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Sample records for t25 iter ech

  1. T25 ITER ECH window development 110 GHz ECH distributed window development. Final report, May 1, 1994 - December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, R.A.; Moeller, C.P.; Grunloh, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is one of the major candidates for Heating and Current Drive on ITER. ECH is extremely attractive from a reactor engineering point of view, offering compact launch structures, high injected power density, and a simple interface with the shield/blanket. Economic deployment of ECH for ITER requires MW unit microwave sources (gyrotrons). The present technology limitation is the availability of suitable low loss output windows. These are needed for the torus as well as the tube. The torus window, in particular, is a demanding application as it also serves as a tritium barrier. Several distinct window concepts are under development by the various Parties. This report summarizes the efforts to make and test a open-quotes distributedclose quotes window suitable for 1 MW cw operation at 110 GHz. A companion report (Final Report on Task 245+) describes the efforts to make a distributed window suitable for 1 MW cw operation at 170 GHz, the main frequency of interest to ITER. General Atomics (GA) fabricated a 4 in. x 4 in. 110 GHz distributed window which was delivered in September 1995 to Communications and Power Industries (CPI). Hot tests at CPI confirmed the power handling capability of the window. Tests were conducted with a reduced beam size at 200 kW with 0.7 s pulses without any arcing or excessive window temperatures. The power density and pulse length were equivalent to that in a full size 1.2 MW CW beam with a peak-to-average power ratio of 2.7. This window was assembled using a gold braze material to bond the sapphire strips to the niobium frame. The braze was successful except for small leaks at two locations, and re-braze efforts were unsuccessful

  2. Recent Progress on ECH Technology for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigiri, Jagadishwar

    2005-10-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) system for ITER is a critical ITER system that must be available for use on Day 1 of the ITER experimental program. The applications of the system include plasma start-up, plasma heating and suppression of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). These applications are accomplished using 27 one megawatt continuous wave gyrotrons: 24 at a frequency of 170 GHz and 3 at a frequency of 120 GHz. There are DC power supplies for the gyrotrons, a transmission line system, one launcher at the equatorial plane and three upper port launchers. The US will play a major role in delivering parts of the ECH&CD system to ITER. The present state-of-the-art includes major advances in all areas of ECH technology. In the US, a major effort is underway to supply gyrotrons of up to 1.5 MW power level at 110 GHz to General Atomics for use in heating the DIII-D tokamak. This presentation will include a brief review of the state-of-the-art, worldwide, in ECH technology. The requirements for the ITER ECH&CD system will then be reviewed. ITER calls for gyrotrons capable of operating from a 50 kV power supply, after potential depression, with a minimum of 50% overall efficiency. This is a very significant challenge and some approaches to meeting this goal will be presented. Recent experimental results at MIT showing improved efficiency of high frequency, 1.5 MW gyrotrons will be described. These results will be incorporated into the planned development of gyrotrons for ITER. The ITER ECH&CD system will also be a challenge to the transmission lines, which must operate at high average power at up to 1000 seconds and with high efficiency. The technology challenges and efforts in the US and other ITER parties to solve these problems will be reviewed. *In collaboration with E. Choi, C. Marchewka, I. Mastovosky, M. A. Shapiro and R. J. Temkin. This work is supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy.

  3. Conceptual design of the ECH upper launcher system for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidinger, R.; Bertizzolo, R.; Bruschi, A.; Chavan, R.; Cirant, S.; Collazos, A.; de Baar, M.; Elzendoorn, B.; Farina, D.; Fischer, U.; Gafert, J.; Gandini, F.; Gantenbein, G.; Goede, A.; Goodman, T.; Hailfinger, G.; Henderson, M.; Kasparek, W.; Kleefeldt, K.; Landis, J.-D.

    2009-01-01

    The challenge of developing the conceptual design of the ECH Upper Launcher system for MHD control in the ITER plasmas has been tackled by team of European Associations together with the European Domestic Agency ('F4E'). The launcher system has to meet the following requirements: (a) a mm-wave system extending from the interface to the transmission line up to the target absorption zone in the plasma and performing as an intelligent antenna; (b) a structural system integrating the mm-wave system and ensuring sufficient thermal and nuclear shielding; (c) port plug remote handling and testing capability ensuring high port plug system availability. The paper describes the reference launcher design. The mm-wave system is composed of waveguide and quasi-optical sections with a front steering system. An automated feedback control system is developed as a concept based on an assimilation procedure between predicted and diagnosed absorption location. The structural system consists of the blanket shield module, the port plug frame, and the internal shield for appropriate neutron shielding towards the launcher back-end. The specific advantages of a double walled structure are discussed with respect to adequate baking, to rigidity towards launcher deflection under plasma-generated loads and to removal of thermal loads, including nuclear ones. Basic studies of remote handling (RH) to validate design development are initiated using a virtual reality simulation backed by experimental validation, for which a launcher handling test facility (LHT) is set up as a full scale experimental site allowing furthermore thermohydraulic studies with ITER blanket water parameters.

  4. Study on ECH-assisted start-up using trapped particle configuration in KSTAR and application to ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwon; Kim, Jayhyun; An, YoungHwa; Yoo, Min-Gu; Hwang, Y. S.; Na, Yong-Su

    2017-12-01

    ECH-assisted start-up using trapped particle configuration (TPC) is firstly studied in a superconducting, conventional tokamak, KSTAR. First, improved and efficient start-up using TPC than conventional field null configuration (FNC) is achieved by enhanced pre-ionization plasma quality. TPC shows the broader operation window in terms of the poloidal field quality and the deuterium prefill pressure than that of FNC. Surprisingly the particle trapping enhances the plasma start-up performance even with much lower particle trapping ratio than that of spherical torus. Reliability of TPC with low trapping ratio is investigated by 0D plasma evolution code, TECHP0D. Second, the characteristics of TPC start-up are explored with experiments and modellings. Two kind of start-up failure conditions are identified by the magnetic pitch and prefill pressure scan experiments: (i) low ionization rate; and (ii) low density condition. These experimental observation has consistency with TECHP0D modeling result. Finally, reliable ITER-relevant low toroidal electric field start-up using TPC is achieved with drastically improved success rate of start-up in KSTAR. In this experiments, validity of the ITER-like toroidally inclined ECH/ECCD injection is also expected. Time dependent ITER start-up scenario using TPC is proposed and the superiority of it than FNC is discussed.

  5. Feasibility study of the EU home team on a 170 GHz 1 MW CW gyrotron for ECH on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iatrou, C.T.; Kern, S.; Thumm, M.; Moebius, A.; Nickel, H.U.; Horajitra, P.; Wien, A.; Tran, T.M.; Bon Mardion, G.; Pain, M.; Tonon, G.

    1995-03-01

    The gyrotron system for ECH and burn control on ITER requires at least 50 MW of RF power at frequencies near 170 GHz operating in CW. To meet these requirements, high efficiency gyrotron tubes with ≥1 MW power output capability are necessary, as well as simple coupling to either a quasi-optical or waveguide transmission line. The paper reports the feasibility study on the design of an ITER-relevant gyrotron oscillator at 170 GHz, 1 MW CW employing a diode electron gun, an advanced internal quasi-optical converter, a cryogenically cooled single disk sapphire window, and a depressed potential collector. The operating mode selection and the cavity design is a compromise between many design constraints. (author) 18 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs

  6. Application of ECH to the Study of Transport in ITER Baseline Scenario-like Discharges in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsker R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH. The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ∼0.42 to IBS discharges with ∼3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS, beam emission spectroscopy (BES and phase-contrast imaging (PCI diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  7. Setup of a test facility for the ECH upper launcher in ITER; Aufbau eines Versuchsstandes fuer den ECH Upper Launcher in ITER. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, T.; Aiello, G.; Meier, A.; Schreck, S.; Strauss, D.; Spaeh, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    2015-07-01

    In order to treat plasma instabilities in four of the upper ports in the ITER vacuum vessel electron-cyclotron launchers are installed. These consist essentially of a trapezoidally shaped steel construction, which contains the microwave components (essentially mirrors and waveguides). In the construction of such a launcher as essential given points the mechanical strength, the sufficient cooling of the system, effective screening of sensitive components against neutronic loads, as well as precise mountability must be regarded. The present reference design of the EC launcher is based on the so-called ''front-steering configuration'', in which the microwaves are fed through waveguides and through the diamond torus-window backward into the launcher and extend until around a third of the whole length of the launcher. From here the microwaves are further guided as quasi-optical beams via a mirror system forward to the plasma side of the launcher. There they are focused and fed via a set of adjustable mirrors to definite positions in the outerregions of the plasma. In order to assure that the microwave components are both protected against tha plasma and precisely positioned, their mounting in a stable, precise, and accessible structure is required. The extremely high requirements for such a structure, which exceed partly above hitherto typical and already industrially manufactured applications, make fabrication tests by means of certain sample objects as well as the construction of selected prototypes, which can also be used in view of their thermohydraulic suitability, indispensable.

  8. Analysis of the ITER ECH Upper Port Launcher remote maintenance using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzendoorn, B.; Baar, M. de; Chavan, R.; Goodman, T.; Heemskerk, C.; Heidinger, R.; Kleefeldt, K.; Koning, J.; Sanders, S.; Späh, P.; Strauss, D.; Verhoeven, T.; Vreede, F. de

    2009-01-01

    All ITER sub-systems of remote handling (RH) classes 1 and 2 have to be remotely maintainable. The maintenance strategy for these components has to ensure system availability after failure or scheduled maintenance. This paper shows how virtual reality (VR) simulation [1] can be used as a tool to

  9. Analysis of the ITER ECH Upper Port Launcher remote maintenance using virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzendoorn, Ben; de Baar, Marco; Chavan, Rene; Goodman, Timothy; Heemskerk, Cock; Heidinger, Roland; Kleefeldt, Klaus; Koning, Jarich; Sanders, Stephen; Spaeh, Peter; Strauss, Dirk; Verhoeven, Toon; Vreede, Fred de

    2009-01-01

    All ITER sub-systems of remote handling (RH) classes 1 and 2 have to be remotely maintainable. The maintenance strategy for these components has to ensure system availability after failure or scheduled maintenance. This paper shows how virtual reality (VR) simulation can be used as a tool to analyze the maintenance process, to predict the mean time to repair and to ensure the RH compatibility of one ITER sub-system, the Upper Port Launcher (UPL) . Special emphasis is put on the development of RH procedures and the identification of tooling requirements. The possibility to simulate RH logistics and repair actions in an early stage of the design process allows for the identification of those maintenance actions that require dedicated tests in the Launcher Handling Test Facility at Karlsruhe. The VR analysis, together with dedicated mock-up tests will demonstrate the RH compatibility of the UPL plug, provide input to the design of the Port Plug maintenance area in the ITER Hot Cell, and support the development of RH maintenance tooling.

  10. Progress on corrugated waveguide components suitable for ITER ECH&CD transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy C.J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2 MW cw requirement for ITER EC transmission lines has led GA to design a number of new and modified components, namely power monitors and polarizers to meet this requirement. In addition, the ITER transmission lines may require sliding joints or bellows to accommodate the thermal expansion of the lines and/or vessel motion. The ex-vessel sections of the EC launchers require double seal waveguides, miter bends and possibly double seal sliding joints to assure tritium retention in this region. GA has developed designs for many of these components and some of them have already been tested at high power at the JAEA RF Test Stand. Thermal analyses of the standard GA power monitor miter bend show that our standard design is suitable for 1 MW cw operation when the H-field is in the plane of the miter bend. For 2 MW cw operation a modified design, which also requires H-plane orientation, has been developed and a prototype has been fabricated and is ready for testing. For long pulse/cw operation, a 2 MW calorimetric miter bend with thermally isolated mirror has been designed and a prototype has been fabricated. Since the mirror is thermally isolated, calorimetry on the mirror cooling water can provide a measure of absorbed power. Such a miter bend, when made in a double seal version, could be useful for monitoring total power at the end of an EC transmission line just before the in-vessel section of an EC launcher. A mode analyzer using an all metal water-cooled beam splitter is being developed for use in measuring in real time the HE11 and higher order mode content or total power in EC transmission lines. Such a high power diagnostic can be very useful in optimizing the alignment of the MOU output into a transmission line and in monitoring the HE11 mode purity at various locations in a transmission line. Prior to making a 63.5 mm 170 GHz version suitable for use on ITER, several prototype 31.75 mm 110 GHz versions have been fabricated and tested at

  11. ECH Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-24

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.

  12. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, M.T.; PONCE, D.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; ELLIS, R.A.; GROSNICKLE, W.H.; HUMPHREY, R.L.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future

  13. ECH on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Peng, M.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating has been proposed for plasma initiation, startup assistance and non-inductive startup on NSTX. One physics goal of NSTX will be to establish entirely non-inductive plasma operation by utilizing ECH to provide a sufficient start-up plasma to support further current drive from other heating systems. Scaling of previous ECH-only startup experiments on CDX-U and DIII-D indicate that 400 kW of ECH should be capable of driving 42 kA of pressure driven current on NSTX and possibly higher levels after optimizing the process. Due to the low NSTX magnetic field, over-dense plasmas exist during most of the discharge so conventional ECH operation is limited to the low density startup phase. To extend the useful operating range for ECH, a scheme involving mode conversion to the electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) from either O or X mode launch is being investigated for bulk heating and current drive applications at higher density. Microwave equipment, including 18 GHz klystrons and 28 GHz gyrotrons are available at ORNL and appear ideal for use on NSTX. Preliminary pre-ionization and start-up system configurations are presented here along with discussions on various operation modes. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. ECH on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Peng, M.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating has been proposed for plasma initiation, startup assistance and non-inductive startup on NSTX. One physics goal of NSTX will be to establish entirely non-inductive plasma operation by utilizing ECH to provide a sufficient start-up plasma to support further current drive from other heating systems. Scaling of previous ECH-only startup experiments on CDX-U and DIII-D indicate that 400 kW of ECH should be capable of driving 42 kA of pressure driven current on NSTX and possibly higher levels after optimizing the process. Due to the low NSTX magnetic field, over-dense plasmas exist during most of the discharge so conventional ECH operation is limited to the low density startup phase. To extend the useful operating range for ECH, a scheme involving mode conversion to the electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) from either O r X mode launch is being investigated for bulk heating and current drive applications at higher density. Microwave equipment, including 18 GHz klystrons and 28 GHz gyrotrons are available at ORNL and appear ideal for use on NSTX. Preliminary pre-ionization and start-up system configurations are presented here along with discussions on various operation modes

  15. Iter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Robert

    2015-04-01

    ITER is an international experimental facility being built by seven Parties to demonstrate the long term potential of fusion energy. The ITER Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA) defines the structure and governance model of such cooperation. There are a number of necessary conditions for such international projects to be successful: a complete design, strong systems engineering working with an agreed set of requirements, an experienced organization with systems and plans in place to manage the project, a cost estimate backed by industry, and someone in charge. Unfortunately for ITER many of these conditions were not present. The paper discusses the priorities in the JIA which led to setting up the project with a Central Integrating Organization (IO) in Cadarache, France as the ITER HQ, and seven Domestic Agencies (DAs) located in the countries of the Parties, responsible for delivering 90%+ of the project hardware as Contributions-in-Kind and also financial contributions to the IO, as ``Contributions-in-Cash.'' Theoretically the Director General (DG) is responsible for everything. In practice the DG does not have the power to control the work of the DAs, and there is not an effective management structure enabling the IO and the DAs to arbitrate disputes, so the project is not really managed, but is a loose collaboration of competing interests. Any DA can effectively block a decision reached by the DG. Inefficiencies in completing design while setting up a competent organization from scratch contributed to the delays and cost increases during the initial few years. So did the fact that the original estimate was not developed from industry input. Unforeseen inflation and market demand on certain commodities/materials further exacerbated the cost increases. Since then, improvements are debatable. Does this mean that the governance model of ITER is a wrong model for international scientific cooperation? I do not believe so. Had the necessary conditions for success

  16. Conceptual study of ECH/ECCD system for fusion DEMO plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.; Kasugai, A.; Minami, R.; Kobayashi, N.; Nishio, S.; Sato, M.; Tobita, K.

    2006-01-01

    The conceptual study of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD) system for a DEMO reactor was carried out. The ECH/ECCD system was considered on the basis of a design of the DEMO reactor by JAERI. The reactor is a low aspect ratio tokamak, and its size and magnetic field are similar to those of ITER. Therefore, many ECH/ECCD technologies developed at 170 GHz for ITER can be applied. Truly continuous operation is needed for DEMO, and the neutron fluence from the plasma is two orders of magnitude higher than that of ITER. An RF launcher that has reliability under the condition of high neutron fluence is, critically, important. For power deposition control in the plasma, a gyrotron frequency tuning system is considered as the primary candidate to realize a simple and robust launching system, but two RF beam steering systems are discussed as alternatives

  17. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the intense methods of plasma heating, and which utilizes the collisionless electron-cyclotron-resonance-interaction between the launched electromagnetic waves (called electron cyclotron waves) and electrons which are one of the constituents of the high temperature plasmas. Another constituent, namely the ions which are subject to nuclear fusion, are heated indirectly but strongly and instantly (in about 0.1 s) by the collisions with the ECH-heated electrons in the fusion plasmas. The recent progress on the development of high-power and high-frequency millimeter-wave-source enabled the ECH experiments in the middle size tokamaks such as JFT-2M (Japan), Doublet III (USA), T-10 (USSR) etc., and ECH has been demonstrated to be the sure and intense plasma heating method. The ECH attracts much attention for its remarkable capabilities; to produce plasmas (pre-ionization), to heat plasmas, to drive plasma current for the plasma confinement, and recently especially by the localization and the spatial controllability of its heating zone, which is beneficial for the fine controls of the profiles of plasma parameters (temperature, current density etc.), for the control of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, or for the optimization/improvement of the plasma confinement characteristics. Here, the present status of the ECH studies on tokamak plasmas are reviewed. (author)

  18. ECH pre-ionization and assisted startup in the fully superconducting KSTAR tokamak using second harmonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Y.S.; Joung, M.; Kim, J.H.; Hahn, S.H.; Yoon, S.W.; Yang, H.L.; Kim, W.C.; Oh, Y.K.; England, A.C.; Bak, J.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Park, S.I.; Namkung, W.; Cho, M.H.; Jackson, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    This letter reports on the successful demonstration of the second harmonic electron cyclotron heating (ECH)-assisted startup in the first plasma experiments recently completed in the fully superconducting Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device whose major and minor radii are 1.8 m and 0.5 m, respectively. For the second harmonic ECH-assisted startup, an 84 GHz EC wave at 0.35 MW was launched before the onset of the toroidal electric field of the Ohmic system. And it was observed that this was sufficient to achieve breakdown in the ECH pre-ionization phase, allow burn-through and sustain the plasma during the current ramp with a low loop voltage of 2.0 V and a corresponding toroidal electric field of 0.24 V m -1 at the innermost vacuum vessel wall (R = 1.3 m). This is a lower value than 0.3 Vm -1 which is the maximum electric field in ITER. Due to the limited volt-seconds and the loop voltage of the Ohmic power system, the extended pulse duration of the ECH power up to 180 ms allowed the plasma current to rise up to more than 100 kA with a ramp-up rate of 0.8 MA s -1 . (letter)

  19. 110GHz ECH on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Allen, J.C.; Callis, R.W.; Doane, J.L.; Harris, T.E.; Moetler, C.P.; Neren, A.; Prater, P.; Rensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system which has been introduced on DIII-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on DIII-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1. 6 MW) , and the 30-60 MHz ICH (2MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz

  20. The EChO science case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul

    2015-01-01

    in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary....... The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300–3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few...

  1. e -ech-o / -ech-a na fala de Castrelo do Val

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquilino Santiago Alonso Núñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the uses of the Galician diminutive nominal suffixes -et-e / -et-a, -uc-o / -uc-a e -ech-o / -ech-a in the Castrelo do Val (Ourense, Spain dialect variety, while also surveying aspects of their use in other Galician dialects, including their occurrence in toponyms and some medieval corpora, and also in Portuguese and Spanish. This information is contrasted with data obtained from our participant observation of a particular variety of Galician while also supplying a historical perspective. The study uses a dynamic approach to word formation taking into account both words in actual use and the possibility of forming new words by means of the same suffixes. This analysis shows that the diminutive suffix -et-e is used as in the most widespread variety of Galician, whereas -uc- only has residual uses; use of -ech- is more restricted in the variety studied than in common Galician.

