the level of RCAS1 – a membrane protein expressed in various cancer cells and able to induce apoptosis of CTLs and NK cells in pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and its clear surgical margin – with respect to clinicopathological features and to patient's follow up and evaluate its possible role in cancer relapse. A total of 122 tissue samples were obtained: 51 samples from laryngeal and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 51 samples from the clear surgical margins of these tumors, and 20 tissue samples derived from the healthy mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract mucosa of patients without cancerous tumors. Patients were observed for a total of 4 years following surgical treatment. The level of RCAS1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. RCAS1 was identified in all laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinomas and in almost all the clear surgical margin samples. The level of RCAS1 expression was significantly higher in the cancerous samples than in the clear surgical margins and was determined to be related to the grade of the cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases. In cases of cancer relapse, significantly higher levels of RCAS1 expression were observed in the clear surgical margins. Selective cytotoxic immune cell suppression concomitant with tumor growth and associated with RCAS1 expression seems to be an important event connected with cancer relapse

  15. Outcome differences in younger and older patients with laryngeal cancer: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B; Alfonso, A; Sabin, S; Poluri, A; Shaha, A R; Sundaram, K; Lucente, F E

    2000-01-01

    Younger or older age has a significant impact on the outcome of patients with head and neck cancer. However, the data regarding outcomes based on age are conflicting. The aim of this article is to determine the impact of age on the outcome of laryngeal cancer. A retrospective study was performed including all patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx for over a 9-year period. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on age. The younger age group included patients 40 years of age and younger, the older group included patients over 80 years of age, and the remaining patients served as the control group. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize study data. Nonparametric quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test, respectively. Survival analysis was performed using the generalized Wilcoxon test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis. Of the 209 patients with laryngeal carcinoma presenting to our institution over a 9-year period, 20 (10%) were or =80 years of age. No differences in TNM stage at presentation, treatment, or treatment-associated complications were observed based on age. However, younger patients were less likely to report tobacco (50%; P likely to have human immunodeficiency virus infection (50%; Pcause-specific survival significantly poorer for both younger and older patients (P = .002). The presentation and outcome of laryngeal cancer is influenced by the age at presentation. The differences may be related exact reason for the observed survival differences needs to be determined.

  16. Epidemiological review of laryngeal cancer: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramanium, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal cancer is one of the 10 leading causes of cancer in Indian men. The association of laryngeal cancer and tobacco smoking is well-established, but the peculiarities such as wide variation of disease distribution and survival, role of tobacco chewing, indoor air pollution, and dietary factors in laryngeal cancer causation needs to be understood. In this study, we review the descriptive and observational epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in India. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of science electronic database was searched from January 1995 to December 2013, using the using keywords “laryngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination like OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies published in English and conducted in India. A total of 15 studies were found to be relevant and eligible for this review. Results: In India, laryngeal cancer contributes to approximately 3-6% of all cancers in men. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cancer larynx in males varies widely among registries, highest is 8.18 per 100,000 in Kamprup Urban District and the lowest is 1.26 per 100,000 in Nagaland. The 5-year survival for laryngeal cancer in India is approximately 28%. Indian studies show tobacco, alcohol, long-term exposure to indoor air pollution, spicy food, and nonvegetarian diet as risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Conclusion: There is wide regional variation in the incidence of laryngeal cancer in India. Survival rates of laryngeal carcinoma are much lower as compared to other Asian countries. Studies conducted in India to identify important risk factors of laryngeal cancer are very limited, especially on diet and indoor air pollution. Hence, more research is required for identifying the etiological factors and development of scientifically sound laryngeal cancer prevention programs. PMID:26855523

  17. Effect of alpha particles on bacteriophage T4Br(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonteva, G.A.; Akoev, I.G.; Grigorev, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy particle radiation, which is believed to be responsible for the high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space hadrons, on bacteriophages are investigated. Dry film cultures of bacteriophage T4 were irradiated with 5.3 MeV Po-210 alpha particles to doses from 5 to 60 Gray, and compared with cultures irradiated by Co-60 gamma radiation. Examination of the exponential dose-response curves for bacteriophage survival indicates an RBE of 4.68 for the alpha particles. The r-mutation frequency per 10,000 surviving phages is found to peak at 7.1 at doses between 65 and 85 Gray for gamma radiation, however it declines steadily from a level of 10.2 per 10,000 survivors with increasing dose of alpha radiation. Comparison of the mutation frequencies at the same levels of lethality and the spectra of mutations produced by the two types of radiation indicates alpha and gamma radiation to differ as well in the mechanisms of mutation production. It is concluded that the observed high RBE of space hadrons cannot be explained by the presence of high-energy particles in the secondary radiation. 13 references

  18. Partial characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) DNase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Junaid; Panjwani, Shamvil; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    The deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype were investigated. Using zymographic assays, the DNase activities had approximate molecular masses of 25 and 35 kDa. A. castellanii DNases exhibited activity at wide-ranging temperature of up to 60 °C and at pH ranging from 4 to 9. The DNases activities were unaffected by proteinase-K treatment, divalent cations such as Ca(++), Cu(++), Mg(++), and Zn(++), or divalent cation chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The non-reliance on divalent cations and homology data suggests that A. castellanii DNases belong to the class of eukaryotic lysosomal DNase II but exhibit robust properties. The DNases activity in A. castellanii interfered with the genomic DNA extraction. Extraction methods involving EDTA, SDS, and proteinase-K resulted in low yield of genomic DNA. On the other hand, these methods resulted in high yield of genomic DNA from human cells suggesting the robust nature of A. castellanii DNases that are unaffected by reagents normally used in blocking eukaryotic DNases. In contrast, the use of chaotropic agent such as guanidine thiocyanate improved the yield of genomic DNA from A. castellanii cells significantly. Further purification and characterization of Acanthamoeba DNases is needed to study their non-classic distinct properties and to determine their role in the biology, cellular differentiation, cell cycle progression, and arrest of Acanthamoeba.

  19. Laryngeal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris: a proposed classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A; Miziara, I D; Costa, K C; Santi, C G; Maruta, C W; Aoki, V

    2012-10-01

    (1) To investigate the incidence of laryngeal involvement in a large series of patients with pemphigus vulgaris, using endoscopic examination, (2) to describe the lesions, and (3) to establish a classification of laryngeal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris based on the location of the lesions. Prospective study. A total of 40 sequentially treated pemphigus vulgaris patients, diagnosed using clinical, histological and immunofluorescence criteria, were evaluated for laryngeal manifestations using endoscopic examination. The results were used to establish a graded classification of laryngeal involvement according to the location of the lesions. Active laryngeal lesions (ulcers or blisters) were found in 16 patients (40 per cent). Of these, 37.5 per cent were classified as grade I, 20 per cent as grade II, 20 per cent as grade III and 17.5 per cent as grade IV. Laryngeal involvement is common in pemphigus vulgaris and must be considered at the point of diagnosis. Grade I lesions are the most frequent.

  20. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  1. [Friedrich Mauz: T4 assessor and military psychiatrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberzahn-Jandt, G; Schmuhl, H-W

    2012-03-01

    Friedrich Mauz is one of the medical perpetrators of the second tier whose biography is difficult to comprehend. Autobiographies from three different political systems exist - Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and postwar Germany in which he constantly reinvented himself. While after 1933 he suddenly emphasized his participation in the civil war turmoil during the early period of the Weimar Republic and his patriotism, he then depicted himself after 1945 as an apolitical person characterized by Württemberg pietism who inwardly rejected the Nazi State but had found himself prepared to accept "all sorts of humiliating concessions." He claimed that he had always remained true to his scientific code of conduct and had distanced himself from psychiatric genetics. In point of fact, Mauz was among those exonerated in the denazification trial in 1946 and was able to pursue his career in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, if the sources are read against the grain, a different picture emerges. Mauz's career stalled in the 1930s, not because he had been politically offensive, but because his scientific work was flimsy and considered lacking originality, particularly since he had chosen constitution research and psychotherapy as his main fields of interest, which were overshadowed by research in genetic psychiatry in the 1930s. Mauz tendered his services to the Nazi policy of genetic health, served as a medical assessor in proceedings based on the "Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring," permitted himself to be recruited for the T4 program as a medical expert, even participated in the deliberations on a future "Law on Euthanasia," and as a consulting psychiatrist for the German Armed Forces contributed to military medicine.

  2. Laryngeal Chondrosarcoma: A rare cause of critical upper airway obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tuite, K

    2018-01-01

    Laryngeal cancers are rare, encompassing around one percent of all cancers. Suspicion should be raised if a patient presents with classical signs and symptoms; i.e. dysphonia, inspiratory stridor, dysphagia, odynophagia, neck mass, or persistent cough. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma is a rare form of laryngeal cancer, the diagnosis of which can be difficult. The case in question describes an unusual presentation of one such case, and its subsequent investigation, management and outcome.

  3. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, T.; Itami, J.; Kotaka, K.; Toriyama, M.

    1996-01-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [de

  4. Primary laryngeal leishmaniasis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.

  5. Laryngeal biomechanics of the singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufman, J A; Radomski, T A; Joharji, G M; Russell, G B; Pillsbury, D C

    1996-12-01

    By transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy, patients with functional voice often demonstrate abnormal laryngeal biomechanics, commonly supraglottic contraction. Appropriately, such conditions are sometimes termed muscle tension dysphonias. Singers working at the limits of their voice may also transiently demonstrate comparable tension patterns. However, the biomechanics of normal singing, particularly for different singing styles, have not been previously well characterized. We used transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy to study 100 healthy singers to assess patterns of laryngeal tension during normal singing and to determine whether factors such as sex, occupation, and style of singing influence laryngeal muscle tension. Thirty-nine male and 61 female singers were studied; 48 were professional singers, and 52 were amateurs. Examinations of study subjects performing standardized and nonstandardized singing tasks were recorded on a laser disk and subsequently analyzed in a frame-by-frame fashion by a blinded otolaryngologist. Each vocal task was graded for muscle tension by previously established criteria, and objective muscle tension scores were computed. The muscle tension score was expressed as a percentage of frames for each task with one of the laryngeal muscle tension patterns shown. The lowest muscle tension scores were seen in female professional singers, and the highest muscle tension scores were seen in amateur female singers. Male singers (professional and amateur) had intermediate muscle tension scores. Classical singers had lower muscle tension scores than nonclassical singers, with the lowest muscle tension scores being seen in those singing choral music (41%), art song (47%), and opera (57%), and the highest being seen in those singing jazz/pop (65%), musical theater (74%), bluegrass/country and western (86%), and rock/gospel (94%). Analyzed also were the influences of vocal nodules, prior vocal training, number of performance and practice hours per week

  6. A randomised trial comparing the laryngeal mask airway Supreme™ with the laryngeal mask airway Unique™ in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Chang, E; Langen, K E; Anderson, K

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a randomised controlled trial comparing the laryngeal mask airway Supreme(™) with the laryngeal mask airway Unique(™) in children. Fifty children presenting for elective surgery were randomly assigned to receive either the laryngeal mask airway Supreme or laryngeal mask airway Unique. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, insertion success rate, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation, ease of gastric tube placement through the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, quality of airway during anaesthetic maintenance and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was shorter with the laryngeal mask airway Unique, 14.5 [13.5-16.3 (10.0-23.6)] s than with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, 17.4 [14.8-19.8 (11.5-29.2)] s; p = 0.007. Median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressures for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme and laryngeal mask airway Unique were 20 [16-21 (12-22)] cmH(2)O and 15 [14-18 (10-24)] cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.001). The incidence of gastric insufflation was lower with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (zero vs six patients), p = 0.01. In conclusion, the laryngeal mask airway Supreme performed as well as the laryngeal mask airway Unique and is a useful alternative for airway maintenance, particularly in children who require evacuation of gastric contents during anaesthesia. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma - Ten years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando dos Santos Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal involvement by cartilaginous tumors is rare. However, although accounting for only 1% of laryngeal tumor pathology, they are the most frequently occurring non-epithelial neoplasms. The most probable location is the endolaryngeal surface of the cricoid cartilage. Their symptoms are variable, depending on the size and location, and may include hoarseness, stridor, and dyspnea. Treatment is based on surgical excision. Some centers take into account the degree of differentiation and whether it is a case of relapse when deciding to perform a radical resection. AIM: To evaluate this disease in a sample of the Portuguese population. METHODS: A review of the medical records from 2002 to 2012 by assessment of clinical processes was performed. Data on demographics, clinical treatments, and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Six patients were included in the study. Five of them underwent total laryngectomy, and in one case, partial excision of the thyroid cartilage was performed. None of the patients had either metastases or tumor-related death. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal chondrosarcomas remain a rare disease of unknown etiology, with slow and insidious symptoms. The treatment is surgical, with favorable prognosis, and metastases rarely occur. The main concern regards their propensity to relapse.

  8. Laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Del Negro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Adenoid cystic carcinomas are malignant tumors that occur in both the major and the minor salivary glands. A laryngeal location is rare because of the paucity of accessory salivary glands in this area. Adenoid cystic carcinomas account for less than 1% of all malignant tumors in the larynx, and only about 120 cases have been reported in the literature. These tumors have a slight female predisposition, and their peak incidence is in the fifth and sixth decades of life. In this article, we describe a case of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma and discuss its clinical characteristics and treatment. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 55 year-old female patient who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. Features of the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation are described and the clinical management of such cases is outlined. The clinical course, definitive treatment strategy and surgical procedure, and also adjuvant treatment with irradiation are discussed. Although the tumor is radiosensitive, it is not radiocurable.

  9. Elevated 18F-NaF uptake in cricoid cartilage in a patient with laryngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuxiao; Qi, Chi; Zhang, Shumao; Huang, Zhanwen; Chen, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laryngeal cancer is aggressive tumor that arises from the tissues of the larynx. Although any bone can be affected, involvement of cricoid cartilage was reported very rarely, and there has been no report of 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-NaF PET-CT) and 3D PET-CT for the evaluation of cricoid cartilage invasion. Patient concerns: A 54-year-old male discovered a protruding mass in the right anterior neck, which had rapidly increased in size over a period of 2 months. Subsequently, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea were gradually developed. Diagnoses: 18F-FDG PET-CT demonstrated that the abnormal activity was located in a soft tissue mass, which was about 4.2 cm × 3.8 cm × 3.6 cm in largest dimension in the laryngeal cavity of supraglottic portion (SUVmax: 23.6). A swollen lymph node was revealed in the right submandibular region, which had intense FDG activity with a SUVmax of 18.4. However, there is a high uptake of 18F-FDG in the region near the bone, which is uncertain whether there is any skeletal invasion. NaF PET-CT and 3D PET-CT demonstrated increased uptake in the right side of cricoid cartilage (SUVmax: 13.2). The histopathologic examination confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. Interventions: The patient underwent tracheotomy and received anti-infective treatment to relieve symptoms of dyspnea and prevent asphyxia. Outcomes: Clinical follow up of the patient revealed that dyspnea was significantly relieved. Lessons: The case report shows the imaging features of cricoid cartilage invasion, including 18F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-NaF PET-CT), and 3D PET-CT. Precise understanding of the invasion scope, accurately staging of laryngeal carcinoma, and choosing of the most suitable surgical scheme are the factors that lead to the optimal treatment of laryngeal neoplasms. PMID:29245332

  10. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, Aaro, E-mail: aaro.haapaniemi@hus.fi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Saat, Riste [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a larynx-preserving treatment option for patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Six patients with locally recurrent squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 3 patients with persistent laryngeal cancer after prior treatment were treated with BNCT at the FiR1 facility (Espoo, Finland) in 2006 to 2012. The patients had received prior radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy to a cumulative median dose of 66 Gy. The median tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range, 1.4-10.9 cm) before BNCT. Boron neutron capture therapy was offered on a compassionate basis to patients who either refused laryngectomy (n=7) or had an inoperable tumor (n=2). Boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier and was infused over 2 hours intravenously before neutron irradiation. Results: Six patients received BNCT once and 3 twice. The estimated average gross tumor volume dose ranged from 22 to 38 Gy (W) (mean; 29 Gy [W]). Six of the 8 evaluable patients responded to BNCT; 2 achieved complete and 4 partial response. One patient died early and was not evaluable for response. Most common side effects were stomatitis, fatigue, and oral pain. No life-threatening or grade 4 toxicity was observed. The median time to progression within the target volume was 6.6 months, and the median overall survival time 13.3 months after BNCT. One patient with complete response is alive and disease-free with a functioning larynx 60 months after BNCT. Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy given after prior external beam radiation therapy is well tolerated. Most patients responded to BNCT, but long-term survival with larynx preservation was infrequent owing to cancer progression. Selected patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer may benefit from BNCT.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Laryngitis and Oral Lesions in a Patient with Laryngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumanah N. Algazaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly being promoted as a nutritional supplement by health food enthusiasts and is also recommended as prophylaxis against antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, severe opportunistic infections due to S. cerevisiae have been reported in patients with chronic disease, cancer, and immunosuppression. Fungemia, endocarditis, pneumonia, peritonitis, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and esophagitis have been described. It is important to consider infections due to S. cerevisiae in appropriate clinical settings. Here, we describe the first case of S. cerevisiae laryngitis in a patient with a history of laryngeal carcinoma who also had oral lesions.

  12. [Evaluation and treatment of children's laryngeal clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Tan, L T; Xu, Z M

    2018-01-07

    Objectives: To provide the experience about the diagnostic process and following management, and to discuss the outcome and predictors in children with laryngeal cleft (LC). Methods: A retrospective case study was conducted at an academic children's hospital. Thirty children were diagnosed as laryngeal cleft between January 2016 and April 2017.Airway evaluations were performed using both flexible and rigid endoscopy, and swallowing evaluations were performed using fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing or modified barium swallow. Results: Of 30 cases, 18 were male and 12 were female, ranging in age from birth to 8 years. Two cases were diagnosed as type 0 LC, and they were offered thickened liquid without medication. Throughout follow-up, they remained asymptomatic and showed no respiratory complications. Nineteen children were diagnosed as type Ⅰ LC. Six of them were significantly improved by anti-reflux therapy and feeding instructions. Four children were concomitant with swallowing dysfunction and/or neuromuscular disorders, and they were given a tracheotomy and routine management. Another 4 children were submitted surgical repair when routine treatment failed, and their symptoms were relieved. Five children were concomitant with larygomalacia, and their symptoms were totally ameliorated by supraglottoplasty. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅱ LC. Two of them received surgical repair and clinically improved, and the rest one was treated by anti-reflux therapy and still under follow-up. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅲ LC. One of them was underwent surgical repair and clinically improved. Two children were tracheotomized and treated by anti-reflux therapy. Three cases were diagnosed as type Ⅳ LC at birth and no one survived. Conclusions: Laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting with a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorder, aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. Diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal

  13. Voice rehabilitation after laryngeal cancer: Associated effects on psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Liza; Ward, Elizabeth C; Finizia, Caterina

    2017-09-01

    Psychological distress after laryngeal cancer treatment is prevalent. Although voice rehabilitation has shown to improve functional outcomes and positively affect health-related quality of life, to date, there has been limited study of the associated effect of behavioural voice intervention on psychological well-being/distress post laryngeal cancer. Sixty-three patients with Tis-T4 laryngeal cancer treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were prospectively recruited and randomised to either a voice rehabilitation (VR, n = 31) or control group (n = 32). The VR group received 10 speech pathology sessions consisting of both direct and indirect voice intervention post (chemo)radiotherapy. The control group received general voice education but not specific intervention. As part of a multidisciplinary assessment battery, psychological well-being/distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) pre, six and 12 months post VR. Within-group analysis revealed a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the proportion of patients with anxiety in the VR group between baseline and 12 months. No change over time was observed in controls. Between-group analysis revealed a trend for fewer VR cases demonstrating anxiety (p = 0.06) or depression (p = 0.08) at 6 months and significantly fewer demonstrating anxiety (p = 0.04) and depression (p = 0.04) at 12 months, compared to controls. Significant correlations were observed between patients' voice perceptions and reduced anxiety (r pb  = -0.38) and depression (r pb  = -0.66) within the VR group at 12 months. The positive correlations and between-group analyses indicate a positive effect on psychological well-being associated with completing voice rehabilitation. Results highlight potential additional benefits of behavioural voice intervention beyond achieving direct change to voice function.

  14. Concomitant radiochemotherapy for larynx preservation treatment in patents with locoregionally advanced squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprian, D.; Kawecki, A.; Jarzabski, A.; Michalski, W.

    2011-01-01

    Laryngopharygectomy followed by radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy has been a standard treatment for patients with advanced hypopharyngeal cancer These treatment modalities lead to permanent tracheostomy, which has a negative influence on the quality of life. For this reason new treatment methods have been investigated for a number of years. The aim of the study. To evaluate the results and the toxicity of larynx preservation treatment for locally advanced squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer. Material and methods. Between December 2004 and January 2007 56 patients with confirmed squamous cell hypopharyngeal cancer (stage III and IVa ) were treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with an intention to preserve the larynx. Conformal 3D radiotherapy was applied in all cases. Chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 per die administered twice during irradiation (day 1 and 22, day 43 of treatment) or once a week (35 mg/m 2) . Results. Median follow-up is 32 months. 5-year OS is 72%, DFS - 57%c, 3-year laryngectomy-free survival - LFS is 72%, 5-year LFS - 68% of patients (alive with larynx preservation). 11 patients have been diagnosed with local recurrence, 3 patients with nodal failure and one with locoregional failure. No severe life-threatening early and late complications were observed. Only 2 patients required temporary tracheostomy because of dyspnea due to laryngeal edema. Conclusion. We conclude that organ-preservation treatment is a valuable alternative to surgical treatment in patients diagnosed with stage III and IVa laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. (authors)

  15. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Additional information T4L is an enzyme found in T4 phage that is tolerant of mutations and amenable to crystallization. Extensive mutagenesis and...pnas.0912009106. [16] W.A. Baase, L. Liu, D.E. Tronrud, B.W. Matthews, Lessons from the lysozyme of phage T4 , Protein Sci. 19 (2010) 631–641. [17] D... phage T4 , Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 26 (1961) 25–30. [21] D.W. Heinz, W.A. Baase, B.W. Matthews, Folding and function of a T4 lysozyme

  16. Transoral laser surgery for laryngeal carcinoma: has Steiner achieved a genuine paradigm shift in oncological surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A T; Tanyi, A; Hart, R D; Trites, J; Rigby, M H; Lancaster, J; Nicolaides, A; Taylor, S M

    2018-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery applies to the piecemeal removal of malignant tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract using the CO 2 laser under the operating microscope. This method of surgery is being increasingly popularised as a single modality treatment of choice in early laryngeal cancers (T1 and T2) and occasionally in the more advanced forms of the disease (T3 and T4), predominantly within the supraglottis. Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist turned philosopher and historian of science, coined the phrase 'paradigm shift' in his groundbreaking book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He argued that the arrival of the new and often incompatible idea forms the core of a new paradigm, the birth of an entirely new way of thinking. This article discusses whether Steiner and colleagues truly brought about a paradigm shift in oncological surgery. By rejecting the principle of en block resection and by replacing it with the belief that not only is it oncologically safe to cut through the substance of the tumour but in doing so one can actually achieve better results, Steiner was able to truly revolutionise the management of laryngeal cancer. Even though within this article the repercussions of his insight are limited to the upper aerodigestive tract oncological surgery, his willingness to question other peoples' dogma makes his contribution truly a genuine paradigm shift.

  17. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case report presenting transglottic involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.M.J.M. van den; Heijnen, B.J.; Verbist, B.M.; Sjögren, E.V.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis is a very rare disease. In most cases, it will present as a supraglottic pale edematous swelling. In our case, the patient presented with hoarseness and dyspnea during exertion. Laryngeal examination did show not only supraglottic edema but also prominent subglottic

  18. Laryngeal dysfunction after thyroid surgery: diagnostic and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    FINCK, Camille

    2006-01-01

    Vocal fold hypomobility after thyroidectomy is a frequent complication of thyroidectomy. Laryngeal nerve paresis or paralysis may present with various symptoms like dysphagia, aspiration, voice alteration or dyspnea. Are described: the normal anatomophysiology of the larynx, the symptoms of nerve trauma following thyroidectomy, techniques of thoroughfull laryngeal and voice examination, some clinical entities( unilateral recurrent nerve paralysis, bilateral recurrent nerve paralysis, superior...

  19. The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Thyroid Surgery; Who to Scope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid surgery is a common general and specialist surgical procedure. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury during thyroid surgery, though rare, is the most feared surgical complication. Various steps and perioperative assessments can minimize recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. In this opinion article, two clinical vignettes.

  20. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses…

  1. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  2. The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Thyroid Surgery; Who to Scope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid surgery is a common general and specialist surgical procedure. Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury during thyroid surgery, though rare, is the most feared surgical complication. Various steps and perioperative assessments can minimize recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. In this opinion article, two clinical vignettes are ...

  3. Congenital Laryngeal Cyst: A Rare Cause of Polyhydramnios

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Tatar Aksoy; Nilda Süslü; Gamze Demirel; İstemihan Çelik; Fuat Emre Canpolat; Ömer Erdeve; Umut Akyol; Ugur Dilmen

    2013-01-01

    Congenital laryngeal cyst is a rare cause of airway obstruction that may require urgent diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of a neonate having history of polyhydramnios and severe respiratory distress at birth. A laryngeal cyst detected during intubation. The outcome of laryngoscopic treatment of the cyst was favorable.

  4. Congenital Laryngeal Cyst: A Rare Cause of Polyhydramnios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süslü, Nilda; Demirel, Gamze; Çelik, İstemihan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Erdeve, Ömer; Akyol, Umut; Dilmen, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Congenital laryngeal cyst is a rare cause of airway obstruction that may require urgent diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of a neonate having history of polyhydramnios and severe respiratory distress at birth. A laryngeal cyst detected during intubation. The outcome of laryngoscopic treatment of the cyst was favorable. PMID:24040590

  5. External laryngeal manipulation done by the laryngoscopist makes the best laryngeal view for intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Shaaban; Bakri, Mohamed Hassan; Mohamed, Hesham Ali; Shehab, Hany; Al Taher, Waleed

    2014-07-01

    External laryngeal manipulation (ELM) is used to get better laryngeal view during direct laryngoscopy. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ELM done by the intubating anesthetist (laryngoscopist) offers the best laryngeal view for tracheal intubation. A total of 160 patients underwent different surgical procedures were included in this study. Percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score and Cormack and Lehane scale were used as outcome measures for comparison between different laryngoscopic views. Four views were described; basic laryngoscopic view and then views after ELM done by the assistant, by the laryngoscopist and finally by the assistant after the guidance from the laryngoscopist respectively. The last three views compared with the basic laryngoscopic view. ELM done by the laryngoscopist or by the assistant after guidance from the laryngoscopist showed significant improvement of Cormack grades and POGO scores compared with basic laryngoscopic view. Number of patients with Cormack grade1 increased from 39 after direct laryngoscopy to 97 and 96 patients (P < 0.001 by Fisher's exact test), after ELM done by the laryngoscopist and that done by the assistant after guidance from the anesthetist respectively. Furthermore, the number of patients with POGO scores of 100% increased from 39 after direct laryngoscopy to 78 and 61 (P < 0.01) patients after ELM done by the laryngoscopist and that done by the assistant after guidance from the anesthetist respectively. It appeared from this study that ELM done by the anesthetist makes the best laryngeal view for tracheal intubation.

  6. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs: An update on recent knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan M. Kitshoff

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal paralysis is the effect of an inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages during inspiration, resulting in respiratory signs consistent with partial airway obstruction. The aetiology of the disease can be congenital (hereditary laryngeal paralysis or congenital polyneuropathy, or acquired (trauma, neoplasia, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy. The most common form of acquired laryngeal paralysis (LP is typically seen in old, large breed dogs and is a clinical manifestation of a generalised peripheral polyneuropathy recently referred to as geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy. Diagnosing LP based on clinical signs, breed and history has a very high sensitivity (90% and can be confirmed by laryngeal inspection. Prognosis after surgical correction depends on the aetiology: traumatic cases have a good prognosis, whereas tumour-induced or polyneuropathy-induced LP has a guarded prognosis. Acquired idiopathic LP is a slow progressive disease, with dogs reaching median survival times of 3–5 years after surgical correction.

  7. [Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis complicated by decompensated respiratory failure in two children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurégan, C; Thierry, B; Blanchard, M; Chéron, G

    2015-11-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis is a rare, potentially severe cause of recurrent laryngeal dyspnea. It should be known as a cause of laryngeal dyspnea resistant to the usual treatments. We report on two pediatric cases of severe laryngeal papillomatosis with respiratory distress and failure. These observations illustrate the importance of early adequate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural analysis of bacteriophage T4 DNA replication: a review in the Virology Journal series on bacteriophage T4 and its relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Ryan A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 encodes 10 proteins, known collectively as the replisome, that are responsible for the replication of the phage genome. The replisomal proteins can be subdivided into three activities; the replicase, responsible for duplicating DNA, the primosomal proteins, responsible for unwinding and Okazaki fragment initiation, and the Okazaki repair proteins. The replicase includes the gp43 DNA polymerase, the gp45 processivity clamp, the gp44/62 clamp loader complex, and the gp32 single-stranded DNA binding protein. The primosomal proteins include the gp41 hexameric helicase, the gp61 primase, and the gp59 helicase loading protein. The RNaseH, a 5' to 3' exonuclease and T4 DNA ligase comprise the activities necessary for Okazaki repair. The T4 provides a model system for DNA replication. As a consequence, significant effort has been put forth to solve the crystallographic structures of these replisomal proteins. In this review, we discuss the structures that are available and provide comparison to related proteins when the T4 structures are unavailable. Three of the ten full-length T4 replisomal proteins have been determined; the gp59 helicase loading protein, the RNase H, and the gp45 processivity clamp. The core of T4 gp32 and two proteins from the T4 related phage RB69, the gp43 polymerase and the gp45 clamp are also solved. The T4 gp44/62 clamp loader has not been crystallized but a comparison to the E. coli gamma complex is provided. The structures of T4 gp41 helicase, gp61 primase, and T4 DNA ligase are unknown, structures from bacteriophage T7 proteins are discussed instead. To better understand the functionality of T4 DNA replication, in depth structural analysis will require complexes between proteins and DNA substrates. A DNA primer template bound by gp43 polymerase, a fork DNA substrate bound by RNase H, gp43 polymerase bound to gp32 protein, and RNase H bound to gp32 have been crystallographically determined. The

  9. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemann, Boris; Lavolé, Armelle; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Nunes, Hilario; Benzakin, Sylvain; Lefevre, Marine; Kambouchner, Marianne; Périé, Sophie; Valeyre, Dominique; Cadranel, Jacques

    2014-10-20

    We undertook a study on a series of laryngeal sarcoidosis (LS), a very rare and often threatening localization to better specify laryngeal manifestations, sarcoidosis clinical expression and long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective case-control study. All LS patients from two French centers were included and compared to sarcoidosis patients without laryngeal localization with two controls for one patient. Twelve consecutive LS patients were recruited between 1993 and 2011. LS revealed sarcoidosis in eight cases (67%). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (77%), inspiratory dyspnea (38%) and dysphagia (38%). Epidemiological characterisics were not different. Extrapulmonary localizations were significantly more common in LS patients than in controls (92% vs. 54%, p=0.02), particularly lupus pernio (25% vs. 0%, p=0.03) and nasosinusal involvement (83% vs. 4%, p<0.01) while thoracic involvement was less frequent (58% vs 100%, p < 0.01). Treatment rates were higher in the LS group (92% vs. 58%, p=0.04), and treatment duration was longer (median: 81 vs. 13 months, p=0.04), with frequent long-term treatment (67%, N=8/12). Two patients underwent surgery. One patient needed temporary tracheostomy during the course of the disease; Remission rates were lower in LS patients (9% vs. 58% at 2 years p<0.01). Eventually, there was no death nor definitive tracheotomy. LS is a rare condition that is often associated to other loco-regional localizations. LS are often difficult to manage. Survival is good but may require a medico-surgical approach.

