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Sample records for t4 laryngeal squamous

  1. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

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    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  2. Human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Gungor, A; Cincik, H; Baloglu, H; Cekin, E; Dogru, S; Dursun, E

    2007-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and type of human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We analysed the prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in archived paraffin block specimens taken from 99 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 1990 and 2005, using polymerase chain reaction techniques. Biopsy specimens from five proven verrucous skin lesions were used as positive controls, and peripheral blood samples from five healthy volunteers were used as negative controls. Four test samples were found to have inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity and were therefore excluded from the study. Human papilloma virus deoxyribonucleic acid was detected in seven of 95 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (7.36 per cent). Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus infection in three cases and single human papilloma virus infection in the remaining four cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were 6, 11 and 16 (the latter detected in only one case). In our series, a very low human papilloma virus prevalence was found among laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases. The human papilloma virus genotypes detected were mostly 6 and/or 11, and 16 in only one case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human papilloma virus prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, based on polymerase chain reaction genotyping in a Turkish population.

  3. Treatment Outcomes for T4 Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Zenga, Joseph; Wilson, Michael; Adkins, Douglas R; Gay, Hiram A; Haughey, Bruce H; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Michel, Loren S; Paniello, Randal C; Rich, Jason T; Thorstad, Wade L; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about treatment outcomes for T4 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), particularly in the era of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease. To evaluate oncologic outcomes for T4 OPSCC treated with primary surgical and nonsurgical therapies. Retrospective cohort study of 131 patients from a single academic hospital, who were treated for T4a or T4b OPSCC (with any N stage and without distant metastatic disease at presentation) between 1998 and 2012 and had a minimum 2-year follow-up (the median follow-up time was 34.6 months). This study was conducted between January 1, 1998, and November 1, 2012. Sixty-nine patients underwent nonsurgical therapy, 47 (68%) of whom had p16-positive tumors. Nonsurgical treatment paradigms included induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy (n = 36 [54%]), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 29 [43%]), and induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy alone (n = 2 [3%]). Sixty-two patients underwent surgical treatment, 50 (81%) of whom had p16-positive tumors. Fifty-seven surgical patients (92%) received adjuvant therapy. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS), 2-year gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube rates, and major complication rates. Significant baseline differences between the surgical vs nonsurgical groups included age (mean 59.8 vs 55.4 years [P = .005]), sex (male, 95% vs 84% [P = .04]), body mass index (<18.5 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 3% vs 16% [P = .02]), and smoking history of 10 or more pack-years (48% vs 77% [P = .003]). For p16-positive patients, Kaplan-Meier estimates of OS, DSS, and DFS were significantly higher for surgically treated patients than for the nonsurgical group (χ(2)(1) = 7.335 for log-rank P = .007, χ(2)(1) = 8.607 for log-rank P = .003, and χ(2)(1) = 7.763 for log-rank P = .005, respectively

  4. Expression of Podoplanin in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Dysplasia.

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    Ibrahim, Badawia Bayoumy; Salem, Mostafa Mohamed; Khairy, Rasha Ahmed; Al Gunaid, Reema Abdul Rahman

    2017-05-01

    In human cancers, podoplanin expression and its correlation with tumour invasive potential raise its possible role as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for cancer. To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of podoplanin in laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and dysplasia. This study included a total of 60 archived, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue blocks of 40 cases of laryngeal SCC and 20 cases of dysplastic lesions. The samples were immunohistochemically analysed for podoplanin expression. Podoplanin expression was significantly higher in laryngeal SCC (90%) than laryngeal dysplastic lesions (55%) (p-value=0.002). The expression of podoplanin was significantly increased with the higher grades of dysplasia (p-value=0.016). A significant positive correlation was detected between podoplanin expression in laryngeal SCC and depth of tumour invasion (p-value=0.035), and stage (p-value=0.026). The high expression of podoplanin in laryngeal SCC and its significant correlation with poor prognostic parameters recommends podoplanin as a prognostic marker in laryngeal SCC. In addition, increased podoplanin expression with higher grades of dysplasia, supports its role in malignant transformation and allows us to recommend its evaluation in premalignant lesions.

  5. Epigenetic Dysregulation in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Thian-Sze Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer with poor prognosis. Patients with laryngeal carcinoma usually present late leading to the reduced treatment efficacy and high rate of recurrence. Despite the advance in the use of molecular markers for monitoring human cancers in the past decades, there are still no reliable markers for use to screen laryngeal carcinoma and follow the patients after treatment. Epigenetics emerged as an important field in understanding the biology of the human malignancies. Epigenetic alterations refer to the dysregulation of gene, which do not involve the alterations of the DNA sequence. Major epigenetic changes including methylation imbalance, histone modification, and small RNA dysregulation could play a role in the development of human malignancies. Global epigenetic change is now regarded as a molecular signature of cancer. The characteristics and behavior of a cancer could be predicted based on the specific epigenetic pattern. We here provide a review on the understanding of epigenetic dysregulation in laryngeal carcinoma. Further knowledge on the initiation and progression of laryngeal carcinoma at epigenetic level could promote the translation of the knowledge to clinical use.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and clinical parameters in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal atypical hyperplasia.

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    Sayar, Cağdaş; Sayar, Hamide; Özdemir, Süleyman; Selçuk, Tahsin; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Kemal Olgun, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined. Specimens obtained from patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodule (n = 35), atypical hyperplasia (n = 35), laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35), and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively. Although no staining was observed in patients with vocal fold nodules, staining was noted in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The percentage of COX-2 staining was the highest in the carcinoma group. It was determined that COX-2 staining was significantly associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It should be noted that overexpression of COX-2, a potentially important factor in the evolution of carcinogenesis in precancerous lesions, might be an indicator of the development of carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Laryngeal squamous cell papilloma is highly associated with human papillomavirus.

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    Orita, Yorihisa; Gion, Yuka; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Ikegami, Kana; Marunaka, Hidenori; Makihara, Seiichiro; Yamashita, Yasuhiko; Miki, Kentaro; Makino, Takuma; Akisada, Naoki; Akagi, Yusuke; Kimura, Miyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-04-01

    To delineate the association between characteristics of adult-onset laryngeal squamous cell papilloma and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Clinical records and paraffin-embedded specimens of 77 papilloma patients who had been treated between 1998 and 2014 were collected. Of the 77 cases, 34 were identified in the larynx, 28 in the oral cavity and 15 in the oropharynx. Specimens were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52b and 58, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for anti-p16INK4a antibody. In 21 cases (61.8%) with laryngeal squamous cell papilloma, various types of HPV were detected: 14 cases (41.2%) were positive of high-risk HPV, 18 (52.9%) were positive of low-risk HPV and 11 (32.4%) were positive of both high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV. Younger patients (papilloma, no malignant transformation was observed during the study period. With IHC staining, positive expression of p16 was observed in 20 cases (58.8%). HPV infection and p16-expression were associated with the pathological finding of koilocytosis. Only four cases (14.3%) showed HPV-positivity in the oral cavity, and none of the 15 oropharyngeal cases were positive for HPV, and none of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal cases showed koilocytosis. Results of HPV-PCR and p16-IHC staining were significantly correlated each other. HPV infection is frequently associated with laryngeal squamous cell papilloma, and koilocytosis is a characteristic pathological finding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which have described infections with multiple HPV types in laryngeal papilloma.

  8. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

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    Mucha-Malecka, A. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Skladowski, K. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Gliwice (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-08-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  9. High-dose radiotherapy alone for patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer

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    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to report on the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with T4-stage laryngeal cancer and to establish the prognostic value of (a) the size and location of the extralaryngeal tumor extensions and (b) of emergency tracheostomy. Patients and methods: A group of 114 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 1990 and 1996. The piriform recess was involved in 37 cases (33 %), the base of the tongue and glosso-epiglottic vallecula in 34 cases (30 %), and the hypopharyngeal wall in 10 cases (9 %). In 16 cases (14 %), emergency tracheostomy was performed before radiotherapy. The mean total dose was 68 Gy (range, 60-77.6 Gy). The mean treatment time was 49 days (range, 42-74 days). Results: Actuarial 3-year local control (LC) was noted in 42 % of patients, disease-free survival (DFS) in 35 %, and overall survival (OS) in 40 %. The best prognosis was for the lesion suspected of cartilage infiltration: 56 % 3-year LC. The worst results were noted in the cases with massive infiltrations spreading from the larynx through the hypopharynx: 13 % 3-year LC. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was significantly connected with the worst treatment results (p = 0.000): 3-year LC in patients with tracheostomy was 0 % vs. 48 % in patients without tracheostomy. Conclusion: Conventional radiotherapy of T4 laryngeal cancer is a method of treatment with limited effectiveness. The efficacy of radiotherapy is dependent on the location and extent of extralaryngeal infiltrations. Emergency tracheostomy is a prognostic factor connected with the worst prognosis. (orig.)

  10. Comorbidity measurement in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Castro, Mario A F; Dedivitis, Rogério A; Ribeiro, Karina C B

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of a cancer patient can be affected by many factors. Cancer patients often have other diseases or medical conditions in addition to their cancer. These conditions are referred to as comorbidities. They can influence the treatment option, the rate of complications, the outcome, and can confound the survival analysis. It was the aim of this study to measure comorbidities in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Ninety adult patients treated for newly diagnosed laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were studied. We measured comorbid illness applying the following validated scales: the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), the Kaplan-Feinstein Classification (KFC), the Charlson index, the Index of Coexistent Disease (ICED), the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27), the Alcohol-Tobacco-Related Comorbidities Index (ATC), and the Washington University Head and Neck Comorbidity Index (WUHNCI). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method (with the log-rank test value being used to compare groups). The Cox proportional hazards model was chosen to identify independent prognostic factors. The mean age was 62.3 years. The majority of patients (36.7%) had early tumors. Forty patients were treated by surgery only, while the remaining 49 patients also received postoperative radiation therapy. Only 5 patients (5.6%) were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up time was 42.5 months. The 4-year overall survival was 63%. There was a statistically significant difference between survival rates according to clinical stage (CS I 87.3%, CS II 48.9%, CS III 74.7%, CS IV 23.9%; p KFC (p = 0.001), and ICED (p = 0.010). However, in the multivariate analysis, only CIRS and TNM staging were identified as independent prognostic factors. The comorbidity is an independent prognostic factor in patients with surgically treated laryngeal cancer. In the univariate analysis, all indexes were able to stratify patients. However, in the multiple analysis, only the

  11. Near Total Laryngectomy: A Versatile Approach for Voice Restoration in Advanced T3 and T4 Laryngeal Cancer: Functional Results and Survival

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    Maamoun, S.I.; Amira, A.; Younis, A.

    2004-01-01

    Creation of a tunneled mucosal shunt between the trachea and pharynx that is controlled by remaining intrinsic laryngeal musculature with its nerve supply is an acceptable voice restoration procedure for advanced T3 and T4 laryngeal cancer. Such a tunnel will allow unilateral direction of air from lung to pharynx during phonation and will prevent aspiration since deglutition is a vagal mediated response which will induce contraction of tubed laryngeal musculature preventing aspiration. We previously reported our preliminary experience with the technique and we adopted the voice restoration approach based on the concept of the near total laryngectomy thereafter. Methods: Forty five patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were included in this study (between January 1998 and February 2001). They were 42 males and 3 females with a mean age of 52.6 years. Criteria for selection were a normal vocal process and arytenoid cartilage on the opposite side of the lesion as evidenced by endoscopy and CT scan with no major sub glottic extension. In two patients supraglottic laryngectomy was carried out and in four other patients, complete tumor extirpation necessitated total laryngectomy. Accordingly, near total laryngectomy was carried out in the remaining 39 patients. Following a near total laryngectomy, where all laryngeal mucosa and cartilages are resected sparing the contralateral arytenoid cartilage with the overlying mucosa and surrounding musculature, the shunt was created by tubing the remaining mucosa with augmentation by pyroform sinus mucosa if necessary. The resulting tube was fashioned over 14 FG catheter for diameter control only and the remaining muscles were sutured over the tube. A permanent tracheostomy was established. Voice training was started postoperatively following resumption of oral feeding. Results: Only one patient died in the immediate postoperative period due to massive myocardial infarction. One patient developed

  12. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

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    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  13. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

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    Fresno Manuel F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44% of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38% cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62% focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033, disease stage (P = 0.006, and pathological grade (P = 0.04. There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31 and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08. Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers.

  14. [Expression and correlation of Fra-1 and HMGA1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma].

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    Zhang, Y L; Song, X F; Duan, Y J; Zhao, R L

    2017-12-07

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of Fra -1 and HMGA 1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their correlation . Methods: Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expressions of HMGA 1 and Fra -1 in laryngeal squamous carcinoma tissues in 47 cases and para - carcinoma tissues in 21 cases ( the First Hospital of Shijiazhuang ). The relationship between the gene expressions in carcinoma tissues and clinopathological parameters such as pathological grade, clinical stage, lymph metastasis, age and anatomic site and the relevance of the two gene expressions were analyzed . SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data . Results: The positive expression rates of Fra-1 and HMGA1 proteins in laryngeal squamous cancer tissue were 48.9% and 53.2%, which were respectively higher than the rates of 19.0% for Fra-1 (χ(2)=5.416, P 0.05). The expression of HMGA 1 gene was correlation with pathological grade, clinical stage, lymph metastasis and age (t values were -1.112, -1.065, -1.009 and -1.066, all P0.05). The expressions of Fra -1 and HMGA 1 gene were positively correlation (r=0.672, P<0.05). Conclusions: In laryngeal squamous cancer, Fra -1 and HMGA 1 are excessive expression, with a positive correlation between the expressions of both genes .

  15. MRI versus CT for detecting cartilage invasion in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Wegner, Inge; Hooft, Lotty; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Pameijer, Frank A.; de Bree, Remco; Stegeman, Inge

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine and compare the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative conventional MRI and conventional CT for detecting cartilage invasion in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, who

  16. Glasgow Prognostic Score as a Prognostic Clinical Marker in T4 Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Ohira, Masaichi; Kubo, Naoshi; Masuda, Go; Yamashita, Yoshito; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2015-09-01

    Patients with clinical T4 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have an unfavorable prognosis, mainly indicated by the response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT), crucial to estimating long-term survival. Other prognostic measures include systemic inflammatory or immunonutritional indices such as the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) that have not been sufficiently documented. This study retrospectively evaluated 91 patients with T4 ESCC treated at our Hospital between 2000 and 2013. All patients initially received CRT, including 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and cisplatin or nedaplatin with concurrent 2-Gy/fraction radiation (total dose, 40-60 Gy). Curative tumor resection was undertaken in suitable patients on completing CRT. Patients were classified as GPS0, GPS1, or GPS2 based on C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 10 mg/l and albumin ≥ 35 g/l, CRP >10 mg/l or albumin l, or CRP >10 mg/l and albumin l, respectively. PNI was calculated as 10-times the serum albumin (g/dl)+0.005 × total lymphocyte count (/mm(3)). The impact of the pre-treatment GPS and PNI on the prognosis of patients with T4 ESCC was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. Sixty (67%) patients responded to CRT (9 complete responses and 51 partial responses). Forty-one (45%) patients also underwent surgical resection of the residual tumor. The overall 5-year survival rate and median survival time were 27.0% and 11.8 months, respectively. In the cohort of CRT-plus-surgical resection, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher than in the groups treated with CRT-alone (51.1% vs. 6.5%; p GPS1/2 (HR=2.151, p=0.015), and surgical resection (HR=0.282, pGPS is a useful, simple survival marker for patients with T4 ESCC undergoing multimodal therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Survival of T4aN0 and T3N+ laryngeal cancer patients: a retrospective institutional study and systematic review.

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    Khoueir, Nadim; Matar, Nayla; Farah, Chadi; Francis, Evana; Tabchy, Bassam; Haddad, Amine

    2015-01-01

    We aim to assess the correlation of tumor and nodal staging to survival in pT3N+ and T4aN0 laryngeal cancer with subgroup analysis within stage IVa (pT4N0 and pT3N2). Retrospective cohort study with systematic review of the literature. Hotel Dieu de France University Hospital (tertiary referral center). Laryngeal cancer patients' registries were reviewed from 1998 to 2012 selecting pT3N+ and pT4aN0 patients treated by primary total layngectomy. Overall survivals were compared using Log rank and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A systematic review was performed by 2 reviewers including all the articles reporting the outcome of these categories of patients. Online databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, were used. Reference sections of identified studies were examined for additional articles. Thirteen T3N+ patients and 19 T4aN0 patients treated by primary total laryngectomy were included. Five-year overall survival for T3N+, T3N2 and T4aN0 was respectively 33%, 32.1% and 73.7%. Due to the small sample, the difference was not significant. The systematic review revealed three articles reporting overall survival outcome for the T4N0 group and 6 articles for the T3N+. At 5years, the survival ranged from 62.5% to 73% in T4N0 and from 32.2% to 77% in T3N+. In advanced stage laryngeal cancer, T4aN0 tends toward a better survival than T3N+ especially when compared to T3N2 although they are grouped in the same TNM stage IVa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Value of computed tomography for evaluating the sub glottis in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Barros, Nestor de; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Tornin, Olger de Souza; Rapoport, Abrao; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2007-01-01

    Context And Objective: Sub glottic involvement in squamous cell carcinoma is a determining factor for contraindicating conservative partial surgery. The subglottis is easily identified by axial computed tomography sections. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of false-negative and false-positive results, and the overall accuracy of staging by computed tomography, in order to detect the involvement of the subglottic laryngeal compartment, in cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Design And Setting: Retrospective, non-randomized study of patients treated at Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Computed tomography scans were performed on third-generation equipment with 5-mm slice thickness. Afterwards, all patients underwent surgical and anatomopathological examinations as the gold standard procedures. Results: Among 60 patients, 14 were diagnosed with subglottic extension by surgical and histopathological examination. There were three false-negative and no false-positive results from computed tomography scans. The sensitivity and negative predictive value were 100.0%. Accuracy was 95.0%, specificity was 93.5% and positive predictive value was 82.4%. Conclusions: Computed tomography could serve as a powerful auxiliary method for staging laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. However, precautions should be taken in analyzing computed tomography scan data, because vegetating lesions may also be projected into the subglottic compartment, without real involvement of the subglottis, which may cause a false-positive result. (author)

  19. Value of computed tomography for evaluating the sub glottis in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Barros, Nestor de; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Tornin, Olger de Souza; Rapoport, Abrao; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco, Otorrinolaringologia e Imagem]. E-mail: ricapires@ig.com.br; olger1@uol.com.br

    2007-03-15

    Context And Objective: Sub glottic involvement in squamous cell carcinoma is a determining factor for contraindicating conservative partial surgery. The subglottis is easily identified by axial computed tomography sections. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of false-negative and false-positive results, and the overall accuracy of staging by computed tomography, in order to detect the involvement of the subglottic laryngeal compartment, in cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Design And Setting: Retrospective, non-randomized study of patients treated at Hospital Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Computed tomography scans were performed on third-generation equipment with 5-mm slice thickness. Afterwards, all patients underwent surgical and anatomopathological examinations as the gold standard procedures. Results: Among 60 patients, 14 were diagnosed with subglottic extension by surgical and histopathological examination. There were three false-negative and no false-positive results from computed tomography scans. The sensitivity and negative predictive value were 100.0%. Accuracy was 95.0%, specificity was 93.5% and positive predictive value was 82.4%. Conclusions: Computed tomography could serve as a powerful auxiliary method for staging laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. However, precautions should be taken in analyzing computed tomography scan data, because vegetating lesions may also be projected into the subglottic compartment, without real involvement of the subglottis, which may cause a false-positive result. (author)

  20. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Ball-Valve Laryngeal Obstruction

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    Sien Hui Tan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC of the larynx, which has not been previously reported, is described. Case Report: A 60-year-old man was presented to the Otolaryngology Department with progressive dyspnoea and dysphagia to solids for over a period of 1 week. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a tumour at the laryngeal aspect of the epiglottis, which prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet each time the patient inspired. This resulted in an inspiratory stridor despite adequate glottic opening and normal mobility of the vocal cords.   Conclusion:  Therefore, in cases where a ball-valve lesion causes intermittent life-threatening airway obstruction, BSCC of the larynx, though rare, must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  1. hTERT promoter mediating gene therapy in laryngeal squamous carcinomas cells in vitro

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    Liao Zhengkai; Zhou Yunfeng; Zhou Fuxiang; Luo Zhiguo; Xiong Jie; Bao Jie; Xie Conghua; Liu Shiquan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship among hTERT promoter activity, hTERT mRNA expression, and telomerase activity (TA) in laryngeal squamous carcinomas cell lines, and to evaluate the usefulness of hTERT promoter mediated gene therapy. Methods: After plasmids pGL3-hTERTp were transfected, hTEBT promoter activity, hTERT mRNA expression and TA were determined by luciferase assay, RT-PCR and TRAP-PCR-ELISA, respectively. Plasmid phTERTp-HRP was constructed and transfected, HRP expression was determined by RT-PCR and competent peroxidase activity was confirmed by enzyme activity assay. The cytotoxicity and radiosensitivity of phTERTp-HRP/IAA were determined by clonogenic assay. Results: The relative levels of hTERT promoter activity, hTERT mRNA expression and TA in Hep2R cells were 1.37-fold, 1.43-fold and 1.81-fold compared with Hep2R cells, hTERT promoter activity was closely associated with hTERT mRNA expression and TA levels (P SF 2 ) was 1.24 (Hep2R cells) and 1.20 (Hep 2cells), the parameter a of with or without IAA incubation were 0.090, 0.020 (Hep2R)and 0.099, 0.042 (Hep2). Conclusions: hTERT promoter is applicable in mediating gene therapy in different radiosensitive laryngeal squamous carcinomas cells. hTERTp-HRP/IAA gene therapy may be a promising supplementary method for radiotherapy of laryngeal squamous-cell carcinomas. (authors)

  2. Changing the paradigm: the potential for targeted therapy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Megan L.; Birkeland, Andrew C.; Hoesli, Rebecca; Swiecicki, Paul; Spector, Matthew E.; Brenner, J. Chad

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Historically, it has been a model example for organ preservation and treatment stratification paradigms. Unfortunately, survival for LSCC has stagnated over the past few decades. As the era of next-generation sequencing and personalized treatment for cancer approaches, LSCC may be an ideal disease for consideration of further treatment stratification and personalization. Here, we will discuss the important history of LSCC as a model system for organ preservation, unique and potentially targetable genetic signatures of LSCC, and methods for bringing stratified, personalized treatment strategies to the 21 st century

  3. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ChunPing Yang; ShuFeng Gao; HaiZhen Zhang; Lian Xu; JianGuo Liu; Meiqun Wang; ShaoRong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. Methods: We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate the...

  4. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for T4 and/or M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

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    Miyata, Yoshinori; Seki, Shigeki [Saku Central Hospital, Usuda, Nagano (Japan); Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Akira

    2000-07-01

    A phase II study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. Fifty-four patients with clinical T4 and/or M1 LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus were enrolled. Patients received protracted infusions of fluorouracil 400 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours on days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12, 2-hour infusions of cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 and 8, and concurrent radiotherapy at a dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks. Filgrastim was prophylactically administered to 35 patients. This schedule was repeated twice every 5 weeks, for a total radiation dose of 60 Gy followed by two courses of fluorouracil (800 mg/m{sup 2}/24 hours for 5 days) and cisplatin (80 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1). There were 36 patients with T4 disease and 33 with M1 LYM. Forty-nine patients (91%) completed the chemoradiotherapy segment. The 18 patients (33%) who achieved a complete response included nine (25%) of the 36 with T4 disease and nine (50%) of the 18 with non-T4 disease. Major toxicities were leukopenia and esophagitis; there were four (7%) treatment-related deaths. Prophylactic filgrastim reduced the incidence of grade 3 or worse leukopenia without improving dose-intensity or response. With a median follow-up duration of 43 months, median survival time was 9 months. The 3-year survival rate was 23%. Despite its significant toxicity, this combined modality seemed to have curative potential even in cases of locally advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. (author)

  5. Volumetrical and morphological responses of human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma xenografts treated with fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Gasteren, H. van; Jerusalem, C.R.; Kal, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Xenografts of both primary human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and its metastases were irradiated with five daily fractions of 5.0 Gy. Tumor volume changes, morphology, mitotic index and mitotic figures were studied. Primary xenografts disappeared within 17±3 days. Grafts of metastases showed complete regression within 26±5 days, or regrowth after a delay period. Mitotic activity was higher in the grafts of metastases. The number of mitotic figures decreased and ceased within 14 days in the primary tumor, while some were still occasionally noted in the grafts of metastases. Telophase stages were practically absent after the first fraction. This study suggests that the response of metastases to radiation therapy is lower than the response of the primary tumor. (orig.) [de

  6. Prognostic value of body mass index before treatment for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qu; Zou, Lan; Liu, Tian-Run; Yang, An-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer often suffer from malnutrition. This study aims to investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on the prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). A total of 473 patients with LSCC initially treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2005 and July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. Low BMI before treatment was significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with LSCC (P<0.001). BMI was an independent prognostic factor for patients with LSCC. Leanness before treatment was associated with poor prognosis in patients with LSCC. Good nutritional status is favorable to improve survival in patients with LSCC

  7. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    ChunPing Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. Methods: We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate their anti-LSCC effects in vitro and in vivo. Results: We observed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD47 in LSCC tissue had significant increase in LSCC tissues compared with those in para-carcinoma tissue (p Conclusion: The results suggested a critical role of CD47 in LSCC development and the promising treatment of antiCD47/SIRPα and/or CD47siRNA in LSCC.

  8. Phase II Study of Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy With S-1 in Patients With T4 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Tomoko; Murakami, Ryuji; Toya, Ryo; Teshima, Keiko; Nakahara, Aya; Hirai, Toshinori; Hiraki, Akimitsu; Nakayama, Hideki; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazutoshi; Obayashi, Takehisa; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Oya, Natsuo; Shinohara, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, in patients with T4 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Only patients with histologically proven T4 oral SCC were included. Radiotherapy (total dose, 30 Gy) was delivered in 2-Gy daily fractions over a period of 3 weeks. Concurrently, S-1 (80 mg/m 2 /day) was administered orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Results: We enrolled 46 patients. All underwent radiotherapy as planned; however, oral S-1 was discontinued in 3 patients who manifested acute toxicity. Grade 3 toxicities were mucositis (20%), anorexia (9%), and neutropenia (4%). We encountered no Grade 4 adverse events or serious postoperative morbidity requiring surgical intervention. After CCRT, 32 of the 46 patients underwent radical resection; in 17 (53%) of the operated patients, the pathologic response was complete. During follow-up ranging from 7 to 58 months (median, 22 months), tumor control failed in 5 (16%) of the 32 operated patients; there were 3 local and 2 regional failures. Of the 14 non-operated patients, 8 (57%) manifested local (n = 7) or regional failure (n = 1). The 3-year overall survival rate for all 46 patients was 69%; it was significantly higher for operated than for non-operated patients (82% vs. 48%; p = 0.0288). Conclusion: Preoperative CCRT with S-1 is feasible and effective in patients with T4 oral SCC. Even in inoperable cases, CCRT with S-1 provides adequate tumor control.

  9. Assessment of laryngeal functions in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takahide; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nagao, Jun-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The laryngeal functions in patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) were evaluated. We reviewed the records of 32 patients with resectable stage II to IV squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx treated with CCRT as a initial treatment between October 1998 and September 2003. A questionnaire survey and measurements of maximum phonation time, GRBAS and range of voice/speaking fundamental frequency were performed, and the method of food intake in the swallowing ability scale and the presence of tracheostoma were assessed for evaluating laryngeal functions after CCRT. After CCRT for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer, the phonatory functions appeared to be preserved in 75% of the patients in terms of sustainability; however, there were some cases presenting hoarseness and narrowed range of voice. Oral intake was possible in most cases (97%) without a history of aspiration pneumonia. In 2 cases, permanent tracheostoma had to be retained. It was concluded that laryngeal functions could be preserved in most cases after CCRT, though the tracheostoma might not be closed in some patients with laryngeal cancer. (author)

  10. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for laryngeal preservation in T1/T2 supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikimaru, Fumihide; Matsuo, Mioko; Taura, Masahiko; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2012-01-01

    We treated supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (T1/2) with chemoradiation for laryngeal preservation and evaluated the effects of the chemoradiation at the dose of 40 Gy as an intermediate evaluation. To investigate the need for this intermediate evaluation, we retrospectively analyzed 46 patients, 43 men and 3 women aged 49 to 86 years, with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (T1/2) treated at our institution from January 1997 to May 2008. Overall and cause-specific three-year survival rates were 65% and 77% in all cases, 67% and 75% in T1, and 65% and 77% in T2. The three-year preservation rate of the larynx was 41% in all cases, 51% in T1, and 35% in T2. In the intermediate evaluation, the complete response rate was 58% in all cases, 77% in T1, and 48% in T2. In the cases of larynx preservation, the recurrence rate of the primary site was not significantly different between those cases who did not achieve complete response in the intermediate evaluation and those who did achieve complete response. (author)

  11. The prognostic implications of growth-related gene product β in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingming; Xu, Xinjiang; Chen, Juanjuan; Huang, Jiangfei; Jiang, Bin; Han, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related gene product β (GROβ) is an angiogenic chemokine that belongs to the CXC chemokine family, and a number of studies have suggested that GROβ is associated with tumor development and progression. However, a number of studies have investigated the association between GROβ expression and the clinical attributes of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). In the present study, one-step quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to detect GROβ expression and evaluate the association between its expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of LSCC. The results demonstrated that the GROβ mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased in LSCC compared with the corresponding non-cancerous tissues. GROβ protein expression in LSCC was associated with tumor-node-metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis and histopathological grade. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox multi-factor analysis indicated that high GROβ expression, lymph node metastasis and histopathological grade were significantly associated with poor survival of patients with LSCC. These data indicated that GROβ may be a novel prognostic biomarker of LSCC.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPRESSION OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES AND MORPHOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY, TUMOR DIFFERENTIATION AND LYMPHOGENOUS METASTASIS OF SQUAMOUS CELL LARYNGEAL CARCINOMA

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    О. V. Savenkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 58 patients with stage Т1–3N0–3M0–1 squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma. The age range was from 31 to 77 years. Patients received no cancer treatment before surgery. The expression of metalloproteinases (ММP-1, -2, -9, their inhibitors (TIMP-1, -2 and inductor of metalloproteinase expression (CD147 were determined in tumor cells of different structures of squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical method. Results were compared with the presence of lymphogenous metastases. Results. Five morphological structures of squamous cell carcinomas were studied: with keratinization (type 1, with cells of basaloid and acanthocyte types without kartinization (type 2, with cells of basaloid type (type 3, with pronounced cellular polymorphism (type 4 and single tumor cells (type 5. With regard to combination of these structures, tumors were divided into high-grade, low-grade and mixed tumor structures. In tumors without lymphogenous metastases, the increased expression of ММP-1, -2, and-9 was only revealed in discrete cells. In tumors with lymphogenic metastases, the increased MMP-9 expression was observed in more differentiated structures of 1, 2 and 3 types. Less frequent lymphogenous metastasis of vocal cord carcinomas was associated only with tumors of mixed structure, in which the expression of TIMP1 was reduced.  Conclusion. To assess the histological differentiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, it should be considered a combination of high and low-grade tumor structures. The expression of metalloproteinases should be studied considering morphological heterogeneity of squamous cell carcinomas. The frequency of lymphogenous metastasis of high-or low-grade squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cords did not differ from that of squamous cell carcinoma of the supra-glottal area. The frequency of lymphogenous metastasis was significantly lower in mixed squamous cell carcinomas of the vocal cords than in similar

  13. Aurora kinase A revives dormant laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells via FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activation

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    Yang, Li-yun; He, Chang-yu; Chen, Xue-hua; Su, Li-ping; Liu, Bing-ya; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Revival of dormant tumor cells may be an important tumor metastasis mechanism. We hypothesized that aurora kinase A (AURKA), a cell cycle control kinase, promotes the transition of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cells from G0 phase to active division. We therefore investigated whether AURKA could revive dormant tumor cells to promote metastasis. Western blotting revealed that AURKA expression was persistently low in dormant laryngeal cancer Hep2 (D-Hep2) cells and high in non-dormant (T-Hep2) cells. Decreasing AURKA expression in T-Hep2 cells induced dormancy and reduced FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activity. Increasing AURKA expression in D-Hep2 cells increased FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activity and enhanced cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. In addition, FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition caused dormancy-like behavior and reduced cellular mobility, migration and invasion. We conclude that AURKA may revive dormant tumor cells via FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activation, thereby promoting migration and invasion in laryngeal cancer. AURKA/FAK/PI3K/Akt inhibitors may thus represent potential targets for clinical LSCC treatment. PMID:27356739

  14. [Dectection of G3BP and CD44v6 in the tissues of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dahu; Lou, Weihua

    2017-07-01

    Objective To study the expressions of RNA-binding Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein (G3BP) and tumor stem cell marker CD44v6 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their correlations with angiogenesis. Methods We collected the cancer tissues and corresponding paracancerous tissues from 56 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The expressions of G3BP and CD44v6 proteins were detected by Western blotting in cancer tissues and corresponding paracancerous tissues; the expressions of G3BP, CD44v6 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were tested by immunohistochemistry. Thereafter, we compared the positive expression rates of G3BP and CD44v6 between in cancer tissues and in normal tissues, analyzed the correlations between the expressions of G3BP, CD44v6 and the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma features as well as their correlations with microvessel density (MVD) that was determined by FVIIIAg immunohistochemistry. Results Western blotting showed that the expressions of G3BP and CD44v6 proteins in the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were higher than those in the paracancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that compared with the paracancerous tissues, G3BP, CD44v6 and VEGF-A expressions (the positive rates are 58.9%, 53.6%, 46.4%, respectively) were higher in cancer tissues. The positive rates of G3BP and CD44v6 in cancer tissues were related with the clinical stage, recurrence or metastasis, and lymph node metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, but had nothing to do with patients' age and tumor size. Pearson correlation analysis showed the expressions of both G3BP and CD44v6 were positively correlated with VEGF-A (r=0.741, r=0.756). MVD values were significantly higher in the G3BP and CD44v6 positive cases than in paracancerous tissues, but there was no difference in MVD between those without G3BP and CD44v6 positive expressions and the paracancerous tissues. Conclusion The positive expression rates of G3BP and CD44v6 in laryngeal

  15. The prognostic value of systemic and local inflammation in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Wang J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jie Wang,1,* Shengzi Wang,1 Xinmao Song,1,* Wenjiao Zeng,2 Shuyi Wang,3 Fu Chen,1 Hao Ding1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, 2Department of Pathology, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 3Department of Pathology, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cancer-related systemic inflammation has been demonstrated to be associated with poor outcome in multiple types of cancers. Meanwhile, the local inflammation, which is characterized by dense intratumoral immune infiltrate, is a favorable predictor of survival outcome. Purpose: To evaluate the role of systemic and local inflammation in predicting outcome in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study, 120 patients who had undergone postoperative radiotherapy were enrolled. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, as calculated from pretreatment whole blood counts, were used to indicate systemic inflammation. The optimal cutoff values of NLR and PLR were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Overall survival (OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: The best cutoff was 2.79 for NLR and 112 for PLR. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that high NLR, high PLR, and low TILs density were significantly correlated with inferior OS and RFS, respectively (all P<0.05. The Cox proportional multivariate hazard model showed that a high pretreatment PLR and a low TILs density were both independently correlated with poor OS and RFS, respectively (all P<0.05. Conclusion

  16. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively....... None of the investigated categorical and quantitative parameters (cutoff points = means) reached the level of significance with respect to prognostic value. However, nuclear Vv showed the best information concerning survival (2p = 0.08), and this estimator offers optimal features for objective...

  17. Stereological estimation of nuclear volume and other quantitative histopathological parameters in the prognostic evaluation of supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bennedbaek, O; Pilgaard, J

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various approaches to the grading of malignancy in pre-treatment biopsies from patients with supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The prospects of objective malignancy grading based on stereological estimation of the volume-weighted mean nuclear...... volume, nuclear Vv, and nuclear volume fraction, Vv(nuc/tis), along with morphometrical 2-dimensional estimation of nuclear density index, NI, and mitotic activity index, MI, were investigated and compared with the current morphological, multifactorial grading system. The reproducibility among two...... observers of the latter was poor in the material which consisted of 35 biopsy specimens. Unbiased estimates of nuclear Vv were on the average 385 microns3 (CV = 0.44), with more than 90% of the associated variance attributable to differences in nuclear Vv among individual lesions. Nuclear Vv was positively...

  18. Cancer stage and pack-years, but not p16 or HPV, are relevant for survival in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Valerie; Haitel, Andrea; Kaider, Alexandra; Stanisz, Isabella; Beer, Andrea; Lill, Claudia

    2018-05-09

    Recently, p16 has been included in the TNM guideline for oropharyngeal carcinomas. The role of HPV and p16 in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas has not yet been established sufficiently. Hundred and thirty-four patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas were included in this retrospective analysis. Only patients with known HPV status were eligible for the investigation. Survival probabilities were estimated for different risk factors. Eighty-five patients presented with laryngeal carcinoma and 49 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma. 8% were HPV positive (10.6% laryngeal, 4.1% hypopharyngeal carcinoma). Median follow-up time was 58 months. We observed a significantly better overall survival for patients with an early tumor stage compared to advanced carcinoma. One of the hypopharyngeal HPV positive carcinomas was also p16 positive and one was p16 negative. Of the nine HPV positive laryngeal carcinomas, four were p16 positive and five p16 negative. Neither patients who were HPV positive nor patients positive for p16 showed a significantly better outcome than HPV or p16 negative patients. In contrast, nicotine pack-years showed a highly significant correlation with survival in our patient collective. The data suggest that tumor stage and nicotine exposure seem to have the highest impact on survival in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients. There is no evidence for a better survival for p16 positive or HPV positive patients with hypopharyngeal or laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HPV seems to play a minor role in these entities of head and neck carcinoma.

  19. Promoter hypermethylation-induced transcriptional down-regulation of the gene MYCT1 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Li, Wei; Liu, Yi-Ying; Fu, Shuang; Qiu, Guang-Bin; Sun, Kai-Lai; Fu, Wei-Neng

    2012-01-01

    MYCT1, previously named MTLC, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene. MYCT1 was cloned from laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC) and has been found to be down-regulated in LSCC; however, the regulatory details have not been fully elucidated. Here, we sought to investigate the methylation status of the CpG islands of MYCT1 and mRNA levels by bisulfite-specific PCR (BSP) based on sequencing restriction enzyme digestion, reverse transcription and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR). The function of specific sites in the proximal promoter of MYCT1 in LSCC was measured by transient transfection, luciferase assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). The results suggested hypermethylation of 12 CpG sites of the promoter in both laryngeal cancer tissues and the laryngeal cancer line Hep-2 cell. The hypermethylation of the site CGCG (−695 to −692), which has been identified as the c-Myc binding site, was identified in laryngeal cancer tissues (59/73) compared to paired mucosa (13/73); in addition, statistical analysis revealed that the methylation status of this site significantly correlated with cancer cell differentiation(p < 0.01). The mRNA level of MYCT1 increased in Hep-2 cells treated with 5-aza-C (p < 0.01). The luciferase activity from mutant transfectants pGL3-MYCT1m (−852/+12, mut-695-C > A, mut-693-C > G) was significantly reduced compared with the wild type pGL3-MYCT1 (−852/+12), while the luciferase activity from wild transfectants pGL3-MYCT1 (−852/+12) rose after 5-aza treatment in Hep-2 cells. Finally, EMSA and ChIP confirmed that the methylation of the CGCG (−695 to −692) site prevented c-Myc from binding of the site and demethylation treatment of the 5′ flanking region of MYCT1 by 5-aza induced the increased occupation of the core promoter by c-Myc (p < 0.01). In summary, this study concluded that hypermethylation contributed to the transcriptional down

  20. Comparative assessment of HPV, alcohol and tobacco etiological fractions in Algerian patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariche, Nora; Hortal, Montserrat Torres; Benyahia, Samir; Alemany, Laia; Moulaï, Nabila; Clavero, Omar; Muñoz, Marleny; Ouahioune, Wahiba; Djennaoui, Djamel; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bourouba, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Despite the increasing incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in Algeria, scarce information is available on the importance of the preventable etiological factors which may drive the disease. Remarkably, a significant number of cases occur in nonsmoker and nondrinker patients; hence, suggesting that alternative risk factors, like Human papillomavirus (HPV), might be etiologically involved. To gain more insight on the risk factors associated with the disease in the country, we evaluated the etiological fraction of HPV in comparison to tobacco and alcohol intake in LSCC patients. To evaluate the etiopathologic fraction (EF) for HPV compared to history of tobacco and alcohol in LSCC, HPV DNA presence in 46 invasive and 3 non-invasive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded laryngeal tumors was screened using the SPF10-DEIA-LiPA25 Assay. Demographic data and information related to exposure to the risk factors were gathered through interviewer-assisted questionnaires. We observed that 40.8% of all LSCC cases were associated with smoking, 40.8% had combined tobacco and alcohol exposure history, and 14.3% did not show prior exposure to either risk factor. 1 out of 3 in-situ carcinoma cases was positive for HPV-6. HPV prevalence was null in the invasive tumors. HPV DNA was detected in 2.38% for all studied cases. 10.2% of LSCC patients did not associate with any of the studied risk factors. Here we show that HPV etiological fraction in LSCC Algerian patients is low and smoking and alcohol remain the principal etiopathologic risk for LSCC burden in Algeria.

  1. Identification of cancer stem-like side population cells in purified primary cultured human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma epithelia.

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    Chun-Ping Wu

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like side population (SP cells have been identified in many solid tumors; however, most of these investigations are performed using established cancer cell lines. Cancer cells in tumor tissue containing fibroblasts and many other types of cells are much more complex than any cancer cell line. Although SP cells were identified in the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC cell line Hep-2 in our pilot study, it is unknown whether the LSCC tissue contains SP cells. In this study, LSCC cells (LSCCs were primary cultured and purified from a surgically resected LSCC specimen derived from a well-differentiated epiglottic neoplasm of a Chinese male. This was followed by the verification of epithelium-specific characteristics, such as ultrastructure and biomarkers. A distinct SP subpopulation (4.45±1.07% was isolated by Hoechst 33342 efflux analysis from cultured LSCCs by using a flow cytometer. Cancer stem cell (CSC-associated assays, including expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, proliferation, differentiation, spheroid formation, chemotherapy resistance, and tumorigenicity were then conducted between SP and non-SP (NSP LSCCs. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that SP cells manifested preferential expression of self-renewal and CSC marker genes, higher capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and spheroid formation; enhanced resistance to chemotherapy; and greater xenograft tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice compared with NSP cells. These findings suggest that the primary cultured and purified LSCCs contain cancer stem-like SP cells, which may serve as a valuable model for CSC research in LSCC.

  2. Promoter hypermethylation of CDKN2A, MGMT, MLH1, and DAPK genes in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their associations with clinical profiles of the patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Stefano; Jordanov, Stanislav H; Mitkova, Atanaska V; Chalakov, Ivan J; Melnicharov, Mincho B; Kunev, Kuncho V; Mitev, Vanio I; Kaneva, Radka P; Goranova, Teodora E

    2014-08-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (laryngeal SCC) is a frequently occurring cancer of the head and neck area. Epigenetic changes of tumor-related genes contribute to its genesis and progression. We assessed promoter methylation status of the selected genes (CDKN2A, MGMT, MLH1, and DAPK) using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) in 100 patients with laryngeal SCC and studied the correlations with clinical characteristics. The prevalence of promoter methylation in MGMT, CDKN2A, MLH1, and DAPK was 59 of 97 (60.8%), 46 of 97 (47.4%), 45 of 97 (46.4%), and 41 of 97 patients (42.3%), respectively. Significantly increased methylation of CDKN2A was observed in heavy smokers. Epigenetic inactivation of CDKN2A and MLH1 were found to be associated with lymph node involvement. An inverse correlation was present between MLH1 methylation and alcohol consumption. Our results strongly suggest that deregulation of p16-associated, and MLH1-associated pathways, because of promoter hypermethylation, is associated with increased cancer cell migration, tumor invasiveness, and, thus, aggressive phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Integrated Analysis of Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profile in Advanced Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Feng

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, the expression pattern and function of lncRNAs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC are still unclear. To investigate the aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in advanced LSCC, we screened lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in 9 pairs of primary Stage IVA LSCC tissues and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues by lncRNA and mRNA integrated microarrays. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis were performed to find out the significant function and pathway of the differentially expressed mRNAs, gene-gene functional interaction network and ceRNA network were constructed to select core mRNAs, and lncRNA-mRNA expression correlation network was built to identify the interactions between lncRNA and mRNA. qRT-PCR was performed to further validate the expressions of selected lncRNAs and mRNAs in advanced LSCC. We found 1459 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 2381 differentially expressed mRNAs, including 846 up-regulated lncRNAs and 613 down-regulated lncRNAs, 1542 up-regulated mRNAs and 839 down-regulated mRNAs. The mRNAs ITGB1, HIF1A, and DDIT4 were selected as core mRNAs, which are mainly involved in biological processes, such as matrix organization, cell cycle, adhesion, and metabolic pathway. LncRNA-mRNA expression correlation network showed LncRNA NR_027340, MIR31HG were positively correlated with ITGB1, HIF1A respectively. LncRNA SOX2-OT was negatively correlated with DDIT4. qRT-PCR further validated the expression of these lncRNAs and mRNAs. The work provides convincing evidence that the identified lncRNAs and mRNAs are potential biomarkers in advanced LSCC for further future studies.

  4. Pharyngeal squamous cell papilloma in adult Japanese: comparison with laryngeal papilloma in clinical manifestations and HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Ryoji; Makiyama, Kiyoshi; Higuti, Yusho; Ikeda, Atsuo; Miura, Masatoshi; Hasegawa, Hisashi; Kinukawa, Noriko; Ikeda, Minoru

    2012-10-01

    A number of reports have investigated the relationship between laryngeal papilloma and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. On the other hand, it is unclear whether the HPV infection is involved in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma. We hypothesized that HPV infection was involved in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma similarly to laryngeal papilloma. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the presence of HPV infection. Furthermore, clinical manifestations of pharyngeal papilloma, which had rarely been reported, were discussed. A male-to-female ratio, solitary or multiple occurrences, and koilocytosis were examined in cases with pharyngeal papilloma. HPV DNA was examined with unfixed surgically resected specimens of pharyngeal papilloma. A screening test by the liquid-phase hybridization method was carried out for the HPV high-risk group (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 56, 58, 59, and 68) and HPV low-risk group (6, 11, 42, 43, 44). As a control, 15 cases with laryngeal papilloma for which the same screening test was carried out were employed. Pharyngeal papilloma occurred as a solitary lesion more often, whereas laryngeal papilloma occurred as multiple tumors more frequently. The HPV infection rate was 0% in pharyngeal papilloma cases, which was in stark contrast with 66.7% in the HPV low-risk group in laryngeal papilloma cases. Pharyngeal papilloma occurred as a solitary lesion in females more frequently. Contrary to our hypothesis, the involvement of HPV infection was unlikely in the occurrence of pharyngeal papilloma.

  5. Inflammation and cancer: role of annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in proliferation and metastasis in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Thaís Santana Gastardelo

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1 has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA1(2-26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide, Boc2 (antagonist of FPR and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA1(2-26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA1(2-26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth

  6. Case study: lessons from a laryngeal abscess

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathology is explored, as well as the diagnostic error that could have resulted in serious complications. Keywords: asthma, error, laryngeal abscess, squamous carcinoma. Introduction .... tified or cultured and syphilis serology was normal. The laryngeal biopsies confirmed a well-differentiated keratinising squamous.

  7. Radiotherapy of locally advanced laryngeal cancer: the Gliwice Center of Oncology experience, 1990-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucha-Malecka, A.; Skladowski, K.; Wygoda, A.; Sasiadek, W.; Tarnawski, R.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer T3 - T4, and to establish the prognostic value of the size and the location of the extra laryngeal infiltrations and of emergency tracheostomy. 296 patients with advanced squamous cell cancer of the larynx were radically treated with radiotherapy alone in Center of Oncology in Gliwice between the years 1990 and 1996. There were 221 cases of supraglottic cancer (75%) and 75 of glottic cancer (25%). The stages were as follows: supraglottic cancer: T3 - 113 (51%), T4 - 108 (49%), glottic cancer: T3 - 69 (92%), T4 - 6 (8%). Positive neck nodes were found in 100 patients with supraglottic cancer (45%), and only in 11 patients with glottic cancer (15%). In cases of extra laryngeaI invasion (T4) the pyriform recess was involved in 33%, the base of tongue and valleculae glosso-epiglotticae in 30%, the hypopharyngeal wall in 9% of cases, while a massive involvement of the larynx, the pyriform recess and the base of the tongue was found in 6% of patients. Cartilage involvement was suspected in 22% of patients. Thirty six patients (12%) underwent emergency tracheostomy. Generally, the 3-year local control rate (LC) and disease free survival rate (DSF) were 46% and 41%, respectively. The probability of LC was similar in both supraglottic and glottic cancer: 44% and 47.5% respectively. The presence of involved neck nodes significantly decreased LC and DFS rates in both groups (about 20%). For stage T4 laryngeal cancer the LC rate was correlated with the location of the extra laryngeal infiltrations. Best prognosis was connected with the suspicion of cartilage infiltration - 56% of 3-year LC rate. The worst results were noted in cases of massive infiltrations spreading from larynx through the hypopharynx - 13.5% of 3-year LC rate. Emergency tracheostomy before radiotherapy was very significantly linked to poorer treatment results. The 3-year LC rate in

  8. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit functions in metastasis and influences survival in advanced-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sha-Sha; Chen, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Peng; Dong, Jun; Guo, Gui-Fang; Chen, Ju-Gao; Xia, Liang-Ping; Hu, Pei-Li; Qiu, Hui-Juan; Liu, Shou-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Xin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Wei-Han; Cai, Xiu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is known to function in several types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinicopathologic significance of DNA-PKcs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 208 patients with advanced-stage LSCC treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. We assessed DNA-PKcs and p16INK4a (p16) status using immunohistochemistry. We examined the association between DNA-PKcs expression and clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes. To evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of DNA-PKcs, we used univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We estimated overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that 163/208 (78.4%) of the LSCC tissue samples exhibited high DNA-PKcs expression. High DNA-PKcs expression was significantly associated with survival outcomes ( P = 0.016) and distant metastasis ( P = 0.02; chi-squared test). High DNA-PKcs expression was associated with a significantly shorter OS and DMFS than low DNA-PKcs expression ( P = 0.029 and 0.033, respectively; log-rank test), and was associated with poor OS in the p16-positive subgroup ( P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis identified DNA-PKcs as an independent prognostic indicator of OS and DMFS in all patients ( P = 0.039 and 0.037, respectively). Conclusions : Our results suggest that patients with LSCC in whom DNA-PKcs expression is elevated have a higher incidence of distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis. DNA-PKcs may represent a marker of tumor progression in patients with p16-positive LSCC.

  9. Cetuximab enhances cisplatin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells by inhibiting expression of TXNDC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fusen; Zhang, Hailin; Du, Youhong; Tan, Pingqing

    2018-03-01

    Cisplatin and cetuximab, an anti‑epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal humanized antibody, have been used for treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). It has been demonstrated that cisplatin and inhibition of EGFR signaling may induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress‑associated apoptosis. However, ER protein thioredoxin domain‑containing protein 5 (TXNDC5) reportedly protects cells from ER stress‑associated apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction between cisplatin, cetuximab and TXNDC5 on ER stress‑associated apoptosis in LSCC cells. AMC‑HN‑8 human LSCC cells with or without TXNDC5 overexpression or knockdown were treated with cisplatin (5, 10, 20 and 40 µM) and/or cetuximab (10, 50, 100 and 150 µg/ml), for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h. Cisplatin and cetuximab concentration‑ and time‑dependently increased and decreased the expression of TXNDC5 in AMC‑HN‑8 cells, respectively. Knockdown of TXNDC5 markedly augmented cisplatin‑induced levels of CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), caspase‑3 activity and apoptosis; while overexpression of TXNDC5 largely eliminated cetuximab‑induced levels of CHOP, caspase‑3 activity and apoptosis. Cisplatin and cetuximab demonstrated a combinatorial effect on increasing the levels of CHOP, caspase‑3 activity and apoptosis, which was largely eliminated by overexpression of TXNDC5 or a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger/antagonist. In addition, promoter/luciferase reporter assays revealed that cisplatin and cetuximab regulated the expression of TXNDC5 at the gene transcription/promoter level. In conclusion, the findings suggested that ER stress‑associated apoptosis is a major mechanism underlying the apoptotic effect of cisplatin and cetuximab on LSCC cells; cetuximab enhanced cisplatin‑induced ER stress‑associated apoptosis in LSCC cells largely by inhibiting the expression of TXNDC5 and thereby increasing ROS production

  10. Primary radical ablative surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction for T4 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma with mandibular invasion: oncologic and functional results and their predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuzard, Olivier; Dassonville, Olivier; Ettaiche, Marc; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Poissonnet, Gilles; Berguiga, Riadh; Leysalle, Axel; Benezery, Karen; Peyrade, Frédéric; Saada, Esma; Hechema, Raphael; Sudaka, Anne; Haudebourg, Juliette; Demard, François; Santini, José; Bozec, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes and to determine their predictive factors in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) invading the mandibular bone (T4) who underwent primary radical surgery and fibula free-flap reconstruction. Between 2001 and 2013, all patients who underwent primary surgery and mandibular fibula free-flap reconstruction for OCSCC were enrolled in this retrospective study. Predictive factors of oncologic and functional outcomes were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. 77 patients (55 men and 22 women, mean age 62 ± 10.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Free-flap failure and local and general complication rates were 9, 31, and 22 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, ASA score (p = 0.002), pathologic N-stage (p = 0.01), and close surgical margins (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of overall survival. Six months after therapy, oral diet, speech intelligibility, and mouth opening functions were normal or slightly impaired in, respectively, 79, 88, and 83 % of patients. 6.5 % of patients remaining dependent on enteral nutrition 6 months after therapy. With acceptable postoperative outcomes and satisfactory oncologic and functional results, segmental mandibulectomy with fibula free-flap reconstruction should be considered the gold standard primary treatment for patients with OCSCC invading mandible bone. Oncologic outcomes are dependent on three main factors: ASA score, pathologic N-stage, and surgical margin status.