  2. The EChO science case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Drossart, Pierre; Eccleston, Paul; Hartogh, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Puig, Ludovic; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Swinyard, Bruce; Allard, France; Barstow, Joanna; Cho, James; Coustenis, Athena; Cockell, Charles; Correia, Alexandre; Decin, Leen; de Kok, Remco; Deroo, Pieter; Encrenaz, Therese; Forget, Francois; Glasse, Alistair; Griffith, Caitlin; Guillot, Tristan; Koskinen, Tommi; Lammer, Helmut; Leconte, Jeremy; Maxted, Pierre; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Nelson, Richard; North, Chris; Pallé, Enric; Pagano, Isabella; Piccioni, Guseppe; Pinfield, David; Selsis, Franck; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Stixrude, Lars; Tennyson, Jonathan; Turrini, Diego; Zapatero-Osorio, Mariarosa; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Grodent, Denis; Guedel, Manuel; Luz, David; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ray, Tom; Rickman, Hans; Selig, Avri; Swain, Mark; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Barlow, Mike; Bowles, Neil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; du Foresto, Vincent Coudé; Gerard, Jean-Claude; Gizon, Laurent; Hornstrup, Allan; Jarchow, Christopher; Kerschbaum, Franz; Kovacs, Géza; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Lim, Tanya; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Pace, Emanuele; Pascale, Enzo; Vandenbussche, Bart; Wright, Gillian; Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Adriani, Alberto; Azzollini, Ruymán; Balado, Ana; Bryson, Ian; Burston, Raymond; Colomé, Josep; Crook, Martin; Di Giorgio, Anna; Griffin, Matt; Hoogeveen, Ruud; Ottensamer, Roland; Irshad, Ranah; Middleton, Kevin; Morgante, Gianluca; Pinsard, Frederic; Rataj, Mirek; Reess, Jean-Michel; Savini, Giorgio; Schrader, Jan-Rutger; Stamper, Richard; Winter, Berend; Abe, L.; Abreu, M.; Achilleos, N.; Ade, P.; Adybekian, V.; Affer, L.; Agnor, C.; Agundez, M.; Alard, C.; Alcala, J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Alonso Floriano, F. J.; Altieri, F.; Alvarez Iglesias, C. A.; Amado, P.; Andersen, A.; Aylward, A.; Baffa, C.; Bakos, G.; Ballerini, P.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Barber, R. J.; Barrado, D.; Barton, E. J.; Batista, V.; Bellucci, G.; Belmonte Avilés, J. A.; Berry, D.; Bézard, B.; Biondi, D.; Błęcka, M.; Boisse, I.; Bonfond, B.; Bordé, P.; Börner, P.; Bouy, H.; Brown, L.; Buchhave, L.; Budaj, J.; Bulgarelli, A.; Burleigh, M.; Cabral, A.; Capria, M. T.; Cassan, A.; Cavarroc, C.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Cerulli, R.; Chadney, J.; Chamberlain, S.; Charnoz, S.; Christian Jessen, N.; Ciaravella, A.; Claret, A.; Claudi, R.; Coates, A.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Cordier, D.; Covino, E.; Danielski, C.; Damasso, M.; Deeg, H. J.; Delgado-Mena, E.; Del Vecchio, C.; Demangeon, O.; De Sio, A.; De Wit, J.; Dobrijévic, M.; Doel, P.; Dominic, C.; Dorfi, E.; Eales, S.; Eiroa, C.; Espinoza Contreras, M.; Esposito, M.; Eymet, V.; Fabrizio, N.; Fernández, M.; Femenía Castella, B.; Figueira, P.; Filacchione, G.; Fletcher, L.; Focardi, M.; Fossey, S.; Fouqué, P.; Frith, J.; Galand, M.; Gambicorti, L.; Gaulme, P.; García López, R. J.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; Gear, W.; Gerard, J.-C.; Gesa, L.; Giani, E.; Gianotti, F.; Gillon, M.; Giro, E.; Giuranna, M.; Gomez, H.; Gomez-Leal, I.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J.; González Merino, B.; Graczyk, R.; Grassi, D.; Guardia, J.; Guio, P.; Gustin, J.; Hargrave, P.; Haigh, J.; Hébrard, E.; Heiter, U.; Heredero, R. L.; Herrero, E.; Hersant, F.; Heyrovsky, D.; Hollis, M.; Hubert, B.; Hueso, R.; Israelian, G.; Iro, N.; Irwin, P.; Jacquemoud, S.; Jones, G.; Jones, H.; Justtanont, K.; Kehoe, T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Kerins, E.; Kervella, P.; Kipping, D.; Koskinen, T.; Krupp, N.; Lahav, O.; Laken, B.; Lanza, N.; Lellouch, E.; Leto, G.; Licandro Goldaracena, J.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C.; Liu, S. J.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lodieu, N.; Lognonné, P.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Lundgaard Rasmussen, I.; Luntzer, A.; Machado, P.; MacTavish, C.; Maggio, A.; Maillard, J.-P.; Magnes, W.; Maldonado, J.; Mall, U.; Marquette, J.-B.; Mauskopf, P.; Massi, F.; Maurin, A.-S.; Medvedev, A.; Michaut, C.; Miles-Paez, P.; Montalto, M.; Montañés Rodríguez, P.; Monteiro, M.; Montes, D.; Morais, H.; Morales, J. C.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Morello, G.; Moro Martín, A.; Moses, J.; Moya Bedon, A.; Murgas Alcaino, F.; Oliva, E.; Orton, G.; Palla, F.; Pancrazzi, M.; Pantin, E.; Parmentier, V.; Parviainen, H.; Peña Ramírez, K. Y.; Peralta, J.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Petrov, R.; Pezzuto, S.; Pietrzak, R.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Piskunov, N.; Prinja, R.; Prisinzano, L.; Polichtchouk, I.; Poretti, E.; Radioti, A.; Ramos, A. A.; Rank-Lüftinger, T.; Read, P.; Readorn, K.; Rebolo López, R.; Rebordão, J.; Rengel, M.; Rezac, L.; Rocchetto, M.; Rodler, F.; Sánchez Béjar, V. J.; Sanchez Lavega, A.; Sanromá, E.; Santos, N.; Sanz Forcada, J.; Scandariato, G.; Schmider, F.-X.; Scholz, A.; Scuderi, S.; Sethenadh, J.; Shore, S.; Showman, A.; Sicardy, B.; Sitek, P.; Smith, A.; Soret, L.; Sousa, S.; Stiepen, A.; Stolarski, M.; Strazzulla, G.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tanga, P.; Tecsa, M.; Temple, J.; Terenzi, L.; Tessenyi, M.; Testi, L.; Thompson, S.; Thrastarson, H.; Tingley, B. W.; Trifoglio, M.; Martín Torres, J.; Tozzi, A.; Turrini, D.; Varley, R.; Vakili, F.; de Val-Borro, M.; Valdivieso, M. L.; Venot, O.; Villaver, E.; Vinatier, S.; Viti, S.; Waldmann, I.; Waltham, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Waters, R.; Watkins, C.; Watson, D.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszk, A.; White, G.; Widemann, T.; Winek, W.; Wiśniowski, T.; Yelle, R.; Yung, Y.; Yurchenko, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune—all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10-4 relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength

  3. ITER...ation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyon, F.

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent attacks against ITER, the new generation of tokamak are a mix of political and scientific arguments. This short article draws a historical review of the European fusion program. This program has allowed to build and manage several installations in the aim of getting experimental results necessary to lead the program forwards. ITER will bring together a fusion reactor core with technologies such as materials, superconductive coils, heating devices and instrumentation in order to validate and delimit the operating range. ITER will be a logical and decisive step towards the use of controlled fusion. (A.C.)

  4. EBT-S ECH transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.

    1983-01-01

    Over the past 18 months the EBT-S 28-GHz 200 kW cw mixed mode ECH system efficiency has increased from 70 to 80% by the substitution of 90 0 smooth radius W/G bends for the earlier miter bends, by eliminating several mode absorbers necessary for miter bend operation, and by optimizing the microwave coupling through the quasi-optical toroidal distribution manifold. Along with reduced system losses, these improvements have allowed the gyrotron sources to operate in a wider parameter range with high dc to rf conversion efficiency than previously attainable. Other components that have been developed besides radiused bends include T/sub i/O 2 mode absorbers, power splitters, bellows, and several types of high field mixed mode launchers. Details on these components will be presented as time allows

  5. Cloning and semi-quantitative expression of endochitinase ( ech42 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cloning and semi-quantitative expression of endochitinase (ech42) gene from Trichoderma spp. Pratibha Sharma, K Saravanan, R Ramesh, P Vignesh Kumar, Dinesh Singh, Manika Sharma, Monica S. Henry, Swati Deep ...

  6. The science of EChO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Cho, James Y.-K.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Grasset, Olivier; Grenfell, Lee; Guillot, Tristan; Koskinen, Tommi T.; Moses, Julianne I.; Pinfield, David; Tennyson, Jonathan; Tessenyi, Marcell; Wordsworth, Robin; Aylward, Alan; van Boekel, Roy; Coradini, Angioletta; Encrenaz, Therese; Snellen, Ignas; Zapatero-Osorio, Maria R.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Pallé, Enric; Selsis, Franck; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Henning, Thomas; Meyer, Michael; Micela, Giuseppina; Ribas, Ignasi; Stam, Daphne; Swain, Mark; Krause, Oliver; Ollivier, Marc; Pace, Emanuele; Swinyard, Bruce; Ade, Peter A. R.; Achilleos, Nick; Adriani, Alberto; Agnor, Craig B.; Afonso, Cristina; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bakos, Gaspar; Barber, Robert J.; Barlow, Michael; Bernath, Peter; Bézard, Bruno; Bordé, Pascal; Brown, Linda R.; Cassan, Arnaud; Cavarroc, Céline; Ciaravella, Angela; Cockell, Charles; Coustenis, Athéna; Danielski, Camilla; Decin, Leen; De Kok, Remco; Demangeon, Olivier; Deroo, Pieter; Doel, Peter; Drossart, Pierre; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Focardi, Matteo; Forget, Francois; Fossey, Steve; Fouqué, Pascal; Frith, James; Galand, Marina; Gaulme, Patrick; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Grassi, Davide; Griffin, Matt J.; Grözinger, Ulrich; Guedel, Manuel; Guio, Pactrick; Hainaut, Olivier; Hargreaves, Robert; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Heng, Kevin; Heyrovsky, David; Hueso, Ricardo; Irwin, Pat; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kervella, Patrick; Kipping, David; Kovacs, Geza; La Barbera, Antonino; Lammer, Helmut; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Leto, Giuseppe; Lopez Morales, Mercedes; Valverde, Lopez Miguel A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Lovi, Christophe; Maggio, Antonio; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Prado, Jesus Maldonado; Marquette, Jean-Baptiste; Martin-Torres, Francisco J.; Maxted, Pierre; Miller, Steve; Molinari, Sergio; Montes, David; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Mousis, Olivier; Tuong, Napoléon Nguyen; Nelson, Richard; Orton, Glenn S.; Pantin, Eric; Pascale, Enzo; Pezzuto, Stefano; Poretti, Ennio; Prinja, Raman; Prisinzano, Loredana; Réess, Jean-Michel; Reiners, Ansgar; Samuel, Benjamin; Sanz Forcada, Jorge; Sasselov, Dimitar; Savini, Giorgio; Sicardy, Bruno; Smith, Alan; Stixrude, Lars; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Vasisht, Gautam; Vinatier, Sandrine; Viti, Serena; Waldmann, Ingo; White, Glenn J.; Widemann, Thomas; Yelle, Roger; Yung, Yuk; Yurchenko, Sergey

    2011-11-01

    The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are? In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life. The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole. EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be

  7. Design and development of ITER high-frequency magnetic sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y., E-mail: Yunxing.Ma@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Fircroft Engineering, Lingley House, 120 Birchwood Point, Birchwood Boulevard, Warrington, WA3 7QH (United Kingdom); Vayakis, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Begrambekov, L.B. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409, Moscow, Kashirskoe shosse 31 (Russian Federation); Cooper, J.-J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Duran, I. [IPP Prague, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H.P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Moreau, Ph. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Oosterbeek, J.W. [Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Spuig, P. [CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Stange, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Walsh, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • ITER high-frequency magnetic sensor system has been designed. • Prototypes have been successfully manufactured. • Manufactured prototypes have been tested in various labs. • Test results experimentally validated the design. - Abstract: High-frequency (HF) inductive magnetic sensors are the primary ITER diagnostic set for Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE) detection, while they also supplement low-frequency MHD and plasma equilibrium measurements. These sensors will be installed on the inner surface of ITER vacuum vessel, operated in a harsh environment with considerable neutron/nuclear radiation and high thermal load. Essential components of the HF sensor system, including inductive coil, electron cyclotron heating (ECH) shield, electrical cabling and termination load, have been designed to meet ITER measurement requirements. System performance (e.g. frequency response, thermal conduction) has been assessed. A prototyping campaign was initiated to demonstrate the manufacturability of the designed components. Prototypes have been produced according to the specifications. A series of lab tests have been performed to examine assembly issues and validate electrical and thermo-mechanical aspects of the design. In-situ microwave radiation test has been conducted in the MISTRAL test facility at IPP-Greifswald to experimentally examine the microwave shielding efficiency and structural integrity of the ECH shield. Low-power microwave attenuation measurement and scanning electron microscopic inspection were conducted to probe and examine the quality of the metal coating on the ECH shield.

  8. T25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lesovaya

    2015-11-01

    Overall, our data provide the rationale for novel therapy of cancer based on combination of non-steroidal GR modulators with classic and modern chemotherapeutics. Approaches to obtain more SEGRAs were elaborated.

  9. Iterating skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Horstmeyer, Thomas; Berthold, Jost

    2012-01-01

    a particular skeleton ad-hoc for repeated execution turns out to be considerably complicated, and raises general questions about introducing state into a stateless parallel computation. In addition, one would strongly prefer an approach which leaves the original skeleton intact, and only uses it as a building...... block inside a bigger structure. In this work, we present a general framework for skeleton iteration and discuss requirements and variations of iteration control and iteration body. Skeleton iteration is expressed by synchronising a parallel iteration body skeleton with a (likewise parallel) state......Skeleton-based programming is an area of increasing relevance with upcoming highly parallel hardware, since it substantially facilitates parallel programming and separates concerns. When parallel algorithms expressed by skeletons involve iterations – applying the same algorithm repeatedly...

  10. ITER safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.; Piet, S.; Buende, R.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the series of publications by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this document describes the ITER safety analyses. It contains an assessment of normal operation effluents, accident scenarios, plasma chamber safety, tritium system safety, magnet system safety, external loss of coolant and coolant flow problems, and a waste management assessment, while it describes the implementation of the safety approach for ITER. The document ends with a list of major conclusions, a set of topical remarks on technical safety issues, and recommendations for the Engineering Design Activities, safety considerations for siting ITER, and recommendations with regard to the safety issues for the R and D for ITER. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. ITER overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Parker, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes technical works of six years done by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under terms of Agreement of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. The major products are as follows: complete and detailed engineering design with supporting assessments, industrial-based cost estimates and schedule, non-site specific comprehensive safety and environmental assessment, and technology R and D to validate and qualify design including proof of technologies and industrial manufacture and testing of full size or scalable models of key components. The ITER design is at an advanced stage of maturity and contains sufficient technical information for a construction decision. The operation of ITER will demonstrate the availability of a new energy source, fusion. (author)

  12. ITER Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Parker, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes technical works of six years done by the ITER Joint Central Team and Home Teams under terms of Agreement of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. The major products are as follows: complete and detailed engineering design with supporting assessments, industrial-based cost estimates and schedule, non-site specific comprehensive safety and environmental assessment, and technology R and D to validate and qualify design including proof of technologies and industrial manufacture and testing of full size or scalable models of key components. The ITER design is at an advanced stage of maturity and contains sufficient technical information for a construction decision. The operation of ITER will demonstrate the availability of a new energy source, fusion. (author)

  13. Heating, current drive and MHD control using ECH in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The 6 beam 2nd harmonic X-mode (X2), 3MW, ECH/ECCD system of the TCV tokamak allows a fine tailoring of the deposition profiles in the plasma. The sensitivity of the sawtooth period to the deposition location is used to increase the equilibria reconstruction and ray-tracing accuracy. Off-axis ECH, followed by on-axis counter-ECCD produces improved central confinement regimes in which τ Ee exceeds RLW scaling by a factor of 3.5. The PRETOR transport code (incorporating an RLW local transport model but constrained by the experimental density profiles) predicts an extreme sensitivity of τ Ee to the deposition location of the counter-ECCD. This is confirmed by experiments. Sawtooth simulations using PRETOR, including the effects of current drive with inputs from the TORAY ray-tracing code, are in good agreement with experimental results. These results are an initial benchmark for the package of analysis codes, LIUQE/TORAY/PRETOR used during ECH/ECCD experiments on TCV. (author)

  14. ITER licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    ITER was fortunate to have four countries interested in ITER siting to the point where licensing discussions were initiated. This experience uncovered the challenges of licensing a first of a kind, fusion machine under different licensing regimes and helped prepare the way for the site specific licensing process. These initial steps in licensing ITER have allowed for refining the safety case and provide confidence that the design and safety approach will be licensable. With site-specific licensing underway, the necessary regulatory submissions have been defined and are well on the way to being completed. Of course, there is still work to be done and details to be sorted out. However, the informal international discussions to bring both the proponent and regulatory authority up to a common level of understanding have laid the foundation for a licensing process that should proceed smoothly. This paper provides observations from the perspective of the International Team. (author)

  15. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-11-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.

  16. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  17. Multiple frequency ECH (MFECH) in SM-1 and STM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, N.; Barter, J.; Dandl, R.; DiVergilio, W.; Quon, B.; Wuerker, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma properties were studied in a simple mirror (SM-1) and a five-cell axisymmetric tandem mirror (STM-1) using multiple frequency ECH. The cold plasma properties depend predominantly on total power but the efficiency for producing the diamagnetic ring plasma depends critically on heating with multiple frequencies. The effects of frequency separation of the heating sources will be demonstrated. Noise fluctuations in the axial current are suppressed with increasing ring-β, but the observed frequency spectrum are not well understood. Annulus β in the multiple mirror is also dependent on MFECH. Plans for and experiments in the new facility will be described

  18. Initial high-power testing of the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] ECH [electron cyclotron heating] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO 2 mode absorbers, two 90 0 miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE 02 mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE 01 , 82.6% TE 02 , 2.5% TE 03 , and 1.9% TE 04 . 4 refs

  19. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  20. Experimental tests of transport models using modulated ECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBoo, J.C.; Kinsey, J.E.; Bravenec, R.

    1998-12-01

    Both the dynamic and equilibrium thermal responses of an L-mode plasma to repetitive ECH heat pulses were measured and compared to predictions from several thermal transport models. While no model consistently agreed with all observations, the GLF23 model was most consistent with the perturbated electron and ion temperature responses for one of the cases studied which may indicate a key role played by electron modes in the core of these discharges. Generally, the IIF and MM models performed well for the perturbed electron response while the GLF23 and IFS/PPPL models agreed with the perturbed ion response for all three cases studied. No single model agreed well with the equilibrium temperature profiles measured

  1. Plans for improvements to the ATF ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Murakami, M.; Schaich, C.R.; Wilgen, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellarator experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses electron cyclotron waves for plasma formation and heating. Although the existing systems are quite reliable and produce acceptable plasmas, a few deficiencies should be corrected. Therefore, several possible upgrades to the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) systems have been planned. Some of the desirable changes are (1) improving the launcher to make power deposition in the plasma more centralized, (2) improving the gyrotron power waveform monitoring diagnostics, (3) building a high-field launch system for higher density operation at 53-GHz (4) building a separate transmission line for the 35-GHz gyrotron, and (5) installing a higher frequency, higher power (84- or 110-GHz) gyrotron system for improved plasma density and temperature capability. This paper discusses options for these improvements and conceptual designs. (orig.)

  2. Plan for the sawtooth control by the ECH in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J.H.; Bae, Y.S.; Joung, M.

    2013-01-01

    The sawtooth control in tokamak is very important because the long period sawtooth is able to trigger TM/NTMs which are significantly reducing the operational performance of plasma and even lead disruptions. The different sawtooth period behaviors by ECH and NBI with different injection conditions are observed in KSTAR during the 2012 campaign. The period of sawtooth is shortened by on-axis X2 110 GHz ECCD in NB-heated plasmas, and the stabilization of the sawtooth is also observed by off-axis X2 110 GHz ECCD. This means that the sawtooth period can be controlled in an accurate way by various EC beam injection conditions in KSTAR and to lengthen it as well. Two new recent sawtooth control methods are of interest and under the plan in KSTAR experiments: sawtooth locking and sawtooth pacing which is a well-known technique to control the sawtooth period behavior by periodic forcing by electron cyclotron waves nearby q=1 surface. The locking range can be investigated with a variable deposition location and the modulated RF power with a certain period and duty cycle in an open-loop control. And then, using the best parameters to lengthen in a controlled-way the sawtooth period, the relations between the sawtooth period and triggering of TM/NTM will be obtained at different beta values. For these experiments, the real-time control development of EC beam power modulation is under plan to control the sawtooth periods to a desired value. This requires the arbitrary power modulation of EC beam synchronized with external waveform generator which can be set the various modulation frequencies. This paper presents the sawtooth characteristics in present KSTAR operation scenario and the plan of the real-time sawtooth control. Also, the upgrade plan of the fast EC power modulation is presented including the present status of KSTAR ECH systems. (author)

  3. QuEChERS extraction of benzodiazepines in biological matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Westland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two common analytical chemical problems often encountered when using chromatographic techniques in drug analysis are matrix interferences and ion suppression. Common sample preparation often involves the dilution of the sample prior to injection onto an instrument, especially for liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS analyses. This practice frequently does not minimize or eliminate conditions that may cause ion-suppression and therefore, suffer more from reduced method robustness. In order to achieve higher quality results and minimize possible interferences, various sample preparation techniques may be considered. Through the use of QuEChERS (“catchers”, a novel sample preparation technique used for high aqueous content samples, benzodiazepines can be extracted from biological fluids, such as blood and urine. This approach has shown increased recoveries of target compounds when using quantification by both external and internal standard. This increase in the recoveries has been attributed to a matrix enhancement and was determined through the use of the method of standard addition. While improving the overall analytical method for gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis, it is not clear if this approach represents an overall benefit for laboratories that have both GC–MS and high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS capability. Demonstrating evidence of variable ionization (enhancement, ion source inertness, etc., the method of quantification should be focused on in future studies. Keywords: Forensic science, QuEChERS, Drug analysis, Benzodiazepines, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Biological samples

  4. Artificial intelligence for the EChO mission planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2015-12-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) has as its main goal the measurement of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. In order to yield measurements of sufficient Signal-to-Noise Ratio to fulfil the mission objectives, the events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times. In addition, several criteria have to be considered to carry out each observation, such as the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and no overlapping with other tasks. It is expected that a suitable mission plan increases the efficiency of telescope operation, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. Nevertheless, to obtain a long term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the huge number of possible combinations for finding an optimum solution. In this contribution we present a long term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the defined objectives, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of exoplanets to be observed. Specifically, the results show that, with the proposed tool, EChO uses 94% of the available time of the mission, so the amount of downtime is small, and it completes 98% of the targets.

  5. Full absorption of 3rd harmonic ECH in TCV target plasmas produced by 2nd harmonic ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, S.; Goodman, T.; Henderson, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study of the extraordinary mode (X-mode) absorption at the third cyclotron harmonic frequency (118GHz) has been performed on the TCV Tokamak in plasmas preheated by X-mode at the second harmonic (82.7GHz). Various preheating configurations have been experimentally investigated, ranging from counter-ECCD, ECH to CO-ECCD at various power levels. Full absorption of the 470kW of injected X3 power was measured with as little as 350kW of X2-CO-ECCD preheating. The measured absorption exceeds that predicted by the linear ray tracing code TORAY by more than a factor of 2 for the CO-ECCD case. Experimental evidence indicates that a large fraction of the X3 power is absorbed by electrons in an energetic tail created by the X2-ECCD preheating. (author)

  6. ITER council proceedings: 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Continuing the ITER EDA, two further ITER Council Meetings were held since the publication of ITER EDA documentation series no, 20, namely the ITER Council Meeting on 27-28 February 2001 in Toronto, and the ITER Council Meeting on 18-19 July in Vienna. That Meeting was the last one during the ITER EDA. This volume contains records of these Meetings, including: Records of decisions; List of attendees; ITER EDA status report; ITER EDA technical activities report; MAC report and advice; Final report of ITER EDA; and Press release

  7. Second Harmonic 110 GHz ECH-assisted Start-up in KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han S. H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In KSTAR device, a 110 GHz ECH system has been a useful heating device for a stable plasma start-up because a pure ohmic discharge scenario with a limited loop voltage of about 4 V was sometimes not successful for burn-through and plasma current ramp-up due to inconsistent wall conditioning and density control. Even though a pure ohmic discharge also was successful, the application of X2-mode ECH could reduce the flux consumption of poloidal field coils, leading to long pulse discharges. The ECH power was injected at the time of the field null formation after the onset of the toroidal electric field in which the electron temperature significantly increased up to 100 eV so that burn-through is overcome. The ECH heating enabled the formation of close flux surfaces earlier, leading to the reliable plasma current ramp-up, but, it caused outward plasma movement and failure of the plasma control, resulting in loss of the discharge. Moreover, impurities from the plasma facing components caused by not fully absorbed ECH power had a detrimental effect on the H-mode transition. In ECH-assisted start-up in the ramp-up phase, ECH power was mainly used for central electron heating, leading to reduction of the flux consumption of the central coils by increasing the electron temperature along with a density increase in the ramp-up phase. When X2-mode ECH power of 350 kW was injected at the mid-plane with a toroidal angle of 10 degree for 1 sec after the onset of the loop voltage, the flux consumption was reduced by about 30% in comparison with the pure ohmic discharges.