  10. Exchanging digital video of laryngeal examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John M; Deutsch, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Laryngeal examinations, especially stroboscopic examinations, are increasingly recorded using digital video formats on computer media, rather than using analog formats on videotape. It would be useful to share these examinations with other medical professionals in formats that would facilitate reliable and high-quality playback on a personal computer by the recipients. Unfortunately, a personal computer is not well designed for reliable presentation of artifact-free video. It is particularly important that laryngeal video play without artifacts of motion or color because these are often the characteristics of greatest clinical interest. With proper tools and procedures, and with reasonable compromises in image resolution and the duration of the examination, digital video of laryngeal examinations can be reliably exchanged. However, the tools, procedures, and formats for recording, converting to another digital format ("transcoding"), communicating, copying, and playing digital video with a personal computer are not familiar to most medical professionals. Some understanding of digital video and the tools available is required of those wanting to exchange digital video. Best results are achieved by recording to a digital format best suited for recording (such as MJPEG or DV),judiciously selecting a segment of the recording for sharing, and converting to a format suited to distribution (such as MPEG1 or MPEG2) using a medium suited to the situation (such as e-mail attachment, CD-ROM, a "clip" within a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation, or DVD-Video). If digital video is sent to a colleague, some guidance on playing files and using a PC media player is helpful.

  11. [Laryngeal tube II : alternative airway for children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, R; Scheller, B; Peter, N; Rosskopf, W; Byhahn, C; Zacharowski, K; Meininger, D

    2011-06-01

    Difficult airway situations both expected and unexpected, present major challenges to every anesthesiologist, especially in pediatric anesthesia. However, the integration of extraglottic airway devices, such as the laryngeal mask, into the algorithm of difficult airways has improved the handling of difficult airway situations. A device for establishing a supraglottic airway, the laryngeal tube (LT), was introduced in 1999. The LT is an extraglottic airway designed to secure a patent airway during either spontaneous breathing or controlled ventilation. The design of the device has been revised several times and a further development is the LTS II/LTS-D, which provides an additional channel for the insertion of a gastric drain tube. This article reports on the successful use of the LTS II in 12 children aged from 2 days to 6 years when endotracheal intubation, alternative mask or laryngeal mask ventilation failed. Use of the LTS II was associated with a high level of success, securing the airway when other techniques had failed. The potential advantage of the LTS II over the standard LT is an additional suction port, which allows gastric tube placement and can be used as an indirect indicator of correct placement. With a modified insertion technique using an Esmarch manoeuvre, placement was simple and fast to perform. In emergency situations when direct laryngoscopy fails or is too time-consuming the LTS II tube is recommended as an alternative device to secure the airway. As with all extraglottic airway devices, familiarity and clinical experience with the respective device and the corresponding insertion technique are essential for safe and successful use, especially in emergency situations.

  12. Esophageal stenosis after radiation for laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Majima, Yuichi; Nomoto, Yoshito; Okamoto, Yasunori; Sakakura, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    A 57-year-old female received radiation with 60 Gy, delivered by Cobalt 60 unit for laryngeal carcinoma in 1989. Several months later she complained of dyspnea, and fiberscopic observation revealed fixation of bilateral vocal cords and a swelling of bilateral arytenoid portions. In 1990, she developed difficulty swallowing. Further examinations showed that the cervical esophagus was extremely narrowed but no malignancy was found either in the larynx or in the esophagus. We suspected that the esophageal stenosis was caused by post-radiation fibrosis. (author)

  13. Esophageal stenosis after radiation for laryngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Majima, Yuichi; Nomoto, Yoshito; Okamoto, Yasunori; Sakakura, Yasuo [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-10-01

    A 57-year-old female received radiation with 60 Gy, delivered by Cobalt 60 unit for laryngeal carcinoma in 1989. Several months later she complained of dyspnea, and fiberscopic observation revealed fixation of bilateral vocal cords and a swelling of bilateral arytenoid portions. In 1990, she developed difficulty swallowing. Further examinations showed that the cervical esophagus was extremely narrowed but no malignancy was found either in the larynx or in the esophagus. We suspected that the esophageal stenosis was caused by post-radiation fibrosis. (author).

  14. Two rare cases of laryngeal intralymphatic histiocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reznitsky, Martin; Daugaard, Søren; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg

    2016-01-01

    We report two rare cases of intralymphatic histiocytosis causing, respectively, recurrent and persistent episodes of upper airway swelling and breathing difficulties. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man who was referred with recurrent upper airway swelling causing difficulty in breathing. A direct....... Extensive investigations were performed but discovered no abnormal findings. He received CO2 laser treatment twice and the swelling decreased. Intralymphatic histiocytosis is extremely rare in upper airway pathology. It is an important differential diagnosis in patients with recurrent and chronic laryngeal...

  15. [The effect of PSK on laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H; Hozawa, J; Kamata, S; Hakamada, M; Kasahara, M; Takagi, A

    1982-07-01

    In order to examine effects of PSK (polysaccharide Kureha) on laryngeal cancer, clinical results of 28 patients treated by PSK were compared with those of 31 of the historical control group. Three months after treatments, the PSK group showed a higher cumulative survival rate and better results in immunological parameters such as counts of peripheral lymphocyte, PPD and PHA skin reaction. However, these differences between the PSK group and the control group were not significant statistically, except peripheral leucocyte counts. The side effect was found in one patient who complained of stomach discomfort after applicating PSK.

  16. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined......K-ATPase by addition of ouabain (9-72 mg/l) did not inhibit T4 stimulation, thus indicating that the ouabain sensitive NaK-ATPase is not a major component of the processes which initiate the intracellular effects of T4. Therefore the stimulation of uptake of oxygen and glucose in human mononuclear blood cells seems...

  17. Phylogenetic diversity of T4-like bacteriophages in Lake Baikal, East Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Tatyana Vladimirovna; Belykh, Olga I; Maksimenko, Svetlana Yu; Belikov, Sergey I

    2010-08-01

    Among the tailed phages, the myoviruses, those with contractile tails, are widespread and diverse. An important component of the Myoviridae family is the genus 'T4-like viruses'. The present study was aimed at elucidating the molecular diversity of T4-type bacteriophages in Lake Baikal by partial sequencing of g23 genes of T4-type bacteriophages. Our study revealed that the g23 gene sequences investigated were highly diverse and different from those of T4-like bacteriophages and from g23 clones obtained from different environments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all g23 fragments from Lake Baikal, except for the one sequence, were more closely related to marine T4 cyanophages and to previously described subgroups of uncultured T4 phages from marine and rice field environments.

  18. PROTEOLYTIC REMOVAL OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF THE T4 GENE 32 HELIX-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN ALTERS THE T4 IN VITRO REPLICATION COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.L.; Alberts, B.M.; Hosoda, J.

    1980-07-01

    The proteolytic removal of about 60 amino acids from the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 helix-destabilizing protein (gene 32 protein) produces 32*I, a 27,000-dalton fragment which still binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA. The substitution of 32*I protein for intact 32 protein in the seven-protein T4 replication complex results in dramatic changes in some of the reactions catalyzed by this in vitro DNA replication system, while leaving others largely unperturbed. (1) Like intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein promotes DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase when the T4 polymerase accessory proteins (gene 44/62 and 45 proteins) are also present. The host helix-destabilizing protein (Escherichia coli ssb protein) cannot replace the 32*I protein for this synthesis. (2) Unlike intact 32 protein, 32*I protein strongly inhibits DNA synthesis catalyzed by the T4 DNA polymerase alone on a primed single-stranded DNA template. (3) Unlike intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein strongly inhibits RNA primer synthesis catalyzed by the T4 gene 41 and 61 proteins and also reduces the efficiency of RNA primer utilization. As a result, de novo DNA chain starts are blocked completely in the complete T4 replication system, and no lagging strand DNA synthesis occurs. (4) The 32*I protein does not bind to either the T4 DNA polymerase or to the T4 gene 61 protein in the absence of DNA; these associations (detected with intact 32 protein) would therefore appear to be essential for the normal control of 32 protein activity, and to account at least in part for observations 2 and 3, above. We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of intact 32 protein functions to guide its interactions with the T4 DNA polymerase and the T4 gene 61 RNA-priming protein. When this domain is removed, as in 32*I protein, the helix destabilization induced by the protein is controlled inadequately, so that polymerizing enzymes tend to be displaced from the growing 3{prime}-OH end of a

  19. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. ...

  1. L-T4 bioequivalence and hormone replacement studies via feedback control simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marisa; Samuels, Mary; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2006-12-01

    FDA Guidance for testing bioequivalence of levothyroxine (L-T(4)) preparations has been challenged by several groups, based on multiple issues. The efficacy of single versus combined hormone therapy also is receiving additional scrutiny. To examine these concerns, we developed a new nonlinear feedback system simulation model of whole-body regulation mechanisms involving dynamics of T(3), T(4), TSH, plasma protein binding, extravascular regulatory enzyme systems, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, all quantified from human data. To address bioequivalence, we explored how to best account for varying and unmeasured endogenous T(4) following dosing with exogenous oral L-T(4) in euthyroid volunteers in required pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, by simulating various dosing scenarios and developing a new and simple correction method. We computed and assessed dosing error effects and baseline corrections using simulator-predicted endogenous T(4) level variations, due to actual closed-loop effects, and compared these with approximate corrections computed directly from PK data. Predicted dose-responses were quite linear, and for constant baseline, 7-day half-life, and our new formula-correction methods, we established some bounds on bioequivalent dosages. Simulated replacement after thyroidectomy required 141 microg L-T(4) only to normalize T(3) tissue levels and 162 microg L-T(4) to normalize plasma T(3) levels. A combined dose of approximately 103 microg L-T(4) plus approximately 6 microg T(3) ( approximately 18:1 ratio) was needed to normalize both plasma T(3) and T(4) and average tissue T(3) levels. However, simulated average tissue T(3) levels were normalized with standard L-T(4)-only therapy, and plasma T(3) levels were still within the normal range. We suggest a simple and more accurate correction for endogenous T(4) in PK studies. Current standard L-T(4)-only treatment is supported for routine replacement needs.

  2. Multifocal T4 non-small cell lung cancer: a subset with improved prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousse, Delphine; D'Journo, Xavier Benoît; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Doddoli, Christophe; Giudicelli, Roger; Fuentes, Pierre Antoine; Thomas, Pascal Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    T4-disease for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes different conditions: mediastinal invasion, neoplastic pleural cytology, and multifocal disease in the same lobe; regarding the last category, no strict criteria allow to differentiate satellite nodules from synchronous multiple primary tumours. Retrospective study of 56 patients who underwent a complete resection from 1985 to 2006 of a NSCLC graded pT4N0 due to multifocal disease. A small nodule (satellite nodule (pT4sn). Multiple tumours, sized more than 1cm, with an identical histology, located in the same lobe but in different segment were considered as synchronous cancers (pT4sc). There were 44 males and 12 females: 35 patients were graded T4sn and 21 patients T4sc. The median age was 62.5 years. The two groups were similar for sex, age, tobacco consumption, ASA score, NYHA, Charlson's index, spirometric parameters, cardiovascular comorbidity and history of previous extra-thoracic malignancies. All had a complete anatomic resection with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Thirty-day mortality rate was 3.6%. Overall 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 48.2% and 29.9%, respectively. There was a non-significant trend for a worse survival in T4sn group patients when compared to that of T4sc group patients: 42.9% vs 52.3% at 5 years, and 25% vs 34.9% at 10 years (p=0.62). Multifocal T4 stage IIIB disease is a heterogeneous category where overall prognosis is far better than those of other T4 subgroups. Survival rates associated with pT4sn and pT4sc look roughly similar because of the small size of the subgroups usually submitted to comparison in most series. In the present experience, respective survival figures diverge, suggesting different biological behaviours.

  3. Investigation of study items for the patterns of care study in the radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Ahn, Sung Ja; Kim, Il Han

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop the national guide-lines for the standardization of radiotherapy we are planning to establish a web-based, on-line data-base system for laryngeal cancer. As a first step this study was performed to accumulate the basic clinical information of laryngeal cancer and to determine the items needed for the data-base system. We analyzed the clinical data of patients who were treated under the diagnosis of laryngeal cancer from January 1998 through December 1999 in the South-west area of Korea. Eligibility criteria of the patients are as follows: 18 years or older, currently diagnosed with primary epithelial carcinoma of larynx, and no history of previous treatments for another cancers and the other laryngeal diseases. The items were developed and filled out by radiation oncologist who are members of Korean Southwest Radiation Oncology Group. SPSS v10.0 software was used for statistical analysis, Data of forty-five patients were collected. Age distribution of patients ranged from 28 to 88 years (median, 61). Laryngeal cancer occurred predominantly in males (10: t sex ratio). Twenty-eight patients (62%) had primary cancers in the glottis and 17 (38%) in the supraglottis. Most of them were diagnosed pathologically as squamous cell carcinoma (44/45, 98%). Twenty-four of 28 glottic cancer patients (86%) had AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) stage l/ll, but 50% (8/16) had in supraglottic cancer patients (p=0.02). Most patients (89%) had the symptom of hoarseness. Indirect laryngoscopy was done in all patients and direct laryngoscopy was performed in 43 (98%) patients. Twenty-one of 28 (75%) glottic cancer cases and 6 of 17 (35%) supraglottic cancer cases were treated with radiation alone, respectively. The combined treatment of surgery and radiation was used in 5 (18%) glottic and 8 (47%) supraglottic patients. Chemotherapy and radiation was used in 2 (7%) glottic and 3 (18%) supraglottic patients. There was no statistically significant difference in

  4. Investigation of genome sequence and gene expression regulation in T4 related bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinienė, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bacteriophage VR7 has been determined. The genome sequence is 169,285 nt, with an overall G+C content of 40,3%, compared with 35.3 % of T4. VR7 encodes 293 putative protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) and tRNAMet. In total, 211 of the 293 VR7 open reading frames encode putative proteins that share 30% ‒ 97% amino acid sequence identity with those found in T4; 46 ORFs resemble genes from other T4-like phages, 9 show similarities to genes of non T4 type p...

  5. Laryngeal dysfunction and oral hygiene: Any relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryaman, Esra; Ilhan, Banu Oter

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a relation between poor oral hygiene and laryngeal dysfunction. 43 adult patients were divided into two groups according to caries activity and oral hygiene. 18 patients with oral hygiene index score (OHI-S) 0-1 were grouped as the control group (good oral hygiene). 25 patients with OHI-S 2-3 were grouped as the study group (poor oral hygiene). Larygostroboscopic examination, aerodynamic measures by defining maximum phonation time (MPT) and s/z ratio and the pitch level measurements were done. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), previously confirmed laryngeal diseases or pathologies, systemic other diseases, or smokers were excluded from this study. The average MPT values of the study group were found to be statistically very significantly lower than those of the control group (ppoor oral hygiene group correlate with LPR findings such as muscle tension dysphonia. Poor oral hygiene may aggravate potential LPR in people. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Laryngeal adenocystic carcinoma treated by proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Tomonori; Araki, Mamika; Fukukita, Kouhei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Adenocystic carcinoma most commonly develops in the major salivary glands, on the other hand it is rare for adenocystic carcinoma to develop in the larynx. We report a case of adenocystic carcinoma in the larynx. A 54-year-old male was hospitalized with symptoms of hoarseness and dyspnea on exertion. He presented a tumor that developed at the base of the right arytenoid, and covered over the glottis. It was confirmed to be adenocystic carcinoma (solid type) by biopsy. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT also revealed a left cervical lymph node metastasis and multiple pulmonary metastases (T1N2cM1). He was treated with proton therapy to the larynx to prevent airway obstruction by growth of the tumor and to preserve the larynx because he had uncontrollable pulmonary metastasis. Although the tumor vanished after the treatment, one month later he had halitosis, dyspnea and bilateral vocal cord palsy. Despite administration of an antibacterial drug and steroid, there was no improvement to the narrowness of the glottis. A tracheotomy was therefore performed three months after the proton therapy. PET-CT, which was performed after the tracheotomy, suggested growth of the residual tumor or laryngeal radionecrosis. This study confirmed that proton therapy is effective for adenocystic carcinoma in the larynx. However, proton therapy also was found to cause laryngeal radionecrosis. These results indicate the importance of evaluating the side effects of radiation therapy and providing that information to the patient. (author)

  7. Laryngeal complications by orotracheal intubation: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota, Luiz Alberto Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation are common in our way and widely told by literature. Generally the pipe rank of or consequence of its permanence in the aerial ways of the patient is caused by accidents in. It has diverse types of larynx injuries, caused for multiple mechanisms. Objective: To verify, in literature, the main causes of laryngeal complications after- orotracheal intubation and its mechanisms of injury. Revision of Literature: The searched databases had been LILACS, BIREME and SCIELO. Were updated, books and theses had been used, delimiting itself the period enters 1953 the 2009. The keywords used for the search of articles had been: complications, injuries, larynx, intubation, endotracheal, orotracheal, granulomas, stenosis. 59 references had been selected. The used criteria of inclusion for the choice of articles had been the ones that had shown to the diverse types of injuries caused for the orotracheal intubation and its pathophysiology. Final Considerations: This revision of literature was motivated by the comment in the practical clinic of a great number of laryngeal sequels in patients submitted to the orotracheal intubation. Of that is ahead important the knowledge, for the professionals of the area of health, the types of complications and its causes, with intention to prevent them, adopting measured of prevention of these injuries.

  8. Phonation threshold flow in elongated excised larynges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack J; Regner, Michael F; Tao, Chao; Pauls, Steven

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes the use of a new parameter of vocal aerodynamics, phonation threshold flow (PTF). The sensitivities of the PTF and the phonation threshold pressure (PTP) were quantitatively compared to the percent of vocal fold elongation from physiologic length. Ten excised canine larynges were mounted on a bench apparatus capable of controlling vocal fold elongation. Subglottal airflow was gradually increased until the onset of phonation. Elongation of the vocal folds was varied from +0% (physiologic length) to +15%, and the PTF and PTP were measured. The mean PTFs at physiologic vocal fold length ranged from 101 to 217 mL/s. No statistically significant relationship was found to exist between the size of the larynx and the measured PTF values (p = .404). The average percent change of PTF compared to the magnitude of elongation was found to be statistically significant (p < .001). The data indicated that the PTF was proportional to the percent of vocal fold elongation. The PTF was positively correlated with vocal fold elongation and the PTP for small magnitudes of elongation. The results suggest that the PTF may be indicative of the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds, thus providing a possibly valuable tool in the clinical evaluation of laryngeal function.

  9. Endoscopic laryngeal web formation for pitch elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    Endoscopic laryngeal web formation has been used to elevate the speaking voice, primarily in male to female transsexuals as part of gender reassignment intervention. The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding surgical treatment for pitch elevation and to describe a novel method of laryngeal web formation. The results of this technique are also reported in a series of six patients. All patients were assessed and treated at the St. Michael's Hospital Voice Disorders Clinic, a tertiary referral centre for voice disorders. Pre- and postoperative voice recordings, acoustic analysis, and videostroboscopic examinations were performed in this series. The acoustic data collected included isolated vowel samples, a reading task, and a modified voice range profile. The patients all underwent successful endoscopic web formation with a Gelfoam augmentation technique. The voice results collected at least 6 months after vocal fold web formation demonstrate a dramatic increase in the habitual speaking fundamental frequency. This new modification for endoscopic web formation has been shown to be a successful procedure for permanent elevation of pitch with little or no morbidity.

  10. Laryngeal Cysts in Adults: Simplifying Classification and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Richard; Lott, David G

    2017-12-01

    Objective Laryngeal cysts may occur at any mucosa-lined location within the larynx and account for 5% to 10% of nonmalignant laryngeal lesions. A number of proposed classifications for laryngeal cysts exist; however, no previously published classification aims to guide management. This review analyzes contemporary laryngeal cyst management and proposes a framework for the terminology and management of cystic lesions in the larynx. Data Sources PubMed/Medline. Review Methods A primary literature search of the entire Medline database was performed for all titles of publications pertaining to laryngeal cysts and reviewed for relevance. Full manuscripts were reviewed per the relevance of their titles and abstracts, and selection into this review was according to their clinical and scientific relevance. Conclusion Laryngeal cysts have been associated with rapid-onset epiglottitis, dyspnea, stridor, and death; therefore, they should not be considered of little significance. Symptoms are varied and nonspecific. Laryngoscopy is the primary initial diagnostic tool. Cross-sectional imaging may be required, and future use of endolaryngeal ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may revolutionize practice. Where possible, cysts should be completely excised, and there is growing evidence that a transoral approach is superior to transcervical excision for nearly all cysts. Histology provides definitive diagnosis, and oncocytic cysts require close follow-up. Implications for Practice A new classification system is proposed that increases clarity in terminology, with the aim of better preparing surgeons and authors for future advances in the understanding and management of laryngeal cysts.

  11. Association Between Laryngeal Cancer and Asbestos Exposure: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferster, Ashley P O'Connell; Schubart, Jane; Kim, Yesul; Goldenberg, David

    2017-04-01

    It has been debated whether a link exists between laryngeal cancer and asbestos exposure. Prior systematic reviews have been conducted on this topic, but no updates have been performed on the most recent literature since 2000. To provide an updated systematic review of the association between laryngeal cancer and asbestos exposure. A search of electronic databases, including PubMed and the Cochrane Library, was performed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and April 30, 2016. Search terms, including laryngeal cancer and asbestos, were used to identify publications reviewing the risk of laryngeal cancer in association with asbestos exposure. Studies analyzing this association that were published in any language and translated reliably were included. Two independent reviewers assessed articles based on predetermined eligibility criteria. Each study was reviewed for quality using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence and assessed for their findings of support for or against a correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. A total of 160 studies were retrieved from all databases, and 2 additional articles were identified by cross-references. Of the 162 articles screened, 15 articles comprising 438 376 study participants were included in this review. Of these 15 studies, 10 showed no correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. The remaining 5 studies claimed a correlation between asbestos exposure and incidence of laryngeal cancer, although only 1 accounted for smoking or alcohol exposure while 3 others did not, and 1 study included only 2 patients. Although asbestos is considered hazardous and carcinogenic, current evidence is lacking to support a correlation between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. Few studies have been able to definitively conclude a causal association between asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer, and those that found an association often did not account for the

  12. Improved survival of patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, S.; Kondo, M.; Inuyama, Y.; Hashimoto, S.

    1986-03-01

    One hundred and one patients with nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (NPC) were treated with irradiation. The UICC TNM staging system (1978) was used: 6 patients were T1N0, 10 T2N0, 5 T3N0, 13 T4N0, 11 T1N+, 18 T2N+, 19 T3N+ and 19 T4N+. Since 1978, 34 patients were examined with computed tomography (CT) at first presentation. Fourteen (41%) of the 34 tumors were upstaged based on the CT findings alone. The technique of radiation therapy was markedly changed around 1978. The fields to the primary site and neck were enlarged. Two-year relapse-free survival was significantly better for the post-CT era than pre-CT era. This was mainly because of improved local-recurrence-free survival, and cervical-relapse-free survival. Improved local-recurrence-free survival, however, was appreciated in only T3 + T4 patients; there was no difference in T1 + T2 patients. It is suggested that merely enlarging radiation fields or increasing radiation doses could not be curative for some subpopulations. In order to increase local control rates further, we have started to use intracavitary irradiation with an after-loading technique as a boost. Preliminary results are encouraging.

  13. Campylobacter jejuni group III phage CP81 contains many T4-like genes without belonging to the T4-type phage group: implications for the evolution of T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily. PMID:21697478

  15. CXCR4 mediated chemotaxis is regulated by 5T4 oncofetal glycoprotein in mouse embryonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Southgate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 5T4 oncofetal molecules are highly expressed during development and upregulated in cancer while showing only low levels in some adult tissues. Upregulation of 5T4 expression is a marker of loss of pluripotency in the early differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells and forms an integrated component of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process important during embryonic development and metastatic spread of epithelial tumors. Investigation of the transcriptional changes in early ES differentiation showed upregulation of CXCL12 and down-regulation of a cell surface protease, CD26, which cleaves this chemokine. CXCL12 binds to the widely expressed CXCR4 and regulates key aspects of development, stem cell motility and tumour metastasis to tissues with high levels of CXCL12. We show that the 5T4 glycoprotein is required for optimal functional cell surface expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and CXCL12 mediated chemotaxis in differentiating murine embryonic stem cells and embryo fibroblasts (MEF. Cell surface expression of 5T4 and CXCR4 molecules is co-localized in differentiating ES cells and MEF. By contrast, differentiating ES and MEF derived from 5T4 knockout (KO mice show only intracellular CXCR4 expression but infection with adenovirus encoding mouse 5T4 restores CXCL12 chemotaxis and surface co-localization with 5T4 molecules. A series of chimeric constructs with interchanged domains of 5T4 and the glycoprotein CD44 were used to map the 5T4 sequences relevant for CXCR4 membrane expression and function in 5T4KO MEF. These data identified the 5T4 transmembrane domain as sufficient and necessary to enable CXCR4 cell surface expression and chemotaxis. Furthermore, some monoclonal antibodies against m5T4 can inhibit CXCL12 chemotaxis of differentiating ES cells and MEF which is not mediated by simple antigenic modulation. Collectively, these data support a molecular interaction of 5T4 and CXCR4 occurring at the cell surface which

  16. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case report presenting transglottic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Emke M J M; Heijnen, Bas J; Verbist, Berit M; Sjögren, Elisabeth V

    2013-09-01

    Isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis is a very rare disease. In most cases, it will present as a supraglottic pale edematous swelling. In our case, the patient presented with hoarseness and dyspnea during exertion. Laryngeal examination did show not only supraglottic edema but also prominent subglottic swelling and edematous true vocal folds. Histology showed noncaseating granulomas. After excluding other causes and localizations, the patient was diagnosed with laryngeal sarcoidosis and treated with systemic corticosteroid with good result. We describe our case of isolated transglottic sarcoidosis and discuss the disease, its presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A case of laryngeal papilloma with sudden dyspnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiszczak, Maciej; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Borucki, Lukasz; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal papilloma is one of the most common non-malignant tumors of the larynx. In adult they are included to pre-cancerous diseases. In morphological examination, it is a solid tumor. Often it is possible to cure them during one surgical procedure. The disease is mostly localized on the anterior commissurae region, vocal fold, ventricules, and on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. If the malignant transformation is suspected, a large excision with margin has to be performed, completed by a histological evaluation. A case of a huge laryngeal papilloma with dyspnea is presented.

  18. [Simultaneous pulmonar, laryngeal and lingual affectation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Manzano, J A; Castillo Romero, J L; Padilla Romero, M J; Sánchez Laínez, J J; Castillo Aguilar, C; Cegarra Navarro, M F

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis has lately increased in developed countries. The most frequent affectation is the pulmonar one and in the ORL area the laryngeal. The lingual affectation is exceptional. We present a case of a man 39 years old, with bilateral pulmonar, left vocal cord and mobile tongue affectation, negative Mantoux, positive spit culture and presence of acido-alcohol resistent bacillus in lingual and laryngeal biopsies. After antituberculosis treatment during 6 months the laryngeal and lingual lesions disappeared. We have only found two cases published of simultaneous tuberculosis in these three localisations in the last 30 years.

  19. Laryngeal Chondrosarcoma as a Rare Cause of Subglottic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Kökoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal chondrosarcoma (CS is a very rare entity. It is usually seen in 50–80-year olds. It is developed from cricoid cartilage largely. Patients have laryngeal CS complaint of respiratuvar distress, dysphonia, and dysphagia generally. A submucous mass is usually seen in physical examination with an intact mucosa. Distant metastasis is rare in CSs. Main treatment is surgical excision. An 82-year-old patient who has respiratuvar distress is presented in this paper and laryngeal CS is reviewed in the light of the literature.

  20. Laryngeal necrosis after combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaguchi, Mamoru; Kubo, Takeshi [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). School of Medicine; Takashima, Hitoshi [Kagawa Medical School (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Post-radiation necrosis of the larynx is a major complication after irradiation and has become rare. Recently, combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been introduced for head and neck tumours. The authors report a case of laryngeal necrosis after combination therapy for a patient with cervical lymph node metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and review the literature on late laryngeal necrosis. Although radiation-induced laryngeal necrosis has become a rare complication, the combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may increase its incidence. (author).

  1. Neurophysiology and Clinical Implications of the Laryngeal Adductor Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domer, Amanda S; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is an involuntary protective response to stimuli in the larynx. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) acts as the afferent limb and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) as the efferent limb of this reflex, which is modulated by the central nervous system. Perhaps the most clinically significant application of the LAR is its use in laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination testing. Importantly, aberrations in the LAR may predict dysphagia or portend clinical phenotypes of chronic cough, vocal cord dysfunction or pediatric apneas. LP sensation is a potential target for interventions addressing the aforementioned conditions though currently remains an area of active investigation.

  2. [Comparison of efficacy for laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) versus common laryngeal mask airway in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Wang-ning; You, Shan; He, Wei; DI, Mei-qin; Xu, Jian; Li, Jun; Lian, Qing-quan

    2013-11-19

    To compare the efficacy of laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) versus common laryngeal mask airway in children with general anesthesia. With local research ethics committee's approval and written informed parental consent, 100 children were randomly divided into groups L (size 2.0 common laryngeal mask airway) and S (size 2.0 laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM)) according to random number (n = 50 each). After anesthesia induction, a common laryngeal mask airway or laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) was inserted and mechanically ventilated. Time and ease for insertion, insertion success rate, airway leak pressure, success rate and ease of disposal sputum collecting tube insertion in group S, quality of airway during anesthetic maintenance, abdominal circumference changes and complications within 24 h post-operation were measured. Compared with group L, abdominal circumference increased less in group S (0.90 ± 0.35 vs 0.43 ± 0.18 cm, n = 46, P children with mechanical ventilation, laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) can be effectively applied to maintain a good airway. And the incidence of gastric insufflation is lower. It is particularly useful for those requiring evacuation of gastric contents during general anesthesia.

  3. hemangiomes larynges de l'adulte a propos de 9 cas adult laryngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... pique, avec hémostase locale. Deux récidives ont été notées, pour lesquels une seconde exérèse instrumentale par voie endoscopique a été réalisée avec une évolution favorable. Le recul moyen était de 9 ans. SUMMARY. The adult laryngeal hemangioma is extremely rare and presents histological and ...