  11. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of thyroid function following total laryngectomy in laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasaddi Zarandy M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothyroidism is a well-documented complication after treatment of laryngeal cancer and is particularly significant among patients undergoing laryngectomy. We investigated the frequency of hypothyroidism in patients treated with total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. We also evaluated the effect of neck radiotherapy on thyroid function after total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 31 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (mean age 53.6 years. Among these patients, 14 were treated with surgery only and 17 were treated with surgery plus radiotherapy. Laboratory evaluation included levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, free T3, and antithyroid antibodies both preoperatively and postoperatively at the first day, as well as one and six months after surgery. Results: All patients had normal thyroid function before treatment; however, after 6 months, five patients (16.1% were hypothyroid. Of these, three patients (9.6% had subclinical symptoms, including elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone with normal free T4, and two patients (6.5% showed clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism. Radiotherapy and neck dissection were significantly associated with higher incidences of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: Our data suggest that hypothyroidism occurs in a substantial proportion of patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal cancer. The results indicate that thyroid function studies should be routinely performed in the follow-up care of laryngeal cancer patients, especially if radiotherapy and neck dissection were part of the treatment. We suggest that this approach will improve the patient's quality of life and diminish the co-morbidity associated with this kind of surgery.

  12. Management of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer

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    Patrick Sheahan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx continues to be the commonest head and neck cancer in many Western countries. The larynx plays a key role for many essential functions, including breathing, voice production, airway protection, and swallowing. The goals of laryngeal cancer treatment are thus to provide best possible oncologic control, while optimizing functional outcomes. In recent decades, the treatment paradigm for advanced laryngeal cancer has shifted from one of primary surgery (total laryngectomy as gold standard, toward non-surgical organ-preserving treatment using radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. However, concerns have emerged regarding functional outcomes after chemoradiotherapy, as well as possible decreased overall survival in patients with laryngeal cancer. The purpose of the present review is to review surgical and non-surgical options for treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer, as well as the evidence supporting each of these.

  13. Functional imaging of larynx via 256-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in patients with laryngeal tumors: A faster, better and more reliable pre-therapeutic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, Irfan; Basak, Muzaffer; Ucgul, Ayhan; Yildirim, Hakan; Oz, Aysel; Vural, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical utility of using dynamic maneuvers during imaging of larynx via 256-Slice Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in the pre-therapeutic evaluation of laryngeal tumors. Materials and methods: A total of 27 patients (7 women, 20 men; aged 53–76 years) diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated pre-therapeutically via contrast enhanced axial CT scans during consecutive phases of phonation (PP), inspiration (IP) and Valsalva maneuver (VP). Results: In 2 of 5 patients diagnosed with T1a glottic tumor, scans obtained during VP and PP were normal while the CT scans obtained during IP clearly showed a mass. In all patients (27/27) PP provided visualization of the ventricle, on coronal plane images and the pyriform sinus apices, on axial plane images. Involvement of the anterior commissure was best assessable on axial plane IP images (sensitivity 93%, specificity 92%). In cases of stage T1–T3 tumors use of dynamic maneuvers during laryngeal CT imaging showed the location and extension of the tumor better than the single phase CT scans did. We did not find a significant improvement in the pre-therapeutic evaluation in stage T4 tumors. Conclusion: Providing markedly clearer and more detailed evaluation of mucosal surfaces and deep structures of the larynx and mobility of the cords than do conventional scans, use of dynamic laryngeal maneuvers during laryngeal CT imaging seems to be an useful alternative in the pre-therapeutic assessment of laryngeal tumors.

  14. [Expression and clinical significance of CD45RO in laryngeal carcinoma tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manyi; Liu, Jishengi; Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wenying; Xiao, Gensheng; Yu, Yafeng; Guo, Lingchuan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the role and significance of CD45RO in occurance and development in laryngeal squamous carcinoma, and to provide some valuable clues for searching new approaches to assess prognosis and theoretical basis for tumor biotherapy. The expression of CD45RO protein in 50 cases of laryngeal squamous carcinoma and 10 cases normal mucos was detected by immunohistochemical S-P method. The positive rate of CD45RO was 30% and 86% respectively in normal tissue and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The expresion of CD45RO was significantly and negatively associated with local metastatic of lymph nodes 0.713, P < 0.05) and tumor sites (r = -0.750, P < 0.05), but it have no notable difference with pathology differentiation, age, infiltrating depth and clinical stages in 50 cases of laryngeal squamous cell cancer. (1) The expresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell cancer is more than that in normal tissue. (2) It is possible that overexpresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cut local metastatic lymph nodes. (3) It is probable that overexpresion of CD45RO in laryngeal squamous cell cancer made for prognosis of patients. (4) Other than UICC-TNM stage, pathology differentiation, it provide valuable clues for searching new approaches to assess prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Development of TRAIL Resistance by Radiation-Induced Hypermethylation of DR4 CpG Island in Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Lee, Won Hyeok; Min, Young Joo; Cha, Hee Jeong; Han, Myung Woul; Chang, Hyo Won; Kim, Sun-A; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line. Results: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation

  16. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

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    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  17. Carbon-11 tyrosine PET for visualization and protein synthesis rate assessment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jurjan R. de; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Albers, Frans W.J. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Groningen University Hospital, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Pruim, Jan; Que, Tjin H.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Vaalburg, Willem [PET Center of Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Burlage, Fred [Department of Radiotherapy, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Krikke, Allard [Department of Radiology, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Tiebosch, Anton T.M.G. [Department of Pathology, Groningen University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2002-09-01

    Accurate assessment of tumour extent and lymph node involvement in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region is essential for therapy planning. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic examination and imaging techniques, which monitor tumours on the basis of anatomical parameters, have drawbacks in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of L-[1-{sup 11}C]-tyrosine (TYR) positron emission tomography (PET) for visualisation of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx and quantification of tumour activity by assessment of protein synthesis rate (PSR). Dynamic TYR PET was performed on 31 patients with T1-T4 laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma before therapy. Plasma activity of TYR, {sup 11}CO{sub 2} and {sup 11}C-protein levels were measured, and PSRs were calculated for primary malignancies. All 31 laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours were visualised as a hotspot (sensitivity 100%). The median PSR of the tumours (2.06 nmol ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; range 0.72-6.96) was significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of non-tumour (background) tissue (0.51 nmol ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; range 0.22-0.89). L-[1-{sup 11}C]-Tyrosine PET appears to be a potential method for visualisation of primary laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours. In vivo quantification of tumour activity by assessment of PSR is possible and may have a future role in the therapy planning and therapy evaluation of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours. (orig.)

  18. Human papillomavirus DNA in aerodigestive squamous carcinomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of 10 oesophageal and 10 laryngeal squamous carcinomas was examined by means of immuno cytochemistry and in situ DNA hybridisation to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Changes in the epithelium adjacent to the carcinoma were found in 5 of 10 oesophageal and 7 of 10 laryngeal ...

  19. t4 Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Contreras, Elizabeth Q.; Hartung, Thomas; Hirsch, Cordula; Hogberg, Helena; Jachak, Ashish C.; Jordan, William; Landsiedel, Robert; Morris, Jeffery; Patri, Anil; Pounds, Joel G.; de Vizcaya Ruiz, Andrea; Shvedova, Anna; Tanguay, Robert; Tatarazako, Norihasa; van Vliet, Erwin; Walker, Nigel J.; Wiesner, Mark; Wilcox, Neil; Zurlo, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary In October 2010, a group of experts met as part of the transatlantic think tank for toxicology (t4) to exchange ideas about the current status and future of safety testing of nanomaterials. At present, there is no widely accepted path forward to assure appropriate and effective hazard identification for engineered nanomaterials. The group discussed needs for characterization of nanomaterials and identified testing protocols that incorporate the use of innovative alternative whole models such as zebrafish or C. elegans, as well as in vitro or alternative methods to examine specific functional pathways and modes of action. The group proposed elements of a potential testing scheme for nanomaterials that works towards an integrated testing strategy, incorporating the goals of the NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy by focusing on pathways of toxic response, and utilizing an evidence-based strategy for developing the knowledge base for safety assessment. Finally, the group recommended that a reliable, open, curated database be developed that interfaces with existing databases to enable sharing of information. PMID:21993959

  20. An Unusual Metastasis of a Transglottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to the Forearm

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    Abdullah Dafir Albeyatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each year around 2,200 people in the UK are diagnosed with laryngeal SCC (Office of National Statistics 2009. Compared to pharyngeal carcinoma, it is a highly curable disease with a survival rate of around 60% for all stages and all forms of treatment. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with a previously treated T4 N2c transglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, who developed an isolated swelling in the extensor compartment of his right forearm at 6 months after radical laryngectomy with bilateral neck dissection. Fine needle aspiration of the forearm lesion revealed SCC consistent with a metastasis from the laryngeal primary. MRI revealed that the lesion was confined to the muscle. Initial staging CT showed no distant metastases or signs of advanced disease, including no evidence of axillary nodal involvement. Conclusion. This case is therefore unusual, as one of only 2 cases reported in the scientific literature of isolated distant muscular metastasis from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We conclude that any muscular swelling, in the setting of previous head and neck malignancy, should be treated with a high degree of suspicion for metastasis and investigated promptly.

  1. Multidisciplinary Management of Laryngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, William M.; Mancuso, Anthony A.; Hinerman, Russell W.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Werning, John W.; Amdur, Robert J.; Villaret, Douglas B.

    2007-01-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has evolved into a multidisciplinary approach in which patients are evaluated before treatment and decisions depend on prospective multi-institutional trials, as well as retrospective outcome studies. The choice of one or more modalities to use in a given case varies with the tumor site and extent, as exemplified in the treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. The goals of treatment include cure, laryngeal voice preservation, voice quality, optimal swallowing, and minimal xerostomia. Treatment options include transoral laser excision, radiotherapy (both definitive and postoperative), open partial laryngectomy, total laryngectomy, and neck dissection. The likelihood of local control and preservation of laryngeal function is related to tumor volume. Patients who have a relatively high risk of local recurrence undergo follow-up computed tomography scans every 3-4 months for the first 2 years after radiotherapy. Patients with suspicious findings on computed tomography might benefit from fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to differentiate post-radiotherapy changes from tumor

  2. Cisplatin, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-18

    CDKN2A-p16 Negative; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  3. Results of radiotherapy for primary subglottic squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, Sonya; Warde, Padraig R.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Gullane, Patrick J.; Payne, David; Liu, F.-F.; Bayley, Andrew; Ringash, Jolie; Cummings, Bernard J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome after radical radiotherapy (RT) and surgical salvage and assess the risk of late toxicity for patients with primary subglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated at our center. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 1996, 43 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis (35 men, 8 women) were treated with radical RT. All received megavoltage irradiation, most commonly to a dose of 50-52 Gy in 20 fractions during 4 weeks (39 patients). The median follow-up was 4.2 years. Results: Local control was achieved with RT alone in 24 (56%) of the 43 patients: 7 of 11 with T1, 8 of 12 with T2, 4 of 8 with T3, and 5 of 12 with T4. The 5-year actuarial local relapse-free rate was 52%. Subsequent local control was achieved in 11 of the 13 patients with failed RT and attempted surgical salvage, for an ultimate local control rate of 81.4% (35 of 43). The 5-year overall and cause-specific actuarial survival rate was 50.3% and 66.9%, respectively. No patients developed Grade 3 or 4 late radiation morbidity. Conclusion: These data support the use of primary RT in the treatment of patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the subglottis as an appropriate treatment approach providing an option for laryngeal conservation

  4. RECCURENT LARYNGEAL PAPILLOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyilo Purnami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of respiratory papillomatosis was reported. The patient suffered from the disease since eight months old with chief complaint progressive hoarseness and dyspnea. It was diagnosed with respiratory papillomatosis and scheduled for performing tracheotomy and continued with the first microlaryngeal surgery (MLS. Decanulation was taken after 2nd surgery of removing papillomas. Finally was reported she got serial of surgery for 22 times during 18 years of age. It was costly and deteriorating quality of life. The problem remains persisted because of frequent recurrences and need for repetitive surgeries. Specimen biopsy for histologic examination was shown the signs of HPV infection, papilomatic coated squamous epithel with mild dysplasia and coilocytosis. The threatening of upper airway obstruction is the main important reason for patient's coming. The patency of airway assessed by Direct Laryngoscopy then the next treatment was decided with schedule of Micro Laryngeal Surgery (MLS. Finally the MLS treatment is just only for temporarily recovery. A further research to define the proper treatment in the future is required, especially for prevention of the diseases related to the viral causes of infection.

  5. Role of Pectoralis Major Myocutanuos Flap in Salvage Laryngeal Surgery for Prophylaxis of Pharyngocutaneuos Fistula and Reconstruction of Skin Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebeed, A.; Hussein, H.A.; Saber, T.Kh.; Zohairy, M.A.; Lotayef, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to minimize the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) following salvage laryngeal surgery using vascularized pedicle pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) for enhancing wound healing, rapid intake of oral feeding, reconstruction of desqauamated irradiated skin, achieving short hospital stay and protection against catastrophic blow out mortality. Patients and Methods: This case series study of sixteen patients carried out from May 2005 to July 2009, at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University where we applied PMMC flap in salvage laryngeal surgery for those with high risk to develop complications: Patients of poor general conditions (anemia, hypoproteinaemia, diabetics) and/or poor local conditions for healing (irradiated neck, extensive local or nodal recurrence with skin desquamation, infiltration or tumor fungation which need extensive resection). Five cases had been treated with primary cobalt radiotherapy laryngeal field only and 4 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes, while photon therapy was given in 4 cases as laryngeal field only and 3 cases laryngeal field with draining neck nodes. All cases were squamous cell carcinoma (13 cases grade 2, 2 cases grade 3 and one case grade 1) proved before radiotherapy. Supraglottic recurrence was detected in 7 cases (43.75%) and glottis in 9 cases (56.25%). Following salvage surgery, 11 cases were staged T3 NO, Nl and N2, 3 cases were T2 NO or Nl and 2 cases were T4 N2 with skin infiltration. Tracheostomy was there in 4 cases. Results: The study included fifteen males (93.75%) and one female (6.25%), age was between 38-73 years (mean=55.5 years). Five cases were operated on as total laryngectomy with excision of skin flaps + PMMC flap, 4 cases as total laryngectomy with skin flap excision + functional block neck dissection + PMMC flap and 7 cases as total laryngectomy -f block neck dissection with skin, excision (modified radical in 4 cases and radical in 3 cases

  6. Laryngeal tumours: clinical features and management challenges as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (57.14%) of the patients had emergency tracheostomy. The predominant histological type was well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma [15(42.86%)]. Only three (8.57 %) patients had total laryngectomy. Conclusion: The prevalence of laryngeal tumours in our environment was found to be 1.52% and patients ...

  7. Laryngeal cancer at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the patients (90.4%) were above 40 years. The commonest symptom at presentation was dysphonia. A significant proportion of cases (37.3%) presented with locally advanced disease. The commonest histological type of laryngeal tumour seen was squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment offered consisted of ...

  8. Immunological responses against human papilloma virus and human papilloma virus induced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sakazaki, T; Ono, T; Kurita, T; Mihashi, H; Nakashima, T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the local immune status in the larynx in the presence of infection or carcinogenesis associated with human papilloma virus. Cytological samples (for human papilloma virus detection) and laryngeal secretions (for immunoglobulin assessment) were obtained from 31 patients with laryngeal disease, during microscopic laryngeal surgery. On histological examination, 12 patients had squamous cell carcinoma, four had laryngeal papilloma and 15 had other benign laryngeal disease. Cytological samples were tested for human papilloma virus DNA using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay. High risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 25 per cent of patients (three of 12) with laryngeal cancer. Low risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected only in three laryngeal papilloma patients. The mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A in human papilloma virus DNA positive patients were more than twice those in human papilloma virus DNA negative patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between the secretory immunoglobulin A concentrations in the two groups. Patients with laryngeal cancer had higher laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type, compared with patients with benign laryngeal disease. The study assessed the mean laryngeal secretion concentrations of each immunoglobulin type in the 12 laryngeal cancer patients, comparing human papilloma virus DNA positive patients (n = 3) and human papilloma virus DNA negative patients (n = 9); the mean concentrations of immunoglobulins M, G and A and secretory immunoglobulin A tended to be greater in human papilloma virus DNA positive cancer patients, compared with human papilloma virus DNA negative cancer patients. These results suggest that the local laryngeal immune response is activated by infection or carcinogenesis due to human papilloma virus. The findings strongly suggest that secretory IgA has inhibitory activity

  9. 216-T-4 interim stabilization final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides a general description of the activities performed for the interim stabilization of the 216-T-4-1 ditch, 216-T-4-2 ditch, and 216-T-4-2 pond. Interim stabilization was required to reduce the amount of surface-contaminated acres and to minimize the migration of radioactive contamination. Work associated with the 216-T4-1 ditch and 216-T-4-2 pond was performed by the Radiation Area Remedial Action (RARA) Project. Work associated with the 216-T-4-2 ditch was done concurrently but was funded by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS)

  10. Impact of chemotherapy and definitive radiotherapy for laryngeal preservation. A comparative study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy and induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, Yukihiro; Kou, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    During the past 23 years, from June 1989 to December 2012, our treatment paradigm for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) had involved comprehensive use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by surgery. Between 1989 and 2005, chemotherapy using fluorouracil and carboplatin had been administered via intravenous drip infusion as induction chemotherapy (ICT), and more recently between 2006 and 2012 as concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). In the present study, we examined the superiority of definitive CCRT (dCCRT) over the ICT followed by definitive radiotherapy (ICT-dRT) as to the impact on the treatment of HNSCC with the stage-categories of T2-T4a, retrospectively analyzing survival rates and laryngeal preservation rates at the 3-year point between the two groups. The number of patients assigned for this study was 76, all of whom were previously untreated, and of whom 51 suffered from laryngeal carcinoma and 25 from hypopharyngeal carcinoma: 21 with Stage II, 25 with Stage III, 23 with Stage IV A, 7 with Stage IV C. The three-year overall survival rate and cause-specific survival rate were 54.5%, 73.5% in the ICT-dRT group and 69.2%, 80.5% in the dCCRT group, respectively, both of which statistically had no difference. But the dCCRT was found to contribute to obtaining a higher rate of laryngeal preservation than that of the ICT-dRT in T2 and T3 but not in T4a. In conclusion, dCCRT showed more significant efficacy for organ preservation on T2 and T3 HNSCC than ICT-dRT. (author)

  11. Imaging of laryngeal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Minerva; Leuchter, Igor; Platon, Alexandra; Becker, Christoph D.; Dulguerov, Pavel; Varoquaux, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed

  12. [Laryngeal adduction reflex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Bonenberger, S; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Jungheim, M

    2014-07-01

    Laryngeal Adductor Reflex Background: A rapid closure of the vocal folds is necessary, whenever foreign materials or food particles penetrate into the larynx. Otherwise a passage of these particles into the trachea or the lower respiratory tract would be imminent. An aspiration could mechanically block the respiratory tract and cause severe dyspnoea or cause aspiration pneumonia. For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed and Scopus using the keywords "laryngeal adductor reflex" and "vocal fold closure" has been carried out. Apart from the oesophago-glottal and pharyngo-glottal closure reflexes, the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) has been investigated in particular. The LAR qualifies as a reflectory laryngeal adductor mechanism and involves early, presumably di- or oligosynaptic ipsilateral LAR1 as well as late polysynaptic ipsi- and contralateral LAR2 components. In clinical routine diagnostic settings of dysphagia, LAR is only assessed qualitatively and usually triggered by air pulses or tactile stimulation. Dysphagiologists often find that not only the laryngeal sensibility in general is impaired, but especially the protective laryngeal adduction mechanism, which results in a higher risk of aspiration. Thus, it appears mandatory to test the LAR not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. Unfortunately a valid and reliable method that can be employed in clinical practice has not yet been put forward. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Imaging of laryngeal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Minerva, E-mail: Minerva.Becker@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Leuchter, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Leuchter@hcuge.ch [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-facial Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Platon, Alexandra, E-mail: Alexandra.Platon@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Becker, Christoph D., E-mail: Christoph.Becker@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Dulguerov, Pavel, E-mail: Pavel.Dulguerov@hcuge.ch [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico-facial Surgery, University Hospital of Geneva, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Varoquaux, Arthur, E-mail: Arthur.Varoquaux@hcuge.ch [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    External laryngeal trauma is a rare but potentially life-threatening situation in the acutely injured patient. Trauma mechanism and magnitude, maximum focus of the applied force, and patient related factors, such as age and ossification of the laryngeal cartilages influence the spectrum of observed injuries. Their correct diagnosis and prompt management are paramount in order to avoid patient death or long-term impairment of breathing, swallowing and speaking. The current review provides a comprehensive approach to the radiologic interpretation of imaging studies performed in patients with suspected laryngeal injury. It describes the key anatomic structures that are relevant in laryngeal trauma and discusses the clinical role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute emergency situation. The added value of two-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions (2D MPR), three-dimensional volume rendering (3D VR) and virtual endoscopy (VE) for the non-invasive evaluation of laryngeal injuries and for treatment planning is discussed. The clinical presentation, biomechanics of injury, diagnostic pitfalls and pearls, common and uncommon findings are reviewed with emphasis of fracture patterns, involvement of laryngeal joints, intra- and extralaryngeal soft tissue injuries, and complications seen in the acute emergency situation. The radiologic appearance of common and less common long-term sequelae, as well as treatment options are equally addressed.

  14. Laryngeal cancer at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital Accra Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcher, E.D.; Cheyuo, C.; Yarney, J.; Gyasi, R. K.

    2006-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the commonest head and neck cancer seen at the Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Unit Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the number of cases of laryngeal cancer seen at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, establish epidemiological parameters of the disease and to outline preventive measures. One hundred and fifteen (115) patients who were managed for laryngeal cancer from 1st January 1998 to 31st December 2003 were studied retrospectively with respect to age, sex, duration of symptoms at presentation, risk factors, symptoms complex, histopathology, stage of tumor, details of treatment offered and follow up. The age range was 17-85 years with a mean of 55.5 years (SD10.7). Majority of the patients (90.4%) were above 40 years. The commonest symptom at presentation was dysphonia. A significant proportion of cases (37.3%) presented with locally advanced disease. The commonest histological type of laryngeal tumour seen was squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment offered consisted of radiotherapy for 83 (79.8%) patients and total laryngectomy with neck dissection when necessary for 17 (16.3%) patients who also had postoperative radiotherapy. Only 58 (69.9%) patients completed radiotherapy treatment and in all 32 (24.3 %) patients did not report for any treatment. Majority of patients failed to report for post treatment follow-up. We conclude that significant number of patients with laryngeal cancer presented with locally advanced disease and dysphonia was the commonest symptom. (au)

  15. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Rutter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the main aspects concerning airway management of infants will be analyzed. Conclusions: It is critical for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants.

  16. Detection of human papillomavirus in laryngeal lesions by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Fessler, J N; Warhol, M J

    1994-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with human neoplasms of squamous epithelium. Squamous papillomas and verrucous carcinomas are two types of squamous neoplasms of the larynx that present difficult problems in differential diagnosis. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes......, we examined benign squamous papillomas and verrucous squamous carcinomas of the larynx for the presence of HPV. Forty-two biopsy specimens from 18 patients with laryngeal papillomas and 11 biopsy specimens from seven patients with verrucous carcinomas were obtained from the files of Pennsylvania...... Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Tissue sections were hybridized with an HPV DNA cocktail. The HPV-positive cases then were subtyped further with DNA probes specific for HPV subtypes 6/11, 16/18, and 31/33/35. All benign squamous papillomas (42 of 42) were positive for HPV subtype 6/11. None of the verrucous...

  17. Inducible laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Bucca, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes an inappropriate, transient, reversible narrowing of the larynx in response to external triggers. ILO is an important cause of a variety of respiratory symptoms and can mimic asthma. Current understanding of ILO has been hampered by imprecise nomenc...

  18. Laryngitis (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to change your diet and give up some foods that make the problem worse. Can I Prevent It? To prevent laryngitis, try not to talk or yell in a way that hurts your voice. A humidifier that puts more water into the air may also help keep your throat from drying out. Also, never smoke and try not to ...

  19. [Hypothyroidism incidence after multimodal treatment for laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Gutiérrez, César; Luna-Ortiz, Kuauhyama; Villavicencio-Valencia, Verónica; Herrera Gómez, Angel; Téllez-Palacios, Daniela; Contreras-Buendía, Marlen

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism following total laryngectomy or radiotherapy treatment for laryngeal cancer is not a rare event, especially in advanced stages. There are no reports on the incidence of hypothyroidism in patients who received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of thyroid dysfunction in a group of patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent surgery as sole treatment, total laryngectomy or radiotherapy alone, and patients with combined treatment: surgery plus radiotherapy, concomitant chemoradiation therapy and chemoradiation therapy plus salvage surgery. A prospective study of patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer whose serum TSH and T4 levels were evaluated in a serial fashion. 70 patients with laryngeal cancer were studied; the average age at diagnosis was 70.2 years. Male patients were more affected, with a men-women ratio of 3.6:1. Glottic localization was the most frequent (44%). 64% of tumors were locally advanced carcinomas and 51% received multimodal treatment. 45 patients (63%) were diagnosed with hypothyroidism; 49% of the patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, and 51% with clinical hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a complication following treatment for laryngeal cancer. It is recommended to evaluate the thyroid function periodically for timely detection.

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  1. CT findings of laryngeal tuberculosis : comparison with laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Sung, Ki Joon; Jung, Tae Sub; Cho, Jae Min; Yune, Heun Yune; Kim, Sun Yong

    1996-01-01

    To determine the value of CT(Computerized Tomography) in the diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis and to assess to what extent its characteristic findings different from those of laryngeal carcinoma. CT scans of twelve patients with laryngeal tuberculosis were reviewed and compared with those of fifteen patients with laryngeal cancer, retrospectively. Clinical symptoms, laryngoscopic examinations and the presence of pulmonary tuberculosis chest radiographs were also reviewed. In laryngeal tuberculosis, bilateral symmetric or asymmetric involvement was noted in nine(75%) patients, while unilateral involvement was seen in three(25%). This was significantly different from laryngeal cancer in which unilateral involvement was noted in twelve patients(80%). Diffuse thickening of the free margin of the epiglottis was a characteristic and frequent finding in tuberculosis(n=6, 50%). No deep submucosal infiltration of preepiglottic and paralaryngeal fat spaces is seen in tuberculosis in spite of large areas of involvement of laryngeal mucosa, while twelve patients(80%) with laryngeal cancer showed thickened deep infiltration which resulted in a submucosal mass. CT was useful in the diagnosis of laryngeal tuberculosis and its CT findings were characterized by bilateral involvement, thickening of the free margin of the epiglottis and good preservation of preepiglottic and paralaryngeal fat spaces in spite of large areas of involvement

  2. Laryngeal neurinoma. Differential diagnosis of submucosal laryngeal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuera, A.; Palomo, V.; Munoz, R.; Sanchez, F.

    2002-01-01

    Laryngeal neurinoma is a rare benign tumor that appears as a submucosal mass, generally in the supraglottic region. We report the case of a patient with dysphonia of long evolution caused by a neurinoma. We discuss the radiological findings of the tumor and the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of this and other submucosal laryngeal lesions. (Author) 16 refs

  3. An Evaluation of Thyroid Hormones (T4, T3, and Free T4) Concentrations During Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bo; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of T 4 , T 3 , and free T 4 were measured by radioimmunoassay in normal pregnant women at trimesters, in postpartum women, and cord blood of neonate. Total T 4 were increased during pregnancy, remarkably high in the first trimester, and also somewhat increased in postpartum, and normal in neonate. Total T 3 were in normal range during pregnancy, but increased in postpartum, whereas decreased in neonate. Free T 4 were decreased in 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy, however normal in postpartum and neonate.

  4. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  5. Primary laryngeal tuberculosis mimicking laryngeal carcinoma: CT scan features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kettani, N Ech-Cherif; El Hassani, MR; Chakir, N; Jiddane, M

    2010-01-01

    Laryngeal tuberculosis is a rare disease. It is almost always associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. It occurs generally in adults without BCG vaccination or in cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. On laryngoscopy and imaging, it often simulates laryngeal carcinoma, and confirmation is always histological. We report the case of a 36-year-old man who presented to our hospital with dysphonia and dysphagia. Laryngoscopy revealed a lesion of the left vocal cord and the ventricular strip. CT scan found focal, regular thickening of the left vocal cord, associated with irregular thickening of the posterior laryngeal wall. A biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of tuberculosis

  6. Section four: laryngitis and dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

    2013-12-01

    Acute laryngitis is most often caused by viral illnesses through direct inflammation of the vocal cords or from irritation due to postnasal drainage. Bacterial infections, such as acute epiglottitis, also can cause dysphonia but typically have other systemic symptoms as well as respiratory distress. Chronic laryngitis is characterized by symptoms lasting more than 3 weeks. Chronic vocal cord issues can be related to overuse or stress on the vocal cords resulting in nodules or polyps. Individuals in certain occupations, such as singers, school teachers, and chemical workers, are at greater risk of chronic laryngitis. The diagnostic approach to chronic laryngitis should include visualization of the vocal cords to rule out potential malignant lesions. For acute and chronic overuse symptoms, the best treatment is vocal rest. The use of antibiotics or decongestants should be discouraged. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. Surface ultrastuctures of the human laryngeal mucosa - observation by an newly developed technique of SEM cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, M.; Ohno, I.; Fujita, T.; Adachi, K.

    1981-01-01

    With the newly-developed techniques of SEM cinematography, surface ultrastructures of the human normal and pathological laryngeal mucosa were demonstrated. The high specialization of the laryngeal mucosa with its marked regional differences stresses the fact that even the squamous epithelium and nonciliated epithelium may play a role of utmost importance. All specimens were obtained after laryngectomy from 10 patients affected by laryngeal cancer which had been treated with or without preoperative irradiation of Lineac in total doses of 3,500-4,500 rad. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of microvilli and microplicae in the normal and pathological mucosa of the larynx, and their morphological and physiological significances were discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  8. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balica Nicolae Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  9. A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LARYNGEAL MALIGNANCIES AT OUR INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Mohan Mathan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Malignancies of larynx are an increasing global burden with a distribution of approximately 2-5% of all malignancies with an incidence of 3.6/1,00,000 for men and 1.3/1,00,000 for women with a male-to-female ratio of 4:1. Smoking and alcohol are major established risk factors. More than 90-95% of all malignancies are squamous cell type. Three main subsite of laryngeal malignancies are glottis, supraglottis and subglottis. Improved surgical techniques and advanced chemoradiotherapy has increased the overall 5 year survival rate. The above study is statistical analysis of laryngeal malignancies at our institution for a period of one year and analysis of pattern of distribution, aetiology, sites and subsites and causes for recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS Based on the statistical data available in the institution for the period of one year from January 2016-December 2016, all laryngeal malignancies were analysed with respect to demographic pattern, age, gender, site, subsite, aetiology, staging, treatment received and probable cause for failure of treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months period during the study. RESULTS Total number of cases studied are 27 (twenty seven. Male cases are 23 and female cases are 4, male-to-female ratio is 5.7:1, most common age is above 60 years, most common site is supraglottis, most common type is moderately-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, most common cause for relapse or recurrence is advanced stage of disease and poor differentiation. CONCLUSION The commonest age occurrence at the end of the study is above 60 years and male-to-female ratio is 5.7:1, which is slightly above the international standards. Most common site is supraglottis and not glottis. The relapse and recurrences are higher compared to the international standards.

  10. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Francesco; Missale, Francesco; Incandela, Fabiola; Filauro, Marta; Parrinello, Giampiero; Paderno, Alberto; Della Casa, Palmiro; Piazza, Cesare; Peretti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC) can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position. We reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed. Significant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B ( p  = 0.04). A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A), although no statistical significance was achieved. Use of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.

  11. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTransoral laser microsurgery (TLM for early to intermediate laryngeal squamous cell cancer (SCC can be technically challenging when adequate exposure of the posterior laryngeal compartment is required due to the presence of the orotracheal tube. The goal of our study was to analyze the efficacy of high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV in achieving appropriate laryngeal exposure and safe oncologic resection of lesions located in such a position.MethodsWe reviewed the clinical records of 62 patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment treated by TLM between 02/2012 and 12/2016. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the anesthesiologic technique used: Group A included patients treated using intraoperative infraglottic HFJV, while Group B encompassed patients treated by standard orotracheal intubation. The main outcome was postoperative surgical margin status. Group comparison analysis was performed.ResultsSignificant difference in deep margin status was observed between the two groups: in Group A, the rate of negative deep margins was 86% compared to 56% in Group B (p = 0.04. A trend of better overall and superficial margin control was observed for patients treated using HFJV (Group A, although no statistical significance was achieved.ConclusionUse of HFJV during TLM allows easier and safer management of patients affected by Tis-T2 SCC of the posterior laryngeal compartment, reducing the rates of positive superficial and deep surgical margins.

  12. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between...

  13. Ionising rays and laryngeal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Glanz, H.; Kleinsasser, O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of the literature and report of a new case of laryngeal cancer after irradiation of a benign lesion of the neck. These cases obviously become rare since benign lesions are no longer irradiated. Today the risk of inducing a second carcinoma by a successful irradiation of the first tumor becomes more important. A study of 109 patients, irradiated for laryngeal carcinoma and surviving with no evidence of disease for a period of at least 5 years has been performed. 8 of these patients developed a second primary in the previously irradiated area after 7-15 years. These second carcinomas are not rare if one considers that most patients with laryngeal carcinoma are 60-70 years old and therefore the life expectance on an average is low. These facts should be taken into consideration when deciding between surgical or radiation therapy in younger patients with high life expectance. (orig.) [de

  14. Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahannan, Abdulrahman; Slavicek, A.; Taudy, M.; Chovanec, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

  15. Changes in survival in locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma over past three decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Zawahry, I.M.Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the commonest carcinoma of the head and neck region with Squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) in 90 % of cases (Birchall Met al 2008) The incidence of laryngeal cancer was relatively about 160,000 new cases per year. The disease predominantly affects men; about 2.4% of all cancer cases and 2.1% of all cancer deaths worldwide ,also in United States in 2012 the Es)mated new cases is 12,360 and deaths from laryngeal cancer is 3,650. The majority of patients with SCC of larynx present with locally advanced (LA) disease.(American Cancer Society, 2012) The incidence of laryngeal cancer in the Kasr El-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University from year 2005 - 2008 is 3.1%per year. Advanced laryngeal cancer is generally considered as the disease in stages III and IV based on the primary tumor extension and/or the presence of metastatic lymph node(s) in the neck and it accounts for roughly 40% to 50% of patients with laryngeal cancer (Chen AY, et al 2006). From the second half of the 20th century total laryngectomy combined with a neck dissection was considered a treatment of choice for advanced laryngeal cancer (Genden EM et al, 2007). In most institutions, postoperative radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment following ablative surgery with radiation doses up to 60-66 Gy has also become the standard approach for patients with stage III-IV laryngeal cancer (Corvo R , 2007). However, the treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer seams to be a permanent challenge, but the management of patients with advanced laryngeal cancer has become more complex as other modalities including induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemo-radiotherapy have evolved with the goal of preserving the larynx and reserved total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for cases with less than 50% response to induction chemotherapy or in those who have persistent disease following concurrent chemo

  16. Self evaluation of communication experiences after laryngeal cancer – A longitudinal questionnaire study in patients with laryngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finizia Caterina

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the sensitivity to change of the Swedish Self Evaluation of Communication Experiences after Laryngeal Cancer questionnaire (the S-SECEL, addressing communication dysfunction in patients treated for laryngeal cancer. Previous studies have highlighted the need for more specific questionnaires for this purpose. Methods 100 patients with Tis-T4 laryngeal cancer were included prior to treatment onset. Patients answered four questionnaires at six occasions during one year; the S-SECEL, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Core Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30 supplemented by the Head and Neck cancer module (QLQ-H&N35 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale. In addition, performance status was assessed. Differences within groups were tested with the Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test and between-group analyses were carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test. Magnitude of group differences was analyzed by means of effect sizes. Results The S-SECEL was well accepted with a response rate of 76%. Communication dysfunction increased at 1 month, followed by a continuous decrease throughout the year. Changes were statistically significant at most measurement, demonstrating the sensitivity of the S-SECEL to changes in communication over time. The S-SECEL and the EORTC QLQ-C30 with the QLQ-H&N35 demonstrated similar results; however the S-SECEL was more sensitive regarding communication dysfunction. The largest changes were found in the most diagnose specific items concerning voice and speech. Conclusion The S-SECEL was investigated in the largest Scandinavian longitudinal study concerning health-related quality of life (HRQL in laryngeal cancer patients. The questionnaire was responsive to change and showed convergent results when compared to established HRQL questionnaires. Our findings also indicate that the S-SECEL could be a more

  17. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  18. Pediatric mumps with laryngeal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yujiro; Oi, Yasufumi; Matsuoka, Ryo; Daimon, Yumi; Ito, Asami; Kubota, Wataru; Konishi, Kyoko; Onguchi, Toshimi; Sato, Akihiro; Yamashita, Yukio; Ishihara, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Mumps virus infection primarily affects the salivary glands and may incur various complications. Laryngeal edema is such a rare complication that few adult cases have been reported. We report the first known pediatric patient with mumps with laryngeal edema. An 8-year-old boy developed dyspnea after a rapidly progressive swelling of his face and neck. Laryngoscopy revealed edematous changes in the supraglottic and subglottic regions, and computed tomography confirmed significant laryngeal edema in addition to swelling of the cervical soft tissue and the salivary glands. Laboratory findings revealed a high serum amylase level and confirmed the diagnosis of mumps. Intravenous steroid administration alleviated the dyspnea, although the patient required temporary tracheal intubation to maintain airway patency. He did not need tracheotomy and did not experience any other complications. Laryngeal edema must be regarded as a rare, potentially life-threatening complication of mumps. When mumps is diagnosed with significant swelling of the neck, an emergency airway should be established to prevent airway obstruction.

  19. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar; Sreenivas

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  20. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MODA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin. The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. RESULTS: The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. CONCLUSION: A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  1. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Isabela; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin). The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  2. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-22

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. T4 thyrotoxicosis: an independent disease or the effect of an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, R.M.B.; Vieira, J.G.H.; Russo, E.M.K.; Dib, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Six cases of T 4 thyrotoxicosis were observed in 250 patients with hyperthyroidism. In the 6 episodes, the thyrotoxicosis was associated with severe systemic illness or with the admnistration of propanolol, which blocked the peripheral convertion of T 4 to T 3 . These data indicate that T 4 thyrotoxicosis reflects an alteration in the peripheral metabolism of T 4 produced by systemic illness or drugs. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Rapid T4 radioimmunoassay with antibody of Czechoslovak production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cechacek, Z [MUNZ, Brno (Czechoslovakia) Div. of Nuclear Nedicine

    1978-06-30

    Rapid T4-RIA based on the T4-antibody produced in Institute of Experimental Endocrinology in Bratislava is described. The used T4-antibody was found as suitable preparation for the routine T4-RIA and is comparable to the foreign materials. T4 antibody was obtained by rabbit immunization and supplied as antiserum in a frozen state. It was properly diluted with 0.08M barbital buffer, pH 8.6, containing 0.a5% sodium ethylmercurythiosalicylate and 0.5% BSA.

  5. BCCIP as a prognostic marker for radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewari, Amar; Lu Huimei; Parikh, Rahul; Yang Qifeng; Shen Zhiyuan; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that BCCIP (BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein) is essential for maintaining the transactivation activity of wild type p53. We analyzed the expression of BCCIP and p53 in a cohort of laryngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy and assessed whether BCCIP and p53, alone or in combination, would correlate with local control and overall survival. Methods: One hundred twenty-three patients treated between 1975 and 2000 for early stage (stages I and II) squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were included in the study. Treatment consisted of radiation therapy (RT) with standard fields and fractionation to a median dose of 66 Gy. Tissue was collected from pre-RT biopsies and constructed in a tissue microarray, and BCCIP expression and p53 expression were determined using immunohistochemistry. Results: Loss of expression of BCCIP in combination with normal p53 (negative p53 staining) was associated with local recurrence (RR 2.04; 95% CI 0.99-4.56, p = 0.05) and poor overall survival (RR 2.09; 95% CI 1.21-4.00, p = 0.008) compared to patients who did express BCCIP. Expression of BCCIP or p53 alone was not found to be independently associated with benefits in local control or overall survival. Conclusions: This study provides clinical evidence that BCCIP contributes to outcomes in patients with laryngeal cancer treated with RT. This benefit may be a result of increased radiosensitivity in patients who have functional BCCIP and p53. These data may be used to identify sub-groups of laryngeal cancer patients who are more likely to be cured with radiotherapy

  6. Clinical experiences of NBI laryngoscope in diagnosis of laryngeal lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xinmeng; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Xue; Jin, Chunshun; Sun, Changling; Liu, Xueshibojie; Cheng, Jinzhang; Zhang, Dejun

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopy is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers derived from the larynx. However, a laryngoscope with conventional white light (CWL) has technical limitations in detecting small or superficial lesions on the mucosa. Narrow band imaging especially combined with magnifying endoscopy (ME) is useful for the detection of superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) within the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and oral cavity. A total of 3675 patients who have come to the outpatient clinic and complained of inspiratory stridor, dyspnea, phonation problems or foreign body sensation, were enrolled in this study. We describe the glottic conditions of the patients. All 3675 patients underwent laryngoscopy equipped with conventional white light (CWL) and NBI system. 1149 patients received a biopsy process. And 1153 lesions were classified into different groups according to their histopathological results. Among all the 1149 patients, 346 patients (312 males, 34 females; mean age 62.2±10.5 years) were suspected of having a total of 347 precancerous or cancerous (T1 or T2 without lymphnode involvement) lesions of the larynx under the CWL. Thus, we expected to attain a complete vision of what laryngeal lesions look like under the NBI view of a laryngoscope. The aim was to develop a complete description list of each laryngeal conditions (e.g. polyps, papilloma, leukoplakia, etc.), which can serve as a criteria for further laryngoscopic examinations and diagnosis. PMID:25419362

  7. Laryngeal morbidity after tracheal intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Rasmussen, N; Kristensen, M S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tracheal intubation may cause vocal fold damage. The trial was designed to assess laryngeal morbidity comparing the Endoflex(®) tube with a conventional endotracheal tube with stylet. We hypothesised that laryngeal morbidity within the first 24 h after extubation would be lower...... with the Endoflex tube than with the conventional endotracheal tube with stylet because of less rigidity. METHODS: This randomised trial included 130 elective surgical patients scheduled for general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Pre- and post-operative assessment of hoarseness, vocal fold pathology......% with the Endoflex tube and 55% with the endotracheal tube with stylet at 24 h after extubation (P = 0.44). Post-operative vocal fold injury was present in 23% in the Endoflex tube group and in 36% in the endotracheal tube with stylet group (P = 0.13). The increase in shimmer, the voice analysis variable reflecting...

  8. САР1 AS A SERUM MARKER FOR EARLY DETECTION OF LARYNGEAL AND HYPOPHARYNGEAL CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kakurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is often asymptomatic until it reaches the advanced stage. Currently, there are no available markers that can accurately predict the risk of progression of epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the level of adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP-1 in the blood serum to identify groups of increased risk of cancer in patients with chronic laryngeal and hypopharyngeal hyperplasia associated with epithelial dysplasia. Material and methods. The blood serums from 45 patients with SCCHN (T1–4N0–3M0, 12 patients  with chronic inflammatory laryngeal and hypopharyngeal diseases and 15 heath subjects were examined. The blood analysis was performed using the CAP1 ELISA kit (Cusabio on the Biochrom Anthos 2020 Microplate IEA Reader. Results. The serum level of САР1 was higher by 75 % in patients with SCCHN (Т1N0M0 than in patients with chronic hyperplastic laryngitis. Moreover, differences in the serum level of САР1 were observed between healthy subjects and patients with chronic laryngeal hyperplasia. In SCCHN patients with regional metastases, CAP1 concentration in the blood serum was 2 times higher compared to that observed in SCCHN patients without regional metastases (p≤0.01. Conclusion. The study results showed the feasibility of using the level of CAP1 for distinguishing patients with chronic hyperplastic laryngitis from those with laryngeal cancer, as well as for early detection of SCCHN and the development of new method for prediction of disease.

  9. Allergic laryngitis: unraveling the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Robert J; Dworkin-Valenti, James P

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a thorough review of the literature highlighting the articles that have advanced our knowledge about the sensitivity of the larynx to allergens in the air or ones consumed. This area of inquiry requires continued interest and investigation. As the field of clinical laryngology changes, and more information is discovered about the possible causal association between allergy and vocal pathologies, practicing otolaryngologists, allergists, and other medical professionals may discover more comprehensive methods to evaluate and treat their allergic patients, particularly those who present with complaints of dysphonia, dysphagia, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and/or dyspnea. There continues to be epidemiological studies designed to describe the relationship of allergy to vocal symptoms and signs. Both population and smaller studies have recently attempted to link these two conditions. Unfortunately, the patient with chronic laryngeal complaints is often tagged by default with the diagnosis of LPR and treated with proton pump inhibitors, which are not always beneficial. The endoscopic assessment may not be as reliable to make the diagnosis of LPR as the examination is subjective and the inter-rater reliability is low. It has been demonstrated by direct laryngeal provocation studies that sticky-viscous endo-laryngeal mucous is the only reliable finding consistently associated with allergy potential allergic tissue reactivity. The interrelationship of allergic sensitivity and chronic laryngitis in certain individuals is becoming clearer because our knowledge of inquiry has increased and the available routine technology to diagnose these conditions has remarkably improved. Notwithstanding these advancements, much more research is needed on this subject to reduce the frequency of mis-diagnoses and mis-management of allergic patients.

  10. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  11. Dysphonia as a sign of HPV laryngeal infection: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longubuco, Carlos Eduardo Gama; dos Reis, Helena Lucia Barroso; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; de Pinho, Carla Renata Petillo; Oliveira, Nathalia Silva; Nicol, Alcina Frederica; Zamolyi, Renata Quintella; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho

    2014-12-11

    Voice dysfunction or dysphonia may be associated with several clinical conditions. Among these, laryngeal human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions should be considered as a possible causative factor. We report a case of dysphonia in a patient presenting with an HPV laryngeal lesion. We also discuss the clinical features of the disease, its histopathological findings, and treatment and rigorous follow-up. We report a case of laryngeal papilloma in a 29-year-old, Afro-descendant, male patient with dysphonia. He was a non-smoker and was not a drug user. Videolaryngostroboscopy revealed signs suggestive of pharyngolaryngeal reflux. The right vocal fold presented with a papillomatous aspect in the posterior third, which underwent excision. Histopathological examination showed a nodular lesion of the right vocal fold, conclusive of squamous papilloma with absence of malignancy. Patients presenting with persistent voice dysfunction or dysphonia should be investigated for possible laryngeal HPV infection. Diagnostic confirmation by HPV genotyping is important for follow-up of potential recurrence.

  12. Some Comparative Anatomical and Histological Studies on the Laryngeal Cartilages of Buffaloes, Camels and Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Eshra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies concerned the upper air ways of domestic animals are few. So this study was carried out to compare between the larynx of buffaloes, camels and donkeys. The present investigation was carried out on 39 larynxes, 13 larynxes (7 males, 6 females of each species. Ten heads from each species were used for gross anatomical study; the remained three heads were used for the histological study. Results revealed that, the laryngeal cartilages of the three species were consisted of three single cartilages; the thyroid, the cricoid and the epiglottis, and two paired cartilages; the arytenoid and the corniculate. The cuneiform cartilages were paired cartilages present only in the larynx of the donkey. Thyroid, arytenoid and cricoid cartilages were of hyaline type, while the epiglottis, cuniform and corniculate cartilages and the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage were of elastic type. The laryngeal epithelium of aditus laryngis, greater part of epiglottis and vocal folds was lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The remained parts of laryngeal epithelium from base of epiglottis and entire parts caudal to vocal folds were lined by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. The laryngeal glands of lamina propria were of mixed types in buffaloes and donkeys but in camels it was pure mucous glands. This study will fill a gap in the field of comparative anatomy and help other clinical investigation applied on these animals.

  13. Expression of calcium binding protein S100 A7 (psoriasin) in laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiveron, Rogério Costa; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Figueiredo, David L; Serafini, Luciano N; Mamede, Rui Celso Martins; Zago, Marco A

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have reported increased expression of S100 A7 (psoriasin) in neoplastic lesions. Among them are studies on breast carcinoma, bladder squamous cell carcinoma, skin tumors and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of S100 A7 has not been described for laryngeal cancer. This study aims to identify the expression of the calcium-binding protein S100 A7 and its correlation with squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. Specimens from 63 patients were submitted to immunohistochemistry testing with antibody S100 A7. Results were classified and compared. The group with highly differentiated tumors had the highest treatment failure scores. Moderately differentiated tumors had higher treatment failure scores than poorly differentiated tumors. Higher scores were predominantly seen on stages I and II in moderately differentiated tumors, whereas score distribution was more homogeneous in advanced stage disease (III and IV). Regarding failure in treatment, the group scoring zero (3/4 complications: 75%) differed significantly from the remaining groups (13/59: 22%). S100 A7 marker was expressed in 93.7% of laryngeal cancer cases, with higher positive correlation rates in more differentiated tumors and significantly lower rates of treatment failure. Scores had no impact on survival rates.

  14. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in laryngeal carcinomas demonstrated by immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    the basal cell layer. The present investigation and our previous results confirm the existence of EGF receptors, TGF-alpha and EGF in laryngeal carcinomas. In addition, we conclude that the conditions do exist for growth factors to act through an autocrine system in poorly differentiated tumours and through......Fifteen laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) using immunohistochemical methods. In a recent study the same material was characterized for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF...... receptors) which were confined predominantly to the undifferentiated cells. The expression of this growth factor system in malignant cells may play a role in carcinogenesis and/or tumour growth. All carcinomas were positive for TGF-alpha and 12 were positive for EGF. In moderately-to-well differentiated...

  15. Apropos of a case of cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal cancer with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeeta Trehan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma is a rare occurrence. A 55-year-old male patient with supraglottic cancer was treated with concurrent chemoradiation. Eighteen months later, he presented with ulceroproliferative growth on dorsum of the right hand. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Further investigations revealed underlying bone destruction with lung metastasis. In view of poor general condition and widespread dissemination of disease, palliative radiotherapy was delivered to the hand of the patient. He achieved satisfactory palliation in form of pain relief, control of bleeding, and discharge. The present report serves to emphasize the importance of properly diagnosing metastatic spread to unusual sites. Such metastasis is rare and is associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment is usually aimed at providing pain relief in these patients with limited life expectancy. Hence, we present a case of extensive cutaneous metastasis from laryngeal carcinoma with review of the literature.

  16. Clinical study of T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers. Key points for laryngeal preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Takashi; Koike, Shuji; Inamura, Hiroo; Aoyagi, Masaru; Namura, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    Between 1989 and 2003, we treated 129 patients with T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers. The purpose of this study was to estimate the management of T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers, referring to the relationship with the T classification, subtype, treatment, prognosis and laryngeal preservation. The treatment plan for T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers is fundamentally radiotherapy. To raise the laryngeal preservation rate, concurrent chemoradiotherapy by FAR therapy, carboplatin (CBDCA), docetaxel (DOC) and laser treatment was performed for the T2 cases. The 5-year survival rates of the T1 and T2 cases were 94.7% and 94.8%, respectively. The 5-year laryngeal preservation rates of the T1 and T2 cases were 97.1% and 72.3%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of the glottic cancer and supraglottic cancer cases were 96.7% and 87.0% and the 5-year laryngeal preservation rates of these cases were 97.1% and 57.2%, respectively. Particularly in T2 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, the laryngeal preservation rate is not improved even with concurrent chemoradiotherapy by CBDCA and FAR therapy. To improve the laryngeal preservation rate in T2 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, it is necessary to consider concurrent chemoradiotherapy by DOC or hyperfractionation. (author)

  17. Clinical manifestation of Laryngeal Tuberculosis | Abdalla | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All tuberculous patients with laryngeal symptoms and those diagnosed histologically to have laryngeal tuberculosis were included. Results: Eight patients were studied; they were five males and three females, with age range between 12-70 years (mean 41years). Strider, dysphonia and dysphagia were the main complaints.

  18. Contemporary management of advanced laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Christopher J; Gourin, Christine G

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, with an increase in chemoradiation for organ preservation and a decrease in primary surgery. This review will summarize the contemporary management of advanced laryngeal cancer and discuss treatment-related toxicity and strategies to improve outcomes. NA.