  8. ITER council proceedings: 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains documents of the 13th and the 14th ITER council meeting as well as of the 1st extraordinary ITER council meeting. Documents of the ITER meetings held in Vienna and Yokohama during 1998 are also included. The contents include an outline of the ITER objectives, the ITER parameters and design overview as well as operating scenarios and plasma performance. Furthermore, design features, safety and environmental characteristics are given

  9. Applying HAZOP analysis in assessing remote handling compatibility of ITER port plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duisings, L.P.M.; Til, S. van; Magielsen, A.J.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We applied HAZOP analysis to assess the criticality of remote handling maintenance activities on port plugs in the ITER Hot Cell facility. ► We identified several weak points in the general upper port plug maintenance concept. ► We made clear recommendations on redesign in port plug design, operational sequence and Hot Cell equipment. ► The use of a HAZOP approach for the ECH UL port can also be applied to ITER port plugs in general. -- Abstract: This paper describes the application of a Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) methodology in assessing the criticality of remote handling maintenance activities on port plugs in the ITER Hot Cell facility. As part of the ECHUL consortium, the remote handling team at the DIFFER Institute is developing maintenance tools and procedures for critical components of the ECH Upper launcher (UL). Based on NRG's experience with nuclear risk analysis and Hot Cell procedures, early versions of these tool concepts and maintenance procedures were subjected to a HAZOP analysis. The analysis identified several weak points in the general upper port plug maintenance concept and led to clear recommendations on redesigns in port plug design, the operational sequence and ITER Hot Cell equipment. The paper describes the HAZOP methodology and illustrates its application with specific procedures: the Steering Mirror Assembly (SMA) replacement and the exchange of the Mid Shield Optics (MSO) in the ECH UPL. A selection of recommended changes to the launcher design associated with the accessibility, maintainability and manageability of replaceable components are presented

  10. ITER Council proceedings: 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Records of the third ITER Council Meeting (IC-3), held on 21-22 April 1993, in Tokyo, Japan, and the fourth ITER Council Meeting (IC-4) held on 29 September - 1 October 1993 in San Diego, USA, are presented, giving essential information on the evolution of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), such as the text of the draft of Protocol 2 further elaborated in ''ITER EDA Agreement and Protocol 2'' (ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 5), recommendations on future work programmes: a description of technology R and D tasks; the establishment of a trust fund for the ITER EDA activities; arrangements for Visiting Home Team Personnel; the general framework for the involvement of other countries in the ITER EDA; conditions for the involvement of Canada in the Euratom Contribution to the ITER EDA; and other attachments as parts of the Records of Decision of the aforementioned ITER Council Meetings

  11. ITER council proceedings: 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    No ITER Council Meetings were held during 2000. However, two ITER EDA Meetings were held, one in Tokyo, January 19-20, and one in Moscow, June 29-30. The parties participating in these meetings were those that partake in the extended ITER EDA, namely the EU, the Russian Federation, and Japan. This document contains, a/o, the records of these meetings, the list of attendees, the agenda, the ITER EDA Status Reports issued during these meetings, the TAC (Technical Advisory Committee) reports and recommendations, the MAC Reports and Advice (also for the July 1999 Meeting), the ITER-FEAT Outline Design Report, the TAC Reports and Recommendations both meetings), Site requirements and Site Design Assumptions, the Tentative Sequence of technical Activities 2000-2001, Report of the ITER SWG-P2 on Joint Implementation of ITER, EU/ITER Canada Proposal for New ITER Identification

  12. ITER council proceedings: 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Records of the third ITER Council Meeting (IC-3), held on 21-22 April 1993, in Tokyo, Japan, and the fourth ITER Council Meeting (IC-4) held on 29 September - 1 October 1993 in San Diego, USA, are presented, giving essential information on the evolution of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), such as the text of the draft of Protocol 2 further elaborated in ``ITER EDA Agreement and Protocol 2`` (ITER EDA Documentation Series No. 5), recommendations on future work programmes: a description of technology R and D tastes; the establishment of a trust fund for the ITER EDA activities; arrangements for Visiting Home Team Personnel; the general framework for the involvement of other countries in the ITER EDA; conditions for the involvement of Canada in the Euratom Contribution to the ITER EDA; and other attachments as parts of the Records of Decision of the aforementioned ITER Council Meetings.

  13. ITER council proceedings: 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Records of the 8. ITER Council Meeting (IC-8), held on 26-27 July 1995, in San Diego, USA, and the 9. ITER Council Meeting (IC-9) held on 12-13 December 1995, in Garching, Germany, are presented, giving essential information on the evolution of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the ITER Interim Design Report Package and Relevant Documents. Figs, tabs

  14. ITER council proceedings: 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In 1999 the ITER meeting in Cadarache (10-11 March 1999) and the Programme Directors Meeting in Grenoble (28-29 July 1999) took place. Both meetings were exclusively devoted to ITER engineering design activities and their agendas covered all issues important for the development of ITER. This volume presents the documents of these two important meetings

  15. ITER council proceedings: 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Records of the 10. ITER Council Meeting (IC-10), held on 26-27 July 1996, in St. Petersburg, Russia, and the 11. ITER Council Meeting (IC-11) held on 17-18 December 1996, in Tokyo, Japan, are presented, giving essential information on the evolution of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) and the cost review and safety analysis. Figs, tabs

  16. ITER EDA technical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Six years of technical work under the ITER EDA Agreement have resulted in a design which constitutes a complete description of the ITER device and of its auxiliary systems and facilities. The ITER Council commented that the Final Design Report provides the first comprehensive design of a fusion reactor based on well established physics and technology

  17. ITER radio frequency systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.

    1998-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection and RF heating are two of the methods for heating and current drive in ITER. The three ITER RF systems, which have been developed during the EDA, offer several complementary services and are able to fulfil ITER operational requirements

  18. Controlling DIII-D QH-Mode Particle and Electron Thermal Transport with ECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Rhodes, T. L.; Guttenfelder, W.; McKee, G. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Holland, C.; Dimits, A.; Petty, C. C.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Doyle, E. J.; Austin, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    Quiescent H-mode core particle transport and density peaking are locally controlled by modulated electron cyclotron heating (ECH) at ρ ~ 0 . 2 . Gyrokinetic simulations show density gradient driven trapped electron modes (TEMs) are only unstable in the inner core, where the density profile flattens in response to ECH. Thus α-heating could reduce density peaking, providing burn control. Density fluctuations from Doppler backscattering intensify at TEM wavenumbers kθρs ~ 0 . 8 during ECH, while new quasi-coherent modes are observed with adjacent toroidal mode numbers consistent with TEMs. Separately, ECH at two-deposition locations (r / a ~ ρ = 0 . 5 & 0.7) varied the electron temperature gradient. A jump in ``heat pulse'' diffusivity during the scan indicates a critical gradient was crossed. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-08ER54966, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-08ER54984, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-89ER53296, DE-FC02-11ER55104, DE-AC52-07NA27344 & DE-FG03-97ER54415.

  19. ITER-FEAT safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.W.; Bartels, H.-W.; Honda, T.; Raeder, J.; Topilski, L.; Iseli, M.; Moshonas, K.; Taylor, N.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Inabe, T.; Tada, E.

    2001-01-01

    Safety has been an integral part of the design process for ITER since the Conceptual Design Activities of the project. The safety approach adopted in the ITER-FEAT design and the complementary assessments underway, to be documented in the Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR), are expected to help demonstrate the attractiveness of fusion and thereby set a good precedent for future fusion power reactors. The assessments address ITER's radiological hazards taking into account fusion's favourable safety characteristics. The expectation that ITER will need regulatory approval has influenced the entire safety design and assessment approach. This paper summarises the ITER-FEAT safety approach and assessments underway. (author)

  20. ITER council proceedings: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume of the ITER EDA Documentation Series presents records of the 12th ITER Council Meeting, IC-12, which took place on 23-24 July, 1997 in Tampere, Finland. The Council received from the Parties (EU, Japan, Russia, US) positive responses on the Detailed Design Report. The Parties stated their willingness to contribute to fulfil their obligations in contributing to the ITER EDA. The summary discussions among the Parties led to the consensus that in July 1998 the ITER activities should proceed for additional three years with a general intent to enable an efficient start of possible, future ITER construction

  1. A conceptual design of the ITER upper port plug structure and its cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, S.I.; Lee, H.G.; Jung, K.J.; Walker, C.I.; Kim, D.G.; Choi, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted on the conceptual design of the structure and cooling channels of the upper port plug of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Modification of the earlier port plug design is made and a simple fabrication method is proposed. It is shown that the newly designed port plug can accommodate the installation of both diagnostic and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) devices. Design assessment is carried out through structural and thermo-hydraulic analyses. Results of the analyses show that the port plug structure is stable against one of the most severe plasma events and the total pressure drop of the coolant is within the allowable level

  2. Conceptual design on structure and cooling channel of ITER upper port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Sunil; Lee, Hyeon Gon; Jung, Ki Jung; Walker, C.; Kim, Doo Gi; Choi, Kwang Suk; Eo, Sang Gon

    2007-01-01

    This study has performed conceptual design on structure and cooling channel for the upper port plug of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in which electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launcher and various diagnostic modules will be installed with the same structure. There are twelve diagnostic plugs and four ECH plugs at the upper port in ITER Tokamak. The use of the same port plug structure is beneficial for installation of diagnostic modules and ECH launcher from the viewpoint of cost reduction and simple RH maintenance. The diagnostic modules have rectangular cross-section and ECH modules have trapezoidal crosssection with the lower part wider. Here was suggested the bolt-jointed common structure of inverted-U shape beam and bottom plate, where the diagnostic and ECH modules are installed onto the bottom plate and then the assembly is bolted to the inverted-U beam from the bottom. The common structure of Inverted-U type was evaluated by considering several aspects, such as installation, remote handling (RH) maintenance, cooling line connection, manufacturing, and structural stiffness. For the inverted-U port plug structure developed here, this paper proposed a network of water channel for cooling and baking. Pressurized water as working fluid has to be supplied into the whole port plug. It consists of the structure, diagnostic/shielding modules fixed onto the bottom plate, and the blanket shield module (BSM) attached to the front. The internal water ways for these three components were designed in the direction that would not only minimize the RH connections, flow restrictors, and the length of water-vacuum welding, but also make the welding reliable. Independent coolant loops were composed for three parts of the structure, BSM, and diagnostic/shielding modules with bottom plate. These loops, therefore, make it possible to perform the leakage test for each one separately. Finally hydraulic analysis has been performed with ANSYS in order to

  3. Iteration and accelerator dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.

    1987-10-01

    Four examples of iteration in accelerator dynamics are studied in this paper. The first three show how iterations of the simplest maps reproduce most of the significant nonlinear behavior in real accelerators. Each of these examples can be easily reproduced by the reader, at the minimal cost of writing only 20 or 40 lines of code. The fourth example outlines a general way to iteratively solve nonlinear difference equations, analytically or numerically

  4. Future plan of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsunezaki, Akio

    1998-01-01

    In cooperation of four countries, Japan, USA, EU and Russia, ITER plan has been proceeding as ''the conceptual design activities'' from 1988 to 1990 and ''the industrial design activities'' since 1992. To construct ITER, the legal and work side of ITER operation has been investigated by four countries. However, their economic conditions have been changed to be wrong. So that, construction of ITER can not begin after end of industrial design activities in 1998. Accordingly, they determined to continue the industrial design activities more three years in order to study low cost options and to test the superconductive model·coil. (S.Y.)

  5. ITER test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Casini, G.

    1991-01-01

    ITER has been designed to operate in two phases. The first phase which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  6. Density Dependence of Particle Transport in ECH Plasmas of the TJ-II Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.A.; Velasco, J.L.; Reynolds, J.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; Tafalla, D.; Castejon, F.; Salas, A.

    2009-05-21

    We present the experimental dependence of particle transport on average density in electron cyclotron heated (ECH) hydrogen plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. The results are based on: (I) electron density and temperature data from Thomson Scattering and reflectometry diagnostics; (II) a transport model that reproduces the particle density profiles in steady state; and (III) Eirene, a code for neutrals transport that calculates the particle source in the plasma from the particle confinement time and the appropriate geometry of the machine/plasma. After estimating an effective particle diffusivity and the particle confinement time, a threshold density separating qualitatively and quantitatively different plasma transport regimes is found. The poor confinement times found below the threshold are coincident with the presence of ECH-induced fast electron losses and a positive radial electric field all over the plasma. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  8. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter comprises reports of Dr. P. Barnard, Iter Canada Chairman and CEO, about the progress of the first formal ITER negotiations and about the demonstration of details of Canada's bid on ITER workshops, and Dr. V. Vlasenkov, Project Board Secretary, about the meeting of the ITER CTA project board

  9. ITER at Cadarache; ITER a Cadarache

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This public information document presents the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the definition of the fusion, the international cooperation and the advantages of the project. It presents also the site of Cadarache, an appropriate scientifical and economical environment. The last part of the documentation recalls the historical aspect of the project and the today mobilization of all partners. (A.L.B.)

  10. ITER council proceedings: 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At the signing of the ITER EDA Agreement on July, 1992, each of the Parties presented to the Director General the names of their designated members of the ITER Council. Upon receiving those names, the Director General stated that the ITER Engineering Design Activities were ''ready to begin''. The next step in this process was the convening of the first meeting of the ITER Council. The first meeting of the Council, held in Vienna, was opened by Director General Hans Blix. The second meeting was held in Moscow, the formal seat of the Council. This volume presents records of these first two Council meetings and, together with the previous volumes on the text of the Agreement and Protocol 1 and the preparations for their signing respectively, represents essential information on the evolution of the ITER EDA

  11. Self-consistent electric field effect on electron transport of ECH plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; Murakami, S.

    1999-02-01

    An algorithm is proposed which treats the ECH generated potential in a self-consistent way, by extending the Monte-Carlo Fokker-Planck method used by Murakami [S. Murakami et al., Proc. 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, in press), paper CN-69/TH2/1]. The additional physics is expected to influence the transport of both thermal and suprathermal electrons in a helical toroidal system. (author)

  12. 2 MW 110 GHz ECH heating system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.; Prater, R.; Callis, R.; Remsen, D.; Doane, J.; Cary, W.; Phelps, R.; Tupper, M.

    1990-09-01

    A 2 MW 110 GHz ECH system using Varian 0.5 MW gyrotrons is under construction for use on the DIII-D tokamak by late 1991. Most of the components are being design and fabricated at General Atomics, including the gyrotron tanks, superconducting magnets, and transmission line. These components are intended for operation with 10 second pulses and, in the future, with 1 MW gyrotrons. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Superthermal Electron Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Diffuse Aurora in the Presence of ECH Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Himwich, Elizabeth; Glocer, A.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    There are two main theories for the origin of the diffuse auroral electron precipitation: first, pitch angle scattering by electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves, and second, by whistler mode waves. Precipitating electrons initially injected from the plasma sheet to the loss cone via wave-particle interaction processes degrade in the atmosphere toward lower energies and produce secondary electrons via impact ionization of the neutral atmosphere. These secondary electrons can escape back to the magnetosphere, become trapped on closed magnetic field lines, and deposit their energy back to the inner magnetosphere. ECH and whistler mode waves can also move electrons in the opposite direction, from the loss cone into the trap zone, if the source of such electrons exists in conjugate ionospheres located at the same field lines as the trapped magnetospheric electron population. Such a situation exists in the simulation scenario of superthermal electron energy interplay in the region of diffuse aurora presented and discussed by Khazanov et al. (2014) and will be quantified in this paper by taking into account the interaction of secondary electrons with ECH waves.

  14. ITER towards the construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the last few years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Participant's Negotiators have developed the Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for finalisation following selection of the construction site and nomination of the project's Director General. The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organisational preparations. Construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organisation is established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is strongly supported by the governments of the Participants as well as by the scientific community. The real negotiations, including siting and the final details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. Their wish to host ITER construction is too strong to allow convergence to a single site considering the ITER device in isolation. A broader collaboration among the Parties is therefore being contemplated, covering complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, and allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting. This report reviews these preparations, and the status of negotiations

  15. [Poldi-Čech cemented femoral stem in total hip arthroplasty after 25 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozkydal, Z; Janíček, P

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of Poldi-Čech femoral stem implantation in primary total hip arthroplasty after 25 years. A group of 65 patients (90 hips) with Poldi-Čech total hip arthroplasty carried out between 1974 and 1984 was evaluated at the end of 2009. The mean follow-up of all patients was 28 years (25 to 35). There were seven men and 58 women. The mean age at the time of implantation was 43 years (26 to 60) and at the latest follow-up it was 72 years. In all patients the cemented UHMW PE acetabular component (RCH 1000) was used together with AKV Ultra 2 Poldi steel femoral stems (1st, 2nd and 3rd generations). The stem was a monoblock with a 32-mm head. The evaluation of the results was based on the Harris hip score and X ray with an A-P view of the pelvis and the affected hip. Statistical analysis was made using the life-table method. At the latest follow up the mean Harris score was 69.7 points (40 to 88). There were 69 hips with an original Poldi-Čech femoral component still in situ, 64 of them were stable and five with radiological evidence of aseptic loosening. Five patients had undergone Girdlestone resection arthroplasty for septic loosening. Thirteen patients (16 hips) had femoral stem revision. The cumulative proportion of clinical survivorship of the Poldi-Čech femoral stem, with revision for any reason as the endpoint, .was 0.93 at 6 years, 0.84 at 12 years, and 0.77 at 18, 24 and 30 years after the index surgery. Radiographic findings revealed 64 hips with stable stems, five hips with ;aseptic loosening (probable, 0 possible, 2, definite, 3). Six- teen hips were after revision surgery for aseptic loosening of the stem and five hips were after Girdlestone resection arthroplasty for septic failure. The cumulative proportion of radiological survivorship of the Poldi-Čech femoral stem with any reason as the endpoint was 0.92 at 6 years, 0.78 at 12 years, 0.72 at 18 years, 0.69 at 24 years and 0.69 at 30 years. The Poldi-Čech

  16. Perl Modules for Constructing Iterators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2009-01-01

    The Iterator Perl Module provides a general-purpose framework for constructing iterator objects within Perl, and a standard API for interacting with those objects. Iterators are an object-oriented design pattern where a description of a series of values is used in a constructor. Subsequent queries can request values in that series. These Perl modules build on the standard Iterator framework and provide iterators for some other types of values. Iterator::DateTime constructs iterators from DateTime objects or Date::Parse descriptions and ICal/RFC 2445 style re-currence descriptions. It supports a variety of input parameters, including a start to the sequence, an end to the sequence, an Ical/RFC 2445 recurrence describing the frequency of the values in the series, and a format description that can refine the presentation manner of the DateTime. Iterator::String constructs iterators from string representations. This module is useful in contexts where the API consists of supplying a string and getting back an iterator where the specific iteration desired is opaque to the caller. It is of particular value to the Iterator::Hash module which provides nested iterations. Iterator::Hash constructs iterators from Perl hashes that can include multiple iterators. The constructed iterators will return all the permutations of the iterations of the hash by nested iteration of embedded iterators. A hash simply includes a set of keys mapped to values. It is a very common data structure used throughout Perl programming. The Iterator:: Hash module allows a hash to include strings defining iterators (parsed and dispatched with Iterator::String) that are used to construct an overall series of hash values.

  17. ITER definition phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is envisioned as a fusion device which would demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As a first step towards achieving this goal, the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America have entered into joint conceptual design activities under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. A brief summary of the Definition Phase of ITER activities is contained in this report. Included in this report are the background, objectives, organization, definition phase activities, and research and development plan of this endeavor in international scientific collaboration. A more extended technical summary is contained in the two-volume report, ''ITER Concept Definition,'' IAEA/ITER/DS/3. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Power converters for ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Benfatto, I

    2006-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a thermonuclear fusion experiment designed to provide long deuterium– tritium burning plasma operation. After a short description of ITER objectives, the main design parameters and the construction schedule, the paper describes the electrical characteristics of the French 400 kV grid at Cadarache: the European site proposed for ITER. Moreover, the paper describes the main requirements and features of the power converters designed for the ITER coil and additional heating power supplies, characterized by a total installed power of about 1.8 GVA, modular design with basic units up to 90 MVA continuous duty, dc currents up to 68 kA, and voltages from 1 kV to 1 MV dc.

  19. The effect of electron cyclotron heating on density fluctuations at ion and electron scales in ITER baseline scenario discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-12-01

    Experiments simulating the ITER baseline scenario on the DIII-D tokamak show that torque-free pure electron heating, when coupled to plasmas subject to a net co-current beam torque, affects density fluctuations at electron scales on a sub-confinement time scale, whereas fluctuations at ion scales change only after profiles have evolved to a new stationary state. Modifications to the density fluctuations measured by the phase contrast imaging diagnostic (PCI) are assessed by analyzing the time evolution following the switch-off of electron cyclotron heating (ECH), thus going from mixed beam/ECH to pure neutral beam heating at fixed βN . Within 20 ms after turning off ECH, the intensity of fluctuations is observed to increase at frequencies higher than 200 kHz in contrast, fluctuations at lower frequency are seen to decrease in intensity on a longer time scale, after other equilibrium quantities have evolved. Non-linear gyro-kinetic modeling at ion and electron scales scales suggest that, while the low frequency response of the diagnostic is consistent with the dominant ITG modes being weakened by the slow-time increase in flow shear, the high frequency response is due to prompt changes to the electron temperature profile that enhance electron modes and generate a larger heat flux and an inward particle pinch. These results suggest that electron heated regimes in ITER will feature multi-scale fluctuations that might affect fusion performance via modifications to profiles.

  20. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate

  1. ITER EDA and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    The year 1998 was the culmination of the six-year Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project. The EDA results in design and validating technology R and D, plus the associated effort in voluntary physics research, is a significant achievement and major milestone in the history of magnetic fusion energy development. Consequently, the ITER EDA was a major theme at this Conference, contributing almost 40 papers

  2. Toward construction of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    The ITER Project has been significantly developed in the past years in preparation for its construction. The ITER Negotiators have developed a draft Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA), ready for completion following the nomination of the Project's Director General (DG). The ITER International Team and Participant Teams have continued technical and organizational preparations. The actual construction will be able to start immediately after the international ITER organization will be established, following signature of the JIA. The Project is now strongly supported by all the participants as well as by the scientific community with the final high-level negotiations, focused on siting and the concluding details of cost sharing, started in December 2003. The EU, with Cadarache, and Japan, with Rokkasho, have both promised large contributions to the project to strongly support their construction site proposals. The extent to which they both wish to host the ITER facility is such that large contributions to a broader collaboration among the Parties are also proposed by them. This covers complementary activities to help accelerate fusion development towards a viable power source, as well as may allow the Participants to reach a conclusion on ITER siting. (author)

  3. ITER Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Charles M.

    2017-10-01

    The US Burning Plasma Organization is pleased to welcome Dr. Bernard Bigot, who will give an update on progress in the ITER Project. Dr. Bigot took over as Director General of the ITER Organization in early 2015 following a distinguished career that included serving as Chairman and CEO of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission and as High Commissioner for ITER in France. During his tenure at ITER the project has moved into high gear, with rapid progress evident on the construction site and preparation of a staged schedule and a research plan leading from where we are today through all the way to full DT operation. In an unprecedented international effort, seven partners ``China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States'' have pooled their financial and scientific resources to build the biggest fusion reactor in history. ITER will open the way to the next step: a demonstration fusion power plant. All DPP attendees are welcome to attend this ITER town meeting.