  4. External laryngeal manipulation done by the laryngoscopist makes the best laryngeal view for intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: External laryngeal manipulation (ELM is used to get better laryngeal view during direct laryngoscopy. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ELM done by the intubating anesthetist (laryngoscopist offers the best laryngeal view for tracheal intubation. Materials and method: A total of 160 patients underwent different surgical procedures were included in this study. Percentage of glottic opening (POGO score and Cormack and Lehane scale were used as outcome measures for comparison between different laryngoscopic views. Four views were described; basic laryngoscopic view and then views after ELM done by the assistant, by the laryngoscopist and finally by the assistant after the guidance from the laryngoscopist respectively. The last three views compared with the basic laryngoscopic view. Results: ELM done by the laryngoscopist or by the assistant after guidance from the laryngoscopist showed significant improvement of Cormack grades and POGO scores compared with basic laryngoscopic view. Number of patients with Cormack grade1 increased from 39 after direct laryngoscopy to 97 and 96 patients (P < 0.001 by Fisher′s exact test, after ELM done by the laryngoscopist and that done by the assistant after guidance from the anesthetist respectively. Furthermore, the number of patients with POGO scores of 100% increased from 39 after direct laryngoscopy to 78 and 61 (P < 0.01 patients after ELM done by the laryngoscopist and that done by the assistant after guidance from the anesthetist respectively. Conclusion: It appeared from this study that ELM done by the anesthetist makes the best laryngeal view for tracheal intubation.

  5. Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction: Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse vs. Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    closure with inspiratory wheezing • Can be exercise induced and believed to occur in up to 10% of incorrectly diagnosed cases of asthma Case Past...observed in COPD, bronchiectasis and asthma • Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO), previously called ’vocal cord dysfunction,’ describes vocal cord...Iraq • Non-reactive methacboline challenge with 9".4 reduced FEVI • Exercise laryngoscopy found ILONCD by ENf • \\bcal cord relaxation training

  6. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense mechanism. VSM Yadavalli, MMO Labeodan, S Udayabaskaran, N Forche. Abstract. The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World ...

  7. Specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells was examined using an in vivo assay system with hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) inactivated by uv light. A clear dose response was observed between the level of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells and the amount of T4 endonuclease V activity added. The T4 enzyme was unstable in human cells, and its half-life was 3 hr. Fractions derived from an extract of Escherichia coli infected with T4v 1 , a mutant defective in the endonuclease V gene, showed no ability to restore the uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells. However, fractions derived from an extract of T4D-infected E. coli with endonuclease V activity were effective. The T4 enzyme was effective in xeroderma pigmentosum cells on DNA damaged by uv light but not in cells damaged by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The results of these experiments show that the T4 enzyme has a specific action on human cell DNA in vivo. Treatment with the T4 enzyme increased the survival of group A xeroderma pigmentosum cells after uv irradiation

  8. Results of surgical treatment of T4 non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitz, CCM; de la Riviere, AB; van Swieten, HA; Westermann, CJJ; Lammers, JWJ; van den Bosch, JMM

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Because of location and invasion of surrounding structures, the role of surgical treatment for T4 tumors remains unclear. Extended resections carry a high mortality and should be restricted for selected patients. This study clarifies the selection process in non-small cell T4 tumors with

  9. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  10. Reversing Age Related Changes of the Laryngeal Muscles by Chronic Electrostimulation of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    Full Text Available Age related atrophy of the laryngeal muscles -mainly the thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM- leads to a glottal gap and consequently to a hoarse and dysphonic voice that significantly affects quality of life. The aim of our study was to reverse this atrophy by inducing muscular hypertrophy by unilateral functional electrical stimulation (FES of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in a large animal model using aged sheep (n = 5. Suitable stimulation parameters were determined by fatiguing experiments of the thyroarytenoid muscle in an acute trial. For the chronic trial an electrode was placed around the right RLN and stimulation was delivered once daily for 29 days. We chose a very conservative stimulation pattern, total stimulation time was two minutes per day, or 0.14% of total time. Overall, the mean muscle fiber diameter of the stimulated right TAM was significantly larger than the non-stimulated left TAM (30μm±1.1μm vs. 28μm±1.1 μm, p<0.001. There was no significant shift in fiber type distribution as judged by immunohistochemistry. The changes of fiber diameter could not be observed in the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCAM. FES is a possible new treatment option for reversing the effects of age related laryngeal muscle atrophy.

  11. MYCT1-TV, A Novel MYCT1 Transcript, Is Regulated by c-Myc and May Participate in Laryngeal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shuang; Guo, Yan; Chen, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Ming; Qiu, Guang-Bin; Zhong, Ming; Sun, Kai-Lai; Fu, Wei-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Background MYCT1, a putative target of c-Myc, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene cloned from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Its transcriptional regulation and biological effects on LSCC have not been clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RACE assay, we cloned a 1106 bp transcript named Myc target 1 transcript variant 1 (MYCT1-TV) and confirmed its transcriptional start site was located at 140 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of MYCT1-TV. Luciferase, electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed c-Myc could regulate the promoter activity of MYCT1-TV by specifically binding to the E-box elements within −886 to −655 bp region. These results were further verified by site-directed mutagenesis and RNA interference (RNAi) assays. MYCT1-TV and MYCT1 expressed lower in LSCC than those in paired adjacent normal laryngeal tissues, and overexpression of MYCT1-TV and MYCT1 could inhibit cell proliferation and invasion and promote apoptosis in LSCC cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that MYCT1-TV, a novel MYCT1 transcript, is regulated by c-Myc and down-regulation of MYCT1-TV/MYCT1 could contribute to LSCC development and function. PMID:21998677

  12. AtlasT4SS: A curated database for type IV secretion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Rangel C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type IV secretion system (T4SS can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. Description The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive, one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. Conclusions In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and

  13. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  14. Genomic characteristics and environmental distributions of the uncultivated Far-T4 phages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eRoux

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral metagenomics (viromics is a tremendous tool to reveal viral diversity and ecosystem functional roles across ecosystems ranging from the human gut to the world's oceans. As with microbes however, there appear vast swaths of 'dark matter' yet to be documented for viruses, even among relatively well-studied viral types. Here, we use viromics to explore the 'Far-T4 phages' sequence space, a neighbor clade from the well-studied T4-like phages that was first detected through PCR study in seawater and subsequently identified in freshwater lakes through 454-sequenced viromes. To advance the description of these viruses beyond this single marker gene, we explore Far-T4 genome fragments assembled from 2 deeply-sequenced freshwater viromes. Single gene phylogenetic trees confirm that the Far-T4 phages are divergent from the T4-like phages, genome fragments reveal largely collinear genome organization, and both data led to the delineation of 5 Far-T4 clades. Three-dimensional models of major capsid proteins are consistent with a T4-like structure, and highlight highly conserved core flanked by variable insertions. Finally, we contextualize these now better characterized Far-T4 phages by re-analyzing 196 previously published viromes. These suggest that Far-T4 are common in freshwater and seawater as only 4 of 82 aquatic viromes lacked Far-T4-like sequences. Variability in representation across the 5 newly identified clades suggests clade-specific niche differentiation may be occurring across the different biomes, though the underlying mechanism remains unidentified. While complete genome assembly from complex communities and the lack of host linkage information still bottleneck virus discovery through viromes, these findings exemplify the power of metagenomics approaches to assess the diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic characteristics of novel uncultivated phages.

  15. Genomic characteristics and environmental distributions of the uncultivated Far-T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, François; Ravet, Viviane; Pereira, Olivier; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics (viromics) is a tremendous tool to reveal viral taxonomic and functional diversity across ecosystems ranging from the human gut to the world's oceans. As with microbes however, there appear vast swaths of "dark matter" yet to be documented for viruses, even among relatively well-studied viral types. Here, we use viromics to explore the "Far-T4 phages" sequence space, a neighbor clade from the well-studied T4-like phages that was first detected through PCR study in seawater and subsequently identified in freshwater lakes through 454-sequenced viromes. To advance the description of these viruses beyond this single marker gene, we explore Far-T4 genome fragments assembled from two deeply-sequenced freshwater viromes. Single gene phylogenetic trees confirm that the Far-T4 phages are divergent from the T4-like phages, genome fragments reveal largely collinear genome organizations, and both data led to the delineation of five Far-T4 clades. Three-dimensional models of major capsid proteins are consistent with a T4-like structure, and highlight a highly conserved core flanked by variable insertions. Finally, we contextualize these now better characterized Far-T4 phages by re-analyzing 196 previously published viromes. These suggest that Far-T4 are common in freshwater and seawater as only four of 82 aquatic viromes lacked Far-T4-like sequences. Variability in representation across the five newly identified clades suggests clade-specific niche differentiation may be occurring across the different biomes, though the underlying mechanism remains unidentified. While complete genome assembly from complex communities and the lack of host linkage information still bottleneck virus discovery through viromes, these findings exemplify the power of metagenomics approaches to assess the diversity, evolutionary history, and genomic characteristics of novel uncultivated phages.

  16. Clinicopathological significance of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu; Niu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Yang, Xiaojun; Ma, Haizhong; Ma, Shixun; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Yifeng

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors. The oncogene c-MYC is thought to be important in the initiation, promotion, and therapy resistance of cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathologic roles of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. This study is aimed at discovering and analyzing c-MYC expression in a series of human esophageal tissues. A total of 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were analyzed by the western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Then, correlation of c-MYC expression with clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was statistically analyzed. In most esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases, the c-MYC expression was positive in tumor tissues. The positive rate of c-MYC expression in tumor tissues was 61.05%, obviously higher than the adjacent normal tissues (8.42%, 8/92) and atypical hyperplasia tissues (19.75%, 16/95). There was a statistical difference among adjacent normal tissues, atypical hyperplasia tissues, and tumor tissues. Overexpression of the c-MYC was detected in 61.05% (58/95) esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, which was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC expression was 40.0% in well-differentiated esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC was 41.5% in T1 + T2 esophageal tissues and 74.1% in T3 + T4 esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.001). The positive rate of c-MYC was 45.0% in I + II esophageal tissues and 72.2% in III + IV esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.011). The c-MYC expression strongly correlated with clinical staging (p = 0.011), differentiation degree (p = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), and invasion depth (p = 0.001) of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The c-MYC was

  17. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Patients with cT3/Nearly T4 Esophageal Cancer: Is Sarcopenia Correlated with Postoperative Complications and Prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Kudou, Kensuke; Sasaki, Shun; Jogo, Tomoko; Hirose, Kosuke; Edahiro, Keitaro; Korehisa, Shotaro; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Ryota; Kubo, Nobuhide; Ando, Koji; Kabashima, Akira; Oki, Eiji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-27

    Since the clinical impact of sarcopenia on multimodal therapy for patients with esophageal cancer is not well understood, this study was conducted to determine the influence of sarcopenia on the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer. The skeletal muscle index was quantified at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomography images, and sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index that was less than the average for each gender. We compared treatment outcomes in patients with cT3 and nearly T4 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma between the sarcopenia group (n = 85) and the non-sarcopenia group (n = 72). The 5-year survival rates were 33.4% in the non-sarcopenia group and 31.5% in the sarcopenia group; these differences were not significant. The prognosis of the patients with sarcopenia was worse than that of the patients without sarcopenia in the surgery-alone group, but there was no difference between patients with and without sarcopenia in the NACRT group. NACRT could be a useful option for patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, even for those with sarcopenia, without increasing the incidence of morbidity and mortality.

  18. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris Lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides.

  19. Risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia postthyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Despite preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), transient vocal cord paralysis (VCP) occurs after 1.2% to 10.9% of thyroidectomies. The objective of this study was to study risk factors for transient VCP after thyroidectomy.

  20. Undiagnosed Maternal HPV Infection Causing Postnatal Recurrent Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Coşkun Salman

    2008-08-01

    Here, a woman with undiagnosed genital HPV infection who transmitted infection to her infant is reported. Infection of infant caused recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis which necessitated repeated surgical procedures.

  1. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Drop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR assay. Males (87.7% with a history of smoking (70.6% and alcohol abuse (59.6% prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3% and with N1 stage (45.8%. Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3 was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T and lymph-node involvement (N in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells.

  2. Coinfection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-12-19

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR) assay. Males (87.7%) with a history of smoking (70.6%) and alcohol abuse (59.6%) prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3%) and with N1 stage (45.8%). Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3) was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T) and lymph-node involvement (N) in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells.

  3. A case of laryngeal angioleiomyoma and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Yin; Liu, Yan; Qi, Xinmeng; Jin, Chunshun

    2015-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign vascular smooth muscle tumor that arise from the tunica media of veins and arteries. Here a case of laryngeal angioleiomyoma in a 57-year-old Chinese man is reported. The patient presented with dysphagia for one and half-month and dyspnea during the previous one week, was hospitalized for treatment with a tracheotomy and laryngofissure with the unblock mass excision. Final pathological evaluation of the neoplasm confirmed a diagnosis of laryngeal angioleiomyoma...

  4. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, T. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Itami, J. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Kotaka, K. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Toriyama, M. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    1996-08-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Von 1974 bis 1992 wurden 37 zuvor nicht behandelte Patienten mit T3-Larynxkarzinomen (15 supraglottisch, 22 glottisch) primaer kurativ bestrahlt und, wenn erforderlich, einer Salvage-Operation unterzogen. Die Zwei-Jahres-Kontrollrate bei alleiniger Strahlentherapie, die Rate der Stimmerhaltung sowie die unter Einschluss der Operation erreichbare lokale Kontrollrate bei supraglottischen T3-Larynxkarzinomen betrugen 33%, 33% und 60%. Bei glottischen T3-Karzinomen wurden jeweils 32%, 23% und 77% erreicht. Die Fuenf-Jahres-Ueberlebensrate betrug 47% bei supraglottischen T3-Karzinomen und 77% bei den glottischen Karzinomen. Im Fall von supraglottischen Karzinomen erreichte keiner der vier Patienten mit subglottischer Tumorausdehnung eine lokale Kontrolle durch alleinige Strahlentherapie. Die lokoregionale rezidivfreie Zeit war bei den Patienten mit subglottischer Tumorausdehnung oder Tracheostomie vor Einleitung der

  5. Laryngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Chin, Oliver Y; Fang, Christina H; Park, Richard Chan; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant minor salivary gland tumor that represents laryngeal tumors. The submucosal location of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (LACC) results in delayed presentation. Here, we present the first systematic review of reported cases of LACC to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities, and patient outcome. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. A search of the above databases was done to identify articles reporting cases of LACC. The variables included in the analysis were patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location, imaging, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence, and outcome. A total of 50 articles and 120 cases were included in the review. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (48.8%), followed by hoarseness (43.9%). LACC arose most frequently from the subglottis (56.7%). At presentation, 14.6% (13 of 89) of patients had regional disease. The average follow-up time was 54.0 months. At follow-up, distant metastasis was reported in 30 cases (33.3%). Surgery alone (43.3%) and surgery with radiotherapy (43.3%) were used most frequently and resulted in 57.1% and 55.3% of patients alive with no evidence disease at follow-up, respectively. LACC was most often located in the subglottis. Patients commonly presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. In this systematic review, surgery with radiotherapy and surgery alone were the most commonly employed treatment modalities, and both resulted in slightly more than 50% of patients alive with no evidence of disease at follow-up. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  6. Laryngeal Dysfunction: Assessment and Management for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke; Gibson, Peter G; Fowler, Stephen J

    2016-11-01

    The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans and serves a number of vitally important, complex, and highly evolved biological functions. On a day-to-day basis, the larynx functions autonomously, addressing several roles including airway protection, swallowing, and phonation. In some situations the larynx appears to adopt a functional state that could be considered maladaptive or "dysfunctional." This laryngeal dysfunction can underpin and account for a number of respiratory symptoms that otherwise appear incongruous with a clinical disease state and/or contribute to the development of symptoms that appear "refractory" to treatment. These include conditions associated with a heightened tendency for inappropriate laryngeal closure (e.g., inducible laryngeal obstruction), voice disturbance, and chronic cough. Recognition of laryngeal dysfunction is important to deliver targeted treatment and failure to recognize the condition can lead to repeated use of inappropriate treatment. Diagnosis is not straightforward, however, and many patients appear to present with symptoms attributable to laryngeal dysfunction, but in whom the diagnosis has been overlooked in clinical work-up for some time. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in the field of laryngeal dysfunction, with a focus on pragmatic clinical assessment and management.

  7. Dysphonia – the single symptom of rifampicin resistant laryngeal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulauskienė Iveta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still the most frequent granulomatous laryngeal disease. Absence of pathognomonic symptoms and change in clinical pattern frequently leads to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. Hoarseness is the commonest symptom of laryngeal tuberculosis and constitutional symptoms are usually rare. However dysphonia can be caused by many other more common conditions. Hoarseness can be a symptom of organic (nodules and polyps of vocal folds, tumors, vocal fold paresis or functional (functional dysphonia, laryngeal conversion disorder, paradoxical vocal folds motion conditions. Rarely systemic diseases as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granulomatosis or tuberculosis can cause vocal dysfunction too. That is why laryngeal tuberculosis is often forgotten in case of persistent hoarseness. In this article, we present a case of a young previously healthy woman, complaining of persistent hoarseness with no other leading symptoms. Though endoscopic image suggested a malignancy, histology showed granulomatous lesion. Detailed examination revealed laryngeal and pulmonary tuberculosis resistant to rifampicin. Conclusion: Dysphonia can be the only one symptom of laryngeal tuberculosis. The disease should be taken into consideration when a patient complains of persistent hoarseness in order to avoid delays in treatment and spread of infection.

  8. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  9. Genome of low-temperature T4-related bacteriophage vB_EcoM-VR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliniene, Laura; Klausa, Vytautas; Zajančkauskaite, Aurelija; Nivinskas, Rimas; Truncaite, Lidija

    2011-10-01

    The complete genome sequence of the T4-related low-temperature Escherichia coli bacteriophage vB_EcoM-VR7 was determined. The genome sequence is 169,285 bp long, with a G+C content of 40.3%. Overall, 95% of the phage genome is coding. It encodes 293 putative protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) and tRNA(Met). More than half (59%) of the genomic DNA lacks significant homology with the DNA of T4, but once translated, 72% of the vB_EcoM-VR7 genome (211 ORFs) encodes protein homologues of T4 genes. Overall, 46 vB_EcoM-VR7 ORFs have no homologues in T4 but are derived from other T4-related phages, nine ORFs show similarities to bacterial or non-T4-related phage genes, and 27 ORFs are unique to vB_EcoM-VR7. This phage lacks several T4 enzymes involved in host DNA degradation; however, there is extensive representation of the DNA replication, recombination and repair enzymes as well as the viral capsid and tail structural genes.

  10. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  11. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qingwen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xingxia; Zhao, Liandong; Xu, Qingchen; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Guanyu; Yang, Xiaofan; Ma, Hongming; Wu, Haoquan; Ji, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L) into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed. We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects. Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5. Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  12. Comparison between 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography for measuring gross tumor volume in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Randall, Elissa K; Kraft, Susan L; Larue, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most refractory feline malignancies. Most patients succumb due to failure in local tumor control. 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG PET) is increasingly being used for veterinary oncology staging as it highlights areas with higher glucose metabolism. The goal of the current prospective study was to compare gross tumor volume measurements using (18) F-FDG PET vs. those using computed tomography (CT) for stereotactic radiation therapy planning in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twelve cats with confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent pretreatment (18) F-FDG PET/CT. Gross tumor volumes based on contrast-enhanced CT and (18) F-FDG PET were measured and compared among cats. Mean PET gross tumor volume was significantly smaller than mean CT gross tumor volume in the mandibular/maxillary squamous cell carcinoma group (n = 8, P = 0.002) and for the total number of patients (n = 12, P = 0.006), but not in the lingual/laryngeal group (n = 4, P = 0.57). Mismatch fraction analysis revealed that most of the lingual/laryngeal patients had a large region of high-(18) F-FDG activity outside of the CT gross tumor volume. This mismatch fraction was significantly greater in the lingual/laryngeal group than the mandibular/maxillary group (P = 0.028). The effect of poor spatial resolution of PET imaging was greater when the absolute tumor volume was small. Findings from this study indicated that (18) F-FDG PET warrants further investigation as a supplemental imaging modality in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma because it detected regions of possible primary tumor that were not detected on CT images. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  13. The quality of life of patients following treatment for laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, A.R.; Rawlinson, E.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine patients have been interviewed 9 to 15 months following treatment for laryngeal cancer to determine the post treatment quality of voice and life. The patients were subdivided into 3 groups, successfully irradiated T1 and T2 patients, (89 patients), successfully irradiated T3 and T4 patients (24 patients) and those treated by surgery (16 patients). Ninety-three percent of T1 and T2 patients and 79% of T3 and T4 patients were working following treatment as compared to 44% of the surgery patients. Ninety-eight percent of the T1 and T2 and 87.5% of the T3 and T4 patients were able to use the telephone normally as compared to 12% of the surgery patients. Similarly major differences between the successfully irradiated patients and the surgically treated patients in terms of ability to live a normal social life have been noted. The patients also rated their voice in terms of volume, pitch, ability to communicate, quality, rate of speech, flow of speech and dry throat. In every parameter of rating of the voice, with the exception of dryness of the throat, the successfully irradiated patients in all stage groupings had better ratings than the surgery group. Since, in Toronto, survival in advanced glottic and supraglottic cancer is the same using radical radiation with surgery in reserve as survival with primary surgery, it is concluded in view of the superior quality of voice and life in the successfully irradiated patients that irradiation with surgery in reserve is the optimal treatment for these patients. We also concluded that the measurement of quality of life in patients with cancer of the larynx is of vital importance in determining optimal treatment and that further studies in this area are indicated

  14. Plasticity of the gene functions for DNA replication in the T4-like phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasiliy M; Nolan, James M; Bertrand, Claire; Levy, Dawn; Desplats, Carine; Krisch, H M; Karam, Jim D

    2006-08-04

    We have completely sequenced and annotated the genomes of several relatives of the bacteriophage T4, including three coliphages (RB43, RB49 and RB69), three Aeromonas salmonicida phages (44RR2.8t, 25 and 31) and one Aeromonas hydrophila phage (Aeh1). In addition, we have partially sequenced and annotated the T4-like genomes of coliphage RB16 (a close relative of RB43), A. salmonicida phage 65, Acinetobacter johnsonii phage 133 and Vibrio natriegens phage nt-1. Each of these phage genomes exhibited a unique sequence that distinguished it from its relatives, although there were examples of genomes that are very similar to each other. As a group the phages compared here diverge from one another by several criteria, including (a) host range, (b) genome size in the range between approximately 160 kb and approximately 250 kb, (c) content and genetic organization of their T4-like genes for DNA metabolism, (d) mutational drift of the predicted T4-like gene products and their regulatory sites and (e) content of open-reading frames that have no counterparts in T4 or other known organisms (novel ORFs). We have observed a number of DNA rearrangements of the T4 genome type, some exhibiting proximity to putative homing endonuclease genes. Also, we cite and discuss examples of sequence divergence in the predicted sites for protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions of homologues of the T4 DNA replication proteins, with emphasis on the diversity in sequence, molecular form and regulation of the phage-encoded DNA polymerase, gp43. Five of the sequenced phage genomes are predicted to encode split forms of this polymerase. Our studies suggest that the modular construction and plasticity of the T4 genome type and several of its replication proteins may offer resilience to mutation, including DNA rearrangements, and facilitate the adaptation of T4-like phages to different bacterial hosts in nature.

  15. Evidence for a third type of UV repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minderhout, L.A.G. van; Grimbergen, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two classes of UV-sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4 have been found so far: excision-repair mutants and replication-repair mutants. A third type of UV repair in bacteria was described by Bridges and named ''reinitiation recovery.'' This repair is sensitive to acriflavine and is responsible for the shoulder in some UV-inactivation curves. T4 UV-sensitive mutants which are defective in this repair have not been described. In this paper, evidence is presented for the third UV-repair pathway in phage T4. Recently new UV-sensitive mutants induced in strain uvs5 were isolated

  16. First experiences with the AMERLEX-MAB FREE T4 assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.A.; Penders, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The new Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is a quick direct free T 4 assay with good reproducability. The correlation between the Amerlex-MAB FT 4 and the free T 4 of Byk is good. In the non-thyreoidal illness patient group no deviation for the values were found. Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is cheaper, because no total T4 has to be measured. More research has to be done for special patient sera. Disturbing influences as free fatty acids, heparin and auto-antibodies have to be checked. (R.B.). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Effects of 18 months of L-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adrees, M

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Some of the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities seen in overt hypothyroidism have also been reported in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Short-term L-T4 replacement in SCH improves cardiovascular risk markers and reduces carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The haemodynamic and renal effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors and renal variables in women with SCH and normal women. To study the effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH subjects on these variables and on structural and functional changes in common carotid and brachial arteries. DESIGN: Fifty-six women with SCH before and after L-T4 replacement for 18 months and 56 normal women of similar age distribution were studied. Blood Pressure (BP), plasma lipids and homocysteine were measured and renal function evaluated [estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using standard equations and measurement of serum Cystatin-C] in women with SCH before and after 18 months of l-T4, and in healthy women. CIMT and endothelial function (using brachial artery ultrasound) were studied before and after L-T4 in a subgroup of women with SCH. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine were greater in SCH (P < 0.05), and following L-T4 replacement decreased (P < 0.05) to levels that no longer differed from normal subjects. Estimated GFR was reduced and serum Cystatin-C increased (P < 0.05) in SCH. These variables also normalized following L-T4. Following L-T4 replacement the carotid artery baseline diameter increased by 7.1% and CIMT decreased by a mean value of 13%, while brachial artery diameter increased basally by 12.5% and following endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by 17.5% (P < 0.05). However, the increment following reactive hyperaemia did not differ before or following L-T4 replacement. CONCLUSION: Normalization of

  18. Safety and radiation-enhancing effect of sodium glycididazole in loco regionally advanced laryngeal cancers previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Y.C.; Wu, R.; Xu, Z.G.; Zhang, X.Y.; Wu, L.N.; Wang, Y.M.; Zheng, W.; Chen, X.D.; Chi, F.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Li, X.; Jin, X.Y.; Chen, W.; Wang, S.L.; Xiao, F.D.; Wang, E.Y.; Dong, X.Q.; Jia, M.X.; Li, Y.; Fan, G.L.; Hao, S.H.; Zhang, L.B.; Zhang, H.B.; Xia, H.H.X.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and radiation-enhancing effect of sodium glycididazole in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (stage T3-4,N0-3,M0) with conventional radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Patients with locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer (stage T3-4,N0-3,M0) were included: group 1(control, n = 30)were not administered of sodium glycididazole; group 2 (test, n = 30) received sodium glycididazole at a dose of 700 mg/m2 intravenous infusion 30 minutes before radiotherapy three times a week. Surrogate end-points of efficacy were tumor and nodal size. Safety parameters were vomiting, nausea, mucositis, laryngeal edema, esophagus and skin reaction, dysphagia, dyspnea, neurological deficit. Patients were evaluated weekly during treatment for 7 weeks and thereafter monthly for 3 months. Results: In the test, the overall response rate was 88.89% (95% CI, 71.00-97.00%) at 7 weeks and 92.59% (95% CI, 76.00 to 99.00%) at 1 month of follow-up. In the control, the overall response rate was 62.5% (95% CI, 41.00 to 81.00%) at 7 weeks and 58.33% (95% CI, 37.00 to 78.00%) at 1 month of follow-up. The short-term locoregional response rate was better in the test group at 7 weeks (p = 0.027) and at 1 month (p = 0.005) of follow-up. The test group had significantly more nausea and vomiting in weeks 1 (p = 0.047), 2 (p = 0.007), and 3 (p = 0.01) of treatment. Conclusions: The study indicates sodium glycididazole is an effective radiation-enhancing agent that improves short-term locoregional control and is well tolerated in patients with loco regionally advanced laryngeal cancer. (authors)

  19. [The association between genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma from the Han people in Guangdong zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shenzhi; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiao, Qi; Zhai, Jinming; Yan, Xiaoling; Huang, Minqi; Chen, Fujin; Li, Qiuli; Guan, Zhong

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the association between genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic- metabolizing enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma from the Han people in Guangdong zone. A case-control study was conducted involving 233 LSCC (laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma) patients and 102 healthy controls to investigate the association between polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 (Ile/Val) and LSCC from the Han people in Guangdong zone. All blood samples of the Han people from the Guangdong zone was analyzed with methods of PCR, ASA and the DNA sequencing technique with sequenator. We explored the association between polymorphisms and the clinical pathologic characteristics of LSCC. The data was processed with SPSS13.0. Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% CI for relevancy intensity were calculated using binary logistic regression analysis. The frequency of GSTM1(-) and GSTT1(-) genotype was higher in LSCC than that in healthy controls (OR = 2.61, 3.05, P 51, 95% CI 2.05-5.01; OR = 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.49). The frequency of GSTM1(-) and GSTT1(-) genotype was higher in LSCC whose family had carcinoma history. The frequency of advanced LSCC was higher in patients who were with GSTM1(-) and GSTT1 (-) genotype (P 0.05). There may be an association between the susceptibility to carcinoma and GSTT1(-), GSTM1(-) genotype. The GSTT1(-) polymorphism c gene cooperating with heavily smoking boost up the susceptibility of individual to laryngeal carcinoma. The GSTM1(-) polymorphism c may not cooperating with smoking during carcinogenesis of LSCC in the Han people in Guangdong zone. The morphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene may affect the carcino-genesis of LSCC in the Han people in Guangdong zone. There may be no association between the susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma and the GSTP1(Ile/Val) type.

  20. Dynamics and Predictors of Serum TSH and fT4 Reference Limits in Early Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, Stine Linding; Hindersson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid hormones are important developmental factors and levels should be adequate both in the pregnant woman and in the fetus. However, there is no consensus on maternal thyroid test reference limits in early pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Estimation of week-to-week changes in and predictors...... of TSH and free T4 (fT4) reference limits in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Measurement of TSH and fT4 in biobank sera collected in pregnancy weeks 5-19 from a random sample of the Danish National Birth Cohort that enrolled 101 032 pregnant in 1996-2002. SETTING: National cohort of pregnant...... women. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants (n = 6671) were identified and individual characteristics retrieved using interview data and data from Danish national health registers. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reference limits for TSH and fT4 in each first trimester pregnancy week...