  19. Family of autocatalytic group I introns in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shub, D.A.; Xu, M.Q.; Gott, J.M.; Zeeh, A.; Wilson, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of an intron in phage T4 encouraged the authors to look for additional group I introns in the T4 genome. Further examples would permit sequence and structural comparisons that might lend insight into their evolutionary origin. Additionally, they hoped that their locations within the T4 genome would infer a possible regulatory function in prokaryotic gene expression. They took advantage of the fact that, since G is added to the 5' end of the intron, autocatalytic group I introns could be specifically labeled in vitro for use as probes for DNA blotting experiments. If Group I introns were in more than just the td gene, multiple RNA species should be labeled when total RNA is extracted from T4-infected cells and incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP in vitro. When used as a probe for a Southern blot of T4 DNA, this RNA should hybridize to several DNA bands

  20. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.R.; Veness, M.J.; Morgan, G.J.; Shannon, J.; Kench, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is an uncommon but devastating form of metastatic spread. To our knowledge, only 16 cases originating from a head and neck cancer have been reported. We describe the first case of a patient with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis arising from a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Shortly after completing treatment for an advanced supraglottic laryngeal cancer, this 63-year-old man presented with lower limb neurological symptoms and signs. Radiological and cytological evidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of the distal spinal canal was identified. He was treated with intrathecal methotrexate and palliative radiotherapy. Although his pain improved, his lower limb weakness worsened. He died 3 weeks after completing radiotherapy. Presumed mode of spread was via the haematogenous route. The natural history and management of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis are discussed. Clinicians should be aware of the uncommon possibility of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient presenting with an appropriate constellation of symptoms and signs, and a past history of cancer. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Re-initiation repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupido, M.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation of bacteriophage T4 with ultraviolet light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers in its DNA. These dimers hamper replication of DNA and, to a lesser extent, transcription of DNA after its infection of bacteria. A number of pathways enable phage T4 to multiply dimer-containing DNA. One of these pathways has been named replication repair and is described in this thesis. The properties of two phage strains, unable to perform replication repair, have been studied to obtain a picture of the repair process. The mutations in these strains that affect replication repair have been located on the genomic map of T4. (Auth.)

  2. Predicting the local outcome of glottic squamous cell carcinoma after definitive radiation therapy: value of computed tomography-determined tumour parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, R.; Van den Bogaert, W.; Rijnders, A.; Doornaert, P.; Baert, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The T-classification has shortcomings in the prediction of local outcome of glottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated by definitive radiation therapy. In this regard, the value of several CT-derived tumour parameters as predictors of local outcome was investigated. Materials and methods: The pretreatment CT studies of 119 patients with glottic SCC (T1, n=61; T2, n=40; T3, n=14; T4, n=4) treated with curative intent by radiation therapy were reviewed for tumoral involvement of specific laryngeal anatomic subsites (including laryngeal cartilages). Tumour volume was calculated with the summation-of-areas technique. Actuarial (life-table) statistical analysis was done for each of the covariates; multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model.Results: In the actuarial analysis tumour volume was significantly correlated with local recurrence rate (P=0.0062). Involvement of the cricoid cartilage (P=0.0052), anterior commissure (P=0.0203), subglottis (P=0.0481) and preepiglottic space (P=0.0134) and degree of involvement of the true vocal cord (P=0.0441) and paraglottic space at the level of the true vocal cord (P=0.0002) were also significantly correlated with local recurrence rate. In the multivariate analysis, only degree of involvement of the paraglottic space (at the level of the true vocal cord) (P=0.0001) and preepiglottic space (P=0.02) were found to be independent predictors of local recurrence. The T-category was significantly correlated with local outcome in the actuarial analysis (P=0.0001), but not in the multivariate analysis (P=0.5915). Conclusions: Several CT-derived parameters are powerful predictors of local outcome in glottic cancer treated with radiation therapy; some of these parameters are stronger linked to the local control rate than the T-classification. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Isolated laryngeal myasthenia gravis for 26 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Dimitri; Hedayat, Amir; Gagnard, Corinne

    2015-02-01

    Laryngeal myasthenia gravis is a relatively rare variant of myasthenia gravis. A vast portion of patients with initial laryngeal myasthenia gravis develop involvement of ocular and/or extra-ocular muscles during the years after symptom onset although a minority of laryngeal myasthenia gravis patients continues to have isolated laryngeal muscle involvement for several years. We present a 58-year-old woman with recurrent episodic isolated dysphonia (associated with diffuse bilateral vocal cord paresis on laryngoscopy) since the age of 32. Dysphonia became permanent since 6 months. A diagnosis of laryngeal myasthenia gravis was made based on abnormal single-fiber electromyography and spectacular response to pyridostigmine treatment. Repetitive nerve stimulation was normal and anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were absent. This case shows that laryngeal myasthenia gravis can be isolated during 26 years of follow-up. We propose that even when myasthenia gravis seems unlikely as underlying mechanism of isolated dysphonia (because of lack of antibodies, normal repetitive nerve stimulation, and absence of extra-laryngeal involvement after years of follow-up), single-fiber electromyography should be performed and myasthenia gravis treatment should be tried. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  5. Thyroid hormones in the elderly sick: "T4 euthyroidism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, A W; Shakespear, R A; Hesch, R D; Cooper, E; Aickin, C M; Burke, C W

    1975-11-22

    Thyroid function and serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were investigated in 79 euthyroid geriatric patients. Of the 59 inpatients and 20 outpatients 35 (59%) and 2, respectively, had low T3 levels. In contrast, 7 (12%) and 6 (30%), respectively, had raised T4 levels. Two further patients were excluded from the study because of raised levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroxine-binding globulin was greatly increased in both groups of patients, but low serum albumin levels were present in 31 (39%). Despite these changes free T3 and T4 indices closely followed total T3 and T4 levels. The difference between the two groups of patients did not correlate with body weight, diagnostic categories, age, drug treatment, or duration of stay in hospital.

  6. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  7. The presence and prognostic significance of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkul, Evren; Yilmaz, Ismail; Narli, Gizem; Babayigit, Mustafa Alparslan; Gungor, Atila; Demirel, Dilaver

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of HPV in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and correlate it with patients' clinicopathological data. In total, 78 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients enrolled in this study. The presence of genotype-specific HPV DNA was evaluated using Genotyping Assay in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue which was diagnosed between 2005 and 2015. All samples were also evaluated for p16 immunohistochemical staining. HPV DNA and p16 status were assessed in terms of location, smoking, alcohol consumption, lymph node status, tumor stage, overall survival, disease-free survival, perineural invasion, and vascular invasion retrospectively. Five test samples were excluded from the study due to inadequate deoxyribonucleic acid purity. HPV DNA was detected in 19 of 73 (26.02%) in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Human papilloma virus genotyping revealed double human papilloma virus in one case (types 16 and 59) and HPV 16 in the remaining cases. Although HPV-positive cases showed slightly better 3 years survival than HPV-negative ones, this finding was not statistically significant (overall survival p = 0.417, HPV positive: 92.3%, HPV negative: 81.4%, and disease-free survival p = 0.526, HPV positive: 93.8%, HPV negative: 80.9%). The presence of HPV DNA was not significantly associated with any clinicopathological features (p > 0.05). Among 73 patients, only 4 had an immunohistochemical staining of p16 and these patients were also HPV DNA 16 positive. Although our study results revealed a slightly better survival in patients with HPV DNA positivity for HPV 16 compared to the negative ones, the difference was not statistically significant. However, an increasing rate in especially high-risk-type HPV-16 prevalence in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by RT-PCR method was observed compared to our previous study. Although the presence of HPV in laryngeal SCCs seems to be associated with slightly better

  8. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis On this page: What ... find additional information about RRP? What is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis? Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease ...

  9. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cire Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.

  10. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Cire; Regonne, Eric Joel; Ahmed, Houra; Diom, Evelyne Siga; Deguenonvo, Richard Edouard Alain; Mbaye, Aminata; Zemene, Yilkal; Ndiaye, Issa Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.

  11. An Unusual Laryngeal Foreign Body in Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Cire; Regonne, Eric Joel; Ahmed, Houra; Diom, Evelyne Siga; Deguenonvo, Richard Edouard Alain; Mbaye, Aminata; Zemene, Yilkal; Ndiaye, Issa Cheikh

    2016-01-01

    The accidental aspiration of a foreign body is a frequent domestic accident among children but a rare occurrence in adults. The laryngeal impaction of a coin is an unusual accident; only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is mostly achieved by clinicoradiological examinations. The authors report an uncommon case of laryngeal impaction of a coin in a 21-year-old patient, presenting with dysphonia without dyspnea or stridor. The extraction was performed by endoscopy.

  12. Introns in the genome of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    RNA from T4-infected cells yields multiple end-labeled species when incubated with [α- 32 P]GTP under self-splicing conditions. One of these corresponds to the previously characterized intron from the T4 td gene and, as shown in this work, the others represent additional group I introns in T4. Two loci distinct from the td gene were found to hybridize to the mixed GTP-labeled T4 RNA probe. These were mapped to the unlinked genes nrdB and sunY. Cloned DNA from the nrdB region that contained the intron was shown to generate characteristic group I splice products with RNA synthesized in vivo or in vitro. The splice junction of the nrdB gene was determined and the nature of the RNA reaction products characterized. In vivo expression of the nrdB gene and the open reading frame within the intron was studied using in-frame lacZ fusions and primer extension analyses. The data suggest that expression of the intron open reading frame is highly regulated during T4 infection. Possible regulatory mechanisms are discussed

  13. Prognostic significance of surgical extranodal extension in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Mori, Taisuke; Matsumura, Satoko; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Fukasawa, Masahiko; Teshima, Masanori; Kobayashi, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Seiichi

    2017-08-01

    Lymph node metastasis with extranodal extension represents one of the most important adverse prognostic factors for survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. We propose that extranodal extension occurs to differing extents. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of extranodal extension in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who underwent surgical resection and neck dissection were included. Cervical lymph nodes were classified into four categories: (i) pathological N negative, (ii) extranodal extension negative, (iii) non-surgical extranodal extension and (iv) surgical extranodal extension. Lymph node metastases were detected in 67.1% of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer patients and 52.7% of oral cancer patients. The 3-year disease-specific survival rates for patients in the pathological N negative, extranodal extension negative, non-surgical extranodal extension and surgical extranodal extension groups were 90.9%, 79.6%, 63.8% and 48.3%, respectively. In laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer patients, surgical extranodal extension was associated with a significantly poorer disease-specific survival than a pathological N negative, extranodal extension negative or non-surgical extranodal extension status. In oral cancer patients, no significant differences were observed between the non-surgical and surgical extranodal extension groups. However, non-surgical extranodal extension was associated with a poorer disease-specific survival than a pathological N negative or extranodal extension negative status. Surgical extranodal extension was a poor prognostic factor in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The prognostic significance of surgical extranodal extension differed between laryngeal/hypopharyngeal and oral cancer patients. The clinical significance of surgical extranodal extension was much greater for

  14. Human Papillomavirus Subtype 16 and the Pathologic Characteristics of Laryngeal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdel Motaal Gomaa MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of cancer in the head and neck. Human papillomavirus (HPV represents a group of >150 related viruses. Infection with certain types of HPV can cause some types of cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic and histopathologic characters of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and its relationship to HPV subtype 16 (HPV-16. Study design Cross-sectional. Setting Tertiary university hospitals at 5 districts in Egypt (Minia, Cairo, Giza, Qaluobia, and Bani Seuif. Subjects and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 adult patients with laryngeal cancer who were admitted at 5 tertiary care hospitals in Egypt from January 2014 through December 2014. All patients were subjected to a comprehensive preoperative assessment, histopathologic assessments of tumor biopsies, and immunohistochemical staining for HPV-16. Results HPV-16 immunostaining was positive in 9 patients (18%. A significant correlation between HPV-16 immunoreactivity and tumor grade ( P < .001 was detected, with no significant correlation between HPV-16 immunoreactivity and other clinical and pathologic variables. Conclusion The frequency of HPV-16 in laryngeal carcinoma is 18%, and there is significant correlation between HPV-16 and tumor grade.

  15. Nonsense mutants in the bacteriophage T4D v gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minderhout, L van; Grimbergen, J; Groot, B de [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese; Cohen (J.A.) Instituut voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1975-09-01

    Ten UV-sensitive mutants of T4D with the v phenotype were isolated. Of these ten mutants, two are amber and two opal. In UV curves and in photoreactivation and multiplicity reactivation experiments the nonsense mutants show the v phenotype in su/sup -/ hosts and almost the T4/sup +/ phenotype in su/sup +/ hosts. The mutations are located between rl and e and are alleles of v/sub 1/. In crosses with irradiated and non-irradiated phages the recombinant frequency is not reduced by uvs5. Amber uvs5 propagated in CR63 su/sup +/ is with B su/sup -/ just as sensitive to UV as uvs5 propagated in B su/sup -/, which permits the conclusion that the capsid of T4 phage particles does not contain the v gene product.

  16. Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction: Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse vs. Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    REPORT TYPE 10/20/2017 Poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inducible Laryngeal Obstrnction: Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse vs. Inducible Laryngeal...REPORT b.ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF PAGES 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  17. Laryngeal neurinoma. Differential diagnosis of submucosal laryngeal tumors; Neurinoma laringeo. Diagnostico diferencial de tumoraciones submucosas laringeas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, A.; Palomo, V.; Munoz, R.; Sanchez, F.

    2002-07-01

    Laryngeal neurinoma is a rare benign tumor that appears as a submucosal mass, generally in the supraglottic region. We report the case of a patient with dysphonia of long evolution caused by a neurinoma. We discuss the radiological findings of the tumor and the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of this and other submucosal laryngeal lesions. (Author) 16 refs.

  18. Radiotherapy outcomes in laryngeal cancer - a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hliniak, A.; Rolski, W.; Michalski, W.; Szutkowski, Z.; Jarzabski, A.; Laskus, Z.; Frenkiel, Z.; Osmolski, A.

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the importance of pre-treatment factors (age, sex, T, N, histological differentiation, site, Hb level, performance status) and to investigate the influence of cigarette smoking and pulmonary and cardiac diseases on treatment outcomes in laryngeal cancer patients. From the year 1989 until May 1995 372 consecutive patients with cancer of the larynx were radically irradiated at the 2nd Teleradiotherapy Department of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw (MSCMCC). Pt. characteristics - 88% men, 12% women, age: 29-82 years, stages: T1-20%, T2 -34%, T3 -30%, T4 -16%, lymph node metastases: 27%. Complete response to treatment (CR) - 71% of cases. Loco-regional control after 2 years 52% (T1-T2 - 64%, T3 - T4 - 40%). Early reactions: pain on swallowing, confluent mucositis and moist skin reaction in 69%, 48% and 41 % of cases, respectively. Serious late complications - 19 patients. In a majority of these cases several forms of serious damage were observed. Patients with advanced disease (T3-T4) present a two times higher death risk as compared to patients in earlier stages of the disease (T1-T2). Patients with cervical node metastases also present a two times higher death risk as compared to N0 cases. Patients with performance status 1 or more had a respectively three or four times higher death risk than patients with performance status - 0. No significant influence of sex, histological differentiation, site, hemoglobin level and cigarette smoking, pulmonary and coronary diseases on treatment outcome has been found. The survival curves come down steeply three and more years after treatment completion due to causes other than local failure. The limited number of serious early and late reactions suggests the possibility of a total dose increase. (author)

  19. Concurrent chemotherapy with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and oropharynx: A retrospective single-institution analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F. Saba (Nabil); D.J. Edelman (David); M. Tighiouart (Mourad); J.G. Gaultney (Jennifer G.); L.W. Davis (Lawrence); F.R. Khuri (Fadlo); A. Chen (Amy); S. Grist (Scott); D.M. Shin (Dong)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. We present outcome data from concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx and oropharyx. Methods. Eighty patients with laryngeal (n = 15) or oropharyngeal (n = 65) SCC underwent concurrent IMRT and

  20. Comparative methods for PET image segmentation in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva University, Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Abdoli, Mehrsima [University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Fuentes, Carolina Llina [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); Naqa, Issam M.El [McGill University, Department of Medical Physics, Montreal (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    Several methods have been proposed for the segmentation of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in PET. In this study, we assessed the performance of four categories of {sup 18}F-FDG PET image segmentation techniques in pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma using clinical studies where the surgical specimen served as the benchmark. Nine PET image segmentation techniques were compared including: five thresholding methods; the level set technique (active contour); the stochastic expectation-maximization approach; fuzzy clustering-based segmentation (FCM); and a variant of FCM, the spatial wavelet-based algorithm (FCM-SW) which incorporates spatial information during the segmentation process, thus allowing the handling of uptake in heterogeneous lesions. These algorithms were evaluated using clinical studies in which the segmentation results were compared to the 3-D biological tumour volume (BTV) defined by histology in PET images of seven patients with T3-T4 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent a total laryngectomy. The macroscopic tumour specimens were collected ''en bloc'', frozen and cut into 1.7- to 2-mm thick slices, then digitized for use as reference. The clinical results suggested that four of the thresholding methods and expectation-maximization overestimated the average tumour volume, while a contrast-oriented thresholding method, the level set technique and the FCM-SW algorithm underestimated it, with the FCM-SW algorithm providing relatively the highest accuracy in terms of volume determination (-5.9 {+-} 11.9%) and overlap index. The mean overlap index varied between 0.27 and 0.54 for the different image segmentation techniques. The FCM-SW segmentation technique showed the best compromise in terms of 3-D overlap index and statistical analysis results with values of 0.54 (0.26-0.72) for the overlap index. The BTVs delineated using the FCM-SW segmentation technique were seemingly the most accurate and approximated closely the 3-D BTVs

  1. Incorporation of T4 bacteriophage in electrospun fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korehei, R; Kadla, J

    2013-05-01

    Antibacterial food packaging materials, such as bacteriophage-activated electrospun fibrous mats, may address concerns triggered by waves of bacterial food contamination. To address this, we investigated several efficient methods for incorporating T4 bacteriophage into electrospun fibrous mats. The incorporation of T4 bacteriophage using simple suspension electrospinning led to more than five orders of magnitude decrease in bacteriophage activity. To better maintain bacteriophage viability, emulsion electrospinning was developed where the T4 bacteriophage was pre-encapsulated in an alginate reservoir via an emulsification process and subsequently electrospun into fibres. This resulted in an increase in bacteriophage viability, but there was still two orders of magnitude drop in activity. Using a coaxial electrospinning process, full bacteriophage activity could be maintained. In this process, a core/shell fibre structure was formed with the T4 bacteriophage being directly incorporated into the fibre core. The core/shell fibre encapsulated bacteriophage exhibited full bacteriophage viability after storing for several weeks at +4°C. Coaxial electrospinning was shown to be capable of encapsulating bacteriophages with high loading capacity, high viability and long storage time. These results are significant in the context of controlling and preventing bacterial infections in perishable foods during storage. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Clinical and evolutive aspects of nasopharyngeal T4 NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalej, M.; Bouaouina, N.; Benna, F.; Frikha, H.; Jallouli, M.; Ellouze, R.; Ben Romdhane, K.; Cammoun, M.; Ben Attia, R.; Daoud, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the primary cancer of the head and neck localizations in the Salah Azaiz Institute (Tunisia). From 1970 to 1987, 80 patients with histologically proven T4 NO NPC, were treated with exclusive radiation (70-75 Gy to the primary lesion and 50-55 Gy to cervical lymph nodes). The T4 NO represents 7% of all NPC and 16% of the T4 treated in our Institute. Ninety percent of the patients are over 20 years old with a mean age of 52 years. The sex-ration was 4: 1. Extension to the brain was observed in 55% of the cases. Local control was 70% at 2 months after the end of irradiation. The actuarial survival at 5 years was 47%. Distant metastasis represent 13% (30% for all NPC). The main failure of treatment was local recurrence. The T4 NO is probably a particular entity concerning the age, the response to radiotherapy and the low rate of distant metastasis. (authors). 18 refs., 5 figs

  3. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Seymour Benzer and T4 rII - Running the Map into the Ground. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 898-908. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Exclusive radiation therapy for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognoni, P.; Bossi, A.; Molteni, M.; Richetti, A.; Tordiglione, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors analyse a retrospective series of 90 consecutive patients (pts) affected with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma (T3-4, N0-3 - TNM, UICC 1978) who were radically irradiated from November 1979 to December 1986 at the Radiotherapy Department of the General Hospital of Varese. All the patients were treated with 60 Co and two opposed parallel lateral fields and progressive shrinkage: 66 conventional fractionation (2 Gy once a day, 5 times a week), 24 with an accelerated hyperfractionated regimen (1.5 Gy twice a day, 5 times a week). The median total dose delivered to the tumor and clinically involved nodes was 64 Gy (1678 reu, CRE). Median follow-up was 21 months (range: 3-113). The 5-year overall survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 40.5%. The 5-year disease-free survival, for 47 patients in complete remission at the end of radiotherapy, was 51.9% after irradiation alone and 56.7% with salvage surgery. There were no statistically significant differences in survival according to local spread (T3 vs T4), nodal status (N0 vs N1-3) and dose fractionation regimen (conventional vs accelerated hyper-fractionated). Isoeffect (CRE) values above 1751 reu obtained a 3-year loco-regional control rate was 33.3%. Relevant late sequelae were not observed. Our findings suggest that primary radiotherapy with salvage surgery in reserve could be considered as an effective choice for locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma, at least in selected groups of patients

  5. Structure and assembly of bacteriophage T4 head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Lindsay W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteriophage T4 capsid is an elongated icosahedron, 120 nm long and 86 nm wide, and is built with three essential proteins; gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice, gp24*, which forms pentamers at eleven of the twelve vertices, and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which DNA enters during packaging and exits during infection. The past twenty years of research has greatly elevated the understanding of phage T4 head assembly and DNA packaging. The atomic structure of gp24 has been determined. A structural model built for gp23 using its similarity to gp24 showed that the phage T4 major capsid protein has the same fold as that found in phage HK97 and several other icosahedral bacteriophages. Folding of gp23 requires the assistance of two chaperones, the E. coli chaperone GroEL and the phage coded gp23-specific chaperone, gp31. The capsid also contains two non-essential outer capsid proteins, Hoc and Soc, which decorate the capsid surface. The structure of Soc shows two capsid binding sites which, through binding to adjacent gp23 subunits, reinforce the capsid structure. Hoc and Soc have been extensively used in bipartite peptide display libraries and to display pathogen antigens including those from HIV, Neisseria meningitides, Bacillus anthracis, and FMDV. The structure of Ip1*, one of the components of the core, has been determined, which provided insights on how IPs protect T4 genome against the E. coli nucleases that degrade hydroxymethylated and glycosylated T4 DNA. Extensive mutagenesis combined with the atomic structures of the DNA packaging/terminase proteins gp16 and gp17 elucidated the ATPase and nuclease functional motifs involved in DNA translocation and headful DNA cutting. Cryo-EM structure of the T4 packaging machine showed a pentameric motor assembled with gp17 subunits on the portal vertex. Single molecule optical tweezers and fluorescence studies showed that the T4 motor packages

  6. Prognostic role of tumor volume for radiotherapy outcome in patient with T2 laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, T.; Wygoda, A.; Skladowski, K.; Rutkowski, R.; Maciejewski, B.; Hejduk, B.; Kolosza, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tumor volume (TV) is recognized as a prognostic factor of treatment outcome for head and neck tumors but is not routinely included in the treatment decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to define its prognostic role for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. Material and methods: TV of 160 patients who underwent RT between 2002 and 2006 for T2 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. The tumor was located in the glottis and epiglottis in 82 (51 %) and 78 (49 %) patients, respectively. TV was manually contoured on pretreatment, planning, contrast-enhanced CT scans and the volumetric measurement (cm 3 ) was calculated by the volume algorithm. Results: The median TV value was 2.01 cm 3 (range 0.15-21.68 cm 3 ). The median TV was significantly lower in patients with glottic tumors (p < 0.0001), N0 (p < 0.001), or well histopatologically differentiated tumors (p = 0.01). A significant correlation between TV, hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), and total dose (TD; p < 0.001) was observed. On univariate analyses, TV influenced local control (LC; p = 0.02) and overall survival (OS, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, both age (HR 1.038, p = 0.03) and TV (HR = 1.075, p = 0.01) remained significantly related to LC and OS (age: HR 1.038, p = 0.005; TV: HR 1.097, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Large TV worsen prognosis of patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. A large TV is more common for supraglottic, poorly differentiated tumors and may suggest higher risk of nodal spread. The routine estimation of TV prior to therapy may be essential in order to select the best treatment option for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. (orig.)

  7. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Ortíz, Vicente José; Paz-Delgadillo, Diana Estela; Marino-Martínez, Iván; Ceseñas-Falcón, Luis Ángel; Sandoval-de la Fuente, Anabel; Reyes-Escobedo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck comprises a group of neoplasms that share a similar anatomical origin. Most originate from the epithelium of the aerodigestive tract and 90% correspond to squamous cell carcinoma. In the last 15 years, an increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been seen, mainly types 16 and 18, which are the most frequent found in cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and types 6 and 11 in laryngeal cancer. There are reports in the literature that show HPV as the leading cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Determine the prevalence of infection with high-risk HPV in patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, unblinded study was performed. Prevalence of HPV infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA samples from tumour tissue of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. Typing was subsequently performed in HPV positive samples in order to detect types 18, 16, 11 and 6, using custom primers. A total of 45 patients were included. The association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV was established in two patients, which represented an overall prevalence of 4.4% in our population, and 10% for laringeal tumours. There is a low prevalence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx, in our population. Prospective studies on younger patients could provide more information. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Delineation of the primary tumour Clinical Target Volumes (CTV-P) in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: AIRO, CACA, DAHANCA, EORTC, GEORCC, GORTEC, HKNPCSG, HNCIG, IAG-KHT, LPRHHT, NCIC CTG, NCRI, NRG Oncology, PHNS, SBRT, SOMERA, SRO, SSHNO, TROG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grégoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Grégoire et al., 2003, 2014...... anatomy. METHOD: For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first...... treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi-institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma....

  9. Laryngeal granuloma: a complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation.

    OpenAIRE

    Keiser, G. J.; Bozentka, N. E.; Gold, B. D.

    1991-01-01

    Laryngeal granuloma is an uncommon complication arising from irritation of the laryngeal structures. We present a case where bilateral laryngeal granulomas became clinically evident 3 mo after orthognathic surgery. The patient, a 19-yr-old female, developed acute dyspnea after experiencing gradual voice loss. Excision of the lesions under endotracheal general anesthesia led to an uneventful outcome. The causes, predisposing factors, diagnostic features, and treatment of laryngeal granuloma ar...

  10. Comparison of Medical and Voice Therapy for reflux Laryngitis Based on Acoustic and Laryngeal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Dehestani Ardakani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reflux laryngitis is extremely common among patients with voice disorder. Medical therapy approaches are not efficient enough. The main goal of this study is to assess the acoustic and laryngeal characteristics of patients with dysphonia before and after medical or voice therapy, and to evaluate the effectiveness of each.Methods: In this retrospective study, 16 reflux laryngitis patients were assessed. Five received complete voice therapy, tow ceased voice therapy and nine received medication. Perceptual voice evaluation was performed by a speech-language pathologist, the severity of voice problem was calculated, based on the affected acoustic and laryngeal characteristics pre- and post-treatment.Results: Post-treatment evaluation in patients who received complete voice therapy indicates 80 percent improvement in the severity of disorder and 100 percent improvement in the perceptual voice evaluation. After medical therapy, we observed that voice disorder and perceptual voice evaluation are improved 44 and 66 percent respectively. The improvement was statistically significant in both treatment approaches: complete voice therapy (P=0.039 and medical therapy (p=0.017.Conclusion: In patients with reflux laryngitis, most acoustic and laryngeal characteristics were normal and satisfying after the treatment. It can be concluded that the proficiency of voice therapy in improving the acoustic and laryngeal characteristics is comparable to medical therapy

  11. Primary staging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: CT, MR imaging and dual-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Hirofumi; Onaya, Hiroaki; Fujii, Satoshi; Ojiri, Hiroya; Otani, Katharina; Satake, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, in particular T4a disease associated with cartilage invasion and extralaryngeal spread, needs to be evaluated accurately because treatment can impact heavily on a patient's quality of life. Reliable imaging tools are therefore indispensible. CT offers high spatial and temporal resolution and remains the preferred imaging modality. Although cartilage invasion can be diagnosed with acceptable accuracy by applying defined criteria for combinations of erosion, lysis and transmural extralaryngeal spread, iodine-enhanced tumors and non-ossified cartilage are sometimes difficult to distinguish. MR offers high contrast resolution for images without motion artifacts, although inflammatory changes in cartilage sometimes resemble cartilage invasion. With dual-energy CT, combined iodine overlay images and weighted average images can be used for evaluation of cartilage invasion, since iodine enhancement is evident in tumor tissue but not in cartilage. Extralaryngeal spread can be evaluated from CT, MR or dual-energy CT images and the routes of tumor spread into the extralaryngeal soft tissue must be considered; (1) via the thyrohyoid membrane along the superior laryngeal neurovascular bundle, (2) via the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, and (3) via the cricothyroid membrane. Radiologists need to understand the advantages and limitations of each imaging modality for staging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

  12. [Acute laryngitis and epiglottitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Olivia; Nicollas, Richard; Roman, Stéphane; Triglia, Jean-Michel

    2007-10-31

    The anatomical characteristic of the pediatric larynx allows physicians to better understand the incidence of symptomatic and severe presentations of acute laryngitis, which are frequent pediatric emergencies. Subglottis laryngitis and epiglottitis must be distinguished from each other. These two diseases are absolutely different: the first one is essentially viral and usually moderate, even though acute respiratory distress can occur. The other (epiglottitis) is bacterial, essentially caused by Haemophilus influenza B (Hi-B), and can be life threatening. The anti Hi-B vaccine leads to a decrease of frequency but does not make them disappear. Moreover, even if a child has a history of the Hi-B vaccine, diagnosis of epiglottitis can not to be ruled out. Lastly, in case of acute laryngeal dyspnea in a child, one must think about a foreign body.

  13. Laryngeal electromyography in movement disorders: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimaid Paulo A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes preliminary laryngeal electromyography (LEMG data and botulinum toxin treatment in patients with dysphonia due to movement disorders. Twenty-five patients who had been clinically selected for botulinum toxin administration were examined, 19 with suspected laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia (SD, 5 with vocal tremor, and 1 with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS. LEMG evaluations were performed before botulinum toxin administration using monopolar electrodes. Electromyography was consistent with dystonia in 14 patients and normal in 5, and differences in frequency suggesting essential tremor in 3 and Parkinson tremors in 2. The different LEMG patterns and significant improvement in our patients from botulinum toxin therapy has led us to perform laryngeal electromyography as a routine in UNICAMP movement disorders ambulatory.

  14. Laryngeal ultrasound and pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkasuwan, Julina; Devore, Danielle; Hollas, Sarah; Jones, Jeremy; Tran, Brandon

    2017-03-01

    The term vocal fold nodules refers to bilateral thickening of the membranous folds with minimal impairment of the vibratory properties of the mucosa. Nodules are thought to be related to repetitive mechanical stress, associated with voice use patterns. Diagnosis is typically made in the office via either rigid or flexible laryngeal stroboscopy. Depending on the individual child, obtaining an optimal view of the larynx can be difficult if not impossible. Recent advances in high-frequency ultrasonography allows for transcervical examination of laryngeal structures. The goal of this project was to determine if laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in dysphonic children. Prospective case-control study in which the patient acted as his or her own control. Forty-six pediatric patients were recruited for participation in this study; the mean age was 4.8 years. Twenty-three did not have any vocal fold lesions and 23 had a diagnosis of vocal fold nodules on laryngeal stroboscopy. Recorded LUSs were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists who were blinded to the nodule status. There was substantial inter-rater agreement (κ = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.89) between the two radiologists regarding the presence of nodules. There was also substantial agreement (κ = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1) between LUS and laryngeal stroboscopy. Sensitivity of LUS was 100% (95% CI: 85%-100%) and specificity was 87% (95% CI: 66%-97%). LUS can be used to identify vocal fold nodules in children with substantial agreement with laryngeal stroboscopy. 3b Laryngoscope, 127:676-678, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Laryngeal plexiform neurofibroma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Fikret; Ozdemircan, Talip; Erisen, Levent

    2013-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetically inherited, autosomal dominant disease, characterized by multiple cafe au lait spots, cutaneous neurofibromas and "Lisch nodules." Neurofibromatosis can develop from a neural source at any age. However, neurofibroma of the larynx is extremely rare and is usually manifested by obstructive airway symptoms. We encountered a 5-year-old child presenting with stridor and dyspnea, who had a diagnosis of laryngeal plexiform neurofibroma. The purpose of our report is the consideration of laryngeal NF in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea in infants and children.

  16. Laryngeal Chondroma: An Unusual Complication Endotracheal Entubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Ozan; Koybasioglu, Ahmet; Ileri, Fikret

    2016-06-01

    Laryngeal cartilaginous framework tumors are very rare. Chondroma and chondrosarcoma are the most common types of these tumors. A 27-year-old man with a history of intubation presented with exercise-induced dyspnea. A computed tomography scan of larynx showed a rounded and circumscribed mass without infiltration of the adjacent structures which obstructs 75% of airway. Histopathological investigation of the mass revealed the chondroma of the larynx. The patients' history of intubation trauma with the subsequent progressive onset of clinical symptoms demonstrates the relationship between these 2 entities. Clinicians should consider laryngeal chondroma in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea after endotracheal intubation.

  17. Bronchial or Laryngeal Obstruction Induced by Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Bey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A child suspected of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction and asthma is examined by laryngoscopy and respiratory resistance (Rrs after exercise challenge. Immediately at exercise cessation, the visualized adduction of the larynx in inspiration is reflected in a paroxystic increase in Rrs. While normal breathing has apparently resumed later on during recovery from exercise, the pattern of Rrs in inspiration is observed to reoccur following a deep breath or swallowing. The procedure may thus help diagnosing the site of exercise-induced obstruction when laryngoscopy is not available and identify re-inducers of laryngeal dysfunction.

  18. Complications of laryngeal framework surgery (phonosurgery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, H M; Wanamaker, J; Trott, M; Hicks, D

    1993-05-01

    The rising popularity of surgery involving the laryngeal framework (surgical medialization of immobile vocal folds, vocal fold tightening, pitch variation, etc.) has resulted in increasing case experience. Little has appeared in the literature regarding complications or long-term results of this type of surgery. Several years' experience in a major referral center with various types of laryngeal framework surgery has led to a small number of complications. These have included late extrusion of the prosthesis and delayed hemorrhage. A review of these complications and recommendations for modification of technique to minimize them in the future are discussed.

  19. Primary candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Hyong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Primary candidiasis is rare and often confused with a pre-cancerous lesion, squamous cell carcinoma, or verrucous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord following primary candidiasis. A 62-year-old man presented to our department reporting a 1-month history of hoarseness. He underwent laryngeal microscopic surgery for a presumptive diagnosis of glottic carcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed candidiasis and scattered moderate dysplasia. He was treated with itraconazole for 4 weeks, and followed up without any recurrence of candidiasis. However, the 42-month follow-up examination revealed a focal whitish lesion on the right true vocal cord, and a repeat biopsy of this area revealed squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of candidiasis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and remains well with no signs of tumor recurrence or candidiasis.

  20. T4 genes in the marine ecosystem: studies of the T4-like cyanophages and their role in marine ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard Andrew D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From genomic sequencing it has become apparent that the marine cyanomyoviruses capable of infecting strains of unicellular cyanobacteria assigned to the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus are not only morphologically similar to T4, but are also genetically related, typically sharing some 40-48 genes. The large majority of these common genes are the same in all marine cyanomyoviruses so far characterized. Given the fundamental physiological differences between marine unicellular cyanobacteria and heterotrophic hosts of T4-like phages it is not surprising that the study of cyanomyoviruses has revealed novel and fascinating facets of the phage-host relationship. One of the most interesting features of the marine cyanomyoviruses is their possession of a number of genes that are clearly of host origin such as those involved in photosynthesis, like the psbA gene that encodes a core component of the photosystem II reaction centre. Other host-derived genes encode enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, phosphate acquisition and ppGpp metabolism. The impact of these host-derived genes on phage fitness has still largely to be assessed and represents one of the most important topics in the study of this group of T4-like phages in the laboratory. However, these phages are also of considerable environmental significance by virtue of their impact on key contributors to oceanic primary production and the true extent and nature of this impact has still to be accurately assessed.

  1. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  2. A case of laryngeal palsy and persistent aspiration pneumonia following radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Kazunari; Tayama, Niro; Mizuno, Masahiro; Niimi, Seiji.

    1997-01-01

    A 80-year-old man developed impairment in his laryngeal movement, vocal fold fixation and severe misdeglutition after radiotherapy for laryngeal carcinoma. Despite of several surgical treatments for aspiration pneumonia, the misdeglutition did not cease because of the stiffness in his larynx until a laryngectomy was finally performed. The resected larynx showed marked fibrosis, and it was considered as a late complication of radiotherapy. The treatment course in this difficult case is discussed. (author)

  3. The p53 molecule and its prognostic role in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, K.; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hall, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    and poor patient outcome was found when looking only at patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Also, in oral premalignant lesions, expression of p53-positive cells in the suprabasal layers of the epithelium has been seen as an indication of impending malignant development. Concerning......Despite intense research, the 5-year survival rate for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is still low. Several different factors have been studied in the search for one or more factors that give important prognostic information at the time of diagnosis. Many recent...

  4. [The systemic approach to the rehabilitation of the patients presenting with laryngeal cancer after the resection of the organ and laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, A I; Reshetov, I V; Kozhanov, L G; Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, A L

    The objective of the present study was to enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation of the patients presenting with laryngeal cancer after the resection of the organ and laryngotomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics. Our experience in this field is based on the treatment of 102 patients. They were distributed by the nosological forms as follows: primary laryngeal cancer in 97 patients including T1NoMo - 8 (8.2%), T2NoMo - 63 (65%), T3NoMo - 18 (17.6%), T2N1Mo - 1 (0.9%), T4NoMo - 3 (2.9%), and T4N1M0 - 4 (3.9%), root of the tongue cancer spreading over the vestibular part of the larynx in one patient, laryngeal sarcoma in one patient, relapse of cancer following the full-dose radiotherapy and organ-sparing surgery in 3 patients. Laryngeal resection was performed in 83 patients; 19 patients underwent laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics using a domestically manufactured voice prosthesis. The systemic approach to the rehabilitation of the patients and the use of the proposed treatment algorithm made it possible to restore the function of the larynx by means of organ-sparing surgery in 79 (95.1%) of the 83 patients. The vocal function in the patients following laryngectomy with tracheoesophageal by-pass and endoprosthetics was restored in 18 (94.7%) of the 19 patients.

  5. Dysphagia Caused by Chronic Laryngeal Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delides, Alexander; Sakagiannis, George; Maragoudakis, Pavlos; Gouloumi, Αlina-Roxani; Katsimbri, Pelagia; Giotakis, Ioannis; Panayiotides, John G

    2015-10-01

    A rare case of a young female with chronic diffuse laryngeal edema causing severe swallowing difficulty is presented. The patient was previously treated with antibiotics and steroids with no improvement. Diagnosis was made with biopsy of the epiglottis under local anesthesia in the office.

  6. [Multispiral computed tomographic semiotics of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, P V; Iudin, A L; Sdvizhkov, A M; Kozhanov, L G

    2007-01-01

    Multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) with intravenous bolus contrasting is a currently available method for radiodiagnosis of laryngeal cancer. MSCT is of much higher informative value in estimating the extent of a tumorous lesion than the traditional radiodiagnostic techniques: linear tomography, lateral X-ray study, roentgenoscopy and roentgenography of the laryngopharynx and esophagus with barium meal.

  7. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  8. Laryngeal amyloidosis with laryngocele: MRI and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, A.; Ceylan, N.; Cetin, A.; Demirci, A.

    1998-01-01

    A case of laryngeal amyloidosis associated with a laryngocele is reported. Preoperative CT showed diffuse thickening of the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds and false vocal cords with well-defined calcific foci. MRI revealed contrast enhancement and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  9. Delineation of the primary tumour Clinical Target Volumes (CTV-P) in laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: AIRO, CACA, DAHANCA, EORTC, GEORCC, GORTEC, HKNPCSG, HNCIG, IAG-KHT, LPRHHT, NCIC CTG, NCRI, NRG Oncology, PHNS, SBRT, SOMERA, SRO, SSHNO, TROG consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Le, Quynh-Thu; Bourhis, Jean; Budach, Volker; Chen, Amy; Eisbruch, Abraham; Feng, Mei; Giralt, Jordi; Gupta, Tejpal; Hamoir, Marc; Helito, Juliana K; Hu, Chaosu; Hunter, Keith; Johansen, Jorgen; Kaanders, Johannes; Laskar, Sarbani Ghosh; Lee, Anne; Maingon, Philippe; Mäkitie, Antti; Micciche', Francesco; Nicolai, Piero; O'Sullivan, Brian; Poitevin, Adela; Porceddu, Sandro; Składowski, Krzysztof; Tribius, Silke; Waldron, John; Wee, Joseph; Yao, Min; Yom, Sue S; Zimmermann, Frank; Grau, Cai

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Grégoire et al., 2003, 2014), but such recommendations are lacking for primary tumour delineation. For the latter, two main schools of thoughts are prevailing, one based on geometric expansion of the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) as promoted by DAHANCA, and the other one based on anatomical expansion of the GTV using compartmentalization of head and neck anatomy. For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first proposal was put forward by the leading authors of this publication (VG and CG) and discussed with opinion leaders in head and neck radiation oncology from Europe, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, North America and South America to reach a worldwide consensus. This consensus proposes two CTVs for the primary tumour, the so called CTV-P1 and CVT-P2, corresponding to a high and lower tumour burden, and which should be associated with a high and a lower dose prescription, respectively. Implementation of these guidelines in the daily practice of radiation oncology should contribute to reduce treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi-institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Head-to-head comparison of chest x-ray/head and neck MRI, chest CT/head and neck MRI, and (18)F-FDG-PET/CT for detection of distant metastases and synchronous cancer in oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Max; Nielsen, Anne L; Johansen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    -fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) upfront in the diagnostic work-up of patients with oral, pharyngeal, or laryngeal cancer. Methods: A prospective cohort study based on paired data. Consecutive patients with histologically verified primary head and squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) at Odense...

  11. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  12. Results of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for T4 rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Harunobu; Maeda, Koutarou; Masumori, Koji; Koide, Yoshikazu; Noro, Tomohito; Honda, Katsuyuki; Shiota, Miho; Matsuoka, Shinji; Toyama, Kunihiro

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed clinical records of 11 cases with preoperative chemoradiotherapy to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of chemoradiotherapy for T4 rectal cancer. The preoperative radiotherapy consisted of 40-50 Gy delivered in fractions of 1.8-2.0 Gy per day, five days per week. A treatment of 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg/body per day intravenously, or oral tegafur-uracil (UFT)-E (300 mg/m 2 ) with l-leucovorin (75 mg) per day, or oral S-1 (80 mg/m 2 ) per day five days per week, was given during radiotherapy. One patient died due to pelvic abscess in 63 days after chemoradiotherapy. Invasive findings to the adjacent organs identified by CT and MRI disappeared in 6 cases with complete or partial response 1 month after chemoradiotherapy. Curative surgery was performed in 7 patients. Although the adjacent organs were also removed during surgery in 7 patients, there was no histological invasion to the adjacent organs in 4 patients, and one patient had histological complete disappearance of tumor. Although complications after surgery were found in all of the patients, they were improved by conservative treatment. Two of 7 patients with curative surgery had recurrence, but the rest of them survived without recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy was expected to be an effective treatment to improve the resection rate and prognosis for T4 rectal cancer. However, it was thought that it was necessary to be careful about severe toxicity, such as pelvic abscess. (author)

  13. The current status of the treatment for T4 maxillary sinus cancer in Japan. A multi-institutional retrospective observation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Akihiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Matsuura, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status in Japan of the treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the T4 maxillary sinus (MS-SCC) and its use to plan clinical trials in the future. The data for 128 patients with previously untreated MS-SCC were obtained from 28 institutions from 2006 to 2007. Of the 128 patients, 118 patients with curative intent were included in an analysis of the treatment and its results. Of the 118 patients, 73 patients had T4a disease, and 45 with T4b. Thirty-nine patients (33.1%) were treated with total maxillectomy, 25 (21.2%) with partial maxillectomy, 22 patients (18.6%) with RADPLAT, 19 patients (16.1%) with IV-CRT, and 13 patients (11.0%) with others. The 5-year overall survival rate and local control rate for 118 patients were 49.8% and 48.9%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for patients with T4aN0M0 and T4bN0M0 were 67.5% and 29.8%, respectively. This study was retrospective, but we could understand the tendency of treatment choice and treatment results. It will be useful information to plan clinical trials in the future. (author)

  14. Tracheostomy and radiotherapy in the management of laryngeal carcinoma causing airway obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawes, P.J.D. [Sunderland District General Hospital (United Kingdom); Agrawal, R.K.; Dawes, P.J.D.K. [Newcastle General Hospital (United Kingdom); Williams, S. [Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand)

    1997-09-01

    Between 1977 and 1985, 66 patients presenting with airway obstruction due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated by tracheostomy and subsequent radiotherapy. Female survival (64% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years) was significantly better than male survival (19% at 2 years and 10% at 5 years). When four forms of management were compared, it appeared that 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was associated with better survival. Because two of the treatment groups contained few patients, these were excluded from further analysis. When adjustments were made for sex, delay between tracheostomy and treatment, and residual disease, the difference in treatment response between those receiving 60+ Gy in 28-30 fractions over 42 days and those receiving 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was not significant (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI 0.64-3.91). (author).

  15. Tracheostomy and radiotherapy in the management of laryngeal carcinoma causing airway obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, P.J.D.; Agrawal, R.K.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Williams, S.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1985, 66 patients presenting with airway obstruction due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were treated by tracheostomy and subsequent radiotherapy. Female survival (64% at 2 years and 35% at 5 years) was significantly better than male survival (19% at 2 years and 10% at 5 years). When four forms of management were compared, it appeared that 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was associated with better survival. Because two of the treatment groups contained few patients, these were excluded from further analysis. When adjustments were made for sex, delay between tracheostomy and treatment, and residual disease, the difference in treatment response between those receiving 60+ Gy in 28-30 fractions over 42 days and those receiving 40 Gy in ten fractions over 21 days was not significant (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% CI 0.64-3.91). (author)

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  17. Quantum thetas on noncommutative T4 from embeddings into lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kim, Hoil

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the theta vector and quantum theta function over noncommutative T 4 from the embedding of RxZ 2 . Manin has constructed the quantum theta functions from the lattice embedding into vector space (x finite group). We extend Manin's construction of the quantum theta function to the embedding of vector space x lattice case. We find that the holomorphic theta vector exists only over the vector space part of the embedding, and over the lattice part we can only impose the condition for the Schwartz function. The quantum theta function built on this partial theta vector satisfies the requirement of the quantum theta function. However, two subsequent quantum translations from the embedding into the lattice part are nonadditive, contrary to the additivity of those from the vector space part

  18. [The effect of nutritional therapy in the treatment of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella Romero, F; Simal Antón, A; Motilla Valeriano, T; Martínez Montero, P; Mata Castro, N; González Martí, F

    1995-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer constitutes and important problem from the nutritional point of view, both due to the effect of the tumor itself as due to the aggressive treatment to which the majority of these patients are subjected. To evaluate the incidence of nutritional support on the morbid-mortality and on the number of hospitalization days, we compare a group A of 61 patients diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, who received treatment from the Department of Nutrition, with another, similar group B, who received a standard diet. a complete evaluation of the nutritional status was done (anthropometric biochemical and immunological parameters) one day prior to the surgery and two weeks after. The differences of age (61 vs 63 years), cigarette smoking (31 vs 34), excessive alcohol ingestion (34 vs 29), location of the tumor and type of surgery, were not significant. The nutritional treatment used in group A was enteral nutrition by means of a 12-F polyurethane naso-gastric tube, while in group B it was the ground up culinary diet through a large caliber naso-gastric tube. There were no significant differences in the mortality (1/0) or in the surgical complications (9/10); nevertheless, the average number of hospital days was clearly lower in group A (18 days) compared to group B (24 days) (p < 0.005). The evolution of the evaluation parameters of the nutritional status was analyzed, as well as the administered dietary formulae, added medication, and the complications of the technique. Regulated nutritional support may contribute to the decrease of the hospitalization period of patients operated on for laryngeal cancer.

  19. The association between RCAS1 expression in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer and its healthy stroma with cancer relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutsch-Wicherek, Magdalena; Tomaszewska, Romana; Lazar, Agata; Wicherek, Lukasz; Skladzien, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to establish the level of RCAS1 – a membrane protein expressed in various cancer cells and able to induce apoptosis of CTLs and NK cells in pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and its clear surgical margin – with respect to clinicopathological features and to patient's follow up and evaluate its possible role in cancer relapse. A total of 122 tissue samples were obtained: 51 samples from laryngeal and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 51 samples from the clear surgical margins of these tumors, and 20 tissue samples derived from the healthy mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract mucosa of patients without cancerous tumors. Patients were observed for a total of 4 years following surgical treatment. The level of RCAS1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. RCAS1 was identified in all laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinomas and in almost all the clear surgical margin samples. The level of RCAS1 expression was significantly higher in the cancerous samples than in the clear surgical margins and was determined to be related to the grade of the cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases. In cases of cancer relapse, significantly higher levels of RCAS1 expression were observed in the clear surgical margins. Selective cytotoxic immune cell suppression concomitant with tumor growth and associated with RCAS1 expression seems to be an important event connected with cancer relapse

  20. An improved 96-well turbidity assay for T4 lysozyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Tasha B; Nguyen, Thao P; Watt, Terry J

    2015-01-01

    T4 lysozyme (T4L) is an important model system for investigating the relationship between protein structure and function. Despite being extensively studied, a reliable, quantitative activity assay for T4L has not been developed. Here, we present an improved T4L turbidity assay as well as an affinity-based T4L expression and purification protocol. This assay is designed for 96-well format and utilizes conditions amenable for both T4L and other lysozymes. This protocol enables easy, efficient, and quantitative characterization of T4L variants and allows comparison between different lysozymes. Our method: •Is applicable for all lysozymes, with enhanced sensitivity for T4 lysozyme compared to other 96-well plate turbidity assays;•Utilizes standardized conditions for comparing T4 lysozyme variants and other lysozymes; and•Incorporates a simplified expression and purification protocol for T4 lysozyme.

  1. Laryngeal Chondrosarcoma: A rare cause of critical upper airway obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tuite, K

    2018-01-01

    Laryngeal cancers are rare, encompassing around one percent of all cancers. Suspicion should be raised if a patient presents with classical signs and symptoms; i.e. dysphonia, inspiratory stridor, dysphagia, odynophagia, neck mass, or persistent cough. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma is a rare form of laryngeal cancer, the diagnosis of which can be difficult. The case in question describes an unusual presentation of one such case, and its subsequent investigation, management and outcome.

  2. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  3. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, T.; Itami, J.; Kotaka, K.; Toriyama, M.

    1996-01-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [de

  4. Primary laryngeal leishmaniasis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal leishmaniasis is extremely rare. We report a case of primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in a 70-year-old male who was admitted with complaints of gradual progressive hoarseness of the voice, dyspnea, cough for the past 3 months and noisy breathing for the past 5 days. An X-ray of the soft tissue of the neck showed a prevertebral soft tissue mass causing narrowing of the airway at the C6-C7 vertebral level. A computerized tomography (CT scan showed a soft tissue mass in the subglottic region causing significant narrowing of the airway. A direct laryngoscopy showed a pinkish-white, friable mass involving the subglottic region and the anterior half of the vocal cords. With the clinical suspicion of malignancy, an endoscopic biopsy was done. A histopathological examination showed diffuse mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate in subepithelium with numerous Leishmania donovani bodies in the cytoplasm of histiocytes.

  5. A case of desmoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Shogo; Suehiro, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kishimoto, Ippei; Imai, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    Extra-abdominal desmoid tumor, also known as aggressive fibromatosis, has aggressive behavior with local infiltration and tendency for recurrence. Though head and neck is reported to be one of the most common sites, a desmoid tumor in the larynx is extremely rare. A 67-year-old male visited our hospital with prolonged hoarseness and received laryngo-microsurgery with the diagnosis of laryngeal polyp. After the operation, he eventually developed a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma with papilloma, confirmed by second laryngo-microsurgery and received radiation therapy. After the third laryngo-microsurgery to remove residual papilloma, white irregular mass appeared on the right vocal cord and grew rapidly beneath the glottis, causing dyspnea. After 2 additional laryngo-microsurgeries, he was diagnosed having the dermoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent near-total laryngectomy and is currently alive without disease, speaking using a vocal shunt. Only five cases of the desmoid tumors arising in the adult larynx have been reported in the English literature. In this case, repeated surgery and radiation were suspected as the causes. Also, the present report is the first to describe desmoid tumor co-existing with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The ossification principle of the laryngeal skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, W. von.

    1981-01-01

    In 94 decreased of both sexes aged 15 to 79 who had not has any affections of the larynx itself, the laryngeal skeleton was X-rayed after removing the soft parts, to demonstrate the ossification processes. Furthermore the deformation of the thyroid cartilage caused at the larynx by the laryngopharyngeal muscle in the act of swallowing was experimentally induced and determined with the aid of strain gauges. (orig.) [de

  7. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma - Ten years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando dos Santos Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal involvement by cartilaginous tumors is rare. However, although accounting for only 1% of laryngeal tumor pathology, they are the most frequently occurring non-epithelial neoplasms. The most probable location is the endolaryngeal surface of the cricoid cartilage. Their symptoms are variable, depending on the size and location, and may include hoarseness, stridor, and dyspnea. Treatment is based on surgical excision. Some centers take into account the degree of differentiation and whether it is a case of relapse when deciding to perform a radical resection. AIM: To evaluate this disease in a sample of the Portuguese population. METHODS: A review of the medical records from 2002 to 2012 by assessment of clinical processes was performed. Data on demographics, clinical treatments, and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Six patients were included in the study. Five of them underwent total laryngectomy, and in one case, partial excision of the thyroid cartilage was performed. None of the patients had either metastases or tumor-related death. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal chondrosarcomas remain a rare disease of unknown etiology, with slow and insidious symptoms. The treatment is surgical, with favorable prognosis, and metastases rarely occur. The main concern regards their propensity to relapse.