  4. Endochitinase 1 (Tv-ECH1) from Trichoderma virens has high subsite specificities for acetylated units when acting on chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bußwinkel, Franziska; Goñi, Oscar; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; O'Connell, Shane; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2018-03-15

    Chitosans with defined characteristics have been shown to possess reproducible bioactivities for numerous applications. A promising approach for producing chitosans with defined degrees of polymerization (DP), degrees of acetylation (DA), and patterns of acetylation (PA) involves using chitin-modifying enzymes. One such enzyme, the chitinase Tv-ECH1 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 18, seems to have an important role in the biocontrol properties of the fungus Trichoderma virens, suggesting its potential in generating novel chitosans for plant health applications. In this study, the Tv-ECH1 enzyme was overexpressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, yielding large amounts (up to 2mgmL -1 ) of purified recombinant enzyme of high activity, high purity, and high stability, making the system promising for industrial production of Tv-ECH1. The purified Tv-ECH1 chitinase displayed a wide optimal pH range from 4.5 to 6 and an optimal temperature of 37°C. Detailed subsite specificity analyses revealed high preference for acetylated residues at all four subsites analyzed (-2, -1, +1, +2), making Tv-ECH1 a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of specific chitosan oligomers and for the characterization of chitosan polymers via enzymatic fingerprinting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-scale transport in the DIII-D ITER baseline scenario with direct electron heating and projection to ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, B. A.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.; McKee, G. R.; Holland, C.; Austin, M.; Marinoni, A.; Schmitz, L.; Pinsker, R. I.; DIII-D Team

    2018-02-01

    Multi-scale fluctuations measured by turbulence diagnostics spanning long and short wavelength spatial scales impact energy confinement and the scale-lengths of plasma kinetic profiles in the DIII-D ITER baseline scenario with direct electron heating. Contrasting discharge phases with ECH + neutral beam injection (NBI) and NBI only at similar rotation reveal higher energy confinement and lower fluctuations when only NBI heating is used. Modeling of the core transport with TGYRO using the TGLF turbulent transport model and NEO neoclassical transport reproduces the experimental profile changes upon application of direct electron heating and indicates that multi-scale transport mechanisms are responsible for changes in the temperature and density profiles. Intermediate and high-k fluctuations appear responsible for the enhanced electron thermal flux, and intermediate-k electron modes produce an inward particle pinch that increases the inverse density scale length. Projection to ITER is performed with TGLF and indicates a density profile that has a finite scale length due to intermediate-k electron modes at low collisionality and increases the fusion gain. For a range of E × B shear, the dominant mechanism that increases fusion performance is suppression of outward low-k particle flux and increased density peaking.

  6. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This ITER CTA Newsletter issue comprises information about the following ITER Meetings: The second negotiation meeting on the joint implementation of ITER, held in Tokyo(Japan) on 22-23 January 2002, and an international ITER symposium on burning plasma science and technology, held the day later after the second negotiation meeting at the same place

  7. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter contains results of the ITER toroidal field model coil project presented by ITER EU Home Team (Garching) and an article in commemoration of the late Dr. Charles Maisonnier, one of the former leaders of ITER who made significant contributions to its development

  8. QuEChERS-HPLC-DAD method for sulphonamides in chicken breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caetani Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of a QuEChERS-HPLC-DAD method using a Lichrospher 60 RP-Select B column (250 x 4.6 mm x 5 µm at 40ºC, mobile phase constituted by phosphate buffer:acetonitrile (75:25, v/v at a initial flow rate of 0.5 mL min-1, increased by 1.2 mL min-1 and at 265 nm is presented for simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine, sulphametoxipiridazine and sulphamethoxazole in chicken breast samples. QuEchERS is inexpensive, fast and easy, and the extraction of the analytes of the matrix was successfully employed. In addition, the method presented linearity, in the range of 25, 50, 100, 150, 175, and 200 µg kg-1, precision, selectivity and sensitivity. The intraday precision (RSD % for QuEChERS method was between 3.6-10.8 (SDZ, 6.9-14.1 (SPZ and 1.9-10.9 (SMX and interday precision (RSD% was between 1.5-9.7, 1.7-4.1 and 2.1-10.2, respectively. Results of accuracy (bias were in the range of -8.6 to +11.9 %. Therefore, the validated method is clearly useful for the practical residue monitoring of the drugs evaluated in chicken samples, as all the values were within the acceptable criteria used for food safety. Of 6 samples analyzed, none of them showed contamination of the sulphonamides studied at detectable levels.O desenvolvimento de um método QuEChERS-HPLC-DAD usando uma coluna Lichrospher RP-60 Select B (250 x 4,6 mm x 5 µm a 40 ºC, fase móvel constituída por tampão de fosfato: acetonitrila (75:25, v/v a uma vazão inicial de 0,5 mL min-1, aumentando 1,2 mL min-1 e a 265 nm é apresentado para a determinação simultânea de sulfadiazina, sulfametoxipiridazina e sulfametoxazol em amostras de peito de frango. O QuEChERS é barato, rápido e fácil, e a extração dos analitos da matriz foi empregada com sucesso. Além disso, o método apresentou linearidade, na faixa de 25, 50, 100, 150, 175 e 200 µg kg-1, precisão, seletividade e sensibilidade. A precisão intradia (RSD % para o método QuEChERS foi entre 3,6-10,8 (SDZ, 6,9-14,1 (SPZ

  9. Exploitation of a diamagnetic loop for modulated ECH power absorption measurements in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manini, A.; Moret, J.M.; Alberti, S.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the evaluation of the performance of auxiliary heating methods and for the understanding of the transport properties of auxiliary heated plasmas, it is of fundamental importance to determine the fraction of the launched power that is actually transferred to the plasma, as well as where in the plasma the power is deposited. The diagnostic which is probably the best suited for the first goal is the Diamagnetic Loop (DML) providing a measurement of the diamagnetic flux of the plasma, which is directly related to the total plasma kinetic energy. TCV is equipped with a very versatile Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system. It consists of six gyrotrons operating at the second harmonic, 82.7 GHz, and three gyrotrons at the third harmonic, 118 GHz. The nominal power for each 82.7 GHz gyrotron is 465 kW and for each 118 GHz gyrotron is 480 kW, resulting in a total of radio frequency power of 4.2 MW. In this paper we present the method that has been developed for determining the absorbed power in the ECH experiments in TCV, pointing out especially the results of the first third harmonic X-Mode (X3) ECH experiments, leaving the problem of the power deposition localisation to other reports. For the determination of the total plasma kinetic energy, the DML has also been used on other devices such as JET, ASDEX and TEXTOR, but only for this last case modulation experiments have been performed and analysed. Modulated ECH has been used to determine the ECH X2 and X3 power absorption from the measurement of the diamagnetic flux variations using the DML. Since only the modulation contribution is relevant to the analysis, the method does not require a perfect compensation of the diamagnetic flux measurement, although a good compensation of the vessel poloidal image current is crucial for ensuring a sufficiently large bandwidth to allow the use of high frequency modulation. The analysis of the behaviour of the amplitude and phase response in the modulation frequency scan has

  10. ITER tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.; Salpietro, E.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are summarized. These activities, carried out between April 1988 and December 1990, produced a consistent set of technical characteristics and preliminary plans for co-ordinated research and development support of ITER; and a conceptual design, a description of design requirements and a preliminary construction schedule and cost estimate. After a description of the design basis, an overview is given of the tokamak device, its auxiliary systems, facility and maintenance. The interrelation and integration of the various subsystems that form the ITER tokamak concept are discussed. The 16 ITER equatorial port allocations, used for nuclear testing, diagnostics, fuelling, maintenance, and heating and current drive, are given, as well as a layout of the reactor building. Finally, brief descriptions are given of the major ITER sub-systems, i.e., (i) magnet systems (toroidal and poloidal field coils and cryogenic systems), (ii) containment structures (vacuum and cryostat vessels, machine gravity supports, attaching locks, passive loops and active coils), (iii) first wall, (iv) divertor plate (design and materials, performance and lifetime, a.o.), (v) blanket/shield system, (vi) maintenance equipment, (vii) current drive and heating, (viii) fuel cycle system, and (ix) diagnostics. 11 refs, figs and tabs

  11. ITER-FEAT operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Huguet, M.; Mizoguchi, T.; Murakami, Y.; Polevoi, A.R.; Shimada, M.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.A.; Matsumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    ITER is planned to be the first fusion experimental reactor in the world operating for research in physics and engineering. The first ten years of operation will be devoted primarily to physics issues at low neutron fluence and the following ten years of operation to engineering testing at higher fluence. ITER can accommodate various plasma configurations and plasma operation modes, such as inductive high Q modes, long pulse hybrid modes and non-inductive steady state modes, with large ranges of plasma current, density, beta and fusion power, and with various heating and current drive methods. This flexibility will provide an advantage for coping with uncertainties in the physics database, in studying burning plasmas, in introducing advanced features and in optimizing the plasma performance for the different programme objectives. Remote sites will be able to participate in the ITER experiment. This concept will provide an advantage not only in operating ITER for 24 hours a day but also in involving the worldwide fusion community and in promoting scientific competition among the ITER Parties. (author)

  12. An integrated payload design for the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    by ESA in the context of a medium class mission within the Cosmic Vision programme for launch post 2020. The payload suite is required to provide simultaneous coverage from the visible to the mid-infrared and must be highly stable and effectively operate as a single instrument. In this paper we describe......The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a space mission dedicated to undertaking spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets over the widest wavelength range possible. It is based around a highly stable space platform with a 1.2 m class telescope. The mission is currently being studied...

  13. Stable sustainment of plasmas with electron internal transport barrier by ECH in the LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Tokitani, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Ueda, Y.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Seki, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Makino, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yamada, I.; Yamada, H.; Mutoh, T.; Takeiri, Y.; the LHD Experiment Group

    2018-02-01

    The long pulse experiments in the Large Helical Device has made progress in sustainment of improved confinement states. It was found that steady-state sustainment of the plasmas with improved confinement at the core region, that is, electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB), was achieved with no significant difficulty. Sustainment of a plasma having e-ITB with the line average electron density n e_ave of 1.1 × 1019 m-3 and the central electron temperature T e0 of ˜3.5 keV for longer than 5 min only with 340 kW ECH power was successfully demonstrated.

  14. The ITER activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is a collaboration among four parties, the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, and the European Communities, to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes. ITER will demonstrate this through the construction of a tokamak fusion reactor capable of generating 1000 megawatts of fusion power. The ITER project has three missions, as follows: (1) Physics mission -- to demonstrate ignition and controlled burn, with pulse durations from 200 to 1000 S; (2) Technology mission -- to demonstrate the technologies essential to a reactor in an integrated system, operating with high reliability and availability in pulsed operation, with steady-state operation as the ultimate goal; and (3) Testing mission -- to test nuclear and high-heat-flux components at flux levels for 1 mw/m 2 , and fluences of order 1 mw-yr/m 2

  15. Earthly sun called ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeyev, Mikhail

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Participating in the film are Academicians Velikhov and Glukhikh, Mr. Filatof, ITER Director from Russia, Mr. Sannikov from Kurchatov Institute. The film tells about the starting point of the project (Mr. Lavrentyev), the pioneers of the project (Academicians Tamme, Sakharov, Artsimovich) and about the situation the project is standing now. Participating in [ITER now are the US, Russia, Japan and the European Union. There are two associated members as well - Kazakhstan and Canada. By now the engineering design phase has been finished. Computer animation used in the video gives us the idea how the first thermonuclear reactor based on famous Russian TOKOMAK works. (author)

  16. ITER plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbasov, B.; Barnes, C.; Blevins, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a series of documents published by the IAEA that summarize the results of the Conceptual Design Activities for the ITER project, this publication describes the conceptual design of the ITER plant systems, in particular (i) the heat transport system, (ii) the electrical distribution system, (iii) the requirements for radioactive equipment handling, the hot cell, and waste management, (iv) the supply system for fluids and operational chemicals, (v) the qualitative analyses of failure scenarios and methods of burn stability control and emergency shutdown control, (vi) analyses of tokamak building functions and design requirements, (vii) a plant layout, and (viii) site requirements. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  18. Physics fundamentals for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    The design of an experimental thermonuclear reactor requires both cutting-edge technology and physics predictions precise enough to carry forward the design. The past few years of worldwide physics studies have seen great progress in understanding, innovation and integration. We will discuss this progress and the remaining issues in several key physics areas. (1) Transport and plasma confinement. A worldwide database has led to an 'empirical scaling law' for tokamaks which predicts adequate confinement for the ITER fusion mission, albeit with considerable but acceptable uncertainty. The ongoing revolution in computer capabilities has given rise to new gyrofluid and gyrokinetic simulations of microphysics which may be expected in the near future to attain predictive accuracy. Important databases on H-mode characteristics and helium retention have also been assembled. (2) Divertors, heat removal and fuelling. A novel concept for heat removal - the radiative, baffled, partially detached divertor - has been designed for ITER. Extensive two-dimensional (2D) calculations have been performed and agree qualitatively with recent experiments. Preliminary studies of the interaction of this configuration with core confinement are encouraging and the success of inside pellet launch provides an attractive alternative fuelling method. (3) Macrostability. The ITER mission can be accomplished well within ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability limits, except for internal kink modes. Comparisons with JET, as well as a theoretical model including kinetic effects, predict such sawteeth will be benign in ITER. Alternative scenarios involving delayed current penetration or off-axis current drive may be employed if required. The recent discovery of neoclassical beta limits well below ideal MHD limits poses a threat to performance. Extrapolation to reactor scale is as yet unclear. In theory such modes are controllable by current drive profile control or feedback and experiments should

  19. Physics research needs for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    Design of ITER entails the application of physics design tools that have been validated against the world-wide data base of fusion research. In many cases, these tools do not yet exist and must be developed as part of the ITER physics program. ITER's considerable increases in power and size demand significant extrapolations from the current data base; in several cases, new physical effects are projected to dominate the behavior of the ITER plasma. This paper focuses on those design tools and data that have been identified by the ITER team and are not yet available; these needs serve as the basis for the ITER Physics Research Needs, which have been developed jointly by the ITER Physics Expert Groups and the ITER design team. Development of the tools and the supporting data base is an on-going activity that constitutes a significant opportunity for contributions to the ITER program by fusion research programs world-wide

  20. Determination of coumarin in seasonal bakery products using QuEChERS and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, F; Müller, C; Stöckelhuber, M; Bracher, F

    2017-06-01

    Cinnamon is a traditional herbal drug, but more importantly, it is used as a flavor compound in the production of foodstuff. Due to the content of significant concentrations of coumarin in Cassia cinnamon, effective control of the coumarin content in seasonal bakery products like ginger bread and cinnamon biscuits is urgently needed. Here we present a novel, fast and fully validated protocol for the determination of coumarin in marketed bakery products using the QuEChERS sample preparation technique in combination with GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of homogenized sample was mixed with 20 mL acetonitrile/water (1:1) and 5 g magnesium sulfate/sodium chloride mixture (4:1). The organic phase was cleaned by dSPE with 25 mg magnesium sulfate/PSA (5:1). The LOD was 0.15 μg/mL and the LOQ 0.50 μg/mL. We detected a mean coumarin content of 19.5 μg/kg in 9 out of 14 seasonal food products (ranging from 1.45 to 39.4 mg/kg). No coumarin was detected in five cinnamon containing products. With this investigation we demonstrate that the QuEChERS sample preparation, previously applied mainly to the analysis of pesticides in vegetables, is also suitable for other complex matrices.

  1. Extraction of ochratoxin A in bread samples by the QuEChERS methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paíga, Paula; Morais, Simone; Oliva-Teles, Teresa; Correia, Manuela; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Duarte, Sofia C; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste Matos

    2012-12-15

    A QuEChERS method for the extraction of ochratoxin A (OTA) from bread samples was evaluated. A factorial design (2(3)) was used to find the optimal QuEChERS parameters (extraction time, extraction solvent volume and sample mass). Extracts were analysed by LC with fluorescence detection. The optimal extraction conditions were: 5 g of sample, 15 mL of acetonitrile and 3 min of agitation. The extraction procedure was validated by systematic recovery experiments at three levels. The recoveries obtained ranged from 94.8% (at 1.0 μg kg(-1)) to 96.6% (at 3.0 μg kg(-1)). The limit of quantification of the method was 0.05 μg kg(-1). The optimised procedure was applied to 20 samples of different bread types ("Carcaça", "Broa de Milho", and "Broa de Avintes") highly consumed in Portugal. None of the samples exceeded the established European legal limit of 3 μg kg(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Update on the DIII-D ECH system: experiments, gyrotrons, advanced diagnostics, and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohr John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECH system on DIII-D is continuing to be upgraded, while simultaneously being operated nearly daily for plasma experiments. The latest major hardware addition is a new 117.5 GHz gyrotron, which generated 1.7 MW for short pulses during factory testing. A new gyrotron control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology with very high speed system data acquisition has significantly increased the flexibility and reliability of individual gyrotron operation. We have improved the performance of the fast mirror scanning, both by increasing the scan speeds and by adding new algorithms for controlling the aiming using commands generated by the Plasma Control System (PCS. The system is used for transport studies, ELM control, current profile control, non-inductive current generation, suppression of MHD modes, startup assist, plasma density control, and other applications. A program of protective measures, which has been in place for more than two years, has eliminated damage to hardware and diagnostics caused by overdense operation. Other activities not directly related to fusion research have used the ECH system to test components, study methods for improving production of semiconductor junctions and materials, and test the feasibility of using ground based microwave systems to power satellites into orbit.

  3. Update on the DIII-D ECH system: experiments, gyrotrons, advanced diagnostics, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, John; Brambila, Rigoberto; Cengher, Mirela; Gorelov, Yuri; Grosnickle, William; Moeller, Charles; Ponce, Dan; Torrezan, Antonio; Ives, Lawrence; Reed, Michael; Blank, Monica; Felch, Kevin; Parisuaña, Claudia; LeViness, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    The ECH system on DIII-D is continuing to be upgraded, while simultaneously being operated nearly daily for plasma experiments. The latest major hardware addition is a new 117.5 GHz gyrotron, which generated 1.7 MW for short pulses during factory testing. A new gyrotron control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with very high speed system data acquisition has significantly increased the flexibility and reliability of individual gyrotron operation. We have improved the performance of the fast mirror scanning, both by increasing the scan speeds and by adding new algorithms for controlling the aiming using commands generated by the Plasma Control System (PCS). The system is used for transport studies, ELM control, current profile control, non-inductive current generation, suppression of MHD modes, startup assist, plasma density control, and other applications. A program of protective measures, which has been in place for more than two years, has eliminated damage to hardware and diagnostics caused by overdense operation. Other activities not directly related to fusion research have used the ECH system to test components, study methods for improving production of semiconductor junctions and materials, and test the feasibility of using ground based microwave systems to power satellites into orbit.

  4. Iterative List Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Hjaltason, Johan

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the relation between iterative decoding and the extended parity check matrix. By considering a modified version of bit flipping, which produces a list of decoded words, we derive several relations between decodable error patterns and the parameters of the code. By developing a tree...... of codewords at minimal distance from the received vector, we also obtain new information about the code....

  5. ITER power electrical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejas Portela, S.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is an international effort to research and development to design, build and operate an experimental facility to demonstrate the scientific and technological possibility of obtaining useful energy from the physical phenomenon known as nuclear fusion.

  6. ITER conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) are reported. This report covers the Terms of Reference for the project: defining the technical specifications, defining future research needs, define site requirements, and carrying out a coordinated research effort coincident with the CDA. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Nuclear analysis for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Iida, H.; Khripunov, V.; Petrizzi, L.; Sato, S.; Sawan, M.; Shatalov, G.; Schipakin, O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of nuclear analysis calculations performed during the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA). Major efforts were devoted to fulfilling the General Design Requirements to minimize the nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnets and ensuring that radiation conditions at the cryostat are suitable for hands-on-maintenance after reactor shut-down. (author)

  8. ITER at Cadarache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This public information document presents the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the definition of the fusion, the international cooperation and the advantages of the project. It presents also the site of Cadarache, an appropriate scientifical and economical environment. The last part of the documentation recalls the historical aspect of the project and the today mobilization of all partners. (A.L.B.)

  9. ITER conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, K.; Gilleland, J.R.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Toschi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Conceptual Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were carried out jointly by the European Community, Japan, the Soviet Union and the United States of America, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The European Community provided the site for joint work sessions at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The Conceptual Design Activities began in the spring of 1988 and ended in December 1990. The objectives of the activities were to develop the design of ITER, to perform a safety and environmental analysis, to define the site requirements as well as the future research and development needs, to estimate the cost and manpower, and to prepare a schedule for detailed engineering design, construction and operation. On the basis of the investigation and analysis performed, a concept of ITER was developed which incorporated maximum flexibility of the performance of the device and allowed a variety of operating scenarios to be adopted. The heart of the machine is a tokamak having a plasma major radius of 6 m, a plasma minor radius of 2.15 m, a nominal plasma current of 22 MA and a nominal fusion power of 1 GW. The conceptual design can meet the technical objectives of the ITER programme. Because of the success of the Conceptual Design Activities, the Parties are now considering the implementation of the next phase, called the Engineering Design Activities. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  10. ITER-FEAT operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Huget, M.; Mizoguchi, T.; Murakami, Y.; Polevoi, A.; Shimada, M.; Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Matsumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    ITER is planned to be the first fusion experimental reactor in the world operating for research in physics and engineering. The first 10 years' operation will be devoted primarily to physics issues at low neutron fluence and the following 10 years' operation to engineering testing at higher fluence. ITER can accommodate various plasma configurations and plasma operation modes such as inductive high Q modes, long pulse hybrid modes, non-inductive steady-state modes, with large ranges of plasma current, density, beta and fusion power, and with various heating and current drive methods. This flexibility will provide an advantage for coping with uncertainties in the physics database, in studying burning plasmas, in introducing advanced features and in optimizing the plasma performance for the different programme objectives. Remote sites will be able to participate in the ITER experiment. This concept will provide an advantage not only in operating ITER for 24 hours per day but also in involving the world-wide fusion communities and in promoting scientific competition among the Parties. (author)

  11. US ITER Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This US ITER Management Plan is the plan for conducting the Engineering Design Activities within the US. The plan applies to all design, analyses, and associated physics and technology research and development (R ampersand D) required to support the program. The plan defines the management considerations associated with these activities. The plan also defines the management controls that the project participants will follow to establish, implement, monitor, and report these activities. The activities are to be conducted by the project in accordance with this plan. The plan will be updated to reflect the then-current management approach required to meet the project objectives. The plan will be reviewed at least annually for possible revision. Section 2 presents the ITER objectives, a brief description of the ITER concept as developed during the Conceptual Design Activities, and comments on the Engineering Design Activities. Section 3 discusses the planned international organization for the Engineering Design Activities, from which the tasks will flow to the US Home Team. Section 4 describes the US ITER management organization and responsibilities during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 5 describes the project management and control to be used to perform the assigned tasks during the Engineering Design Activities. Section 6 presents the references. Several appendices are provided that contain detailed information related to the front material

  12. ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Dinner, P.; Yoshida, H.

    1991-01-01

    Resulting from the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) by the parties involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, this document summarizes the design requirements and the Conceptual Design Descriptions for each of the principal subsystems and design options of the ITER Fuel Cycle conceptual design. The ITER Fuel Cycle system provides for the handling of all tritiated water and gas mixtures on ITER. The system is subdivided into subsystems for fuelling, primary (torus) vacuum pumping, fuel processing, blanket tritium recovery, and common processes (including isotopic separation, fuel management and storage, and processes for detritiation of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes). After an introduction describing system function and conceptual design procedure, a summary of the design is presented including a discussion of scope and main parameters, and the fuel design options for fuelling, plasma chamber vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary and common processes. Design requirements are defined and design descriptions are given for the various subsystems (fuelling, plasma vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary/common processes). The document ends with sections on fuel cycle design integration, fuel cycle building layout, safety considerations, a summary of the research and development programme, costing, and conclusions. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. ITER blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Parker, R.; Rebut, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER first wall, blanket, and shield system is being designed to handle 1.5±0.3 GW of fusion power and 3 MWa m -2 average neutron fluence. In the basic performance phase of ITER operation, the shielding blanket uses austenitic steel structural material and water coolant. The first wall is made of bimetallic structure, austenitic steel and copper alloy, coated with beryllium and it is protected by beryllium bumper limiters. The choice of copper first wall is dictated by the surface heat flux values anticipated during ITER operation. The water coolant is used at low pressure and low temperature. A breeding blanket has been designed to satisfy the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase of ITER operation for the Test Program. The breeding blanket design is geometrically similar to the shielding blanket design except it is a self-cooled liquid lithium system with vanadium structural material. Self-healing electrical insulator (aluminum nitride) is used to reduce the MHD pressure drop in the system. Reactor relevancy, low tritium inventory, low activation material, low decay heat, and a tritium self-sufficiency goal are the main features of the breeding blanket design. (orig.)