  1. Adsorption of T4 bacteriophages on planar indium tin oxide surface via controlled surface tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Chia, Ed Win; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2016-04-15

    The work investigates the influence of surface physicochemical properties of planar indium tin oxide (ITO) as a model substrate on T4 bacteriophage adsorption. A comparative T4 bacteriophage adsorption study shows a significant difference in bacteriophage adsorption observed on chemically modified planar ITO when compared to similarly modified particulate ITO, which infers that trends observed in virus-particle interaction studies are not necessarily transferrable to predict virus-planar surface adsorption behaviour. We also found that ITO surfaces modified with methyl groups, (resulting in increased surface roughness and hydrophobicity) remained capable of adsorbing T4 bacteriophage. The adsorption of T4 onto bare, amine and carboxylic functionalised planar ITO suggests the presence of a unique binding behaviour involving specific functional groups on planar ITO surface beyond the non-specific electrostatic interactions that dominate phage to particle interactions. The paper demonstrates the significance of physicochemical properties of surfaces on bacteriophage-surface interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Validated guidelines for tumor delineation on magnetic resonance imaging for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Elise Anne; Ligtenberg, Hans; Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Schakel, Tim; Philippens, Marielle E; Pameijer, Frank A; Kasperts, Nicolien; Willems, Stefan M; Terhaard, Christiaan H; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P

    2016-11-01

    Validation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and development of guidelines for the delineation of the gross tumor volume (GTV) is of utmost importance to benefit from the visibility of anatomical details on MR images and to achieve an accurate GTV delineation. In the ideal situation, the GTV delineation corresponds to the histopathologically determined 'true tumor volume'. Consequently, we developed guidelines for GTV delineation of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumors on MRI and determined the accuracy of the resulting delineation of the tumor outline on histopathology as gold standard. Twenty-seven patients with T3 or T4 laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer underwent a MRI scan before laryngectomy. Hematoxylin and eosin sections were obtained from surgical specimens and tumor was delineated by one pathologist. GTV was delineated on MR images by three independent observers in two sessions. The first session (del1) was performed according to clinical practice. In the second session (del2) guidelines were used. The reconstructed specimen was registered to the MR images for comparison of the delineated GTVs to the tumor on histopathology. Volumes and overlap parameters were analyzed. A target margin needed to assure tumor coverage was determined. The median GTVs (del1: 19.4 cm 3 , del2: 15.8 cm 3 ) were larger than the tumor volume on pathology (10.5 cm 3 ). Comparable target margins were needed for both delineation sessions to assure tumor coverage. By adding these margins to the GTVs, the target volumes for del1 (median: 81.3 cm 3 ) were significantly larger than for del2 (median: 64.2 cm 3 ) (p ≤ 0.0001) with similar tumor coverage. In clinical radiotherapy practice, the delineated GTV on MRI is twice as large as the tumor volume. Validated delineation guidelines lead to a significant decrease in the overestimation of the tumor volume.

  3. Excision repair and patch size in UV-irradiated bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarosh, D.B.; Rosenstein, B.S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    We determined the average size of excision repair patches in repair of UV lesions in bacteriophage T4 by measuring the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair. The average patch was small, approximately four nucleotides long. In control experiments with the denV1 excision-deficient mutant, we encountered an artifact, a protein(s) which remained bound to phenol-extracted DNA and prevented nicking by the UV-specific endonucleases of Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4

  4. Survival and prognostic factors of surgically resected T4 non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Toshihiro; Sugio, Kenji; Hanagiri, Takeshi; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Toshihiro; Sugaya, Masakazu; Yasuda, Manabu; Yasumoto, Kosei

    2003-06-01

    Category T4 nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) encompasses heterogenous subgroups. We retrospectively analyzed the survival of patients with surgically resected T4 NSCLC to evaluate the evidence for prognostic implications according to the subgroups of T4 category, nodal status, and resection completeness. Seventy-six patients with T4N0-2M0 NSCLC were divided into three subgroups within the T4 category: 24 patients with the tumor invading the mediastinal organs (mediastinal group), 16 with a malignant pleural effusion or dissemination (pleural group), and 36 with satellite tumor nodules within the ipsilateral primary tumor lobe (satellite group). Complete resection was possible in 47 patients (61.8%). The pathologic N statuses were N0 in 28, N1 in 13, and N2 in 35 patients. The overall survival of the 76 patients was 19.1% at 5 years. The overall 5-year survivals according to the three subgroups of the T4 category were as follows: mediastinal group, 18.2%; pleural group, 0%; and satellite group, 26.7% (mediastinal/satellite versus pleural, p = 0.037). Factors significantly influencing the overall 5-year survival were the pathologic N status (N2 versus N0-1, p = 0.022) and the completeness of resection (complete versus incomplete, p = 0.0001). A multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that the pathologic N status and the completeness of resection were significant independent predictors of a poorer prognosis even after adjusting for the subgroup of the T4 category. Resectable T4N0-1 NSCLC that is not due to pleural disease deserves consideration of aggressive surgical resection with expected 5-year survival of about 20%.

  5. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of total thyroxine (T4) in horses using a simple extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyuenyong, Siriwan; Nambo, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-07-28

    Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.

  6. Evaluating Post-Radiotherapy Laryngeal Function with Laryngeal Videostroboscopy in Early Stage Glottic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E. Marciscano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDysphonia is common among patients with early stage glottic cancer. Laryngeal videostroboscopy (LVS has not been routinely used to assess post-radiotherapy (RT voice changes. We hypothesized that LVS would demonstrate improvement in laryngeal function after definitive RT for early-stage glottic cancer.Study designBlinded retrospective review of perceptual voice and stroboscopic parameters for patients with early glottic cancer and controls.SettingHigh-volume, single-institution academic medical center.Subjects and methodsFifteen patients underwent RT for Tis-T2N0M0 glottic cancer and were evaluated with serial LVS exams pre- and post-RT. Stroboscopic assessment included six parameters: vocal fold (VF vibration, VF mobility, erythema/edema, supraglottic compression, glottic closure, and secretions. Grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS voice perceptual scale was graded in tandem with LVS score. Assessments were grouped by time interval from RT: pre-RT, 0–4, 4–12, and >12 months post-RT.Results60 LVS exams and corresponding GRBAS assessments were reviewed. There were significant improvements in ipsilateral VF motion (P = 0.03 and vibration (P = 0.001 and significant worsening in contralateral VF motion (P < 0.001 and vibration (P = 0.008 at >12 months post-RT. Glottic closure significantly worsened, most prominent >12 months post-RT (P = 0.01. Composite GRBAS scores were significantly improved across all post-RT intervals.ConclusionLVS proved to be a robust tool for assessing pre- and post-RT laryngeal function. We observed post-RT improvement in ipsilateral VF function, a decline in contralateral VF function, and decreased glottic closure. These results demonstrate that LVS can detect meaningful changes in VF and glottic function and support its use for post-RT evaluation of glottic cancer patients.

  7. Effects of virus and host genes on recombination among ultraviolet-irradiated bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priemer, M.M.; Chan, V.L.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of the polA, uvrA, and recA genes of Escherichia coli on recombination among ultraviolet-irradiated T4 bacteriophages was determined with respect to recombination between rII markers and phage yield. The polA and uvrA gene products have no effect on these two aspects of phage DNA metabolism. A recA mutation does not significantly alter rII recombination frequencies in irradiated phage crosses, nor does it greatly change the yield of infectious particles in wild-type phage crosses or crosses in which the phage strains possess the v mutation. However, the same cross experiment performed with a pair of T4x mutants in a recA host demonstrates an 84% reduction in the phage yield in an unirradiated control cross. Furthermore, with increasing doses of uv irradiation, phage productivity of the T4x mutant declines at an accelerated rate compared to T4x + strains crossed in recA cells. Multiplicity reactivation experiments in which wild-type or recombination-deficient (x or y) T4 phages infect wild-type or recombination-deficient (recA) host cells show that irradiated phages can only be reactivated in recA + hosts, regardless of the bacteriophage genotype. These results indicate the involvement of the E. coli recA gene product in normal T4 replication and multiplicity reactivation

  8. Activity-based in vitro selection of T4 DNA ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumio; Funabashi, Hisakage; Mie, Masayasu; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Aizawa, Masuo; Kobatake, Eiry

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro methodologies for selection and directed evolution of proteins have concentrated not only on proteins with affinity such as single-chain antibody but also on enzymes. We developed a display technology for selection of T4 DNA ligase on ribosome because an in vitro selection method for DNA ligase had never been developed. The 3' end of mRNA encoding the gene of active or inactive T4 DNA ligase-spacer peptide fusion protein was hybridized to dsDNA fragments with cohesive ends, the substrate of T4 DNA ligase. After in vitro translation of the mRNA-dsDNA complex in a rabbit reticulocyte system, a mRNA-dsDNA-ribosome-ligase complex was produced. T4 DNA ligase enzyme displayed on a ribosome, through addition of a spacer peptide, is able to react with dsDNA in the complex. The complex expressing active ligase was biotinylated by ligation with another biotinylated dsDNA probe and selected with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. We effectively selected active T4 DNA ligase from a small amount of protein. The gene of the active T4 DNA ligase was enriched 40 times from a mixture of active and inactive genes using this selection strategy. This ribosomal display strategy may have high potential to be useful for selection of other enzymes associated with DNA

  9. A new type of UV-sensitive mutant of phage T4D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minderhout, L. van; Grimbergen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Within a group of more than 20 UV-sensitive mutants of T4D, 4 UV-sensitive mutants with the same sensitivity as T4 x were isolated independently of each other. They were uvs9, uvs21, uvs35, and uvs52. The double mutants with x and y 10 were constructed: they are slightly more UV sensitive than T4v 1 . The double mutant with uvs5 was not found. The mutations of uvs9, 21, 35, and 52 are closely linked with v 1 . The photoreactivable sector is 0.4. One of the mutants, uvs52, has the same sensitivity for methyl methanesulphonate as T4 + , shows a stronger multiplicity reactivation than the wild type, shows the same sensitivity relative to T4 + and T4v 1 in Luria-Latarjet tests and in monocomplex UV inactivation, and raises the recombinant frequency in crosses with irradiated phage. The uvs52 + function has the same sensitivity to UV as the v + function. Complementation between uvs52 and v 1 , if present, is difficult to demonstrate owing to an appreciable multiplicity reactivation contribution to increased survival. The possibility that uvs52 is an allele of v 1 is discussed. The observations fit the assumption that uvs52 is an excision-repair mutant with a low excision rate

  10. GTV delineation in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: interobserver agreement of CT versus CT-MR delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Elise Anne; Kasperts, Nicolien; Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2015-01-23

    GTV delineation is the first crucial step in radiotherapy and requires high accuracy, especially with the growing use of highly conformal and adaptive radiotherapy techniques. If GTV delineations of observers concord, they are considered to be of high accuracy. The aim of the study is to determine the interobserver agreement for GTV delineations of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma on CT and on CT combined with MR-images and to determine the effect of adding MR images to CT-based delineation on the delineated volume and the interobserver agreement. Twenty patients with biopsy proven T1-T4 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, treated with curative intent were included. For all patients a contrast enhanced planning CT and a 1.5-T MRI with gadolinium were acquired in the same head-and-shoulder mask for fixation as used during treatment. For MRI, a two element surface coil was used as a receiver coil. Three dedicated observers independently delineated the GTV on CT. After an interval of 2 weeks, a set of co-registered CT and MR-images was provided to delineate the GTV on CT. Common volumes (C) and encompassing volumes (E) were calculated and C/E ratios were determined for each pair of observers. The conformity index general (CIgen) was used to quantify the interobserver agreement. In general, a large variation in interobserver agreement was found for CT (range: 0.29-0.77) as well as for CT-MR delineations (range: 0.17-0.80). The mean CIgen for CT (0.61) was larger compared to CT-MR (0.57) (p = 0.032). Mean GTV volume delineated on CT-MR (6.6 cm(3)) was larger compared to CT (5.6 cm(3)) (p = 0.002). Delineation on CT with co-registered MR-images resulted in a larger mean GTV volume and in a decrease in interobserver agreement compared to CT only delineation for supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma.

  11. Long-term follow-up after surgery in localized laryngeal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Aldert J. C.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    To study effectiveness of surgery and watchful waiting in localized laryngeal amyloidosis, retrospective case series. This retrospective study comprises all consecutive patients with localized laryngeal amyloidosis surgically treated in a tertiary hospital between 1994 and February 2016. Recurrence

  12. Long-term follow-up after surgery in localized laryngeal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Aldert J. C.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    To study effectiveness of surgery and watchful waiting in localized laryngeal amyloidosis, retrospective case series. This retrospective study comprises all consecutive patients with localized laryngeal amyloidosis surgically treated in a tertiary hospital between 1994 and February 2016. Recurrence

  13. Pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis in a 25-weeks' gestation parturient, diagnosed after failed tracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Orlando, B

    2018-02-01

    A pregnant woman at 25weeks of gestation was diagnosed with laryngeal tuberculosis following a failed intubation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Laryngeal tuberculosis represents approximately 1% of all cases of tuberculosis in the United States and presents a unique diagnostic challenge, because accompanying laryngeal changes are both varied and nonspecific. This report highlights both the challenges of the pregnant airway and the diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulindac Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vivo in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Scheper

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac has antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell lines; consequently, we assessed sulindac's effects on laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, SCC (HEP-2 cells treated with various cyclooxygenase inhibitors or transfected with constitutively active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 or survivin vectors were analyzed using Western blot analysis, annexin V assay, and cell proliferation assay. In parallel, nude mice injected subcutaneously with HEP-2 cells were either treated intraperitoneally with sulindac or left untreated, and analyzed for tumor weight, survivin expression, and tyrosine-phosphorylated Stat3 expression. In vitro studies confirmed the selective antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of sulindac, which also downregulated Stat3 and survivin protein expression. Stat3 or survivin forced expression partially rescued the antiproliferative effects of sulindac. In vivo studies showed significant repression of HEP-2 xenograft growth in sulindactreated mice versus controls, with near-complete resolution at 10 days. Additionally, tumor specimens treated with sulindac showed downregulation of phosphorylated tyrosine-705 Stat3 and survivin expression. Taken together, our data suggest, for the first time, a specific inhibitory effect of sulindac on tumor growth and survivin expression in laryngeal cancer, both in vitro and in vivo, in a Stat3-dependent manner, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach to head and neck cancer.

  15. Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses in head and neck squamous cell papillomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Pichi, Barbara; Rollo, Francesca; Gheit, Tarik; Laquintana, Valentina; Covello, Renato; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Spriano, Giuseppe; Pellini, Raul; Giuliani, Massimo; Tommasino, Massimo; Benevolo, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) to the development of head and neck squamous cell papillomas. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded papillomas were tested for 28 mucosal and 79 cutaneous HPVs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Eighty-three papillomas (43 oropharyngeal, 31 oral, 6 laryngeal, and 3 nasopharyngeal) were analyzed. Twenty-four samples (28.9%) harbored mucosal HPVs: 3 oropharyngeal (6.9%), 15 oral (48.3%), 4 laryngeal (66.7%), and 2 nasopharyngeal papillomas (66.7%). Eighty-one cases were also tested for cutaneous HPVs, detected in 16 lesions (19.7%): 11 (13.5%) harbored only cutaneous types, and 5 (6.2%) were positive for both cutaneous and mucosal HPVs. Among these 81 cases, prevalence of mucosal and/or cutaneous HPV infection was 43.2%. HPV DNA detection in a fraction of head and neck papillomas supports the role of HPV in their development. However, other markers need to be considered to confirm the association of HPV infection with these lesions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 254-259, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Lymphatic mapping to tailor selective lymphadenectomy in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.E.U.; Warraich, R.A.; Abid, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of cervical lymph node metastases in the Squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue and or floor of mouth; hence to improve the pretreatment evaluation of these patients. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital Lahore. From July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Methods: This study was carried out on 50 consecutive patients who were having Squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue and or floor of the mouth with T1 - T4 lesions. Results: Neck lymph node levels I and II were the most common sites of cervical lymph node metastases that was, 30%. Levels IV and V were involved very rarely. The overall metastases to cervical lymph node levels I - III combined was seen in 90% cases of oral tongue or floor of the mouth. Conclusion: The most common region for cervical lymph node metastases in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of oral tongue and floor of mouth is levels I - III in the ipsilateral neck, so based on pattern of metastases, supraomohyoid neck dissection for cN+ and functional neck dissection for cN+ necks are suggested. Key Words: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cervical lymph node metastasis, cN+ (clinically lymph node negative), cN+ (clinically lymph node positive) (N1 - N/sub 3/), pN+ (pathologically lymph node metastases found), elective neck dissection, occult metastasis, radical neck dissection (RND). (author)

  17. Laryngeal Electromyography for Prognosis of Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; García-Lopez, Isabel; Santiago-Pérez, Susana; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in the prognosis of vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective descriptive study. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis on flexible laryngoscopy between 2002 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Laryngeal electromyography using a standardized protocol was performed; the outcome measures were classified and analyzed into two groups according to the degree of injury. Group 1 included patients with mild to moderate injury, and group 2 included patients with severe to complete injury. Prognosis was correlated with vocal fold motion recovery status with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up since the symptoms onset using positive and negative predictive values. Sixty patients showed acute or chronic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in laryngeal electromyography. Twelve of 41 patients included in group 1 recovered motion, and 30 of 35 patients included in group 2 did not recover, resulting in 88.2% of positive predictive value and 35.7% of negative predictive value. Our data confirm that laryngeal electromyography is a useful clinical tool in predicting poor recovery in patients with vocal fold paralysis. It allows identification of candidates for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Laryngeal foreign bodies: management in children in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, E M; Tall, A; Diouf, R; Ndiaye, I C

    2000-01-01

    Inhalation of foreign bodies is a frequent accident in children. It remains severe in the case of laryngeal foreign bodies. Retrospectively, for a 16-year period, 65 laryngeal foreign bodies have been treated (44.8%), among 145 cases of airway foreign bodies, in the ENT department of Dakar University hospital. Etiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects were reviewed. Average age was 36 months, with a sex-ratio of 2.42 in favour of males. The time lag (time between the accident and admission to the department) was particularly long; 73.33% of the children were admitted more than 24 hours after the event. Eighty-three percent of the patients presented greater or lesser laryngeal dyspnea. Tracheostomy was performed in 55.4% of the patients. Average duration for abiation of the canula was ten days. Three cases of death were recorded (4.16%). The frequency of 44.8% for laryngeal localization of foreign bodies appears to be the highest in the literature. If the appropriate treatment for foreign bodies in the respiratory tract is endoscopic removal, the tracheostomy nevertheless occupies a central place in the management of the disease. This procedure may be recommended to all ENT specialists working in similar conditions. In spite of its inherent complications, tracheostomy allows reduction of mortality in relation to laryngeal foreign bodies. Improvement of prognosis requires prevention based on widespread public information and improving technical infrastructures.

  19. TREATMENT OF LARYNGEAL DYSTONIA WITH BOTULINUM TOXIN: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Hočevar-Boltežar

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laryngeal dystonia (LD is a form of focal dystonia, involving laryngeal muscles and causing disturbed phonation. Adductor, abductor and mixed forms of LD are described.Methods. Largely unsuccessful treatments include voice therapy, psychotherapy, biofeedback, section of the laryngeal recurrent nerve, laryngeal framework surgery and the use of centrally acting drugs. Botulinum toxin proved to be the most efficient treatment of LD; it acts by chemically denervating hyperactive laryngeal muscles.Case report. Authors report on the first use of botulinum toxin in a patient with LD in Slovenia. A female patient with a degenerative disease of extrapyramidal, cerebellar and autonomous system (probable multiple system atrophy and severe adductor form of LD is presented. By gradually increasing dose, the optimal dosage of botulinum has been established that greatly improves the patient’s speech for four months and causes transient mild adverse effects (dysphagia. Botulinum is injected percutaneously under endoscopic control, using the method, which has been described in literature for the first time.Conclusions. Treatment of LD with botulinum toxin demonstrated good results. It improves patient’s communication with others and the quality of his/her life.

  20. Evaluation of laryngeal cartilage calcification in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Serafin, Z.; Lasek, W.; Maciejewski, M.; Wieczor, W.; Wisniewski, S.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the basic methods used for laryngeal carcinoma diagnostics. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic changes of the cartilages are considered as a common radiologic symptom of laryngeal neoplasms. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of both osteosclerotic changes and focal calcification defects, which may be suggestive of osteolysis. Calcification was assessed in the thyroid, the cricoid and the arytenoids cartilages on CT images of the neck. We have retrospectively analyzed neck CT examinations of 50 patients without any laryngeal pathology in anamnesis. The grade and symmetry of calcifications was assessed in the thyroid, the cricoid and the arytenoids cartilages. Calcification of the laryngeal cartilages was present in 83% of the patients. Osteosclerotic lesions of the thyroid cartilage were seen in 70% of the patients (asymmetric in 60% of them), of the cricoid catrilage in 50% (asymmetric in 60%), and of the arytenoid cartilages in 24% (asymmetric in 67%). Focal calcification defects were present in the thyroid cartilage in 56% of the patients (asymmetric in 67% of them), in the cricoid catrilage in 8% (asymmetric in all cases), and in the arytenoid cartilages in 20% (asymmetric in 90%). Osteosclerotic changes and focal calcification defects, which may suggest osteolysis, were found in most of the patients. Therefore, they cannot be used as crucial radiological criteria of neoplastic invasion of laryngeal cartilages. (authors)

  1. Modality-specific target definition for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer on FDG-PET, CT and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtenberg, Hans; Jager, Elise Anne; Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Schakel, Tim; Pameijer, Frank A; Kasperts, Nicolien; Willems, Stefan M; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J; Philippens, Marielle E P

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to improve target definition by deriving modality-specific margins for clinical target volumes (CTV) for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer on CT, MRI and 18-FDG-PET. Twenty-five patients with T3/T4 laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer underwent CT, MRI and 18-FDG-PET scans before laryngectomy. HE-sections were obtained from the surgical specimen and tumor was delineated (tumor HE ). The GTVs on CT and MRI were delineated in consensus. PET-based GTVs were automatically segmented. The three-dimensionally reconstructed specimen was registered to the various images. Modality-specific CTV margins were derived and added to the GTVs to achieve adequate tumor coverage. The resulting CTVs were compared with each other, to tumor HE , and to CTV CT10 constructed on CT with the clinical margin of 10mm. CTV margins of 4.3mm (CT), 6.1mm (MRI) and 5.2mm (PET) were needed to achieve adequate tumor coverage. The median volumes of the resulting modality-specific CTVs were 44ml (CT), 48ml (MRI) and 39ml (PET), while the CTV 10mm was 80ml. For laryngohypopharyngeal tumors, 45-52% target volume reduction compared with CTV 10mm is achievable when modality-specific CTV margins are used. PET-based CTVs were significantly smaller compared to CT- and MRI-based CTVs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Laryngeal Sarcoidosis in a Child: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Cornejo, Gabriel; Ayala-Buenrostro, Priscila

    2017-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, multisystemic, granulomatous disorder. Our patient was a 2-year-old girl with multiple airway conditions and a partial response to inhaled and systemic steroids. She was positive for acute phase reactants and negative for antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction revealed atypical Mycobacteria and she was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed by histopathology in a biopsy of larynx that revealed a chronic granulomatous inflammatory process with Langhans giant cells and acute and ulcerated areas with changes compatible with tuberculosis. Treatment consisted of monthly gammaglobulin for 6 months at doses of 2g/kg body weight, accompanied by Valmetrol™ and methotrexate. Immunomodulation with gammaglobulin was prescribed, with subsequent use of methotrexate-based immunosuppression. Currently, bronchoscopy shows no evidence of granulomas and she is negative for acute-phase reactants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  3. Conservation laryngeal surgery in the elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, H M

    1977-12-01

    In the 100 years since Bilroth first undertook a total laryngectomy, general improvements in the prevention and management of childhood and adult disease have led to continuing increase in life expectancy to the point that, in many developed countries, 25% or more of the population is over the age of 65. Although many of these individuals are in otherwise reasonable health, major head and neck procedures are often not performed in favor of radiation therapy for cure, even for lesions that would otherwise be considered amenable to surgery in younger patients, on the grounds that the patient is too old to tolerate the necessary procedure. The same argument has been employed in favoring total laryngectomy over subtotal procedures in the older patient. Review of the author's experience (27 cases) with conservation laryngeal surgery in patients over the age of 65 at the time treatment was undertaken reveals that such procedures are well tolerated in this age group. There were no mortalities and an overall complication rate of 11.1% resulted. These findings compare favorably with complication rates reported for similar patients and surgery in the under 65 age group and strongly suggest that chronologic age alone need not be a contraindication to such surgery.

  4. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use.

  5. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…

  6. Clinicopathological outcomes of preoperative chemoradiotherapy using S-1 plus Irinotecan for T4 lower rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Naohito; Yoshie, Hidenori; Kimura, Fumihiko; Aihara, Tsukasa; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological outcomes of patients with T4 lower rectal cancer treated using preoperative chemoradiotherapy with S-1 plus Irinotecan. Between 2005 and 2011, 35 patients with T4M0 lower rectal cancer, diagnosed initially as T4a in 12 and as T4b in 23, were treated with 45 Gy of radiotherapy concomitantly with S-1 plus Irinotecan. The median follow-up period was 50.6 months (range 2-123 months). A total of 32 patients (91.4 %) completed the radiotherapy and 26 (74.3 %) completed the full chemotherapy regimen. Radical surgery was then performed in 33 (94.3 %) of the 35 patients after the exclusion of two patients, who had macroscopic residual disease. The pathological diagnosis was downstaged from T4a to ypT0-3 in all 12 of those patients (100 %) and from T4b to ypT0-4a in 20 of those 23 patients (87.0 %). The tumor regression grade of 1a/1b/2/3 (complete response) was 10/8/15/2, respectively. In terms of long-term survival, the 5-year local relapse-free survival rate was 74.8 % and the recurrence-free survival rate was 52.0 %. This regimen may result in favorable downstaging. Moreover, in this series, pathological evidence of involvement of adjacent organs was rare following preoperative chemoradiotherapy, in the patients with disease diagnosed as T4b at the initial staging.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of T4 bacteriophage conjugated indium tin oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu E; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Justin Gooding, J; Amal, Rose

    2018-03-15

    We report the antimicrobial activity of bare and surface functionalized indium tin oxide (ITO) conjugated with T4 bacteriophage towards E. coli. A ∼ 10 3 -fold reduction (99.9%) in the bacterial concentration was achieved within 2 h exposure of E. coli to the bare as well as the amine, carboxylic and methyl functionalized ITO/T4 surfaces. Despite the known differences in bacteriophage loading of these ITO/T4 systems, the almost identical extent of antimicrobial activity of all of the ITO/T4 systems resulted from the release of a comparable amount of infective T4 from the systems. As anticipated, a single dose of immobilized bacteriophage was sufficient to eliminate further surge of bacterial population. Upon the 2 h eradication of the '1st batch' of E. coli population, all of the ITO/T4 systems, each system with 10 2 -fold more suspended bacteriophage (due to propagation of the phage at the expense of the '1st batch' E. coli death), reduced the '2nd batch' of E. coli concentration by ∼10 4 -fold in just 30 min, suggesting the potential of immobilized bacteriophage systems as solution to the issues of antimicrobial agent depletion. All of the ITO/T4 systems maintained their antimicrobial activity in the presence of model food components. The antimicrobial activity was however, affected by pH; at pH 5 whereby the bacteria's growth was physiologically inhibited, generally no reduction in E. coli concentration was detected. The present work provides an understanding of the mode of antimicrobial activity exhibited by an immobilized bacteriophage based substrate and demonstrates efficacy in the presence of food components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  9. Genomes of the T4-related bacteriophages as windows on microbial genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasiliy M; Ratnayaka, Swarnamala; Nolan, James M; Miller, Eric S; Karam, Jim D

    2010-10-28

    The T4-related bacteriophages are a group of bacterial viruses that share morphological similarities and genetic homologies with the well-studied Escherichia coli phage T4, but that diverge from T4 and each other by a number of genetically determined characteristics including the bacterial hosts they infect, the sizes of their linear double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes and the predicted compositions of their proteomes. The genomes of about 40 of these phages have been sequenced and annotated over the last several years and are compared here in the context of the factors that have determined their diversity and the diversity of other microbial genomes in evolution. The genomes of the T4 relatives analyzed so far range in size between ~160,000 and ~250,000 base pairs (bp) and are mosaics of one another, consisting of clusters of homology between them that are interspersed with segments that vary considerably in genetic composition between the different phage lineages. Based on the known biological and biochemical properties of phage T4 and the proteins encoded by the T4 genome, the T4 relatives reviewed here are predicted to share a genetic core, or "Core Genome" that determines the structural design of their dsDNA chromosomes, their distinctive morphology and the process of their assembly into infectious agents (phage morphogenesis). The Core Genome appears to be the most ancient genetic component of this phage group and constitutes a mere 12-15% of the total protein encoding potential of the typical T4-related phage genome. The high degree of genetic heterogeneity that exists outside of this shared core suggests that horizontal DNA transfer involving many genetic sources has played a major role in diversification of the T4-related phages and their spread to a wide spectrum of bacterial species domains in evolution. We discuss some of the factors and pathways that might have shaped the evolution of these phages and point out several parallels between their diversity

  10. Genomes of the T4-related bacteriophages as windows on microbial genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Eric S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The T4-related bacteriophages are a group of bacterial viruses that share morphological similarities and genetic homologies with the well-studied Escherichia coli phage T4, but that diverge from T4 and each other by a number of genetically determined characteristics including the bacterial hosts they infect, the sizes of their linear double-stranded (ds DNA genomes and the predicted compositions of their proteomes. The genomes of about 40 of these phages have been sequenced and annotated over the last several years and are compared here in the context of the factors that have determined their diversity and the diversity of other microbial genomes in evolution. The genomes of the T4 relatives analyzed so far range in size between ~160,000 and ~250,000 base pairs (bp and are mosaics of one another, consisting of clusters of homology between them that are interspersed with segments that vary considerably in genetic composition between the different phage lineages. Based on the known biological and biochemical properties of phage T4 and the proteins encoded by the T4 genome, the T4 relatives reviewed here are predicted to share a genetic core, or "Core Genome" that determines the structural design of their dsDNA chromosomes, their distinctive morphology and the process of their assembly into infectious agents (phage morphogenesis. The Core Genome appears to be the most ancient genetic component of this phage group and constitutes a mere 12-15% of the total protein encoding potential of the typical T4-related phage genome. The high degree of genetic heterogeneity that exists outside of this shared core suggests that horizontal DNA transfer involving many genetic sources has played a major role in diversification of the T4-related phages and their spread to a wide spectrum of bacterial species domains in evolution. We discuss some of the factors and pathways that might have shaped the evolution of these phages and point out several parallels

  11. Performance Evaluation of the MyT4 Technology for Determining ART Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoe, Nádia; Macamo, Rosa; Meggi, Bindiya; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Bollinger, Timothy; Vojnov, Lara; Jani, Ilesh

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited countries, CD4 T-cell (CD4) testing continues to be used for determining antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation eligibility and opportunistic infection monitoring. To support expanded access to CD4 testing, simple and robust technologies are necessary. We conducted this study to evaluate the performance of a new Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 technology, the MyT4, compared to conventional laboratory CD4 testing. EDTA venous blood from 200 HIV-positive patients was tested in the laboratory using the MyT4 and BD FACSCalibur™. The MyT4 had an r2 of 0.82 and a mean bias of 12.3 cells/μl. The MyT4 had total misclassifications of 14.7% and 8.8% when analyzed using ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/μl, respectively. We conclude that the MyT4 performed well in classifying patients using the current ART initiation eligibility thresholds in Mozambique when compared to the conventional CD4 technology.