  8. Laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Del Negro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Adenoid cystic carcinomas are malignant tumors that occur in both the major and the minor salivary glands. A laryngeal location is rare because of the paucity of accessory salivary glands in this area. Adenoid cystic carcinomas account for less than 1% of all malignant tumors in the larynx, and only about 120 cases have been reported in the literature. These tumors have a slight female predisposition, and their peak incidence is in the fifth and sixth decades of life. In this article, we describe a case of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma and discuss its clinical characteristics and treatment. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 55 year-old female patient who presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. Features of the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation are described and the clinical management of such cases is outlined. The clinical course, definitive treatment strategy and surgical procedure, and also adjuvant treatment with irradiation are discussed. Although the tumor is radiosensitive, it is not radiocurable.

  9. Total Laryngectomy Versus Larynx Preservation for T4a Larynx Cancer: Patterns of Care and Survival Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Li, Jiaqi; Cohen, Roger B.; Ahn, Peter H.; Lukens, John N.; Chalian, Ara A.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Lin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine practice patterns and compare survival outcomes between total laryngectomy (TL) and larynx preservation chemoradiation (LP-CRT) in the setting of T4a larynx cancer, using a large national cancer registry. Methods and Materials: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified 969 patients from 2003 to 2006 with T4a squamous cell larynx cancer receiving definitive treatment with either initial TL plus adjuvant therapy or LP-CRT. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess predictors of undergoing surgery. Survival outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier and propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability of treatment–weighted Cox proportional hazards methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Results: A total of 616 patients (64%) received LP-CRT, and 353 (36%) received TL. On multivariable logistic regression, patients with advanced nodal disease were less likely to receive TL (N2 vs N0, 26.6% vs 43.4%, odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.73; N3 vs N0, 19.1% vs 43.4%, OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.77), whereas patients treated in high case-volume facilities were more likely to receive TL (46.1% vs 31.5%, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.27-2.48). Median survival for TL versus LP was 61 versus 39 months (P<.001). After controlling for potential confounders, LP-CRT had inferior overall survival compared with TL (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), and with the inverse probability of treatment–weighted model (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.49). This survival difference was shown to be robust on additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Most patients with T4a larynx cancer receive LP-CRT, despite guidelines suggesting TL as the preferred initial approach. Patients receiving LP-CRT had more advanced nodal disease and worse overall survival. Previous studies of (non-T4a) locally advanced larynx cancer showing no difference in survival between LP-CRT and TL may not

  10. [Evaluation and treatment of children's laryngeal clefts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Tan, L T; Xu, Z M

    2018-01-07

    Objectives: To provide the experience about the diagnostic process and following management, and to discuss the outcome and predictors in children with laryngeal cleft (LC). Methods: A retrospective case study was conducted at an academic children's hospital. Thirty children were diagnosed as laryngeal cleft between January 2016 and April 2017.Airway evaluations were performed using both flexible and rigid endoscopy, and swallowing evaluations were performed using fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing or modified barium swallow. Results: Of 30 cases, 18 were male and 12 were female, ranging in age from birth to 8 years. Two cases were diagnosed as type 0 LC, and they were offered thickened liquid without medication. Throughout follow-up, they remained asymptomatic and showed no respiratory complications. Nineteen children were diagnosed as type Ⅰ LC. Six of them were significantly improved by anti-reflux therapy and feeding instructions. Four children were concomitant with swallowing dysfunction and/or neuromuscular disorders, and they were given a tracheotomy and routine management. Another 4 children were submitted surgical repair when routine treatment failed, and their symptoms were relieved. Five children were concomitant with larygomalacia, and their symptoms were totally ameliorated by supraglottoplasty. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅱ LC. Two of them received surgical repair and clinically improved, and the rest one was treated by anti-reflux therapy and still under follow-up. Three children were diagnosed as type Ⅲ LC. One of them was underwent surgical repair and clinically improved. Two children were tracheotomized and treated by anti-reflux therapy. Three cases were diagnosed as type Ⅳ LC at birth and no one survived. Conclusions: Laryngeal cleft is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting with a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorder, aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. Diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal

  11. Identification of distinct layers within the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Jayme R; Sadow, Peter M; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-09-01

    A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the Treatment of Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapaniemi, Aaro, E-mail: aaro.haapaniemi@hus.fi [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Kankaanranta, Leena [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Saat, Riste [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Koivunoro, Hanna; Saarilahti, Kauko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a larynx-preserving treatment option for patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Six patients with locally recurrent squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma and 3 patients with persistent laryngeal cancer after prior treatment were treated with BNCT at the FiR1 facility (Espoo, Finland) in 2006 to 2012. The patients had received prior radiation therapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy to a cumulative median dose of 66 Gy. The median tumor diameter was 2.9 cm (range, 1.4-10.9 cm) before BNCT. Boron neutron capture therapy was offered on a compassionate basis to patients who either refused laryngectomy (n=7) or had an inoperable tumor (n=2). Boronophenylalanine-fructose (400 mg/kg) was used as the boron carrier and was infused over 2 hours intravenously before neutron irradiation. Results: Six patients received BNCT once and 3 twice. The estimated average gross tumor volume dose ranged from 22 to 38 Gy (W) (mean; 29 Gy [W]). Six of the 8 evaluable patients responded to BNCT; 2 achieved complete and 4 partial response. One patient died early and was not evaluable for response. Most common side effects were stomatitis, fatigue, and oral pain. No life-threatening or grade 4 toxicity was observed. The median time to progression within the target volume was 6.6 months, and the median overall survival time 13.3 months after BNCT. One patient with complete response is alive and disease-free with a functioning larynx 60 months after BNCT. Conclusions: Boron neutron capture therapy given after prior external beam radiation therapy is well tolerated. Most patients responded to BNCT, but long-term survival with larynx preservation was infrequent owing to cancer progression. Selected patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer may benefit from BNCT.

  13. Elevated 18F-NaF uptake in cricoid cartilage in a patient with laryngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuxiao; Qi, Chi; Zhang, Shumao; Huang, Zhanwen; Chen, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laryngeal cancer is aggressive tumor that arises from the tissues of the larynx. Although any bone can be affected, involvement of cricoid cartilage was reported very rarely, and there has been no report of 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-NaF PET-CT) and 3D PET-CT for the evaluation of cricoid cartilage invasion. Patient concerns: A 54-year-old male discovered a protruding mass in the right anterior neck, which had rapidly increased in size over a period of 2 months. Subsequently, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea were gradually developed. Diagnoses: 18F-FDG PET-CT demonstrated that the abnormal activity was located in a soft tissue mass, which was about 4.2 cm × 3.8 cm × 3.6 cm in largest dimension in the laryngeal cavity of supraglottic portion (SUVmax: 23.6). A swollen lymph node was revealed in the right submandibular region, which had intense FDG activity with a SUVmax of 18.4. However, there is a high uptake of 18F-FDG in the region near the bone, which is uncertain whether there is any skeletal invasion. NaF PET-CT and 3D PET-CT demonstrated increased uptake in the right side of cricoid cartilage (SUVmax: 13.2). The histopathologic examination confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. Interventions: The patient underwent tracheotomy and received anti-infective treatment to relieve symptoms of dyspnea and prevent asphyxia. Outcomes: Clinical follow up of the patient revealed that dyspnea was significantly relieved. Lessons: The case report shows the imaging features of cricoid cartilage invasion, including 18F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18F-NaF PET-CT), and 3D PET-CT. Precise understanding of the invasion scope, accurately staging of laryngeal carcinoma, and choosing of the most suitable surgical scheme are the factors that lead to the optimal treatment of laryngeal neoplasms. PMID:29245332

  14. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Laryngeal Muscle Fiber Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Voice and swallowing dysfunction as a result of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis can be improved with vocal fold injections or laryngeal framework surgery. However, denervation atrophy can cause late-term clinical failure. A major determinant of skeletal muscle physiology is myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, and previous protein analyses…

  15. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  16. Failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and intubating laryngeal mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Hirose, T; Shingu, K

    2000-04-01

    To report unexpected failed tracheal intubation using a laryngoscope and an intubating laryngeal mask, and difficult ventilation via a facemask, laryngeal mask and intubating laryngeal mask, in a patient with an unrecognized lingual tonsillar hypertrophy. A 63-yr-old woman, who had undergone clipping of an aneurysm seven weeks previously, was scheduled for ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. At the previous surgery, there had been no difficulty in ventilation or in tracheal intubation. Her trachea remained intubated nasally for 11 days after surgery. Preoperatively, her consciousness was impaired. There were no restrictions in head and neck movements or mouth opening. The thyromental distance was 7 cm. After induction of anesthesia, manual ventilation via a facemask with a Guedel airway was suboptimal and the chest expanded insufficiently. At laryngoscopy using a Macintosh or McCoy device, only the tip of the epiglottis, but not the glottis, could be seen, and tracheal intubation failed. There was a partial obstruction during manual ventilation through either the intubating laryngeal mask or conventional laryngeal mask; intubation through each device failed. Digital examination of the pharynx, after removal of the laryngeal mask, indicated a mass occupying the vallecula. Lingual tonsillar hypertrophy (1 x 1 x 2 cm) was found to be the cause of the failure. Awake fibrescope-aided tracheal intubation was accomplished. Unexpected lingual tonsillar hypertrophy can cause both ventilation and tracheal intubation difficult, and neither the laryngeal mask nor intubating laryngeal mask may be helpful in the circumstances.

  17. Childhood Laryngeal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryngeal tumors in children are rare and can be benign (papillomatosis) or malignant. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common cancer of the larynx in children. Get comprehensive information about childhood laryngeal tumors, including histology, presentation, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  18. Childhood Laryngeal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood laryngeal (throat) tumors are tumors of the larynx (voice box). They can be benign (papillomatosis) or cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cell the cancer grew from. Get information about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood laryngeal tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. [A web-based integrated clinical database for laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Qimin; Liu, Jialin; Li, Yong; Liang, Chuanyu

    2014-08-01

    To establish an integrated database for laryngeal cancer, and to provide an information platform for laryngeal cancer in clinical and fundamental researches. This database also meet the needs of clinical and scientific use. Under the guidance of clinical expert, we have constructed a web-based integrated clinical database for laryngeal carcinoma on the basis of clinical data standards, Apache+PHP+MySQL technology, laryngeal cancer specialist characteristics and tumor genetic information. A Web-based integrated clinical database for laryngeal carcinoma had been developed. This database had a user-friendly interface and the data could be entered and queried conveniently. In addition, this system utilized the clinical data standards and exchanged information with existing electronic medical records system to avoid the Information Silo. Furthermore, the forms of database was integrated with laryngeal cancer specialist characteristics and tumor genetic information. The Web-based integrated clinical database for laryngeal carcinoma has comprehensive specialist information, strong expandability, high feasibility of technique and conforms to the clinical characteristics of laryngeal cancer specialties. Using the clinical data standards and structured handling clinical data, the database can be able to meet the needs of scientific research better and facilitate information exchange, and the information collected and input about the tumor sufferers are very informative. In addition, the user can utilize the Internet to realize the convenient, swift visit and manipulation on the database.

  20. Laryngeal dysfunction after thyroid surgery: diagnostic and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    FINCK, Camille

    2006-01-01

    Vocal fold hypomobility after thyroidectomy is a frequent complication of thyroidectomy. Laryngeal nerve paresis or paralysis may present with various symptoms like dysphagia, aspiration, voice alteration or dyspnea. Are described: the normal anatomophysiology of the larynx, the symptoms of nerve trauma following thyroidectomy, techniques of thoroughfull laryngeal and voice examination, some clinical entities( unilateral recurrent nerve paralysis, bilateral recurrent nerve paralysis, superior...

  1. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case report presenting transglottic involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, E.M.J.M. van den; Heijnen, B.J.; Verbist, B.M.; Sjögren, E.V.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis is a very rare disease. In most cases, it will present as a supraglottic pale edematous swelling. In our case, the patient presented with hoarseness and dyspnea during exertion. Laryngeal examination did show not only supraglottic edema but also prominent subglottic

  2. The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve and Thyroid Surgery; Who to Scope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review with Meta Analysis of Studies Comparing. Intra-Operative Neuromonitoring of Recurrent. Laryngeal Nerves Versus Visualization Alone. During Thyroid Surgery. J Surg Res. 2014; 181(1):. 152-61. 6. Hermann M, Alk G, Roka R, et al. Laryngeal. Recurrent Nerve Injury in Surgery for Benign. Thyroid Diseases: Effect of ...

  3. Transoral laser surgery for laryngeal carcinoma: has Steiner achieved a genuine paradigm shift in oncological surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A T; Tanyi, A; Hart, R D; Trites, J; Rigby, M H; Lancaster, J; Nicolaides, A; Taylor, S M

    2018-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery applies to the piecemeal removal of malignant tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract using the CO 2 laser under the operating microscope. This method of surgery is being increasingly popularised as a single modality treatment of choice in early laryngeal cancers (T1 and T2) and occasionally in the more advanced forms of the disease (T3 and T4), predominantly within the supraglottis. Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist turned philosopher and historian of science, coined the phrase 'paradigm shift' in his groundbreaking book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He argued that the arrival of the new and often incompatible idea forms the core of a new paradigm, the birth of an entirely new way of thinking. This article discusses whether Steiner and colleagues truly brought about a paradigm shift in oncological surgery. By rejecting the principle of en block resection and by replacing it with the belief that not only is it oncologically safe to cut through the substance of the tumour but in doing so one can actually achieve better results, Steiner was able to truly revolutionise the management of laryngeal cancer. Even though within this article the repercussions of his insight are limited to the upper aerodigestive tract oncological surgery, his willingness to question other peoples' dogma makes his contribution truly a genuine paradigm shift.

  4. Outcomes following total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma: one centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S C; Kartha, S-S; Kathan, C; Sharp, J; Mortimore, S

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of total laryngectomy (TL), complications and factors affecting survival. Retrospective review of hospital electronic database for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa). Large district general hospital in England, United Kingdom. Patients who had TL between January 1994 and January 2008. 5-year disease specific survival (DSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Seventy-one patients were reviewed, of whom 38 (54%) had laryngeal SCCa and 33 (46%) hypopharyngeal SCCa. The overall mean survival period following TL was 42.4 months. The 5-year DSS and DFS was better for laryngeal SCCa compared to hypopharyngeal SCCa, although not statistically significant (P=0.090, P=0.54 respectively). Patients treated for laryngeal SCCa had a mean survival period of 47.5 months compared to 36.5 months for hypopharyngeal disease. Those who had laryngeal recurrence after primary radiotherapy (RT) demonstrated statistically better survival probability than those who had hypopharyngeal recurrence (P=0.011). Patients without cervical lymphadenopathy had statistically better survival (P=0.049). The most common early complication was related to the cardiorespiratory system. One fatal complication of erosion of the brachiocephalic artery due to the laryngectomy tube was noted. The most common late complication was neopharyngeal stenosis. The commonest cause of death was due to locoregional recurrence, followed by medical co-morbidities. Patients referred to specialised head and neck clinic had a better survival probability than those referred to a general ENT clinic (P=0.37). While there is increasing tendency towards laryngeal conservation, total laryngectomy remains a robust treatment option in selected patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs: An update on recent knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan M. Kitshoff

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal paralysis is the effect of an inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages during inspiration, resulting in respiratory signs consistent with partial airway obstruction. The aetiology of the disease can be congenital (hereditary laryngeal paralysis or congenital polyneuropathy, or acquired (trauma, neoplasia, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy. The most common form of acquired laryngeal paralysis (LP is typically seen in old, large breed dogs and is a clinical manifestation of a generalised peripheral polyneuropathy recently referred to as geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy. Diagnosing LP based on clinical signs, breed and history has a very high sensitivity (90% and can be confirmed by laryngeal inspection. Prognosis after surgical correction depends on the aetiology: traumatic cases have a good prognosis, whereas tumour-induced or polyneuropathy-induced LP has a guarded prognosis. Acquired idiopathic LP is a slow progressive disease, with dogs reaching median survival times of 3–5 years after surgical correction.

  6. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  7. Clinical study of early laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Gunji; Mori, Takanori; Udaka, Tsuyoshi; Shiomori, Teruo; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 71 consecutive cases of early laryngeal cancer (stage I or II) that had undergone primary treatment in our department between 1999 and 2004. There were 68 males and 3 females, and their ages ranged from 40 to 85 years of age (average; 67.7 years). Eight patients had the supraglottic type, 61 had the glottic type, and 2 had the subglottic type. Chemoradiotherapy was performed as the primary treatment except in the patients with glottic T1a cancer, who received radiotherapy alone. The 5-year survival rates was 91.1% for glottic cancer (T1a: 100%, T1b: 92.3%, T2: 85.8%) and 75.0% for supraglottic cancer. The local control rate of glottic cancer was 79.6% (T1a: 80.0%, T1b: 74.0%, T2: 85.2%), and significantly higher than that of supraglottic cancer (56.2%, p<0.05). The laryngeal preservation rate was 84.4% in glottic cancer (T1a: 100%, T1b: 76.9%, T2: 77.5%) and 58.3% in supraglottic cancer, and the difference between T1a and T2 glottic cancer was significant (p<0.05). Local recurrence and cervical lymph node metastasis were seen in 9 patients and 6 patients, respectively. Distant metastasis occurred in 4 patients, all of whom had the glottic type. Four patients died of their disease, and distant metastasis was the major cause of death in 3 of them. These results indicate that additional treatment should be performed in cases in which radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy is ineffective and that both in the early stages glottic and supraglottic cancers can be successfully treated by radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy. The results also suggested that the survival of patients with early laryngeal cancer depends on whether they develop distant metastasis. Introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy to improve their prognosis remains to be assessed. (author)

  8. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemann, Boris; Lavolé, Armelle; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Nunes, Hilario; Benzakin, Sylvain; Lefevre, Marine; Kambouchner, Marianne; Périé, Sophie; Valeyre, Dominique; Cadranel, Jacques

    2014-10-20

    We undertook a study on a series of laryngeal sarcoidosis (LS), a very rare and often threatening localization to better specify laryngeal manifestations, sarcoidosis clinical expression and long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective case-control study. All LS patients from two French centers were included and compared to sarcoidosis patients without laryngeal localization with two controls for one patient. Twelve consecutive LS patients were recruited between 1993 and 2011. LS revealed sarcoidosis in eight cases (67%). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (77%), inspiratory dyspnea (38%) and dysphagia (38%). Epidemiological characterisics were not different. Extrapulmonary localizations were significantly more common in LS patients than in controls (92% vs. 54%, p=0.02), particularly lupus pernio (25% vs. 0%, p=0.03) and nasosinusal involvement (83% vs. 4%, p<0.01) while thoracic involvement was less frequent (58% vs 100%, p < 0.01). Treatment rates were higher in the LS group (92% vs. 58%, p=0.04), and treatment duration was longer (median: 81 vs. 13 months, p=0.04), with frequent long-term treatment (67%, N=8/12). Two patients underwent surgery. One patient needed temporary tracheostomy during the course of the disease; Remission rates were lower in LS patients (9% vs. 58% at 2 years p<0.01). Eventually, there was no death nor definitive tracheotomy. LS is a rare condition that is often associated to other loco-regional localizations. LS are often difficult to manage. Survival is good but may require a medico-surgical approach.

  9. [Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis complicated by decompensated respiratory failure in two children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurégan, C; Thierry, B; Blanchard, M; Chéron, G

    2015-11-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis is a rare, potentially severe cause of recurrent laryngeal dyspnea. It should be known as a cause of laryngeal dyspnea resistant to the usual treatments. We report on two pediatric cases of severe laryngeal papillomatosis with respiratory distress and failure. These observations illustrate the importance of early adequate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Two rare cases of laryngeal intralymphatic histiocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reznitsky, Martin; Daugaard, Søren; Charabi, Birgitte Wittenborg

    2016-01-01

    We report two rare cases of intralymphatic histiocytosis causing, respectively, recurrent and persistent episodes of upper airway swelling and breathing difficulties. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man who was referred with recurrent upper airway swelling causing difficulty in breathing. A direct....... Extensive investigations were performed but discovered no abnormal findings. He received CO2 laser treatment twice and the swelling decreased. Intralymphatic histiocytosis is extremely rare in upper airway pathology. It is an important differential diagnosis in patients with recurrent and chronic laryngeal...

  11. Esophageal stenosis after radiation for laryngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Majima, Yuichi; Nomoto, Yoshito; Okamoto, Yasunori; Sakakura, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    A 57-year-old female received radiation with 60 Gy, delivered by Cobalt 60 unit for laryngeal carcinoma in 1989. Several months later she complained of dyspnea, and fiberscopic observation revealed fixation of bilateral vocal cords and a swelling of bilateral arytenoid portions. In 1990, she developed difficulty swallowing. Further examinations showed that the cervical esophagus was extremely narrowed but no malignancy was found either in the larynx or in the esophagus. We suspected that the esophageal stenosis was caused by post-radiation fibrosis. (author)

  12. Esophageal stenosis after radiation for laryngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Majima, Yuichi; Nomoto, Yoshito; Okamoto, Yasunori; Sakakura, Yasuo [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-10-01

    A 57-year-old female received radiation with 60 Gy, delivered by Cobalt 60 unit for laryngeal carcinoma in 1989. Several months later she complained of dyspnea, and fiberscopic observation revealed fixation of bilateral vocal cords and a swelling of bilateral arytenoid portions. In 1990, she developed difficulty swallowing. Further examinations showed that the cervical esophagus was extremely narrowed but no malignancy was found either in the larynx or in the esophagus. We suspected that the esophageal stenosis was caused by post-radiation fibrosis. (author).

  13. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  14. Laryngeal adenocystic carcinoma treated by proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Tomonori; Araki, Mamika; Fukukita, Kouhei; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Adenocystic carcinoma most commonly develops in the major salivary glands, on the other hand it is rare for adenocystic carcinoma to develop in the larynx. We report a case of adenocystic carcinoma in the larynx. A 54-year-old male was hospitalized with symptoms of hoarseness and dyspnea on exertion. He presented a tumor that developed at the base of the right arytenoid, and covered over the glottis. It was confirmed to be adenocystic carcinoma (solid type) by biopsy. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT also revealed a left cervical lymph node metastasis and multiple pulmonary metastases (T1N2cM1). He was treated with proton therapy to the larynx to prevent airway obstruction by growth of the tumor and to preserve the larynx because he had uncontrollable pulmonary metastasis. Although the tumor vanished after the treatment, one month later he had halitosis, dyspnea and bilateral vocal cord palsy. Despite administration of an antibacterial drug and steroid, there was no improvement to the narrowness of the glottis. A tracheotomy was therefore performed three months after the proton therapy. PET-CT, which was performed after the tracheotomy, suggested growth of the residual tumor or laryngeal radionecrosis. This study confirmed that proton therapy is effective for adenocystic carcinoma in the larynx. However, proton therapy also was found to cause laryngeal radionecrosis. These results indicate the importance of evaluating the side effects of radiation therapy and providing that information to the patient. (author)

  15. Laryngeal complications after type 1 thyroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, C S; Avidano, M A; Crary, M A; Cassisi, N J; Gorham, M M

    1995-12-01

    Type I thyroplasty has become a primary surgical choice for voice restoration in patients with glottal incompetence. This study examines factors associated with laryngeal complications after type I thyroplasty. Ten laryngoscopic variables were analyzed from preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative videolaryngoscopies of 51 patients undergoing 58 medialization procedures. Ten patient and operative variables were examined by medical record review. Major complications were defined as wound hemorrhage, airway obstruction, or prosthesis extrusion. Minor complications were defined as vocal fold hematoma without airway obstruction or prosthesis movement. The major complication rate was 8.6%, and the minor complication rate was 29%. No delayed hemorrhage or airway obstruction occurred. Prosthesis extrusion occurred in five (8.6%) patients 1 week to 5 months after surgery. Extrusion was associated with suboptimal prosthesis placement in 80% of cases. Two patients retained excellent glottal closure despite extrusion. Vocal fold hematoma was identified in 14 (24%) cases and resolved within 1 week. Prosthesis movement occurred in three (5%) patients 1 week to 6 months after surgery and resulted in poor glottal closure. All patients with prosthesis extrusion or movement were female. Type I thyroplasty remains a safe outpatient procedure with few major complications. Prosthesis extrusion was associated with suboptimal prosthesis placement and may or may not result in poor glottal closure. Minor vocal fold hematomas were relatively frequent, resolved rapidly, and were not associated with airway obstruction. Female patients may be more prone to complications because of their small laryngeal size.

  16. T2 laryngeal cancer study in our department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenoya, Yoichi; Shimane, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Sei

    2011-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck region. Because early detection and treatment are possible, outcomes are relatively good. Many studies have reported on the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Different hospitals have used generally similar treatment regimens. However, factors such as laryngeal preservation and the treatment of choice for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer still differ among hospitals. Survival rates can be increased depending on treatment, sometimes at the cost of losing voice functions that could have been preserved. In our department, we have emphasized curative treatment and the preservation of organs and functions. We have mainly used chemoradiotherapy concurrently with S-1 and nedaplatin for the treatment of T2 laryngeal cancer. We studied 27 patients (23 men and 4 women) with T2 laryngeal cancer, who received first-line therapy in our department from April 2005 through March 2010. Their mean age was 64.1 years (range, 42 to 80). The mean follow-up period was 30.6 months (range, 2 to 60 months). The tumor-node-metastasis classification was T2N0M0 in 24 patients, T2N1M0 in 1, and T2N2bM0 in 2.In our department, the disease-specific survival rate was 96.3%. The complete response rate was 88.9%, and the laryngeal preservation rate was 92.6%. (author)

  17. Laryngeal Cysts in Adults: Simplifying Classification and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Richard; Lott, David G

    2017-12-01

    Objective Laryngeal cysts may occur at any mucosa-lined location within the larynx and account for 5% to 10% of nonmalignant laryngeal lesions. A number of proposed classifications for laryngeal cysts exist; however, no previously published classification aims to guide management. This review analyzes contemporary laryngeal cyst management and proposes a framework for the terminology and management of cystic lesions in the larynx. Data Sources PubMed/Medline. Review Methods A primary literature search of the entire Medline database was performed for all titles of publications pertaining to laryngeal cysts and reviewed for relevance. Full manuscripts were reviewed per the relevance of their titles and abstracts, and selection into this review was according to their clinical and scientific relevance. Conclusion Laryngeal cysts have been associated with rapid-onset epiglottitis, dyspnea, stridor, and death; therefore, they should not be considered of little significance. Symptoms are varied and nonspecific. Laryngoscopy is the primary initial diagnostic tool. Cross-sectional imaging may be required, and future use of endolaryngeal ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may revolutionize practice. Where possible, cysts should be completely excised, and there is growing evidence that a transoral approach is superior to transcervical excision for nearly all cysts. Histology provides definitive diagnosis, and oncocytic cysts require close follow-up. Implications for Practice A new classification system is proposed that increases clarity in terminology, with the aim of better preparing surgeons and authors for future advances in the understanding and management of laryngeal cysts.

  18. Laryngeal Chondrosarcoma as a Rare Cause of Subglottic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Kökoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal chondrosarcoma (CS is a very rare entity. It is usually seen in 50–80-year olds. It is developed from cricoid cartilage largely. Patients have laryngeal CS complaint of respiratuvar distress, dysphonia, and dysphagia generally. A submucous mass is usually seen in physical examination with an intact mucosa. Distant metastasis is rare in CSs. Main treatment is surgical excision. An 82-year-old patient who has respiratuvar distress is presented in this paper and laryngeal CS is reviewed in the light of the literature.

  19. Computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    To specify the role of computer tomography in the diagnosis of malignant of the larynx. Forty-two patients with suspected laryngeal tumors were examined: 38 men and 4 women aged 41-68 years. X-ray examinations included traditional immediate tomography of the larynx. Main X-ray and computer tomographic symptoms of laryngeal tumors of different localizations are described. It is shown that the use of computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer permits an objective assessment of the tumor, its structure and dissemination, and of the regional lymph nodes [ru

  20. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: a case report presenting transglottic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Emke M J M; Heijnen, Bas J; Verbist, Berit M; Sjögren, Elisabeth V

    2013-09-01

    Isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis is a very rare disease. In most cases, it will present as a supraglottic pale edematous swelling. In our case, the patient presented with hoarseness and dyspnea during exertion. Laryngeal examination did show not only supraglottic edema but also prominent subglottic swelling and edematous true vocal folds. Histology showed noncaseating granulomas. After excluding other causes and localizations, the patient was diagnosed with laryngeal sarcoidosis and treated with systemic corticosteroid with good result. We describe our case of isolated transglottic sarcoidosis and discuss the disease, its presentation, diagnosis, and therapeutic options. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [A case of laryngeal papilloma with sudden dyspnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiszczak, Maciej; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Borucki, Lukasz; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2005-01-01

    Laryngeal papilloma is one of the most common non-malignant tumors of the larynx. In adult they are included to pre-cancerous diseases. In morphological examination, it is a solid tumor. Often it is possible to cure them during one surgical procedure. The disease is mostly localized on the anterior commissurae region, vocal fold, ventricules, and on the laryngeal surface of the epiglottis. If the malignant transformation is suspected, a large excision with margin has to be performed, completed by a histological evaluation. A case of a huge laryngeal papilloma with dyspnea is presented.

  2. Neurophysiology and Clinical Implications of the Laryngeal Adductor Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domer, Amanda S; Kuhn, Maggie A; Belafsky, Peter C

    2013-09-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) is an involuntary protective response to stimuli in the larynx. The superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) acts as the afferent limb and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) as the efferent limb of this reflex, which is modulated by the central nervous system. Perhaps the most clinically significant application of the LAR is its use in laryngopharyngeal (LP) sensory discrimination testing. Importantly, aberrations in the LAR may predict dysphagia or portend clinical phenotypes of chronic cough, vocal cord dysfunction or pediatric apneas. LP sensation is a potential target for interventions addressing the aforementioned conditions though currently remains an area of active investigation.

  3. Investigation of study items for the patterns of care study in the radiotherapy of laryngeal cancer: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Ahn, Sung Ja; Kim, Il Han

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop the national guide-lines for the standardization of radiotherapy we are planning to establish a web-based, on-line data-base system for laryngeal cancer. As a first step this study was performed to accumulate the basic clinical information of laryngeal cancer and to determine the items needed for the data-base system. We analyzed the clinical data of patients who were treated under the diagnosis of laryngeal cancer from January 1998 through December 1999 in the South-west area of Korea. Eligibility criteria of the patients are as follows: 18 years or older, currently diagnosed with primary epithelial carcinoma of larynx, and no history of previous treatments for another cancers and the other laryngeal diseases. The items were developed and filled out by radiation oncologist who are members of Korean Southwest Radiation Oncology Group. SPSS v10.0 software was used for statistical analysis, Data of forty-five patients were collected. Age distribution of patients ranged from 28 to 88 years (median, 61). Laryngeal cancer occurred predominantly in males (10: t sex ratio). Twenty-eight patients (62%) had primary cancers in the glottis and 17 (38%) in the supraglottis. Most of them were diagnosed pathologically as squamous cell carcinoma (44/45, 98%). Twenty-four of 28 glottic cancer patients (86%) had AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) stage l/ll, but 50% (8/16) had in supraglottic cancer patients (p=0.02). Most patients (89%) had the symptom of hoarseness. Indirect laryngoscopy was done in all patients and direct laryngoscopy was performed in 43 (98%) patients. Twenty-one of 28 (75%) glottic cancer cases and 6 of 17 (35%) supraglottic cancer cases were treated with radiation alone, respectively. The combined treatment of surgery and radiation was used in 5 (18%) glottic and 8 (47%) supraglottic patients. Chemotherapy and radiation was used in 2 (7%) glottic and 3 (18%) supraglottic patients. There was no statistically significant difference in

  4. Importance of time factor (γ/α) of linear quadratic (LQ) model for predicting laryngeal edema in irradiation treatment of early glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deore, S.M.; Fontenla, D.P.; Beitler, J.J.; Vikram, B.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The time factor (γ/α) in the LQ model has been considered irrelevant for the late normal tissue injury (1). The failure of the LQ model to predict spinal cord injury in the CHART protocol questions the validity of this hypothesis. In this investigation, the incidence of radiation induced laryngeal edema was evaluated retrospectively in patients treated with different dose fractionation regimes for carcinoma of glottic cancer (2). The BED values of the LQ model calculated for different values of time factor (γ/α) were correlated with the incidence of radiation induced laryngeal edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was carried out for 208 patients T 1 and T 2 squamous cell cancer of the vocal cord treated with radical radiotherapy during 1975-80. There were 156 patients with T 1 lesions and the remaining 52 patients had T 2 lesions. All these patients were treated with three different fractionation regimens of 60.75 Gy/ 27 F/ 39 D, 60 Gy/24 F/34 D and 50 Gy/15 F/ 22 D, using fraction sizes 2.25 Gy, 2.5 Gy and 3.33 Gy, respectively. For the minimum follow up of 4 years, the incidence of laryngeal edema was related to fraction size (see table). To investigate the importance of the time factor (γ/α) of LQ model, BED values were calculated for different values of γ/α and ∞/β = 2.0 Gy. RESULTS: As shown in the table below, the incidence of radiation induced laryngeal edema was found in 17.2% of patients with 2.25 Gy/F compared to 44.4% using 3.33 Gy/F. The TDF model failed to correlate with the incidence of laryngeal edema. The BED values of LQ model also fails to show statistically significant correlation with the incidence of late complications. However, the BED values accounting for the time factor (particularly γ/α = 1.2 Gy/day) show significant improvement in correlation with incidence of laryngeal edema. CONCLUSION: For comparable TDF values the incidence of laryngeal edema varied from 17% to 44.4%. The analysis with

  5. Thyroid cartilage invasion in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Mario; Weiss, Daniel; Steiger, Matthias; Elges, Sandra; Rudack, Claudia; Stenner, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the accuracy of computed tomography in detecting malignant thyroid cartilage invasion. In a retrospective chart review, 120 patients with carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx underwent computed tomography before total laryngectomy. These data were compared with the histological specimens. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 76 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 69 %. The specificity of MDCT was 89 % and sensitivity was 46 %. Comparison between radiologic suspected cartilage invasion and histologic results showed a significant correlation (p < 0.02). We found no significant impact of cartilage invasion concerning survival rates (5-year overall survival p = 0.683; 5-year disease-free survival p = 0.711). Preoperative CT scan is an important instrument in detecting neoplastic cartilage invasion.

  6. hemangiomes larynges de l'adulte a propos de 9 cas adult laryngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16 juin 2006 ... pique, avec hémostase locale. Deux récidives ont été notées, pour lesquels une seconde exérèse instrumentale par voie endoscopique a été réalisée avec une évolution favorable. Le recul moyen était de 9 ans. SUMMARY. The adult laryngeal hemangioma is extremely rare and presents histological and ...

  7. External laryngeal manipulation done by the laryngoscopist makes the best laryngeal view for intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: External laryngeal manipulation (ELM is used to get better laryngeal view during direct laryngoscopy. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that ELM done by the intubating anesthetist (laryngoscopist offers the best laryngeal view for tracheal intubation. Materials and method: A total of 160 patients underwent different surgical procedures were included in this study. Percentage of glottic opening (POGO score and Cormack and Lehane scale were used as outcome measures for comparison between different laryngoscopic views. Four views were described; basic laryngoscopic view and then views after ELM done by the assistant, by the laryngoscopist and finally by the assistant after the guidance from the laryngoscopist respectively. The last three views compared with the basic laryngoscopic view. Results: ELM done by the laryngoscopist or by the assistant after guidance from the laryngoscopist showed significant improvement of Cormack grades and POGO scores compared with basic laryngoscopic view. Number of patients with Cormack grade1 increased from 39 after direct laryngoscopy to 97 and 96 patients (P < 0.001 by Fisher′s exact test, after ELM done by the laryngoscopist and that done by the assistant after guidance from the anesthetist respectively. Furthermore, the number of patients with POGO scores of 100% increased from 39 after direct laryngoscopy to 78 and 61 (P < 0.01 patients after ELM done by the laryngoscopist and that done by the assistant after guidance from the anesthetist respectively. Conclusion: It appeared from this study that ELM done by the anesthetist makes the best laryngeal view for tracheal intubation.

  8. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  9. Reversing Age Related Changes of the Laryngeal Muscles by Chronic Electrostimulation of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    Full Text Available Age related atrophy of the laryngeal muscles -mainly the thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM- leads to a glottal gap and consequently to a hoarse and dysphonic voice that significantly affects quality of life. The aim of our study was to reverse this atrophy by inducing muscular hypertrophy by unilateral functional electrical stimulation (FES of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in a large animal model using aged sheep (n = 5. Suitable stimulation parameters were determined by fatiguing experiments of the thyroarytenoid muscle in an acute trial. For the chronic trial an electrode was placed around the right RLN and stimulation was delivered once daily for 29 days. We chose a very conservative stimulation pattern, total stimulation time was two minutes per day, or 0.14% of total time. Overall, the mean muscle fiber diameter of the stimulated right TAM was significantly larger than the non-stimulated left TAM (30μm±1.1μm vs. 28μm±1.1 μm, p<0.001. There was no significant shift in fiber type distribution as judged by immunohistochemistry. The changes of fiber diameter could not be observed in the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCAM. FES is a possible new treatment option for reversing the effects of age related laryngeal muscle atrophy.

  10. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p < 0.05); logistic regression analysis showed that calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0.001; OR: 0.27). We found no difference in the overall consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more consumption of leeks (p = 0.042) and, among controls younger than 65 years, cooked beans (p = 0.037). Lemon (p = 0.037), squeezed fruit juice (p = 0.032), and watermelon (p = 0.018) were also more frequently consumed by the controls. Other differences at the micronutrient level included greater consumption by the LC patients of retinol (p = 0.044), polyunsaturated fats (p = 0.041), and linoleic acid (p = 0.008); LC patients younger than 65 years also had greater intake of riboflavin (p = 0.045). We conclude that the differences in dietary consumption patterns between LC patients and controls

  11. PROTEOLYTIC REMOVAL OF THE CARBOXYL TERMINUS OF THE T4 GENE 32 HELIX-DESTABILIZING PROTEIN ALTERS THE T4 IN VITRO REPLICATION COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.L.; Alberts, B.M.; Hosoda, J.

    1980-07-01

    The proteolytic removal of about 60 amino acids from the COOH terminus of the bacteriophage T4 helix-destabilizing protein (gene 32 protein) produces 32*I, a 27,000-dalton fragment which still binds tightly and cooperatively to single-stranded DNA. The substitution of 32*I protein for intact 32 protein in the seven-protein T4 replication complex results in dramatic changes in some of the reactions catalyzed by this in vitro DNA replication system, while leaving others largely unperturbed. (1) Like intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein promotes DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase when the T4 polymerase accessory proteins (gene 44/62 and 45 proteins) are also present. The host helix-destabilizing protein (Escherichia coli ssb protein) cannot replace the 32*I protein for this synthesis. (2) Unlike intact 32 protein, 32*I protein strongly inhibits DNA synthesis catalyzed by the T4 DNA polymerase alone on a primed single-stranded DNA template. (3) Unlike intact 32 protein, the 32*I protein strongly inhibits RNA primer synthesis catalyzed by the T4 gene 41 and 61 proteins and also reduces the efficiency of RNA primer utilization. As a result, de novo DNA chain starts are blocked completely in the complete T4 replication system, and no lagging strand DNA synthesis occurs. (4) The 32*I protein does not bind to either the T4 DNA polymerase or to the T4 gene 61 protein in the absence of DNA; these associations (detected with intact 32 protein) would therefore appear to be essential for the normal control of 32 protein activity, and to account at least in part for observations 2 and 3, above. We propose that the COOH-terminal domain of intact 32 protein functions to guide its interactions with the T4 DNA polymerase and the T4 gene 61 RNA-priming protein. When this domain is removed, as in 32*I protein, the helix destabilization induced by the protein is controlled inadequately, so that polymerizing enzymes tend to be displaced from the growing 3{prime}-OH end of a

  12. Anesthesia management for a case of laryngeal keel placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Gosavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital laryngeal web is a rare anomaly with incidence of 1 in 10,000 births. Its clinical presentation may range from an asymptomatic patient or mild hoarseness of voice to severe respiratory stridor. The primary goals of surgical intervention for congenital laryngeal web are to establish a patent airway and to achieve a good voice quality. As recurrence rate after plain excision of laryngeal web is very high, its removal may be coupled by placement of a silastic keel in between vocal cords. Endolaryngeal placement of a keel is definitely less invasive than laryngofissure, but little is known about its anesthesia management. Frequent ventilatory adjustment and endotracheal tube (ETT manipulations are needed along with vigilant monitoring. Risk of perforation or accidental dislodgment of the ETT and laryngeal edema are other concerns in management. We report a case.

  13. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs: an update on recent knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitshoff, Adriaan M; Van Goethem, Bart; Stegen, Ludo; Vandekerckhov, Peter; de Rooster, Hilde

    2013-04-05

    Laryngeal paralysis is the effect of an inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages during inspiration, resulting in respiratory signs consistent with partial airway obstruction. The aetiology of the disease can be congenital (hereditary laryngeal paralysis or congenital polyneuropathy), or acquired (trauma, neoplasia, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy). The most common form of acquired laryngeal paralysis (LP) is typically seen in old, large breed dogs and is a clinical manifestation of a generalised peripheral polyneuropathy recently referred to as geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy. Diagnosing LP based on clinical signs, breed and history has a very high sensitivity (90%) and can be confirmed bylaryngeal inspection. Prognosis after surgical correction depends on the aetiology: traumatic cases have a good prognosis, whereas tumour-induced or polyneuropathy-induced LP has a guarded prognosis. Acquired idiopathic LP is a slow progressive disease, with dogs reaching median survival times of 3-5 years after surgical correction.

  14. Laryngeal paralysis in dogs: An update on recent knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan M. Kitshoff

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal paralysis is the effect of an inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages duringinspiration, resulting in respiratory signs consistent with partial airway obstruction. Theaetiology of the disease can be congenital (hereditary laryngeal paralysis or congenitalpolyneuropathy, or acquired (trauma, neoplasia, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy. Themost common form of acquired laryngeal paralysis (LP is typically seen in old, large breeddogs and is a clinical manifestation of a generalised peripheral polyneuropathy recentlyreferred to as geriatric onset laryngeal paralysis polyneuropathy. Diagnosing LP based onclinical signs, breed and history has a very high sensitivity (90% and can be confirmed bylaryngeal inspection. Prognosis after surgical correction depends on the aetiology: traumaticcases have a good prognosis, whereas tumour-induced or polyneuropathy-induced LP has aguarded prognosis. Acquired idiopathic LP is a slow progressive disease, with dogs reachingmedian survival times of 3–5 years after surgical correction.

  15. Tubular forms of papova viruses in human laryngeal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W

    1979-01-01

    In two cases of recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis tubular forms of papova viruses could be observed. The same material revealed the close relation between nuclear chromatine and the release of particles, as well as a capsomere like substructure of the virions.

  16. Risk factors for recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia postthyroidectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Despite preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), transient vocal cord paralysis (VCP) occurs after 1.2% to 10.9% of thyroidectomies. The objective of this study was to study risk factors for transient VCP after thyroidectomy.

  17. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    Iatrogenic injury of the vagus nerve or its branches during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can result in globus sensation, dysphagia, and even vocal fold immobility. Knowledge of morphologic and functional laryngopharyngeal outcomes after CEA is poor. The present study was performed to determine potential iatrogenic damage to the laryngeal innervation after CEA. An area of particular interest was the supraglottic sensory threshold, which was examined by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing With Sensory Testing (FEESST; Pentax Medical Company, Montvale, NJ), a validated and safe method for the determination of the motor and sensory components of swallowing. FEESST was used preoperatively in 32 patients scheduled to undergo CEA and twice postoperatively to examine the motor and sensory components of swallowing. In this endolaryngeal examination, laryngopharyngeal sensory thresholds (in mm Hg) were defined as normal at 6.0 mm Hg APP, with a value >10.0 mm Hg APP indicating abolished laryngeal adductor reflex. Acoustic voice parameters were also analyzed for further functional changes of the larynx. The mean ± standard deviation preoperative FEESST measures showed no significant differences (P = .065) between the operated-on side (6.73 ± 1.73 mm Hg) and the opposite side (5.83 ± 1.68 mm Hg). At 2 days postoperatively, the threshold increased (P = .001) to 7.62 ± 1.98 mm Hg on the operated-on side. A laryngopharyngeal mucosal hematoma on the operated side was endoscopically detectable in eight patients (30.8%); in these patients, we found a markedly elevated (P = .021) measure of 9.50 ± 0.93 mm Hg. On the opposite (nonoperated-on) side of the laryngopharynx, the thresholds remained at the same level as preoperatively over all assessments (P >.05), whereas the differences between the operated and nonoperated-on sides and the hematoma and nonhematoma groups were highly significant (P = .004 and P = .001, respectively). Surprisingly, the

  18. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, T. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Itami, J. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Kotaka, K. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy; Toriyama, M. [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    1996-08-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Von 1974 bis 1992 wurden 37 zuvor nicht behandelte Patienten mit T3-Larynxkarzinomen (15 supraglottisch, 22 glottisch) primaer kurativ bestrahlt und, wenn erforderlich, einer Salvage-Operation unterzogen. Die Zwei-Jahres-Kontrollrate bei alleiniger Strahlentherapie, die Rate der Stimmerhaltung sowie die unter Einschluss der Operation erreichbare lokale Kontrollrate bei supraglottischen T3-Larynxkarzinomen betrugen 33%, 33% und 60%. Bei glottischen T3-Karzinomen wurden jeweils 32%, 23% und 77% erreicht. Die Fuenf-Jahres-Ueberlebensrate betrug 47% bei supraglottischen T3-Karzinomen und 77% bei den glottischen Karzinomen. Im Fall von supraglottischen Karzinomen erreichte keiner der vier Patienten mit subglottischer Tumorausdehnung eine lokale Kontrolle durch alleinige Strahlentherapie. Die lokoregionale rezidivfreie Zeit war bei den Patienten mit subglottischer Tumorausdehnung oder Tracheostomie vor Einleitung der

  19. Laryngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Chin, Oliver Y; Fang, Christina H; Park, Richard Chan; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant minor salivary gland tumor that represents laryngeal tumors. The submucosal location of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (LACC) results in delayed presentation. Here, we present the first systematic review of reported cases of LACC to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities, and patient outcome. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. A search of the above databases was done to identify articles reporting cases of LACC. The variables included in the analysis were patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location, imaging, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence, and outcome. A total of 50 articles and 120 cases were included in the review. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (48.8%), followed by hoarseness (43.9%). LACC arose most frequently from the subglottis (56.7%). At presentation, 14.6% (13 of 89) of patients had regional disease. The average follow-up time was 54.0 months. At follow-up, distant metastasis was reported in 30 cases (33.3%). Surgery alone (43.3%) and surgery with radiotherapy (43.3%) were used most frequently and resulted in 57.1% and 55.3% of patients alive with no evidence disease at follow-up, respectively. LACC was most often located in the subglottis. Patients commonly presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. In this systematic review, surgery with radiotherapy and surgery alone were the most commonly employed treatment modalities, and both resulted in slightly more than 50% of patients alive with no evidence of disease at follow-up. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Structure and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddon, P.J.; Molineaux, S.M.; Maddon, D.F.; Zimmerman, K.A.; Godfrey, M.; Alt, F.W.; Chess, L.; Axel, R.

    1987-01-01

    The T4 molecule may serve as a T-cell receptor recognizing molecules on the surface of specific target cells and also serves as the receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus. To define the mechanisms of interaction of T4 with the surface of antigen-presenting cells as well as with human immunodeficiency virus, the authors have further analyzed the sequence, structure, and expression of the human and mouse T4 genes. T4 consists of an extracellular segment comprised of a leader sequence followed by four tandem variable-joining (VJ)-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and A cytoplasmic segment. The structural domains of the T4 protein deduced from amino acid sequence are precisely reflected in the intron-exon organization of the gene. Analysis of the expression of the T4 gene indicates that T4 RNA is expressed not only in T lymphocytes, but in B cells, macrophages, and granulocytes. T4 is also expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in specific regions of the brain. It is, therefore, possible that T4 plays a more general role in mediating cell recognition events that are not restricted to the cellular immune response

  1. Primary laryngeal localization of multiple myeloma: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Allegra, Eugenia; Marino, Nicol?; Modica, Domenico; Emmanuele, Carmela; Saita, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a lymphoproliferative disease that may involve the bone marrow as well as extramedullary soft tissues. However, laryngeal localization of multiple myeloma is extremely rare. We herein present the case of a 68-year-old male patient with a history of dyspnea, dysphonia and dysphagia. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a lesion involving the right glottis and right vestibular (false) vocal fold, with absence of ipsilateral laryngeal motility and constriction of the airway. Co...

  2. A case of laryngeal angioleiomyoma and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xue; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Yin; Liu, Yan; Qi, Xinmeng; Jin, Chunshun

    2015-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign vascular smooth muscle tumor that arise from the tunica media of veins and arteries. Here a case of laryngeal angioleiomyoma in a 57-year-old Chinese man is reported. The patient presented with dysphagia for one and half-month and dyspnea during the previous one week, was hospitalized for treatment with a tracheotomy and laryngofissure with the unblock mass excision. Final pathological evaluation of the neoplasm confirmed a diagnosis of laryngeal angioleiomyoma...

  3. Clinical Features and Differential Diagnoses in Laryngeal Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Sepideh; Mokhtari, Saeedeh

    2011-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of salivary glands. However, it is a rare entity in larynx. Laryngeal cases are frequently misdiagnosed with other malignancies and they are under-reported. So, recognizing the clinical and histological features of this tumor is essential. Laryngeal mucoepidermoid carcinoma can arise in supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Generally, it presents as a submucosal mass; therefore, progressive symptoms without any identifiable lesion in...

  4. EXPERIENCE OF USING ALLOGENIC BIOIMPLANTS IN LARYNGEAL RESECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Novozhilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently, a great importance is being attached to improvement of the surgical component of combination treatment of locally advanced laryngeal cancer. New technological capabilities (transoral microsurgery of the larynx and robotic surgery offer great opportunities for early cancer stages. However, in some cases capabilities of endoscopic laser intervention are limited. Therefore, open laryngeal resection is still relevant as it serves as the only type of radical organ preservation treatment for stages Т2–Т3. But major laryngeal resection is associated with a problem of tissue defect closure.The article describes data on the use of biocompatible materials, their advantages and disadvantages. The study objective is to present experience of using a Russian allogenic bioimplant for plastic reconstruction of the opening of the larynx after laryngeal resection.Materials and methods. The authors present their experience of using a Russian bioimplant produced in collaboration with the Samara Tissue Bank of the Research Institute of Experimental Medicine and Biotechnology of the Samara State Medical University. The material was tested in anterolateral laryngeal resection with simultaneous reconstruction in 5 patients with stages Т2–Т3 laryngeal cancer and in a patient with chondrosarcoma.Conclusion. The Russian biocompatible implant served as a reliable, simple, cheap, and effective variant of plastic material for reconstruction of the larynx.

  5. Dysphonia – the single symptom of rifampicin resistant laryngeal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulauskienė Iveta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still the most frequent granulomatous laryngeal disease. Absence of pathognomonic symptoms and change in clinical pattern frequently leads to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. Hoarseness is the commonest symptom of laryngeal tuberculosis and constitutional symptoms are usually rare. However dysphonia can be caused by many other more common conditions. Hoarseness can be a symptom of organic (nodules and polyps of vocal folds, tumors, vocal fold paresis or functional (functional dysphonia, laryngeal conversion disorder, paradoxical vocal folds motion conditions. Rarely systemic diseases as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granulomatosis or tuberculosis can cause vocal dysfunction too. That is why laryngeal tuberculosis is often forgotten in case of persistent hoarseness. In this article, we present a case of a young previously healthy woman, complaining of persistent hoarseness with no other leading symptoms. Though endoscopic image suggested a malignancy, histology showed granulomatous lesion. Detailed examination revealed laryngeal and pulmonary tuberculosis resistant to rifampicin. Conclusion: Dysphonia can be the only one symptom of laryngeal tuberculosis. The disease should be taken into consideration when a patient complains of persistent hoarseness in order to avoid delays in treatment and spread of infection.

  6. [Current status and prospect of photodynamic therapy in laryngeal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Jiang, J Q

    2018-04-07

    Laryngeal diseases are closely related to the swallowing and speech function of the patients.Protecting and restoring laryngeal function, while curing lesions, is vital to patients' quality of life.Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally invasive method which is widely used in the treatment of tumor, precancerous lesions, and inflammatory diseases.In recent years, it has been shown to have a protective effect on normal structures. This article reviews the clinical outcomes of laryngeal diseases treated with PDT since 1990 in order to evaluate its efficacy and significance. The complete remission rate of early-stage laryngeal tumors and precancerous lesions after PDT is 77.6%(249/321), and a promising effect on recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis has been observed thus far. The prolonged adverse effects of the first-generation photosensitizers have limited the application of PDT. With the improvement of photosensitizers and treatment strategies, PDT promises to be a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment method for laryngeal diseases.