  14. Advances in iterative methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauwens, B.; Arkuszewski, J.; Boryszewicz, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results obtained in the field of linear iterative methods within the Coordinated Research Program on Transport Theory and Advanced Reactor Calculations are summarized. The general convergence theory of linear iterative methods is essentially based on the properties of nonnegative operators on ordered normed spaces. The following aspects of this theory have been improved: new comparison theorems for regular splittings, generalization of the notions of M- and H-matrices, new interpretations of classical convergence theorems for positive-definite operators. The estimation of asymptotic convergence rates was developed with two purposes: the analysis of model problems and the optimization of relaxation parameters. In the framework of factorization iterative methods, model problem analysis is needed to investigate whether the increased computational complexity of higher-order methods does not offset their increased asymptotic convergence rates, as well as to appreciate the effect of standard relaxation techniques (polynomial relaxation). On the other hand, the optimal use of factorization iterative methods requires the development of adequate relaxation techniques and their optimization. The relative performances of a few possibilities have been explored for model problems. Presently, the best results have been obtained with optimal diagonal-Chebyshev relaxation

  15. ITER neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Di Pietro, E.; Bayetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neutral Beam (NB) system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration with the tokamak and with the rest of the plant. Operational requirements and maintainability have been considered in the design. The paper considers the integration with the tokamak, discusses design improvements which appear necessary and finally notes R and D progress in key areas. (author)

  16. Iterative software kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, I.

    1994-12-31

    This workshop focuses on kernels for iterative software packages. Specifically, the three speakers discuss various aspects of sparse BLAS kernels. Their topics are: `Current status of user lever sparse BLAS`; Current status of the sparse BLAS toolkit`; and `Adding matrix-matrix and matrix-matrix-matrix multiply to the sparse BLAS toolkit`.

  17. ITER Safety and Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J-.P; Taylor, N.; Garin, P.; Uzan-Elbez, J.; GULDEN, W.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2006-01-01

    The site for the construction of ITER has been chosen in June 2005. The facility will be implemented in Europe, south of France close to Marseille. The generic safety scheme is now under revision to adapt the design to the host country regulation. Even though ITER will be an international organization, it will have to comply with the French requirements in the fields of public and occupational health and safety, nuclear safety, radiation protection, licensing, nuclear substances and environmental protection. The organization of the central team together with its partners organized in domestic agencies for the in-kind procurement of components is a key issue for the success of the experimentation. ITER is the first facility that will achieve sustained nuclear fusion. It is both important for the experimental one-of-a-kind device, ITER itself, and for the future of fusion power plants to well understand the key safety issues of this potential new source of energy production. The main safety concern is confinement of the tritium, activated dust in the vacuum vessel and activated corrosion products in the coolant of the plasma-facing components. This is achieved in the design through multiple confinement barriers to implement the defence in depth approach. It will be demonstrated in documents submitted to the French regulator that these barriers maintain their function in all postulated incident and accident conditions. The licensing process started by examination of the safety options. This step has been performed by Europe during the candidature phase in 2002. In parallel to the final design, and taking into account the local regulations, the Preliminary Safety Report (RPrS) will be drafted with support of the European partner and others in the framework of ITER Task Agreements. Together with the license application, the RPrS will be forwarded to the regulatory bodies, which will launch public hearings and a safety review. Both processes must succeed in order to

  18. Status of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of engineering design activities (EDA) in July 2001, all the essential elements became available to make a decision on construction of ITER. A sufficiently detailed and integrated engineering design now exists for a generic site, has been assessed for feasibility, and costed, and essential physics and technology R and D has been carried out to underpin the design choices. Formal negotiations have now begun between the current participants--Canada, Euratom, Japan, and the Russian Federation--on a Joint Implementation Agreement for ITER which also establishes the legal entity to run ITER. These negotiations are supported on technical aspects by Coordinated Technical Activities (CTA), which maintain the integrity of the project, for the good of all participants, and concentrate on preparing for procurement by industry of the longest lead items, and for formal application for a construction license with the host country. This paper highlights the main features of the ITER design. With cryogenically-cooled magnets close to neutron-generating plasma, the design of shielding with adequate access via port plugs for auxiliaries such as heating and diagnostics, and of remote replacement and refurbishing systems for in-vessel components, are particularly interesting nuclear technology challenges. Making a safety case for ITER to satisfy potential regulators and to demonstrate, as far as possible at this stage, the environmental attractiveness of fusion as an energy source, is also important. The paper gives illustrative details on this work, and an update on the progress of technical preparations for construction, as well as the status of the above negotiations

  19. ITER EDA status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Project has focused on drafting the Plant Description Document (PDD), which will be published as the Technical Basis for the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), and its related documentation in time for the ITER review process. The preparations have involved continued intensive detailed design work, analyses and assessments by the Home Teams and the Joint Central Team, who have co-operated closely and efficiently. The main technical document has been completed in time for circulation, as planned, to TAC members for their review at TAC-17 (19-22 February 2001). Some of the supporting documents, such as the Plant Design Specification (PDS), Design Requirements and Guidelines (DRG1 and DRG2), and the Plant Safety Requirement (PSR) are also available for reference in draft form. A summary paper of the PDD for the Council's information is available as a separate document. A new documentation structure for the Project has been established. This hierarchical structure for documentation facilitates the entire organization in a way that allows better change control and avoids duplications. The initiative was intended to make this documentation system valid for the construction and operation phases of ITER. As requested, the Director and the JCT have been assisting the Explorations to plan for future joint technical activities during the Negotiations, and to consider technical issues important for ITER construction and operation for their introduction in the draft of a future joint implementation agreement. As charged by the Explorers, the Director has held discussions with the Home Team Leaders in order to prepare for the staffing of the International Team and Participants Teams during the Negotiations (Co-ordinated Technical Activities, CTA) and also in view of informing all ITER staff about their future directions in a timely fashion. One important element of the work was the completion by the Parties' industries of costing studies of about 83 ''procurement packages

  20. Evaluation of mode purity of ordinary and extraordinary modes by fixed elliptically polarized wave for ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Mikio

    1991-08-01

    Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)

  1. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This ITER CTA Newsletter contains information about the organization of the ITER Co-ordinated Technical Activities (CTA) International Team as the follow-up of the ITER CTA project board meeting in Toronto on 7 November 2001. It also includes a summary on the start of the international tokamak physics activity by Dr. D. Campbell, Chair of the ITPA Co-ordinating Committee

  2. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter contains information about the Fourth Negotiations Meeting on the Joint Implementation of ITER held in Cadarache, France on 4-6 June 2002 and about the meeting of the ITER CTA Project Board which took place on the occasion of the N4 Meeting at Cadarache on 3-4 June 2002

  3. ITER management advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) Meeting was held on 23 February in Garching, Germany. The main topics were: the consideration of the report by the Director on the ITER EDA Status, the review of the Work Programme, the review of the Joint Fund, the review of a schedule of ITER meetings, and the arrangements for termination and wind-up of the EDA

  4. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter comprises reports on ITER co-ordinated technical activities, information about the Meeting of the ITER CTA project board which took place in Vienna on 16 July 2001, and the Meeting of the expert group on MHD, disruptions and plasma control which was held on 25-26 June 2001 in Funchal, Madeira

  5. Status of the ITER EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities in the period between the ITER Meeting in Tokyo (January 2000) and June 2000. Topics: Termination of EDA, Joint Central Team and Support, Task Assignments, ITER Physics, Urgent and High Priority Physics Research Areas

  6. QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Checchini, Leonardo; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Orlandini, Serena; Rivoira, Luca; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data.

  7. Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hagan, Ola

    2014-05-02

    In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.

  8. ITER shielding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avsjannikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baryshev, M [NIAT, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blinov, Yu [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, G [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, N [KIAE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vinnikov, A [ENTEK, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernjagin, A [DYNAMICA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    A reference non-breeding blanket is under development now for the ITER Basic Performance Phase for the purpose of high reliability during the first stage of ITER operation. More severe operation modes are expected in this stage with first wall (FW) local heat loads up to 100-300Wcm{sup -2}. Integration of a blanket design with protective and start limiters requires new solutions to achieve high reliability, and possible use of beryllium as a protective material leads to technologies. The rigid shielding blanket concept was developed in Russia to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements. The concept is based on a copper alloy FW, austenitic stainless steel blanket structure, water cooling. Beryllium protection is integrated in the FW design. Fabrication technology and assembly procedure are described in parallel with the equipment used. (orig.).

  9. Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hagan, Ola; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.

  10. ITER technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties.

  11. ITER technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties

  12. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  13. Iterated Leavitt Path Algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazrat, R.

    2009-11-01

    Leavitt path algebras associate to directed graphs a Z-graded algebra and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(1,k). In this note, we introduce iterated Leavitt path algebras associated to directed weighted graphs which have natural ± Z grading and in their simplest form recover the Leavitt algebras L(n,k). We also characterize Leavitt path algebras which are strongly graded. (author)

  14. ICP (ITER Collaborative Platform)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, C.; Carayon, F.; Patel, V. [ITER, 13 - St. Paul-Lez Durance (France)

    2009-07-01

    The ITER organization has the necessity to manage a massive amount of data and processes. Each team requires different process and databases often interconnected with those of others teams. ICP is the current central ITER repository of structured and unstructured data. All data in ICP is served and managed via a web interface that provides global accessibility with a common user friendly interface. This paper will explain the model used by ICP and how it serves the ITER project by providing a robust and agile platform. ICP is developed in ASP.NET using MSSQL Server for data storage. It currently houses 15 data driven applications, 150 different types of record, 500 k objects and 2.5 M references. During European working hours the system averages 150 concurrent users and 20 requests per second. ICP connects to external database applications to provide a single entry point to ITER data and a safe shared storage place to maintain this data long-term. The Core model provides an easy to extend framework to meet the future needs of the Organization. ICP follows a multi-tier architecture, providing logical separation of process. The standard three-tier architecture is expanded, with the data layer separated into data storage, data structure, and data access components. The business or applications logic layer is broken up into a common business functionality layer, a type specific logic layer, and a detached work-flow layer. Finally the presentation tier comprises a presentation adapter layer and an interface layer. Each layer is built up from small blocks which can be combined to create a wide range of more complex functionality. Each new object type developed gains access to a wealth of existing code functionality, while also free to adapt and extend this. The hardware structure is designed to provide complete redundancy, high availability and to handle high load. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation transparencies. (authors)

  15. Metrology for ITER Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.

    2006-01-01

    The overall dimensions of the ITER Tokamak and the particular assembly sequence preclude the use of conventional optical metrology, mechanical jigs and traditional dimensional control equipment, as used for the assembly of smaller, previous generation, fusion devices. This paper describes the state of the art of the capabilities of available metrology systems, with reference to the previous experience in Fusion engineering and in other industries. Two complementary procedures of transferring datum from the primary datum network on the bioshield to the secondary datum s inside the VV with the desired accuracy of about 0.1 mm is described, one method using the access directly through the ports and the other using transfer techniques, developed during the co-operation with ITER/EFDA. Another important task described is the development of a method for the rapid and easy measurement of the gaps between sectors, required for the production of the customised splice plates between them. The scope of the paper includes the evaluation of the composition and cost of the systems and team of technical staff required to meet the requirements of the assembly procedure. The results from a practical, full-scale demonstration of the methodologies used, using the proposed equipment, is described. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving the necessary accuracies for the successful building of ITER. (author)

  16. The ITER tritium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glugla, M.; Antipenkov, A.; Beloglazov, S.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cristescu, I.R.; Cristescu, I.; Day, C.; Doerr, L.; Girard, J.-P.; Tada, E.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is the first fusion machine fully designed for operation with equimolar deuterium-tritium mixtures. The tokamak vessel will be fuelled through gas puffing and pellet injection, and the Neutral Beam heating system will introduce deuterium into the machine. Employing deuterium and tritium as fusion fuel will cause alpha heating of the plasma and will eventually provide energy. Due to the small burn-up fraction in the vacuum vessel a closed deuterium-tritium loop is required, along with all the auxiliary systems necessary for the safe handling of tritium. The ITER inner fuel cycle systems are designed to process considerable and unprecedented deuterium-tritium flow rates with high flexibility and reliability. High decontamination factors for effluent and release streams and low tritium inventories in all systems are needed to minimize chronic and accidental emissions. A multiple barrier concept assures the confinement of tritium within its respective processing components; atmosphere and vent detritiation systems are essential elements in this concept. Not only the interfaces between the primary fuel cycle systems - being procured through different Participant Teams - but also those to confinement systems such as Atmosphere Detritiation or those to fuelling and pumping - again procured through different Participant Teams - and interfaces to buildings are calling for definition and for detailed analysis to assure proper design integration. Considering the complexity of the ITER Tritium Plant configuration management and interface control will be a challenging task

  17. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  18. ITER concept definition. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume II of the two volumes describing the concept definition of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor deals with the ITER concept in technical depth, and covers all areas of design of the ITER tokamak. Included are an assessment of the current database for design, scoping studies, rationale for concepts selection, performance flexibility, the ITER concept, the operations and experimental/testing program, ITER parameters and design phase schedule, and research and development specific to ITER. This latter includes a definition of specific research and development tasks, a division of tasks among members, specific milestones, required results, and schedules. Figs and tabs

  19. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter issue comprises the ITER backgrounder, which was approved as an official document by the participants in the Negotiations on the ITER Implementation agreement at their fourth meeting, held in Cadarache from 4-6 June 2002, and information about two ITER meetings: one is the third meeting of the ITER parties' designated Safety Representatives, which took place in Cadarache, France from 6-7 June 2002, and the other is the second meeting of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) topical group on diagnostics, which was held at General Atomics, San Diego, USA, from 4-8 March 2002

  20. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This newsletter contains the articles: 'Extraordinary ITER council meeting', 'ITER EDA final safety meeting' and 'Summary report of the 3rd combined workshop of the ITER confinement and transport and ITER confinement database and modeling expert groups'

  1. Spirit and prospects of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikhov, E.P. [Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-10-01

    ITER is the unique and the most straightforward way to study the burning plasma science in the nearest future. ITER has a firm physics ground based on the results from the world tokamaks in terms of confinement, stability, heating, current drive, divertor, energetic particle confinement to an extend required in ITER. The flexibility of ITER will allow the exploration of broad operation space of fusion power, beta, pulse length and Q values in various operational scenarios. Success of the engineering R and D programs has demonstrated that all party has an enough capability to produce all the necessary equipment in agreement with the specifications of ITER. The acquired knowledge and technologies in ITER project allow us to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a fusion reactor. It can be concluded that ITER must be constructed in the nearest future. (author)

  2. Spirit and prospects of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.

    2002-01-01

    ITER is the unique and the most straightforward way to study the burning plasma science in the nearest future. ITER has a firm physics ground based on the results from the world tokamaks in terms of confinement, stability, heating, current drive, divertor, energetic particle confinement to an extend required in ITER. The flexibility of ITER will allow the exploration of broad operation space of fusion power, beta, pulse length and Q values in various operational scenarios. Success of the engineering R and D programs has demonstrated that all party has an enough capability to produce all the necessary equipment in agreement with the specifications of ITER. The acquired knowledge and technologies in ITER project allow us to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of a fusion reactor. It can be concluded that ITER must be constructed in the nearest future. (author)

  3. Determination of tocopherols and sitosterols in seeds and nuts by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Zamarreño, M Milagros; Fernández-Prieto, Cristina; Bustamante-Rangel, Myriam; Pérez-Martín, Lara

    2016-02-01

    In the present work a simple, reliable and affordable sample treatment method for the simultaneous analysis of tocopherols and free phytosterols in nuts was developed. Analyte extraction was carried out using the QuEChERS methodology and analyte separation and detection were accomplished using HPLC-DAD. The use of this methodology for the extraction of natural occurring substances provides advantages such as speed, simplicity and ease of use. The parameters evaluated for the validation of the method developed included the linearity of the calibration plots, the detection and quantification limits, repeatability, reproducibility and recovery. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of tocopherols and free phytosterols in samples of almonds, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, peanuts, tiger nuts, sun flower seeds and pistachios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oak Ridge TNS Program: reference design and program plan for a TNS ECH startup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, R.

    1979-04-01

    The use of microwave radio frequency (rf) heating in The Next Step (TNS) is considered to be a viable approach to accomplishing reliable preionization while significantly lowering the peak power requirements and cost of the ohmic heating power supply system. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is a promising type of rf heating in which high power microwave energy is deposited into the plasma region. The proposed system is based on a configuration of five 200-kW gyroklystrons which will deliver 1 MW at 120 GHz to the plasma area for pulse periods of up to 6.0 sec. Completion of an operational system could be targeted for December 1989 at an estimated cost (in 1978 dollars) of $4 million. A discussion and description of a conceptual system are presented. Estimates of costs, schedules, and research and development (R and D) needs are included

  5. Selected highlights of ECH/ECCD physics studies in the TCV tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman T.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tokamak a Configuration Variable, TCV, has used Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive as its only auxiliary heating system for nearly two decades. In addition to basic plasma heating and current profiling, ECH and ECCD under either feedforward or real-time (feedback control allows control of plasma parameters and MHD behaviour to aid in physics studies and measurements. This paper describes four such studies in which EC control has proved crucial – increased resolution Thomson Scattering measurements in the plasma edge, time-resolved plasma rotation modification during the sawtooth cycle, robust neoclassical tearing mode (NTM suppression, and double pass transmission measurements of EC waves for scattering and polarization studies. The relative merits of feedforward and feedback methods for recent TCV experiments are discussed.

  6. Waveguide elliptic polarizers for ECH at down-shifted frequencies on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    ECH experiments on PLT with resonance frequencies of 80 to 90 GHz at the plasma center use 60 GHz extraordinary mode (X-mode) propagation at 30 0 from the toroidal field. Efficient excitation of this mode requires elliptic polarization of the incident wave at the plasma edge. On PLT the elliptic polarization is achieved outside the vacuum vessel in an elliptically deformed section of circular waveguide propagating TM11, a mode that is intermediate between TE01 and HE11 (which has an ideal radiation pattern). The squeeze and orientation of the TM11 polarizer are adjusted to compensate both for the birefringence of a corrugated bend propagating HE11 and for a flat mirror inside PLT that reverses the sense of rotation of the polarization. 11 refs., 8 figs

  7. Development of over-1 MW gyrotrons for the LHD and the GAMMA 10 ECH systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Minami, R.

    2010-11-01

    For the ECH upgrade program of LHD and GAMMA10, over-1 MW power gyrotrons have been developed in the joint program of NIFS and University of Tsukuba. The gyrotrons for LHD and GAMMA 10 have TE 18,6 cavity and a diamond window at 77 GHz, and with TE 8,3 cavity at 28 GHz, respectively. The maximum outputs obtained are 1.9 MW for 0.1 s on the 77 GHz LHD tube and ∼ 1 MW on the 28 GHz one, which are the new records in these frequency ranges. The results of 1.8 MW for 1 s, 1.6 MW for 1.8s, 1 MW for 5 s, 300 kW for 40 min and 200 kW for 75 min were achieved at 77 GHz. In the long pulse operation, it is found that the stray RF is the major cause limiting the pulse length. Design improvements of the diffraction loss, the cavity and pitch factor α (=v sub(perpendicular)/v sub(parallel)) dispersion of the MIG have made the 77 GHz tube performance better, which have enabled to demonstrate 1.9 MW output and long pulse operation for more than 1 hour with 200 kW. The three 77 GHz gyrotrons have already been installed in the LHD ECH system and more than 3 MW has been injected into LHD plasma. In the 28 GHz long pulse operation, 400 kW for 1 sec has been obtained and it is found the higher and longer pulse operation would be possible with the operation optimization and conditioning. (author)

  8. Status of the design of the ITER ECE diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Austin, M. E.; Beno, J. H.; Danani, S.; Ellis, R. F.; Feder, R.; Hesler, J. L.; Hubbard, A. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, V.; Ouroua, A.; Pandya, H. K. B.; Phillips, P. E.; Roman, C.; Rowan, W. L.; Udintsev, V.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.; Kubo, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the baseline design for the ITER electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic has entered the detailed preliminary design phase. Two plasma views are planned, a radial view and an oblique view that is sensitive to distortions in the electron momentum distribution near the average thermal momentum. Both views provide high spatial resolution electron temperature profiles when the momentum distribution remains Maxwellian. The ECE diagnostic system consists of the front-end optics, including two 1000 K calibration sources, in equatorial port plug EP9, the 70-1000 GHz transmission system from the front-end to the diagnostics hall, and the ECE instrumentation in the diagnostics hall. The baseline ECE instrumentation will include two Michelson interferometers that can simultaneously measure ordinary and extraordinary mode ECE from 70 to 1000 GHz, and two heterodyne radiometer systems, covering 122-230 GHz and 244-355 GHz. Significant design challenges include 1) developing highly-reliable 1000 K calibration sources and the associated shutters/mirrors, 2) providing compliant couplings between the front-end optics and the polarization splitter box that accommodate displacements of the vacuum vessel during plasma operations and bake out, 3) protecting components from damage due to stray ECH radiation and other intense millimeter wave emission and 4) providing the low-loss broadband transmission system

  9. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 10, special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter includes summaries of the reports of ITER EDA JCT Physics unit about ITER physics R and D during the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), ITER EDA JCT Naka JWC ITER technology R and D during the EDA, and Safety, Environment and Health group of ITER EDA JCT, Garching JWS on EDA activities related to safety

  10. The ITER divertor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Borrass, K.; Federici, G.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kukushkin, A.; Pacher, H.D.; Pacher, G.W.; Sugihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER divertor must exhaust most of the alpha particle power and the He ash at acceptable erosion rates. The high recycling regime of the ITER-CDA for present parameters would yield high power loads and erosion rates on conventional targets. Improvement by radiation in the SOL at constant pressure is limited in principle. To permit a higher radiation fraction, the plasma pressure along the field must be reduced by more than a factor 10, reducing also the target ion flux. This pressure reduction can be obtained by strong plasma-neutral interaction below the X-point. Under these conditions T e in the divertor can be reduced to <5 eV along a flame like ionisation front by impurity radiation and CX losses. Downstream of the front, neutrals undergo more CX or i-n collisions than ionisation events, resulting in significant momentum loss via neutrals to the divertor chamber wall. The pressure reduction by this mechanism depends on the along-field length for neutral-plasma interaction, the parallel power flux, the neutral density, the ratio of neutral-neutral collision length to the plasma-wall distance and on the Mach number of ions and neutrals. A supersonic transition in the main plasma-neutral interaction region, expected to occur near the ionisation front, would be beneficial for momentum removal. The momentum transfer fraction to the side walls is calculated: low Knudsen number is beneficial. The impact of the different physics effects on the chosen geometry and on the ITER divertor design and the lifetime of the various divertor components are discussed. ((orig.))