  12. The sequences and activities of RegB endoribonucleases of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiniene, Lina; Truncaite, Lidija; Zajanckauskaite, Aurelija; Nivinskas, Rimas

    2004-01-01

    The RegB endoribonuclease encoded by bacteriophage T4 is a unique sequence-specific nuclease that cleaves in the middle of GGAG or, in a few cases, GGAU tetranucleotides, preferentially those found in the Shine-Dalgarno regions of early phage mRNAs. In this study, we examined the primary structures and functional properties of RegB ribonucleases encoded by T4-related bacteriophages. We show that all but one of 36 phages tested harbor the regB gene homologues and the similar signals for transcriptional and post-transcriptional autogenous regulation of regB expression. Phage RB49 in addition to gpRegB utilizes Escherichia coli endoribonuclease E for the degradation of its transcripts for gene regB. The deduced primary structure of RegB proteins of 32 phages studied is almost identical to that of T4, while the sequences of RegB encoded by phages RB69, TuIa and RB49 show substantial divergence from their T4 counterpart. Functional studies using plasmid-phage systems indicate that RegB nucleases of phages T4, RB69, TuIa and RB49 exhibit different activity towards GGAG and GGAU motifs in the specific locations. We expect that the availability of the different phylogenetic variants of RegB may help to localize the amino acid determinants that contribute to the specificity and cleavage efficiency of this processing enzyme.

  13. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  14. Nasal, pharyngeal, and laryngeal pemphigus vulgaris successfully treated with rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a potentially fatal autoimmune blistering disease that can involve the nasopharyngeal and laryngeal tissues. The disease can be recalcitrant to conventional oral treatments, and treatment alternatives are limited. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of rituximab as a rescue agent in 5 patients with recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris involving nasopharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa. All 5 patients were unresponsive to systemic steroids and at least one conventional oral immunosuppressive agent. The patients received rituximab infusions as a rescue agent because of recalcitrant disease. All 5 patients had a complete clinical response to rituximab and could discontinue systemic steroids and reduce the dosage of their initial immunosuppressive agent. No major adverse reactions were observed or reported with rituximab. Rituximab can be used as an effective rescue agent in the treatment of severe pemphigus vulgaris with nasopharyngeal and laryngeal involvement.

  15. Current evidence for the existence of laryngeal macrotremor and microtremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, T; Izdebski, K

    1981-07-01

    To test for the existence of laryngeal "microtremors" two experiments were conducted on humans. The first analyzed the acoustic characteristics of observable tremors (macrotremors) in the voice of singers using vocal vibrato and in pathologic subjects producing vocal tremor. In both of these groups acoustic oscillations between 4 and 8 Hz were found. The second study, using a normal subject, sampled electromyographic (EMG) activity from laryngeal and arm muscles during isometric contraction to determine if a periodic component (microtremor) was present in either muscle's contraction pattern. A 9-Hz signal was detected in limb muscle contraction, whereas no periodicity was found in signals from laryngeal muscles. The application of these findings to the theory behind voice "stress" analyzers is discussed

  16. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal lesions by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    1994-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with human neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Squamous papillomas and verrucous carcinomas are two types of squamous neoplasms of the larynx that present difficult problems in differential diagnosis. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes,...

  17. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Corrêa Reis

    Full Text Available Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking.To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB.a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis.Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones.Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement.

  18. ['Laryngeal neuropathy' and 'irritable larynx syndrome': synonyms or distinct entities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Ptok, M

    2012-10-01

    The term 'laryngeal neuropathy' (LN) has first been used in veterinary medicine to describe an idiopathic and typically exercise induced inspiratory noise in horses.Nowadays, the term is often used in relation with intermittent vocal cord pareses in humans. Some authors use the term 'irritable larynx syndrome' (ILS) in a similar context. This article reviews the state of knowledge regarding LN and ILS and discusses the somewhat confusing terminology.For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed has been carried out.35 articles were found, which report on LN in animals and 17 articles reported on humans. 4 of these articles used the term 'irritable larynx syndrome'.Laryngeal neuropathy in horses usually affects the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and results in decreased vocal cord abduction and an inspiratory roaring or whistling noise, particularly during exercise. In dogs LN has been reported to also occur bilaterally. In association with humans LN has not been defined clearly in the literature. The term ILS on the other hand has only been used in relation to humans. The term describes a hypersensitivity of the laryngeal structures towards external stimuli, which causes symptoms such as dyspnea or cough among others. Sufficient knowledge does not exist for either of the 2 diseases, ILS or LN. As of yet, the term LN should not be used in human medicine to describe according symptoms of unknown aetiology. The term 'laryngeal movement disorder' seems a lot more appropriate. The symptom oriented term irritable larynx syndrome also seems suitable to describe laryngeal hypersensitivity appropriately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Gustavo Corrêa; Reis, Clarissa Souza Mota; da Costa, Daniel César Silva; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB) is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking. To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB. a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis. Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones. Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement.

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging of locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, A.; Chernov, V.; Zeltchan, R.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chijevskaya, S.; Choynzonov, E.; Goldberg, A.

    2017-09-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of nuclear medicine imaging in the detection and assessment of the spread of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer were studied. A total of 40 patients with histologically verified laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal lesions were included into the study. Submucosal injections of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-Alotech were made around the tumor. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 20 minutes after the injection of 99mTc-MIBI. Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were detected in 26 patients. In 18 hours after the injection of 99mTc-Alotech, SPECT was performed. In 24 hours after the injection of 99mTc-Alotech, intraoperative SLN detection was performed using Gamma Finder II. SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI revealed laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumors in 38 of the 40 patients. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake in metastatic lymph nodes was visualized in 2 (17%) of the 12 patients. Twenty eight SLNs were detected by SPECT and 31 SLNs were identified using the intraoperative gamma probe. The percentage of 99mTc-Alotech in the SLN was 5-10% of the radioactivity in the injection site by SPECT and 18-33% by intraoperative gamma probe detection. Thus, SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI is an effective tool for the diagnosis of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this technique were 95%, 80% and 92%, respectively. The use of 99mTc-Alotech for the detection of SLNs in patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer is characterized by 92.8% sensitivity.

  1. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury In Total Versus Subtotal Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Tahira; Qamar Naqvi, Syeda Rifaat; Qamar Naqvi, Syeda Saima; Shukr, Irfan; Ghani, Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Both Total and Subtotal Thyroidectomy are correct treatment options for symptomatic Euthyroid Multinodular Goitre. The choice depends upon surgeon's preference due to consideration of disadvantages like permanent hypothyroidism in Total Thyroidectomy and high chances of recurrence in Subtotal Thyroidectomy. Many surgeons believe that there is a higher incidence of Recurrent Laryngeal nerve injury in Total Thyroidectomy which affects their choice of surgery. This study aimed to compare the incidence of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in total versus subtotal thyroidectomy. This non randomized controlled trial was carried out at Department of Surgery and ENT of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad, and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi from 1st September 2013 to 30th August 2014. During the period of study, patients presenting in surgical outpatient department with euthyroid multinodular goitre having pressure symptoms requiring thyroidectomy were divided into two groups by convenience sampling with 87 patients in group 1 and 90 patients in group 2. Group-1 was subjected to total thyroidectomy and Group -2 underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. All the patients had preoperative Indirect Laryngoscopy examination and it was repeated postoperatively to check for injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. A total of 177 patients were included in the study. Out of these, 87 patients underwent total thyroidectomy (Group-1). Two of these patients developed recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (2.3%). In group-2 subjected to subtotal thyroidectomy, three of the patients developed recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (3.3%). The p-value was 0.678. The overall risk of injury to this nerve in both surgeries combined was 2.8%. There is no significant difference in the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve damage in patients undergoing total versus subtotal thyroidectomy.

  2. A case of laryngeal neurofibroma associated with neurofibromatosis type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihangiroglu, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Yildirim, H.; Ozdemir, H.; Altinsoy, B.; Ogur, E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Laryngeal neurofibromas have been reported in 16 patients with NF1, and schwannomas, in two patient with NF1 and 2 patients with NF2. To the best our knowledge our case is the first to document a laryngeal neurofibroma in a patient with NF2. Another unique feature of our case is the coexistence of multiple intramedullary tumors, which has not previously been reported in a patient with a laryngeal neurofibroma. Material and methods: A 32-year-old woman presented with a history of cataract, hoarseness and dysphonia since childhood, which had recently become worse. The patient also had hearing disability for low frequencies. Results: Laryngoscopy revealed a 2x2x3.5 cm smooth-surfaced submucosal supraglottic mass. On CT of the neck, the lesion was seen as a round and well-defined hypopharyngeal mass extended through and obliterating the left supraglottic space. It was hypodense on unenhanced CT images and slightly enhanced with IV contrast administration. On MR imaging, the mass was heterogeneously hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, with moderate homogenous enhancement after gadolinium administration. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas and multiple intramedullary masses (presumed to be ependymoma or astrocytoma) were delineated on these MR images The patient was diagnosed as having NF-2 and the laryngeal mass was totally resected. On histopathological examination, the mass were consistent with neurofibroma. Conclusion: Dysphonia and hoarseness may be the only presenting symptoms suggesting the possibility of a laryngeal nerve sheath tumor, and neurofibroma should be included in differential diagnosis of laryngeal masses in patients with NF2. (authors)

  3. T4 RIA precision profiles automatically computed using a small programmable pocket calculator HP-41 CV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditu, M.; Waud, J.M.; Hamilton, R.G.; Wagner, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Precision profiles as useful tool for assurance of assay quality in 10 independent T4 RIAs have been automatically obtained using a small programmable pocket calculator HP-41 CV. For each T4 assay batch, the within-assay coefficient of variation varied from 7 to 11% in the hormone concentration range of 2 to 20μg/dl. The difference in coefficient of variation for all the 10 successive assay batches of T4 never exceeded 1% in the same hormone concentrations regions. All the above findings demonstrate that the precision profile can be used as a powerful tool for assessing the assay quality and consistency of overall random error between successive assay batches [fr

  4. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  5. T4 syndrome - A distinct theoretical concept or elusive clinical entity? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Patricia Miyuki; Thomson, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    T4 syndrome has existed as a clinical concept for more than three decades and it has been identified as a source of upper extremity (UE) symptoms. This case report explores the clinical reasoning in the diagnoses and management of a patient with symptoms consistent with T4-type syndrome and critically discusses the concept of T4 syndrome using recent research to help explain the clinical presentation. Manual therapy treatment focused on stimulation of the sympathetic ganglia, decreasing local upper thoracic pain and UE referral pattern noted during passive examination. The successful outcomes included immediate and lasting symptom relief after upper thoracic spinal manipulation. Although treatment has been based on the theory that mechanical thoracic dysfunction can produce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) referred pain, the role the sympathetic reflexes potentially plays on the referral symptoms to the UE presently remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Laryngeal Amyloidosis Mimicking Glottic Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Hak

    2010-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a slowly progressive, benign disease that is characterized by the extracellular deposition of fibrillar proteins in many different tissues and organs throughout the body. Primary amyloidosis can be subdivided into the systemic and localized forms. The localized form is less common than the systemic form and the larynx is the most frequently affected site. The importance of laryngeal amyloidosis lies in its possible confusion with glottic cancer because of the clinical feature. We report here on a case of laryngeal amyloidosis in a 47-year-old man who suffered from progressive dyspnea

  7. Laryngeal Amyloidosis Mimicking Glottic Cancer: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hak [St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a slowly progressive, benign disease that is characterized by the extracellular deposition of fibrillar proteins in many different tissues and organs throughout the body. Primary amyloidosis can be subdivided into the systemic and localized forms. The localized form is less common than the systemic form and the larynx is the most frequently affected site. The importance of laryngeal amyloidosis lies in its possible confusion with glottic cancer because of the clinical feature. We report here on a case of laryngeal amyloidosis in a 47-year-old man who suffered from progressive dyspnea.

  8. Laryngeal carcinoma presenting as polymyositis: A paraneoplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma is rarely associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Inflammatory myopathy presenting as paraneoplastic event is commonly associated with carcinomas of ovary, lung, pancreas, stomach, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. We report a case of elderly male, who presented with proximal muscle weakness and found to be associated with laryngeal carcinoma. Diagnosis of polymyositis (PM was confirmed based on clinical features, laboratory test, and muscle biopsy. Exclusion of other commonly associated malignancies was done. This patient improved gradually after 6 months of immunosuppressive therapy and management of underlying cancer.

  9. Respiratory distress of the newborn: congenital laryngeal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Art; Magit, Anthony

    2012-11-01

    Congenital laryngeal atresia is a rare cause of respiratory distress of the newborn. The defect may be isolated or occur in association with other congenital abnormalities, notably the presence of a tracheoesophageal fistula, esophageal atresia, encephalocele, or Congenital High Airway Obstructive Syndrome (CHAOS). We present the case of a newborn with no identified intrapartum abnormalities with respiratory distress at birth secondary to near-complete laryngeal atresia. Management included tracheostomy, repeated endoscopic incisions, and serial balloon dilatations employing the topical use of Mitomycin C. Seven year follow-up was significant for mobilization of the true vocal cords bilaterally, as well as successful decannulation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Speech-Language Pathology as a Primary Treatment for Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Monica; Litts, Juliana K; Nauman, Emily; Haines, Jemma

    2018-05-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a condition that restricts respiration during exercise via inappropriate glottic or supraglottic obstruction. The literature supports behavioral treatment provided by a speech-language pathologist as an effective means of treating exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction. Treatment includes educating the patient, training on relaxation, instruction on paced exercise, and use of various breathing techniques to optimize laryngeal aperture. Intervention for patients with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction may be delivered by a speech-language pathologist, given their clinical skill of facilitating long-term behavioral change and expertise in the laryngeal mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DDiT4L promotes autophagy and inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Bridget; Subramanya, Vinita; Chan, Mun Chun; Zhang, Aifeng; Franchino, Hannabeth; Ottaviano, Filomena; Mishra, Manoj K; Knight, Ashley C; Hunt, Danielle; Ghiran, Ionita; Khurana, Tejvir S; Kontaridis, Maria I; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Das, Saumya

    2017-02-28

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy, in response to stimuli such as exercise, is considered adaptive and beneficial. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy that arises in response to pathological stimuli such as unrestrained high blood pressure and oxidative or metabolic stress is maladaptive and may precede heart failure. We found that the transcript encoding DNA damage-inducible transcript 4-like (DDiT4L) was expressed in murine models of pathological cardiac hypertrophy but not in those of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. In cardiomyocytes, DDiT4L localized to early endosomes and promoted stress-induced autophagy through a process involving mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Exposing cardiomyocytes to various types of pathological stress increased the abundance of DDiT4L , which inhibited mTORC1 but activated mTORC2 signaling. Mice with conditional cardiac-specific overexpression of DDiT4L had mild systolic dysfunction, increased baseline autophagy, reduced mTORC1 activity, and increased mTORC2 activity, all of which were reversed by suppression of transgene expression. Genetic suppression of autophagy also reversed cardiac dysfunction in these mice. Our data showed that DDiT4L may be an important transducer of pathological stress to autophagy through mTOR signaling in the heart and that DDiT4L could be therapeutically targeted in cardiovascular diseases in which autophagy and mTOR signaling play a major role. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Immunogenicity studies of proteins forming the T4 phage head surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Krystyna; Miernikiewicz, Paulina; Piotrowicz, Agnieszka; Hodyra, Katarzyna; Owczarek, Barbara; Lecion, Dorota; Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Letarov, Andrey; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Advances in phage therapy and novel applications of phages in biotechnology encourage interest in phage impact on human and animal immunity. Here we present comparative studies of immunogenic properties of T4 phage head surface proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc, and Soc, both as elements of the phage capsid and as isolated agents. Studies comprise evaluation of specific antibodies in the human population, analysis of the proteins' impact on the primary and secondary responses in mice, and the effect of specific antibodies on phage antibacterial activity in vitro and in vivo in mice. In humans, natural antibodies specific to T4-like phages were abundant (81% of investigated sera). Among those, significantly elevated levels of IgG antibodies only against major head protein (gp23*) were found, which probably reflected cross-reactions of T4 with antibodies induced by other T4-like phages. Both IgM and IgG antibodies were induced mostly by gp23* and Hoc, while weak (gp24*) and very weak (Soc) reactivities of other head proteins were noticed. Thus, T4 head proteins that markedly contribute to immunological memory to the phage are highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc) and major capsid protein (gp23*). Specific anti-gp23* and anti-Hoc antibodies substantially decreased T4 phage activity in vitro and to some extent in vivo. Cooperating with antibodies, the immune complement system also contributed to annihilating phages. Current descriptions of phage immunogenicity and its biological consequences are still vague and incomplete; thus, the central problem of this work is timely and may have strong practical implications. Here is presented the very first description of the contribution of bacteriophage proteins to immunological memory of the phage. Understanding of interactions between phages and mammalian immunology may help in biotechnological adaptations of phages for therapeutic requirements as well as for better appreciation of phage ecology and their role in the biosphere

  13. Covalent Modification of Bacteriophage T4 DNA Inhibits CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Alexandra L; Hwang, Young; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Wu, Gary D; Lewis, James D; Black, Lindsay; Clark, Tyson A; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-06-16

    The genomic DNAs of tailed bacteriophages are commonly modified by the attachment of chemical groups. Some forms of DNA modification are known to protect phage DNA from cleavage by restriction enzymes, but others are of unknown function. Recently, the CRISPR-Cas nuclease complexes were shown to mediate bacterial adaptive immunity by RNA-guided target recognition, raising the question of whether phage DNA modifications may also block attack by CRISPR-Cas9. We investigated phage T4 as a model system, where cytosine is replaced with glucosyl-hydroxymethylcytosine (glc-HMC). We first quantified the extent and distribution of covalent modifications in T4 DNA by single-molecule DNA sequencing and enzymatic probing. We then designed CRISPR spacer sequences targeting T4 and found that wild-type T4 containing glc-HMC was insensitive to attack by CRISPR-Cas9 but mutants with unmodified cytosine were sensitive. Phage with HMC showed only intermediate sensitivity. While this work was in progress, another group reported examples of heavily engineered CRISRP-Cas9 complexes that could, in fact, overcome the effects of T4 DNA modification, indicating that modifications can inhibit but do not always fully block attack. Bacteria were recently found to have a form of adaptive immunity, the CRISPR-Cas systems, which use nucleic acid pairing to recognize and cleave genomic DNA of invaders such as bacteriophage. Historic work with tailed phages has shown that phage DNA is often modified by covalent attachment of large chemical groups. Here we demonstrate that DNA modification in phage T4 inhibits attack by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. This finding provides insight into mechanisms of host-virus competition and also a new set of tools that may be useful in modulating the activity of CRISPR-Cas9 in genome engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Bryson et al.

  14. Prognostic Factors Affecting Survival After Multivisceral Resection in Patients with Clinical T4b Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Kazuhito; Ito, Hideto; Katsube, Toshio; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Yamazaki, Nobuyoshi; Asakawa, Hideki; Hayashi, Takashi; Fujino, Keiichi

    2017-12-01

    The prognosis and survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer is poor. Although completeness of resection (R0) is one of the most important factors affecting survival, multivisceral resection (MVR) for locally advanced (clinical T4b, cT4b) gastric cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting prognosis and survival after MVR in patients with cT4b gastric cancer. Between 2005 and 2015, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 103 patients who underwent MVR for cT4b gastric cancer with suspected direct invasion to adjacent organs. Patient characteristics, related complications, long-term survival, and prognostic factors of cT4b gastric cancer were analyzed. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates of patients after MVR were 1.0 and 37.9%, respectively. R0 resection was achieved in 82.5% patients, all of whom had a significantly improved survival rate. Overall survival rates at 1 and 3 years were 78.3 and 47.7% for R0 resection and 46.6 and 14.3% for R1 resection, respectively (R0 vs. R1, P < 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that completeness of resection (R0) was an independent prognostic factor associated with longer survival. In patients with cT4b gastric cancer, gastrectomy with MVR to achieve an R0 resection can be performed with acceptable postoperative morbidity and mortality rates and can have a positive impact on long-term survival.

  15. [Application of flexible laryngeal mask airway in oral & maxillofacial day surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Na; Guan, Ming; Li, Xi; Li, Shuai; Wang, En-bo

    2015-12-18

    To access the feasibility and safety of application of flexible laryngeal mask airway (FLMA) in oral & maxillofacial day surgery. Retrospective study was conducted of 40 oral & maxillofacial day surgery patients (3 to 61 years of age) using FLMA under general anaesthesia in Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. All the patients were with American Society of Anesthesiologists(ASA) physical status I-II,including 19 males and 21 females. The patients'vital signs were recorded at five different time points: baseline before anesthesia (T0), time right after the FLMA insertion (T1), time at incision (T2), 15 min after incision (T3) and time at the end of the operation (T4). The first attempted FLMA insertion successful rate and the number of timed of changing to endotracheal intubation were recorded. During operation, frequencies of movement, hypoxia and obstruction of airway were noted and the operation time, anesthesia time, time from the end of the operation to extubation, movement and coughing following extubation and sore throat within 24 h were taken down. Operation-related complications of bleeding, hematoma and injury of local nerves were recorded within 24 h as well. The operations of all the 40 patients were successfully done under general anaesthesia. The 36(90%, 36/40)patients using FLMA successfully were under steady process, including 16 males and 20 females. The first attempted successful rate of FLMA insertion was 80% (32/40), and the second 50% (4/8). Three out of the 4 failed FLMA patients were changed to endotracheal intubation after the second attempt failed. The other patient was changed to endotracheal intubation before operation because of leak. The average operation time was (46.58 ± 22.57) min, the anesthesia time was (77.97 ± 26.82) min and the time from the end of operation to extubation was (8.31 ± 3.33) min. All the patients were recorded without obvious body movement during the

  16. Genomic characteristics and environmental distributions of the uncultivated Far-T4 phages

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, Simon; Enault, François; Ravet, Viviane; Pereira, Olivier; Sullivan, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics (viromics) is a tremendous tool to reveal viral taxonomic and functional diversity across ecosystems ranging from the human gut to the world's oceans. As with microbes however, there appear vast swaths of ?dark matter? yet to be documented for viruses, even among relatively well-studied viral types. Here, we use viromics to explore the ?Far-T4 phages? sequence space, a neighbor clade from the well-studied T4-like phages that was first detected through PCR study in seawater ...

  17. Preparation of quality control samples for thyroid hormones T3 and T4 in radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.O.A.

    2006-03-01

    Today, the radioimmunoassay becomes one of the best techniques for quantitative analysis of very low concentration of different substances. RIA is being widely used in medical and research laboratories. To maintain high specificity and accuracy in RIA and other related techniques the quality controls must be introduced. In this dissertation quality control samples for thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine T3 and Thyroxin T4), using RIA techniques. Ready made chinese T4, T3 RIA kits were used. IAEA statistical package were selected.(Author)

  18. De evaluatie van Corning "MAGIC T4-RIA" en de vergelijking met Corning "IMMOPHASE FT4-RIA"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvers LH; Smit PJ; Loeber JG

    1985-01-01

    Beschreven wordt de evaluatie van "MAGIC T4-RIA" (MAGIC) en de vergelijking met de totaal T4 resultaten van "IMMOPHASE FT4-RIA" (IMMO). MAGIC is in de practische uitvoerbaarheid eenvoudig en weinig arbeidsintensief. Voor 3 rattesera met 44, 95 en 167 nmol T4/l bedroeg de

  19. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  20. Carcinosarcoma of the larynx consisting of squamous cell carcinoma and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Hanata, Kyoshi; Toyoma, Satoshi; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Iikawa, Nobuko; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor with both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Carcinosarcoma can appear in various organs, but its occurrence in the head and neck, particularly larynx, is extremely rare. Furthermore, its response to treatment has not been well established. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with a 6-month history of hoarseness who presented with a mass having a polypoid appearance at the anterior commissure of the larynx. Further analyses revealed carcinosarcoma in the larynx that consisted of squamous cell carcinoma and an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). The tumor was excised at the first hospital visited. Because pathological examination revealed an IMT and positive margin, the patient was referred to our hospital. A front lateral vertical partial laryngectomy was performed for further treatment. Histological examination demonstrated a biphasic component, consisting of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and IMT. IMT rarely occurs in the head and neck region. Moreover, to best of our knowledge, no carcinosarcoma cases consisting of SCC and IMT in the larynx have been reported in the literature. The prognosis of carcinosarcoma is considered to be dependent on the type of malignant mesenchyme, and surgical excision with wide margins is generally used to treat IMT. Therefore, the treatment of laryngeal carcinosarcoma consisting of IMT can be best accomplished with complete excision of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. HNdb: an integrated database of gene and protein information on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Tiago; José Freitas da Silveira, Nelson; Henrique Cunha Volpato, Arthur; Mioto, Mayra Mataruco; Carolina Buzzo Stefanini, Ana; Bachir Fares, Adil; Gustavo da Silva Castro Andrade, João; Masson, Carolina; Verónica Mendoza López, Rossana; Daumas Nunes, Fabio; Paulo Kowalski, Luis; Severino, Patricia; Tajara, Eloiza Helena

    2016-01-01

    The total amount of scientific literature has grown rapidly in recent years. Specifically, there are several million citations in the field of cancer. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to manually retrieve relevant information on the mechanisms that govern tumor behavior or the neoplastic process. Furthermore, cancer is a complex disease or, more accurately, a set of diseases. The heterogeneity that permeates many tumors is particularly evident in head and neck (HN) cancer, one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. In this study, we present HNdb, a free database that aims to provide a unified and comprehensive resource of information on genes and proteins involved in HN squamous cell carcinoma, covering data on genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, literature citations and also cross-references of external databases. Different literature searches of MEDLINE abstracts were performed using specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) for oral, oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. A curated gene-to-publication assignment yielded a total of 1370 genes related to HN cancer. The diversity of results allowed identifying novel and mostly unexplored gene associations, revealing, for example, that processes linked to response to steroid hormone stimulus are significantly enriched in genes related to HN carcinomas. Thus, our database expands the possibilities for gene networks investigation, providing potential hypothesis to be tested. Database URL: http://www.gencapo.famerp.br/hndb PMID:27013077

  2. Electron beam therapy in squamous and basal cell carcinoma of the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinfuss, M.; Glinski, B.; Weiss, M.; Strzeszynski, J.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a retrospective study of 86 patients with squamous cell (51) and basal cell (35) carcinoma of the face. The median age was 67 years. The staging is as following: 31 cases T 1 and T 2 , 55 patients T 3 and T 4 . All patients were considered NO. Electron beam was used in all cases and energy ranged from 5 to 15 MeV depending on the thickness of the tumor. The total tumor dose was 60-70 Gy delivered in 6 weeks. In 7 cases of very old patients the authors have used concentrated irradiation: 3 patients received 21 Gy in one fraction and 4 patients 48 Gy in 8 fractions. 96.8% patients T 1 i T 2 are NED contrary to 56.4% T 3 i T 4 . Cosmetic results were considered as good in 52, fairly good in 7 and bad in 2 patients [fr

  3. Measuring Plasticity with Orientation Contrast Microscopy in Aluminium 6061-T4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghodrat, S.; Riemslag, A.C.; Kestens, L.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Orientation contrast microscopy (i.e., electron backscattered diffraction, EBSD) was employed to monitor the plastic strain in loaded tensile samples of aluminium alloy Al6061 in T4 condition. The kernel average misorientation (KAM) is known to be an appropriate parameter in orientation contrast

  4. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  5. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Peters

    Full Text Available Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6 was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  6. Structural studies on metal-containing enzymes: T4 endonuclease VII and D. gigas formate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, H.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many biological processes require metal ions, and many of these metal-ion functions involve metalloproteins. The metal ions in metalloproteins are often critical to the protein's function, structure, or stability. This thesis focuses on two of these proteins, bacteriophage T4 endonuclease

  7. A unique intracellular compartment formed during the oligotrophic growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nobuyuki; Yano, Takanori; Kedo, Kaori; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Nagai, Rina; Iwano, Megumi; Taguchi, Eiji; Nishida, Tomoki; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4, isolated from stored crude oil, shows extremely oligotrophic features and can grow on a basal medium without any additional carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and energy sources, but requires CO 2 for its oligotrophic growth. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that a relatively large and spherical compartment was observed in a N9T-4 cell grown under oligotrophic conditions. In most cases, only one compartment was observed per cell, but in some cases, it was localized at each pole of the cell, suggesting that it divides at cell division. We termed this unique bacterial compartment an oligobody. The oligobody was not observed or very rarely observed in small sizes under nutrient rich conditions, whereas additional carbon sources did not affect oligobody formation. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed remarkable peaks corresponding to phosphorus and potassium in the oligobody. The oligobodies in N9T-4 cells could be stained by Toluidine blue, suggesting that the oligobody is composed of inorganic polyphosphate and is a type of acidocalcisome. Two genes-encoding polyphosphate kinases, ppk1 and ppk2, were found in the N9T-4 genome: ppk1 disruption caused a negative effect on the formation of the oligobody. Although it was suggested that the oligobody plays an important role for the oligotrophic growth, both ppk-deleted mutants showed the same level of oligotrophic growth as the wild-type strain.

  8. Intracellular accumulation of trehalose and glycogen in an extreme oligotroph, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takanori; Funamizu, Yuhei; Yoshida, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    An extreme oligotroph, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4, showed intracellular accumulation of trehalose and glycogen under oligotrophic conditions. No trehalose accumulation was observed in cells grown on the rich medium. Deletion of the polyphosphate kinase genes enhanced the trehalose accumulation and decreases the intracellular glycogen contents, suggesting an oligotrophic relationship between among the metabolic pathways of trehalose, glycogen, and inorganic polyphosphate biosyntheses.

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity of T4-Type Phages in Sediments from the Subtropical Pearl River Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Maoqiu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Chuanlun; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE). Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 10 8 to 11.7 × 10 8 viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2.63 × 10 8 to 9.55 × 10 8 cells/g, and both decreased from freshwater to saltwater. Diverse viral morphotypes, including tailed, spherical, filamentous, and rod-shaped viruses, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the major capsid gene ( g23 ) indicated that the sediment T4-type phages were highly diverse and, similar to the trend in viral abundances, their diversity decreased as the salinity increased. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most of the g23 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with marine, paddy soil, and lake groups. The T4-type phage communities in freshwater and saltwater sediments showed obvious differences, which were related to changes in the Pearl River discharge. The results of this study demonstrated both allochthonous and autochthonous sources of the viral community in the PRE sediments and the movement of certain T4-type viral groups between the freshwater and saline water biomes.