  7. Dysphagia and laryngeal pathology in post-surgical cardiothoracic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anna; McLellan, Naomi; Machan, Rochelle; Vokes, David; Hunting, Alexandra; McFarlane, Mary; Holmes, Jennifer; Lynn, Kelly

    2018-02-09

    Cardiothoracic surgery is known to result in dysphagia and laryngeal injury. While prevalence has been explored, extent, trajectory and longevity of symptoms are poorly understood. This retrospective, observational study explored dysphagia and laryngeal injury in patients following cardiothoracic surgery referred for instrumental swallowing assessment. Clinical notes and endoscopic recordings of 106 patients (age range 18-87yrs; mean 63yrs; SD 15yrs) (including 190 endoscopes) at one large tertiary centre were reviewed by two speech-language pathologists and a laryngologist. Standardized measures of laryngeal anatomy and physiology, New Zealand Secretion Scale, Penetration-Aspiration scale and Yale Residue Scale were rated. Prevalence of abnormality included 39% silent aspiration, 65% laryngeal edema and 61% vocal paralysis. The incidence of pneumonia was 36% with a post-operative stroke rate of 14%. Forty percent of patients were receiving a standard diet by discharge from acute care; while, 24% continued to require enteral feeding and 8% received laryngeal surgery within twelve months of discharge. Vocal fold motion impairment was significantly associated with ventilation time and tracheostomy tube duration (pdysphagia and laryngeal injury in patients following cardiothoracic surgery may allow early management and prevention of secondary complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laryngeal Dysfunction: Assessment and Management for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke; Gibson, Peter G; Fowler, Stephen J

    2016-11-01

    The larynx is one of the most highly innervated organs in humans and serves a number of vitally important, complex, and highly evolved biological functions. On a day-to-day basis, the larynx functions autonomously, addressing several roles including airway protection, swallowing, and phonation. In some situations the larynx appears to adopt a functional state that could be considered maladaptive or "dysfunctional." This laryngeal dysfunction can underpin and account for a number of respiratory symptoms that otherwise appear incongruous with a clinical disease state and/or contribute to the development of symptoms that appear "refractory" to treatment. These include conditions associated with a heightened tendency for inappropriate laryngeal closure (e.g., inducible laryngeal obstruction), voice disturbance, and chronic cough. Recognition of laryngeal dysfunction is important to deliver targeted treatment and failure to recognize the condition can lead to repeated use of inappropriate treatment. Diagnosis is not straightforward, however, and many patients appear to present with symptoms attributable to laryngeal dysfunction, but in whom the diagnosis has been overlooked in clinical work-up for some time. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in the field of laryngeal dysfunction, with a focus on pragmatic clinical assessment and management.

  9. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  10. MYCT1-TV, A Novel MYCT1 Transcript, Is Regulated by c-Myc and May Participate in Laryngeal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shuang; Guo, Yan; Chen, Hong; Xu, Zhen-Ming; Qiu, Guang-Bin; Zhong, Ming; Sun, Kai-Lai; Fu, Wei-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Background MYCT1, a putative target of c-Myc, is a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene cloned from laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Its transcriptional regulation and biological effects on LSCC have not been clarified. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RACE assay, we cloned a 1106 bp transcript named Myc target 1 transcript variant 1 (MYCT1-TV) and confirmed its transcriptional start site was located at 140 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of MYCT1-TV. Luciferase, electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed c-Myc could regulate the promoter activity of MYCT1-TV by specifically binding to the E-box elements within −886 to −655 bp region. These results were further verified by site-directed mutagenesis and RNA interference (RNAi) assays. MYCT1-TV and MYCT1 expressed lower in LSCC than those in paired adjacent normal laryngeal tissues, and overexpression of MYCT1-TV and MYCT1 could inhibit cell proliferation and invasion and promote apoptosis in LSCC cells. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that MYCT1-TV, a novel MYCT1 transcript, is regulated by c-Myc and down-regulation of MYCT1-TV/MYCT1 could contribute to LSCC development and function. PMID:21998677

  11. The quality of life of patients following treatment for laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, A.R.; Rawlinson, E.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine patients have been interviewed 9 to 15 months following treatment for laryngeal cancer to determine the post treatment quality of voice and life. The patients were subdivided into 3 groups, successfully irradiated T1 and T2 patients, (89 patients), successfully irradiated T3 and T4 patients (24 patients) and those treated by surgery (16 patients). Ninety-three percent of T1 and T2 patients and 79% of T3 and T4 patients were working following treatment as compared to 44% of the surgery patients. Ninety-eight percent of the T1 and T2 and 87.5% of the T3 and T4 patients were able to use the telephone normally as compared to 12% of the surgery patients. Similarly major differences between the successfully irradiated patients and the surgically treated patients in terms of ability to live a normal social life have been noted. The patients also rated their voice in terms of volume, pitch, ability to communicate, quality, rate of speech, flow of speech and dry throat. In every parameter of rating of the voice, with the exception of dryness of the throat, the successfully irradiated patients in all stage groupings had better ratings than the surgery group. Since, in Toronto, survival in advanced glottic and supraglottic cancer is the same using radical radiation with surgery in reserve as survival with primary surgery, it is concluded in view of the superior quality of voice and life in the successfully irradiated patients that irradiation with surgery in reserve is the optimal treatment for these patients. We also concluded that the measurement of quality of life in patients with cancer of the larynx is of vital importance in determining optimal treatment and that further studies in this area are indicated

  12. The effect of azelastine hydrochloride on radiation dermatitis and pharyngo-laryngeal mucositis in radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Tsukasa; Ishiguro, Ruichiro; Morimoto, Noriko; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Fukuda, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that reactive oxides produced by inflammation may result in cell injury, leading to mucositis and dermatitis. Azelastine hydrochloride suppresses the production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and some reports have documented its effectiveness in treating radiation mucositis and dermatitis. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of azelastine hydrochloride in preventing these diseases during radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer. Subjects were patients with laryngeal carcinomas who received curative radiation therapy. A close of 1 mg of azelastine hydrochloride was administered orally twice a day, from the start of the radiation therapy until one-four weeks after the completion of therapy. Chronological changes in the pharyngo-laryngeal cavity and the neck skin of the patients who received azelastine hydrochloride were compared with those of patients who did not. In the patients who received the azelastine hydrochloride, the onset of pharyngo-laryngeal mucositis and dermatitis was suppressed; symptoms were relieved earlier and were not exacerbated. No severe side effects were observed, and the effectiveness of the radiation therapy was not affected. The administration of azelastine hydrochloride concurrently with radiation therapy for laryngeal cancer suppressed the onset of pharyngo-laryngeal mucositis and dermatitis and alleviated the severity of these diseases. (K.H.)

  13. Ectopic production of beta-HCG by a maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, P D; Jurco, S; Austin, J R

    1997-12-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes of the head and neck are rare. Hypercalcemia and leukocytosis have been described. The literature was reviewed, and a case of a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla producing beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is presented. A 47-year-old white man with a T4N1M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left maxilla was treated with a maxillectomy and neck dissection for an N1 positive neck. After completing his planned radiotherapy, he developed distant metastases, which included an axillary node that stained positive for human beta-HCG. Retrospective review of the primary specimen showed beta-HCG positivity in an anaplastic component of the tumor along with vascular invasion. The first case in the literature of a paraneoplastic syndrome with beta-HCG production in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla is presented. This case history fits the aggressive nature of beta HCG producing tumors elsewhere in the body.

  14. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Drop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR assay. Males (87.7% with a history of smoking (70.6% and alcohol abuse (59.6% prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3% and with N1 stage (45.8%. Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3 was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T and lymph-node involvement (N in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells.

  15. Coinfection with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-12-19

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR) assay. Males (87.7%) with a history of smoking (70.6%) and alcohol abuse (59.6%) prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3%) and with N1 stage (45.8%). Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3) was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T) and lymph-node involvement (N) in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells.

  16. Coinfection with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV) in Laryngeal, Oropharyngeal and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Bartłomiej; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kliszczewska, Ewa; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most research providing evidence for the role of oncogenic viruses in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development is focused on one type of virus without analyzing possible interactions between two or more types of viruses. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of co-infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and polyoma BK virus (BKPyV) in oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in Polish patients. The correlations between viral infection, SCC, demographic parameters, evidence of metastases and grading were also investigated. Fresh-frozen tumour tissue samples were collected from 146 patients with laryngeal, oropharyngeal and oral cancer. After DNA extraction, the DNA of the studied viruses was detected using polymerase chain rection (PCR) assay. Males (87.7%) with a history of smoking (70.6%) and alcohol abuse (59.6%) prevailed in the studied group. Histological type G2 was recognized in 64.4% cases. The patients were most frequently diagnosed with T2 stage (36.3%) and with N1 stage (45.8%). Infection with at least two viruses was detected in 56.2% of patients. In this group, co-infection with HPV/EBV was identified in 34.1% of cases, EBV/BKV in 23.2%, HPV/BKV in 22.0%, and HPV/EBV/BKV in 20.7%. No difference of multiple infection in different locations of cancer was observed. The prevalence of poorly differentiated tumours (G3) was more frequent in co-infection with all three viruses than EBV or BKV alone. A significant correlation was observed between tumour dimensions (T) and lymph-node involvement (N) in co-infected patients compared to single infection. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether co-infection plays an important role in the initiation and/or progression of oncogenic transformation of oral, oropharyngeal and laryngeal epithelial cells. PMID:29257122

  17. Results of surgical treatment of T4 non-small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitz, CCM; de la Riviere, AB; van Swieten, HA; Westermann, CJJ; Lammers, JWJ; van den Bosch, JMM

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Because of location and invasion of surrounding structures, the role of surgical treatment for T4 tumors remains unclear. Extended resections carry a high mortality and should be restricted for selected patients. This study clarifies the selection process in non-small cell T4 tumors with

  18. Assembly and dynamics of the bacteriophage T4 homologous recombination machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrical Scott W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Homologous recombination (HR, a process involving the physical exchange of strands between homologous or nearly homologous DNA molecules, is critical for maintaining the genetic diversity and genome stability of species. Bacteriophage T4 is one of the classic systems for studies of homologous recombination. T4 uses HR for high-frequency genetic exchanges, for homology-directed DNA repair (HDR processes including DNA double-strand break repair, and for the initiation of DNA replication (RDR. T4 recombination proteins are expressed at high levels during T4 infection in E. coli, and share strong sequence, structural, and/or functional conservation with their counterparts in cellular organisms. Biochemical studies of T4 recombination have provided key insights on DNA strand exchange mechanisms, on the structure and function of recombination proteins, and on the coordination of recombination and DNA synthesis activities during RDR and HDR. Recent years have seen the development of detailed biochemical models for the assembly and dynamics of presynaptic filaments in the T4 recombination system, for the atomic structure of T4 UvsX recombinase, and for the roles of DNA helicases in T4 recombination. The goal of this chapter is to review these recent advances and their implications for HR and HDR mechanisms in all organisms.

  19. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense mechanism. VSM Yadavalli, MMO Labeodan, S Udayabaskaran, N Forche. Abstract. The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World ...

  20. Specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Hayakawa, H.; Sekiguchi, M.; Okada, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The specific action of T4 endonuclease V on damaged DNA in xeroderma pigmentosum cells was examined using an in vivo assay system with hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) inactivated by uv light. A clear dose response was observed between the level of uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells and the amount of T4 endonuclease V activity added. The T4 enzyme was unstable in human cells, and its half-life was 3 hr. Fractions derived from an extract of Escherichia coli infected with T4v 1 , a mutant defective in the endonuclease V gene, showed no ability to restore the uv-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis of xeroderma pigmentosum cells. However, fractions derived from an extract of T4D-infected E. coli with endonuclease V activity were effective. The T4 enzyme was effective in xeroderma pigmentosum cells on DNA damaged by uv light but not in cells damaged by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. The results of these experiments show that the T4 enzyme has a specific action on human cell DNA in vivo. Treatment with the T4 enzyme increased the survival of group A xeroderma pigmentosum cells after uv irradiation

  1. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Vishwas; Seykora, John T

    2017-09-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a malignant neoplasm of the skin characterized by an aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common malignancy globally, and usually arises in the chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly white individuals. From a pathologist's perspective, it is important to differentiate cSCC from the benign and reactive squamoproliferative lesions and identify the high-risk features associated with aggressive tumor behavior. In this article, we provide an up-to-date overview of cSCC along with its precursor lesions and important histologic variants, with a particular emphasis on the histopathologic features and molecular pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel formulation of L-thyroxine (L-T4) reduces the problem of L-T4 malabsorption by coffee observed with traditional tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate if the coffee-associated malabsorption of tablet levothyroxine (L-T4) is reduced by soft gel capsule. We recruited 8 patients with coffee-associated L-T4 malabsorption including one hypothyroid patient. For 6 months, the patients were switched to the capsule maintaining the L-T4 daily dose. Patients took the capsule with water, having coffee 1 h later (proper habit, PH) on days 1-90, or with coffee ≤ 5 min later (improper habit, IH) on days 91-180. After 6 months, 2 patients volunteered for an acute loading test of 600 μg L-T4 (capsule) ingested with water (PH) or with coffee (IH). In the single hypothyroid patient, the post-switch TSH ranged 0.06-0.16 mU/L (PH) versus 5.8-22.4 mU/L pre-switch (PH) and 0.025-0.29 mU/L (IH) versus 26-34 mU/L pre-switch (IH). In the other 7 patients, post-switch TSH was 0.41 ± 0.46 (PH) versus 0.28 ± 0.20 pre-switch (PH) (P = 0.61) and 0.34 ± 0.30 (IH) versus 1.23 ± 1.47 pre-switch (IH) (P coffee influenced L-T4 pharmacokinetics minimally. Soft gel capsules can be used in patients who are unable/unwilling to change their IH of taking L-T4.

  3. AtlasT4SS: a curated database for type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rangel C; del Rosario Quispe Saji, Guadalupe; Costa, Maiana O C; Netto, Diogo S; Lima, Nicholas C B; Klein, Cecília C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Nicolás, Marisa F

    2012-08-09

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) can be classified as a large family of macromolecule transporter systems, divided into three recognized sub-families, according to the well-known functions. The major sub-family is the conjugation system, which allows transfer of genetic material, such as a nucleoprotein, via cell contact among bacteria. Also, the conjugation system can transfer genetic material from bacteria to eukaryotic cells; such is the case with the T-DNA transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to host plant cells. The system of effector protein transport constitutes the second sub-family, and the third one corresponds to the DNA uptake/release system. Genome analyses have revealed numerous T4SS in Bacteria and Archaea. The purpose of this work was to organize, classify, and integrate the T4SS data into a single database, called AtlasT4SS - the first public database devoted exclusively to this prokaryotic secretion system. The AtlasT4SS is a manual curated database that describes a large number of proteins related to the type IV secretion system reported so far in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as in Archaea. The database was created using the RDBMS MySQL and the Catalyst Framework based in the Perl programming language and using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern for Web. The current version holds a comprehensive collection of 1,617 T4SS proteins from 58 Bacteria (49 Gram-negative and 9 Gram-Positive), one Archaea and 11 plasmids. By applying the bi-directional best hit (BBH) relationship in pairwise genome comparison, it was possible to obtain a core set of 134 clusters of orthologous genes encoding T4SS proteins. In our database we present one way of classifying orthologous groups of T4SSs in a hierarchical classification scheme with three levels. The first level comprises four classes that are based on the organization of genetic determinants, shared homologies, and evolutionary relationships: (i) F-T4SS, (ii) P-T4SS, (iii

  4. Evaluating Post-Radiotherapy Laryngeal Function with Laryngeal Videostroboscopy in Early Stage Glottic Cancer

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    Ariel E. Marciscano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDysphonia is common among patients with early stage glottic cancer. Laryngeal videostroboscopy (LVS has not been routinely used to assess post-radiotherapy (RT voice changes. We hypothesized that LVS would demonstrate improvement in laryngeal function after definitive RT for early-stage glottic cancer.Study designBlinded retrospective review of perceptual voice and stroboscopic parameters for patients with early glottic cancer and controls.SettingHigh-volume, single-institution academic medical center.Subjects and methodsFifteen patients underwent RT for Tis-T2N0M0 glottic cancer and were evaluated with serial LVS exams pre- and post-RT. Stroboscopic assessment included six parameters: vocal fold (VF vibration, VF mobility, erythema/edema, supraglottic compression, glottic closure, and secretions. Grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain (GRBAS voice perceptual scale was graded in tandem with LVS score. Assessments were grouped by time interval from RT: pre-RT, 0–4, 4–12, and >12 months post-RT.Results60 LVS exams and corresponding GRBAS assessments were reviewed. There were significant improvements in ipsilateral VF motion (P = 0.03 and vibration (P = 0.001 and significant worsening in contralateral VF motion (P < 0.001 and vibration (P = 0.008 at >12 months post-RT. Glottic closure significantly worsened, most prominent >12 months post-RT (P = 0.01. Composite GRBAS scores were significantly improved across all post-RT intervals.ConclusionLVS proved to be a robust tool for assessing pre- and post-RT laryngeal function. We observed post-RT improvement in ipsilateral VF function, a decline in contralateral VF function, and decreased glottic closure. These results demonstrate that LVS can detect meaningful changes in VF and glottic function and support its use for post-RT evaluation of glottic cancer patients.

  5. Safety and radiation-enhancing effect of sodium glycididazole in loco regionally advanced laryngeal cancers previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Y.C.; Wu, R.; Xu, Z.G.; Zhang, X.Y.; Wu, L.N.; Wang, Y.M.; Zheng, W.; Chen, X.D.; Chi, F.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Li, X.; Jin, X.Y.; Chen, W.; Wang, S.L.; Xiao, F.D.; Wang, E.Y.; Dong, X.Q.; Jia, M.X.; Li, Y.; Fan, G.L.; Hao, S.H.; Zhang, L.B.; Zhang, H.B.; Xia, H.H.X.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety and radiation-enhancing effect of sodium glycididazole in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (stage T3-4,N0-3,M0) with conventional radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Patients with locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer (stage T3-4,N0-3,M0) were included: group 1(control, n = 30)were not administered of sodium glycididazole; group 2 (test, n = 30) received sodium glycididazole at a dose of 700 mg/m2 intravenous infusion 30 minutes before radiotherapy three times a week. Surrogate end-points of efficacy were tumor and nodal size. Safety parameters were vomiting, nausea, mucositis, laryngeal edema, esophagus and skin reaction, dysphagia, dyspnea, neurological deficit. Patients were evaluated weekly during treatment for 7 weeks and thereafter monthly for 3 months. Results: In the test, the overall response rate was 88.89% (95% CI, 71.00-97.00%) at 7 weeks and 92.59% (95% CI, 76.00 to 99.00%) at 1 month of follow-up. In the control, the overall response rate was 62.5% (95% CI, 41.00 to 81.00%) at 7 weeks and 58.33% (95% CI, 37.00 to 78.00%) at 1 month of follow-up. The short-term locoregional response rate was better in the test group at 7 weeks (p = 0.027) and at 1 month (p = 0.005) of follow-up. The test group had significantly more nausea and vomiting in weeks 1 (p = 0.047), 2 (p = 0.007), and 3 (p = 0.01) of treatment. Conclusions: The study indicates sodium glycididazole is an effective radiation-enhancing agent that improves short-term locoregional control and is well tolerated in patients with loco regionally advanced laryngeal cancer. (authors)

  6. [The association between genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma from the Han people in Guangdong zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shenzhi; Zhang, Jianguo; Xiao, Qi; Zhai, Jinming; Yan, Xiaoling; Huang, Minqi; Chen, Fujin; Li, Qiuli; Guan, Zhong

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the association between genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic- metabolizing enzymes GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma from the Han people in Guangdong zone. A case-control study was conducted involving 233 LSCC (laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma) patients and 102 healthy controls to investigate the association between polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 (Ile/Val) and LSCC from the Han people in Guangdong zone. All blood samples of the Han people from the Guangdong zone was analyzed with methods of PCR, ASA and the DNA sequencing technique with sequenator. We explored the association between polymorphisms and the clinical pathologic characteristics of LSCC. The data was processed with SPSS13.0. Odds Ratios (ORs) with 95% CI for relevancy intensity were calculated using binary logistic regression analysis. The frequency of GSTM1(-) and GSTT1(-) genotype was higher in LSCC than that in healthy controls (OR = 2.61, 3.05, P 51, 95% CI 2.05-5.01; OR = 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.49). The frequency of GSTM1(-) and GSTT1(-) genotype was higher in LSCC whose family had carcinoma history. The frequency of advanced LSCC was higher in patients who were with GSTM1(-) and GSTT1 (-) genotype (P 0.05). There may be an association between the susceptibility to carcinoma and GSTT1(-), GSTM1(-) genotype. The GSTT1(-) polymorphism c gene cooperating with heavily smoking boost up the susceptibility of individual to laryngeal carcinoma. The GSTM1(-) polymorphism c may not cooperating with smoking during carcinogenesis of LSCC in the Han people in Guangdong zone. The morphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 gene may affect the carcino-genesis of LSCC in the Han people in Guangdong zone. There may be no association between the susceptibility to laryngeal carcinoma and the GSTP1(Ile/Val) type.

  7. Long-term follow-up after surgery in localized laryngeal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Aldert J. C.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2016-01-01

    To study effectiveness of surgery and watchful waiting in localized laryngeal amyloidosis, retrospective case series. This retrospective study comprises all consecutive patients with localized laryngeal amyloidosis surgically treated in a tertiary hospital between 1994 and February 2016. Recurrence

  8. Long-term follow-up after surgery in localized laryngeal amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Aldert J. C.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Dikkers, Frederik G.

    To study effectiveness of surgery and watchful waiting in localized laryngeal amyloidosis, retrospective case series. This retrospective study comprises all consecutive patients with localized laryngeal amyloidosis surgically treated in a tertiary hospital between 1994 and February 2016. Recurrence

  9. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE HEAD AND NECK: NEW AVENUES OF TREATMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Braunschweig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck counts for 3 % of all cancers in men and half of this number less in women with a 5-year survival of 61 %. While the number of laryngeal carcinoma is decreasing, carcinoma of the oral cavity related to an infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV, high-risk subtypes is increasing, especially in younger patients. HPV related squamous cell carcinomas show better survival data, especially in regard to recurrence free rates or secondary carcinoma of adjacent locations. Squamous cell carcinomas related to the presence of HPV DNA material is almost exclusively found in carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharyngeal mucosa. Much less frequently HPV is present in hypopharyngeal carcinomas and even less number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma with proof for HPV in the nasopharynx and larynx. In case of evidence for HPV DNA; most cases are positively tested for subtype 16, followed by subtype 18. As a surrogate immunhistochemical marker, p16 INK4A is stained positive, cytoplasmic and nuclear. In a small study by ourselves, we found a positive correlation in 100 % of p16 INK4A positivity and positive HPV testing. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is more frequently related to HPV in patients below 50 years of age with a prevalence of ca. 20 %. Whilst HPV high-risk positive carcinomas show very few mutations in single signalling molecules of the downstream receptor tyrosin kinase pathways, HPV negative carcinomas show in many cases a chaotic DNA mutation type with typical mutations in tumor suppressor genes, as p53 and CDKN2A. This pattern is often seen in carcinoma types develop from a summation of accidental mutations often caused by toxins (e.g. inhaled cigarette smoke. However, it is discussed and under investigation whether a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomasdevelop from so called driver mutations, as are called mutations in critical members of signalling pathways and receptor tyrosin kinases

  10. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  11. Intraoperative Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Monitoring in a Patient with Contralateral Vocal Fold Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Se Na

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury can develop following cervical or thoracic surgery; however, few reports have described intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring. Consensus regarding the use of this technique during thoracic surgery is lacking. We used intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in a patient with contralateral vocal cord paralysis who was scheduled for completion pneumonectomy. This case serves as an example of intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thoracic surgery and supports this indication for its use.

  12. EBV, HSV, CMV and HPV in laryngeal and oropharyngeal carcinoma in Polish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polz-Gruszka, Dorota; Stec, Agnieszka; Dworzański, Jakub; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-03-01

    The role of viruses in the etiology of oral cancer has been proposed in many studies. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus, Human Herpes virus type 1, Cytomegalovirus and Human Papilloma virus among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Polish population. We investigated fresh-frozen tumor tissue fragments obtained from 80 patients with OSCC using the polymerase chain reaction assay. HPV was detected in 32.5% (22.5% were HPV 16), more often in laryngeal (36%) than in oropharyngeal carcinoma (26.6%). EBV was identified in 57.5%, HHV-1 in 7.5%, and CMV in 10% of patients. Co-infection with one or more viruses was detected in 30% of cases and most frequently it was co-infection with EBV and HPV (15%). Further studies are necessary to determine the potential role of EBV and the possible importance of HHV-1 as an infection co-factor in oropharyngeal cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of laryngeal alterations in patients with erosive esophagitis

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    Coelho, Marina Serrato

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and laryngeal disorders has been much debated in recent years. Recent studies suggest an association between laryngeal symptoms and pharyngeal symptoms extra-esophageal reflux, as atypical presentation of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Objectives: To correlate the presence of laryngeal to the grades of erosive esophagitis. Methods: A prospective study. Patients with findings of esophagitis on endoscopy were categorized according to LosAngeles and submitted a questionnaire followed by laryngoscopy. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: Patients with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease accounted for 96.6%. Eighteen had changes consistent with class A (60%, class B with seven (7% and 5 with classes C + D (16.6%. The presence of laryngeal changes were more prevalent in more severe esophagitis (grades C and D Los Angeles when compared to milder forms (classes A and B, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05. Conclusion: The laryngeal disorders are frequent findings in patients with esophagitis, more frequent the greater the degree of esophageal injury.

  14. Computed tomography of laryngeal carcinoma correlated with histopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yi-Long

    1988-09-01

    Since the development of conservation laryngeal surgery and the advent of computed tomography (CT) scanners, a precise preoperative evaluation of the extent of laryngeal cancer has been of prime importance. Eight patients with known carcinoma of the larynx were examined with CT of the larynx prior to surgery, and whole-mount serial sections of the extirpated larynx were compared with the corresponding level of CT sections to evaluate the reliability of CT during my study abroad in Japan from Dec. 1985 through Dec. 1986. 1. The results indicated that CT scanning accurately delineates the anatomic location and pathologic extent of the tumor three-dimensionally in all cases examined. There is also good demonstration of the anterior commissure and preepiglottic, paraglottic and subglottic spaces which are sometimes poorly seen by laryngoscopy or by any other means. 2. Determination of invasion of the laryngeal cartilage by tumor proved to be very difficult to diagnose with CT. 3. The CT images obtained while the patient is breathing quietly, coupled with additional sections at the level of the vocal cord during slight valsalva maneuver afford good visualization of laryngeal tumors. 4. It should be emphasized that a thorough pathologic examination of extirpated specimens with serial sections is essential for laryngeal surgeons, because it is impossible to determine the patient's prognosis without microscopic demonstration of the degree of invasion.

  15. [Laryngeal foreign bodies: management in children in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, E M; Tall, A; Diouf, R; Ndiaye, I C

    2000-01-01

    Inhalation of foreign bodies is a frequent accident in children. It remains severe in the case of laryngeal foreign bodies. Retrospectively, for a 16-year period, 65 laryngeal foreign bodies have been treated (44.8%), among 145 cases of airway foreign bodies, in the ENT department of Dakar University hospital. Etiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects were reviewed. Average age was 36 months, with a sex-ratio of 2.42 in favour of males. The time lag (time between the accident and admission to the department) was particularly long; 73.33% of the children were admitted more than 24 hours after the event. Eighty-three percent of the patients presented greater or lesser laryngeal dyspnea. Tracheostomy was performed in 55.4% of the patients. Average duration for abiation of the canula was ten days. Three cases of death were recorded (4.16%). The frequency of 44.8% for laryngeal localization of foreign bodies appears to be the highest in the literature. If the appropriate treatment for foreign bodies in the respiratory tract is endoscopic removal, the tracheostomy nevertheless occupies a central place in the management of the disease. This procedure may be recommended to all ENT specialists working in similar conditions. In spite of its inherent complications, tracheostomy allows reduction of mortality in relation to laryngeal foreign bodies. Improvement of prognosis requires prevention based on widespread public information and improving technical infrastructures.

  16. Evaluation of laryngeal cartilage calcification in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Serafin, Z.; Lasek, W.; Maciejewski, M.; Wieczor, W.; Wisniewski, S.

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is one of the basic methods used for laryngeal carcinoma diagnostics. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic changes of the cartilages are considered as a common radiologic symptom of laryngeal neoplasms. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of both osteosclerotic changes and focal calcification defects, which may be suggestive of osteolysis. Calcification was assessed in the thyroid, the cricoid and the arytenoids cartilages on CT images of the neck. We have retrospectively analyzed neck CT examinations of 50 patients without any laryngeal pathology in anamnesis. The grade and symmetry of calcifications was assessed in the thyroid, the cricoid and the arytenoids cartilages. Calcification of the laryngeal cartilages was present in 83% of the patients. Osteosclerotic lesions of the thyroid cartilage were seen in 70% of the patients (asymmetric in 60% of them), of the cricoid catrilage in 50% (asymmetric in 60%), and of the arytenoid cartilages in 24% (asymmetric in 67%). Focal calcification defects were present in the thyroid cartilage in 56% of the patients (asymmetric in 67% of them), in the cricoid catrilage in 8% (asymmetric in all cases), and in the arytenoid cartilages in 20% (asymmetric in 90%). Osteosclerotic changes and focal calcification defects, which may suggest osteolysis, were found in most of the patients. Therefore, they cannot be used as crucial radiological criteria of neoplastic invasion of laryngeal cartilages. (authors)

  17. Laryngeal Electromyography for Prognosis of Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Maza, Adriana; García-Lopez, Isabel; Santiago-Pérez, Susana; Gavilán, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the value of laryngeal electromyography in the prognosis of vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective descriptive study. This study included 80 patients diagnosed with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis on flexible laryngoscopy between 2002 and 2014 in a tertiary medical center. Laryngeal electromyography using a standardized protocol was performed; the outcome measures were classified and analyzed into two groups according to the degree of injury. Group 1 included patients with mild to moderate injury, and group 2 included patients with severe to complete injury. Prognosis was correlated with vocal fold motion recovery status with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up since the symptoms onset using positive and negative predictive values. Sixty patients showed acute or chronic recurrent laryngeal neuropathy in laryngeal electromyography. Twelve of 41 patients included in group 1 recovered motion, and 30 of 35 patients included in group 2 did not recover, resulting in 88.2% of positive predictive value and 35.7% of negative predictive value. Our data confirm that laryngeal electromyography is a useful clinical tool in predicting poor recovery in patients with vocal fold paralysis. It allows identification of candidates for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  19. Radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyonine (T3) in blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a highly accurate, rapid and simple estimation of thyroxine (T 4 ) directly from blood serum and also relates to the accurate measurement of triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) directly from blood serum. More specifically, the invention relates to a rapid, specific and reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique for measurement of both T 4 and T 3 in unextracted serum. The method requires very small amounts of serum, e.g., 25 microliters (μl) to measure T 4 concentration in nearly all specimens representing clinical states of eu-, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, and 250 μl to measure T 3 concentrations in specimens representing most clinical states

  20. First experiences with the AMERLEX-MAB FREE T4 assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhof, W.A.; Penders, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The new Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is a quick direct free T 4 assay with good reproducability. The correlation between the Amerlex-MAB FT 4 and the free T 4 of Byk is good. In the non-thyreoidal illness patient group no deviation for the values were found. Amerlex-MAB FT 4 is cheaper, because no total T4 has to be measured. More research has to be done for special patient sera. Disturbing influences as free fatty acids, heparin and auto-antibodies have to be checked. (R.B.). 3 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Effects of 18 months of L-T4 replacement in women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adrees, M

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Some of the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities seen in overt hypothyroidism have also been reported in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Short-term L-T4 replacement in SCH improves cardiovascular risk markers and reduces carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The haemodynamic and renal effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To compare cardiovascular risk factors and renal variables in women with SCH and normal women. To study the effects of L-T4 replacement in SCH subjects on these variables and on structural and functional changes in common carotid and brachial arteries. DESIGN: Fifty-six women with SCH before and after L-T4 replacement for 18 months and 56 normal women of similar age distribution were studied. Blood Pressure (BP), plasma lipids and homocysteine were measured and renal function evaluated [estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using standard equations and measurement of serum Cystatin-C] in women with SCH before and after 18 months of l-T4, and in healthy women. CIMT and endothelial function (using brachial artery ultrasound) were studied before and after L-T4 in a subgroup of women with SCH. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a) and homocysteine were greater in SCH (P < 0.05), and following L-T4 replacement decreased (P < 0.05) to levels that no longer differed from normal subjects. Estimated GFR was reduced and serum Cystatin-C increased (P < 0.05) in SCH. These variables also normalized following L-T4. Following L-T4 replacement the carotid artery baseline diameter increased by 7.1% and CIMT decreased by a mean value of 13%, while brachial artery diameter increased basally by 12.5% and following endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by 17.5% (P < 0.05). However, the increment following reactive hyperaemia did not differ before or following L-T4 replacement. CONCLUSION: Normalization of

  2. Aerodynamic and Nonlinear Dynamic Acoustic Analysis of Tension Asymmetry in Excised Canine Larynges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Erin E.; Bulleit, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To model tension asymmetry caused by superior laryngeal nerve paralysis (SLNP) in excised larynges and apply perturbation, nonlinear dynamic, and aerodynamic analyses. Method: SLNP was modeled in 8 excised larynges using sutures and weights to mimic cricothyroid (CT) muscle function. Weights were removed from one side to create tension…

  3. Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of damage to the individual cranial nerves and their branches associated with laryngeal mask airway use is low; there have been case reports of damage to the lingual nerve, hypoglossal nerve and recurrent laryngeal nerve. To the best of our knowledge we present the first reported case of inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with laryngeal mask airway use.

  4. The role of computed tomography in the laryngeal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hoon Sik

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography of the larynx represents a major advance in laryngology. Even in severe injury the larynx can be examined easily and conveniently by CT at the same time as the brain and facial structures without moving the patient, who need only lie down and breathe quietly during the study. Computed tomography permitted a much more detailed appraisal of laryngeal dysfunction in patients with blunt laryngeal trauma (3 cases) and strangulation injury (2 cases). Computed tomography of the larynx undoubtedly played a determinant role in patient management. Computed tomography was helpful in evaluating the laryngeal cartilages and deep spaces of the larynx which was difficult to examine by the laryngoscope. Follow-up computed tomography made it possible to evaluate the postoperative results

  5. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  6. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of total thyroxine (T4) in horses using a simple extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyuenyong, Siriwan; Nambo, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-07-28

    Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.

  7. A case of laryngeal neurofibroma associated with neurofibromatosis type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihangiroglu, M.; Yilmaz, S.; Yildirim, H.; Ozdemir, H.; Altinsoy, B.; Ogur, E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Laryngeal neurofibromas have been reported in 16 patients with NF1, and schwannomas, in two patient with NF1 and 2 patients with NF2. To the best our knowledge our case is the first to document a laryngeal neurofibroma in a patient with NF2. Another unique feature of our case is the coexistence of multiple intramedullary tumors, which has not previously been reported in a patient with a laryngeal neurofibroma. Material and methods: A 32-year-old woman presented with a history of cataract, hoarseness and dysphonia since childhood, which had recently become worse. The patient also had hearing disability for low frequencies. Results: Laryngoscopy revealed a 2x2x3.5 cm smooth-surfaced submucosal supraglottic mass. On CT of the neck, the lesion was seen as a round and well-defined hypopharyngeal mass extended through and obliterating the left supraglottic space. It was hypodense on unenhanced CT images and slightly enhanced with IV contrast administration. On MR imaging, the mass was heterogeneously hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, with moderate homogenous enhancement after gadolinium administration. Bilateral vestibular schwannomas and multiple intramedullary masses (presumed to be ependymoma or astrocytoma) were delineated on these MR images The patient was diagnosed as having NF-2 and the laryngeal mass was totally resected. On histopathological examination, the mass were consistent with neurofibroma. Conclusion: Dysphonia and hoarseness may be the only presenting symptoms suggesting the possibility of a laryngeal nerve sheath tumor, and neurofibroma should be included in differential diagnosis of laryngeal masses in patients with NF2. (authors)

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging of locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, A.; Chernov, V.; Zeltchan, R.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chijevskaya, S.; Choynzonov, E.; Goldberg, A.

    2017-09-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of nuclear medicine imaging in the detection and assessment of the spread of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer were studied. A total of 40 patients with histologically verified laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer and 20 patients with benign laryngeal lesions were included into the study. Submucosal injections of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-Alotech were made around the tumor. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 20 minutes after the injection of 99mTc-MIBI. Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were detected in 26 patients. In 18 hours after the injection of 99mTc-Alotech, SPECT was performed. In 24 hours after the injection of 99mTc-Alotech, intraoperative SLN detection was performed using Gamma Finder II. SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI revealed laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumors in 38 of the 40 patients. The 99mTc-MIBI uptake in metastatic lymph nodes was visualized in 2 (17%) of the 12 patients. Twenty eight SLNs were detected by SPECT and 31 SLNs were identified using the intraoperative gamma probe. The percentage of 99mTc-Alotech in the SLN was 5-10% of the radioactivity in the injection site by SPECT and 18-33% by intraoperative gamma probe detection. Thus, SPECT with 99mTc-MIBI is an effective tool for the diagnosis of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this technique were 95%, 80% and 92%, respectively. The use of 99mTc-Alotech for the detection of SLNs in patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer is characterized by 92.8% sensitivity.

  9. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gustavo Corrêa Reis

    Full Text Available Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking.To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB.a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis.Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones.Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement.

  10. ['Laryngeal neuropathy' and 'irritable larynx syndrome': synonyms or distinct entities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Ptok, M

    2012-10-01

    The term 'laryngeal neuropathy' (LN) has first been used in veterinary medicine to describe an idiopathic and typically exercise induced inspiratory noise in horses.Nowadays, the term is often used in relation with intermittent vocal cord pareses in humans. Some authors use the term 'irritable larynx syndrome' (ILS) in a similar context. This article reviews the state of knowledge regarding LN and ILS and discusses the somewhat confusing terminology.For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed has been carried out.35 articles were found, which report on LN in animals and 17 articles reported on humans. 4 of these articles used the term 'irritable larynx syndrome'.Laryngeal neuropathy in horses usually affects the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and results in decreased vocal cord abduction and an inspiratory roaring or whistling noise, particularly during exercise. In dogs LN has been reported to also occur bilaterally. In association with humans LN has not been defined clearly in the literature. The term ILS on the other hand has only been used in relation to humans. The term describes a hypersensitivity of the laryngeal structures towards external stimuli, which causes symptoms such as dyspnea or cough among others. Sufficient knowledge does not exist for either of the 2 diseases, ILS or LN. As of yet, the term LN should not be used in human medicine to describe according symptoms of unknown aetiology. The term 'laryngeal movement disorder' seems a lot more appropriate. The symptom oriented term irritable larynx syndrome also seems suitable to describe laryngeal hypersensitivity appropriately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Factors Associated with Clinical and Topographical Features of Laryngeal Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, João Gustavo Corrêa; Reis, Clarissa Souza Mota; da Costa, Daniel César Silva; Lucena, Márcia Mendonça; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal tuberculosis (LTB) is the most frequent granulomatous disease of the larynx and represents less than 2% of extrapulmonary TB cases. There are no pathognomonic clinical and endoscopic features of this disease and studies on LTB that can assist in its diagnostic characterization are lacking. To identify factors associated with clinical and topographical features of LTB. a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from the medical records of 36 patients with confirmed LTB diagnosis. Dysphonia and cough were the main symptoms presented by patients and the true vocal folds the most frequently affected site. The average of the duration of the disease evolution was significantly higher in patients with dysphonia than in patients without this symptom. We observed association between dysphonia and true vocal fold lesions and between odynophagia and lesions in the epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Odynophagia was more frequent in individuals with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites. Weight loss equal or above 10% of the body weight was more frequent in patients with odynophagia as first symptom and in patients with ulcerated lesion. Dyspnea on exertion was more frequent in individuals with more extensive laryngeal lesions. The percentage of smokers with lesions in four or more laryngeal sites was greater than that found in non-smokers. Laryngeal tissue fragment bacilloscopy and culture examinations were less positive than sputum ones. Smoking appears to be associated with the development of more extensive LTB lesions, and LTB with dyspnea on exertion and odynophagia with consequent impairment of nutritional status. We emphasize the need for histopathologic confirmation, once positive sputum bacteriological examinations seem not to necessarily reflect laryngeal involvement.

  12. Activity-based in vitro selection of T4 DNA ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumio; Funabashi, Hisakage; Mie, Masayasu; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Aizawa, Masuo; Kobatake, Eiry

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro methodologies for selection and directed evolution of proteins have concentrated not only on proteins with affinity such as single-chain antibody but also on enzymes. We developed a display technology for selection of T4 DNA ligase on ribosome because an in vitro selection method for DNA ligase had never been developed. The 3' end of mRNA encoding the gene of active or inactive T4 DNA ligase-spacer peptide fusion protein was hybridized to dsDNA fragments with cohesive ends, the substrate of T4 DNA ligase. After in vitro translation of the mRNA-dsDNA complex in a rabbit reticulocyte system, a mRNA-dsDNA-ribosome-ligase complex was produced. T4 DNA ligase enzyme displayed on a ribosome, through addition of a spacer peptide, is able to react with dsDNA in the complex. The complex expressing active ligase was biotinylated by ligation with another biotinylated dsDNA probe and selected with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. We effectively selected active T4 DNA ligase from a small amount of protein. The gene of the active T4 DNA ligase was enriched 40 times from a mixture of active and inactive genes using this selection strategy. This ribosomal display strategy may have high potential to be useful for selection of other enzymes associated with DNA

  13. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-05-20

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a "high-risk situation" (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12%); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33%). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (pbenefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients.

  14. CT diagnosis of blunt laryngeal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanbin; Xia Ruigan; Hu Libin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT findings of blunt laryngeal trauma (BLT) and evaluate the value of CT in the diagnosis of BLT. Methods: CT diagnosis and treatment of 16 patients with BLT were reviewed. Results: Soft-tissue injuries were detected in five cases including swelling of the aryepiglottic folds, the false or true vocal cords and airway narrowing in four, and left cricoarytenoid dislocation and card paralysis in one. Supraglottic injuries in two cases including c fractures of the epiglottis in 2 and associated with a laceration of the aryepiglottic folds and the hypopharynx. Glottic injuries in four cases including ventricle fracture of the right thyroid ala in one and midline ventricle or comminute fractures of the thyroid cartilage in three, a square segment of cartilage was depressed into the larynx, and the true vocal cords and the anterior commissure were disrupted in one of this series. Subglottic injuries in five cases including cricoid ring fracture on the opposite side following a lateral force in one, with the fragment depressed into the larynx. Two showed marked comminution of the cricoid ring. Midline vertical fracture of the posterior cricoid plate associated with the laceration of the first tracheal ring in one, and one presented marked disruption of the right cricothyroid joint. Conclusion: CT clearly shows the extent of cartilaginous injury and displacement, related soft-tissue changes and the degree of resulting airway encroachment, and it may be successfully used to determine the need for open exploration and repair in selected cases of blunt trauma to the larynx

  15. Laryngeal carcinoma presenting as polymyositis: A paraneoplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal carcinoma is rarely associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. Inflammatory myopathy presenting as paraneoplastic event is commonly associated with carcinomas of ovary, lung, pancreas, stomach, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma. We report a case of elderly male, who presented with proximal muscle weakness and found to be associated with laryngeal carcinoma. Diagnosis of polymyositis (PM was confirmed based on clinical features, laboratory test, and muscle biopsy. Exclusion of other commonly associated malignancies was done. This patient improved gradually after 6 months of immunosuppressive therapy and management of underlying cancer.

  16. Laryngeal Amyloidosis Mimicking Glottic Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo; Park, Young Hak

    2010-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a slowly progressive, benign disease that is characterized by the extracellular deposition of fibrillar proteins in many different tissues and organs throughout the body. Primary amyloidosis can be subdivided into the systemic and localized forms. The localized form is less common than the systemic form and the larynx is the most frequently affected site. The importance of laryngeal amyloidosis lies in its possible confusion with glottic cancer because of the clinical feature. We report here on a case of laryngeal amyloidosis in a 47-year-old man who suffered from progressive dyspnea

  17. Laryngeal Amyloidosis Mimicking Glottic Cancer: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Bum Soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hak [St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a slowly progressive, benign disease that is characterized by the extracellular deposition of fibrillar proteins in many different tissues and organs throughout the body. Primary amyloidosis can be subdivided into the systemic and localized forms. The localized form is less common than the systemic form and the larynx is the most frequently affected site. The importance of laryngeal amyloidosis lies in its possible confusion with glottic cancer because of the clinical feature. We report here on a case of laryngeal amyloidosis in a 47-year-old man who suffered from progressive dyspnea.

  18. [First confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, J L; Merle, C; Bimet, F; Kiredjian, M; Goullin, B; Teyssou, R

    2000-01-01

    The first bacteriologically confirmed case of laryngeal diphtheria in Djibouti was reported in 1998. It involved a three-year-old native-born infant who had been vaccinated during the first year of life with three doses of a combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and pertussis. A rapid clinical improvement was observed under erythromycin treatment. Other cases of laryngeal diphtheria have been observed. It is important to reverse decreasing vaccinal coverage in Djibouti and to warn incoming travelers of the need to be adequate immunized against diphtheria. Enhanced epidemiologic surveillance of this disease is also needed.

  19. Clinicopathological significance of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu; Niu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Yang, Xiaojun; Ma, Haizhong; Ma, Shixun; Zhang, Yupeng; Chen, Yifeng

    2017-07-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors. The oncogene c-MYC is thought to be important in the initiation, promotion, and therapy resistance of cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathologic roles of c-MYC in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. This study is aimed at discovering and analyzing c-MYC expression in a series of human esophageal tissues. A total of 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were analyzed by the western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Then, correlation of c-MYC expression with clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was statistically analyzed. In most esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases, the c-MYC expression was positive in tumor tissues. The positive rate of c-MYC expression in tumor tissues was 61.05%, obviously higher than the adjacent normal tissues (8.42%, 8/92) and atypical hyperplasia tissues (19.75%, 16/95). There was a statistical difference among adjacent normal tissues, atypical hyperplasia tissues, and tumor tissues. Overexpression of the c-MYC was detected in 61.05% (58/95) esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, which was significantly correlated with the degree of differentiation (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC expression was 40.0% in well-differentiated esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.004). The positive rate of c-MYC was 41.5% in T1 + T2 esophageal tissues and 74.1% in T3 + T4 esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.001). The positive rate of c-MYC was 45.0% in I + II esophageal tissues and 72.2% in III + IV esophageal tissues, with a significantly statistical difference (p = 0.011). The c-MYC expression strongly correlated with clinical staging (p = 0.011), differentiation degree (p = 0.004), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), and invasion depth (p = 0.001) of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The c-MYC was

  20. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  1. [Study on the correlation between EGFR-STAT3 signal pathway and laryngeal papilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Sun, Jingwu

    2009-09-01

    To explore the relationship between the expression of EGFR and STAT3 in human laryngeal papilloma and its biological behavior. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression of EGFR and STAT3 (p-STAT3) in 42 laryngeal papilloma tissues and 15 samples of normal laryngeal tissue, and the relationship between the protein expression of them and clinic pathological parameters was also analyzed. The mRNA expression levels of EGFR and STAT3 in laryngeal papilloma tissue were significantly higher than that in normal laryngeal tissue (P papilloma than normal laryngeal tissue by immunohistochemistry and western blot (P papilloma (P papilloma (P papilloma,, and the persistent activation of STAT3 gene plays an important role in the recurrence and canceration of laryngeal papilloma.

  2. [Long term results of exclusive chemotherapy for glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachin, F; Hans, S; Atlan, D; Brasnu, D; Menard, M; Laccourreye, O

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of exclusive chemotherapy for T1-T3N0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy. Between 1985 and 2000, 69 patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders after induction chemotherapy were managed with exclusive chemotherapy at our department. Chemotherapy associated platinum and fluorouracil. This retrospective analysis evaluated actuarial survival, treatment morbidity, oncologic events and laryngeal preservation. Various independent factors were tested for potential correlation with survival and local recurrence. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier actuarial survival, local control, lymph node control estimate were 83,6%, 64,8%, 98,6% respectively. Chemotherapy never resulted in death. The 10-year actuarial metachronous second primary tumors estimate was 32%. The overall laryngeal preservation rate was 98,6%. Altogether our data and the review of the literature suggest that in patients achieving a complete clinical response after and induction based chemotherapy regimen, the completion of an exclusive chemotherapy regimen appears to be a valid alternative to the conventional use of radiotherapy or chemo-radiation protocols.

  3. The E. coli Global Regulator DksA Reduces Transcription during T4 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patterson-West

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage T4 relies on host RNA polymerase to transcribe three promoter classes: early (Pe, requires no viral factors, middle (Pm, requires early proteins MotA and AsiA, and late (Pl, requires middle proteins gp55, gp33, and gp45. Using primer extension, RNA-seq, RT-qPCR, single bursts, and a semi-automated method to document plaque size, we investigated how deletion of DksA or ppGpp, two E. coli global transcription regulators, affects T4 infection. Both ppGpp0 and ΔdksA increase T4 wild type (wt plaque size. However, ppGpp0 does not significantly alter burst size or latent period, and only modestly affects T4 transcript abundance, while ΔdksA increases burst size (2-fold without affecting latent period and increases the levels of several Pe transcripts at 5 min post-infection. In a T4motAam infection, ΔdksA increases plaque size and shortens latent period, and the levels of specific middle RNAs increase due to more transcription from Pe’s that extend into these middle genes. We conclude that DksA lowers T4 early gene expression. Consequently, ΔdksA results in a more productive wt infection and ameliorates the poor expression of middle genes in a T4motAam infection. As DksA does not inhibit Pe transcription in vitro, regulation may be indirect or perhaps requires additional factors.

  4. Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartofsky, Leonard

    2013-10-01

    Because of the longstanding controversy regarding whether hypothyroid patients can be optimally replaced by treatment with levothyroxine (L-T4) alone, numerous studies have addressed potential benefits of combined therapy of triiodothyronine (T3) with L-T4. Results of these studies have failed to support a potential benefit of combined therapy. A strong argument for the addition of L-T3 to L-T4 monotherapy has been lacking until recent genetic studies indicated a rationale for such therapy among a small fraction of the hypothyroid patient population. Interest in this issue has focused on the importance of the deiodinases in maintaining the euthyroid state and the role of genetic polymorphisms in the deiodinase genes that would affect thyroid hormone concentrations in both blood and tissues. One such polymorphism in the D2 gene, Thr92Ala, is associated with reduced T4 to T3 activation in skeletal muscle and thyroid, linked to obesity and alterations in thyroid-pituitary feedback, and in responses to thyroid hormone treatment. Although our professional organizations continue to recommend L-T4 alone for the treatment of hypothyroidism, the possibility of a D2 gene polymorphism should be considered in patients on L-T4 monotherapy who continue to complain of fatigue in spite of dosage achieving low normal serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. A suggestive clue to the presence of this polymorphism could be a higher than normal free T4/free T3 ratio. Clinicians could consider adding T3 as a therapeutic trial in selected patients. Future well controlled clinical trials will be required to more fully resolve the controversy.

  5. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  6. Clinicopathological outcomes of preoperative chemoradiotherapy using S-1 plus Irinotecan for T4 lower rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Naohito; Yoshie, Hidenori; Kimura, Fumihiko; Aihara, Tsukasa; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamanaka, Naoki

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the clinicopathological outcomes of patients with T4 lower rectal cancer treated using preoperative chemoradiotherapy with S-1 plus Irinotecan. Between 2005 and 2011, 35 patients with T4M0 lower rectal cancer, diagnosed initially as T4a in 12 and as T4b in 23, were treated with 45 Gy of radiotherapy concomitantly with S-1 plus Irinotecan. The median follow-up period was 50.6 months (range 2-123 months). A total of 32 patients (91.4 %) completed the radiotherapy and 26 (74.3 %) completed the full chemotherapy regimen. Radical surgery was then performed in 33 (94.3 %) of the 35 patients after the exclusion of two patients, who had macroscopic residual disease. The pathological diagnosis was downstaged from T4a to ypT0-3 in all 12 of those patients (100 %) and from T4b to ypT0-4a in 20 of those 23 patients (87.0 %). The tumor regression grade of 1a/1b/2/3 (complete response) was 10/8/15/2, respectively. In terms of long-term survival, the 5-year local relapse-free survival rate was 74.8 % and the recurrence-free survival rate was 52.0 %. This regimen may result in favorable downstaging. Moreover, in this series, pathological evidence of involvement of adjacent organs was rare following preoperative chemoradiotherapy, in the patients with disease diagnosed as T4b at the initial staging.

  7. Laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer; Ustündağ, Emre; Işeri, Mete; Erçin, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the larynx are extremely rare in children and adolescents. Adenoid cystic carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all malignant tumors in the larynx. We presented a 16-year-old girl with subglottic adenoid cystic carcinoma, whose symptoms of prolonged and exacerbating dyspnea had been attributed to asthma at another medical center. Indirect flexible and rigid laryngoscopy revealed a smooth mass in the subglottic region occupying 80% of the airway passage. The lesion was also confirmed by both CT and MRI. There was no lymphadenopathy in the neck. The patient was successfully treated by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Pathological staging was T4N0M0 according to the AJCC, 2003. During six years of follow-up, there was no evidence for local recurrence or regional and distant metastasis.

  8. Restriction of phage T4 internal protein I mutants by a strain of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, L.W.; Abremski, K.

    1974-01-01

    Phage T4 internal protein I(IPI), a small (ca, 10,000 MW), basic protein injected into the host with the phage DNA, is not required for infection of most hosts, but mutants defective in IPI are restricted by at least one naturally occurring strain of Escherichia coli, CT 596 (CT). Phages lacking IPI (IPI - ) appear to inject their DNA and bind it to the membrane of CT cells as well as wild-type phage T4 does, but shutoff of host protein synthesis, initiation of T4 protein synthesis, and cell killing are abnormal in the IPI - mutant infected CT host. The injection of IPI appears to be important in allowing T4 DNA to carry out early steps involved in takeover of this host. Restriction of IPI - phage growth by CT cells appears to be due, at least in part, to a defective prophage it harbors which renders the host resistant to successful infection by phage T4 which lack IPI or rII functions. Bacteria cured of this prophage can be infected by mutants defective in these functions. The resistance of CT cells to other coliphages, and the question of T-even phage internal protein diversity are discussed. (U.S.)