  11. Iteration of adjoint equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Adjoint functions are the basis of variational methods and now widely used for perturbation theory and its extension to higher order theory as used, for example, in modelling fuel burnup and optimization. In such models, the adjoint equation is to be solved in a critical system with an adjoint source distribution that is not zero but has special properties related to ratios of interest in critical systems. Consequently the methods of solving equations by iteration and accumulation are reviewed to show how conventional methods may be utilized in these circumstances with adequate accuracy. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. iterClust: a statistical framework for iterative clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongxu; Wang, Wanxin; Califano, Andrea

    2018-03-22

    In a scenario where populations A, B1 and B2 (subpopulations of B) exist, pronounced differences between A and B may mask subtle differences between B1 and B2. Here we present iterClust, an iterative clustering framework, which can separate more pronounced differences (e.g. A and B) in starting iterations, followed by relatively subtle differences (e.g. B1 and B2), providing a comprehensive clustering trajectory. iterClust is implemented as a Bioconductor R package. andrea.califano@columbia.edu, hd2326@columbia.edu. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Tsunoda, Makoto; Zhang, Yingxia; Song, Yanting; Deng, Shiming

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the m...

  14. Design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Waveguide Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.; Grunloh, H.; Koliner, J.

    2007-11-01

    The ITER ECH transmission line system is designed to deliver the power, from twenty-four 1 MW 170 GHz gyrotrons and three 1 MW 127.5 GHz gyrotrons, to the equatorial and upper launchers. The performance requirements, initial design of components and layout between the gyrotrons and the launchers is underway. Similar 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguide systems have been built and installed on several fusion experiments; however, none have operated at the high frequency and long-pulse required for ITER. Prototype components are being tested at low power to estimate ohmic and mode conversion losses. In order to develop and qualify the ITER components prior to procurement of the full set of 24 transmission lines, a 170 GHz high power test of a complete prototype transmission line is planned. Testing of the transmission line at 1-2 MW can be performed with a modest power (˜0.5 MW) tube with a low loss (10-20%) resonant ring configuration. A 140 GHz long pulse, 400 kW gyrotron will be used in the initial tests and a 170 GHz gyrotron will be used when it becomes available. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  15. ITER assembly and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Davis, F.; Lousteau, D.

    1991-01-01

    This document is intended to describe the work conducted by the ITER Assembly and Maintenance (A and M) Design Unit and the supporting home teams during the ITER Conceptual Design Activities, carried out from 1988 through 1990. Its content consists of two main sections, i.e., Chapter III, which describes the identified tasks to be performed by the A and M system and a general description of the required equipment; and Chapter IV, which provides a more detailed description of the equipment proposed to perform the assigned tasks. A two-stage R and D program is now planned, i.e., (1) a prototype equipment functional tests using full scale mock-ups and (2) a full scale integration demonstration test facility with real components (vacuum vessel with ports, blanket modules, divertor modules, armor tiles, etc.). Crucial in-vessel and ex-vessel operations and the associated remote handling equipment, including handling of divertor plates and blanket modules will be demonstrated in the first phase, whereby the database needed to proceed with the engineering phase will be acquired. The second phase will demonstrate the ability of the overall system to execute the required maintenance procedures and evaluate the performance of the prototype equipment

  16. Rokkasho: Japanese site for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, S.; Yamaguchi, V.; Matsuda, S.; Kishimoto, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan authorized ITER as the core machine of the Third Phase Basic Program of Fusion Energy Development. After a series of discussions in the Atomic Energy Commission and the Council of Science and Technology Policy, Japanese Government concluded formally with the Cabinet Agreement on 31 May 2002 that Japan should participate in the ITER Project and offer the Rokkasho-Mura site for construction of ITER to the Negotiations among Canada (CA), the European Union (EU), Japan (JA), and the Russian Federation (RF). The JA site proposal is now under the international assessment in the framework of the ITER Negotiations. (author)

  17. IAEA activities related to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Schneider, U.

    2001-01-01

    As agreed between the IAEA and the ITER Parties, special sessions are dedicated to ITER at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conferences. At the 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, held on 4-10 October 2000 in Sorrento, Italy, in the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial opening session there were special lectures by Carlo Rubbia (President, ENEA, Italy), A. Arima (Japan), and E.P. Velikhov (Russia); an overview talk on ITER by R. Aymar (ITER Director); and a talk on the FTU experiment by F. Romanelli. In total, 573 participants from 34 countries presented 389 papers (including 11 post-deadline papers and the 4 summaries)

  18. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 13, October 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter issue comprises concise information about an ITER related meeting concerning the joint implementation of ITER - the fifth ITER Negotiations Meeting - which was held in Toronto, Canada, 19-20 September, 2002, and information about assessment of the possible ITER site in Clarington, Ontario, Canada, which was the subject of the first official stage of the Joint Assessment of Specific Sites (JASS) for the ITER Project. This assessment was completed just before the Fifth ITER Negotiations Meeting

  19. Pesticide residues in fruit samples: comparison of different QuEChERS methods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christia, C; Bizani, E; Christophoridis, C; Fytianos, K

    2015-09-01

    Acetate- and citrate-buffered quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) pretreatment methods were evaluated for the determination of various pesticides in peaches, grapes, apples, bananas, pears, and strawberries from various regions of Greece, using LC-MS/MS. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate which type of QuEChERS method was the most appropriate and effective for each matrix; (ii) to apply the selected QuEChERS method for each matrix, in order to detect and quantify pesticide residues in various fruit samples using UPLC-MS/MS; (iii) to examine the concentration distribution of pesticide classes among fruit originating from various areas; and (iv) to assess pesticide concentration distribution between peel and flesh of fruit in order to evaluate the penetration of pesticide residues in the fruit flesh. Acetate-buffered QuEChERS was found to be the most suitable technique for most of the fruit matrices. According to the recovery values at two different concentration levels, peaches should preferably be treated by the citrate-buffered type, whereas grapes, bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries are best treated by the acetate-buffered version, although the differences in efficiency were small. The addition of graphitized carbon black significantly decreases the recovery of specific pesticides in all matrices except for strawberries. The majority of values do not exceed the official maximum residue levels set by the European Commission. Organophosphates proved to be the most commonly detected category along with triazines-triazoles-conazoles group and by carbamates. Apples and pears seem to be the most contaminated fruit matrices among those tested. Distribution of pesticide classes shows variations between different regions, suggesting different pesticide application practices. In the case of peaches and pears, there is an equal distribution of detected pesticides between peel and flesh, indicating penetration of contaminants into the

  20. ITER waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Na, B.C.; Benchikhoune, M.; Uzan, J. Elbez; Gastaldi, O.; Taylor, N.; Rodriguez, L.

    2010-01-01

    ITER will produce solid radioactive waste during its operation (arising from the replacement of components and from process and housekeeping waste) and during decommissioning (de-activation phase and dismantling). The waste will be activated by neutrons of energies up to 14 MeV and potentially contaminated by activated corrosion products, activated dust and tritium. This paper describes the waste origin, the waste classification as a function of the French national agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA), the optimization process put in place to reduce the waste radiotoxicity and volumes, the estimated waste amount based on the current design and maintenance procedure, and the overall strategy from component removal to final disposal anticipated at this stage of the project.

  1. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

  2. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  3. Divertor development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Ando, T.; Antipenkov, A.; Barabash, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Federici, G.; Ibbott, C.; Jakeman, R.; Matera, R.; Martin, E.; Parker, R.; Tivey, R.; Pacher, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The requirements for the ITER divertor design, i.e. power and He ash exhaust, neutral leakage control, lifetime, disruption load resistance and exchange by remote handling, are described in this paper. These requirements and the physics requirements for detached and semi-attached operation result in the vertical target configuration. This is realised by a concept incorporating 60 cassettes carrying the high heat flux components. The armour choice for these components is CFC monoblock in the strike zone near at the lower part of the vertical target, and a W brush elsewhere. Cooling is by swirl tubes or hypervapotrons depending on the component. The status of the heat sink and joining technology R and D is given. Finally, the resulting design of the high heat flux components is presented. (orig.)

  4. ECH system developments including the design of an intelligent fault processor on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Lohr, J.; Tooker, J.F.; O'Neill, R.C.; Moeller, C.P.; Doane, J.L.; Noraky, S.; Dubovenko, K.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Cengher, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Ellis, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new generation fault processor is in development which is intended to increase fault handling flexibility and reduce the number of incomplete DIII-D shots due to gyrotron faults. The processor, which is based upon a field programmable gate array device, will analyze signals for aberrant operation and ramp down high voltage to try to avoid hard faults. The processor will then attempt to ramp back up to an attainable operating point. The new generation fault processor will be developed during an expansion of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) areas that will include the installation of a depressed collector gyrotron and associated equipment. Existing systems will also be upgraded. Testing of real-time control of the ECH launcher poloidal drives by the DIII-D plasma control system will be completed. The ECH control system software will be upgraded for increased scalability and to increase operator productivity. Resources permitting, all systems will receive an extra layer of interlocks for the filament and magnet power supplies, added shielding for the tank electronics, programmable filament boost shape for long pulses, and electronics upgrades for the installation of the advanced fault processor.

  5. Combination of QuEChERS and DLLME for GC-MS determination of pesticide residues in orange samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraščíková, Mária; Hrouzková, Svetlana; Cunha, Sara C

    2013-01-01

    A new method combining QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) and DLLME (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring (SIM) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 pesticides from nine chemical groups exhibiting or suspected to exhibit endocrine-disrupting properties in orange samples. Acetonitrile extract obtained from QuEChERS extraction was used for DLLME as dispersive solvent and carbon tetrachloride as extractive solvent to increase the enrichment factor of the extraction procedure. The effect of several extraction parameters, such as volume extract achieved by the QuEChERS method and subsequently used for DLLME, selection of extractive solvent and its volume, was tested. Under optimum conditions, good linearity, satisfactory recoveries and repeatability were obtained. Limits of quantification (LOQs) achieved (ranging from 0.02 to 47 ng/g) were below the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. The proposed method was applied to the monitoring of pesticide residue levels in oranges commercialised in Portugal.

  6. ITER-FEAT - outline design report. Report by the ITER Director. ITER meeting, Tokyo, January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    It is now possible to define the key elements of ITER-FEAT. This report provides the results, to date, of the joint work of the Special Working Group in the form of an Outline Design Report on the ITER-FEAT design which, subject to the views of ITER Council and of the Parties, will be the focus of further detailed design work and analysis in order to provide to the Parties a complete and fully integrated engineering design within the framework of the ITER EDA extension

  7. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter contains information about the Third Negotiations Meeting on the Joint Implementation of ITER held in Moscow on 23-24 April 2002 and about the visit of Canadian officials and members of the Canadian delegation to RF research center 'Kurchatov Institute'

  8. ITER physics design guidelines: 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The physics basis for ITER has been developed from an assessment of the results of the last twenty-five years of tokamak research and from detailed analysis of important physics issues specifically for the ITER design. This assessment has been carried out with direct participation of members of the experimental teams of each of the major tokamaks in the world fusion program through participation in ITER workshops, contributions to the ITER Physics R and D Program, and by direct contacts between the ITER team and the cognizant experimentalists. Extrapolations to the present data base, where needed, are made in the most cautious way consistent with engineering constraints and performance goals of the ITER. In cases where a working assumptions had to be introduced, which is insufficiently supported by the present data base, is explicitly stated. While a strong emphasis has been placed on the physics credibility of the design, the guidelines also take into account that ITER should be designed to be able to take advantage of potential improvements in tokamak physics that may occur before and during the operation of ITER. (author). 33 refs

  9. ITER management advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) Meeting was held in Vienna on 16 July 2001. It was the last MAC Meeting and the main topics were consideration of the report by the Director on the ITER EDA status, review of the Work Programme, review of the Joint Fund and arrangements for termination and wind-up of the EDA

  10. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This issue of ITER CTA newsletter contains information about the meeting of the ITER CTA project board, which took place in Moscow, Russian Federation on 22 April 2002 on the occasion of the Third Negotiators Meeting (N3), and about the meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria

  11. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on the sixth ITER council meeting; introduces the newly appointed ITER director and reports on his address to the ITER council. The vacuum tank for the ITER model coil testing, installed at JAERI, Naka, Japan is also briefly described

  12. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 6, July 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities. One of them was the farewell party for for Annick Lyraud and Robert Aymar, who will take up his position as Director-General of CERN in January 2004, another is information about Dr. Yasuo Shimomura, ITER interim project leader, and ITER technical work during the transitional arrangements

  13. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 8, September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities including Robert Aymar's leaving ITER for CERN, ITER related issues at the IAEA General Conference and status and prospects of thermonuclear power and activity during the ITA on materials foe vessel and in-vessel components

  14. ITER interim design report package documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication contains the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-8), the ITER Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis, ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions and the Excerpt from the ITER Council (IC-9). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Plasma control concepts for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Nieswand, C.

    1997-01-01

    This overview paper skims over a wide range of issues related to the control of ITER plasmas. Although operation of the ITER project will require extensive developmental work to achieve the degree of control required, there is no indication that any of the identified problems will present overwhelming difficulties compared with the operation of present tokamaks. However, the precision of control required and the degree of automation of the final ITER plasma control system will present a challenge which is somewhat greater than for present tokamaks. In order to operate ITER optimally, integrated use of a large amount of diagnostic information will be necessary, evaluated and interpreted automatically. This will challenge both the diagnostics themselves and their supporting interpretation codes. The intervening years will provide us with the opportunity to implement and evaluate most of the new features required for ITER on existing tokamaks, with the exception of the control of an ignited plasma. (author) 7 figs., 7 refs

  16. ITER technical advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.

    2001-01-01

    The 17th Meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC-17) was held on February 19-22, the ITER Garching Work Site in Germany. The objective of the meeting was to review the Draft Final Design Report of ITER-FEAT and assess the ability of the self-consistent overall design both to satisfy the technical objectives previously defined and to meet the cost limitations. TAC-17 was also organized to confirm that the design and critical elements, with emphasis on the key recommendations made at previous TAC meetings, are such as to extend the confidence in starting ITER construction. It was also intended to provide the ITER Council, scheduled to meet on 27 and 28 February in Toronto, with a technical assessment and key recommendations of the above mentioned report

  17. Application of recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs +/ech +) for bioconversion of agrowaste to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debkumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Kaur, Baljinder; Wong, Jonathan Woon Chung; Karthikeyan, Obulisamy Parthiba

    2017-07-01

    Biotechnological production of vanillin is gaining momentum as the natural synthesis of vanillin that is very expensive. Ferulic acid (FA), a costly compound, is used as the substrate to produce vanillin biotechnologically and the making process is still expensive. Therefore, this study investigated the practical use of an agrobiomass waste, rice bran, and provides the first evidence of a cost-effective production of vanillin within 24 h of incubation using recombinant Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (fcs + /ech + ). Introduction of two genes encoding feruloyl CoA synthetase and enoyl CoA hydratase into the native strain increased vanillin yield to 4.01 g L -1 . Bioconversion was monitored through the transformation of phenolic compounds. A hypothetical metabolic pathway of rice bran during the vanillin bioconversion was proposed with the inserted pathway from ferulic acid to vanillin and compared with that of other metabolic engineered strains. These results could be a gateway of using recombinant lactic acid bacteria for industrial production of vanillin from agricultural waste.

  18. X- and O-mode ECH breakdown and startup in TCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, D.R.; Goodman, T.P.; Pochelon, A.; Behn, R.; Cardinali, A.; Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Tran, M.Q.

    1992-02-01

    We have performed a comparative study of X- and O-mode high field side launch for ECH breakdown and startup of tokamak plasmas. We observe that X-mode power is not absorbed at the cyclotron resonance but uniquely at the upper hybrid resonance, displaced to the lower field side of the cyclotron resonance. O-mode power, however, is absorbed at the cyclotron resonance as well. We also observe that the displacement of the upper hybrid resonance to the low field side with O-mode launch is significantly smaller than with X-mode launch due to the lower densities produced at the same microwave power level. The result is a more central and less localized breakdown with O-mode launch. The breakdown characteristics of X- and O-mode launch are seen to affect the position of the initial plasma current centroid in the poloidal cross section. We observe a strong correlation between the initial current ramp and the initial plasma current position which is most likely due to the dependence of the plasma inductance, toroidal electric field, and field-line connection lengths on the plasma major radius. X-mode startup occurs further to the low field side where current ramp rates are observed to be poor. (author) 18 figs., 23 refs

  19. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  20. ITER management advisory committee meeting in NAKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) Meeting was held on 17 December 1999 in Naka, Japan. The main topics were the ITER EDA Status, Task Status Summary and Work Program and a schedule of ITER meetings

  1. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This newsletter contains the articles: 'ITER representation at the 11th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference', 'Summary of discussion points and further deliberations in the special committee on the ITER project in the Atomic Energy Commission', and 'ITER radio frequency systems'

  2. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 9, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter reports on the seventh ITER technical meeting on safety and environment and contains the executive summary of the eleventh ITER scrape-off layer and divertor physics expert group meeting. Individual abstracts have been prepared

  3. SPARSE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGING USING NONLINEAR LANDWEBER ITERATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Desmal, Abdulla; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    minimization problem is solved using nonlinear Landweber iterations, where at each iteration a thresholding function is applied to enforce the sparseness-promoting L0/L1-norm constraint. The thresholded nonlinear Landweber iterations are applied to several two

  4. ITER cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-11-01

    The present specification of the ITER cooling system does not permit its operation with water above 150 C. However, the first wall needs to be heated to higher temperatures during conditioning at 250 C and bake-out at 350 C. In order to use the cooling water for these operations the cooling system would have to operate during conditioning at 37 Bar and during bake-out at 164 Bar. This is undesirable from the safety analysis point of view, and alternative heating methods are to be found. This review suggests that superheated steam or gas heating can be used for both baking and conditioning. The blanket design must consider the use of dual heat transfer media, allowing for change from one to another in both directions. Transfer from water to gas or steam is the most intricate and risky part of the entire heating process. Superheated steam conditioning appears unfavorable. The use of inert gas is recommended, although alternative heating fluids such as organic coolant should be investigated

  5. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  6. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits, but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. Much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis is needed to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. There is a further oportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges must be overcome. The first step is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of three key technical challenges is plasma engineering - burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost

  7. The ITER remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.; Palmer, J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize the ITER approach to machine components maintenance. A major objective of the ITER project is to demonstrate that a future power producing fusion device can be maintained effectively and offer practical levels of plant availability. During its operational lifetime, many systems of the ITER machine will require maintenance and modification; this can be achieved using remote handling methods. The need for timely, safe and effective remote operations on a machine as complex as ITER and within one of the world's most hostile remote handling environments represents a major challenge at every level of the ITER Project organization, engineering and technology. The basic principles of fusion reactor maintenance are presented. An updated description of the ITER remote maintenance system is provided. This includes the maintenance equipment used inside the vacuum vessel, inside the hot cell and the hot cell itself. The correlation between the functions of the remote handling equipment, of the hot cell and of the radwaste processing system is also described. The paper concludes that ITER has equipped itself with a good platform to tackle the challenges presented by its own maintenance and upgrade needs

  8. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 10, no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter presents an overview of meetings held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna during the week 16-20 July 2001 related to the successful completion of the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA). Among them were the final meeting of the ITER Council, the closing ceremony to commemorate the EDA completion, the final meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee, a briefing of issues related to ITER developments, and discussions on the possible joint implementation of ITER

  9. Iterative nonlinear unfolding code: TWOGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajnal, F.

    1981-03-01

    a new iterative unfolding code, TWOGO, was developed to analyze Bonner sphere neutron measurements. The code includes two different unfolding schemes which alternate on successive iterations. The iterative process can be terminated either when the ratio of the coefficient of variations in terms of the measured and calculated responses is unity, or when the percentage difference between the measured and evaluated sphere responses is less than the average measurement error. The code was extensively tested with various known spectra and real multisphere neutron measurements which were performed inside the containments of pressurized water reactors

  10. ITER technical advisory committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) meeting took place on December 20-22, 1999 at the Naka Joint Work Site. The objective of this meeting was to review the document 'Technical Basis for ITER-FEAT Outline Design (ODR)' issued by the Director on December 10. It was also aimed at providing the ITER Meeting scheduled for January 19-20, 2000 in Tokyo with a technical assessment of ODR and recommendations for the optimization of the anticipated plasma performance and engineering design, based on the guidelines approved by the Council in June 1998 and recommendations of the last TAC meeting

  11. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the overall ITER remote maintenance design concept developed mainly for in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and outlines the ITER R and D program to develop remote handling equipment and radiation hard components. Reactor structures inside the ITER cryostat must be maintained remotely due to DT operation, making remote handling technology basic to reactor design. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts have been developed, and maintenance design feasibility, including fabrication and testing of full-scale in-vessel remote maintenance handling equipment and tool, is being verified. (author)

  12. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the overall ITER remote maintenance design concept developed mainly for in-vessel components such as diverters and blankets, and outlines the ITER R and D program to develop remote handling equipment and radiation hard components. Reactor structures inside the ITER cryostat must be maintained remotely due to DT operation, making remote handling technology basic to reactor design. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts have been developed, and maintenance design feasibility, including fabrication and testing of full-scale in-vessel remote maintenance handling equipment and tool, is being verified. (author)

  13. ITER containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadakov, S.; Fauser, F.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the results and recommendations of the Containment Structures Design Unit (CSDU) on the containment structures for ITER, made in the context of the Conceptual Design Phase. The document describes the following subsystems: (1) the primary vacuum vessel (VV), (2) the attaching locks (AL) of the invessel components, (3) the plasma passive and active stabilizers, (4) the cryostat vessel, and (5) the machine gravity supports. Although for most components reference designs were selected, for some of these alternative design options were described, because unresolved problems necessitate further research and development. Conclusions and future needs are summarized for each of the above subsystems: (1) a reference VV design was selected, while most critical VV future needs are the feasibility studies of manufacturing, assembly, and the repair/disassembly/reassembly by remote handling. Alternative, thin-wall options appear attractive and should be studied further during the Engineering Design Activities; (2) no reference design solution was selected for the AL system, as AL design requirements are extremely difficult and internally contradictory, while there is no existing tokamak precedent, but instead, five different approaches will be further researched early in the Engineering Design Phase; (3) significant progress is reported on passive loops, for which the ''twin-loops'' concept is ready to be advanced into the Engineering Design Phase, and on active coils, where a new coil positioning prevents interference with the blanket removal paths, and the current joints are located in a secondary vacuum or in the atmosphere of the reactor hall, repairable by remote handling; (4) a full metallic welded cryostat design with increased toroidal resistance was chosen, but with a design based on concrete with a thin inner metallic liner as a back-up in case detailed nuclear shielding requirements would force the cryostat to act as biological shield; (5) out

  14. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Neill; Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  15. Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a

  16. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  17. ITER Conceptual design: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This interim report describes the results of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Conceptual Design Activities after the first year of design following the selection of the ITER concept in the autumn of 1988. Using the concept definition as the basis for conceptual design, the Design Phase has been underway since October 1988, and will be completed at the end of 1990, at which time a final report will be issued. This interim report includes an executive summary of ITER activities, a description of the ITER device and facility, an operation and research program summary, and a description of the physics and engineering design bases. Included are preliminary cost estimates and schedule for completion of the project