  10. Phylogenetic Diversity of T4-Type Phages in Sediments from the Subtropical Pearl River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqiu He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are an abundant and active component of marine sediments and play a significant role in microbial ecology and biogeochemical cycling at local and global scales. To obtain a better understanding of the ecological characteristics of the viriobenthos, the abundance and morphology of viruses and the diversity and community structure of T4-type phages were systematically investigated in the surface sediments of the subtropical Pearl River Estuary (PRE. Viral abundances ranged from 4.49 × 108 to 11.7 × 108 viruses/g and prokaryotic abundances ranged from 2.63 × 108 to 9.55 × 108 cells/g, and both decreased from freshwater to saltwater. Diverse viral morphotypes, including tailed, spherical, filamentous, and rod-shaped viruses, were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of the major capsid gene (g23 indicated that the sediment T4-type phages were highly diverse and, similar to the trend in viral abundances, their diversity decreased as the salinity increased. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most of the g23 operational taxonomic units were affiliated with marine, paddy soil, and lake groups. The T4-type phage communities in freshwater and saltwater sediments showed obvious differences, which were related to changes in the Pearl River discharge. The results of this study demonstrated both allochthonous and autochthonous sources of the viral community in the PRE sediments and the movement of certain T4-type viral groups between the freshwater and saline water biomes.

  11. Platinum(II) complexes block the entry of T4 phage DNA into the host cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerszman, Gustaw; Josephsen, Jens; Fernholm, Bo

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of multiplicity reactivation of T4 particles inactivated by platinum(II) complexes is very low. The same is true for marker rescue and functional survival of genes. This can be at least partly explained by the inability of most inactivated virus particles to introduce their DNA...

  12. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Danielle L; Stothard, Paul; Dennis, Jonathan J

    2017-01-01

    Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6) was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  13. UV irradiation impairs in vivo encapsidation of bacteriophage T4 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, A.; Black, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    T4 DNA structural requirements for encapsidation in vivo were investigated, using thin-section electron microscopy to quantitate the kinetics and yields of head intermediates after synchronous DNA packaging into accumulated processed proheads. UV irradiation (254 nm) of T4-infected bacteria just before initiation of encapsidation resulted in a reduction in the rate of DNA packaged measured by electron microscopy and in the yield of viable phage progeny. In UV-irradiated infections with excision-deficient mutants (denV-), the extent of packaging decline was proportional to the UV dose and phage yields were lower than expected based on the packaging levels observed by microscopy. Rescue analysis of progeny from such infections revealed elevated levels of nonviable virions. Pyrimidine dimers were encapsidated in denV- infections, but in excision-competent infections (denV+) dimers were not packaged. A UV-independent, 15 to 20% packaging arrest was also observed when denV endonuclease was inactive during encapsidation, indicating a denV requirement to achieve normal T4 packaging levels. Pyrimidine dimers apparently represent or induce transient blockage of DNA encapsidation or both, causing a decline in the rate. This is in contrast to other DNA structural blocks to packaging induced by mutations in T4 genes 30 and 49, which appear to arrest the process

  14. The complete AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 worldsheet S-matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsato, Riccardo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370952170; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330983083; jr, Bogdan Stefanski

    2014-01-01

    We derive the non-perturbative worldsheet S matrix for fundamental excitations of Type IIB superstring theory on AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 with Ramond-Ramond flux. To this end, we study the off-shell symmetry algebra of the theory and its representations. We use these to determine the S matrix up to scalar

  15. Ethnic differences in TSH but not in free T4 concentrations or TPO antibodies during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benhadi, N.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Reitsma, J. B.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; van der Wal, M. F.; Bonsel, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the TSH, free T4 and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) concentrations during pregnancy among four ethnic groups and to determine reference values for these parameters during normal pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of 3270 pregnant women living in the

  16. In vitro selection of optimal DNA substrates for T4 RNA ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1993-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection techniques to characterize DNA sequences that are ligated efficiently by T4 RNA ligase. We find that the ensemble of selected sequences ligated about 10 times as efficiently as the random mixture of sequences used as the input for selection. Surprisingly, the majority of the selected sequences approximated a well-defined consensus sequence.

  17. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from dental units and emergency combination showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Artavia, Esteban; Retana-Moreira, Lissette; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abrahams-Sandí, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques. Eight axenic cultures of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 were used in pathogenic potential assays. Osmotolerance, thermotolerance, determination and characterisation of extracellular proteases and evaluation of cytopathic effects in MDCK cells were performed. All of the isolates were osmotolerant, thermotolerant and had serine proteases from 44-122 kDa. Two isolates had cytopathic effects on the MDCK cell monolayer. The presence of Acanthamoeba T4 with pathogenic potential in areas such as those tested in this study reaffirms the need for adequate cleaning and maintenance protocols to reduce the possibility of infection with free-living amoebae.

  18. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotype T4 isolated from dental units and emergency combination showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Castro-Artavia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acanthamoeba is the genus of free-living amoebae that is most frequently isolated in nature. To date, 20 Acanthamoeba genotypes have been described. Genotype T4 is responsible for approximately 90% of encephalitis and keratitis cases. Due to the ubiquitous presence of amoebae, isolation from environmental sources is not uncommon; to determine the clinical importance of an isolation, it is necessary to have evidence of the pathogenic potential of amoebae. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to physiologically characterise 8 Acanthamoeba T4 isolates obtained from dental units and emergency combination showers and to determine their pathogenic potential by employing different laboratory techniques. METHODS Eight axenic cultures of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 were used in pathogenic potential assays. Osmotolerance, thermotolerance, determination and characterisation of extracellular proteases and evaluation of cytopathic effects in MDCK cells were performed. FINDINGS All of the isolates were osmotolerant, thermotolerant and had serine proteases from 44-122 kDa. Two isolates had cytopathic effects on the MDCK cell monolayer. MAIN CONCLUSION The presence of Acanthamoeba T4 with pathogenic potential in areas such as those tested in this study reaffirms the need for adequate cleaning and maintenance protocols to reduce the possibility of infection with free-living amoebae.

  19. Laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer; Ustündağ, Emre; Işeri, Mete; Erçin, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the larynx are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Adenoid cystic carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all malignant tumors in the larynx. We presented a 16-year-old girl with subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma, whose symptoms of prolonged and exacerbating dyspnea had been attributed to asthma at another medical center. Indirect flexible and rigid laryngoscopy revealed a smooth mass in the subglottic region occupying 80% of the airway passage. The lesion was also confirmed by both CT and MRI. There was no lymphadenopathy in the neck. The patient was successfully treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Pathological staging was T4N0M0 according to the AJCC, 2003. During six years of follow-up, there was no evidence for local recurrence or regional and distant metastasis.

  20. New Insights into DNA Polymerase Function Revealed by Phosphonoacetic Acid-Sensitive T4 DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likui

    2017-11-20

    The bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase (pol) and the closely related RB69 DNA pol have been developed into model enzymes to study family B DNA pols. While all family B DNA pols have similar structures and share conserved protein motifs, the molecular mechanism underlying natural drug resistance of nonherpes family B DNA pols and drug sensitivity of herpes DNA pols remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed T4 phages containing G466S, Y460F, G466S/Y460F, P469S, and V475W mutations in DNA pol. These amino acid substitutions replace the residues in drug-resistant T4 DNA pol with residues found in drug-sensitive herpes family DNA pols. We investigated whether the T4 phages expressing the engineered mutant DNA pols were sensitive to the antiviral drug phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) and characterized the in vivo replication fidelity of the phage DNA pols. We found that G466S substitution marginally increased PAA sensitivity, whereas Y460F substitution conferred resistance. The phage expressing a double mutant G466S/Y460F DNA pol was more PAA-sensitive. V475W T4 DNA pol was highly sensitive to PAA, as was the case with V478W RB69 DNA pol. However, DNA replication was severely compromised, which resulted in the selection of phages expressing more robust DNA pols that have strong ability to replicate DNA and contain additional amino acid substitutions that suppress PAA sensitivity. Reduced replication fidelity was observed in all mutant phages expressing PAA-sensitive DNA pols. These observations indicate that PAA sensitivity and fidelity are balanced in DNA pols that can replicate DNA in different environments.

  1. Engineering of Bacteriophage T4 Genome Using CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Wu, Xiaorong; Tang, Wei-Chun; Zhu, Jingen; Rao, Venigalla

    2017-10-20

    Bacteriophages likely constitute the largest biomass on Earth. However, very few phage genomes have been well-characterized, the tailed phage T4 genome being one of them. Even in T4, much of the genome remained uncharacterized. The classical genetic strategies are tedious, compounded by genome modifications such as cytosine hydroxylmethylation and glucosylation which makes T4 DNA resistant to most restriction endonucleases. Here, using the type-II CRISPR-Cas9 system, we report the editing of both modified (ghm-Cytosine) and unmodified (Cytosine) T4 genomes. The modified genome, however, is less susceptible to Cas9 nuclease attack when compared to the unmodified genome. The efficiency of restriction of modified phage infection varied greatly in a spacer-dependent manner, which explains some of the previous contradictory results. We developed a genome editing strategy by codelivering into E. coli a CRISPR-Cas9 plasmid and a donor plasmid containing the desired mutation(s). Single and multiple point mutations, insertions and deletions were introduced into both modified and unmodified genomes. As short as 50-bp homologous flanking arms were sufficient to generate recombinants that can be selected under the pressure of CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease. A 294-bp deletion in RNA ligase gene rnlB produced viable plaques, demonstrating the usefulness of this editing strategy to determine the essentiality of a given gene. These results provide the first demonstration of phage T4 genome editing that might be extended to other phage genomes in nature to create useful recombinants for phage therapy applications.

  2. Marine T4-type bacteriophages, a ubiquitous component of the dark matter of the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filée, Jonathan; Tétart, Françoise; Suttle, Curtis A.; Krisch, H. M.

    2005-08-01

    Tailed bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities in marine environments. However, most of these marine phages are uncharacterized because few of their hosts have been cultivated. To learn more about such phages, we designed a set of degenerate PCR primers for phage T4 g23, which encodes the major capsid protein in all of the T4-type phages, an important family of the tailed phage. These primers were used to amplify g23-related sequences from diverse marine environments (fjords and bays of British Columbia, the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and the western Arctic Ocean) revealing a remarkable level of molecular diversity, which in some cases was correlated with morphological variation of the virions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that although some of these sequences were closely related to well studied subgroups of the T4-type phage, such as the T-evens, the majority of them belong to five previously uncharacterized subgroups. These data indicate that the host range of T4-type phages is much broader than previously imagined and that the laboratory isolate T4 belongs to a phage family that is extraordinarily widespread and diverse in the biosphere. Author contributions: J.F., F.T., and H.M.K. designed research; J.F. and F.T. performed research; C.A.S. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; J.F., C.A.S., and H.M.K. analyzed data; and J.F., C.A.S., and H.M.K. wrote the paper.This paper was submitted directly (Track II) to the PNAS office.Data deposition: The nucleotide sequences of g23 reported in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank database (accession nos. DQ105858-DQ105942).

  3. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.P.; Johnston, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  4. [A rare cause of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiati, W; Kably, M I; Kadiri, R

    2005-09-01

    Aneurysm of the cervical carotid artery is rare and usually presents with ischemic symptoms as opposed to local mass effect. The authors report a case of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to mass effect from a cervical internal carotid artery aneurysm.

  5. Laryngeal spasm after general anaesthesia due to Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsnes, K D

    2013-08-01

    Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  7. Laryngeal manifestations of relapsing polychondritis and a novel treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lesley F; Rickert, Scott; Wengerman, Oscar C; Lebovics, Robert; Blitzer, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Laryngotracheal involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP) is rare. However, it is one of the most common causes of death in this patient population. We present three patients who primarily presented with laryngeal manifestations of RP and a novel treatment option for bamboo nodules. Retrospective chart review and comprehensive review of the literature. Two patients first presented to an otolaryngologist because of hoarseness and chronic cough that eventually progressed to dyspnea upon exertion. Laryngeal examination revealed subglottic stenoses. Upon rheumatologic workup both were diagnosed with RP. After treatment with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, one of the patient's laryngeal symptoms improved, whereas the other required dilation procedures. Neither patient had classic auricular or nasal symptoms upon initial presentation. The third patient was being treated for spasmodic dysphonia and was noted to have bamboo nodules with accompanying dysphonia. Rheumatologic workup revealed RP and systemic treatment ensued. Unfortunately, her symptoms of hoarseness persisted despite systemic treatment. A pulsed-potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser was applied to the bilateral bamboo nodules, which eventually caused resolution of her vocal fold lesions and dysphonia. We present three patients with RP, all of whom sought health care by an otolaryngologist primarily. Awareness of this disease entity and the possibility for early laryngeal involvement is crucial for proper care of those with this life-threatening disease. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laryngeal Presentation of Systemic Apolipoprotein A-I-Derived Amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Aldert J. C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Bijzet, Johan; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gilbertson, Janet; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Leijsma, Martha K.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.

    Objective: To study the clinical and pathological characteristics of two patients with laryngeal apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-derived (AApoAI) amyloidosis with the apolipoprotein A-I variants Leu174Ser and Leu178Pro, respectively. The latter variant has not been associated with amyloid before. Study

  9. Evaluation of the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as an intubation conduit in patients with a cervical collar simulating fixed cervical spine. The page number in the footer is not for bibliographic referencing .... their use in patients with suspected cervical spine injury.1. Removal of the front portion of the collar before ...

  10. The Icatibant Outcome Survey: treatment of laryngeal angioedema attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberer, Werner; Bouillet, Laurence; Caballero, Teresa; Maurer, Marcus; Fabien, Vincent; Zanichelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize the management and outcomes of life-threatening laryngeal attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) treated with icatibant in the observational Icatibant Outcome Survey (NCT01034969) registry. Methods This retrospective analysis was based on data from patients with HAE type I/II who received healthcare professional-administered or self-administered icatibant to treat laryngeal attacks between September 2008 and May 2013. Results Twenty centers in seven countries contributed data. Overall, 42 patients with HAE experienced 67 icatibant-treated laryngeal attacks. Icatibant was self-administered for 62.3% of attacks (healthcare professional-administered, 37.7%). One icatibant injection was used for 87.9% of attacks, with rescue or concomitant medication used for 9.0%. The median time to treatment was 2.0 h (n=31 attacks) and the median time to resolution was 6.0 h (n=35 attacks). Conclusions This analysis describes successful use of icatibant for the treatment of laryngeal HAE attacks in a real-world setting. PMID:27116379

  11. A bony connection signals laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Nina; McErlain, David D; Holdsworth, David W; Eger, Judith L; Chhem, Rethy K; Mason, Matthew J; Brain, Kirsty L; Faure, Paul A; Fenton, M Brock

    2010-02-18

    Echolocation is an active form of orientation in which animals emit sounds and then listen to reflected echoes of those sounds to form images of their surroundings in their brains. Although echolocation is usually associated with bats, it is not characteristic of all bats. Most echolocating bats produce signals in the larynx, but within one family of mainly non-echolocating species (Pteropodidae), a few species use echolocation sounds produced by tongue clicks. Here we demonstrate, using data obtained from micro-computed tomography scans of 26 species (n = 35 fluid-preserved bats), that proximal articulation of the stylohyal bone (part of the mammalian hyoid apparatus) with the tympanic bone always distinguishes laryngeally echolocating bats from all other bats (that is, non-echolocating pteropodids and those that echolocate with tongue clicks). In laryngeally echolocating bats, the proximal end of the stylohyal bone directly articulates with the tympanic bone and is often fused with it. Previous research on the morphology of the stylohyal bone in the oldest known fossil bat (Onychonycteris finneyi) suggested that it did not echolocate, but our findings suggest that O. finneyi may have used laryngeal echolocation because its stylohyal bones may have articulated with its tympanic bones. The present findings reopen basic questions about the timing and the origin of flight and echolocation in the early evolution of bats. Our data also provide an independent anatomical character by which to distinguish laryngeally echolocating bats from other bats.

  12. Spasmodic Dysphonia: a Laryngeal Control Disorder Specific to Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief. PMID:21248101

  13. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-17

    Aug 17, 2013 ... patient trauma. • Effective laryngeal mask airway (LMA) placement in the prone position may suggest a rescue airway in the event of endotracheal .... Facet infiltrations. • Rhizotomy. • Spinal decompression. • Spinal fusion. • Pilonidal sinus. • Melanoma excision on the back. • Bone marrow aspiration.

  14. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  15. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  16. The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™: safety and efficacy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme™) is a new single-use polyvinyl chloride supraglottic device that offers gastric access. To date, studies that have tested the LMA Supreme™) for use in laparoscopic surgery have been reported. We present the largest evaluative study that describes the use of ...

  17. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  18. Schwannoma of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve : A Rare Entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, Linda M; Teding van Berkhout, F; Priesterbach, Loudy; Buijsrogge, Marc P

    Neurogenic tumors are the most common posterior mediastinal tumors in adults. Schwannomas originating from the recurrent laryngeal nerve are rare. The present study describes a 46-year-old man with a tumor in the left superior mediastinum. Because of the narrow relationship with the aorta and the

  19. Cryptococcal laryngitis: An uncommon presentation of a common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    common infection is pulmonary, which is usually self-limiting. Central nervous system involvement results in high morbidity and mortality; mortality rates of up to 30% have been reported.[2] Laryngeal involvement is extremely uncommon and has only been reported in 12 other patients.[3] Features of these cases are outlined ...

  20. Laryngeal Aerodynamics Associated with Oral Contraceptive Use: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham-Rowan, Mary; Fowler, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in laryngeal aerodynamic measures during connected speech associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use. Eight women taking an OC, and eight others not taking an OC, participated in the study. Three trials of syllable /p[subscript alpha] /repetitions were obtained using a…

  1. Improving Voice Outcomes After Injury to the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Junuzovic Zunic

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Laryngeal symptoms are known to often accompany thyroidectomy procedures. In the present study, it was observed that administration of vocal therapy and teamwork between the doctors and speech therapist significantly affected the patient’s recovery and improvement in the quality of voice after thyroidectomy.

  2. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  3. Impacted Laryngeal Foreign Body in a Child: A Diagnostic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted laryngeal foreign body could lead to catastrophic consequences if appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are not promptly instituted. A case of 4‑year‑old child who presented with a 4‑day history of probable ingestion or aspiration of a pen part and history of occasional noisy breathing on exertion and ...

  4. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinicians tend to avoid the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the prone position, but several trials demonstrate its low rate of complication if patient selection is performed properly. Obesity is also demonstrated not to be a contraindication to this anaesthetic technique. Patients are more haemodynamically stable if ...

  5. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the…

  6. Probiotics reduce psychological stress in patients before laryngeal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Tang, Shan; Huang, Hua; Zhao, Xiulan; Ning, Zhuohui; Fu, Xiurong; Zhang, Caihong

    2016-03-01

    Laryngeal cancer is a common malignancy; surgery is the preferred treatment. Psychosocial stress is one of the negative impacts on patient recovery. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of probiotics on ameliorating anxiety, and on serum corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in laryngeal cancer patients before surgery. A total 30 patients with laryngeal cancer and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. During the 2 weeks before surgery, 20 patients were randomly allocated to receive probiotics or placebo twice a day. Heart rate was recorded daily. The degree of anxiety was assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Serum CRF levels in laryngeal cancer patients increased significantly in approaching surgery. After ingestion of probiotics, serum levels of CRF and heart rate did not increase before surgery. In addition, taking probiotics relieved the degree of anxiety of the patients from HAMA 19.8 to 10.2. Probiotics can ameliorate the clinical anxiety and biochemical features of stress in patients scheduled for laryngectomy. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The CT features of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Peng Weijun; Gu Yajia; Yang Tianxi; Wang Hongshi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the CT appearance of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, discuss the anatomic and pathologic basis of this paralysis, and evaluate CT diagnosis. Methods: 32 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis clinical confirmed were analyzed retrospectively. All of these patients had the CT scans from the level of hyoid bone to the upper thorax, the slice and interval are 5 mm. Results: CT findings of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis included: oblique of aryepiglottic fold, dislocation of arytenoid cartilage and cricoarytenoid joint, dilation and relaxation of piriform sinus for 27 cases (84.4%); wide and asymmetrical ventricle of larynx for 16 cases (50.0%); asymmetrical and fix of vocal fold for 11 cases (34.4%) et al. Conclusion: The recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except cricothyroid muscle, paralysis of the nerve leads to atrophy of related muscles. CT scan demonstrate the larynx morphologic changes of recurrent nerve paralysis and is helpful to identify the etiology. (authors)

  8. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blind intubation through the ILM using a straight silicone tracheal tube manufactured for specific use with the ILM; 2. Intubation with a size 3 macintosh laryngoscope ... such as in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Key Words: Equipment:intubating laryngeal mask airway; Airway,complications: haemodynamic response ...

  9. Prognostic Value of Subclassification Using MRI in the T4 Classification Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lei [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Chen Mo; Li Wenfei; Yin Wenjing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sun Ying [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Li Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To subclassify patients with the T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), according to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the prognostic value of subclassification after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 140 patients who underwent MRI and were subsequently histologically diagnosed with nondisseminated classification T4 NPC received IMRT as their primary treatment and were included in this retrospective study. T4 patients were subclassified into two grades: T4a was defined as a primary nasopharyngeal tumor with involvement of the masticator space only; and T4b was defined as involvement of the intracranial region, cranial nerves, and/or orbit. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate for T4a patients (82.5% and 87.0%, respectively), were significantly higher than for T4b patients (62.6% and 66.8%; p = 0.033 and p = 0.036, respectively). The T4a/b subclassification was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio = 2.331, p = 0.032) and DMFS (hazard ratio = 2.602, p = 0.034), and had no significant effect on local relapse-free survival. Conclusions: Subclassification of T4 patients, as T4a or T4b, using MRI according to the site of invasion, has prognostic value for the outcomes of IMRT treatment in NPC.

  10. 2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data suggest symptoms of hypothyroidism persist in 5–10% of levothyroxine (L-T4)-treated hypothyroid patients with normal serum thyrotrophin (TSH). The use of L-T4 + liothyronine (L-T3) combination therapy in such patients is controversial. The ETA nominated a task force to review....... There is insufficient evidence that L-T4 + L-T3 combination therapy is better than L-T4 monotherapy, and it is recommended that L-T4 monotherapy remains the standard treatment of hypothyroidism. L-T4 + L-T3 combination therapy might be considered as an experimental approach in compliant L-T4-treated hypothyroid...

  11. A randomized comparison of the laryngeal mask airway supreme™ and laryngeal mask airway unique™ in infants and children: does cuff pressure influence leak pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Sohn, Lisa; Sommers, Katherine; Belvis, Dawn; Shah, Ravi D; Sawardekar, Amod; Eidem, Jami; Dagraca, Justin; Mukherji, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The cuff pressure for optimal airway sealing with first-generation laryngeal mask airway has been shown to be 40 cm H(2)O in children. Currently, there are no data regarding the ideal intracuff pressure for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (Supreme) in children. To compare the clinical performance of the laryngeal mask airway supreme with the laryngeal mask airway unique in infants and children. One hundred eighty children were assigned to receive either a Supreme or a laryngeal mask airway-U. We hypothesized higher airway leak pressure with the Supreme at both 40 cm H(2)O and 60 cm H(2)O, when compared with the laryngeal mask airway-U. Ease and time of insertion, insertion attempts, fiber optic examination, quality of airway, efficacy of mechanical ventilation, success of gastric tube placement (Supreme), incidence of gastric insufflation, and complications were also assessed. Airway leak pressure at an intracuff pressure of 60 cm H(2)O for the Supreme was 17.4 (5.2) vs laryngeal mask airway-U at 18.4 (6.6) cm H(2)O and did not differ when compared to an intracuff pressure of 40 cm H(2)O for both devices; Supreme at 17.2 (5) vs laryngeal mask airway-U at 17.7 (6) cm H(2)O. The laryngeal mask airway-U was associated with higher first-attempt success rates. The Supreme was associated with less gastric insufflation than the laryngeal mask airway-U. Intracuff pressures of 40 cm H(2)O may be sufficient for the Supreme in children, and there may be no added benefit of an intracuff pressure of 60 cm H(2)O, as leak pressures were similar. The Supreme may be preferred over the laryngeal mask airway-U for its lower rates of gastric insufflation and provision for gastric access when mechanical ventilation is utilized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Survival and prognostic factors in resected satellite-nodule T4 non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Wang, Tian-you; He, Bao-liang; Chang, Dong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Yin, Zhi-yi; Jiang, Hua; Cui, Yong; Gao, Zhi; Gong, Min

    2009-01-15

    To study the survival and prognostic implication in surgically resected satellite-nodule T4 (T4 satellite) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From January 1995 to March 2005, the complete resection was performed to 42 patients with NSCLC who were postoperatively identified as pathologic-stage T4 satellite. Survival and associations between clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were analyzed. Thirty-two patients with pathologic stage local-invasion T4 (T4 invasion) NSCLC who underwent resection at the same time were also analyzed. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival was 76.2%, 57.1% and 46.0% for patients with T4 satellite, while 62.3%, 31.5% and 20.0% for patients with T4 invasion. There was a significant higher survival in T4 satellite group when compared to that in T4 invasion group (P satellite N0M0 got a better survival than those with T4 satellite N1-2M0, T4 invasion N0M0 and T4 invasion N1 -2M0 (P satellite, univariate analysis showed that histology, main tumor size, lymph node status and adjuvant chemotherapy were linked with survival, while main tumor size, lymph node status and adjuvant chemotherapy served as the independent prognostic factors with multivariate analysis. Patients with completely resected T4 satellite NSCLC have a better prognosis than those with T4 invasion. Main tumor size over 3 cm, lymph node metastasis or no adjuvant chemotherapy means an unfavorable prognosis.

  13. Laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Sibai, Abla; Oubari, Dima; Ashkar, Jihad; Fuleihan, Nabil

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the laryngeal findings and acoustic changes in hubble-bubble smokers. A total of 42 subjects with history of hubble-bubble smoking were recruited for this study. A corresponding group with a history of cigarette smoking and controls were matched. All subjects underwent laryngeal video-endostroboscopic evaluation and acoustic analysis. In the hubble-bubble smoking group, 61.9% were males. The average age was 30.02 +/- 9.48 years and the average number of years of smoking was 8.09 +/- 6.45 years. Three subjects had dysphonia at the time of examination. The incidence of benign lesions of the vocal folds in the hubble-bubble group was 21.5%, with edema being the most common at 16.7% followed by cyst at 4.8%. The incidence of laryngeal findings was significantly higher in the hubble-bubble group compared to controls. In the cigarette-smoking group, the most common finding was vocal fold cyst in 14.8% followed by polyps in 7.4%, and edema, sulcus vocalis and granuloma. These findings were not significantly different from the hubble-bubble group except for the thick mucus, which was significantly higher in the latter. There were no significant changes in any of the acoustic parameters between hubble-bubble smokers and controls except for the VTI and MPT, which were significantly lower in the hubble-bubble group. In comparison with the cigarette-smoking group, hubble-bubble smokers had significantly higher Fundamental frequency and habitual pitch (p value 0.042 and 0.008, respectively). The laryngeal findings in hubble-bubble smokers are comparable to cigarette smokers. These laryngeal findings are not translated acoustically, as all the acoustic parameters are within normal range compared to controls.

  14. Acute Toxicity Profile and Compliance to Accelerated Radiotherapy Plus Carbogen and Nicotinamide for Clinical Stage T2-4 Laryngeal Cancer: Results of a Phase III Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, Geert O., E-mail: g.janssens@rther.umcn.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Terhaard, Chris H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Doornaert, Patricia A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bijl, Hendrik P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Ende, Piet van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Chin, Alim [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Pop, Lucas A.; Kaanders, Johannes H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report the acute toxicity profile and compliance from a randomized Phase III trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR) with accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 2001 to February 2008, 345 patients with cT2-4 squamous cell laryngeal cancer were randomized to AR (n = 174) and ARCON (n = 171). Acute toxicity was scored weekly until Week 8 and every 2-4 weeks thereafter. Compliance to carbogen and nicotinamide was reported. Results: Between both treatment arms (AR vs. ARCON) no statistically significant difference was observed for incidence of acute skin reactions (moist desquamation: 56% vs. 58%, p = 0.80), acute mucosal reactions (confluent mucositis: 79% vs. 85%, p = 0.14), and symptoms related to acute mucositis (severe pain on swallowing: 53% vs. 58%, p = 0.37; nasogastric tube feeding: 28% vs. 28%, p = 0.98; narcotic medicines required: 58% vs. 58%, p = 0.97). There was a statistically significant difference in median duration of confluent mucositis in favor of AR (2.0 vs 3.0 weeks, p = 0.01). There was full compliance with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in 86% and 80% of the patients, with discontinuation in 6% and 12%, respectively. Adjustment of antiemesis prophylaxis was needed in 42% of patients. Conclusion: With the exception of a slight increase in median duration of acute confluent mucositis, the present data reveal a similar acute toxicity profile between both regimens and a good compliance with ARCON for clinical stage T2-4 laryngeal cancers. Treatment outcome and late morbidity will determine the real therapeutic benefit.

  15. A survey of practice patterns in the use of laryngeal mask by pediatric anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anuradha; Clark, Scott R; Schiffmiller, Moshe; Schoenberg, Catherine; Tewfik, George

    2015-11-01

    Laryngeal mask is frequently the airway device of choice in routine general anesthesia for many procedures in children. Several studies have described the use of laryngeal masks in unconventional situations. This survey was undertaken to assess how laryngeal masks are being used by pediatric anesthesiologists. The 40-question electronic survey using SurveyMonkey™ was sent to 2740 members of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA). This survey assessed the age, work environment, types of practice, and training levels, as well as clinical situations in which the practitioners use laryngeal masks across different pediatric age groups. Seven hundred and forty-three (27.1%) responses were obtained. The use of laryngeal mask increased as the patient age increased in nearly every queried situation. The practitioners routinely utilize laryngeal masks in a variety of challenging scenarios, such as in patients with a recent upper respiratory infection, in the difficult airway, remote locations, and long-duration surgeries. A small percentage of pediatric anesthesiologists use laryngeal masks in laparoscopic surgery and prone position procedures. Pediatric anesthesiologists are using laryngeal masks in both routine and challenging/unconventional situations. Although many of the uses for laryngeal masks are not explicitly stated in the manufacturer guidelines, literature and current practice support the use of laryngeal masks in several of these scenarios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. MiR-203 is involved in the laryngeal carcinoma pathogenesis via targeting VEGFA and Cox-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lin Xu,1 Bin Shen,2 Tingting Chen,3 Pin Dong2 1Department of Otolaryngology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, 2Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, Shanghai, 3Lishui Central Hospital, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC is a multistep process involving multiple factors. MicroRNAs, a group of important negative regulators of gene expression, have also been confirmed to be involved in the LSCC pathogenesis. In the present study, we compared the expression of nine selected microRNAs in the LSCC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues. We found that the expression of miR-203 was significantly reduced in the LSCC tissues. Predicted by using bioinformatics tools, we found that VEGFA and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 may be direct targets of miR-203. By subsequent determination through dual-luciferase assay and Western blot, we confirmed that miR-203 suppresses the expression of VEGFA and Cox-2 by directly targeting 3'-untranslated region. Meanwhile, by analyzing the relationship between miR-203 and VEGFA in clinical tissue samples, we found that a negative correlation existed in the expression of miR-203 and VEGFA (P=0.0096, r=-0.33. Similarly, the expression of miR-203 and Cox-2 also has a negative correlation (P=0.0019, r=-0.46. Subsequently, in vitro functional study indicated that miR-203 played as a tumor suppressor by repressing proliferation, migration, and invasion of Hep-2 cells. The overexpression of VEGFA partially rescued the effect of overexpressed miR-203. Overexpressed Cox-2 partially rescued the effect of miR-203 on Hep-2 cell proliferation but not on the cell migration and invasion capacity. These findings suggest that miR-203 plays as a tumor suppressor in LSCC, partially by regulating VEGFA and Cox-2, and may serve as a potential

  17. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  18. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  19. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bagga Permeet; Jaswal T; Datta Usha; Mahajan N

    2008-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium is a rare entity. Only 64 cases have been documented in the literature. We report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distention and blood-stained vaginal discharge for 6-7 months. Clinically, chronic pyometra was considered. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysp...