  9. Analysis of T4SS-induced signaling by H. pylori using quantitative phosphoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithjof eGlowinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen colonizing the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori causes chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and may lead to peptic ulceration and/or gastric cancer. A major virulence determinant of H. pylori is the type IV secretion system (T4SS, which is used to inject the virulence factor CagA into the host cell, triggering a wide range of cellular signaling events. Here, we used a phosphoproteomic approach to investigate tyrosine signaling in response to host-pathogen interaction, using stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC of AGS cells to obtain a differential picture between multiple infection conditions. Cells were infected with wild type H. pylori P12, a P12ΔCagA deletion mutant, and a P12ΔT4SS deletion mutant to compare signaling changes over time and in the absence of CagA or the T4SS. Tryptic peptides were enriched for tyrosine (Tyr phosphopeptides and analysed by nano-LC-Orbitrap MS. In total, 58 different phosphosites were found to be regulated following infection. The majority of phosphosites identified were kinases of the MAPK familiy. CagA and the T4SS were found to be key regulators of Tyr phosphosites. Our findings indicate that CagA primarily induces activation of ERK1 and integrin linked factors, whereas the T4SS primarily modulates JNK and p38 activation.

  10. Performance Evaluation of the MyT4 Technology for Determining ART Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoe, Nádia; Macamo, Rosa; Meggi, Bindiya; Tobaiwa, Ocean; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Bollinger, Timothy; Vojnov, Lara; Jani, Ilesh

    2016-01-01

    In resource-limited countries, CD4 T-cell (CD4) testing continues to be used for determining antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation eligibility and opportunistic infection monitoring. To support expanded access to CD4 testing, simple and robust technologies are necessary. We conducted this study to evaluate the performance of a new Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 technology, the MyT4, compared to conventional laboratory CD4 testing. EDTA venous blood from 200 HIV-positive patients was tested in the laboratory using the MyT4 and BD FACSCalibur™. The MyT4 had an r2 of 0.82 and a mean bias of 12.3 cells/μl. The MyT4 had total misclassifications of 14.7% and 8.8% when analyzed using ART eligibility thresholds of 350 and 500 cells/μl, respectively. We conclude that the MyT4 performed well in classifying patients using the current ART initiation eligibility thresholds in Mozambique when compared to the conventional CD4 technology.

  11. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.P.; Johnston, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  12. Impacted Laryngeal Foreign Body in a Child: A Diagnostic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impacted laryngeal foreign body could lead to catastrophic consequences if appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are not promptly instituted. A case of 4‑year‑old child who presented with a 4‑day history of probable ingestion or aspiration of a pen part and history of occasional noisy breathing on exertion and ...

  13. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  14. Schwannoma of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve : A Rare Entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, Linda M; Teding van Berkhout, F; Priesterbach, Loudy; Buijsrogge, Marc P

    Neurogenic tumors are the most common posterior mediastinal tumors in adults. Schwannomas originating from the recurrent laryngeal nerve are rare. The present study describes a 46-year-old man with a tumor in the left superior mediastinum. Because of the narrow relationship with the aorta and the

  15. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  16. The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™: safety and efficacy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme™) is a new single-use polyvinyl chloride supraglottic device that offers gastric access. To date, studies that have tested the LMA Supreme™) for use in laparoscopic surgery have been reported. We present the largest evaluative study that describes the use of ...

  17. Spasmodic Dysphonia: a Laryngeal Control Disorder Specific to Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief. PMID:21248101

  18. Laryngeal Muscles Are Spared in the Dystrophin Deficient "mdx" Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa B.; Joseph, Gayle L.; Adkins, Tracey D.; Andrade, Francisco H.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: "Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)" is caused by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. The disease leads to severe and progressive skeletal muscle wasting. Interestingly, the disease spares some muscles. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of dystrophin deficiency on 2 intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the…

  19. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  20. Laryngeal obstruction caused by lymphoma in an adult dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Lardé, Hélène; Nichols, Sylvain; Babkine, Marie; Chénier, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    A Holstein cow was presented for inspiratory dyspnea. Endoscopic evaluation revealed swollen arytenoids and a presumptive diagnosis of bilateral arytenoidal chondritis was made. A partial arytenoidectomy was performed, the right arytenoid was submitted for histopathology, and a diagnosis of laryngeal lymphoma was made. Due to the poor prognosis, the cow was euthanized.

  1. Laryngeal manifestations of relapsing polychondritis and a novel treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Lesley F; Rickert, Scott; Wengerman, Oscar C; Lebovics, Robert; Blitzer, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    Laryngotracheal involvement in relapsing polychondritis (RP) is rare. However, it is one of the most common causes of death in this patient population. We present three patients who primarily presented with laryngeal manifestations of RP and a novel treatment option for bamboo nodules. Retrospective chart review and comprehensive review of the literature. Two patients first presented to an otolaryngologist because of hoarseness and chronic cough that eventually progressed to dyspnea upon exertion. Laryngeal examination revealed subglottic stenoses. Upon rheumatologic workup both were diagnosed with RP. After treatment with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs, one of the patient's laryngeal symptoms improved, whereas the other required dilation procedures. Neither patient had classic auricular or nasal symptoms upon initial presentation. The third patient was being treated for spasmodic dysphonia and was noted to have bamboo nodules with accompanying dysphonia. Rheumatologic workup revealed RP and systemic treatment ensued. Unfortunately, her symptoms of hoarseness persisted despite systemic treatment. A pulsed-potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser was applied to the bilateral bamboo nodules, which eventually caused resolution of her vocal fold lesions and dysphonia. We present three patients with RP, all of whom sought health care by an otolaryngologist primarily. Awareness of this disease entity and the possibility for early laryngeal involvement is crucial for proper care of those with this life-threatening disease. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An OT Account of Laryngealization in Cuzco Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Steve

    Classical phonemic accounts of Cuzco (Peru) Quechua posit three distinct types of stops: plain, aspirated, and glottalized. A later analysis argued instead for a root-level feature of laryngealization governed by a small number of formal mechanisms. This latter analysis is taken one step further, showing that even greater explanatory power may be…

  3. The CT features of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Peng Weijun; Gu Yajia; Yang Tianxi; Wang Hongshi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the CT appearance of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, discuss the anatomic and pathologic basis of this paralysis, and evaluate CT diagnosis. Methods: 32 cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis clinical confirmed were analyzed retrospectively. All of these patients had the CT scans from the level of hyoid bone to the upper thorax, the slice and interval are 5 mm. Results: CT findings of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis included: oblique of aryepiglottic fold, dislocation of arytenoid cartilage and cricoarytenoid joint, dilation and relaxation of piriform sinus for 27 cases (84.4%); wide and asymmetrical ventricle of larynx for 16 cases (50.0%); asymmetrical and fix of vocal fold for 11 cases (34.4%) et al. Conclusion: The recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx except cricothyroid muscle, paralysis of the nerve leads to atrophy of related muscles. CT scan demonstrate the larynx morphologic changes of recurrent nerve paralysis and is helpful to identify the etiology. (authors)

  4. Laryngeal Electromyographic findings in patients with vocal fold motion asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Peak; Isseroff, Tova F; Parasher, Arjun; Richards, Amanda; Sivak, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Vocal fold motion asymmetry (VFMA) is often attributed to vocal fold paresis or an anatomical variant. Although laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) may be used to evaluate patients with vocal fold paresis, electrodiagnostic findings in VFMA have not been well defined. Review of a case series Twenty-five symptomatic patients with VFMA were examined by LEMG, and the findings were analyzed. Although all were thought to have unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis, LEMG showed only nine to have unilateral recurrent nerve paresis. There were nine with both ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve paresis, four with bilateral paresis, and three were normal. Reduced total number of units, reduced recruitment, motor units firing fast, and polyphasic units were more common, whereas fibrillation potentials, fasciculation, positive sharp waves, and complex repetitive discharges were uncommon. The LEMG findings are most consistent with old, healed neuropathy. McNemar's test for the acute versus chronic denervation potentials showed significant differences. VFMA has a high incidence of vocal fold paresis that can be better defined by LEMG. The site and side of paresis is often wrong based on laryngoscopy findings alone. The LEMG findings of VFMA appear to be consistent with old, healed neuropathy 4 Laryngoscope, 126:E273-E277, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Case report: Awake insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: Awake insertion of the intubating laryngeal mask airway using dexmedetomidine sedation. P Dhar, TR Tedore. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201173.2003.10872999.

  6. Spasmodic dysphonia: a laryngeal control disorder specific to speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L

    2011-01-19

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief.

  7. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  8. Diode Laser for Laryngeal Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Helena Hotz; Neri, Larissa; Fussuma, Carina Yuri; Imamura, Rui

    2016-04-01

    Introduction The diode laser has been frequently used in the management of laryngeal disorders. The portability and functional diversity of this tool make it a reasonable alternative to conventional lasers. However, whether diode laser has been applied in transoral laser microsurgery, the ideal parameters, outcomes, and adverse effects remain unclear. Objective The main objective of this systematic review is to provide a reliable evaluation of the use of diode laser in laryngeal diseases, trying to clarify its ideal parameters in the larynx, as well as its outcomes and complications. Data Synthesis We included eleven studies in the final analysis. From the included articles, we collected data on patient and lesion characteristics, treatment (diode laser's parameters used in surgery), and outcomes related to the laser surgery performed. Only two studies were prospective and there were no randomized controlled trials. Most of the evidence suggests that the diode laser can be a useful tool for treatment of different pathologies in the larynx. In this sense, the parameters must be set depending on the goal (vaporization, section, or coagulation) and the clinical problem. The literature lacks studies on the ideal parameters of the diode laser in laryngeal surgery. The available data indicate that diode laser is a useful tool that should be considered in laryngeal surgeries. Thus, large, well-designed studies correlated with diode compared with other lasers are needed to better estimate its effects.

  9. Binding of T4 endonuclease V to deoxyribonucleic acid irradiated with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawell, P.C.; Simon, T.J.; Ganesan, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Endonuclease V of bacteriophage T4 binds to uv-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) but not to unirradiated DNA. We have developed an assay to detect this binding, based on the retention of enzyme - DNA complexes on nitrocellulose filters. The amount of complex retained, ascertained by using radioactive DNA, is a measure of T4 endonuclease V activity. From our data we conclude that (1) T4 endonuclease V binds to uv-irradiated DNA but not to DNA that has been previously incised by the endonuclease, (2) equilibrium between the free and complexed form of the enzyme is attained under our reaction conditions, (3) dissociation of enzyme - DNA complexes is retarded by sodium cyanide, and (4) retention of enzyme - DNA complexes on nitrocellulose filters is enhanced by high concentrations of saline-citrate

  10. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  11. Comparison of Immunoassay methods for T3, T4 and TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Rodríguez, Celia A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of T3, T4 and TSH have been considered very important in the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid diseases both overt and subclinical. These subclinical diseases are actively seeking for years, both in healthy patients and hospitalized for other illnesses; and in the population over 35 years, especially women, in health checkups. The active search for these diseases requires the use of rapid and reliable techniques; that can be developed massively, with good level of detectability and comparable. The overall objective is to present the evaluation of different immunoassay techniques with respect to the RIA and IRMA: ELISA, chemiluminescence, Amplified Chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence Immunofluorescence. Compare including automatic methods and analyze the cost and feasibility of them for laboratory immunoassay. ELISA colorimetric technique for dosing was comparable to RIA T4, not for T3. Chemiluminescence (AMERLITE) compared to dosing RIA and IRMA T4 to TSH proved to be valid for both. Amplified Chemiluminescence (Immulite) compared to IRMA for TSH was no significant difference. Electrochemiluminescence (Elecsys 2010) compared to T3 and T4 RIA and IRMA for TSH, no significant differences for T4 and TSH; but no variation to T3. Immunofluorescence (AIA-600) used to compare with RIA for T3 and T4, and TSH IRMA, no significant differences for the measured analytes. Benchmarking of automatic methods suggests that the most thrifty of trials is Immunofluorescence the AIA-600, regarding calibration and control, programming time, randomization and the ability to save the value of the fluorescence deferred calculations for tests without valid at the time of realizing calibration. Analyzing the cost and feasibility of these methods for laboratory immunoassay, we must consider that their characteristics electrochemiluminescence is the fastest, but its price is prohibitive for our health systems. The AIA-600 appears to be the method of choice for its

  12. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with T4 UICC II colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, Andreas; Gerken, Michael; Hartl, Janine; Itzel, Timo; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Hofstädter, Ferdinand; Klinkhammer-Schalke, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Adjuvant chemotherapy is considered the standard of care in patients with UICC stage III colon cancer after R0 resection. Adjuvant therapy was not shown to be beneficial in patients with UICC stage II colon cancer. However, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for a subgroup of UICC II patients in a “high-risk situation” (such as T4). We investigated a Bavarian population-based (2.1 million inhabitants) cohort of 1937 patients with UICC II CRC treated between 2002 and 2012 in regard of the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for large (T4) tumors. Patients older than 80 years of age were excluded. Of 1937 patients, 240 had a T4 tumor (12 %); 77 of all T4 patients received postoperative chemotherapy (33 %). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Patients with a T4 tumor who received postoperative chemotherapy had a highly significant survival benefit in respect of overall survival (p < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.008). However, no difference was observed between oxaliplatin-containing and non-oxaliplatin-containing treatment regimens. G2 and G3 tumors were found to particularly benefit from adjuvant treatment. Chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, and tumor grading remained independent risk factors in the multivariate cox regression analysis. Our retrospective study demonstrated the significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in the T4 subgroup of patients with UICC II colon cancer. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy should be seriously considered in these patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1404-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Effects of Voice Therapy on Laryngeal Motor Units During Phonation in Chronic Superior Laryngeal Nerve Paresis Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mami; Hitomi, Takefumi; Takekawa, Takashi; Tsuji, Takuya; Kishimoto, Yo; Hirano, Shigeru

    2017-09-26

    Injury to the superior laryngeal nerve can result in dysphonia, and in particular, loss of vocal range. It can be an especially difficult problem to address with either voice therapy or surgical intervention. Some clinicians and scientists suggest that combining vocal exercises with adjunctive neuromuscular electrical stimulation may enhance the positive effects of voice therapy for superior laryngeal nerve paresis (SLNP). However, the effects of voice therapy without neuromuscular electrical stimulation are unknown. The purpose of this retrospective study was to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of voice therapy for rehabilitating chronic SLNP dysphonia in two subjects, using interspike interval (ISI) variability of laryngeal motor units by laryngeal electromyography (LEMG). Both patients underwent LEMG and were diagnosed with having 70% recruitment of the cricothyroid muscle, and 70% recruitment of the cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscles, respectively. Both patients received voice therapy for 3 months. Grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, stroboscopic examination, aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and Voice Handicap Index-10 were performed before and after voice therapy. Mean ISI variability during steady phonation was also assessed. After voice therapy, both patients showed improvement in vocal assessments by acoustic, aerodynamic, GRBAS, and Voice Handicap Index-10 analysis. LEMG indicated shortened ISIs in both cases. This study suggests that voice therapy for chronic SLNP dysphonia can be useful for improving SLNP and voice quality. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of quality control samples for thyroid hormones T3 and T4 in radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.O.A.

    2006-03-01

    Today, the radioimmunoassay becomes one of the best techniques for quantitative analysis of very low concentration of different substances. RIA is being widely used in medical and research laboratories. To maintain high specificity and accuracy in RIA and other related techniques the quality controls must be introduced. In this dissertation quality control samples for thyroid hormones (Triiodothyronine T3 and Thyroxin T4), using RIA techniques. Ready made chinese T4, T3 RIA kits were used. IAEA statistical package were selected.(Author)

  15. Non-squamous cell neoplasms of the larynx: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M; Moulin, G; Kurt, A M; Dulgerov, P; Vukanovic, S; Zbären, P; Marchal, F; Rüfenacht, D A; Terrier, F

    1998-01-01

    A variety of benign and malignant non-squamous cell neoplasms may affect the larynx. Most of these uncommon laryngeal neoplasms are located beneath an intact mucosa, making diagnosis difficult with endoscopy alone, and sampling errors may occur if only traditional superficial biopsies are performed. In some laryngeal neoplasms, radiologic evaluation allows the correct diagnosis. Hemangiomas have very high signal intensity at T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and strong enhancement at both computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging after administration of contrast material. Phleboliths, which are pathognomonic for hemangiomas, are easily identified at CT. Chondrogenic tumors typically manifest with coarse or stippled calcifications at CT. Because of their high water content, chondrogenic tumors have very high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images, whereas only moderate enhancement is observed after administration of contrast material. Lipomas typically manifest at both CT and MR imaging as homogeneous nonenhancing lesions. They are isoattenuating to subcutaneous fat at CT and isointense relative to subcutaneous fat with all MR pulse sequences. Metastases from renal adenocarcinoma typically demonstrate strong contrast enhancement and flow voids at MR imaging, and metastases from melanotic melanoma usually have high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and low signal intensity on T2-weighted images owing to the paramagnetic properties of melanin. Although radiologic findings are nonspecific in most other non-squamous cell neoplasms of the larynx (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, hematopoietic tumors, tumors of the minor salivary glands, metastases from amelanotic melanoma), cross-sectional imaging can play an important role in the diagnostic work-up of these unusual tumors by delineating the extent of submucosal tumor spread and directing the endoscopist to the appropriate site for the deep, transmucosal biopsies needed to establish the diagnosis. In addition, CT

  16. A survey of practice patterns in the use of laryngeal mask by pediatric anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anuradha; Clark, Scott R; Schiffmiller, Moshe; Schoenberg, Catherine; Tewfik, George

    2015-11-01

    Laryngeal mask is frequently the airway device of choice in routine general anesthesia for many procedures in children. Several studies have described the use of laryngeal masks in unconventional situations. This survey was undertaken to assess how laryngeal masks are being used by pediatric anesthesiologists. The 40-question electronic survey using SurveyMonkey™ was sent to 2740 members of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA). This survey assessed the age, work environment, types of practice, and training levels, as well as clinical situations in which the practitioners use laryngeal masks across different pediatric age groups. Seven hundred and forty-three (27.1%) responses were obtained. The use of laryngeal mask increased as the patient age increased in nearly every queried situation. The practitioners routinely utilize laryngeal masks in a variety of challenging scenarios, such as in patients with a recent upper respiratory infection, in the difficult airway, remote locations, and long-duration surgeries. A small percentage of pediatric anesthesiologists use laryngeal masks in laparoscopic surgery and prone position procedures. Pediatric anesthesiologists are using laryngeal masks in both routine and challenging/unconventional situations. Although many of the uses for laryngeal masks are not explicitly stated in the manufacturer guidelines, literature and current practice support the use of laryngeal masks in several of these scenarios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Crystal Structure of the Phage T4 Recombinase UvsX and Its Functional Interaction with the T4 SF2 Helicase UvsW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Webb, Michael R.; Galkin, Vitold; Egelman, Edward H.; Kreuzer, Kenneth N.; White, Stephen W. (Duke); (UV); (SJCH)

    2012-07-11

    Bacteriophage T4 provides an important model system for studying the mechanism of homologous recombination. We have determined the crystal structure of the T4 UvsX recombinase, and the overall architecture and fold closely resemble those of RecA, including a highly conserved ATP binding site. Based on this new structure, we reanalyzed electron microscopy reconstructions of UvsX-DNA filaments and docked the UvsX crystal structure into two different filament forms: a compressed filament generated in the presence of ADP and an elongated filament generated in the presence of ATP and aluminum fluoride. In these reconstructions, the ATP binding site sits at the protomer interface, as in the RecA filament crystal structure. However, the environment of the ATP binding site is altered in the two filament reconstructions, suggesting that nucleotide cannot be as easily accommodated at the protomer interface of the compressed filament. Finally, we show that the phage helicase UvsW completes the UvsX-promoted strand-exchange reaction, allowing the generation of a simple nicked circular product rather than complex networks of partially exchanged substrates.

  18. Treatment of patients with unresectable squamous head and neck cancer with induction chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy; Traitement de patients atteints d'un cancer irresecable de la tete et du cou avec une chimiotherapie d'induction suivie d'une radiotherapie hyperfractionnee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesia, R.; Majem, M.; Barretina Ginesta, M.P.; Montes, A.; Cardenal, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Medical Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Galiana, R.; Guedea, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Manos, M. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of ENT, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Monner, A. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Perez, J. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Clinical Investigation Unit, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: the contribution of induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy (h.f.R.T.) in unresectable squamous head and neck cancer has been evaluated in a single institution as an assistancial protocol. Patients and methods: from March 1994 to June 2000 all consecutive patients with unresectable disease were treated with four courses of platin plus fluorouracil based CT followed by h.f.R.T.. Tumor resectability and response was assessed by a multidisciplinary committee. Results: ninety-nine patients (pts) were treated. All of them had stage IV-M0 disease: 67 T4, 88 N2-N3. Tumor location: 62 oropharynx, 22 hypopharynx, eight oral cavity and seven larynx. Tumor response at the end of treatment: 61 patients complete response, 17 partial response, two stable disease, 10 progressive disease and nine unevaluated. With a median follow-up of 70 months the 5-year loco-regional control and overall survival was 30.3% (95% CI: 21.9-38.6) and 21.6% (95% CI: 13.4-29.8), respectively. Loco-regional control and overall survival is significantly influenced by prior response to induction CT. Main grade 3-4 toxicity related to CT was stomatitis, but there were five patients with an ischemic event. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: 47 stomatitis, 20 epithelitis. Chronic toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: six emergency tracheotomies due to laryngeal edema, five pneumonia and one mucous/soft-tissue necrosis. There were eight toxic related deaths. Conclusion: induction CT followed by h.f.R.T. might increase the overall survival rate in unresectable disease. H.f.R.T. resulted in a high rate of acute toxicity and its use would not be warranted in those patients with no response to induction CT who had a low probability of long-term control. (authors)

  19. Development and evaluation of a magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay for total human thyroxine (T4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Abdalla, O. M.; Zahran, A. B.; Shabbo, N. M.; Ali, N. I.; Gubara, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this study a simple and rapid magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human thyroxine (T4) was developed using locally raised sheep thyroxine antibody and radioiodinated thyroxine (T4) tracer by chloramine-T method. The assay involves two hours incubation at ambient temperature rang (30 to 35 o C ) associated with the antibody covalently linked by the easily performed carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) method to magnetic particles obtained from SIPAC. 0.1% triton with sodium azide used as a wash buffer. L-Thyroxine Na-salt peta hydrate from sigma was used for the preparation of standards and quality control sera. The coupled magnetic anti-T4 solid phase titrated in order to find out the suitable antibody concentration (titre) to be used in the assay. Optimizations followed by validation procedures were done. When correlated with kits imported from NETRIA and AMERSHAM, results were found to be highly comparable r=0.965 and p<0.05. Shelf life was also studied, so that the local prepared T4 RIA magnetic reagents can be used for the measurement of total human thyroxine with a very low cost compared to imported kits. (Author)

  20. Focused genetic recombination of bacteriophage t4 initiated by double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor; Granovsky, Igor; Plugina, Lidiya; Shcherbakova, Tamara; Sizova, Svetlana; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Shlyapnikov, Michael; Shubina, Olga

    2002-10-01

    A model system for studying double-strand-break (DSB)-induced genetic recombination in vivo based on the ets1 segCDelta strain of bacteriophage T4 was developed. The ets1, a 66-bp DNA fragment of phage T2L containing the cleavage site for the T4 SegC site-specific endonuclease, was inserted into the proximal part of the T4 rIIB gene. Under segC(+) conditions, the ets1 behaves as a recombination hotspot. Crosses of the ets1 against rII markers located to the left and to the right of ets1 gave similar results, thus demonstrating the equal and symmetrical initiation of recombination by either part of the broken chromosome. Frequency/distance relationships were studied in a series of two- and three-factor crosses with other rIIB and rIIA mutants (all segC(+)) separated from ets1 by 12-2100 bp. The observed relationships were readily interpretable in terms of the modified splice/patch coupling model. The advantages of this localized or focused recombination over that distributed along the chromosome, as a model for studying the recombination-replication pathway in T4 in vivo, are discussed.

  1. Radioimmunoassay of serum T3, T4 and TSH during anesthesia and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosheva-Antonova, Ts.; Zakharieva, B.; Kurtev, I.

    1987-01-01

    The serum concentrations of thyroxine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine (T 4 ) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in 31 partients before and during urologic operations on the 30th and 60th minute since the onset of the operation, performed under endotracheal halotane or neuroleptanesthesia (NLA) in assisted breathing and intravenous drip anesthesia with ketalar-diazepam in spontaneous breathing. There was statistically significant rise in T 4 level, decrease in T 3 and negligible changes in TSH level, in patients operated under halotane anesthesia. In those operated under NLA, T 4 tended initially to be elevated, with subseguent fall to starting level, with a tendency toward rise in TSH and stable unchanged T 3 level. Ketalar-diazepam anesthesia was applied only to patients subjected to transurethral resections. T 4 in them tended to be decreased, while T 3 and TSH showed negligible changes. Since the operations of patients anesthesized with halotane and NLA had similar localizations and severity, the differences in the thyroid hormone reactions could be associated with the type of anesthesia. The negligible changes in TSH are highly suggestive that this hormone is not influenced by the operation stress and anesthetics, and does hot exert regulating effect upon the thyroid status under these conditions. The milder reactions in patients operated under ketalar-diazepam anestesia may largely be associated with the milder operation stress in transurethal resection

  2. Structural studies on metal-containing enzymes: T4 endonuclease VII and D. gigas formate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, H.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Many biological processes require metal ions, and many of these metal-ion functions involve metalloproteins. The metal ions in metalloproteins are often critical to the protein's function, structure, or stability. This thesis focuses on two of these proteins, bacteriophage T4 endonuclease

  3. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ∗Corresponding author: Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University ... T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defense ... This observation enables us to make the assumption that the population of ...

  4. The isolation and characterization of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia T4-like bacteriophage DLP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L Peters

    Full Text Available Increasing isolation of the extremely antibiotic resistant bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has caused alarm worldwide due to the limited treatment options available. A potential treatment option for fighting this bacterium is 'phage therapy', the clinical application of bacteriophages to selectively kill bacteria. Bacteriophage DLP6 (vB_SmoM-DLP6 was isolated from a soil sample using clinical isolate S. maltophilia strain D1571 as host. Host range analysis of phage DLP6 against 27 clinical S. maltophilia isolates shows successful infection and lysis in 13 of the 27 isolates tested. Transmission electron microscopy of DLP6 indicates that it is a member of the Myoviridae family. Complete genome sequencing and analysis of DLP6 reveals its richly recombined evolutionary history, featuring a core of both T4-like and cyanophage genes, which suggests that it is a member of the T4-superfamily. Unlike other T4-superfamily phages however, DLP6 features a transposase and ends with 229 bp direct terminal repeats. The isolation of this bacteriophage is an exciting discovery due to the divergent nature of DLP6 in relation to the T4-superfamily of phages.

  5. Modular architecture of the T4 phage superfamily: A conserved core genome and a plastic periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeau, Andre M.; Bertrand, Claire; Letarov, Andrei; Tetart, Francoise; Krisch, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Among the most numerous objects in the biosphere, phages show enormous diversity in morphology and genetic content. We have sequenced 7 T4-like phages and compared their genome architecture. All seven phages share a core genome with T4 that is interrupted by several hyperplastic regions (HPRs) where most of their divergence occurs. The core primarily includes homologues of essential T4 genes, such as the virion structure and DNA replication genes. In contrast, the HPRs contain mostly novel genes of unknown function and origin. A few of the HPR genes that can be assigned putative functions, such as a series of novel Internal Proteins, are implicated in phage adaptation to the host. Thus, the T4-like genome appears to be partitioned into discrete segments that fulfil different functions and behave differently in evolution. Such partitioning may be critical for these large and complex phages to maintain their flexibility, while simultaneously allowing them to conserve their highly successful virion design and mode of replication

  6. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  7. Acute Toxicity Profile and Compliance to Accelerated Radiotherapy Plus Carbogen and Nicotinamide for Clinical Stage T2–4 Laryngeal Cancer: Results of a Phase III Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Geert O.; Terhaard, Chris H.; Doornaert, Patricia A.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Ende, Piet van den; Chin, Alim; Pop, Lucas A.; Kaanders, Johannes H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report the acute toxicity profile and compliance from a randomized Phase III trial comparing accelerated radiotherapy (AR) with accelerated radiotherapy plus carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) in laryngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: From April 2001 to February 2008, 345 patients with cT2–4 squamous cell laryngeal cancer were randomized to AR (n = 174) and ARCON (n = 171). Acute toxicity was scored weekly until Week 8 and every 2–4 weeks thereafter. Compliance to carbogen and nicotinamide was reported. Results: Between both treatment arms (AR vs. ARCON) no statistically significant difference was observed for incidence of acute skin reactions (moist desquamation: 56% vs. 58%, p = 0.80), acute mucosal reactions (confluent mucositis: 79% vs. 85%, p = 0.14), and symptoms related to acute mucositis (severe pain on swallowing: 53% vs. 58%, p = 0.37; nasogastric tube feeding: 28% vs. 28%, p = 0.98; narcotic medicines required: 58% vs. 58%, p = 0.97). There was a statistically significant difference in median duration of confluent mucositis in favor of AR (2.0 vs 3.0 weeks, p = 0.01). There was full compliance with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide in 86% and 80% of the patients, with discontinuation in 6% and 12%, respectively. Adjustment of antiemesis prophylaxis was needed in 42% of patients. Conclusion: With the exception of a slight increase in median duration of acute confluent mucositis, the present data reveal a similar acute toxicity profile between both regimens and a good compliance with ARCON for clinical stage T2–4 laryngeal cancers. Treatment outcome and late morbidity will determine the real therapeutic benefit.

  8. Lymphatic mapping to tailor selective lymphadenectomy in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.E.U.; Warraich, R.A.; Abid, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of cervical lymph node metastases in the Squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue and or floor of mouth; hence to improve the pretreatment evaluation of these patients. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King Edward Medical University/ Mayo Hospital Lahore. From July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Methods: This study was carried out on 50 consecutive patients who were having Squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue and or floor of the mouth with T1 - T4 lesions. Results: Neck lymph node levels I and II were the most common sites of cervical lymph node metastases that was, 30%. Levels IV and V were involved very rarely. The overall metastases to cervical lymph node levels I - III combined was seen in 90% cases of oral tongue or floor of the mouth. Conclusion: The most common region for cervical lymph node metastases in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of oral tongue and floor of mouth is levels I - III in the ipsilateral neck, so based on pattern of metastases, supraomohyoid neck dissection for cN+ and functional neck dissection for cN+ necks are suggested. Key Words: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cervical lymph node metastasis, cN+ (clinically lymph node negative), cN+ (clinically lymph node positive) (N1 - N/sub 3/), pN+ (pathologically lymph node metastases found), elective neck dissection, occult metastasis, radical neck dissection (RND). (author)

  9. Number of negative lymph nodes as a prognostic factor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingquan; Tang, Peng; Jiang, Hongjing; Gong, Lei; Duan, Xiaofeng; Shang, Xiaobin; Yu, Zhentao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the number of negative lymph nodes (NLNs) as a prognostic factor for survival in patients with resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A total of 381 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who had underwent surgical resection as the primary treatment was enrolled into this retrospective study. The impact of number of NLNs on patient's overall survival was assessed and compared with the factors among the current tumor-nodes-metastasis (TNM) staging system. The number of NLNs was closely related to the overall survival, and the 5-year survival rate was 45.4% for number of NLNs of >20 (142 cases) and 26.4% for NLNs ≤ 20 (239 cases) (P = 0.001). In multivariate survival analysis, the number of NLNs remained an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.002) as did the other current TNM factors. For subgroup analysis, the predictive value of number of NLNs was significant in patients with T3 or T4 disease (P = 0.001) and patients with N1 and N2-3 disease (P = 0.025, 0.043), but not in patients with T1 or T2 disease or patients with N0 disease. The number of NLNs, which represents the extent of lymphadenectomy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, could impact the overall survival of patients with resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, especially among those with nodal-positive disease and advanced T-stage tumor. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Prognostic Value of Subclassification Using MRI in the T4 Classification Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lei [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Chen Mo; Li Wenfei; Yin Wenjing [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Sun Ying [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Li Li [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To subclassify patients with the T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), according to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to evaluate the prognostic value of subclassification after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 140 patients who underwent MRI and were subsequently histologically diagnosed with nondisseminated classification T4 NPC received IMRT as their primary treatment and were included in this retrospective study. T4 patients were subclassified into two grades: T4a was defined as a primary nasopharyngeal tumor with involvement of the masticator space only; and T4b was defined as involvement of the intracranial region, cranial nerves, and/or orbit. Results: The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rate for T4a patients (82.5% and 87.0%, respectively), were significantly higher than for T4b patients (62.6% and 66.8%; p = 0.033 and p = 0.036, respectively). The T4a/b subclassification was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio = 2.331, p = 0.032) and DMFS (hazard ratio = 2.602, p = 0.034), and had no significant effect on local relapse-free survival. Conclusions: Subclassification of T4 patients, as T4a or T4b, using MRI according to the site of invasion, has prognostic value for the outcomes of IMRT treatment in NPC.

  11. Preoperative Tracheostomy Is Associated with Poor Disease-Free Survival in Recurrent Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Rosko, Andrew J; Beesley, Lauren; Bellile, Emily; Chinn, Steven B; Shuman, Andrew G; Prince, Mark E; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Brenner, J Chad; Spector, Matthew E

    2017-09-01

    Objectives It is unknown if preoperative tracheostomy for persistent/recurrent laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) plays a role in unrecognized local disease spread and disease recurrence after salvage laryngectomy. The goals of this study were to determine the effect of preoperative tracheostomy on disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with recurrent/persistent LSCC undergoing salvage laryngectomy. Study Design Retrospective case series derived from prospectively maintained database. Setting Tertiary care academic center. Subjects Patients with recurrent/persistent LSCC after radiation/chemoradiation (RT/CRT) who underwent salvage laryngectomy at the University of Michigan from 1997 to 2015. Methods Demographic, clinical, pathologic, and survival data were collected. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were performed. Results DFS was worse for patients with tracheostomy prior to laryngectomy than patients without a tracheostomy (5 year: 39% vs 67%; P tracheostomy prior to RT/CRT compared to patients with tracheostomy after RT/CRT or patients without a tracheostomy had worse DFS (5-year: 25%, 49%, and 67%, respectively; P tracheostomy was associated with worse DFS. In multivariable analysis, presence of a preoperative tracheostomy had a worse DFS (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.67; P = .048). Conclusion Preoperative tracheostomy is associated with disease recurrence in patients with persistent/recurrent LSCC undergoing salvage laryngectomy, particularly in patients who had tracheostomy prior to completion of initial RT/CRT. Notably, preoperative tracheostomy as a causal factor vs marker for disease recurrence is difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of locoregional recurrence in patients with preoperative tracheostomy when counseling on surgical salvage and when considering the role of additional therapy.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck squamous cell carcinoma Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Consumer Version: Overview of Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers Orphanet: Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck University of Michigan ...

  13. Laryngeal Rosai-Dorfman Disease (Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy): A Retrospective Study of 5 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Yanyan Niu; Yongjin Li; Jian Wang; Xiaofeng Jin; Dahai Yang; Hong Huo; Wuyi Li

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical manifestations, treatment methods, and prognosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) with laryngeal involvement. Five clinical cases of RDD with laryngeal involvement diagnosed between 1986 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The laryngeal lesions of these 5 patients mostly involved the glottis and subglottis, with the main symptoms being a hoarse voice and airway obstruction. In addition, the patients mostly exhibited a unilateral or asymme...

  14. Salvage esophagectomy under bilateral thoracotomy after definitive chemoradiotherapy for aorta T4 thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Nagaki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Salvage esophagectomy through a right thoracotomy followed by careful observation of the invasion site for possible aortic replacement through a left thoracotomy is an optional procedure for these patients.

  15. Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma following head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Metastasis or second primary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Tom W.; Nederlof, Petra M.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; van't Veer, Laura J.; de Jong, Daphne; Hart, August A. M.; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klomp, Houke; Balm, Alfons J. M.; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish a metastasis from a second primary tumor in patients with a history of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and subsequent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma. Experimental Design: For 44 patients with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck followed by a

  16. Speed, accuracy, and stability of laryngeal movement in singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2004-05-01

    Motor performance is often quantified in terms of speed, strength, accuracy, and stability of a target gesture, or maintaining a given posture. In the vocal system, this involves primarily the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and the respiratory muscles. Agonist-antagonist pairs of muscles are used to position the vocal folds for phonation (vocal onset), for pitch change, and for registration (as in yodeling). Maximum speed and accuracy are discussed for vocal embellishments such as trills, trillo, scales, arpeggios, yodel, and glissando. This speed and accuracy are interpreted in terms of muscle twitch and tetanic responses obtained in vitro on animal muscles, from electromyographic recordings on humans, and from muscles not easily tested on humans. The laryngeal reflex system is also described, particularly with regard to its ability to stabilize (or destabilize) neurologic tremor originating from the central nervous system.

  17. Radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer in patients under 50 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Wakako; Ogino, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty-nine cases of laryngeal cancer treated by radiotherapy at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1962 and 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were less than 50 years old. The median total dose of the radiation delivered to the primary tumor site was 70 Gy. The overall 5-yr survival rate and 5-yr local control rate were 88% and 72%, respectively. Five (8.5%) of the 59 patients developed late recurrence more than five yr after initial treatment, but subsequent salvage operations were successful for disease control; three patients had T1 glottic cancer, one had T2-3 glottic cancer and one had T3N1 supraglottic cancer. Since the local control rate and the 5-yr survival rate after radiotherapy are satisfactory, radiotherapy, which allows both functional and esthetic conservation, has an important role in the treatment of laryngeal cancer in adults under 50 yr of age. (author)

  18. VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPIC SURGEY IN BENIGN LARYNGEAL LESIONS-OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Benign laryngeal lesions are commonly encountered causes of dysphonia and are often surgically correctable. A prospective study on 62 cases selected for videolaryngoscopic surgery was undertaken in a single unit in the department of ENT, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. The male: female ratio was 1.8:1 and the most common affected age group was 35-45 yrs. The most common benign lesion was vocal polyp. Preoperative voice assessment and 70 degree endoscopy was done. Follow up visits were done at 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks and voice assessment and laryngoscopic appearances were noted. 98% reported excellent improvement of voice. The varieties of benign lesions which cause hoarseness are sources of concern and worry as it can affect the self esteem of a person. Thus videolaryngoscopic surgery (VLS coupled with voice therapy offers cost effective and safe management in benign laryngeal lesions

  19. Studies on the effectiveness of teleradiotherapy in laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolyszewski, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1973-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty six previously untreated patients with cancer of the larynx were radically irradiated at the Institute of Oncology in Krakow in the years 1951--1966. Five-year cure rate without cancer symptoms after irradiation as the only treatment was 43% or 209 of 486 cases, and after surgery for recurrent cancer there were in addition, 55 survivors (11%). Dosage schemes of /sup 60/Co therapy for laryngeal tumor have been devised giving a dose of 6,000 rads per 24 fractions in 5 weeks. When irradiating the larynx together with cervical lymph nodes the dose of 6,000 rads was given during 6 to 7 weeks plus further irradiation at a lower dose if necessary. Two techniques of /sup 60/Co irradiation of typical cases of laryngeal cancer are described.

  20. Diagnosis and management with botulinum toxin in 11 cases of laryngeal synkinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Asier; García-López, Isabel; Santiago, Susana; Del Palacio, Antonio; Gavilán, Javier

    2015-09-01

    Laryngeal synkinesis is a vocal fold movement disorder produced by a misdirected reinnervation after a recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Its symptoms differ greatly between patients, requiring diverse therapeutical approaches. We aim to describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of different laryngeal synkinesis presentations. 11 patients diagnosed between 2011 and 2014 in a tertiary referral center with laryngeal synkinesis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography were included in our study. All medical records and laryngoscopic and electromyographic data were reviewed retrospectively. Four patients had previous unilateral vocal fold palsy and seven had a bilateral palsy with different degrees of clinical involvement. All of them showed paradoxical movements during inhalation in videofibrolaryngoscopic examination. Laryngeal electromyography confirmed the diagnosis of laryngeal synkinesis. Dyspnea was the main presentation symptom. Three patients with mild symptoms were not treated. Patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility were successfully treated with periodic botulinum toxin injections. Patients with bilateral immobility had a good initial response to botulinum toxin, although in some of them, a posterior cordectomy had to be finally performed. In conclusion, laryngeal synkinesis is a heterogeneous clinic entity that appears in patients with unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paralysis. Videofibrolaryngoscopy and laryngeal electromyography are essential to a correct diagnosis. Botulinum toxin injections are the main treatment for symptomatic cases, even if in bilateral palsy cases more aggressive treatments are often required.

  1. Cuff leak test and laryngeal survey for predicting post-extubation stridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anit B; Ani, Chizobam; Feeney, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the predictive value of the cuff leak test (CLT) for post-extubation stridor (PES) is conflicting. We evaluated the association and accuracy of CLT alone or combined with other laryngeal parameters with PES. Fifty-one mechanically ventilated adult patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit were tested prior to extubation using; CLT, laryngeal ultrasound and indirect laryngoscopy. Biometric, laryngeal and endotracheal tube (ETT) parameters were recorded. PES incidence was 4%. CLT demonstrated 'no leak' in 20% of patients. Laryngeal oedema was present in 10% of the patients on indirect laryngoscopy, and 71% of the patients had a Grades 1-3 indirect laryngoscopic view. Mean air column width on laryngeal ultrasound was 0.66 ± 0.15 cm (cuff deflated), mean ratio of ETT to laryngeal diameter was 0.48 ± 0.07, and the calculated CLT and laryngeal survey composite was 0.86 ± 1.25 (range 0-5). CLT and the CLT and Laryngeal survey composite measure were not associated with or predict PES. Age, sex, peri-extubation steroid use, intubation duration and body mass index were not associated with PES. Even including ultrasonographic and indirect laryngoscopic examination of the airway, no single aspect of the CLT or combination with laryngeal parameters accurately predicts PES.

  2. Laryngeal schwannoma: a case report with emphasis on sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de, E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); De Nicola, Harley; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Pedroso, Jose Eduardo; Brasil, Osiris de Oliveira Campones do; Yamashita, Helio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2014-05-15

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering peripheral, cranial and autonomic nerves. Twenty-five to forty-five percent of all schwannomas occur in the head and neck region, but location of such tumors in the larynx is rarely observed. The present report is aimed at describing a clinical case of laryngeal schwannoma, with emphasis on sonographic findings. (author)

  3. traumatismes externes du larynx external laryngeal trauma of larynx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par la dyspho- ... Methods: Twenty-one patients with laryngeal injuries were analyzed retrospectively. ... évoquer un traumatisme du larynx sur un faisceau d'ar- ... Faculté de médecine de Tunis - Université De Tunis El Manar ... a été indiquée sous anesthésie générale dans tous les cas.

  4. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Vito; Fuoco, Gabriel; James, Adrian

    2004-06-01

    A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts based on the extent of the cyst and on the embryologic tissue of origin is proposed. Retrospective chart review. The charts of 20 patients with either congenital or acquired laryngeal cysts that were treated surgically between 1987 and 2002 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, histopathology, and outcome were recorded. A new classification system is proposed to better appreciate the origin of these cysts and to guide in their successful surgical management. Fourteen of the supraglottic and subglottic simple mucous retention cysts posed no diagnostic or therapeutic challenge and were treated successfully by a single endoscopic excision or marsupialization. The remaining six patients with congenital cysts in the study were deemed more complex, and all required open surgical procedures for cure. On the basis of the analysis of the data of these patients, a new classification of congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed. Type I cysts are confined to the larynx, the cyst wall composed of endodermal elements only, and can be managed endoscopically. Type II cysts extend beyond the confines of the larynx and require an external approach. The Type II cysts are further subclassified histologically on the basis of the embryologic tissue of origin: IIa, composed of endoderm only and IIb, containing endodermal and mesodermal elements (epithelium and cartilage) in the wall of the cyst. A new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts is proposed on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin. This classification can help guide the surgeon with initial management and help us better understand the origin of these cysts.

  5. Laryngeal sarcoidosis: presentation and management in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Vargas, Sara O; Cohen, Ezra; Vielman, Rene; Son, Mary Beth; Rahbar, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by systemic non-necrotizing granulomas of unknown etiology. Laryngeal sarcoidosis is extremely uncommon, especially among pediatric patients. The clinical presentation and management of this entity in the pediatric population are poorly understood. A comprehensive search in PubMed was conducted to identify all cases in the published literature. We also present a case of isolated pediatric laryngeal sarcoidosis and outline the multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management. A previously healthy 13-year-old female presented with a five-month history of mild dysphonia, dyspnea on exertion, and diffuse supraglottic edema. Biopsy showed non-necrotizing granulomas. Treatment with methotrexate led to marked improvement. The literature search identified seven previously published cases of pediatric laryngeal sarcoidosis, four in which disease was isolated to the larynx. All patients presented with a symptomatic and diffusely edematous supraglottis. Diagnoses were based on supraglottic biopsies showing non-necrotizing granulomas; all other possible etiopathologies were excluded. Three patients responded to corticosteroid therapy alone, one patient to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor and methotrexate, and the remainder to a combination of corticosteroid therapy and surgical debulking. Laryngeal sarcoidosis in the pediatric population is challenging to diagnose and manage. When epithelioid granulomas are encountered histologically, other causes of granulomatous inflammation must be ruled out before a diagnosis of sarcoidosis can be made. Corticosteroid therapy alone may be ineffective. Medical therapy with methotrexate alone or in combination with TNF inhibitors versus surgical debulking alone or as part of multimodality treatment should be considered. A multidisciplinary approach with involvement of an otolaryngologist, pathologist, and rheumatologist is suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  6. Laryngeal lipoma associated with Madelung's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landínez-Cepeda, Guillermo Arturo; Alarcos-Tamayo, Emilio V; Millás-Gómez, Teresa; Morais-Pérez, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is an alteration in the neck, upper trunk and upper extremities fat deposits. It produces an aesthetic problem and sometimes upper airway obstruction when the larynx is infiltrated by the mass. We report the case of a male with Madelung's disease, which began with acute dyspnea caused by laryngeal fat deposits and obstructive lipoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  8. Laryngeal granuloma in a thorougbread horse: a multidisciplinary study

    OpenAIRE

    Morales B, Abelardo; Campos A, Gerardo; Zerpa, Héctor; Fernández, David; García, Francisco; Bermúdez G, Víctor; Morales B, María

    2011-01-01

    A two year-old racing thoroughbred mare presented with loud respiratory stertor, that was auscultated in the tracheal and laryngeal regions. Upon palpitation of the larynx, no changes were noted. The upper respiratory tract was examined via a fiberoptic endoscopy where the nasal passages were observed to be unchanged and the scope passed with normal resistance. The guttural pouches and their openings were normal. The right arytenoid cartilage appeared thickened throughout its length and faile...

  9. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laryngeal assessment by videolaryngostroboscopy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Puerta, José A; Cisternas, Ariel; Hernández, M Victoria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Vilaseca, Isabel; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the larynx involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a clinical setting and correlate with the different clinical features related to more aggressive disease. Cross-sectional study including 36 consecutive patients with RA. Reflux symptoms were evaluated by the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and vocal cord impairment by the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10). Laryngeal involvement was done by videolaryngostroboscopy (VLS). The mean age was 56,3 ± 14 years with a mean disease duration of 2,6 ± 3,1 years (range 0-16 years). Voice use was considered as professional users in 33%. Twenty-four (67%) out of 36 patients had abnormal findings of VLS. One patient had larynx nodules (bamboo nodules). Eleven patients (31%) were diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia, and there were symptoms and signs of pharyngeal-laryngeal reflux in 23 (64%) patients. No signs of cricoarytenoid joint impairment was found. Organic larynx involvement was uncommon in patients with RA. However symptoms and signs of pharyngeal-laryngeal reflux were seen in around 60% of patients. There was no correlation between the clinical phenotype, severity of disease, immunological profile or treatment with VLS findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. [Postextubation laryngeal edema seven years after undergoing neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daijo, Hiroki; Habara, Toshie; Katagawa, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Yukiko; Shinomura, Tetsutaro

    2008-05-01

    We report a case of upper airway obstruction after extubation in a 69-year-old female patient who underwent transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL). She had underwent bilateral modified radical neck dissection 7 years previously. TUL went smoothly in Trenderenburg position, and the extubation was performed after antagonism of neuromuscular block. The patient was closely observed in the operating theater, but about 10 minutes after extubation, she was noted to have dyspnea and tracheal tug. Dexamathasone 2 mg IV was given but was unsuccessful. Although we could support the airway with bag-mask ventilation, continuous stridor required re-intubation. Direct laryngoscopy revealed severe obstruction caused by laryngeal edema. An otolaryngologist was consulted and he performed tracheostomy. We transferred the patient to the intensive care unit for observation. Flexible fiberoptic scope examination performed on postoperative day (POD) 1 showed the decrease of the laryngeal edema. Tacheal tube was removed on POD 7 and she was discharged from the hospital POD 10 without further complications. Patients after a neck dissection may be at elevated risk for postoperative laryngeal edema caused by lymphatic destruction or venous congestion of the neck.

  12. Comparative studies of commercially available T4-RIA-kits. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.A.E.; Lipke, P.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation of the tested commercially available T 4 -RIA-Kits have shown that: The separation of hypo-, eu- and hyperthyroid values is better with kits a) and f) than with b), c), d) and e), though all kits give acceptable values under routine operating conditions, kit b) takes less time and work than the other tested kits, depending on the kit used, the time needed for 100 determinations varies between 1,5 and 4 hr. A general recommendation for one of the tested T 4 -RIA-Kits cannot be made since the choice of a kit depends not only on the criteria discussed but also on local circumstances. (orig.) [de

  13. Repair of potentially lethal damage by introduction of T4 DNA ligase in eucaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G.F.; Napolitano, M.; Gialanella, G.

    1991-01-01

    The bacterial enzyme PvuII, which generates blunt-ended DNA double-strand breaks, and T4 DNA ligase, which seals adjacent DNA fragments in coupling to ATP cleavage, were introduced in mouse C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts using osmolytic shock of pinocytic vesicles. Cells were then assayed for their clonogenic ability. In agreement with previous studies by others, the authors found that PvuII restriction endonuclease simulates ionizing radiation effects by causing a dose-dependent loss of reproductive capacity. They show that concomitant treatment with DNA ligase considerably increases cell survival. Survival curves were shown to be dependent on ligase enzyme dose and on ATP concentration in the hypertonic medium. They conclude that T4 DNA ligase is able to repair some potentially lethal damage produced by restriction endonucleases in eucaryotic cells. (author)

  14. Characterization of a bacteriophage T4 mutant lacking DNA-dependent ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behme, M.T.; Ebisuzaki, K.

    1975-01-01

    A DNA-dependent ATPase has previously been purified from bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli. A mutant phage strain lacking this enzyme has been isolated and characterized. Although the mutant strain produced no detectable DNA-dependent ATPase, growth properties were not affected. Burst sizes were similar for the mutant phage and T4D in polAl, recB, recC, uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, and various DNA-negative E. coli. UV sensitivity and genetic recombination were normal in a variety of E. coli hosts. Mapping data indicate that the genetic locus controlling the mutant occurs near gene 56. The nonessential nature of this gene is discussed

  15. Radiation-induced osteochondroma of the T4 vertebra causing spinal cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorospe, Luis; Madrid-Muniz, Carmen; Royo, Aranzazu; Garcia-Raya, Pilar [Department of Radiology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Ruiz, Fernando [Department of Neurosurgery, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Barea, Fernando [Department of Pathology, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    A case of a radiation-induced osteochondroma arising from the vertebral body of T4 in an 18-year-old man is reported. The patient presented with a history of progressive left lower extremity weakness. At 7 years of age, he had undergone resection of a cerebellar medulloblastoma and received adjunctive craniospinal irradiation and systemic chemotherapy. Both CT and MR imaging revealed an extradural mass contiguous with the posteroinferior endplate of the T4 vertebral body. This case indicates that radiation-induced osteochondroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with symptoms of myelopathy or nerve root compression and a history of radiation therapy involving the spine in childhood. (orig.)

  16. Serum TBG and T4 concentration in non-thyroidal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tobari, C.; Sekita, N.; Onodera, Y.; Asazu, M.; Someya, K.

    1983-01-01

    Routinely available radioassay kits have recently enabled the measurement of serum concentrations of thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroxine (T 4 ), both total (TT 4 ) and free (FT 4 ) in various disease conditions. Serum TBG and T 4 level were measured in variety of non-thyroidal diseases, of which significance was evaluated in comparison with that in thyroidal diseases. Abnormal serum TBG concentrations in various non-thyroidal diseases and pregnancy result in abnormal serum TT 4 levels, which may cause difficulty in differentiation of these conditions from hyper- or hypothyroidal states. Serum FT 4 levels give better indicator than TT 4 , though the difference among RIA kits are considerably large. However, measurement of serum FT 4 levels alone is not sufficient to distinguish non-thyroidal disease from thyroidal diseases with abnormal thyroidal function. The differentiation has to be based on the combination of clinical findings and results of multiple thyroidal function tests

  17. Outcome of superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the clinicopathological features and outcome of patients with pathologically proven superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: A total of 234 consecutive cases of esophageal carcinoma in a 15-year period were reviewed. RESULTS: Superficial esophageal cancer was found in five patients (2.1%. They were four men and one woman and the mean age was 52.5 years. Smoking and alcohol were the main risk factors. Achalasia due to Chagas disease occurred in one patient and a second primary tumor developed in the larynx in another patient. Four patients underwent esophagectomy and one patient received chemoradiotherapy. The histopathologic diagnosis was of squamous cell carcinoma in all cases. Intramucosal tumor (Tis was identified in three cases and superficially invasive carcinoma in two cases. Four patients are free of disease with survival times of two, four, six and nine years. The patient who developed laryngeal cancer died six years after esophagectomy. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival in patients with esophageal cancer is related to early diagnosis. Therefore, a less aggressive surgical approach, such as endoscopic resection, may be a good option for these patients, if depth of tumor invasion can be accurately predicted by the new imaging tools.