  18. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  19. ITER must make its case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Last month, as expected, the four partners in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project announced a three-year extension of the ITER engineering design activity. Detailed design work on the next-generation fusion-energy device started in 1992 and has cost about $1 bn so far. A decision to build the device, once scheduled to be taken this year, will now be made in 2001 at the earliest. The ITER council said that the extension would ''provide the framework for undertaking jointly site(s)-specific and other activities with the aim of enabling future decision on construction and operation of ITER''. What the project is really doing is buying time as it tries to find a cheaper option that the partners will find acceptable. The US is keen to cut the project's cost by two-thirds. (author)

  20. The ITER reduced cost design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2000-01-01

    Six years of joint work under the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) EDA agreement yielded a mature design for ITER which met the objectives set for it (ITER final design report (FDR)), together with a corpus of scientific and technological data, large/full scale models or prototypes of key components/systems and progress in understanding which both validated the specific design and are generally applicable to a next step, reactor-oriented tokamak on the road to the development of fusion as an energy source. In response to requests from the parties to explore the scope for addressing ITER's programmatic objective at reduced cost, the study of options for cost reduction has been the main feature of ITER work since summer 1998, using the advances in physics and technology databases, understandings, and tools arising out of the ITER collaboration to date. A joint concept improvement task force drawn from the joint central team and home teams has overseen and co-ordinated studies of the key issues in physics and technology which control the possibility of reducing the overall investment and simultaneously achieving the required objectives. The aim of this task force is to achieve common understandings of these issues and their consequences so as to inform and to influence the best cost-benefit choice, which will attract consensus between the ITER partners. A report to be submitted to the parties by the end of 1999 will present key elements of a specific design of minimum capital investment, with a target cost saving of about 50% the cost of the ITER FDR design, and a restricted number of design variants. Outline conclusions from the work of the task force are presented in terms of physics, operations, and design of the main tokamak systems. Possible implications for the way forward are discussed

  1. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.M.; Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Kashchuk, Y.; Maquet, Ph.; Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10 −7 Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10 −10 Pa m 3 s −1 . In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions will be described

  2. ITER leader to head CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Feder, Toni

    2003-01-01

    After successfully chairing an external review committee for CERN last year, Robert Aymar will leave ITER to become director general of the European particle physics laboratory rom 2004. Before ITER he also successfully managed the startup or Tore Supra. He will attempt to ensure that the LHC begins operating in 2007 - two years late - and is paid for by 2010 and will also start the planning for life after the LHC (1 page)

  3. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.M., E-mail: Kaushal.Patel@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Drevon, J.M. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Encheva, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kashchuk, Y. [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow (Russian Federation); Maquet, Ph. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10{sup −7} Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10{sup −10} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}. In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions

  4. ITER concept definition. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an agreement among the four parties representing the world's major fusion programs resulted in a program for conceptual design of the next logical step in the fusion program, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The definition phase, which ended in November, 1989, is summarized in two reports: a brief summary is contained in the ITER Definition Phase Report (IAEA/ITER/DS/2); the extended technical summary and technical details of ITER are contained in this two-volume report. The first volume of this report contains the Introduction and Summary, and the remainder will appear in Volume II. In the Conceptual Design Activities phase, ITER has been defined as being a tokamak device. The basic performance parameters of ITER are given in Volume I of this report. In addition, the rationale for selection of this concept, the performance flexibility, technical issues, operations, safety, reliability, cost, and research and development needed to proceed with the design are discussed. Figs and tabs

  5. ITER safety and operational scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Saji, G.

    1998-01-01

    The safety and environmental characteristics of ITER and its operational scenario are described. Fusion has built-in safety characteristics without depending on layers of safety protection systems. Safety considerations are integrated in the design by making use of the intrinsic safety characteristics of fusion adequate to the moderate hazard inventories. In addition to this, a systematic nuclear safety approach has been applied to the design of ITER. The safety assessment of the design shows how ITER will safely accommodate uncertainties, flexibility of plasma operations, and experimental components, which is fundamental in ITER, the first experimental fusion reactor. The operation of ITER will progress step by step from hydrogen plasma operation with low plasma current, low magnetic field, short pulse and low duty factor without fusion power to deuterium-tritium plasma operation with full plasma current, full magnetic field, long pulse and high duty factor with full fusion power. In each step, characteristics of plasma and optimization of plasma operation will be studied which will significantly reduce uncertainties and frequency/severity of plasma transient events in the next step. This approach enhances reliability of ITER operation. (orig.)

  6. ITER primary cryopump test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersohn, N.; Mack, A.; Boissin, J.C.; Murdoc, D.

    1998-01-01

    A cryopump as ITER primary vacuum pump is being developed at FZK under the European fusion technology programme. The ITER vacuum system comprises of 16 cryopumps operating in a cyclic mode which fulfills the vacuum requirements in all ITER operation modes. Prior to the construction of a prototype cryopump, the concept is tested on a reduced scale model pump. To test the model pump, the TIMO facility is being built at FZK in which the model pump operation under ITER environmental conditions, except for tritium exposure, neutron irradiation and magnetic fields, can be simulated. The TIMO facility mainly consists of a test vessel for ITER divertor duct simulation, a 600 W refrigerator system supplying helium in the 5 K stage and a 30 kW helium supply system for the 80 K stage. The model pump test programme will be performed with regard to the pumping performance and cryogenic operation of the pump. The results of the model pump testing will lead to the design of the full scale ITER cryopump. (orig.)

  7. The ITER remote maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, A.; Palmer, J.

    2007-01-01

    ITER is a joint international research and development project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power. As soon as the plasma operation begins using tritium, the replacement of the vacuum vessel internal components will need to be done with remote handling techniques. To accomplish these operations ITER has equipped itself with a Remote Maintenance System; this includes the Remote Handling equipment set and the Hot Cell facility. Both need to work in a cooperative way, with the aim of minimizing the machine shutdown periods and to maximize the machine availability. The ITER Remote Handling equipment set is required to be available, robust, reliable and retrievable. The machine components, to be remotely handle-able, are required to be designed simply so as to ease their maintenance. The baseline ITER Remote Handling equipment is described. The ITER Hot Cell Facility is required to provide a controlled and shielded area for the execution of repair operations (carried out using dedicated remote handling equipment) on those activated components which need to be returned to service, inside the vacuum vessel. The Hot Cell provides also the equipment and space for the processing and temporary storage of the operational and decommissioning radwaste. A conceptual ITER Hot Cell Facility is described. (orig.)

  8. Measurements of Pfirsch-Schlueter current and pressure profile for the high density ECH plasmas in Heliotron DR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, S.; Yanagi, N.; Nakasuga, M.; Obiki, T.; Iiyoshi, A.; Uo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Pfirsch-Schlueter current and pressure profiles are estimated from magnetic measurements for high density electron cyclotron heating (ECH) plasmas (n-bar e =(2-3)x10 13 cm -3 , T e0 =200-400 eV, (β) 0 (1-(r/a) 2 ) s , is about two in macroscopically stable plasmas. A fast loss of plasma energy from the centre to the periphery is observed during the onset of the MHD instability. This method of measuring the pressure profile shape is simple and useful for heliotron type devices. (author). 20 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  9. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  10. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 4, no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains comments on the ITER project by the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the International Organizations in Vienna; a report on the ITER Magnet Technical Meeting held at the Joint Work Site at Naka, Japan, April 19-21, 1995; and a contribution entitled ''ITER spouses cross the cultures''

  11. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 10, no. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter issue includes information about the ITER Management Advisory Committee Meeting held in Vienna on 16 July 2001 and also a summary of the ninth ITER Technical Meeting on safety and environment held at the ITER Garching Joint Work site, 8 to 10 May, 2001

  12. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 27, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about two ITER related meetings including the twelfth ITER Negotiations Meeting and The Ninth Meeting of the ITPA Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics was held at the National Fusion Research Centre (NFRC), Daejeon, Korea, from 10-14 October 2005

  13. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This edition of the ITER EDA Newsletter contains a contribution by the ITER Director, R. Aymar, on the subject of developments in ITER Physics R and D report on the completion of the ITER central solenoid model coils installation by H. Tsuji, Head fo the Superconducting Magnet Laboratory at JAERI in Naka, Japan. Individual abstracts are prepared for each of the two articles

  14. ITER EDA Newsletter. V.3, no.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter issue contains reports on (i) the completion of the ITER EDA Protocol 1, (ii) the signing of ITER EDA Protocol 2, (iii) a technical meeting on pumping and fuelling and (iv) a technical meeting on the ITER Tritium Plant

  15. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 4, no. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the first meeting of the ITER Test Blanket Working Group held 19-21 July 1995 at the ITER Garching Joint Work Site, and on the second workshop of the ITER Expert Group on Confinement and Transport.

  16. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 4, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the first meeting of the ITER Test Blanket Working Group held 19-21 July 1995 at the ITER Garching Joint Work Site, and on the second workshop of the ITER Expert Group on Confinement and Transport

  17. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 10, November 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about an ITER related meeting, namely, the Ninth ITER Negotiations Meeting (N-9), which was held on 9-10 November 2003 at the Fragrant Hill Golden Resources Commerce Hotel in Beijing and information about research on magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) in China

  18. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter reports about the ITER Management Advisory Committee Meeting in Naka, the ITER Technical Advisory Committee Meeting in Naka and the meeting of the ITER SWG-P2 in Vienna. A separate abstract is prepared for each meeting

  19. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter on the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER project contains an overview of one of the seven large ITER Research and Development Projects identified by the ITER Director, namely the Vacuum Vessel Sector, as well as an account of computer animation created for ITER

  20. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This issue of the ITER Newsletter contains a summary report on the Thirteenth meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC), a report on ITER at the International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials and a report of a Russian scientist working at ITER Garching JWS

  1. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 22, May 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about Japanese Participant Team's recent activities in the ITER Transitional Arrangements(ITA) phase and ITER related meeting the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting (IAEA-TM) on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors which was held in Padova, Italy from 9-11 May 2005

  2. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ''ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop

  3. Apparent and partial molar volumes of long-chain alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides and bromides in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Ruso, J.M.; Nimo, J.; Rodriguez, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Density measurements of dodecyl- (C 12 DBACl), tetradecyl- (C 14 DBACl), hexadecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C 16 DBACl) and of decyl- (C 10 DBABr) and dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium bromide (C 12 DBABr) in aqueous solutions at T=15 deg. C and T=25 deg. C have been carried out. From these results, apparent and partial molar volumes were calculated. Positive deviations from the Debye-Hueckel limiting law provide evidence for limited association at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. The change of the apparent molar volume upon micellization was calculated. The relevant parameters have been presented in function of the alkyl chain length. Apparent molar volumes of the present compounds in the micellar phase, V phi m , and the change upon micellization, ΔV phi m , have been discussed in terms of temperature and type of counterion

  4. ITER ITA newsletter No. 33, August-September-October 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related events such as public debate on ITER in Provence and fiftieth annual General Conference of the IAEA. Eight ITER related statements were made during Conference

  5. ITER Construction--Plant System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

    2009-01-01

    This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

  6. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 11, December 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This issue of the ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER including information from the editor about ITER update, about progress in ITER magnet design and preparation of procurement packages and about 25th anniversary of the First Steering Committee Meeting of the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) Workshop, organized under the auspices of the IAEA, took place at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna

  7. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 4, no.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains a report on the ninth ITER council meeting held December 12 - 13, 1995 in Garching near Munich, Germany (by Dr. E. Canobbio), a report on the status of the ITER EDA (by Dr. R. Aymar, ITER Director) and a report on the ninth meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (by Professor P. Rutherford, TAC Chair) held 27 - 29 November 1995, in Garching near Munich, Germany

  8. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 4, May 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings, one of them the eighth meeting of the ITER negotiators' standing sub-group (NSSG-8) and a number of related meetings from 14 to 22 May 2003 at Garching, Germany, another was bilateral blanket meeting between ITER International Team (IT) and the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (ENTEK), which was held in Moscow, Russian Federation on 22 and 23 May, 2003

  9. ITER ITA newsletter. Special issue - December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional arrangements) newsletter contains information about signing ITER Agreement, which took place on 21 November 2006 in Paris, France. It was great day for fusion research as Ministers from the seven ITER Parties in the presence of President Jacques Chirac and President of European Commission Jose Barroso and some 400 invited guests signed the Agreement setting up the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization. This issues contains the speeches, statements and remarks of Presidents and Ministers

  10. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter on the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on the Tenth ITER Council Meeting, held July 24-25, 1996, in St. Petersburg, Russia; a description of the Status of the ITER EDA by the ITER Director, Dr. R. Aymar; and a report on the so-called Task Number One by the ITER Special Working Group (Basis for the Start of Explorations, presenting possible scenarios toward siting, licensing and host support)

  11. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 1, February 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    This first issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings including eighth ITER Negotiations meeting, held on 18-19 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia, first meeting of the ITER preparatory committee, held on 17 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia and the third meeting of the ITPA (International Tokamak Physics Activity) coordinating committee, held on 24-25 October 2002 at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching

  12. Fusion Power measurement at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertalot, L.; Barnsley, R.; Krasilnikov, V.; Stott, P.; Suarez, A.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear fusion research aims to provide energy for the future in a sustainable way and the ITER project scope is to demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear fusion energy. ITER is a nuclear experimental reactor based on a large scale fusion plasma (tokamak type) device generating Deuterium - Tritium (DT) fusion reactions with emission of 14 MeV neutrons producing up to 700 MW fusion power. The measurement of fusion power, i.e. total neutron emissivity, will play an important role for achieving ITER goals, in particular the fusion gain factor Q related to the reactor performance. Particular attention is given also to the development of the neutron calibration strategy whose main scope is to achieve the required accuracy of 10% for the measurement of fusion power. Neutron Flux Monitors located in diagnostic ports and inside the vacuum vessel will measure ITER total neutron emissivity, expected to range from 1014 n/s in Deuterium - Deuterium (DD) plasmas up to almost 10{sup 21} n/s in DT plasmas. The neutron detection systems as well all other ITER diagnostics have to withstand high nuclear radiation and electromagnetic fields as well ultrahigh vacuum and thermal loads. (authors)

  13. ITER project and fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the sessions of ITR, FTP and SEE of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, 159 papers were presented in total, highlighted by the remarkable progress of the ITER project: ITER baseline has been established and procurement activities have been started as planned with a target of realizing the first plasma in 2019; ITER physics basis is sound and operation scenarios and operational issues have been extensively studied in close collaboration with the worldwide physics community; the test blanket module programme has been incorporated into the ITER programme and extensive R and D works are ongoing in the member countries with a view to delivering their own modules in a timely manner according to the ITER master schedule. Good progress was also reported in the areas of a variety of complementary activities to DEMO, including Broader Approach activities and long-term technology. This paper summarizes the highlights of the papers presented in the ITR, FTP and SEE sessions with a minimum set of background information.

  14. Bayesian fuzzy logic-based estimation of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power deposition in MHD control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.davoudi@polimi.it [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi, Mohsen, E-mail: davoudi@eng.ikiu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 34148-96818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A couple of algorithms to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius are proposed. • The algorithms are based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic. • The algorithms are tested on the off-line experimental data acquired from Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy. • Uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information are also estimated. - Abstract: In the thermonuclear fusion systems, the new plasma control systems use some measured on-line information acquired from different sensors and prior information obtained by predictive plasma models in order to stabilize magnetic hydro dynamics (MHD) activity in a tokamak. Suppression of plasma instabilities is a key issue to improve the confinement time of controlled thermonuclear fusion with tokamaks. This paper proposes a couple of algorithms based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius (r{sub DEP}). Both algorithms also estimate uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of the online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information. The algorithms have been employed on a set of off-line ECE channels data which have been acquired from the experimental shot number 21364 at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy.

  15. Validation of QuEChERS method for the determination of some pesticide residues in two apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Osman

    2016-10-02

    This study was undertaken to validate the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" (QuEChERS) method using Golden Delicious and Starking Delicious apple matrices spiked at 0.1 maximum residue limit (MRL), 1.0 MRL and 10 MRL levels of the four pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, indoxacarb and imidacloprid). For the extraction and cleanup, original QuEChERS method was followed, then the samples were subjected to liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for chromatographic analyses. According to t test, matrix effect was not significant for chlorpyrifos in both sample matrices, but it was significant for dimethoate, indoxacarb and imidacloprid in both sample matrices. Thus, matrix-matched calibration (MC) was used to compensate matrix effect and quantifications were carried out by using MC. The overall recovery of the method was 90.15% with a relative standard deviation of 13.27% (n = 330). Estimated method detection limit of analytes blew the MRLs. Some other parameters of the method validation, such as recovery, precision, accuracy and linearity were found to be within the required ranges.

  16. Determination of mycotoxins in plant-based beverages using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Abella, Eugènia; Herrero, Pol; Canela, Núria; Arola, Lluís; Borrull, Francesc; Ras, Rosa; Fontanals, Núria

    2017-08-15

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 mycotoxins in plant-based beverage matrices, using a QuEChERS extraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection (UHPLC-(ESI)MS/MS). This multi-mycotoxin method was applied to analyse plant-based beverages such as soy, oat and rice. QuEChERS extraction was applied obtaining suitable extraction recoveries between 80 and 91%, and good repeatability and reproducibility values. Method Quantification Limits were between 0.05μgL -1 (for aflatoxin G 1 and aflatoxin B 1 ) and 15μgL -1 (for deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B 2 ). This is the first time that plant-based beverages have been analysed, and certain mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol, aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , aflatoxin G 1 , aflatoxin G 2 , ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin and zearalenone, were found in the analysed samples, and some of them quantified between 0.1μgL -1 and 19μgL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hollow density profile and particle transport of ECH plasmas in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.

    1993-01-01

    Transport enhancement due to helical ripples is the main problem for a low-aspect-ratio helical system to survive as a magnetic fusion device. Optimization of the magnetic configuration has been experimentally studied for neutral beam heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS). A confinement regime compatible with the LHD scaling has been obtained by shifting the magnetic axis inward with respect to the minor axis of the helical windings. However a power balance analysis suggests that the improvement of plasma parameters has mainly been achieved by the improvement of power deposition. On the other hand, electron density profiles become peaked with the inward shifted magnetic axis in contrast to flattened profiles with the outward shifted one. A question arises: Does the magnetic structure really affect transport processes? In order to answer this question, it is most suitable to examine ECH plasmas in a low collisionality regime. In this paper we report some characteristics of the ECH plasmas in the low-aspect-ratio device CHS and discuss the effect of magnetic field ripples on transport processes. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Development of 1 MW gyrotron and progress of ECH system for the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror in Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Minami, R.; Shidara, H.; Endo, Y.; Harigae, M.; Nakamura, M.; Sakagoshi, Y.; Murofushi, N.; Ichimura, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Yoshikawa, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Sakamoto, Keishi; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Mutoh, T.; Takahashi, H.; Mitsunaka, Y.

    2008-10-01

    High power gyrotrons with TE 4,2 cavity at 28 GHz and with TE 18,6 cavity and a diamond window at 77 GHz have been developed for GAMMA 10 and LHD in the joint program of NIFS and University of Tsukuba. The maximum outputs of 570 kW at 28 GHz and 1.1 MW at 77 GHz were obtained corresponding to each design. The operations of more than 750 kW for 5 sec. and 810 kW for 3.5 sec. were achieved in the developing tubes at 77 GHz, which is the first high power-long pulse result of the 77 GHz tube. The experimental simulation of the effect of the stray RF in the 28 GHz tube indicates the stray RF is the one of the major causes limiting gyrotron performance. The output of more than 1 MW with 40% oscillation efficiency is expected from the design of the next 28 GHz gyrotron for GAMMA 10. Installation of the polarizer in the transmission line enhanced the performance of the ECH system in GAMMA 10, that is the first result which clearly showed ∼100% X mode excitation is a key to design the efficient fundamental ECH system of strong field side injection in mirror devices. (author)

  19. The ITER project technological challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Lister, Joseph; Marquina, Miguel A; Todesco, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    The first lecture reminds us of the ITER challenges, presents hard engineering problems, typically due to mechanical forces and thermal loads and identifies where the physics uncertainties play a significant role in the engineering requirements. The second lecture presents soft engineering problems of measuring the plasma parameters, feedback control of the plasma and handling the physics data flow and slow controls data flow from a large experiment like ITER. The last three lectures focus on superconductors for fusion. The third lecture reviews the design criteria and manufacturing methods for 6 milestone-conductors of large fusion devices (T-7, T-15, Tore Supra, LHD, W-7X, ITER). The evolution of the designer approach and the available technologies are critically discussed. The fourth lecture is devoted to the issue of performance prediction, from a superconducting wire to a large size conductor. The role of scaling laws, self-field, current distribution, voltage-current characteristic and transposition are...

  20. Construction Safety Forecast for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    cadwallader, lee charles

    2006-11-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is poised to begin its construction activity. This paper gives an estimate of construction safety as if the experiment was being built in the United States. This estimate of construction injuries and potential fatalities serves as a useful forecast of what can be expected for construction of such a major facility in any country. These data should be considered by the ITER International Team as it plans for safety during the construction phase. Based on average U.S. construction rates, ITER may expect a lost workday case rate of < 4.0 and a fatality count of 0.5 to 0.9 persons per year.

  1. US--ITER activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.; Gohar, Y.; Smith, D.

    1990-09-01

    Activation analysis has been made for the US ITER design. The radioactivity and the decay heat have been calculated, during operation and after shutdown for the two ITER phases, the Physics Phase and the Technology Phase. The Physics Phase operates about 24 full power days (FPDs) at fusion power level of 1100 MW and the Technology Phase has 860 MW fusion power and operates for about 1360 FPDs. The point-wise gamma sources have been calculated everywhere in the reactor at several times after shutdown of the two phases and are then used to calculate the biological dose everywhere in the reactor. Activation calculations have been made also for ITER divertor. The results are presented for different continuous operation times and for only one pulse. The effect of the pulsed operation on the radioactivity is analyzed. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  2. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  3. The danger of iteration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, J.; Semeria, B.