  20. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagga Permeet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium is a rare entity. Only 64 cases have been documented in the literature. We report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distention and blood-stained vaginal discharge for 6-7 months. Clinically, chronic pyometra was considered. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.

  1. Serum TBG and T4 concentration in non-thyroidal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tobari, C.; Sekita, N.; Onodera, Y.; Asazu, M.; Someya, K.

    1983-01-01

    Routinely available radioassay kits have recently enabled the measurement of serum concentrations of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroxine (T 4 ), both total (TT 4 ) and free (FT 4 ) in various disease conditions. Serum TBG and T 4 level were measured in variety of non-thyroidal diseases, of which significance was evaluated in comparison with that in thyroidal diseases. Abnormal serum TBG concentrations in various non-thyroidal diseases and pregnancy result in abnormal serum TT 4 levels, which may cause difficulty in differentiation of these conditions from hyper- or hypothyroidal states. Serum FT 4 levels give better indicator than TT 4 , though the difference among RIA kits are considerably large. However, measurement of serum FT 4 levels alone is not sufficient to distinguish non-thyroidal disease from thyroidal diseases with abnormal thyroidal function. The differentiation has to be based on the combination of clinical findings and results of multiple thyroidal function tests

  2. Characterization of a bacteriophage T4 mutant lacking DNA-dependent ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behme, M.T.; Ebisuzaki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A DNA-dependent ATPase has previously been purified from bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli. A mutant phage strain lacking this enzyme has been isolated and characterized. Although the mutant strain produced no detectable DNA-dependent ATPase, growth properties were not affected. Burst sizes were similar for the mutant phage and T4D in polAl, recB, recC, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and various DNA-negative E. coli. UV sensitivity and genetic recombination were normal in a variety of E. coli hosts. Mapping data indicate that the genetic locus controlling the mutant occurs near gene 56. The nonessential nature of this gene is discussed

  3. Coupling DNA unwinding activity with primer synthesis in the bacteriophage T4 primosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosas, Maria; Spiering, Michelle M.; Zhuang, Zhihao; Benkovic, Stephen J.; Croquette, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The unwinding and priming activities of the bacteriophage T4 primosome, which consists of a hexameric helicase (gp41) translocating 5′ to 3′ and an oligomeric primase (gp61) synthesizing primers 5′ to 3′, has been investigated on DNA hairpins manipulated by a magnetic trap. We find that the T4 primosome continuously unwinds the DNA duplex while allowing for primer synthesis through a primosome disassembly mechanism or a novel DNA looping mechanism. A fused gp61-gp41 primosome unwinds and primes DNA exclusively via the DNA looping mechanism. Other proteins within the replisome control the partitioning of these two mechanisms disfavoring primosome disassembly thereby increasing primase processivity. In contrast priming in bacteriophage T7 involves discrete pausing of the primosome and in Escherichia coli appears to be associated primarily with dissociation of the primase from the helicase. Thus nature appears to use several strategies to couple the disparate helicase and primase activities within primosomes. PMID:19838204

  4. Preoperative Tracheostomy Is Associated with Poor Disease-Free Survival in Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Rosko, Andrew J; Beesley, Lauren; Bellile, Emily; Chinn, Steven B; Shuman, Andrew G; Prince, Mark E; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Brenner, J Chad; Spector, Matthew E

    2017-09-01

    Objectives It is unknown if preoperative tracheostomy for persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) plays a role in unrecognized local disease spread and disease recurrence after salvage laryngectomy. The goals of this study were to determine the effect of preoperative tracheostomy on disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with recurrent/persistent LSCC undergoing salvage laryngectomy. Study Design Retrospective case series derived from prospectively maintained database. Setting Tertiary care academic center. Subjects Patients with recurrent/persistent LSCC after radiation/chemoradiation (RT/CRT) who underwent salvage laryngectomy at the University of Michigan from 1997 to 2015. Methods Demographic, clinical, pathologic, and survival data were collected. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were performed. Results DFS was worse for patients with tracheostomy prior to laryngectomy than patients without a tracheostomy (5 year: 39% vs 67%; P tracheostomy prior to RT/CRT compared to patients with tracheostomy after RT/CRT or patients without a tracheostomy had worse DFS (5-year: 25%, 49%, and 67%, respectively; P tracheostomy was associated with worse DFS. In multivariable analysis, presence of a preoperative tracheostomy had a worse DFS (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.67; P = .048). Conclusion Preoperative tracheostomy is associated with disease recurrence in patients with persistent/recurrent LSCC undergoing salvage laryngectomy, particularly in patients who had tracheostomy prior to completion of initial RT/CRT. Notably, preoperative tracheostomy as a causal factor vs marker for disease recurrence is difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with preoperative tracheostomy when counseling on surgical salvage and when considering the role of additional therapy.

  5. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imInunocytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisa- tion to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epitheliUIn adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal carcinomas. Viral antigens could not be detected with imInunocytochemistry in any of the specimens.

  6. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  7. Expression of the bacteriophage T4 denV structural gene in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recinos, A. III; Augustine, M.L.; Higgins, K.M.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of the T4 denV gene, which previously had been cloned in plasmid constructs downstream of the bacteriophage lambda hybrid promoter-operator oLpR, was analyzed under a variety of growth parameters. Expression of the denV gene product, endonuclease V, was confirmed in DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli (uvrA recA) by Western blot analyses and by enhancements of resistance to UV irradiation

  8. T4 phage and its head surface proteins do not stimulate inflammatory mediator production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Miernikiewicz

    Full Text Available Viruses are potent activators of the signal pathways leading to increased cytokine or ROS production. The effects exerted on the immune system are usually mediated by viral proteins. Complementary to the progress in phage therapy practice, advancement of knowledge about the influence of bacteriophages on mammalian immunity is necessary. Particularly, the potential ability of phage proteins to act like other viral stimulators of the immune system may have strong practical implications for the safety and efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. Here we present studies on the effect of T4 phage and its head proteins on production of inflammatory mediators and inflammation-related factors: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40/p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, GCSF, GM-CSF and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plasma cytokine profiles in an in vivo mouse model and in human blood cells treated with gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc were evaluated by cytokine antibody arrays. Cytokine production and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules were also investigated in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated with whole T4 phage particle or the same capsid proteins. The influence of T4 and gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc on reactive oxygen species generation was examined in blood cells using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In all performed assays, the T4 bacteriophage and its capsid proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc did not affect production of inflammatory-related cytokines or ROS. These observations are of importance for any medical or veterinary application of bacteriophages.

  9. Diversity of structure and function of DNA polymerase (gp43) of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V M; Karam, J D

    2004-11-01

    The replication DNA polymerase (gp43) of the bacteriophage T4 is a member of the pol B family of DNA polymerases, which are found in all divisions of life in the biosphere. The enzyme is a modularly organized protein that has several activities in one polypeptide chain (approximately 900 amino acid residues). These include two catalytic functions, POL (polymerase) and EXO (3 -exonuclease), and specific binding activities to DNA, the mRNA for gp43, deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs), and other T4 replication proteins. The gene for this multifunctional enzyme (gene 43) has been preserved in evolution of the diverse group of T4-like phages in nature, but has diverged in sequence, organization, and specificity of the binding functions of the gene product. We describe here examples of T4-like phages where DNA rearrangements have created split forms of gene 43 consisting of two cistrons instead of one. These gene 43 variants specify separate gp43A (N-terminal) and gp43B (C-terminal) subunits of a split form of gp43. Compared to the monocistronic form, the interruption in contiguity of the gene 43 reading frame maps in a highly diverged sequence separating the code for essential components of two major modules of this pol B enzyme, the FINGERS and PALM domains, which contain the dNTP binding pocket and POL catalytic residues of the enzyme. We discuss the biological implications of these gp43 splits and compare them to other types of pol B splits in nature. Our studies suggest that DNA mobile elements may allow genetic information for pol B modules to be exchanged between organisms.

  10. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  12. Processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on UV-irradiated chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V initiates the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated T4 infected E. coli cells. The pyrimidine dimer specific nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V functions by a processive scanning on UV-irradiated DNA. Previously it has been demonstrated that introduction of endonuclease V into repair-deficient human cells causes a restoration of UV survival in these cells. This demonstrates that endonuclease V is competent to incise mammalian DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers. In order to assess the ability of endonuclease V to act processively on DNA associated as chromatin, minichromosomes were prepared for use as a substrate. Form I DNA was reconstituted with H3, H4 +/- H1 histones by sequential dialysis steps from 2.0 M NaCl to 50 mM NaCl. Time course reactions were performed with minichromosomes containing 10 and 25 dimers per molecule. In each case the rate of disappearance of form I DNA which was associated as chromatin was decreased relative to that of naked form I DNA. Concurrent with that observation, the rate and extent of appearance of form III DNA was increased with the DNA in minichromosomes relative to naked DNA. This is diagnostic of an enhancement of processivity. The inclusion of H1 in the minichromosomes resulted in a slight additional increase in processivity relative to minichromosomes consisting only of H3 and H4

  13. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  14. High diversity and potential origins of T4-type bacteriophages on the surface of Arctic glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Christopher M; Anesio, Alexandre M

    2013-09-01

    Tailed bacteriophages are the most abundant viruses in the biosphere. Here we examined the T4-type bacteriophage community inhabiting the surface of two glaciers in Svalbard. We used a molecular approach to target g23, the major capsid protein gene, to demonstrate that in the extreme cryoconite hole habitats the T4-type phages are surprisingly diverse. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cryoconite hole sediments harbour a mixed phage community spanning multiple T4-type phage subgroups. The majority (71 %) of phage sequences clustered into three novel phylogenetically distinct groups, whilst the remainder clustered with known marine and soil derived phage sequences. The meltwater in cryoconite holes also contained a further distinct phage community which was related to previously detected marine phage variants. The ability of phages to move between marine and glacial habitats was tested in a transplantation experiment. Phages from the nearby marine fjord were found to be capable of initiating infection of supraglacial bacteria, suggesting suitable hosts could be found by non-native phages. Together this evidence suggests that the surface of glaciers contain both novel and cosmopolitan phages, some of which may have arrived in the cryosphere from other biomes.

  15. Quantitation of T-3 (triiodothyronine) and T-4 (thyroxine) in serum and plasma. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglowski, W.; Williams, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes an examination of the published literature concerning the quantitation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the clinical laboratory. It therefore details the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtainable in various commercial systems and those devised in the clinical laboratory. The data produced by several of the procedures often indicate that improvements in these parameters would enhance overall assay performance and increase the reliability of the clinical interpretation derivable from assay results. For T-3 and T-4 in vitro assays a very large number of systems exist and are currently being utilized in clinical laboratories in this country. For the sake of brevity some systems, while mentioned, are not reviewed in exhaustive detail. Radioimmunoassay, as the most frequently performed assay for both T-3 and T-4 is extensively reviewed. Also discussed with particular interest are assay systems which will undoubtedly impact on the future course of thyroid hormone assessment in the clinical laboratory, namely enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent immunoassay. The state of the art in T-4 measurements in neonates, because it is such a critical area for application of in vitro thyroid testing, is given detailed review. The quantitation of free thyroxine has been discussed in detail. These assays have been gaining more frequent use in the clinical laboratory and increased commercial system development

  16. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  17. Treatment and prognosis of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: study of 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Jinling; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma through 16 patients. Methods: Sixteen such patients treated in our hospital from 1984 to 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were T1 2 patients, T2 and T3 5 patients each and T4 4. Ten patients had NO, and 6 N + lesions. Six patients were treated by monotherapy, ie-mono group (surgery alone or radiotherapy alone), the other 10 patients by surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Results: The overall neck metastastic lymph nodes was observed in 12 patients (75%). The 3- and 5-year local control, overall survival and disease-free survival for the whole group was 45% and 30%, 58% and 58%; 36% and 27%, respectively. The 5-year survival for T1-T2 and T3-T4 patients was 100% and 29% (χ 2 =4.50, P=0.034), respectively. The 3-year overall survival of NO and N + patients was 80%, and 20% (χ 2 =8.70, P=0.003), with a disease-free survival of 54% and 0 (χ 2 =9.83, P=0.002), respectively. Conclusions: The choice of suitable treatment for locally advanced primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma is surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. Prophylactic ipsilateral neck irradiation is necessary e- ven for N0 patients for the sake of high risk of neck node metastasis. (authors)

  18. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  19. Alterations in gp37 expand the host range of a T4-like phage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mianmian; Zhang, Lei; Abdelgader, Sheikheldin A; Yu, Li; Xu, Juntian; Yao, Huochun; Lu, Chengping; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-22

    The use of phages as antibacterial agents is limited by their generally narrow host range. The aim of this study was to make a T4-like phage, WG01, obtain the host range of another T4-like phage, QL01, by replacing its host determinant gene region with that of QL01. This process triggered a direct expansion of the WG01 host range. The offspring of WG01 obtained the host ranges of both QL01 and WG01, as well as the ability to infect eight additional host bacteria in comparison to the wildtype strains. WQD had the widest host range; therefore, the corresponding QD fragments could be used for constructing a homologous sequence library. Moreover, after a sequencing analysis of gene37, we identified two different mechanisms responsible for the expanded host range: 1) the first generation of WG01 formed chimeras without mutations; and 2) the second generation of WG01 mutants formed from the chimeras. The expansion of the host range indicated that regions other than the C-terminal region may indirectly change the receptor specificity by altering the supportive capacity of the binding site. Additionally, we also found that the subsequent generations acquired a novel means of expanding the host range through acquiring a wider temperature range for lysis by exchanging gene37. The method developed in this work offers a quick way to change or expand the host range of a phage. Future clinical applications for screening phages against a given clinical isolate could be achieved after acquiring more suitable homologous sequences. IMPORTANCE T4-like phages have been established as safe in numerous phage therapy applications. The primary drawbacks to the use of phages as therapeutic agents include their highly specific host range. Thus, changing or expanding the host range of T4-like phages is beneficial for selecting phages for phage therapy. In this study, the host range of one T4-like phage WG01 was expanded using genetic manipulation. The WG01 derivatives acquired a novel means

  20. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

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    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  1. Laryngeal Rosai-Dorfman Disease (Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy): A Retrospective Study of 5 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yanyan Niu; Yongjin Li; Jian Wang; Xiaofeng Jin; Dahai Yang; Hong Huo; Wuyi Li

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical manifestations, treatment methods, and prognosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) with laryngeal involvement. Five clinical cases of RDD with laryngeal involvement diagnosed between 1986 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The laryngeal lesions of these 5 patients mostly involved the glottis and subglottis, with the main symptoms being a hoarse voice and airway obstruction. In addition, the patients mostly exhibited a unilateral or asymme...

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of external auditory canal lacking epidermal growth factor receptor protein overexpression, in an elderly Omani with oculocutaneous albinism treated with palliative radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Furrukh, Muhammad; Mufti, Taha; Hamid, Rana Shoaib; Qureshi, Asim

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of external auditory canal in an Omani man with oculocutaneous albinism. The disease mimicked inflammatory process revealing positive cultures for various microorganisms during the course of his illness. He was eventually biopsied to rule out atypical infective process or presence of malignancy. He was staged as T4N0M0 and treated with radical doses of palliative radiation therapy which was very well tolerated and resulted in a complete resolution o...

  3. VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPIC SURGEY IN BENIGN LARYNGEAL LESIONS-OUR EXPERIENCE

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    Satheesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Benign laryngeal lesions are commonly encountered causes of dysphonia and are often surgically correctable. A prospective study on 62 cases selected for videolaryngoscopic surgery was undertaken in a single unit in the department of ENT, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. The male: female ratio was 1.8:1 and the most common affected age group was 35-45 yrs. The most common benign lesion was vocal polyp. Preoperative voice assessment and 70 degree endoscopy was done. Follow up visits were done at 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks and voice assessment and laryngoscopic appearances were noted. 98% reported excellent improvement of voice. The varieties of benign lesions which cause hoarseness are sources of concern and worry as it can affect the self esteem of a person. Thus videolaryngoscopic surgery (VLS coupled with voice therapy offers cost effective and safe management in benign laryngeal lesions

  4. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...... strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients...

  5. Speed, accuracy, and stability of laryngeal movement in singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2004-05-01

    Motor performance is often quantified in terms of speed, strength, accuracy, and stability of a target gesture, or maintaining a given posture. In the vocal system, this involves primarily the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and the respiratory muscles. Agonist-antagonist pairs of muscles are used to position the vocal folds for phonation (vocal onset), for pitch change, and for registration (as in yodeling). Maximum speed and accuracy are discussed for vocal embellishments such as trills, trillo, scales, arpeggios, yodel, and glissando. This speed and accuracy are interpreted in terms of muscle twitch and tetanic responses obtained in vitro on animal muscles, from electromyographic recordings on humans, and from muscles not easily tested on humans. The laryngeal reflex system is also described, particularly with regard to its ability to stabilize (or destabilize) neurologic tremor originating from the central nervous system.

  6. Diagnosis and management with botulinum toxin in 11 cases of laryngeal synkinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Asier; García-López, Isabel; Santiago, Susana; Del Palacio, Antonio; Gavilán, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Laryngeal synkinesis is a vocal fold movement disorder produced by a misdirected reinnervation after a recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Its symptoms differ greatly between patients, requiring diverse therapeutical approaches. We aim to describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of different laryngeal synkinesis presentations. 11 patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary referral center with laryngeal synkinesis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography were included in our study. All medical records and laryngoscopic and electromyographic data were reviewed retrospectively. Four patients had previous unilateral vocal fold palsy and seven had a bilateral palsy with different degrees of clinical involvement. All of them showed paradoxical movements during inhalation in videofibrolaryngoscopic examination. Laryngeal electromyography confirmed the diagnosis of laryngeal synkinesis. Dyspnea was the main presentation symptom. Three patients with mild symptoms were not treated. Patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility were successfully treated with periodic botulinum toxin injections. Patients with bilateral immobility had a good initial response to botulinum toxin, although in some of them, a posterior cordectomy had to be finally performed. In conclusion, laryngeal synkinesis is a heterogeneous clinic entity that appears in patients with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Videofibrolaryngoscopy and laryngeal electromyography are essential to a correct diagnosis. Botulinum toxin injections are the main treatment for symptomatic cases, even if in bilateral palsy cases more aggressive treatments are often required.

  7. Detection of helicobacter pylori in benign laryngeal lesions by polymerase chain reaction: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi Farzad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Helicobacter Pylori (HP was detected in some cases of chronic laryngitis, the results were not confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. By this time, it has not been found in laryngeal lesions by in house PCR, the most sensitive method for detecting the genome tracks. Regarding the previous results and also few numbers of studies about the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions, specifically by PCR, we aimed to investigate the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions by in-house PCR. Methods The samples were taken from 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions and frozen in −20°C. One milliliter (ml of lysis buffer was added to 100 mg (mg of each sample and the tube was placed in 56°C overnight. Then DNA extraction was carried out. Results To find HP DNA, in-house PCR was performed that revealed 5 positive results among 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions. Of them, 3 were polyp, 1 was nodule and 1 was papilloma. Conclusion Although the number of positive results was not a lot in this study, it was in contrast with previous studies which could not find any HP tracks in benign laryngeal lesions by other methods. More studies about the prevalence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions improve judging about the effect of this infection on benign laryngeal lesions.

  8. Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2002-01-01

    The term recurrent laryngeal nerve has been adopted by Nomina Anatomica (1989) and Terminologia Anatomica (1998) to describe this vagus branch from its origin, its turn dorsally around the subclavian artery and the aortic arch, and its cranial pathway until it reaches its terminal organs in the neck. However, there is still much confusion, and either the terms inferior and recurrent laryngeal nerve are used interchangeably or inferior laryngeal nerve is considered the terminal branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. We hereby feel that it is necessary to reassess the term and we propose the term inferior laryngeal nerve for the entire nerve under consideration, from its origin from the vagus nerve to its destinations, including tracheal, esophageal, and pharyngeal branches. If the term superior laryngeal nerve is a given, standard and accepted term in the anatomical terminology, then logically the term inferior laryngeal nerve should also be accepted, as opposed to it. Of course the upward travel of the inferior laryngeal nerve is "recurrent". When nonrecurrence is encountered together with an arteria lusoria, a retroesophageal right subclavian artery or a right aortic arch, we consider that the term nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve should be used to describe the deviation from the normal.

  9. Cuff leak test and laryngeal survey for predicting post-extubation stridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anit B; Ani, Chizobam; Feeney, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the predictive value of the cuff leak test (CLT) for post-extubation stridor (PES) is conflicting. We evaluated the association and accuracy of CLT alone or combined with other laryngeal parameters with PES. Fifty-one mechanically ventilated adult patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit were tested prior to extubation using; CLT, laryngeal ultrasound and indirect laryngoscopy. Biometric, laryngeal and endotracheal tube (ETT) parameters were recorded. PES incidence was 4%. CLT demonstrated 'no leak' in 20% of patients. Laryngeal oedema was present in 10% of the patients on indirect laryngoscopy, and 71% of the patients had a Grades 1-3 indirect laryngoscopic view. Mean air column width on laryngeal ultrasound was 0.66 ± 0.15 cm (cuff deflated), mean ratio of ETT to laryngeal diameter was 0.48 ± 0.07, and the calculated CLT and laryngeal survey composite was 0.86 ± 1.25 (range 0-5). CLT and the CLT and Laryngeal survey composite measure were not associated with or predict PES. Age, sex, peri-extubation steroid use, intubation duration and body mass index were not associated with PES. Even including ultrasonographic and indirect laryngoscopic examination of the airway, no single aspect of the CLT or combination with laryngeal parameters accurately predicts PES.

  10. Intravenous opioid drug abuse as an independent risk factor for supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma-A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffel-Havakuk, H; Cohen, O; Slavin, M; Haimovich, Y; Halperin, D; Lahav, Y

    2018-04-01

    Intravenous opioid drug abuse (IVDA) was previously correlated with laryngeal cancer. However, discrimination of this correlation by anatomical subsites has not yet been described. In this study, we aim to further establish the association between IVDA and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to indicate the laryngeal subsites that are predisposed for this correlation. A retrospective matched case-control study. Patients diagnosed with supraglottic SCC (SG-SCC) between 1996 and 2016 treated in a tertiary academic referral centre were enrolled to the case group. The control group comprised of matched patients diagnosed with glottis SCC (G-SCC). Matching was based on gender, age and socio-economic rank. Variables studies as risk factors included the following: smoking, alcohol consumption, history of IVDA and infectious diseases. The variables were tested for association with the 2 groups and with each other. Forty-eight patients with SG-SCC were matched with 48 patients with G-SCC. IVDA rates significantly increased among patients with SG-SCC. Of the SG-SCC group, 18.8% had a positive history for IVDA compared with 2.1% of the G-SCC (P = .008). A history of IVDA was found to be a risk factor for SG-SCC, independent of smoking, excessive alcohol and socio-economic status. The odds ratio for patients with an IVDA history to have SG-SCC relatively to G-SCC was 10.846 (95% CI: 1.3-89.4). Intravenous opioid drug abuse represents an independent risk factor for SG-SCC. The pathogenesis should be investigated not just as a risk factor, as opioids are commonly used for pain management in oncologic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Laryngeal movements during inspiratory muscle training in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Astrid; Andersen, Tiina; Hilland, Magnus; Ellingsen, Thor Andre; Halvorsen, Thomas; Heimdal, John-Helge; Røksund, Ola Drange

    2013-07-01

    Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been used to treat patients with exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (VCD); the theoretical basis being the close relationship between the diaphragm and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle, which is the main abductor of the larynx. Before launching a treatment protocol in patients with VCD, we aimed to substantiate this theory by performing laryngoscopy in healthy subjects during standardized IMT programs. Twenty healthy volunteers at mean age 24 years were examined with video-recorded continuous transnasal flexible laryngoscopy while performing standardized training programs using a resistive loading IMT device (Respifit S). All subjects were exposed to two modes of training, that is, the resistance set to generate mouth pressures ≥80% of the maximal attainable inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) and 60-80% of PImax. Laryngeal movements were scored in retrospect from the video recordings by a senior laryngologist. At pressure settings of ≥80% of PImax, laryngeal movements could not be assessed in one subject. Abduction was observed in 10 (53%) subjects, six to a maximal extent and four to a moderate extent. At pressure settings of 60-80% of PImax, abduction was observed in 18 (90%) subjects, seven to a maximal extent and 11 to a moderate extent. IMT can produce laryngeal abduction in healthy subjects, and training programs may conceivably contribute positively in patients suffering from laryngeal adduction during exercise. Individual response patterns varied between subjects and individualized programs seem crucial for effect. Use of high resistances seemed to be counterproductive. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  13. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: presentation and management in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Vargas, Sara O; Cohen, Ezra; Vielman, Rene; Son, Mary Beth; Rahbar, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by systemic non-necrotizing granulomas of unknown etiology. Laryngeal sarcoidosis is extremely uncommon, especially among pediatric patients. The clinical presentation and management of this entity in the pediatric population are poorly understood. A comprehensive search in PubMed was conducted to identify all cases in the published literature. We also present a case of isolated pediatric laryngeal sarcoidosis and outline the multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management. A previously healthy 13-year-old female presented with a five-month history of mild dysphonia, dyspnea on exertion, and diffuse supraglottic edema. Biopsy showed non-necrotizing granulomas. Treatment with methotrexate led to marked improvement. The literature search identified seven previously published cases of pediatric laryngeal sarcoidosis, four in which disease was isolated to the larynx. All patients presented with a symptomatic and diffusely edematous supraglottis. Diagnoses were based on supraglottic biopsies showing non-necrotizing granulomas; all other possible etiopathologies were excluded. Three patients responded to corticosteroid therapy alone, one patient to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor and methotrexate, and the remainder to a combination of corticosteroid therapy and surgical debulking. Laryngeal sarcoidosis in the pediatric population is challenging to diagnose and manage. When epithelioid granulomas are encountered histologically, other causes of granulomatous inflammation must be ruled out before a diagnosis of sarcoidosis can be made. Corticosteroid therapy alone may be ineffective. Medical therapy with methotrexate alone or in combination with TNF inhibitors versus surgical debulking alone or as part of multimodality treatment should be considered. A multidisciplinary approach with involvement of an otolaryngologist, pathologist, and rheumatologist is suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  14. Laryngeal lipoma associated with Madelung's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landínez-Cepeda, Guillermo Arturo; Alarcos-Tamayo, Emilio V; Millás-Gómez, Teresa; Morais-Pérez, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is an alteration in the neck, upper trunk and upper extremities fat deposits. It produces an aesthetic problem and sometimes upper airway obstruction when the larynx is infiltrated by the mass. We report the case of a male with Madelung's disease, which began with acute dyspnea caused by laryngeal fat deposits and obstructive lipoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Laryngeal schwannoma: a case report with emphasis on sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de, E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); De Nicola, Harley; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Pedroso, Jose Eduardo; Brasil, Osiris de Oliveira Campones do; Yamashita, Helio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves. Twenty-five to forty-five percent of all schwannomas occur in the head and neck region, but location of such tumors in the larynx is rarely observed. The present report is aimed at describing a clinical case of laryngeal schwannoma, with emphasis on sonographic findings. (author)

  16. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Deep neuromuscular block improves the surgical conditions for laryngeal microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Lee, K; Park, W K; Lee, B R; Joo, H M; Koh, Y W; Seo, Y W; Kim, W S; Yoo, Y C

    2015-12-01

    Adequate neuromuscular block is required throughout laryngeal microsurgery. We hypothesized that the surgical conditions would improve under a deeper level of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. Seventy-two patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery were randomly allocated to either the 'post-tetanic counts 1-2' (PTC1-2) group or the 'train-of-four counts 1-2' (TOFcount1-2) group according to the level of neuromuscular block used. Two different doses of rocuronium (1.2 or 0.5 mg kg(-1)) were used after anaesthetic induction, and two respective targets of neuromuscular block (post-tetanic counts ≤2 or train-of-four count of 1 or 2) were used. Surgical conditions were assessed by the surgeon using a five-point rating scale (extremely poor/poor/acceptable/good/optimal), and clinically acceptable surgical conditions were defined as those which were rated acceptable, good, or optimal. The occurrence of vocal cord movement and postoperative adverse events was assessed. The surgical conditions were significantly different between the PTC1-2 and TOFcount1-2 groups (extremely poor/poor/acceptable/good/optimal: 0/2/1/7/26 and 3/10/2/14/7, respectively, Pneuromuscular block (post-tetanic count of 1-2) surgical conditions in patients undergoing laryngeal microsurgery improves. NCT01980069. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Laryngeal assessment by videolaryngostroboscopy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Puerta, José A; Cisternas, Ariel; Hernández, M Victoria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Vilaseca, Isabel; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the larynx involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a clinical setting and correlate with the different clinical features related to more aggressive disease. Cross-sectional study including 36 consecutive patients with RA. Reflux symptoms were evaluated by the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and vocal cord impairment by the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10). Laryngeal involvement was done by videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS). The mean age was 56,3 ± 14 years with a mean disease duration of 2,6 ± 3,1 years (range 0-16 years). Voice use was considered as professional users in 33%. Twenty-four (67%) out of 36 patients had abnormal findings of VLS. One patient had larynx nodules (bamboo nodules). Eleven patients (31%) were diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia, and there were symptoms and signs of pharyngeal-laryngeal reflux in 23 (64%) patients. No signs of cricoarytenoid joint impairment was found. Organic larynx involvement was uncommon in patients with RA. However symptoms and signs of pharyngeal-laryngeal reflux were seen in around 60% of patients. There was no correlation between the clinical phenotype, severity of disease, immunological profile or treatment with VLS findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Intralesional cidofovir for recurrent laryngeal papillomas: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W R; Hashemiyoon, R; Hawrych, A

    2000-04-01

    This is a preliminary report of an ongoing study to test the efficacy of intralesional injections of the antiviral drug cidofovir in adults with recurrent laryngeal papillomas in whom multiple other treatments have previously failed. This study has been designed to include 10 to 20 patients, a number sufficient to either prove or disprove the safety and efficacy of this agent. This report conveys information on the first three patients enrolled in the trial. Each patient received an overall dose of 5 to 10 ml of cidofovir, at a concentration of 4.17 mg/ml, intralesionally at 2- to 4-week intervals. The approximate volume injected into each wart was 0.2 to 0.5 ml. Biopsies of the lesion sites were obtained at the initiation and completion of therapy. No other treatment was given. Resolution of lesions was monitored by videolaryngoscopy and still photography 1 to 2 weeks after each treatment. In time, the lesions resolved in all three patients, although all three later experienced a minor recurrence. We conclude that intralesional cidofovir appears to be a promising new treatment for controlling--and perhaps at higher dosages curing--refractory laryngeal papillomas, while causing little or no injury to laryngeal structures.