  18. [Prehospital airway management of laryngeal tubes. Should the laryngeal tube S with gastric drain tube be preferred in emergency medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, V; Wilde, P; Byhahn, C; Mack, M G; Schalk, R

    2011-02-01

    Laryngeal tubes (LT) are increasingly being used for emergency airway management. This article reports on two patients in whom out-of-hospital intubation with a single-lumen LT was associated with massive pulmonary aspiration in one patient and gastric overinflation in the other. In both cases peak inspiratory pressures exceeded the LT leak pressure of approximately 35 mbar. This resulted in gastric inflation and decreased pulmonary compliance and increased inspiratory pressure further, thereby creating a vicious circle. It is therefore recommended that laryngeal tube suction (LTS) should be used in all cases of emergency airway management and a gastric drain tube be inserted through the dedicated second lumen. Apart from gastric overinflation, incorrect LT/LTS placement must be detected and immediately corrected, e.g. in cases of difficult or impossible gastric tube placement, permanent drainage of air from the gastric tube, decreasing minute ventilation or an ascending capnography curve.

  19. Pulsating strings from two-dimensional CFT on (T4N/S(N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4N/S(N as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling.

  20. Differential cross section measurement for the 6Li(n,t)4He Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guohui; Tang Guoyou; Chen Jinxiang; Shi Zhaomin

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections and integrated cross sections of the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction were measured at 1.85 and 2.67 MeV by using a gridded ionization chamber. Neutrons were produced through the T(p, n) 3 He reaction. The absolute neutron flux was determined through the 238 U(n, f) reaction. Present results are compared with existing data

  1. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of deoxyribonucleic acids and repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinak, Miroslav

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) and specific repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V. Namely research described here is focused on the examination of specific recognition process, in which this repair enzyme recognizes the damaged site on the DNA molecule-thymine dimer (TD). TD is frequent DNA damage induced by UV radiation in sun light and unless properly repaired it may be mutagenic or lethal for cell, and is also considered among the major causes of skin cancer. T4 endonuclease V is a DNA specific repair enzyme from bacteriophage T4 that catalyzes the first reaction step of TD repair pathway. MD simulations of three molecules - native DNA dodecamer (12 base pairs), DNA of the same sequence of nucleotides as native one but with TD, and repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V - were performed for 1 ns individually for each molecule. Simulations were analyzed to determine the role of electrostatic interaction in the recognition process. It is found that electrostatic energies calculated for amino acids of the enzyme have positive values of around +15 kcal/mol. The electrostatic energy of TD site has negative value of approximately -9 kcal/mol, different from the nearly neutral value of the respective thymines site of the native DNA. The electrostatic interaction of TD site with surrounding water environment differs from the electrostatic interaction of other nucleotides. Differences found between TD site and respective thymines site of native DNA indicate that the electrostatic energy is an important factor contributing to proper recognition of TD site during scanning process in which enzyme scans the DNA. In addition to the electrostatic energy, the important factor in recognition process might be structural complementarity of enzyme and bent DNA with TD. There is significant kink formed around TD site, that is not observed in native DNA. (author)

  3. T4 category revision enhances the accuracy and significance of stage III breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Uwe; Singer, Gad; Langer, Igor; Schötzau, Andreas; Herberich, Linda; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Wight, Edward

    2006-06-15

    Because of the considerable heterogeneity in breast carcinoma with noninflammatory skin involvement (T4b/Stage IIIB), a revision was proposed of the TNM staging system that would classify these tumors exclusively based on their tumor size and lymph node status. In the current study, the authors evaluated how implementation of this proposal will affect Stage III noninflammatory breast cancer. Two hundred seven patients who were classified with noninflammatory Stage III breast cancer were treated consecutively between 1990 and 1999 at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. To assess the extent of T4b/Stage IIIB tumors independent of the clinicopathologic feature of skin involvement, the reclassification was undertaken. Of 68 patients who had nonmetastatic T4b breast cancer, 37 patients (54.4%) had a tumor extent in accordance with Stage I/II and had improved disease-specific survival (DSS) compared with patients who had Stage III breast cancer (P = .008). Excluding those patients from Stage III led to a 17.9% reduction of the number of patients in this group (n = 170 patients). The 10-year DSS declined from 48.5% to 42.9%. Considerable numbers of patients who are classified with noninflammatory Stage IIIB breast cancer show only a limited disease extent. Through a revision of the T4 category, these low-risk patients were excluded from the highest nonmetastatic TNM stage, and overstaging could be avoided. This procedure decreased the degree of heterogeneity of the entire Stage III group and may result in a more precise assessment of this disease entity. Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.

  4. Experimental electromagnetic effects on the model organism Escherichia coli and the bacteriophage T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiewski, Darlene Mildred

    This experimentally-based work was designed to answer the research question as to whether the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can produce observable effects upon the bacterial virus activity of T4, with such activity demonstrated through the infection of its host bacterium Escherichia coli. The biological samples were placed for three hours within a coil antenna assembly propagating oscillating fields of radio frequency electromagnetic energy generated at the frequency of 5.6 MHz, and set at right angles within a magnetic field of 1450 gauss (recognizing such conditions are not set for the maximum effective resonance for hydrogen nuclei). The laboratory technique of plaque formation was the basis upon which the statistically tested data were compiled. Exposure of the bacterium alone exhibited an increase in viral activity over the control group (40--68% higher numbers of plaque formation), while exposure of T4 alone saw a decrease (approximately 23%) in infection rates. Depending on the protocol, placement of both T4 and E. coli into the coil assembly saw a decrease of either approximately 50% or 42% in infection rates. Future research must address identification of the effects being observed.

  5. Sequence organization and control of transcription in the bacteriophage T4 tRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Abelson, J

    1985-10-05

    Bacteriophage T4 contains genes for eight transfer RNAs and two stable RNAs of unknown function. These are found in two clusters at 70 X 10(3) base-pairs on the T4 genetic map. To understand the control of transcription in this region we have completed the sequencing of 5000 base-pairs in this region. The sequence contains a part of gene 3, gene 1, gene 57, internal protein I, the tRNA genes and five open reading frames which most likely code for heretofore unidentified proteins. We have used subclones of the region to investigate the kinetics of transcription in vivo. The results show that transcription in this region consists of overlapping early, middle and late transcripts. Transcription is directed from two early promoters, one or two middle promoters and perhaps two late promoters. This region contains all of the features that are seen in T4 transcription and as such is a good place to study the phenomenon in more detail.

  6. Palliative telecobalt-60 with concentrated dose in TNM classification T4 of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patricio, M.B.; Brites, C.F.; Guimaraes, M.F.; De Jesus, E.B.; Catita, J.I.; Vilhena, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is presented of rapid, palliative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the breast, composed of two sessions of 6.5 or 8.5 Gy delivered at a 48-hour interval. The radiobiological equivalence of this unconventional technique is presented. Our preliminary results in a series of 80 patients were published in 1978. The present report is based on the analysis of 112 patients with T4 of the breast submitted to the flash dose, from March 1978 to December 1981. The method was used not only for relief of symptoms such as pain and hemorrhage, but also as part of intensive radiotherapy in all patients with good response and with no manifestation of distant dissemination so that they were able to resume treatment 2.5 or 3 weeks later, with conventional fractionation. Some of these patients became operable. About half of the cases had castration and/or hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy. In the group of patients with T4M0, 59.8% were alive after more than 1 year, and of them, 43.7% had no evidence of disease. These encouraging results suggest that this method be advocated in T4 of the breast because of its rapidity and good tolerance with no significant complications

  7. Quantitation of T-3 (triiodothyronine) and T-4 (thyroxine) in serum and plasma. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglowski, W.; Williams, R.B.

    1981-12-01

    This report summarizes an examination of the published literature concerning the quantitation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the clinical laboratory. It therefore details the precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity obtainable in various commercial systems and those devised in the clinical laboratory. The data produced by several of the procedures often indicate that improvements in these parameters would enhance overall assay performance and increase the reliability of the clinical interpretation derivable from assay results. For T-3 and T-4 in vitro assays a very large number of systems exist and are currently being utilized in clinical laboratories in this country. For the sake of brevity some systems, while mentioned, are not reviewed in exhaustive detail. Radioimmunoassay, as the most frequently performed assay for both T-3 and T-4 is extensively reviewed. Also discussed with particular interest are assay systems which will undoubtedly impact on the future course of thyroid hormone assessment in the clinical laboratory, namely enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent immunoassay. The state of the art in T-4 measurements in neonates, because it is such a critical area for application of in vitro thyroid testing, is given detailed review. The quantitation of free thyroxine has been discussed in detail. These assays have been gaining more frequent use in the clinical laboratory and increased commercial system development

  8. Processive nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V on UV-irradiated chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruskin, E.A.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    T4 endonuclease V initiates the excision repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated T4 infected E. coli cells. The pyrimidine dimer specific nicking activity of T4 endonuclease V functions by a processive scanning on UV-irradiated DNA. Previously it has been demonstrated that introduction of endonuclease V into repair-deficient human cells causes a restoration of UV survival in these cells. This demonstrates that endonuclease V is competent to incise mammalian DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers. In order to assess the ability of endonuclease V to act processively on DNA associated as chromatin, minichromosomes were prepared for use as a substrate. Form I DNA was reconstituted with H3, H4 +/- H1 histones by sequential dialysis steps from 2.0 M NaCl to 50 mM NaCl. Time course reactions were performed with minichromosomes containing 10 and 25 dimers per molecule. In each case the rate of disappearance of form I DNA which was associated as chromatin was decreased relative to that of naked form I DNA. Concurrent with that observation, the rate and extent of appearance of form III DNA was increased with the DNA in minichromosomes relative to naked DNA. This is diagnostic of an enhancement of processivity. The inclusion of H1 in the minichromosomes resulted in a slight additional increase in processivity relative to minichromosomes consisting only of H3 and H4

  9. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  10. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziming; Sun, Hongjing; Gao, Faming; Hou, Li; Li, Na

    2012-12-01

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe@Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe@Au process.

  11. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  12. Factors associated with a primary surgical approach for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Patel, Krupa; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Morris, Luc T; Ganly, Ian; Roman, Benjamin R; McBride, Sean M; Tabar, Viviane S; Cohen, Marc A

    2018-03-01

    Primary surgery is the preferred treatment of T1-T4a sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC). Patients with SNSCC in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) were analyzed. Factors that contributed to selecting primary surgical treatment were examined. Overall survival (OS) in surgical patients was analyzed. Four-thousand seven hundred and seventy patients with SNSCC were included. In T1-T4a tumors, lymph node metastases, maxillary sinus location, and treatment at high-volume centers were associated with selecting primary surgery. When primary surgery was utilized, tumor factors and positive margin guided worse OS. Adjuvant therapy improved OS in positive margin resection and advanced T stage cases. Tumor and non-tumor factors are associated with selecting surgery for the treatment of SNSCC. When surgery is selected, tumor factors drive OS. Negative margin resection should be the goal of a primary surgical approach. When a positive margin resection ensues, adjuvant therapy may improve OS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachon, Tanja; Stachon, Axel; Hartmann, Ulrike; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2017-06-01

    Keratoconus is a noninflammatory disease of the cornea associated with progressive thinning and conical shape. Metabolic alterations in the urea cycle, with changes in collagen fibril stability, oxidative stress, thyroid hormones and prolactin with regulatory effect on biosynthesis and biomechanical stability of corneal stroma, may all play a role in keratoconus etiology. Our purpose was to determine urea, uric acid, prolactin and free thyroxin (fT4) concentrations in human aqueous humor (hAH) of keratoconus and cataract patients. hAH was collected from 100 keratoconus (penetrating keratoplasty) (41.9 ± 14.9 years, 69 males) and 100 cataract patients (cataract surgery) (71.2 ± 12.4 years, 58 males). Urea, uric acid, prolactin and fT4 concentrations were measured by Siemens clinical chemistry or immunoassay system. For statistical analysis, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used. Urea concentration was 11.88 ± 3.03 mg/dl in keratoconus and 16.44 ± 6.40 mg/dl in cataract patients, uric acid 2.04 ± 0.59 mg/dl in keratoconus and 2.18 ± 0.73 mg/dl in cataract groups. Prolactin concentration was 3.18 ± 0.34 ng/ml in keratoconus and 3.33 ± 0.32 ng/ml in cataract patients, fT4 20.57 ± 4.76 pmol/l in KC and 19.06 ± 3.86 pmol/l in cataract group. Urea concentration was effected through gender (p = 0.039), age (p = 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.025). Uric acid concentration was not effected through any of the analyzed parameters (p > 0.056). Prolactin and fT4 concentration were effected only through diagnosis (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Urea and prolactin concentrations are decreased, fT4 concentration is increased in aqueous humor of keratoconus patients, and uric acid concentration remains unchanged. Urea concentration in aqueous humor is also increased in older and male patients. Therefore, metabolic disorder and hormonal balance may both have an impact on keratoconus development. Further studies are necessary to assess the specific impact.

  14. Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV+ MSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegenbeek van Heukelom, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis we report on several aspects of high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). It is estimated that 10% of HIV+ MSM with anal HSIL will develop anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) over 30 years time. Screening programs similar to

  15. Combination therapies in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthi, S.; Shanta, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical trials are reported involving combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Bleomycin was the only drug that potentiated radiation response in buccal squamous cell carcinomas. The response of the primary tumors was consistent, predictable and reproducible. The following drugs or chemicals were used: synkavit, methotrexate, metronidazole, bleomycin, pepleomycin, and hyperbaric oxygen. The results and their comparison is given in tables

  16. Elevated 18F-NaF uptake in cricoid cartilage in a patient with laryngeal carcinoma: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuxiao; Qi, Chi; Zhang, Shumao; Huang, Zhanwen; Chen, Yue

    2017-12-01

    Laryngeal cancer is aggressive tumor that arises from the tissues of the larynx. Although any bone can be affected, involvement of cricoid cartilage was reported very rarely, and there has been no report of 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (F-NaF PET-CT) and 3D PET-CT for the evaluation of cricoid cartilage invasion. A 54-year-old male discovered a protruding mass in the right anterior neck, which had rapidly increased in size over a period of 2 months. Subsequently, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea were gradually developed. F-FDG PET-CT demonstrated that the abnormal activity was located in a soft tissue mass, which was about 4.2 cm × 3.8 cm × 3.6 cm in largest dimension in the laryngeal cavity of supraglottic portion (SUVmax: 23.6). A swollen lymph node was revealed in the right submandibular region, which had intense FDG activity with a SUVmax of 18.4. However, there is a high uptake of F-FDG in the region near the bone, which is uncertain whether there is any skeletal invasion. NaF PET-CT and 3D PET-CT demonstrated increased uptake in the right side of cricoid cartilage (SUVmax: 13.2). The histopathologic examination confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. The patient underwent tracheotomy and received anti-infective treatment to relieve symptoms of dyspnea and prevent asphyxia. Clinical follow up of the patient revealed that dyspnea was significantly relieved. The case report shows the imaging features of cricoid cartilage invasion, including F-FDG PET/CT, 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography (F-NaF PET-CT), and 3D PET-CT. Precise understanding of the invasion scope, accurately staging of laryngeal carcinoma, and choosing of the most suitable surgical scheme are the factors that lead to the optimal treatment of laryngeal neoplasms.

  17. Nodal Control and Surgical Salvage after Primary Radiotherapy in 1,782 Patients with Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendelbo Johansen, Lars; Grau, Cai; Overgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultimate neck control after primary radiotherapy and surgical salvage in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer patients. Some 1,782 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma were treated by radiotherapy. At presentation 26% of the patients had metastatic lymph nodes. A total of 298 primary or secondary nodal recurrences were seen, 159 were treated, and 53 (∼18%) were controlled. Isolated N-recurrence was fatal in 2.7% (36/1,324) of the N0 patients. Univariate actuarial analysis of nodal control demonstrated that the region of origin, T-classification, T-size, N-classification, tumor stage, differentiation, hemoglobin, and radiation time were significant prognostic factors. In a Cox analysis the independent significant parameters were gender, region of origin, N-classification, and differentiation. The conclusions were that in patients with nodal recurrence a little over half were treated and of these a third of the nodal recurrences were controlled. Significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis were gender, region of origin, N-classification, and tumor differentiation

  18. FDG-PET in the initial staging of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, I.; Schreckenberger, M.; Bartenstein, P.; Hansen, T.; Brochhausen, C.; Kneist, W.; Junginger, T.; Oberholzer, K.

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma is the most common carcinoma of the oesophagus worldwide. The tumour stage as most important prognostic factor determines the clinical management. Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of FDG-PET 1. in imaging the primary tumour and 2. in N- and M-staging of squamous cell oesophogeal carcinoma. Patients, methods: in 20 patients with histological proven squamous cell carcinoma of the upper and middle oesophagus, FDG-PET was performed in standard technique prior to therapy. FDG uptake in the primary was determined by calculation of the SUVmax. NM-staging due to PET findings was performed as designated by the AJCC/UICC group classification and was compared with pathological and clinically based staging. Sensitivities, specificities and accuracies were calculated. Results: in 19 of 20 patients, primary squamous cell oesopohageal carcinoma was detected by FDG-PET findings with a maximum SUV of 12.5 (mean) ± 5.1 (median 11.5; range 4.8-23.8). One carcinoma in situ was missed. The sensitivity of FDG-PET in imaging the primary tumour was 96%. The sensitivities, specificities and accuracies were 20%, 100%, 58% for N-staging, and 60%, 86% and 93% for M-staging. PET findings caused changes of therapy in 5% (1 patient). Conclusions: FDG-PET was excellent in imaging the primary of squamous cell oesophageal carcinoma in stage T1-T4 and was efficient in M-staging. The low sensitivity in N-staging is of inferior clinical importance. The efficacy of FDG-PET seems to be not significantly be influenced by the histological subtype of oesophageal carcinoma. (orig.)

  19. Scalp squamous cell carcinoma in xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Basim A; Alzanbagi, Hanadi; Samargandi, Osama A; Ammar, Hossam

    2014-02-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder that appears in early childhood. Squamous cell carcinoma is not uncommon in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and mostly involving the face, head, neck, and scalp. However, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp may exhibit an aggressive course. Here, we present a huge squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp in a three-years-old child with xeroderma pigmentosum. In addition, we illustrate the challenges of a child with xeroderma pigmentosum who grows up in a sunny environment where the possibility of early onset of squamous cell carcinoma is extremely high in any suspected skin lesion. In xeroderma pigmentosum patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp can present early and tends to be unusually aggressive. In sunny areas, proper education to the patient and their parents about ultra-violet light protection and early recognition of any suspicious lesion could be life-saving.

  20. Solitary Laryngeal Metastasis from Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: Clinical Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Assi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urogenital tract is a rare origin of laryngeal metastasis; transitional cell carcinoma with laryngeal metastases had never been reported previously. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of the first reported case of a laryngeal metastasis of a TCC followed by a brief review of the literature.

  1. Effect of intraoperative neuromonitoring on recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy rates after thyroid surgery—A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixing Zheng

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Based on this meta-analysis, statistically significant differences were determined in terms of the incidences of total and transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after using IONM versus recurrent laryngeal nerve identification alone during thyroidectomy. However, no statistically significant differences were identified regarding the incidence of persistent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy between groups.

  2. The Prognostic Value of Hemoglobin Concentration in Postoperative Radiotherapy of 835 Patients With Laryngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz; Suwinski, Rafal; Idasiak, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with laryngeal cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (pRT). Methods and Materials: The records of 835 patients who underwent pRT between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed. Most patients (526 of 835 patients; 63%) were in advanced clinical stages (T3-T4) and 371 of 835 patients (44%) were node positive. Total laryngectomy had been performed in 676 of 835 patients (81%). Median Hb concentration before (Hb0) and after pRT (Hb1) was the same (13.3 g/dl). However, individual differences between Hb1 and Hb0 (dHb) varied within a broad range (-8.8; 5.0 g/dl). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables significantly associated with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with dHb greater than 0 had significantly improved 5-year LRC compared with those with dHb of 0 or less (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.01). Conversely, when categorized, neither Hb0 nor Hb1 had a significant influence on LRC. In multivariate analysis, dHb remained a prognostic factor for LRC (p = 0.01) among the other variables, which included overall radiation treatment time and nodal status. None of the Hb-related variables significantly influenced metastases-free or overall survival. Conclusion: Individual change in Hb concentration during the course of pRT (dHb) rather than Hb level before or after pRT appeared as an independent prognostic factor for LRC in this set of patients

  3. Prenatal development supports a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Tengteng; Xue, Huiling; Fang, Na; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Libiao; Pang, Jian; Teeling, Emma C; Zhang, Shuyi

    2017-01-09

    Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages. This topology has led to an unanswered question in mammalian biology: was laryngeal echolocation lost in the ancestral pteropodids or gained convergently in the echolocating bat lineages? To date, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence from fossil, genomic, morphological and phylogenomic data to resolve this question. We detail an ontogenetic study of fetal cochlear development from seven species of bats and five outgroup mammals and show that in early fetal development, all bats including the non-laryngeal echolocating pteropodids have a similarly large cochlea typically associated with laryngeal echolocation abilities. The subsequent cochlear growth rate in the pteropodids is the slowest of all mammals and leads to the pteropodids and the non-echolocating lineages eventually sharing a similar cochlear morphospace as adults. The results suggest that pteropodids maintain a vestigial developmental stage indicative of past echolocation capabilities and thus support a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.

  4. [Establishment of a comprehensive database for laryngeal cancer related genes and the miRNAs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; E, Qimin; Liu, Jialin; Huang, Tingting; Liang, Chuanyu

    2015-09-01

    By collecting and analyzing the laryngeal cancer related genes and the miRNAs, to build a comprehensive laryngeal cancer-related gene database, which differs from the current biological information database with complex and clumsy structure and focuses on the theme of gene and miRNA, and it could make the research and teaching more convenient and efficient. Based on the B/S architecture, using Apache as a Web server, MySQL as coding language of database design and PHP as coding language of web design, a comprehensive database for laryngeal cancer-related genes was established, providing with the gene tables, protein tables, miRNA tables and clinical information tables of the patients with laryngeal cancer. The established database containsed 207 laryngeal cancer related genes, 243 proteins, 26 miRNAs, and their particular information such as mutations, methylations, diversified expressions, and the empirical references of laryngeal cancer relevant molecules. The database could be accessed and operated via the Internet, by which browsing and retrieval of the information were performed. The database were maintained and updated regularly. The database for laryngeal cancer related genes is resource-integrated and user-friendly, providing a genetic information query tool for the study of laryngeal cancer.

  5. Should patients with laryngeal small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, Andres; Devaney, Kenneth O.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Halmos, Gyorgy B.; Strojan, Primoz; Mendenhall, William M.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Smee, Robert; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    While small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (SCNCs) most often arise in the lung, extrapulmonary SCNCs arise in a variety of locations-including the head and neck region. In particular, laryngeal SCNCs-while rare tumors-are nevertheless recognized as distinct lesions. The rarity of laryngeal SCNC

  6. Laryngeal Aerodynamics in Healthy Older Adults and Adults with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheron, Deborah; Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study compared laryngeal aerodynamic function of healthy older adults (HOA) to adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) while speaking at a comfortable and increased vocal intensity. Method: Laryngeal aerodynamic measures (subglottal pressure, peak-to-peak flow, minimum flow, and open quotient [OQ]) were compared between HOAs and…

  7. Acoustic and Perceptual Effects of Left-Right Laryngeal Asymmetries Based on Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Bunton, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Computational modeling was used to examine the consequences of 5 different laryngeal asymmetries on acoustic and perceptual measures of vocal function. Method: A kinematic vocal fold model was used to impose 5 laryngeal asymmetries: adduction, edge bulging, nodal point ratio, amplitude of vibration, and starting phase. Thirty /a/ and /?/…

  8. Use of laryngeal mask airway for prolonged ventilatory support in a preterm newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Jurado, Ma Isabel; Fernández-Baena, Mariano

    2002-05-01

    We present the case report of a preterm, low weight newborn with dysmorphic features and micrognathia in whom a laryngeal mask airway was inserted and maintained for 44 h for ventilatory support after several failed intubations. No complications associated with laryngeal mask airway use were apparent.

  9. Relationship Between Laryngeal Electromyography and Video Laryngostroboscopy in Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamary, Joel A; Cole, Ian; Darveniza, Paul; Pemberton, Cecilia; Brake, Helen Mary; Tisch, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to better define the relationship of laryngeal electromyography and video laryngostroboscopy in the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis. Retrospective diagnostic cohort study with cross-sectional data analysis METHODS: Data were obtained from 57 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis who attended a large tertiary voice referral center. Electromyographic findings were classified according to recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, and high vagal/combined lesions. Video laryngostroboscopy recordings were classified according to the position of the immobile fold into median, paramedian, lateral, and a foreshortened/hooded vocal fold. The position of the paralyzed vocal fold was then analyzed according to the lesion as determined by electromyography. The recurrent laryngeal nerve was affected in the majority of cases with left-sided lesions more common than right. Vocal fold position differed between recurrent laryngeal and combined vagal lesions. Recurrent laryngeal nerve lesions were more commonly associated with a laterally displaced immobile fold. No fold position was suggestive of a combined vagal lesion. The inter-rater reliability for determining fold position was high. Laryngeal electromyography is useful in diagnosing neuromuscular dysfunction of the larynx and best practice recommends its continued implementation along with laryngostroboscopy. While recurrent laryngeal nerve lesions are more likely to present with a lateral vocal fold, this does not occur in all cases. Such findings indicate that further unknown mechanisms contribute to fold position in unilateral paralysis. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SELECTIVE LARYNGEAL ABDUCTOR REINNERVATION IN CATS USING A PHRENIC-NERVE TRANSFER AND ORG-2766

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAHIEU, HF; VANLITHBIJL, JT; GROENHOUT, C; TONNAER, JADM; DEWILDE, P

    Reinnervation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve following nerve injury often leads to laryngeal synkinesis. Selective reinnervation of adductor and abductor muscles might be able to avoid synkinesis. This study presents the results of selective abductor reinnervation in cats, using a phrenic nerve

  11. Failed obstetric tracheal intubation and postoperative respiratory support with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Christian; Brimacombe, Joseph; Lirk, Philipp; Pühringer, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (ProSeal LMA) provides a better seal and probably better airway protection than the classic laryngeal mask airway (classic LMA). We report the use of the ProSeal LMA in a 26-yr-old female with HELLP syndrome for failed obstetric intubation and postoperative

  12. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Medical Imaging; Kuo, S.H. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Radiation Oncology; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei (China). Graduate Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Hong, R.L. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Div. of Medical Oncology; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J. [National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (China). Dept. of Otolaryngology

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade {>=} 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  13. Specificity of interactions among the DNA-packaging machine components of T4-related bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Rao, Venigalla B

    2011-02-04

    Tailed bacteriophages use powerful molecular motors to package the viral genome into a preformed capsid. Packaging at a rate of up to ∼2000 bp/s and generating a power density twice that of an automobile engine, the phage T4 motor is the fastest and most powerful reported to date. Central to DNA packaging are dynamic interactions among the packaging components, capsid (gp23), portal (gp20), motor (gp17, large "terminase"), and regulator (gp16, small terminase), leading to precise orchestration of the packaging process, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the interactions between small and large terminases of T4-related phages. Our results show that the gp17 packaging ATPase is maximally stimulated by homologous, but not heterologous, gp16. Multiple interaction sites are identified in both gp16 and gp17. The specificity determinants in gp16 are clustered in the diverged N- and C-terminal domains (regions I-III). Swapping of diverged region(s), such as replacing C-terminal RB49 region III with that of T4, switched ATPase stimulation specificity. Two specificity regions, amino acids 37-52 and 290-315, are identified in or near the gp17-ATPase "transmission" subdomain II. gp16 binding at these sites might cause a conformational change positioning the ATPase-coupling residues into the catalytic pocket, triggering ATP hydrolysis. These results lead to a model in which multiple weak interactions between motor and regulator allow dynamic assembly and disassembly of various packaging complexes, depending on the functional state of the packaging machine. This might be a general mechanism for regulation of the phage packaging machine and other complex molecular machines.

  14. Architecture of the bacteriophage T4 activator MotA/promoter DNA interaction during sigma appropriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Lun; James, Tamara D; Knipling, Leslie; Waddell, M Brett; White, Stephen; Hinton, Deborah M

    2013-09-20

    Gene expression can be regulated through factors that direct RNA polymerase to the correct promoter sequence at the correct time. Bacteriophage T4 controls its development in this way using phage proteins that interact with host RNA polymerase. Using a process called σ appropriation, the T4 co-activator AsiA structurally remodels the σ(70) subunit of host RNA polymerase, while a T4 activator, MotA, engages the C terminus of σ(70) and binds to a DNA promoter element, the MotA box. Structures for the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains of MotA are available, but no structure exists for MotA with or without DNA. We report the first molecular map of the MotA/DNA interaction within the σ-appropriated complex, which we obtained by using the cleaving reagent, iron bromoacetamidobenzyl-EDTA (FeBABE). We conjugated surface-exposed, single cysteines in MotA with FeBABE and performed cleavage reactions in the context of stable transcription complexes. The DNA cleavage sites were analyzed using ICM Molsoft software and three-dimensional physical models of MotA(NTD), MotA(CTD), and the DNA to investigate shape complementarity between the protein and the DNA and to position MotA on the DNA. We found that the unusual "double wing" motif present within MotA(CTD) resides in the major groove of the MotA box. In addition, we have used surface plasmon resonance to show that MotA alone is in a very dynamic equilibrium with the MotA element. Our results demonstrate the utility of fine resolution FeBABE mapping to determine the architecture of protein-DNA complexes that have been recalcitrant to traditional structure analyses.

  15. Stimulation of the synthesis of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 protein by ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisch, H.M.; Van Houwe, G.

    1976-01-01

    The synthesis of bacteriophage T4 gene 32 product, P32, has been followed by gel electrophoresis of lysates of infected cells which have been irradiated with ultraviolet light. In wild-type infections irradiation after the commencement of late gene expression results in a rapid stimulation of the rate of P32 synthesis. Within four minutes after irradiation P32 is synthesized at 11 times the rate of the unirradiated control infection. P32 seems to be the only T4 protein which exhibits such u.v. inducibility. This inducibility is dependent on the function of genes 46 and 47 and to a lesser extent on several other T4 genes thought to be involved in repair (P43, w and y). An infection defective in both P43 and P46 shows essentially no stimulation of the rate of P32 synthesis after irradiation. In the absence of DNA replication the parental DNA is degraded after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The extent of P32 induction in such an infection is also proportional to the dose. It is suggested that the production of gaps during repair of u.v.-irradiated DNA is responsible for the stimulation of P32 synthesis. A model is proposed in which such regions of single-stranded DNA compete for P32 by binding it nonspecifically, thus reducing the amount of P32 free to block the expression of gene 32. Because the expression of gene 32 is self-regulatory this would result in increased P32 synthesis. The possible role of P32 in the repair of u.v.-damaged DNA is discussed. (author)

  16. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Treatment results and locoregional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.L.Y.; Tsai, C.L.; Chen, W.Y.; Wang, C.W.; Huang, Y.S.; Chen, Y.F.; Kuo, S.H.; National Taiwan Univ. College of Medicine, Taipei; Hong, R.L.; Ko, J.Y.; Lou, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to examine outcomes in patients with T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and materials: Between 2007 and 2010, 154 patients with nonmetastatic T4 NPC were treated with IMRT to a total dose of 70 Gy in 33-35 fractions. In addition, 97 % of patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 52.8 months. Results: The rates of 5-year actuarial locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, progression free-survival, and overall survival (OS) were 81.2, 72.2, 61.9, and 78.1 %, respectively. A total of 27 patients had locoregional recurrence: 85.2 % in-field failures, 11.1 % marginal failures, and 3.7 % out-of-field failures. Fourteen patients with locoregional recurrence received aggressive treatments, including nasopharyngectomy, neck dissection, or re-irradiation, and the 5-year OS rate tended to be better (61.9 %) compared to those receiving conservative treatment (32.0 %, p = 0.051). In patients treated with 1 course of radiotherapy, grade ≥ 3 toxicities of ototoxicity, neck fibrosis, xerostomia, epistaxis, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis occurred in 18.2, 9.8, 6.3, 2.1, and 5.6 % of patients, respectively. Increased ototoxicity, osteonecrosis, severe nasal bleeding, and temporal necrosis were observed in patients treated by re-irradiation. Conclusion: IMRT offers good locoregional control in patients with T4 NPC. For patients with locoregional recurrence after definitive radiotherapy, aggressive local treatment may be considered for a better outcome. (orig.)

  17. Laser shock peening on a 6056-T4 aluminium alloy for airframe applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Glaser, D

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1356 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Pityana1_2014_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1... Laser Shock Peening on a 6056-T4 Aluminium Alloy for Airframe Applications Daniel Glaser, Claudia Polese, Rachana D. Bedekar, Jasper Plaisier,Sisa Pityana, Bathusile Masina, Tebogo Mathebula, and Enrico Troiani Keywords: Laser Shock Peening...

  18. Characterization of bacteriophage KVP40 and T4 RNA ligase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shenmin; Kiong Ho, C.; Miller, Eric S.; Shuman, Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Bacteriophage T4 RNA ligase 2 (Rnl2) exemplifies a subfamily of RNA strand-joining enzymes that includes the trypanosome RNA editing ligases. A homolog of T4 Rnl2 is encoded in the 244-kbp DNA genome of vibriophage KVP40. We show that the 335-amino acid KVP40 Rnl2 is a monomeric protein that catalyzes RNA end-joining through ligase-adenylate and RNA-adenylate (AppRNA) intermediates. In the absence of ATP, pre-adenylated KVP40 Rnl2 reacts with an 18-mer 5'-PO 4 single-strand RNA (pRNA) to form an 18-mer RNA circle. In the presence of ATP, Rnl2 generates predominantly AppRNA. Isolated AppRNA can be circularized by KVP40 Rnl2 in the absence of ATP. The reactivity of phage Rnl2 and the distribution of the products are affected by the length of the pRNA substrate. Whereas 18-mer and 15-mer pRNAs undergo intramolecular sealing by T4 Rnl2 to form monomer circles, a 12-mer pRNA is ligated intermolecularly to form dimers, and a 9-mer pRNA is unreactive. In the presence of ATP, the 15-mer and 12-mer pRNAs are converted to AppRNAs, but the 9-mer pRNA is not. A single 5' deoxynucleotide substitution of an 18-mer pRNA substrate has no apparent effect on the 5' adenylation or circularization reactions of T4 Rnl2. In contrast, a single deoxyribonucleoside at the 3' terminus strongly and selectively suppresses the sealing step, thereby resulting in accumulation of high levels of AppRNA in the absence of ATP. The ATP-dependent 'capping' of RNA with AMP by Rnl2 is reminiscent of the capping of eukaryotic mRNA with GMP by GTP:RNA guanylyltransferase and suggests an evolutionary connection between bacteriophage Rnl2 and eukaryotic RNA capping enzymes

  19. Template-directed ligation of tethered mononucleotides by t4 DNA ligase for kinase ribozyme selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Nickens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro selection of kinase ribozymes for small molecule metabolites, such as free nucleosides, will require partition systems that discriminate active from inactive RNA species. While nucleic acid catalysis of phosphoryl transfer is well established for phosphorylation of 5' or 2' OH of oligonucleotide substrates, phosphorylation of diffusible small molecules has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study demonstrates the ability of T4 DNA ligase to capture RNA strands in which a tethered monodeoxynucleoside has acquired a 5' phosphate. The ligation reaction therefore mimics the partition step of a selection for nucleoside kinase (deoxyribozymes. Ligation with tethered substrates was considerably slower than with nicked, fully duplex DNA, even though the deoxynucleotides at the ligation junction were Watson-Crick base paired in the tethered substrate. Ligation increased markedly when the bridging template strand contained unpaired spacer nucleotides across from the flexible tether, according to the trends: A(2>A(1>A(3>A(4>A(0>A(6>A(8>A(10 and T(2>T(3>T(4>T(6 approximately T(1>T(8>T(10. Bridging T's generally gave higher yield of ligated product than bridging A's. ATP concentrations above 33 microM accumulated adenylated intermediate and decreased yields of the gap-sealed product, likely due to re-adenylation of dissociated enzyme. Under optimized conditions, T4 DNA ligase efficiently (>90% joined a correctly paired, or TratioG wobble-paired, substrate on the 3' side of the ligation junction while discriminating approximately 100-fold against most mispaired substrates. Tethered dC and dG gave the highest ligation rates and yields, followed by tethered deoxyinosine (dI and dT, with the slowest reactions for tethered dA. The same kinetic trends were observed in ligase-mediated capture in complex reaction mixtures with multiple substrates. The "universal" analog 5-nitroindole (dNI did not support ligation when

  20. T-4 handbook of material properties data bases. Volume 1c. Equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, K.S.

    1984-11-01

    This manual is a compilation of descriptions of the equations of state (EOS) in the T-4 computerized library of material properties tables. The introduction gives a brief descriptions of the library and of the physics theories and models which were used to calculate the equations of state. Then each EOS is described in detail. First, various physical parameters of each theoretical EOS are tabulated and compared with experiments when available. Then the method of generating the EOS is briefly described. Finally, the tabels are plotted in terms of pressure and energy vs density along line of constant temperature

  1. Cetuximab & Nivolumab in Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Cancer; Head and Neck Carcinoma

  2. 2012 ETA Guidelines: The Use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte

    2012-01-01

    . Results: Suggested explanations for persisting symptoms include: awareness of a chronic disease, presence of associated autoimmune diseases, thyroid autoimmunity per se, and inadequacy of L-T4 treatment to restore physiological thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations in serum and tissues...

  3. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV + phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity

  4. Advancements in the treatment of hypothyroidism with L-T4 liquid formulation or soft gel capsule: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Ragusa, Francesca; Biricotti, Marco; Materazzi, Gabriele; Miccoli, Paolo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The most recent advance concerning levothyroxine (L-T4) therapy is the development of novel oral formulations: the liquid preparation, and the soft gel capsule. Areas covered: This review evaluates the most recent clinical studies about these new formulations. The liquid formulation has been shown to overcome: the food and beverages intereference with L-T4 tablets absorption, caused by food or coffee at breakfast; malabsorption induced by the increased gastric pH, resulting from atrophic gastritis, or due to proton-pump inhibitors; and malabsorption after bariatric surgery. The use of liquid L-T4 has been studied also in pregnancy, newborns and infants, suggesting a better bioequivalence than tablets. Finally, liquid L-T4 is more active than tablets in the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in hypothyroid patients without malabsorption, drug interference, or gastric disorders, leading to a hypothesized higher absorption of liquid L-T4 also in these patients. Few studies have evaluated soft gel L-T4 with promising results in patients with malabsorption related to coffee or gastritis. Expert opinion: Liquid L-T4 (and soft gel capsules) are more active than the tablet L-T4 in the control of TSH in hypothyroid patients with gastric disorders, malabsorption, or drug interference, but also in patients without absorption disorders.

  5. High Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction in Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted Nielsen, Emil; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexplained respiratory symptoms reported by athletes are often incorrectly considered secondary to exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesised that this may be related to exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). This study evaluates the prevalence of EILO in an unselected cohort......-one percent of athletes with EILO and negative bronchoprovocation and bronchodilator reversibility tests used regular asthma medication at referral. CONCLUSION: In athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms, EILO is an important differential diagnosis not discerned from other aetiologies by clinical...... features. These findings have important implications for the assessment and management of athletes presenting with persistent respiratory symptoms despite asthma therapy....

  6. A laryngeal presentation of Churg-Strauss syndrome in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlAmmar, Ahmed Y; Yasin, Subhan S; AlMuhsen, Saleh Zaid; AlSaadi Muslim M; AlSohaibanic, Mohammad O

    2009-01-01

    A 10- year-old female, known to have bronchial asthma, presented with an unusual laryngeal lesion, eventually diagnosed as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). She was referred to our hospital with history of recurrent stridor. On endoscopyhe, the larynx showed signs similar to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). CSS is a systemic disorder and is now defined as one of the ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) - associated vasculitides. CSS is a systemic disease that may involve unusual sites like the laryynx. Such an unusual presenatation of CSS should be kept in mind, especially in patients with history of asthma. (author)

  7. A laryngeal presentation of Churg-Strauss syndrome in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAmmar, Ahmed Y; Yasin, Subhan S; AlMuhsen, Saleh Zaid [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); M, AlSaadi Muslim [Dept. of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); AlSohaibanic, Mohammad O [Dept. of Pathology, King Abdulaziz Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    A 10- year-old female, known to have bronchial asthma, presented with an unusual laryngeal lesion, eventually diagnosed as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). She was referred to our hospital with history of recurrent stridor. On endoscopyhe, the larynx showed signs similar to recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). CSS is a systemic disorder and is now defined as one of the ANCA (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) - associated vasculitides. CSS is a systemic disease that may involve unusual sites like the laryynx. Such an unusual presenatation of CSS should be kept in mind, especially in patients with history of asthma. (author)

  8. Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-07-01

    Levothyroxine therapy is the traditional lifelong replacement therapy for hypothyroid patients. Over the last several years, new evidence has led clinicians to evaluate the option of combined T(3) and T(4) treatment to improve the quality of life, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action in hypothyroidism. The aim of this review is to assess the physiological basis and the results of current studies on this topic. We searched Medline for reports published with the following search terms: hypothyroidism, levothyroxine, triiodothyronine, thyroid, guidelines, treatment, deiodinases, clinical symptoms, quality of life, cognition, mood, depression, body weight, heart rate, cholesterol, bone markers, SHBG, and patient preference for combined therapy. The search was restricted to reports published in English since 1970, but some reports published before 1970 were also incorporated. We supplemented the search with records from personal files and references of relevant articles and textbooks. Parameters analyzed included the rationale for combination treatment, the type of patients to be selected, the optimal T(4)/T(3) ratio, and the potential benefits of this therapy on symptoms of hypothyroidism, quality of life, mood, cognition, and peripheral parameters of thyroid hormone action. The outcome of our analysis suggests that it may be time to consider a personalized regimen of thyroid hormone replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. Further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to clarify this important issue. Innovative formulations of the thyroid hormones will be required to mimic a more perfect thyroid hormone replacement therapy than is currently available.

  9. Co-existence of freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in a typical subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cai, Lanlan; Zhang, Rui

    2017-11-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play an important role in microbial community dynamics and biogeochemical cycling, yet their ecological characteristics in estuarine ecosystems are unclear. Here, virioplankton communities in a typical subtropical estuary, the Jiulong River estuary (JRE) in China, were investigated. The abundance of virioplankton ranged from 1.01 ± 0.05 × 107 to 1.62 ± 0.09 × 107 particles mL-1 in JRE, and the population size of viruses was correlated with temperature and nutrient levels. Three tailed viral morphotypes (myovirus, siphovirus and podovirus) were observed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the g23 sequences in the JRE fell into three previously established groups (Marine, Paddy and Lake Groups) and two potential Estuary Groups. This demonstrates the co-existence of typical freshwater and marine T4-like myoviruses in the estuarine ecosystem, suggesting the movement of viruses and their hosts among biomes. Additionally, the spatial variation of g23 sequences suggests a geographic distribution pattern of T4-like myoviruses in the JRE, which might be shaped by the environmental gradient and/or their host distribution. These results provide valuable insights into the abundance, diversity and distribution patterns of virioplankton, as well as the factors influencing them, in subtropical estuarine ecosystems. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hormonal evaluation of T4 and T3 through radioimmunoassay in younglings of rats with hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, M.F.G.; Silva, I.M.S.; Pereira, S.S.L.; Souza, G.M.L.; Carvalho, E.F.M.B.; Cavalcante, C.V.G.; Lima Filho, G.L.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The onset of fetal thyroid function occurs about 17-18 days after conception in the rat. The maternal hypothyroidism which occurs during gestation provokes alteration in the rat after birth. Due to this alteration, we decided to analyze the hormonal modification in the newborn rats. The hypothyroidism was induced in normal dams, which were being treated for 7 days with MMI (in the concentration of 0,03% in drinking water) before mating. Another dam group which was submitted to an induction of hypothyroidism maintained the treatment with MMI for 13 days during gestation. The hormones were assessed by radioimmunoassay technique. It was seen that the rats which were born from hypothyroid dams suffered alterations on its T 4 and T 3 hormone levels concerning to 10, 30 and 60 days after birth. There was also modifications on their weight and size. The growth is affected throughout post-natal life by thyroid hormones, which has a facilitator influence on growth hormone economy, as opposed to the inhibitory effects on TSH economy. The administration of MMI bars the fetal thyroid gland function, causing a decrease of both T 4 and T 3 levels, even after the birth, indicating that the maternal hypothyroidism influences on the post-natal life of the rat. (author)

  11. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  12. Treatment and prognosis of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma: study of 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Jinling; Gao Li; Yi Junlin; Huang Xiaodong; Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma through 16 patients. Methods: Sixteen such patients treated in our hospital from 1984 to 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. There were T1 2 patients, T2 and T3 5 patients each and T4 4. Ten patients had NO, and 6 N + lesions. Six patients were treated by monotherapy, ie-mono group (surgery alone or radiotherapy alone), the other 10 patients by surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy. Results: The overall neck metastastic lymph nodes was observed in 12 patients (75%). The 3- and 5-year local control, overall survival and disease-free survival for the whole group was 45% and 30%, 58% and 58%; 36% and 27%, respectively. The 5-year survival for T1-T2 and T3-T4 patients was 100% and 29% (χ 2 =4.50, P=0.034), respectively. The 3-year overall survival of NO and N + patients was 80%, and 20% (χ 2 =8.70, P=0.003), with a disease-free survival of 54% and 0 (χ 2 =9.83, P=0.002), respectively. Conclusions: The choice of suitable treatment for locally advanced primary parotid squamous cell carcinoma is surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. Prophylactic ipsilateral neck irradiation is necessary e- ven for N0 patients for the sake of high risk of neck node metastasis. (authors)

  13. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  14. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagga Permeet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium is a rare entity. Only 64 cases have been documented in the literature. We report a case of 60-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal distention and blood-stained vaginal discharge for 6-7 months. Clinically, chronic pyometra was considered. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of endometrium with extensive squamous metaplasia and dysplasia.

  15. Study on the correlation between extracellular matrix protein-1 and the growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-Yu; Liu, Juan; Lv, Feng; Liu, Ming-Qiu; Wan, Jing-Ming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between extracellular matrix protein-1 (ECM1) and the growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma. Forty-five samples with laryngeal benign and malignant tumors confirmed by pathology in Laiwu City People's Hospital from March 2006 to March 2011 were collected, in which there were 29 cases with laryngeal carcinoma and 16 with benign tumors. The expression of ECM1 and factor VIII-related antigens in patients with laryngeal carcinoma and those with benign tumors was respectively detected using immunohistochemical method, and the correlation between ECM1 staining grade and microvessel density (MVD) was analyzed. In laryngeal carcinoma tissue, ECM1 was mainly expressed in cytoplasm, less in cytomembrane or intercellular substance. With abundant expression in the tissue of laryngeal benign tumors (benign mesenchymoma and hemangioma), ECM1 was primarily expressed in the connective tissue, which was different from the expression in laryngeal carcinoma tissue. The proportion of positive ECM1 staining (++) in patients with laryngeal carcinoma was dramatically higher than those with benign tumors (pcorrelation analysis revealed that ECM1 staining grade in laryngeal carcinoma tissue had a significantly-positive correlation with MVD (r=0.866, p=0.000). ECM1 expression in laryngeal carcinoma is closely associated with tumor cell growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, which can be considered as an effective predictor in the occurrence and postoperative recurrence of laryngeal carcinoma.

  16. Radiation therapy for the treatment of feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, S.C.S.; Corgozinho, K.B.; Ferreira, A.M.R; Carvalho, L.A.V.; Holguin, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of radiation therapy for feline advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. A full course radiation therapy protocol was applied to six cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of seven histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, one was staged as T 1 , and six as T 4 according to WHO staging system of epidermal tumors. The animals were submitted to twelve radiation fractions of 4 Gy each, on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday schedule, and the equipment used was an orthovoltage unit. Energy used was 120 kV, 15 mA and 2 mm aluminum filter. The cats were evaluated during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 87% of the lesions had complete remission and 13% partial remission to the treatment. Side effects were considered mild according to Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity criteria, and included erythema, epilation and rhinitis. Radiation Therapy was considered safe for feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, leading to mild side effects and can represent a good therapeutic option. (author)

  17. Bacteriophage T4 Infection of Stationary Phase E. coli: Life after Log from a Phage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin Kutter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all studies of phage infections investigate bacteria growing exponentially in rich media. In nature, however, phages largely encounter non-growing cells. Bacteria entering stationary phase often activate well-studied stress defense mechanisms that drastically alter the cell, facilitating its long-term survival. An understanding of phage-host interactions in such conditions is of major importance from both an ecological and therapeutic standpoint. Here, we show that bacteriophage T4 can efficiently bind to, infect and kill E. coli in stationary phase, both in the presence and absence of a functional stationary-phase sigma factor, and explore the response of T4-infected stationary phase cells to the addition of fresh nutrients 5 or 24 hours after that infection. An unexpected new mode of response has been identified. Hibernation mode is a persistent but reversible dormant state in which the infected cells make at least some phage enzymes, but halt phage development until appropriate nutrients become available before producing phage particles. Our evidence indicates that the block in hibernation mode occurs after the middle-mode stage of phage development; host DNA breakdown and the incorporation of the released nucleotides into phage DNA indicate that the enzymes of the nucleotide synthesizing complex, under middle-mode control, have been made and assembled into a functional state. Once fresh glucose and amino acids become available, the standard lytic infection process rapidly resumes and concentrations of up to 1011 progeny phage (an average of about 40 phage per initially-present cell are produced. All evidence is consistent with the hibernation-mode control point lying between middle mode and late mode T4 gene expression. We have also observed a scavenger response, where the infecting phage takes advantage of whatever few nutrients are available to produce small quantities of progeny within 2 to 5 hours after infection. The scavenger

  18. Experimental and computational studies on the DNA translocation mechanism of the T4 viral packaging motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Amy; Arya, Gaurav; Smith, Douglas E.

    2012-10-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is a double stranded DNA virus that infects E.coli by injecting the viral genome through the cellular wall of a host cell. The T4 genome must be ejected from the viral capsid with sufficient force to ensure infection. To generate high ejection forces, the genome is packaged to high density within the viral capsid. A DNA translocation motor, in which the protein gp17 hydrolyzes ATP and binds to the DNA, is responsible for translocating the genome into the capsid during viral maturation of T4. This motor generates forces in excess of 60 pN and packages DNA at rates exceeding 2000 base pairs/second (bp/s)1. Understanding these small yet powerful motors is important, as they have many potential applications. Though much is known about the activity of these motors from bulk and single molecule biophysical techniques, little is known about their detailed molecular mechanism. Recently, two structures of gp17 have been obtained: a high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structure showing a monomeric compacted form of the enzyme, and a cryo-electron microscopic structure of the extended form of gp17 in complex with actively packaging prohead complexes. Comparison of these two structures indicates several key differences, and a model has been proposed to explain the translocation action of the motor2. Key to this model are a set of residues forming ion pairs across two domains of the gp17 molecule that are proposed to be involved in force generation by causing the collapse of the extended form of gp17. Using a dual optical trap to measure the rates of DNA packaging and the generated forces, we present preliminary mutational data showing that these several of these ion pairs are important to motor function. We have also performed preliminary free energy calculations on the extended and collapsed state of gp17, to confirm that these interdomain ion pairs have large contributions to the change in free energy that occurs upon the collapse of gp17 during the

  19. Laryngeal chondrosarcoma: A systematic review of 592 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Oliver Y; Dubal, Pariket M; Sheikh, Ahmed B; Unsal, Aykut A; Park, Richard Chan Woo; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare entities that arise from the cartilaginous structures of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, and arytenoid cartilages. These tumors represent a minority of malignancies involving the larynx and can be mistaken for benign pathologies. The treatment has historically been surgical excision, often by total laryngectomy. This review investigates treatment modalities and patient outcomes. Systematic review using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE database. The databases were used to identify articles reporting cases of chondrosarcomas occurring exclusively in the larynx. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, presenting symptoms, grade, therapeutic approach, patient outcomes, and follow-up. Five hundred and ninety-two cases were identified. The average age reported was 62.5 years. There was a 3:1 male to female ratio. The most common surgical approach was local excision in 178 cases, followed by total laryngectomy in 174 cases. Nonsurgical treatment such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy was only used in 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Disease-specific survival rates for 1, 5, 10, and 20 years were 97.7%, 91.4%, 81.8%, and 68.0%, respectively, with no differences when comparing 5-year survival rates for location, grade, and therapy. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare with a good prognosis. Various surgical approaches exist, with no difference noted in 5-year survival outcomes. Nonsurgical approaches were rarely used for these lesions. N/A. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:430-439, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Value of Laryngeal Electromyography in Spasmodic Dysphonia Diagnosis and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingwen; Xu, Wen; Li, Yun; Cheng, Liyu

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the role of laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) in the diagnosis and treatment of spasmodic dysphonia (SD). The clinical manifestations, characteristics of motor unit potentials (MUPs), recruitment potentials, and laryngeal nerve evoked potentials (EPs) in LEMG, as well as the changes after botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment, were analyzed in 39 patients with adductor SD. The main clinical manifestations were a strained voice and phonation interruptions; in addition, the patients displayed hyper-adducted vocal folds during phonation. LEMG revealed significantly increased amplitudes of the thyroarytenoid muscle MUPs. The recruitment potentials were in a dense bunch, discharging full interference patterns with significantly increased amplitudes; the mean and maximum amplitude of recruitment potentials were 3090 μV and 5000 μV, respectively. The amplitude of EPs of thyroarytenoid muscle increased significantly; the mean and maximum amplitudes were 10.3 mV and 26.3 mV, respectively. After BTX was injected, the LEMG revealed denervation changes, and the EPs weakened or disappeared in the injected muscle. SD could be diagnosed, and the therapeutic efficacy of SD treatments could be evaluated based on clinical characteristics combined with LEMG characteristics. The increased amplitudes of the recruitment potentials and EPs of the thyroarytenoid muscle were the characteristic indexes. After BTX was injected, denervated potential characteristics appeared in the muscles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Iki, Takehiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy in those with head and neck malignancies often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied the numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores from 32 persons undergoing radiation therapy of 60-72 Gy for newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer. The degree of mucositis was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). We divided the 32 into a conventional fractionation (CF) group of 14 and a hyperfractionation (HF) group of 18, and further divided laryngeal cancer into a small-field group of 23 and a large-field group of 9. The mucositis pain course was similar in CF and HF, but mucositis pain was severer in the HF group, which also required more NSAIDs. Those in the large-field group had severer pain and mucositis and required more NSAIDs than those in the small-field group. We therefore concluded that small/large-field radiation therapy, rather fractionation type, was related to the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis pain. (author)

  2. Very Late-Onset Friedreich Ataxia with Laryngeal Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive gait and limb ataxia, cerebellar, pyramidal and dorsal column involvement, visual defects, scoliosis, pes cavus and cardiomyopathy. It is caused by a homozygous guanine-adenine-adenine (GAA trinucleotide repeat expansion in intron 1 of the frataxin gene (FXN on chromosome 9q13-q21.1. Onset is usually in the first or second decade of life; however, late-onset cases of Freidreich ataxia (LOFA, after the age of 25 years, and very late-onset cases of Freidreich ataxia (VLOFA, after the age of 40 years, have been reported. VLOFA is quite rare and usually presents a milder progression of the disease. We report the case of a 64-year-old woman affected with VLOFA whose first symptoms (balance and gait disturbances occurred at the age of 44 years. At the age of 62 years, she started complaining of a slowly progressive dysphonia showing the clinical aspects of laryngeal dystonia. Molecular analysis showed a 210- and 230-trinucleotide GAA repeat expansion in the two alleles of the FXN gene. Laryngeal dystonia has been reported only in very few cases of ataxia syndrome and never before in FRDA patients. It may represent a rare clinical manifestation of VLOFA thus confirming the high variability of the clinical spectrum of FRDA.

  3. Spontaneous pharyngo-laryngeal hematoma and anticoagulation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny CASASOLA-GIRÓN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: Spontaneous pharyngeal-laryngeal hematoma shows the importance of a complete ENT examination in the face of symptoms of banal appearance and a correct history that, in the case reported, unveiled the therapeutic use of anticoagulants. Case description: A 55 year old woman comes to emergency because of unexplained dysphagia. The inspection shows the presence of a hematoma in the pharyngeal-laryngeal region that, after the anticoagulant therapy was reversed, evolved favorably with conservative treatment. Discussion: In this case, apart from medical management performed by the hematology department, we focus our therapeutic approach in the protection of the airway and the prevention of a possible massive bleeding. Determining which patients require endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy and hemostatic surgery is the key to treatment. Conclusions: The anticoagulant therapy involves several complications that ENT specialists must consider in the face of clinical symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea or signs of bleeding and they must know the possibilities of performance depending on the severity of each case.

  4. Type I-II laryngeal cleft: clinical course and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonimsky, Guy; Carmel, Eldar; Drendel, Michael; Lipschitz, Noga; Wolf, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Laryngeal cleft (LC) is a rare congenital anomaly manifesting in a variety of symptoms, including swallowing disorders and aspirations, dyspnea, stridor and hoarseness. The mild forms (types I-II) may be underdiagnosed, leading to protracted symptomatology and morbidity. To evaluate the diagnostic process, clinical course, management and outcome in children with type I-II laryngeal clefts. We conducted a retrospective case analysis for the years 2005-2012 in a tertiary referral center. Seven children were reviewed: five boys and two girls ranging in age from birth to 5 years. The most common presenting symptoms were cough, aspirations and pneumonia. Evaluation procedures included fiber-optic laryngoscopy (FOL), direct laryngoscopy (DL) and videofluoroscopy. Other pathologies were seen in three children. Six children underwent successful endoscopic surgery and one child was treated conservatively. The postoperative clinical course was uneventful in most of the cases. Types I-II LC should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with protracted cough and aspirations. DL is crucial for establishing the diagnosis. Endoscopic surgery is safe and should be applied promptly when conservative measures fail.

  5. Quality of life and utility in irradiated laryngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringash, Jolie; Redelmeier, Donald A.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Bezjak, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine quality of life (QOL) and health utility in irradiated laryngeal cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: Over 6 months, consecutive follow-up patients at a comprehensive cancer centre completed the QOL questionnaire FACT-H and N and the time trade-off (TTO) utility instrument. Results: Inclusion criteria were met by 339 patients, of whom 269 were eligible, 245 were approached, and 120 agreed to participate. Most participants were men (83%) who had received radiotherapy (97%) for Stage I disease (53%) of the glottis (75%); 7% had undergone total laryngectomy. Participants differed from nonparticipants only in being younger (mean age, 65 vs. 68 years, p = 0.0049) and having higher performance status (Karnofsky 88 vs. 84, p = 0.0012). The average scores for FACT-H and N and the TTO were 124/144 (SD, 14) and 0.90/1.0 (SD, 0.16) respectively. FACT-H and N score was more highly correlated with Karnofsky score (r = 0.43, p = 0.001) than with the TTO (r = 0.29, p = 0.002). Gender predicted QOL (means: M = 125, F 118), while natural speech, no relapses, and more time since initial treatment predicted higher utility. Conclusion: The QOL of irradiated laryngeal cancer survivors was reasonably high and independent of initial disease variables. The QOL questionnaire correlated more strongly with performance status than with utility, suggesting that QOL and utility measures may be perceived differently by patients

  6. Unilateral Laryngeal Pacing System and Its Functional Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To establish a reliable instrumental system for synchronized reactivation of a unilaterally paralyzed vocal fold and evaluate its functional feasibility. Methods. Unilateral vocal fold paralysis model was induced by destruction of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in anesthetized dogs. With a micro controller-based electronic system, electromyography (EMG signals from cricothyroid (CT muscle on the ipsilateral side were recorded and used to trigger pacing of paralyzed vocalis muscles. The dynamic movement of vocal folds was continuously monitored using an endoscope, and the opening and closing of the glottis were quantified with customized imaging processing software. Results. The recorded video images showed that left side vocal fold was obviously paralyzed after destructing the RLN. Using the pacing system with feedback triggering EMG signals from the ipsilateral CT muscle, the paralyzed vocal fold was successfully reactivated, and its movement was shown to be synchronized with the healthy side. Significance. The developed unilateral laryngeal pacing system triggered by EMG from the ipsilateral side CT muscle could be successfully used in unilateral vocal fold paralysis with the advantage of avoiding disturbance to the healthy side muscles.

  7. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  8. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Modelling T4 cell count as a marker of HIV progression in the absence of any defence mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VSS Yadavalli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The T4 cell count, which is considered one of the markers of disease progression in an HIV infected individual, is modelled in this paper. The World Health Organisation has recently advocated that countries encourage HIV infected individuals to commence antiretroviral treatments once their T4 cell count drops below 350 cells per ml of blood (this threshold was formerly 200 cells per ml of blood. This recommendation is made because when the T4 cell count is low, the T4 cells are unable to mount an effective immune response against antigens and any such foreign matters in the body, and consequently the individual becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections and lymphomas. A stochastic catastrophe model is developed in this paper to obtain the mean, variance and covariance of the uninfected, infected and lysed T4 cells. The amount of toxin produced in an HIV infected person from the time of infection to a later time may also be obtained from the model. Numerical illustrations of the correlation structures between uninfected and infected T4 cells, and between the infected and lysed T4 cells are also presented.

  10. Treatment of laryngeal radionecrosis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Akiko T.; Honda, Nobumitsu; Tsujimura, Mika; Adachi, Tsunemichi; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Kitani, Yoshiharu

    2007-01-01

    Laryngeal necrosis is a rare complication of radiotherapy for early-staged laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. However, when it occurs, there is no definitive treatment and laryngectomy is frequently required. Here we present a case of advanced laryngeal necrosis (grade 4, Chandler classification) treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. A 60-year-old woman received radiotherapy with 64.8 Gy for early-staged hypopharyngeal cancer in combination with three courses of cisplatin (40 mg/body/week). She developed pharyngeal pain and progressive dyspnea because of laryngeal edema 3 months after the completion of radiotherapy, and received an emergent tracheostomy. In order to differentiate radiation injury from cancer recurrence, biopsies were obtained under direct laryngoscopy and showed intense necrosis without malignancy. Since laryngeal radionecrosis was presumed, the patient received HBO therapy at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) with 100% O 2 for 2 hours per session. After 20 HBO treatments, laryngeal edema improved and her clinical symptoms including pharyngeal pain, swallowing pain and dysphagia, were ameliorated significantly. However, decannulation has not been achieved because of bilateral vocal cord fixation. We considered that HBO therapy was effective in the present case and that HBO therapy should be recommended as a therapeutic option whenever laryngeal necrosis occurs and there is a chance to save the larynx. (author)

  11. [Rare problem with the insertion of a Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway device. Case of the trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    A breast tumor was resected under general anesthesia. After induction, the airway was managed with a Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway device. The insertion of the laryngeal mask airway device, the insertion of the orogastric tube through the drain tube, as well as the mechanical ventilation, were very difficult from the beginning. On removing the laryngeal mask airway device to solve the problem, it was observed that the drain tube was broken, and the orogastric tube had passed into the anterior, laryngeal part of the device through the split. It was later found out that the laryngeal mask airway device, as well as the whole manufacturing batch, had suffered a design modification: the cuff was constructed with a softer material without reinforcement in the tip, and the drain tube had a heat-sealing defect that facilitated the break. The incident was reported to the local supplier and the manufacturer, and the defective batch of laryngeal mask airway devices was recalled. The incident was also reported to other hospitals via SENSAR, to warn other users of the potential dangers of the design modification in the Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Laryngeal Rosai-Dorfman Disease (Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy: A Retrospective Study of 5 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the clinical manifestations, treatment methods, and prognosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD with laryngeal involvement. Five clinical cases of RDD with laryngeal involvement diagnosed between 1986 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The laryngeal lesions of these 5 patients mostly involved the glottis and subglottis, with the main symptoms being a hoarse voice and airway obstruction. In addition, the patients mostly exhibited a unilateral or asymmetric onset that was manifested by a laryngeal submucosal nodular mass. The patients were subjected to a regimen of hormone treatment combined with surgical resection. The median follow-up duration was 101 months (8–384 months. One case was lost, and the remaining 4 subjects are alive with disease. The follow-up examinations revealed that 4 subjects had stable laryngeal conditions, whereas one showed minor progression. RDD with laryngeal involvement is clinically rare and differs considerably from classical RDD in age of onset, gender composition, and extranodal involvement. The regimen of hormone treatment combined with surgical resection can stabilize the patient’s general condition and laryngeal lesion. Tracheotomies are recommended for patients with dyspnea. After their conditions stabilize, decannulation can be successfully performed in most cases. This therapeutic regimen generally delivers a good prognosis.

  13. Laryngeal Rosai-Dorfman Disease (Sinus Histiocytosis with Massive Lymphadenopathy): A Retrospective Study of 5 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanyan; Li, Yongjin; Wang, Jian; Jin, Xiaofeng; Yang, Dahai; Huo, Hong; Li, Wuyi

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical manifestations, treatment methods, and prognosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) with laryngeal involvement. Five clinical cases of RDD with laryngeal involvement diagnosed between 1986 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The laryngeal lesions of these 5 patients mostly involved the glottis and subglottis, with the main symptoms being a hoarse voice and airway obstruction. In addition, the patients mostly exhibited a unilateral or asymmetric onset that was manifested by a laryngeal submucosal nodular mass. The patients were subjected to a regimen of hormone treatment combined with surgical resection. The median follow-up duration was 101 months (8-384 months). One case was lost, and the remaining 4 subjects are alive with disease. The follow-up examinations revealed that 4 subjects had stable laryngeal conditions, whereas one showed minor progression. RDD with laryngeal involvement is clinically rare and differs considerably from classical RDD in age of onset, gender composition, and extranodal involvement. The regimen of hormone treatment combined with surgical resection can stabilize the patient's general condition and laryngeal lesion. Tracheotomies are recommended for patients with dyspnea. After their conditions stabilize, decannulation can be successfully performed in most cases. This therapeutic regimen generally delivers a good prognosis.

  14. [After the Action T4 : "Regionalized euthanasia" in the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhner, F; V Cranach, M; Fangerau, H; Becker, T

    2017-09-01

    In Bavarian psychiatric hospitals approximately 15,000 people with mental handicaps and mental illnesses were killed after the so-called Action T4. The Heil- und Pflegeanstalt (psychiatric hospital) Günzburg was a so-called Zwischenanstalt (interim institution). The aim of the study was to analyze its role in carrying out "regionalized euthanasia". Based on defined criteria the patient records of deceased patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital between July 1941 and December 1943 were analyzed to establish whether criteria for "regionalized euthanasia" were fulfilled. During the study period 45 patients at the Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital probably died following actions by direct or indirect intention to kill using malnutrition, neglect, medication overdose or a combination of these actions. The Günzburg Psychiatric Hospital was involved in "regionalized euthanasia".

  15. Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Behaviors of AA2024-T4 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Steve Korakan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded joints of AA2024-T4 Al alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Tests were performed in an aerated 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 7 at 20±2°C. Corrosion rate and corrosion morphology of weld regions were evaluated and compared to those of the parent metal. The microstructure of weld nugget, thermomechanical affected zone, heated affected zone, and parent metal were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was observed that corrosion initiated at FSW related spots and the sizes of local corrosion increased with time.

  16. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ''BSA'' and horse serum protein ''HSP''), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  17. Pecularities of mutagenesis of T4Br bacteriophage under the direct and indirect radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Different lethal and mutagenic effects were shown when bacteriophage T4Br + (470 r/min) was irradiated in broth (direct effect) and a buffer solution (direct and indirect action). The survival rate of the bacteriophage in the buffer solution was 0.1 percent for a dose rate of 60 kr; in the broth it was 10 percent. The frequency of mutation of the bacteriophage also showed the greater effect of the irradiation in the buffer solution than in the broth (25 and 5 r-mutants respectively at a dose rate of 10 kr). An analysis of the ratio of the r-groups when the bacteriophage was treated in various ways revealed differences between mutagenesis produced in the broth and the buffer, and spontaneous mutagenesis. (V.A.P.)

  18. Production of antisera and development of radioimmunoassay for serum T3, T4, and ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhag, Omer Mohamed Abdalla [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-05-01

    In this study twelve local rabbits and sixteen New-zealand rabbits were subjected to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogens. Two local sheep (ovis aris) were immunized against human liver ferritin. The T3 and T4 immunogens were prepared by conjugation of the haptens to carrier proteins (bovine serum albumin ``BSA`` and horse serum protein ``HSP``), using water soluble carboiimide as coupling agent. The local and New-zealand rabbits were immunized against these conjugates emulsified in freund`s complete adjuvant (FCA) in the first and second injections, and emulsified in freund`s incomplete adjuvant (FIA) in the following injections. The blood samples obtained from rabbits after each injection were tested for antibodies as well as for the effect of immunization on rabbits biochemical and haematological parameters. The blood samples obtained from sheep were tested for anti-ferritin antibodies using crude antiserum, then this antiserum was purified using ammonium sulphate. A part of it was adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads while the other part was linked chemically to magnitisable particles inorder to develop to IRMAs. The purified antiferritin antibody was diluted 200,000 folds before being coated to polystyrene beads, and different dilutions were tried with coupling to magnetic solid phase. Optimization and validation procedures for the two IRMAs ferritin were performed. The results obtained showed poor response of rabbits to immunization against T3 and T4 immunogen conjugates, where the percent bound (B%) of tracer with the antibody ranged from (0.0-22%) for local rabbits using charcoal seperation technique, and (0.0-2.9%) using second antibody precipitation technique. The B% for the antiserum obtained from New-zealand rabbits ranged from (0.0-18.1) using second antibody precipitation technique. Serum T3, T4 and TSH of the immunized rabbits were measured and found to be not significantly different form the controls (p=0.2211, 0.098, 0.35 respectively

  19. Pollution reduction technology program for class T4(JT8D) engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    The technology required to develop commercial gas turbine engines with reduced exhaust emissions was demonstrated. Can-annular combustor systems for the JT8D engine family (EPA class T4) were investigated. The JT8D turbofan engine is an axial-flow, dual-spool, moderate-bypass-ratio design. It has a two-stage fan, a four-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a three-stage low-pressure turbine, and a seven-stage high-pressure compressor driven by a single-stage high-pressure turbine. A cross section of the JT8D-17 showing the mechanical configuration is given. Key specifications for this engine are listed.

  20. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    /processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...

  1. Thyroid hormone uptake and T4 derived T3 formation in different skeletal muscle types of normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeveld, C. van; Kassenaar, A.A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate conversion of T 4 to T 3 in skeletal muscle tissue. For this purpose the rats were depleted of thyroid hormones by thyroid ablation with 0.75 mCi 131 I and were perfused 2 weeks later, when the skeletal muscle tissue consumed oxygen at a normal rate due to one subcutaneous dose of 10 μg T 3 /100 g b. w. 3 days before the perfusion experiments were started. T 4 * of high specific activity (> 2000 μCi/μg) was added to the perfusate. In the muscle (mixed type) a mean T 4 → T 3 conversion of 2% (range 0.5-3.9) was found after 120 min of perfusion. T 3 generation from T 4 in skeletal muscle did not correspond with T 3 muscle uptake. This observation makes a significant overestimation of T 3 by selective uptake of a small contamination of T 3 * in the T 4 * preparation highly improbable. In red muscle the T 4 and T 3 uptake was about 50 % higher than in white muscle. The observed Tetracsup(c) and T 3 sup(c) were significantly higher in red than in white muscle. The uptake of thyroid hormones by both muscle types was not changed in hyperthyroid rats. The Tetrac and T 3 formation from T 4 , however, was increased in red muscles of hyperthyroid rats. The results show that thyroid hormone metabolism can vary markedly depending upon the type of muscle studied and they present a basis for a better understanding of clinical and biochemical evidence for a different susceptibility of red and white muscle fibers to thyroid hormones. (Abbreviations: *= 125 I; **= 131 I; T 3 sup(c)=T 4 derived T 3 ; Tetracsup(c)=T 4 derived Tetrac) (author)

  2. Structure-Function Analysis of the DNA Translocating Portal of the Bacteriophage T4 Packaging Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2013-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special five-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1 and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the E. coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and fit the dodecamer into the cryoEM density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone-shaped with the wider end containing the “wing” and “crown” domains inside the phage head. A long “stem” encloses a central channel, and a narrow “stalk” protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and portal. The “tunnel” loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. PMID:24126213

  3. Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radio-chemotherapy beneficial in T4 anal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L; Viret, F; Giovaninni, M; Lelong, B; Bories, E; Delpero, J R; Pesenti, C; Caillol, F; de Chaisemartin, C; Minsat, M; Monges, G; Sarran, A; Resbeut, M

    2011-07-01

    This study retrospectively describes the outcome of a series of 38 patients (pts) with T4 anal carcinoma exclusively treated by radio and chemotherapy. From 1992 to 2007, 38 pts with UST4-N0-2-M0 anal carcinoma were treated with exclusive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. All patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose 45 Gy) with a concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). Eleven patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). After 2-8 weeks, a 15-20 Gy boost was delivered either with EBRT (20 pts) or interstitial (192)Ir brachytherapy (18 pts). Mean follow-up was 66 months. After chemoradiation therapy (CRT), 13 pts (34%) had a complete response, 23 pts (60%) a response >50% (2 pts were not evaluated). The 5-year-disease-free survival was 79.2 ± 6.5%, and the 5-year overall survival was 83.9 ± 6%. Eight patients developed tumor progression (mean delay 8.8 months), six of them requiring a salvage surgery with definitive colostomy for local relapse. Late severe complication requiring colostomy was observed in 2 pts. The 5-year-colostomy-free survival was 78 ± 6.9%. Patients who received primary chemotherapy had a statistically significant better 5-year colostomy-free survival (100% vs. 38 ± 16.4%, P = 0.0006). T4 anal carcinoma can be treated with a curative intent using a sphincter-sparing approach of CRT, and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Structure-function analysis of the DNA translocating portal of the bacteriophage T4 packaging machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sanchez, Victor; Gao, Song; Kim, Hyung Rae; Kihara, Daisuke; Sun, Lei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2014-03-06

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses consist of a structurally well conserved dodecameric portal at a special 5-fold vertex of the capsid. The portal plays critical roles in head assembly, genome packaging, neck/tail attachment, and genome ejection. Although the structures of portals from phages φ29, SPP1, and P22 have been determined, their mechanistic roles have not been well understood. Structural analysis of phage T4 portal (gp20) has been hampered because of its unusual interaction with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. Here, we predict atomic models for the T4 portal monomer and dodecamer, and we fit the dodecamer into the cryo-electron microscopy density of the phage portal vertex. The core structure, like that from other phages, is cone shaped with the wider end containing the "wing" and "crown" domains inside the phage head. A long "stem" encloses a central channel, and a narrow "stalk" protrudes outside the capsid. A biochemical approach was developed to analyze portal function by incorporating plasmid-expressed portal protein into phage heads and determining the effect of mutations on head assembly, DNA translocation, and virion production. We found that the protruding loops of the stalk domain are involved in assembling the DNA packaging motor. A loop that connects the stalk to the channel might be required for communication between the motor and the portal. The "tunnel" loops that project into the channel are essential for sealing the packaged head. These studies established that the portal is required throughout the DNA packaging process, with different domains participating at different stages of genome packaging. © 2013.

  5. Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Madrid-Barajas T-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamela, A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the New Terminal Area of the Barajas airport. Its first part indicates the participants in the design and construction, as well as some general data. In the second part, organised like a data chart, technical data, such as general information, construction aspects, parking area, data about the building itself and others, are expressed in a concise way. The third part analyzes the construction aspects of the NAT Building, related to the power efficiency. The paper ends with a note that the author of the project has considered of interest about the functionality of the T4. Drawings, details and photographs that show the work in their total magnitude are also included.El articulo que se presenta trata de la Nueva Área Terminal (NAT del aeropuerto de Barajas y está diferenciado en una primera parte, donde se indican los créditos del proyecto y de la construcción, así como algunos datos generales. En el punto 2 y organizado como ficha, aparecen de forma escueta los datos técnicos, tales como: información general, sobre la construcción, sobre los aparcamientos, sobre el edificio terminal y otras. En el punto 3 se analizan los aspectos de la edificación NAT, relacionados con la eficiencia energética y finaliza el artículo con una nota sobre la funcionalidad de la T4, que el autor del proyecto ha considerado de interés. Se incluyen planos detalles y fotografías que muestran la obra en su total magnitud.

  6. Swainsonine promotes apoptosis in human oesophageal squamous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and investigated relative molecular mechanisms. Swainsonine ..... sical death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway while ..... hormone-resistant prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Cancer ...

  7. MicroRNA-196a is a putative diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for laryngeal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA is an emerging subclass of small non-coding RNAs that regulates gene expression and has a pivotal role for many physiological processes including cancer development. Recent reports revealed the role of miRNAs as ideal biomarkers and therapeutic targets due to their tissue- or disease-specific nature. Head and neck cancer (HNC is a major cause of cancer-related mortality and morbidity, and laryngeal cancer has the highest incidence in it. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in laryngeal cancer development remain to be known and highly sensitive biomarkers and novel promising therapy is necessary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To explore laryngeal cancer-specific miRNAs, RNA from 5 laryngeal surgical specimens including cancer and non-cancer tissues were hybridized to microarray carrying 723 human miRNAs. The resultant differentially expressed miRNAs were further tested by using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR on 43 laryngeal tissue samples including cancers, noncancerous counterparts, benign diseases and precancerous dysplasias. Significant expressional differences between matched pairs were reproduced in miR-133b, miR-455-5p, and miR-196a, among which miR-196a being the most promising cancer biomarker as validated by qRT-PCR analyses on additional 84 tissue samples. Deep sequencing analysis revealed both quantitative and qualitative deviation of miR-196a isomiR expression in laryngeal cancer. In situ hybridization confirmed laryngeal cancer-specific expression of miR-196a in both cancer and cancer stroma cells. Finally, inhibition of miR-196a counteracted cancer cell proliferation in both laryngeal cancer-derived cells and mouse xenograft model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provided the possibilities that miR-196a might be very useful in diagnosing and treating laryngeal cancer.

  8. Tracheal and laryngeal tumors in the dog and cat: literature review and 13 additional patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, C.H.; Biery, D.N.; Thrall, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Primary tumors of the larynx or trachea are uncommon in the dog and cat. In a review of the English language literature, description of 65 such patients were found. In a search of the Veterinary Teaching Hospitals of the University of Pennsylvania and North Carolina State University, an additional 13 previously unreported patients were identified, bringing the total to at least 78. Of these 78, there have been 16 canine tracheal, 7 feline tracheal, 34 canine laryngeal and 21 feline laryngeal tumors. In the canine and feline trachea, osteochondroma and epithelial malignancies, respectively, appear to be the most common. Epithelial malignancies appear to be the most common tumor of the canine larynx whereas lymphosarcoma appears to be the most common feline laryngeal tumor. In patients described herein, tumors produced clinical signs consistent with airway obstruction. Voice alteration was common in patients with laryngeal tumors. Patients were middle-aged to older, except for dogs with osteochondroma. This compares favorably to historical data. All tumors in this study were readily seen radiographically, with most laryngeal and tracheal tumors appearing as masses within the lumen of the airway. Mineralization was uncommon except for canine osteochondromas. Feline laryngeal tumors in this study appeared as generalized laryngeal thickening rather than as a distinct mass. Response of canine and feline tracheal and laryngeal thickening rather than as a distinct mass. Response of canine and feline tracheal and laryngeal tumors to treatment can not be adequately assessed from available data. Benign tumors of the larynx or trachea may be amenable to complete excision. Neoplastic lesions must be differentiated from polyps or abscesses within the upper airway as these may appear radiographically identical to primary tumors. This can be achieved by endoscopic evaluation and biopsy of airway masses before formulating a prognosis

  9. Capecitabine and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  11. [Role of gastroesophageal reflux in acute recurrent laryngeal dyspnea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieu-Guitrancourt, J; Dehesdin, D; Le Luyer, B; Fouin, M; Peron, J M

    1984-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal croup (RLC) in children is rarely discussed unless permanent laryngeal obstruction is involved or there is an allergic basis. An atypical case is described where gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) was not only associated with but was also directly related to the provocation of each period. A series of 15 patients with RLC were investigated for the presence of GER, and this was confirmed in 7 cases. These findings suggest that GER may be responsible for the onset of RLC, as is now admitted for numerous respiratory manifestations in children. Moreover, GER may be implicated in the course of various laryngeal obstructive lesions, particularly subglottic angioma.

  12. The Coxiella Burnetii type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) component DotA is released/secreted during infection of host cells and during in vitro growth in a T4BSS-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedtke, Brandon E; Mahapatra, Saugata; Lutter, Erika I; Shaw, Edward I

    2017-06-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. To cause disease, C. burnetii requires a functional type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to transfer effector proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of a membrane-bound parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and further modulation of host cell process. However, it is not clear how the T4BSS interacts with the PV membrane since neither a secretion pilus nor an extracellular pore forming apparatus has not been described. To address this, we used the acidified citrate cysteine medium (ACCM) along with cell culture infection and immunological techniques to identify the cellular and extracellular localization of T4BSS components. Interestingly, we found that DotA and IcmX were secreted/released in a T4BSS-dependent manner into the ACCM. Analysis of C. burnetii-infected cell lines revealed that DotA colocalized with the host cell marker CD63 (LAMP3) at the PV membrane. In the absence of bacterial protein synthesis, DotA also became depleted from the PV membrane. These data are the first to identify the release/secretion of C. burnetii T4BSS components during axenic growth and the interaction of a T4BSS component with the PV membrane during infection of host cells. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Early determination of the congenital hypothyroidism by means of the cuantification of STH and T4 by radioimmunoassay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Penados, R.C.

    1986-11-01

    It was investigated the advantages and disadvantages and conditions of working for the diagnosis of the congenital hypothyroidism by RIA, and its future implementation. It was determined concentration of neonatal STH and neonatal T4 in whole blood of 517 new borns, obtained by capilar punction and recollected in filter paper. 261 samples were found with levels of T4 between normal limits and STH between 0 and 12.5 u U/ml correspond to a normal thyroid function. 29 samples with normal T4 and STH above 30 u U/ml, correspond to a possible primary hypothyroidism. 171 samples with normal T4 and STH between 12.5 and 30 u U/ml were found. (Author)

  14. Corticosteroids for prevention of postextubation laryngeal edema in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Russel J; Welch, Shannon M; Devlin, John W

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic corticosteroid therapy in preventing postextubation laryngeal edema (PELE) and the need for reintubation in adults. Literature was accessed through MEDLINE (1966-January 2008) and the Cochrane Library using the terms laryngeal edema, airway obstruction, postextubation stridor, intubation, glucocorticoids, and corticosteroids. Bibliographies of cited references were reviewed and a manual search of abstracts from recent pulmonary and critical care meetings was completed. All English-language, placebo-controlled, randomized studies evaluating the use of prophylactic corticosteroids for the prevention of postextubation laryngeal edema or postextubation stridor (PES) in adults were reviewed. Although laryngoscopy is the gold standard method for diagnosing PELE, PES is more commonly used for diagnosis in clinical practice. While 3 older studies failed to demonstrate benefit with the prophylactic administration of corticosteroid therapy in terms of reducing PELE, PES, or the need for reintubation, each of these studies evaluated only a single dose of steroid therapy that was initiated only 30-60 minutes prior to a planned extubation in a population of patients at low-risk for PELE. In comparison, 3 newer studies, each using 4 doses of corticosteroid therapy initiated 12-24 hours prior to a planned extubation in patients deemed to be at high baseline risk for developing PELE, demonstrated a reduction in PELE, PES, and the need for reintubation; no safety concerns were identified. Current evidence therefore suggests that prophylactic intravenous methylprednisolone therapy (20-40 mg every 4-6 h) should be considered 12-24 hours prior to a planned extubation in patients at high-risk for PELE (eg, mechanical ventilation > 6 days). Data from the most recent well-designed clinical trials suggest that prophylactic corticosteroid therapy can reduce the incidence of PELE and the subsequent need for reintubation in mechanically

  15. Postoperative laryngeal symptoms in a general surgery setting. Clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Girolamo; Cupido, Francesco; Lo Nigro, Chiara; Sciuto, Antonio; Sciumè, Carmelo; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord injuries (VI), postoperative hoarseness (PH), dysphonia (DN), dysphagia (DG) and sore throat (ST) are common complications after general anesthesia; there is actually a lack of consensus to support the proper timing for post-operative laryngoscopy that is reliable to support the diagnosis of laryngeal or vocal fold lesions after surgery and there are no valid studies about the entity of laryngeal trauma in oro-tracheal intubation. Aim of our study is to evaluate the statistical relation between anatomic, anesthesiological and surgical variables in the case of PH, DG or impaired voice register. 50 patients (30 thyroidectomies, 8 videolaparoscopic cholecistectomies, 2 right emicolectomies, 2 left emicolectomies, 1 gastrectomy, 1 hemorrhoidectomy, 1 nefrectomy, 1 diagnostic videothoracoscopy, 1 superior right lung lobectomy, 1 appendicectomy, 1 incisional hernia repair, 1 low anterior rectal resection, 1 radical hysterectomy) underwent clinical evaluation and direct laryngoscopy before surgery, within 6 hours, after 72 hours and after 30 days, to evaluate motility and breathing space, phonatory motility, true and false vocal folds and arytenoids oedema. We evaluated also mean age (56.6 ± 3.6 years), male:female ratio (1:1.5), cigarette smoke (20%), atopic comorbidity (17/50 = 34%), Mallampati class (32% 1, 38% 2, 26% 3, 2% 4), mean duration of intubation (159 minutes, range 50 - 405 minutes), Cormack-Lehane score (34% 1, 22% 2, 22% 3, 2% 4), difficult intubation in 9 cases (18%). No complication during the laryngoscopy were registered. We investigated the statistic relationship between pre and intraoperative variables and laryngeal symptoms and lesions. In our experience, statistically significant relations were found in prevalence of vocal folds oedema in smokers (p < 0.005), self limiting DG and DN in younger patients (p < 0.005) and in thyroidectomy (p < 0.01), DG after thyroidectomy (p < 0.01). The short preoperative use of steroids and antihistaminic

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast in the United States: incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Yadav, Dhiraj; Zakalik, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of breast accounts for less than 0.1% of all breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and survival of this rare malignancy. Data were extracted from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry to identify women diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of breast between 1998 and 2013. SEER*Stat 8.3.1 was used to calculate age-adjusted incidence, age-wise distribution, and annual percentage change in incidence. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for survival analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine predictors of survival. A total of 445 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of breast were diagnosed during the study period. The median age of diagnosis was 67 years. The overall age-adjusted incidence between 1998 and 2013 was 0.62 per 1,000,000 per year, and the incidence has been on a decline. Approximately half of the tumors were poorly differentiated. Stage II was the most common stage at presentation. Majority of the cases were negative for expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor. One-third of the cases underwent breast conservation surgery while more than half of the cases underwent mastectomy (unilateral or bilateral). Approximately one-third of cases received radiation treatment. The 1-year and 5-year cause-specific survival was 81.6 and 63.5%, respectively. Excluding patient with metastasis or unknown stage at presentation, in multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, older age at diagnosis and higher tumor stage (T3 or T4) or nodal stage at presentation were significant predictors of poor survival. Our study describes the unique characteristics of squamous cell carcinoma of breast and demonstrates that it is an aggressive tumor with a poor survival. Older age and higher tumor or nodal stages at presentation were independent predictors of poor survival for loco-regional stages.

  17. Definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy for sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas: a single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duru Birgi, Sumerya; Teo, Mark; Dyker, Karen E.; Sen, Mehmet; Prestwich, Robin J D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the disease outcomes of patients treated with definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in a single institution. Between 2007–2012 patients were retrospectively identified from electronic databases who had undergone surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive radiotherapy for sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas with curative intent. Fourty three patients with sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma were identified (22 nasal cavity, 21 paranasal sinuses). 31/43 (72 %) had T3 or T4 disease; nodal stage was N0 in 38, N1 in 4, Na/b in 0 and N2c in 1 patient. Median age was 67 years (range 41–86). 18 (42 %) received definitive and 25 (58 %) adjuvant radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered using either conventional radiotherapy (n = 39) or intensity modulated radiotherapy (n = 4). Elective neck radiotherapy was delivered to two patients. Chemotherapy was delivered to 6/43 (14 %) of patients. Two-year local control, regional control, distant metastases free survival, progression free survival, cause specific survival and overall survival were 81 %, 90 %, 95 %, 71 %, 84 % and 80 % respectively. There was no significant difference in outcome comparing patients who underwent surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy with patients receiving definitive radiotherapy (2 year locoregional disease free survival 75 % and 70 % respectively, p = 0.98). Pooly differentiated tumours were significantly associated with inferior disease outcomes. Local, regional, combined local and regional, and distant failure occurred in 7 (16 %), 3 (7 %), 1 (2 %) and 2 (5 %) of patients; all 3 regional recurrences were in patients with nasal cavity squamous cell carcinomas who had not undergone elective neck treatment. Definitive or adjuvant radiotherapy provides an effective treatment for sinonasal malignancies. The main pattern of failure remains local, suggesting the need for investigation of

  18. The peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersinga, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this study was to delineate several physiological, pathological and pharmacological factors involved in the peripheral conversion of thyroxine (T 4 ), using radioimmunoassay. The determination of normal values of these tests under basal circumstances and after stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing-hormone is presented, and some physiological factors which may modulate the conversion of T 4 are discussed. Results are presented of the thyroid function tests in patients with thyroid disease and with acute non-thyroidal diseases. (Auth.)

  19. Fast algorithms for coordinate processors in Galois field for multiplicity t = 4.5 and t > 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Fast algorithms for solving the coordinate equations for special-purpose processors at multiplicity t = 4.5 and t > 5 are described. Block diagrams of coordinate processor for t 4 in Galois field GF(2 m ) is presented which is solved by a table method. Economical algorithms for solving the coordinate equations by serial methods at t > 5 are described. The algorithms and devices proposed could be applied when creating fast processors in high energy physics spectrometers. 9 refs.; 3 figs

  20. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  1. The mechanisms of action of E. coli endonuclease III and T4 UV endonuclease (endonuclease V) at AP sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J; Linn, S

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of DNA containing AP sites with either T4 UV endonuclease or with E. coli endonuclease III followed by a human class II AP endonuclease releases a putative beta-elimination product. This result suggests that both the T4 endonuclease and E. coli endonuclease III class I AP endonucleases catalyze phosphodiester bond cleavage via a lyase- rather than a hydrolase mechanism. Indeed, we have not detected a class I AP endonuclease which hydrolytically catalyzes phosphodiester bond cleavage...

  2. Reduction and repopulation of recipient T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratama, J.W.; van den Bergh, R.L.; Naipal, A.; D'Amaro, J.; Zwaan, F.E.; Jansen, J.; de Gast, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In eight recipients of allogeneic bone marrow grafts who had sex-mismatched donors, the reduction and subsequent repopulation of T4+ and T8+ T-lymphocytes of recipient origin were studied. The origin of the donor-recipient T4+ and T8+ T cells was studied using quinacrine staining of Y chromatin combined with T-cell typing for T4 and T8. Following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation (BMT), T cells reached their nadir at a median of five (range 1-8) days after BMT. T8+ T cells decreased at a faster rate from the peripheral blood than T4+ T cells. The first T cells that appeared in the circulation at day 12 were predominantly T4+, and a large number of them were of recipient origin. Thereafter, they gradually decreased, and the numbers of T cells of donor origin increased. In the patients who had no or only minor complications, T4+ and T8+ T cells of donor origin repopulated the blood at similar rates. This pattern, however, was modified by severe graft-versus-host disease or by cytomegalovirus infection

  3. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly...

  4. Oral Cavity, Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers and about approaches that may help in the prevention of these diseases.

  5. Laryngeal paralysis associated with a muscle pseudotumour in a young dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An 18-month-old male entire Bloodhound dog was presented with a six-week history of progressive inspiratory dyspnoea, stridor, dysphonia and exercise intolerance. CT scan performed elsewhere had revealed the presence of an unencapsulated nodular mass (3x1x5 cm dorsal to the larynx and first tracheal rings. Laryngoscopy demonstrated the presence of bilateral laryngeal paralysis and distorted laryngeal architecture suggestive of extraluminal compression. Histopathology results of incisional biopsies from the mass were suggestive of a benign non-neoplastic muscular lesion. Surgery was performed to manage laryngeal paralysis and attempt mass excision. A second histopathology examination confirmed an inflammatory and dysplastic lesion suggestive of a pseudotumour. All clinical signs resolved after surgery and at the 13 months follow-up the dog remains asymptomatic. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of a case of laryngeal paralysis caused by a muscle pseudotumour in a young dog.

  6. Radiation therapy for life-threatening huge laryngeal hemangioma involving pharynx and parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Lee, Ka-Wo; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Adult hemangiomas are rare, slowly progressing vascular tumors. Potential complications include laryngeal involvement or massive tumor burden. A case of recurrent, bulky laryngeal hemangioma involving the parapharyngeal space is presented herein. The clinical course and treatment are described, and a series of MRI studies are compared to demonstrate the treatment response. A 35-year-old woman presented with progressive hoarseness, neck fullness, and intermittent dyspnea caused by a bulky laryngeal hemangioma. Steroid therapy had a limited response. Radiation therapy with a total dose of 40 Gray (Gy) in 20 fractions successfully relieved her symptoms. Image studies after therapy revealed moderate tumor regression. The patient showed no serious complications during the next 2 years of follow-up. Radiation therapy may be effective in intractable and function-threatening laryngeal hemangiomas. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A case of vogt-koyanagi-harada syndrome with persistent dyspnea secondary to laryngeal edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantopoulos, Dimosthenis; deSilva, Brad W; Cebulla, Colleen M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of laryngeal edema associated with the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome. A 32-year-old African-American female presented with a 12-day prodrome, including headache, tinnitus and shortness of breath, which preceded sudden photophobia and bilateral visual loss. Examination and clinical testing were most consistent with VKH, and the patient improved with intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. The patient had persistent dyspnea, which was out of proportion to chest CT findings and which was exacerbated during a recurrence of VKH. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy with stroboscopy revealed diffuse laryngeal edema. Symptoms were alleviated with breathing exercises. Several autoimmune diseases may cause diffuse laryngeal edema. In this case, VKH was associated with the patient's glottic edema and dyspnea. We recommend that laryngeal edema be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with dyspnea and VKH.

  8. A Case of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome with Persistent Dyspnea Secondary to Laryngeal Edema

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    Dimosthenis Mantopoulos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of laryngeal edema associated with the Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH syndrome. Patient and Methods: A 32-year-old African-American female presented with a 12-day prodrome, including headache, tinnitus and shortness of breath, which preceded sudden photophobia and bilateral visual loss. Examination and clinical testing were most consistent with VKH, and the patient improved with intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Results: The patient had persistent dyspnea, which was out of proportion to chest CT findings and which was exacerbated during a recurrence of VKH. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy with stroboscopy revealed diffuse laryngeal edema. Symptoms were alleviated with breathing exercises. Conclusions: Several autoimmune diseases may cause diffuse laryngeal edema. In this case, VKH was associated with the patient's glottic edema and dyspnea. We recommend that laryngeal edema be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with dyspnea and VKH.

  9. Respiratory and laryngeal symptoms secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, G; Mainie, I; McGarvey, L P A

    2011-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux may cause a range of laryngeal and respiratory symptoms. Mechanisms responsible include the proximal migration of gastric refluxate beyond the upper oesophageal sphincter causing direct irritation of the larynx and lower airway. Alternatively, refluxate entering the distal oesophagus alone may stimulate oesophageal sensory nerves and indirectly activate airway reflexes such as cough and bronchospasm. Recognising reflux as a cause for these extraoesophageal symptoms can be difficult as many patients do not have typical oesophageal symptoms (eg, heartburn) and clinical findings on laryngoscopy are not very specific. Acid suppression remains an effective treatment in the majority of patients but there is growing appreciation of the need to consider and treat non-acid and volume reflux. New opinions about the role of existing medical and surgical (laparoscopic techniques) treatment are emerging and a number of novel anti-reflux treatments are under development. PMID:28839612

  10. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

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    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  11. Evaluation of Semon's Law in Laryngeal Paralysis

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    J. Hedayaty

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available We have discussed hi t . ] . IS orica and clinical aspects of Semon's L concernIng the hevaviOur of the vocal cords' aw net ve paralysis and the exist' diff In the recurrent laryngeal Althou h ' mg I erent theories for its explanation. g One may fwd certain truth in neverthless, it seemsfl' SOmeof the old theories, ar more ogical and satisfactor the explanation of th S 'L y to us to search e ernon s aw throu h the anatomy of the SU . I g Our new knowledge of penor aryngeal nerve in man d i which innervate the .t' an ItS motor fibers In erarytenOld muscle.

  12. Acromegaly presented as a cause of laryngeal dyspnea.

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    Saussez, S; Mahillon, V; Chantrain, G; Thill, M P; Lequeux, T

    2007-12-01

    Acromegalic patients can develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or upper airflow obstruction. The development of dyspnea is unusual and the fixation of both vocal cords is exceptional. We report the case of a patient with bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy and computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed a supra-glottic stenosis due to a swelling of the soft tissue. A tracheostomy was first performed. Thereafter, micro-laryngoscopy using laser vaporisation of the supra-glottic soft tissue was attempted but failed to remove the tracheostomy canula. Finally, blood tests and cerebral MRI revealed an acromegaly. The patient underwent a trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma. Fifteen months later, fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed bilateral restoration of vocal cord mobility and the tracheostomy canula was successfully removed after 18 months. Vocal cord fixation is probably due to hypopharyngeal and laryngeal soft tissue swelling and can be reversible after successful treatment of the adenoma.

  13. [ANCA-negative subglottic laryngeal stenosis in childhood].

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    Wittekindt, C; Lüers, J-C; Drebber, U; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2007-10-01

    A 15-year-old female, having developed recurrent infections of the upper airway, hoarseness, dyspnea, and nasal congestion, was referred to our department. There was no history of trauma or intubation. The subglottic space was circularly narrowed. The test for c-ANCA was negative. Chest X-ray and renal function were normal. A tracheotomy was performed; the histology showed infiltrating plasma cells, but no signs of vasculitis or granulomatous inflammation. One year later the patient developed acute renal failure. Biopsy of the kidney confirmed Wegener's disease. The laryngeal stenosis completely resolved after therapy with cyclophosphamide. Juvenile Wegener's granulomatosis is extremely rare; the larynx and trachea seem to be involved more frequently in children than in adults. The positive testing of c-ANCA can support the diagnosis; however, even when c-ANCA do not test positive, the disease can never be excluded. Surgical interventions within the larynx or trachea might only be considered after ineffective therapy with immunosuppressive drugs.

  14. Stabilisation of Laryngeal AL Amyloidosis with Long Term Curcumin Therapy

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    Terry Golombick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM, smoldering myeloma (SMM, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS represent a spectrum of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs. Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL falls within the spectrum of these diseases and has a mortality rate of more than 80% within 2 years of diagnosis. Curcumin, derived from turmeric, has been shown to have a clinical benefit in some patients with PCDs. In addition to a clinical benefit in these patients, curcumin has been found to have a strong affinity for fibrillar amyloid proteins. We thus administered curcumin to a patient with laryngeal amyloidosis and smoldering myeloma and found that the patient has shown a lack of progression of his disease for a period of five years. This is in keeping with our previous findings of clinical benefits of curcumin in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. We recommend further evaluation of curcumin in patients with primary AL amyloidosis.

  15. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

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    Schieble, Thomas; Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  16. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) artefact resulting in MRI misdiagnosis

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    Schieble, Thomas [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Patel, Anuradha; Davidson, Melissa [University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    We report a 7-year-old child who underwent brain MRI for a known seizure disorder. The technique used for general anesthesia included inhalation induction followed by placement of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for airway maintenance. Because the reviewing radiologist was unfamiliar with the use of an LMA during anesthesia, and because the attending anesthesiologist did not communicate his technique to the radiologist, an MRI misdiagnosis was reported because of artefact created by the in situ LMA. As a result of this misdiagnosis the child was subjected to unnecessary subsequent testing to rule out a reported anatomic abnormality induced by the LMA. Our case illustrates the need for coordination of patient care among hospital services. (orig.)

  17. Laryngeal Neuropathy in Adult Goats With Copper Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R F A; Almeida, V M; Neto, J E; Nascimento, C W A; Medeiros, G X; Medeiros, R M T; Riet-Correa, F; Mendonça, F S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the cause of a neurological syndrome characterized by stridor in adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency. The main clinical signs consisted of apathy, emaciation, pale mucous membranes, mucous nasal discharge, dyspnea, severe achromotrichia, diffuse alopecia, torpor, ataxia, and stridor. When the goats were forced to move, the stridor increased. In a herd of 194 Toggenburg goats, 10 adult goats with clinical signs of copper deficiency were removed from the herd and divided into 2 groups: group 1, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck with stridor, and group 2, which consisted of 4 nannies and 1 buck without stridor. Group 3, used as a control, consisted of 5 adult goats from another flock without any clinical signs of disease. The mean serum copper concentrations were 1.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L in group 1, 8.1 ± 1.1 μmol/L in group 2, and 11.3 ± 2.2 μmol/L in group 3. The mean serum iron concentrations were 42.3 ± 14.2 μmol/L in group 1, 39.1 ± 8.2 μmol/L in group 2, and 20.6 ± 6.1 μmol/L in group 3. The main histological lesions in goats from group 1 were axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and atrophy of the muscles of vocal folds and of the dorsal cricoarytenoid and right and left cricothyroid muscles. Goats with ataxia had neuronal degeneration and necrosis of cerebellar Purkinje cells and of the cranial cervical ganglion. We concluded that the stridor was caused by axonal degeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves due to the severe copper deficiency.

  18. Involvement of hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerves on swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Suzuki, Taku; Yoshihara, Midori; Sakai, Shogo; Koshi, Naomi; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Naru; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Swallowing pressure generation is important to ensure safe transport of an ingested bolus without aspiration or leaving residue in the pharynx. To clarify the mechanism, we measured swallowing pressure at the oropharynx (OP), upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and cervical esophagus (CE) using a specially designed manometric catheter in anesthetized rats. A swallow, evoked by punctate mechanical stimulation to the larynx, was identified by recording activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles using electromyography (EMG). Areas under the curve of the swallowing pressure at the OP, UES, and CE from two trials indicated high intrasubject reproducibility. Effects of transecting the hypoglossal nerve (12N) and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) on swallowing were investigated. Following bilateral hypoglossal nerve transection (Bi-12Nx), OP pressure was significantly decreased, and time intervals between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure were significantly shorter. Decreased OP pressure and shortened times between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure following Bi-12Nx were significantly increased and longer, respectively, after covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material. UES pressure was significantly decreased after bilateral RLN transection compared with that before transection. These results suggest that the 12N and RLN play crucial roles in OP and UES pressure during swallowing, respectively. We speculate that covering the palates with a palatal augmentation prosthesis may reverse the reduced swallowing pressure in patients with 12N or tongue damage by the changes of the sensory information and of the contact between the tongue and a palates. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hypoglossal nerve transection reduced swallowing pressure at the oropharynx. Covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material may reverse the reduced swallowing function caused by hypoglossal nerve damage. Recurrent laryngeal nerve transection reduced upper

  19. Aberrant laryngeal location of Onchocerca lupi in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Cruz, Luís; Coelho, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Mansinho, Mário; Annoscia, Giada; Lia, Riccardo P; Giannelli, Alessio; Otranto, Domenico; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-06-01

    Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is an emerging vector-borne helminth that causes nodular lesions associated with acute or chronic ocular disease in dogs and cats. Since its first description in dogs in 1991, this zoonotic filarioid has been increasingly reported in Europe and the United States. An 8-year-old outdoor mixed-breed female dog from the Algarve (southern Portugal) was presented with a history of severe dyspnoea. Cervical and thoracic radiographs revealed a slight reduction in the diameter of the cervical trachea and a moderate increase in radiopacity of the laryngeal soft tissue. An exploratory laryngoscopy was performed, revealing filiform worms associated with stenosis of the thyroid cartilage and a purulent necrotic tissue in the larynx lumen. A single sessile nodule, protruding from the dorsal wall of the laryngeal lumen caused a severe reduction of the glottis and tracheal diameter. Fragments of the worms were morphologically and molecularly identified as O. lupi. Histological examination of the nodule showed a granulomatous reaction with sections of coiled gravid female nematodes. Following laryngoscopy, a tracheostomy tube was inserted to relieve dyspnoea and ivermectin (300 μg/kg, once a week, for 8 weeks) combined with prednisolone was prescribed. The dog showed a complete recovery. Although O. lupi has been isolated in human patients from the spinal cord, this is the first report of an aberrant migration of O. lupi in a dog. The veterinary medical community should pay attention to aberrant location of O. lupi and consider onchocercosis as a differential diagnosis for airway obstruction in dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laryngeal Force Sensor: Quantifying Extralaryngeal Complications after Suspension Microlaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Allen L; Song, Phillip C

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To develop a novel sensor capable of dynamically analyzing the force exerted during suspension microlaryngoscopy and to examine the relationship between force and postoperative tongue complications. Study Design Prospective observational study. Setting Academic tertiary care center. Methods The laryngeal force sensor is a designed for use during microphonosurgery. Prospectively enrolled patients completed pre- and postoperative surveys to assess the development of tongue-related symptoms (dysgeusia, pain, paresthesia, and paresis) or dysphagia (10-item Eating Assessment Tool [EAT-10]). To prevent operator bias, surgeons were blinded to the force recordings during surgery. Results Fifty-six patients completed the study. Of these, 20 (36%) developed postoperative tongue symptoms, and 12 (21%) had abnormal EAT-10 scores. The mean maximum force across all procedures was 164.7 N (95% CI, 141.0-188.4; range, 48.5-402.6), while the mean suspension time was 34.3 minutes (95% CI, 27.4-41.2; range, 7.1-108.1). Multiple logistic regression showed maximum force (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29; P = .019) and female sex (30.1%; 95% CI, 22.7%-37.5%; P force (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06; P = .045). Conclusions The laryngeal force sensor is capable of providing dynamic force measurements throughout suspension microlaryngoscopy. An increase in maximum force during surgery may be a significant predictor for the development of tongue-related symptoms and an abnormal EAT-10 score. Female patients may also be at greater risk for developing postoperative tongue symptoms.