  20. Concurrent chemotherapy for T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-neng Cao

    Full Text Available To evaluate concurrent chemotherapy for T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.From July 2004 to June 2011, 180 non-metastatic T4 classification NPC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Of these patients, 117 patients were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT using IMRT and 63 cases were treated by IMRT alone.The median follow-up time was 58.97 months (range, 2.79-114.92 months. For all the patients, the 1, 3 and 5-year local failure-free survival (LFFS rates were 97.7%, 89.2% and 85.9%, regional failure free survival (RFFS rates were 98.9%, 94.4% and 94.4%, distant failure-free survival (DFFS rates were 89.7%, 79.9% and 76.2%, and overall survival (OS rates were 92.7%, 78.9% and 65.3%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in LFFS, RFFS, DFFS and OS between the CCRT group and the IMRT alone group. No statistically significant difference was observed in acute toxicity except leukopenia (p = 0.000 during IMRT between the CCRT group and the IMRT alone group.IMRT alone for T4 classification NPC achieved similar treatment outcomes in terms of disease local control and overall survival as compared to concurrent chemotherapy plus IMRT. However, this is a retrospective study with a limited number of patients, such results need further investigation in a prospective randomized clinical trial.

  1. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  2. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  3. Purification of phage display-modified bacteriophage T4 by affinity chromatography

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    Figura Grzegorz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affinity chromatography is one of the most efficient protein purification strategies. This technique comprises a one-step procedure with a purification level in the order of several thousand-fold, adaptable for various proteins, differentiated in their size, shape, charge, and other properties. The aim of this work was to verify the possibility of applying affinity chromatography in bacteriophage purification, with the perspective of therapeutic purposes. T4 is a large, icosahedral phage that may serve as an efficient display platform for foreign peptides or proteins. Here we propose a new method of T4 phage purification by affinity chromatography after its modification with affinity tags (GST and Histag by in vivo phage display. As any permanent introduction of extraneous DNA into a phage genome is strongly unfavourable for medical purposes, integration of foreign motifs with the phage genome was not applied. The phage was propagated in bacteria expressing fusions of the phage protein Hoc with affinity tags from bacterial plasmids, independently from the phage expression system. Results Elution profiles of phages modified with the specific affinity motifs (compared to non-specific phages document their binding to the affinity resins and effective elution with standard competitive agents. Non-specific binding was also observed, but was 102-105 times weaker than the specific one. GST-modified bacteriophages were also effectively released from glutathione Sepharose by proteolytic cleavage. The possibility of proteolytic release was designed at the stage of expression vector construction. Decrease in LPS content in phage preparations was dependent on the washing intensity; intensive washing resulted in preparations of 11-40 EU/ml. Conclusions Affinity tags can be successfully incorporated into the T4 phage capsid by the in vivo phage display technique and they strongly elevate bacteriophage affinity to a specific resin. Affinity

  4. Evidence that the heterogeneity of a T4 population is the result of heritable traits.

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    Zachary J Storms

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophage populations display heterogeneity in their adsorption characteristics; a portion of the phage population remains free in solution throughout adsorption experiments (residual fraction. This residual fraction generally constitutes a minority of phages that exhibit significantly slower adsorption kinetics than the main phage stock (main fraction. While this phenomenon is likely the result of evolutionary driving forces, the present study demonstrates that the residual fraction is not always the result of phenotypic variations within a single genotype, as is generally thought. Experiments with phage T4 showed that two subgroups with distinct adsorption traits that were passed on to their progeny could be isolated from the original phage stock. Sequencing of genes involved in adsorption revealed two point mutations in gene 37 of residual fraction isolates, which resulted in modifications to the long tail-fiber, the organelle of attachment and host cell recognition. Adsorption studies consistently showed that T4 phage stocks amplified from residual fraction isolates had significantly lower adsorption efficiencies than those amplified from main fractions. The conducted experiments provide convincing evidence that the observed heterogeneity in T4 adsorption behavior is the result of conserved mutations to the phage genome and is not exclusively the result of phenotypic variations within the population. While it is believed high mutation rates exist to hasten phage adaptation, this study shows that this bet hedging strategy can also, in the short term, inadvertently handicap the phage's adsorption capabilities to a given host under normal infection conditions, resulting in the residual fraction observed in adsorption experiments.

  5. Oncological outcomes following radical prostatectomy for patients with pT4 prostate cancer

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    Dharam Kaushik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: Radical prostatectomy (RP for locally advanced prostate cancer may reduce the risk of metastasis and cancer-specific death. Herein, we evaluated the outcomes for patients with pT4 disease treated with RP. Materials and methods: Among 19,800 men treated with RP at Mayo Clinic from 1987 to 2010, 87 were found to have pT4 tumors. Biochemical recurrence (BCR-free survival, systemic progression (SP free survival and overall survival (OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of clinic-pathological features with outcome. Results: Median follow-up was 9.8 years (IQR 3.6, 13.4. Of the 87 patients, 50 (57.5% were diagnosed with BCR, 30 (34.5% developed SP, and 38 (43.7% died, with 11 (12.6% dying of prostate cancer. Adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy was administered to 77 men, while 32 received adjuvant external beam radiation therapy. Ten-year BCR-free survival, SP-free survival, and OS was 37%, 64%, and 70% respectively. On multivariate analysis, the presence of positive lymph nodes was marginally significantly associated with patients' risk of BCR (HR: 1.94; p=0.05, while both positive lymph nodes (HR 2.96; p=0.02 and high pathologic Gleason score (HR 1.95; p=0.03 were associated with SP. Conclusions: Patients with pT4 disease may experience long-term survival following RP, and as such, when technically feasible, surgical resection should be considered in the multimodal treatment approach to these men.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W.; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F.; Kuo, S.H.; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei; Hong, R.L.; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade ≥ 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  7. Absent endometrium due to balanced translocation [t(4;20] presenting as primary amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Nigam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menarche by 16-18 years of age in the presence of well-developed secondary sexual characters. An incidence of 1-3% has been reported in women of reproductive age group. The etiology varies with anatomical, genetic and hormonal factors implicated in the causation of primary amenorrhea. We present a case of absent endometrium due to balanced reciprocal translocation (RCPTR, 46 XX t (4;20(q12;q13.1 as primary amenorrhea.

  8. Reconstrucción "Módulo D" aparcamiento Madrid Barajas T-4

    OpenAIRE

    Corres Peiretti, Hugo; Romero Rey, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se describen los daños producidos a la estructura del aparcamiento de la terminal T4 de Barajas, tras el atentado del 2006. Se describen las zonas y elementos que se vieron afectados, y el tipo de daños que se detectarón. Tras analizar esa información se explica como se produzco el derrumbamiento y los modos de fallos que se observarón en la estructura. Inmediatamente despues de le explosión empiezan las labores de desemcombro y de demolición de los elementos afectados. Depen...

  9. Human Volunteers Receiving Escherichia coli Phage T4 Orally: a Safety Test of Phage Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen healthy adult volunteers received in their drinking water a lower Escherichia coli phage T4 dose (103 PFU/ml), a higher phage dose (105 PFU/ml), and placebo. Fecal coliphage was detected in a dose-dependent way in volunteers orally exposed to phage. All volunteers receiving the higher phage dose showed fecal phage 1 day after exposure; this prevalence was only 50% in subjects receiving the lower phage dose. No fecal phage was detectable a week after a 2-day course of oral phage applic...

  10. T-4 handbook of material properties data bases. Volume 1c. Equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, K.S.

    1984-11-01

    This manual is a compilation of descriptions of the equations of state (EOS) in the T-4 computerized library of material properties tables. The introduction gives a brief descriptions of the library and of the physics theories and models which were used to calculate the equations of state. Then each EOS is described in detail. First, various physical parameters of each theoretical EOS are tabulated and compared with experiments when available. Then the method of generating the EOS is briefly described. Finally, the tabels are plotted in terms of pressure and energy vs density along line of constant temperature

  11. Cloning and expression of the genes coding for tube associated proteins of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieradko, J.

    1995-01-01

    Genes 29, 48 and 54 of bacteriophage T4, coding for specific tube associated proteins, were cloned to the expression vector pT7-5. The molecular mass of the products of these genes was estimated to be 64, 39 and 36 kDa, respectively. The examined genes are co-transcribed with genes 51, 27 and 28 from the same DNA strand and a common late promoter sequence located downstream of gene 51. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  12. Fatigue crack growth in 2017A-T4 alloy subjected to proportional bending with torsion

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    D. Rozumek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of tests on the fatigue crack growth for a constant moment amplitude under combined bending with torsion in the aluminium alloy AW-2017A-T4. The tests were performed under different values of the load ratio R. Plane specimens with stress concentrators in form of the external one-sided sharp notch were tested. A non-uniform fatigue cracks growth on both lateral surfaces of specimens was observed during experimental tests. Fatigue cracks were developing in the specimens in two stages; quarter-elliptic edge cracks were observed at the beginning, then evolving into through cracks

  13. Comparison of performance and efficacy of air-Q intubating laryngeal airway and flexible laryngeal mask airway in anesthetized and paralyzed infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, Vanlal; Biyani, Ghansham; Pandey, Ravindra; Baidya, Dalim K; Punj, Chandralekha and Jyotsna

    2014-10-01

    Flexible laryngeal mask airway is a commonly used supraglotic airway device (SAD) during ophthalmic surgeries. Air-Q intubating laryngeal airway (ILA) is a newer SAD used as primary airway device and as a conduit for intubation as well. Available literature shows that air-Q performs equal or better than other SADs in children and adults. However, limited data is available using air-Q in infants and small children children’. Our hypothesis is that air-Q due to its improved cuff design will yield better airway seal pressures and improved laryngeal alignment as compared to flexible laryngeal mask airway. ASA I–II infants and children weighing insertion success rate, time to insert, and any other complications. There was no difference between the groups in demographic data, first insertion success rate, time to insert, and postoperative complications. Air-Q provided significantly more OLP [21.1 ± 6.4 cmH2O vs 17.4 ± 4.1 cmH2O, P = 0.02] and better FO view of glottis (good view 84% vs 48%, P = 0.0016) as compared to flexible laryngeal mask airway. We conclude that air-Q is superior to flexible laryngeal mask airway in providing higher airway sealing pressures and better FO grade of laryngeal view in infants and children.

  14. Elevated 18F-NaF uptake in cricoid cartilage in a patient with laryngeal carcinoma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuxiao; Qi, Chi; Zhang, Shumao; Huang, Zhanwen; Chen, Yue

    2017-12-01

    Laryngeal cancer is aggressive tumor that arises from the tissues of the larynx. Although any bone can be affected, involvement of cricoid cartilage was reported very rarely, and there has been no report of 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (F-NaF PET-CT) and 3D PET-CT for the evaluation of cricoid cartilage invasion. A 54-year-old male discovered a protruding mass in the right anterior neck, which had rapidly increased in size over a period of 2 months. Subsequently, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea were gradually developed. F-FDG PET-CT demonstrated that the abnormal activity was located in a soft tissue mass, which was about 4.2 cm × 3.8 cm × 3.6 cm in largest dimension in the laryngeal cavity of supraglottic portion (SUVmax: 23.6). A swollen lymph node was revealed in the right submandibular region, which had intense FDG activity with a SUVmax of 18.4. However, there is a high uptake of F-FDG in the region near the bone, which is uncertain whether there is any skeletal invasion. NaF PET-CT and 3D PET-CT demonstrated increased uptake in the right side of cricoid cartilage (SUVmax: 13.2). The histopathologic examination confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. The patient underwent tracheotomy and received anti-infective treatment to relieve symptoms of dyspnea and prevent asphyxia. Clinical follow up of the patient revealed that dyspnea was significantly relieved. The case report shows the imaging features of cricoid cartilage invasion, including F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (F-NaF PET-CT), and 3D PET-CT. Precise understanding of the invasion scope, accurately staging of laryngeal carcinoma, and choosing of the most suitable surgical scheme are the factors that lead to the optimal treatment of laryngeal neoplasms.

  15. Definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy for sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas: a single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duru Birgi, Sumerya; Teo, Mark; Dyker, Karen E.; Sen, Mehmet; Prestwich, Robin J D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the disease outcomes of patients treated with definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in a single institution. Between 2007–2012 patients were retrospectively identified from electronic databases who had undergone surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy for sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas with curative intent. Fourty three patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma were identified (22 nasal cavity, 21 paranasal sinuses). 31/43 (72 %) had T3 or T4 disease; nodal stage was N0 in 38, N1 in 4, Na/b in 0 and N2c in 1 patient. Median age was 67 years (range 41–86). 18 (42 %) received definitive and 25 (58 %) adjuvant radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered using either conventional radiotherapy (n = 39) or intensity modulated radiotherapy (n = 4). Elective neck radiotherapy was delivered to two patients. Chemotherapy was delivered to 6/43 (14 %) of patients. Two-year local control, regional control, distant metastases free survival, progression free survival, cause specific survival and overall survival were 81 %, 90 %, 95 %, 71 %, 84 % and 80 % respectively. There was no significant difference in outcome comparing patients who underwent surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy with patients receiving definitive radiotherapy (2 year locoregional disease free survival 75 % and 70 % respectively, p = 0.98). Pooly differentiated tumours were significantly associated with inferior disease outcomes. Local, regional, combined local and regional, and distant failure occurred in 7 (16 %), 3 (7 %), 1 (2 %) and 2 (5 %) of patients; all 3 regional recurrences were in patients with nasal cavity squamous cell carcinomas who had not undergone elective neck treatment. Definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy provides an effective treatment for sinonasal malignancies. The main pattern of failure remains local, suggesting the need for investigation of

  16. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis with elevation of G-CSF in the serum: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Terukazu; Mikami, Kazuya; Okihara, Koji; Mizutani, Yoichi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2008-11-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with left renal pelvic tumor. He had a leukocytosis of 26,500/mm3 (neutrophils: 81.7%) in the peripheral blood, but with no obvious focus of infection. Moreover, the serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) were elevated. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) and left retrograde pyelography showed left renal pelvic cancer T4N0M0. He received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (M-VAC: cisplatin + methotrexate + vinblastin + doxorubicin, TN: paclitaxel + nedaplatin). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, left nephroureterectomy was performed because of normalization of the serum SCC and G-CSF. Histological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. He is alive with no evidence of disease for 4 years.

  17. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV + phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity

  18. Genome analysis of phage JS98 defines a fourth major subgroup of T4-like phages in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Sophie; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Barretto, Caroline; Bruttin, Anne; Brüssow, Harald; Denou, Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Numerous T4-like Escherichia coli phages were isolated from human stool and environmental wastewater samples in Bangladesh and Switzerland. The sequences of the major head gene (g23) revealed that these coliphages could be placed into four subgroups, represented by the phages T4, RB69, RB49, and JS98. Thus, JS98 defines a new major subgroup of E. coli T4-like phages. We conducted an analysis of the 169-kb JS98 genome sequence. Overall, 198 of the 266 JS98 open reading frames (ORFs) shared amino acid sequence identity with the reference T4 phage, 41 shared identity with other T4-like phages, and 27 ORFs lacked any database matches. Genes on the plus strand encoded virion proteins, which showed moderate to high sequence identity with T4 proteins. The right genome half of JS98 showed a higher degree of sequence conservation with T4 and RB69, even for the nonstructural genes, than did the left genome half, containing exclusively nonstructural genes. Most of the JS98-specific genes were found in the left genome half. Two came as a hypervariability cluster, but most represented isolated genes, suggesting that they were acquired separately in multiple acquisition events. No evidence for DNA exchange between JS98 phage and the E. coli host genome or coliphages other than T4 was observed. No undesired genes which could compromise its medical use were detected in the JS98 genome sequence.

  19. Metal ions-binding T4 lysozyme as an intramolecular protein purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boura, Evzen; Baumlova, Adriana; Chalupska, Dominika; Dubankova, Anna; Klima, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Phage T4 lysozyme is a well folded and highly soluble protein that is widely used as an insertion tag to improve solubility and crystallization properties of poorly behaved recombinant proteins. It has been used in the fusion protein strategy to facilitate crystallization of various proteins including multiple G protein-coupled receptors, lipid kinases, or sterol binding proteins. Here, we present a structural and biochemical characterization of its novel, metal ions-binding mutant (mbT4L). We demonstrate that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag in the immobilized-metal affinity chromatography and that, in many respects, it is superior to the conventional hexahistidine tag. In addition, structural characterization of mbT4L suggests that mbT4L can be used as a purification tag compatible with X-ray crystallography. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  20. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  1. Acanthamoeba T4, T5 and T11 isolated from mineral water bottles in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Vinicius José; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide.

  2. Isolation and genetic properties of a bacteriophage T4 uvs X mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for isolating UV-sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4 and a relatively simple method for localizing the UV-sensitive mutations on the genetic map are described. Of 13 mutants isolated 5 were shown to be den V mutants and 1 was shown to be a uvs X mutant. Of the remainder, 4 are probably uvs X mutants (based on their map location) while the indentity of the remaining 3 has not been determined. The uvs X mutant (uvsX102) had enhanced UV and γ-ray sensitivity compared to the only other well characterized mutant in this gene, uvsX1 (T4x). Both uvsX1 and uvsX102 were more UV-sensitivity when plated on the su - E. coli B hosts, B and S/6, compared to the su + K12 host CR63, and both reduced the frequency of recombination to the same extent (2-3 fold). The uvsX gene is located between gene 41 and βgt. (orig.)

  3. The effect of bacteriophages T4 and HAP1 on in vitro melanoma migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well. However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans. Bacteriophages are constantly present in mammalian bodies and the environment in great amounts. On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. Results In these studies the migration of human and mouse melanoma on fibronectin was inhibited by purified T4 and HAP1 bacteriophage preparations. The migration of human melanoma was also inhibited by the HAP1 phage preparation on matrigel. No response of either melanoma cell line to lipopolysaccharide was observed. Therefore the effect of the phage preparations cannot be attributed to lipopolysaccharide. No differences in the effects of T4 and HAP1 on melanoma migration were observed. Conclusion We believe that these observations are of importance for any further attempts to use bacteriophage preparations in antibacterial treatment. The risk of antibiotic-resistant hospital infections strongly affects cancer patients and these results suggest the possibility of beneficial phage treatment. We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms.

  4. The effect of bacteriophages T4 and HAP1 on in vitro melanoma migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Krystyna; Skaradziński, Grzegorz; Jończyk, Paulina; Kurzepa, Aneta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Owczarek, Barbara; Zaczek, Maciej; Switała-Jeleń, Kinga; Boratyński, Janusz; Poźniak, Gryzelda; Maciejewska, Magdalena; Górski, Andrzej

    2009-01-20

    The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well. However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans). Bacteriophages are constantly present in mammalian bodies and the environment in great amounts. On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. In these studies the migration of human and mouse melanoma on fibronectin was inhibited by purified T4 and HAP1 bacteriophage preparations. The migration of human melanoma was also inhibited by the HAP1 phage preparation on matrigel. No response of either melanoma cell line to lipopolysaccharide was observed. Therefore the effect of the phage preparations cannot be attributed to lipopolysaccharide. No differences in the effects of T4 and HAP1 on melanoma migration were observed. We believe that these observations are of importance for any further attempts to use bacteriophage preparations in antibacterial treatment. The risk of antibiotic-resistant hospital infections strongly affects cancer patients and these results suggest the possibility of beneficial phage treatment. We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms.

  5. Mini Transsternal Approach to the Anterior High Thoracic Spine (T1–T4 Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brogna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The anterior high thoracic spine is one of the most complex segments to be accessed surgically due to anatomical constraints and transitional characteristics. We describe in detail the mini transsternal approach to metastatic, infective, traumatic, and degenerative pathologies of T1 to T4 vertebral bodies. We analyse our surgical series, indications, and outcomes. Methods. Over a 5-year period 18 consecutive patients with thoracic myelopathy due to metastatic, infective, traumatic, and degenerative pathologies with T1 to T4 vertebral bodies involvement received a mini transsternal approach with intraoperative monitoring. Frankel scoring system was used to grade the neurological status. Results. Mean follow-up was 40 months. 78% patients improved in Frankel grade after surgery and 22% patients remained unchanged. Average operation time was 210 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed postoperative pneumonia successfully treated with antibiotics. Conclusion. The mini transsternal is a safe approach for infective, metastatic, traumatic, and degenerative lesions affecting the anterior high thoracic spine and the only one allowing an early and direct visualisation of the anterior theca. This approach overcomes the anatomical constraints of this region and provides adequate room for optimal reconstruction and preservation of spinal alignment in the cervicothoracic transition zone with good functional patient outcomes.

  6. Efficacy and safety of treating T4 oral cavity tumors with primary chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ezra E W; Baru, Joshua; Huo, Dezheng; Haraf, Daniel J; Crowley, Maureen; Witt, Mary Ellyn; Blair, Elizabeth A; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Rosen, Fred; Vokes, Everett E; Stenson, Kerstin

    2009-08-01

    Patients with T4 oral cavity (OC) tumors are often treated with surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). We performed a retrospective review of 4 multi-institutional phase II studies estimating long-term toxicity, locoregional control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) of primary CRT. Thirty-nine subjects were identified; 16 (42%) with bony involvement. Median radiotherapy dose delivered to primary tumor was 74 Gy. Five-year OS, PFS, and LC rates were 56%, 51%, and 75%, respectively. Sixty-nine percent of subjects with bony involvement never relapsed. Seven subjects developed osteoradionecrosis. Bone involvement with primary tumor did not appear to be associated with increased risk of death, relapse, or long-term complication. These data suggest that primary CRT is an effective treatment approach in patients with T4 OC tumors including those with bony involvement producing LC, survival, and complication rates comparable to historical series. Prospective clinical trials should evaluate primary surgical versus CRT treatment in these patients. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic keratitis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Vanzzini-Zago, Virginia; Hernandez-Martinez, Dolores; Gonzalez-Robles, Arturo; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Ramirez-Flores, Elizabeth; Oregon-Miranda, Eric; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed worldwide. Some genera included in this group act as opportunistic pathogens causing fatal encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a sight-threatening infection of the cornea associated with the use of soft contact lenses that could even end in blindness if an early diagnosis and treatment are not achieved. Furthermore, the numbers of AK cases keep rising worldwide mainly due to an increase of contact lens wearers and lack of hygiene in the maintenance of lenses and their cases. In Mexico, no cases of AK have been described so far although the isolation of other pathogenic FLA such as Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris from both clinical and environmental sources has been reported. The present study reports two cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed in two patients admitted to the Hospital "Luis Sánchez Bulnes" for Blindness Prevention in Mexico City, Mexico. Corneal scrapes and contact lenses were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in both patients. Strains were axenized after initial isolation to classify at the genotype level. After sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located on the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene of Acanthamoeba, genotype T3 and genotype T4 were identified in clinical case 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of AK in Mexico in the literature and the first description of Acanthamoeba genotypes T3 and T4 as causative agents of amoebic infection.

  8. Capecitabine and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Human papillomavirus types in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimee R; Clifford, Gary M; Boyle, Peter; Franceschi, Silvia

    2005-02-01

    Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the cause of cervical cancer and likely a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), yet the global prevalence and type distribution of HPV in HNSCC remains unclear. We systematically reviewed published studies of HNSCC biopsies that employed PCR-based methods to detect and genotype HPV to describe the prevalence and type distribution of HPV by anatomic cancer site. Geographic location and study size were investigated as possible sources of variability. In the 5,046 HNSCC cancer specimens from 60 studies, the overall HPV prevalence was 25.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 24.7-27.2]. HPV prevalence was significantly higher in oropharyngeal SCCs (35.6% of 969; 95% CI, 32.6-38.7) than oral SCCs (23.5% of 2,642; 95% CI, 21.9-25.1) or laryngeal SCCs (24.0% of 1,435; 95% CI, 21.8-26.3). HPV16 accounted for a larger majority of HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCCs (86.7%; 95% CI, 82.6-90.1) compared with HPV-positive oral SCCs (68.2%; 95% CI, 64.4-71.9) and laryngeal SCCs (69.2%; 95% CI, 64.0-74.0). Conversely, HPV18 was rare in HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCCs (2.8%; 95% CI, 1.3-5.3) compared with other head and neck sites [34.1% (95% CI, 30.4-38.0) of oral SCCs and 17.0% (95% CI, 13.0-21.6) of laryngeal SCCs]. Aside from HPV16 and HPV18, other oncogenic HPVs were rarely detected in HNSCC. Tumor site-specific HPV prevalence was higher among studies from North America compared with Europe and Asia. The high HPV16 prevalence and the lack of HPV18 in oropharyngeal compared with other HNSCCs may point to specific virus-tissue interactions. Small sample size and publication bias complicate the assessment of the prevalence of HPV in head and neck sites beyond the oropharynx.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Mohammed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to present the results from a retrospective study of 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. We treated seven cases of chronic osteomyelitis related squamous cell carcinoma between 1993 and 2005. The patients had an average age of 54.5 (range: 38-71) years, with a male predominance (6 men, 1 woman). We analyzed the time up to cancerization, the localization and histopathological type of the carcinoma, and the type and result of the treatment. The mean time between the occurrence of the skin lesions and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 24.5 (range: 9 to 40) years. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in 4 cases, femur osteomyelitis in 2 cases and humerus osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination showed five cases of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with bone invasion, and two cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment consisted of amputation in all but one patient, who refused the amputation. The six amputee patients did not show local recurrence or metastatic dissemination over a period of five years. Amputation appears to be an effective treatment method in squamous carcinoma secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  11. The Prognostic Value of Hemoglobin Concentration in Postoperative Radiotherapy of 835 Patients With Laryngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Suwinski, Rafal; Idasiak, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with laryngeal cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (pRT). Methods and Materials: The records of 835 patients who underwent pRT between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed. Most patients (526 of 835 patients; 63%) were in advanced clinical stages (T3-T4) and 371 of 835 patients (44%) were node positive. Total laryngectomy had been performed in 676 of 835 patients (81%). Median Hb concentration before (Hb0) and after pRT (Hb1) was the same (13.3 g/dl). However, individual differences between Hb1 and Hb0 (dHb) varied within a broad range (-8.8; 5.0 g/dl). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables significantly associated with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with dHb greater than 0 had significantly improved 5-year LRC compared with those with dHb of 0 or less (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.01). Conversely, when categorized, neither Hb0 nor Hb1 had a significant influence on LRC. In multivariate analysis, dHb remained a prognostic factor for LRC (p = 0.01) among the other variables, which included overall radiation treatment time and nodal status. None of the Hb-related variables significantly influenced metastases-free or overall survival. Conclusion: Individual change in Hb concentration during the course of pRT (dHb) rather than Hb level before or after pRT appeared as an independent prognostic factor for LRC in this set of patients

  12. Solitary Laryngeal Metastasis from Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: Clinical Case and Review of the Literature

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    Tarek Assi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urogenital tract is a rare origin of laryngeal metastasis; transitional cell carcinoma with laryngeal metastases had never been reported previously. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of the first reported case of a laryngeal metastasis of a TCC followed by a brief review of the literature.

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Distal Common Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Jain A; Juneja M; Naik S; Sharma S; Kapoor S; Sewkani A; Varshney S

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the biliary tree is rare. Although few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile-duct and gallbladder have been reported, until today, only four cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the distal common bile duct presenting with obstructive jaundice in a 60-year-old male which was successfully managed by a Whipple's pancr...

  14. Use of laryngeal mask airway for prolonged ventilatory support in a preterm newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jurado, Ma Isabel; Fernández-Baena, Mariano

    2002-05-01

    We present the case report of a preterm, low weight newborn with dysmorphic features and micrognathia in whom a laryngeal mask airway was inserted and maintained for 44 h for ventilatory support after several failed intubations. No complications associated with laryngeal mask airway use were apparent.

  15. F-18-FLT PET for visualization of laryngeal cancer : Comparison with F-18-FDG PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, DCP; van der Laan, BFAM; Maas, B; Vaalburg, W; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hoekstra, HJ; Jager, PL; Elsinga, PH

    The feasibility of F-18-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine PET (FLT PET) for detecting laryngeal cancer was investigated and compared with F-18-FDG PET. Methods: Eleven patients diagnosed with or strongly suspected of having recurrent laryngeal cancer and 10 patients with histologically proven primary

  16. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  17. Prenatal development supports a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Tengteng; Xue, Huiling; Fang, Na; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Libiao; Pang, Jian; Teeling, Emma C; Zhang, Shuyi

    2017-01-09

    Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages. This topology has led to an unanswered question in mammalian biology: was laryngeal echolocation lost in the ancestral pteropodids or gained convergently in the echolocating bat lineages? To date, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence from fossil, genomic, morphological and phylogenomic data to resolve this question. We detail an ontogenetic study of fetal cochlear development from seven species of bats and five outgroup mammals and show that in early fetal development, all bats including the non-laryngeal echolocating pteropodids have a similarly large cochlea typically associated with laryngeal echolocation abilities. The subsequent cochlear growth rate in the pteropodids is the slowest of all mammals and leads to the pteropodids and the non-echolocating lineages eventually sharing a similar cochlear morphospace as adults. The results suggest that pteropodids maintain a vestigial developmental stage indicative of past echolocation capabilities and thus support a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

  18. Tea and coffee consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer: a systematic review meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangbo Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tea and coffee are the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. The relationship between tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer was still unclear. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic database (Medline and EMBASE and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles until Oct. 2013. Observational studies that reported RRs and 95% CIs for the link of tea and coffee consumption on the risk of laryngeal cancer were eligible. A meta-analysis was obtained to combine study-specific RRs with a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 2,803 cases and 503,234 controls in 10 independent studies were identified. The overall analysis of all 10 studies, including the case-control and cohort studies, found that tea drinking was not associated with laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.66-1.61. However, coffee consumption was significantly associated with the laryngeal carcinoma (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.03-2.11. A dose-response relationship between coffee intake and laryngeal carcinoma was detected; however, no evidence of dose-response link between tea consumption and laryngeal carcinoma risk was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that coffee consumption would increase the laryngeal cancer risk, while tea intake was not associated with risk of laryngeal carcinoma.

  19. Adverse Events in Children Receiving General Anaesthesia with Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion

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    Sindhu Khatiwada

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The commonest adverse event in children is related to respiratory system. Adverse events occur more frequently in the operating room, mostly immediately after removal of laryngeal mask airway. Respiratory events are more frequent in children below five years whereas cardiac events are more frequent in children above five years. Keywords: adverse events; children; laryngeal mask airway; laryngospasm; perioperative.

  20. Failed obstetric tracheal intubation and postoperative respiratory support with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Christian; Brimacombe, Joseph; Lirk, Philipp; Pühringer, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) provides a better seal and probably better airway protection than the classic laryngeal mask airway (classic LMA). We report the use of the ProSeal LMA in a 26-yr-old female with HELLP syndrome for failed obstetric intubation and postoperative