    1983-01-01

    When a Hamiltonian H depends on variables phisub(i), the values of these variables which minimize H satisfy the equations deltaH/deltaphisub(i) = O. If this set of equations is solved by iteration, there is no guarantee that the solution is the one which minimizes H. In the case of a harmonic system with a random potential periodic with respect to the phisub(i)'s, the fluctuations have been calculated by Efetov and Larkin by means of the iteration method. The result is wrong in the case of a strong disorder. Even in the weak disorder case, it is wrong for a one-dimensional system and for a finite system of 2 particles. It is argued that the results obtained by iteration are always wrong, and that between 2 and 4 dimensions, spin-pair correlation functions decay like powers of the distance, as found by Aharony and Pytte for another model

  4. Remote maintenance development for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    This paper both describes the overall design concept of the ITER remote maintenance system, which has been developed mainly for use with in-vessel components such as divertor and blanket, and outlines of the ITER R and D program, which has been established to develop remote handling equipment/tools and radiation hard components. In ITER, the reactor structures inside cryostat have to be maintained remotely because of activation due to DT operation. Therefore, remote-handling technology is fundamental, and the reactor-structure design must be made consistent with remote maintainability. The overall maintenance scenario and design concepts of the required remote handling equipment/tools have been developed according to their maintenance classification. Technologies are also being developed to verify the feasibility of the maintenance design and include fabrication and testing of a fullscale remote-handling equipment/tools for in-vessel maintenance. (author)

  5. Artificial intelligence for the EChO long-term mission planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Piquer, Álvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2014-08-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) was an ESA mission candidate competing for a launch opportunity within the M3 call. Its main aim was to carry out research on the physics and chemistry of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. The events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times in order to obtain measurements with adequate Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Furthermore, several criteria must be considered to perform an observation, among which we can highlight the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and the avoidance of overlapping with other tasks. It is important to emphasize that, since the communications for transferring data from ground stations to the spacecraft are restricted, it is necessary to compute a long-term plan of observations in order to provide autonomy to the observatory. Thus, a suitable mission plan will increase the efficiency of telescope operation, and this will result in a raise of the scientific return and a reduction of operational costs. Obtaining a long-term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the large amount of possible combinations for finding a near-optimal solution. In this contribution we present a long-term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the objectives defined, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of objects to be observed. Finally, it is noteworthy that the

  6. The ITER CODAC conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Farthing, J.W.; Greenwald, M.; Yonekawa, I.

    2007-01-01

    CODAC orchestrates the activity of 60-90 Plant Systems in normal ITER operation. Interlock Systems protect ITER from potentially damaging operating off-normal conditions. Safety Systems protect the personnel and the environment and will be subject to licensing. The principal challenges to be met in the design and implementation of CODAC include: complexity, reliability, transparent access respecting security, a high experiment data rate and data volume since ITER is an experimental reactor, scientific exploitation from multiple Participant Team Experiment Sites and the long 35-year period for construction and operation. Complexity is addressed by prescribing the communication interfaces to the Plant Systems and prescribing the technical implementation within the Plant Systems. Plant Systems export to CODAC all the information on their construction and operation as 'self-description'. Complexity is also addressed by automating the operation of ITER and of the plasma, using a structured data description of 'Operation Schedules' which encompass all non-manual control, including Plasma Control. Reliability is addressed by maximising code reuse and maximising the use of existing products thereby minimising in-house development. The design is hierarchical and modular in both hardware and software. The latter facilitates evolution of methods during the project lifetime. Guaranteeing security while maximising access is addressed by flow separation. Out-flowing data, including experimental signals and the status of ITER plant is risk-free. In-flowing commands and data originate from Experiment Sites. The Cadarache Experiment Site is equated with the Remote Experiment Sites and a rigorous 'Operation Request Gatekeeper' is provided. The high data rates and data volumes are handled with high performance networks. Global Area Networks allow Participant Teams to access all CODAC data and applications. Scientific exploitation of ITER will remain a human as well as technical

  7. ITER Operating Limits and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Operating Limits and Conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which together define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER status (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components important for personnel or public safety (Safety Important Class, SIC) are identified from the overall plant safety analysis on functional importance to safety of the components. SIC classification has to be presented already inside the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing safety authority before the relevant construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits, i.e. that if exceeded could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems and the operational limits on equipment which warn from or stop a functional departure from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. The safety limits have to indicate clearly states that leave the nominal safety state of ITER; they are derived from the safety analysis of ITER. OLCs can represent in some cases few parameters grouping together. Some operational conditions, e.g. inventories, will be controlled through no real time measurements and procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants is considered at the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines to develop the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits. A few examples are reported as well as open issues on some OLCs control and measurement and the relevant R-and-D planned to solve the issues. (author)

  8. Array architectures for iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Hosagrahar V.; Rao, Sailesh K.; Kailath, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Regular mesh-connected arrays are shown to be isomorphic to a class of so-called regular iterative algorithms. For a wide variety of problems it is shown how to obtain appropriate iterative algorithms and then how to translate these algorithms into arrays in a systematic fashion. Several 'systolic' arrays presented in the literature are shown to be specific cases of the variety of architectures that can be derived by the techniques presented here. These include arrays for Fourier Transform, Matrix Multiplication, and Sorting.

  9. ITER oriented issues-2 (etc.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryayev, G.V.; Savchuk, V.V.; Shakhvorostov, Yu. V.

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzes the possibilities of utilization beryllium ingots produced at UMZ (Ulba Metallurgical Plant) for the purpose of ITER program. The results of comparative analysis of specification requirement to S-65 grade chemical compound and statistics data of UMZ beryllium ingots impurities content are presented. It has been demonstrated that beryllium industrial ingots produced at UMZ can be used for a production of powders and billets conforming the requirements of ITER specification. Beryllium ingots production flow chart, description of basic process equipment, the layout of metallurgical production upgrade, the results of such upgrade implementation are complimentary data to this study. The study illustrated with explanatory drawings. (author)

  10. ITER and world chaos; Iter ou le bouleversement du monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourcel, Eric

    2012-02-15

    ITER is the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor: the author here develops three scenarios linked to the control of nuclear fusion as a method of producing electrical energy that could take over from fossil fuels in the twenty-First century. His expose shows the likely strategic disarray that might result

  11. Final report of the ITER EDA. Final report of the ITER Engineering Design Activities. Prepared by the ITER Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the Final Report by the ITER Council on work carried out by ITER participating countries on cooperation in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER. In this report the main ITER EDA technical objectives, the scope of ITER EDA, its organization and resources, engineering design of ITER tokamak and its main parameters are presented. This Report also includes safety and environmental assessments, site requirements and proposed schedule and estimates of manpower and cost as well as proposals on approaches to joint implementation of the project

  12. ITER ITA newsletter No. 31, June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about initialling the ITER Agreement and its related instruments by seven ITER parties, which too place in Brussels on 24 May 2006. The initialling constituted the final act of the ITER negotiations. It confirmed the Parties' common acceptance of the negotiated texts, ad referendum, and signalled their intentions to move forward towards the entry into force of the ITER Agreement as soon as possible. 'ITER - Uniting science today, global energy tomorrow' was the theme of a number of media events timed to accompany a remarkable day in the history of the ITER international venture, May 24th 2006, initialling of the ITER international agreement

  13. Electro-mechanical connection system for ITER in-vessel magnetic sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzolo, Andrea; Brombin, Matteo; Gonzalez, Winder [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Marconato, Nicolò, E-mail: nicolo.marconato@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Peruzzo, Simone [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Arshad, Shakeib [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla, 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Ma, Yunxing; Vayakis, George [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Williams, Adrian [Oxford Technologies Ltd, 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RL (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Latest status of the ITER “Generic In-Vessel Magnetic Platform” design activity. • Integration within the ITER In-Vessel configuration model. • Geometry optimization based on thermo-mechanical and magnetic field 3D calculation. • Assessment of the remote handling maintenance compatibility. - Abstract: This paper presents the preliminary design of the “In-Vessel Magnetic platform”, which is a subsystem of the magnetic diagnostics formed by all the components necessary for guaranteeing the thermo-mechanical interface of the actual magnetic sensors with the vacuum vessel (VV), their protection and the electrical connection to the in-vessel wiring for the transmission of the detected signal with a minimum level of noise. The design has been developed in order to comply with different functional requirements: the mechanical attachment to the VV; the electrical connection to the in-vessel wiring; efficient heat transfer to the VV; the compatibility with Remote Handling (RH) system for replacement; the integration of metrology features for post-installation control; the Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) shielding from Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) stray radiation without compromising the sensor pass band (15 kHz). Significant effort has been dedicated to develop the CAD model, integrated within the ITER In-Vessel configuration model, taking care of the geometrical compliance with the Blanket modules (modified in order to accommodate the magnetic sensors in suitable grooves) and the RH compatibility. Thorough thermo-mechanical and electro-magnetic Finite Element Method (FEM) analyses have been performed to assess the reliability of the system in standard and off-normal operating conditions for the low frequency magnetic sensors.

  14. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 4, no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue contains reports on (i) the 8th meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC-8) held on June 29 - July 7, 1995 at the ITER San Diego Work Site, (ii) the 8th meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC-8) held at the ITER San Diego Work Site on July 9-10, 1995, (iii) the 33rd meeting of the International Fusion Research Council (FRC), held July 11, 1995 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and (iv) the ITER participation in the fifth topical meeting on Tritium Technology in Fission, Fusion and Isotopic Applications

  15. ITER ITA Newsletter. No. 29, March 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities and meetings, namely, the ITER Director-General Nominee, Dr. Kaname Ikeda, took up his position as ITER Project Leader in Cadarache on 13 March, the consolidation of information technology infrastructure for ITER and about he Thirty-Fifth Meeting of the Fusion Power Co-ordinating Committee (FPCC), which was held on 28 February-1 March 2006 at the headquarters of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Paris

  16. ITER Council tour of Clarington site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Council meeting was recently held in Toronto on 27 and 28 February. ITER Canada provided local arrangements for the Council meeting on behalf of Europe as the Official host. Following the meeting, on 1 March, ITER Canada conducted a tour of the proposed ITER construction site at Charington, and the ITER Council members attended a luncheon followed by a speech by Dr. Peter Barnard, Chairman and CEO of ITER Canada, at the Empire Club of Canada. The official invitation to participate in these events came from Dr. Peter Harrison, Deputy Minister of Natural Resources Canada. This report provides a brief summary of the events on 1 March

  17. Residue analysis of sixty pesticides in red swamp crayfish using QuEChERS with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a multi-residue analytical method using QuEChERS extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup followed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid determination of 60 pesticide residues in whole crayfish a...

  18. QuEChERS, a sample preparation technique that is “catching on”: an up-to-date interview with its inventors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

  19. Inexpensive, effective novel activated carbon fibers for sample cleanup: application to multipesticide residue analysis in food commodities using a QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv; Srivastava, Anshuman; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap

    2018-03-01

    Phenolic resin based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were applied for the first time as a reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction (r-DSPE) sorbent. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to determine 26 pesticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids, and herbicides) in different complex matrices, including cauliflower, cucumber, banana, apple, wheat, and black gram. Different physicochemical characterization techniques were used to investigate the engineering and structural properties of the r-DSPE sorbent. All the chromatographic analyses were performed with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The recoveries of all 26 pesticides were acceptable (70-120%), with relative standard deviations of less than 15%. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 1.13-5.48 ng/g and 3.42-16.60 ng/g, respectively. In the original QuEChERS method, primary secondary amine is extensively used as the r-DSPE sorbent in the cleanup process, but it is eightfold more expensive than the ACFs used in this study. Therefore, the modified QuEChERS method using ACFs during the cleanup process is more efficient, cheaper, and more robust to determine pesticides from different types of matrices, including vegetables, grains, and fruits, and ACFs could be used as a cost-effective alternative to primary secondary amine. Graphical Abstract Sample clean-up using PSA and ACF as r-DSPE sorbent in QuEChERS method.

  20. Prototyping of the Blanket Shield Module for the ITER EC H and CD Upper launcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaeh, Peter, E-mail: peter.spaeh@kit.edu [KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, G. [KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Binni, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Deggendorf (Germany); Gessner, R. [KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Goldmann, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Deggendorf (Germany); Grossetti, G. [KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kroiss, A. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Deggendorf (Germany); Meier, A. [KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Obermeier, C. [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Deggendorf (Germany); Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A. [KIT – Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER EC H and CD prototype of structural In-vessel components manufactured and analyzed. • Preliminary design was adapted according to manufacturing requirements. • Analysis of flow characteristics for cooling system has been performed. Design was optimized according to this analysis. - Abstract: The design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH and CD) Upper launcher is recently in the first of two final design phases. The first phase deals with the finalization of all FCS (First Confinement System) components as well as with specific design progress for the remaining In-vessel components. The most outstanding structural In-vessel component of an ECH and CD Upper launcher is the Blanket Shield Module (BSM) with the First Wall Panel (FWP). Both of them form the plasma facing part of the launcher, which has to meet strong demands on dissipation of nuclear heat loads and mechanical rigidity. Nuclear heat loads from 3 MW/m{sup 3} at the First Wall Panel’ surface, decaying down to a tenth in a distance of 0.5 m behind of it will affect the BSM and the FWP. Additional heating of maximum 0.5 MW/m{sup 2} due to plasma radiation must be dissipated from the FWP. To guarantee save and homogenous removal of such extensive heat loads, the BSM is designed as a welded steel-case with specific cooling channels inside its wall structure. Attached to its face side is the FWP with a high-power cooling structure. Based on computational analysis the optimum cooling channel geometry has been investigated. Specific pre-prototype tests have been made and associated assembly parameters have been determined in order to identify optimum manufacturing processes and joining techniques, which guarantee a robust design with maximum geometrical accuracy. This paper describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a full-size mock-up of the BSM. The study was carried out in an industrial cooperation with MAN Diesel and Turbo SE.

  1. Prototyping of the Blanket Shield Module for the ITER EC H and CD Upper launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeh, Peter; Aiello, G.; Binni, A.; Gessner, R.; Goldmann, A.; Grossetti, G.; Kroiss, A.; Meier, A.; Obermeier, C.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER EC H and CD prototype of structural In-vessel components manufactured and analyzed. • Preliminary design was adapted according to manufacturing requirements. • Analysis of flow characteristics for cooling system has been performed. Design was optimized according to this analysis. - Abstract: The design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH and CD) Upper launcher is recently in the first of two final design phases. The first phase deals with the finalization of all FCS (First Confinement System) components as well as with specific design progress for the remaining In-vessel components. The most outstanding structural In-vessel component of an ECH and CD Upper launcher is the Blanket Shield Module (BSM) with the First Wall Panel (FWP). Both of them form the plasma facing part of the launcher, which has to meet strong demands on dissipation of nuclear heat loads and mechanical rigidity. Nuclear heat loads from 3 MW/m 3 at the First Wall Panel’ surface, decaying down to a tenth in a distance of 0.5 m behind of it will affect the BSM and the FWP. Additional heating of maximum 0.5 MW/m 2 due to plasma radiation must be dissipated from the FWP. To guarantee save and homogenous removal of such extensive heat loads, the BSM is designed as a welded steel-case with specific cooling channels inside its wall structure. Attached to its face side is the FWP with a high-power cooling structure. Based on computational analysis the optimum cooling channel geometry has been investigated. Specific pre-prototype tests have been made and associated assembly parameters have been determined in order to identify optimum manufacturing processes and joining techniques, which guarantee a robust design with maximum geometrical accuracy. This paper describes the design, manufacturing and testing of a full-size mock-up of the BSM. The study was carried out in an industrial cooperation with MAN Diesel and Turbo SE

  2. ITER operating limit definition criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.; Chiocchio, S.; Hureau, D.; Girard, J.Ph.; Gordon, C.; Portone, A.; Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez; Roldan, C.; Saibene, G.; Uzan-Elbez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The operating limits and conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which, together, define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER states (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components that are important for personnel or public safety (safety important class, SIC) are identified considering their functional importance in the overall plant safety analysis. SIC classification has to be presented already in the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing authority before manufacturing and construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits that, if exceeded, could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems, and the operational limits on equipment which warn against or stop a functional deviation from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. Some operational conditions, e.g. in-Vacuum Vessel (VV) radioactive inventories, will be controlled through procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants, is considered to the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines for the development of the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits.

  3. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  4. Status of the ITER EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarises progress made in the ITER Design Activities between October 1998 and February 1999. The three main focusses of the activity were on design work, on R and D work and on the physics basis. The consequences of diminishing financial funds and personnel are discussed and the state of the individual R and D projects is given briefly

  5. Japanese site for ITER: Rokkasho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the status of Japanese efforts for hosting ITER in Japan. In May 2002, Japanese Government decided to propose an ITER site, Rokkasho in Aomori Prefecture, a Northern part of the main island, based on the comprehensive/intensive assessments by the Site Selection Committee established by Japanese Government. ITER is designed basically with a potential flexibility beyond the detailed technical objectives to have more clear scope for developing technical key elements in a future power plant. Various flexibilities in the construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER are totally assessed. Consequently the Japanese site has been chosen and it satisfies sufficiently not only the Site Requirements and the Site Design Assumptions but also the further extension and flexibilities. In particular the potential for more flexible construction schedule and operations is technically described as well as the fulfillment of the site requirements and its assumptions as the minimum requirements in this paper. The socio-cultural environment is also described briefly because of a key aspect for the scientists and engineers who will participate in the project

  6. New developments in iterated rounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Raman, V.; Suresh, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Iterated rounding is a relatively recent technique in algorithm design, that despite its simplicity has led to several remarkable new results and also simpler proofs of many previous results. We will briefly survey some applications of the method, including some recent developments and giving a high

  7. Iterative method for Amado's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.

    1980-01-01

    A recently proposed iterative method for solving scattering integral equations is applied to the spin doublet and spin quartet neutron-deuteron scattering in the Amado model. The method is tested numerically in the calculation of scattering lengths and phase-shifts and results are found better than those obtained by using the conventional Pade technique. (Author) [pt

  8. Informal meeting on ITER developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, E.

    2000-01-01

    The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), advisory body of the IAEA, organized an informal meeting on the general status and outlook for ITER, held October 9 at Sorrento, Italy, in conjunction with the 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. This article describes the main events at the meeting

  9. A linear iterative unfolding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    László, András

    2012-01-01

    A frequently faced task in experimental physics is to measure the probability distribution of some quantity. Often this quantity to be measured is smeared by a non-ideal detector response or by some physical process. The procedure of removing this smearing effect from the measured distribution is called unfolding, and is a delicate problem in signal processing, due to the well-known numerical ill behavior of this task. Various methods were invented which, given some assumptions on the initial probability distribution, try to regularize the unfolding problem. Most of these methods definitely introduce bias into the estimate of the initial probability distribution. We propose a linear iterative method (motivated by the Neumann series / Landweber iteration known in functional analysis), which has the advantage that no assumptions on the initial probability distribution is needed, and the only regularization parameter is the stopping order of the iteration, which can be used to choose the best compromise between the introduced bias and the propagated statistical and systematic errors. The method is consistent: 'binwise' convergence to the initial probability distribution is proved in absence of measurement errors under a quite general condition on the response function. This condition holds for practical applications such as convolutions, calorimeter response functions, momentum reconstruction response functions based on tracking in magnetic field etc. In presence of measurement errors, explicit formulae for the propagation of the three important error terms is provided: bias error (distance from the unknown to-be-reconstructed initial distribution at a finite iteration order), statistical error, and systematic error. A trade-off between these three error terms can be used to define an optimal iteration stopping criterion, and the errors can be estimated there. We provide a numerical C library for the implementation of the method, which incorporates automatic

  10. ITER EDA Newsletter. Vol. 1, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    After the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) Agreement and Protocol 1 had been signed by the four ITER parties on July 21, 1992 and had entered into force, the ITER Council suggested at its first meeting (Vienna, September 10-11, 1992) that the publication of the ITER Newsletter be continued during the EDA with assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This suggestion was supported by the Agency and subsequently the ITER office in Vienna assumed its responsibilities for planning and executing activities related to the publication of the Newsletter. The ITER EDA Newsletter is planned to be a monthly publication aimed at disseminating broad information and understanding, including the description of the personal and institutional involvements in the ITER project in addition to technical facts about it. The responsibility for the Newsletter rests with the ITER council. In this first issue the signing of the ITER EDA Activities and Protocol 1 is reported. The EDA organizational structure is described. This issue also reports on the first ITER EDA council meeting, the opening of the ITER EDA NAKA Co-Centre, the first meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee, activities of special working groups, an ITER Technical Meeting, as well as ''News in Brief'' and ''Coming Events''

  11. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter on the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on the divertor remote handling development (and of a summer party at the ITER Joint Work Site in Garching, Germany)

  12. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This newsletter contains reports on: 'The ITER management advisory committee (MAC) meeting in Cadarache' and on 'ITER technical advisory committee meeting at Garching'. It contains photos of the participants of both meetings

  13. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter on the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on the divertor remote handling development (and of a summer party at the ITER Joint Work Site in Garching, Germany).

  14. Iteration and Prototyping in Creating Technical Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that the development process for computer software can be greatly aided by the writers of specifications if they employ basic iteration and prototyping techniques. Asserts that computer software configuration management practices provide ready models for iteration and prototyping. (HB)

  15. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, special issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    In conjunction with the ITER Council Meeting, a ceremony was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 22 July 1998 to celebrate the achievements of the ITER Engineering Design Activities during the period 1992-1998

  16. Iterative perceptual learning for social behavior synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, I.A.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We introduce Iterative Perceptual Learning (IPL), a novel approach to learn computational models for social behavior synthesis from corpora of human–human interactions. IPL combines perceptual evaluation with iterative model refinement. Human observers rate the appropriateness of synthesized

  17. Iterative Perceptual Learning for Social Behavior Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, I.A.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    We introduce Iterative Perceptual Learning (IPL), a novel approach for learning computational models for social behavior synthesis from corpora of human-human interactions. The IPL approach combines perceptual evaluation with iterative model refinement. Human observers rate the appropriateness of

  18. ITER EDA Newsletter. V.3, no.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter issue contains a report on the fifth meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee and a summary of a magnet and safety technical meeting held at Naka, February 22-25, 1994

  19. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    This ITER EDA newsletter reports on the programme directors meeting of 28-29 July 1999, the Snowmass Fusion Summer Study Group workshop and the ITER Management Advisory Committee meeting in Garching. Individual abstracts are prepared for the 3 meetings

  20. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    This newsletter contains an article concerning the ITER divertor cassette project meeting in Bologna, Italy (May 26-28, 1999), and an emotional outburst, concerning the closure of the ITER site in San Diego, USA

  1. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 2, no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains an ITER EDA Status Report, and a report on the Fourth International Fusion Neutronics Workshop at the University of California, Los Angeles Campus, October 20-21, 1993

  2. ITER on display at Yokohama, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.

    1998-01-01

    During the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, from 19-24 October 1998, the ITER Project exhibited a display, primarily of the research and development which has taken place to support the design of ITER

  3. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 6, no. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This issue of the ITER Newsletter contains summary reports (i) on the Sixth ITER Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment and (ii) on JAERI's Annual Public Seminar on Fusion Research and Development

  4. Meeting of the ITER Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A meeting of the ITER Council took place in Toronto, Canada, on 27-28 February 2001 (Canada participates in the ITER EDA as an associate of the EU Party). The delegations to the Council were led by Dr. U. Finzi, Principal Advisor in charge of Fusion R and D in the Directorate-General for Research of the European Commission, Mr. T. Sugawa, Deputy Director-General of the Research and Development Bureau of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology of Japan, and Academician E. Velikhov, President of the RRC ''Kurchatov Institute''. The European delegation was joined by Canadian experts including a representative from the Canadian Department of Natural Resources. The Council heard presentations from Dr. H. Kishimoto on the successful completion of the Explorations concerning future joint implementation of ITER, and from Dr. J.-P. Rager on the ITER International Industry Liaison Meeting held in Toronto in November 2000. Having noted statements of Parties' status, in particular concerning the readiness to start negotiations and the progress toward site offers, the Council encouraged the Parties to pursue preparations toward future implementation of ITER along the general lines proposed in the Explorers' final report. The Council also noted the readiness the of the RF and EU Parties to instruct specified current JCT members to remain at their places of assignment after the end of the EDA, in preparation for a transition to the Co-ordinated Technical Activities foreseen as support to ITER negotiations. The Council was pleased to hear that meetings with the Director of the ITER Parties' Designated Safety Representatives had started, and commended the progress toward achieving timely licensing processes with a good common understanding. The Council noted with appreciation the Director's view that no difficulties of principle in the licensing approach had been identified during the informal discussions with the regulatory representatives and

  5. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 15, December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter issue contains brief information about several meetings related to ITER. One of them is the seventh ITER Negotiations Meetings that took place in Barcelona, Spain on 9-10 December 2002, another is the final ITER CTA Project Board Meeting, which took place in Barcelona, Spain on 8 December 2002 and the last one is the Third Meeting of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group on diagnostics held in Toki, Japan on 18-21 September 2002

  6. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This issue of the newsletter on the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on the Fifth ITER Technical Meeting on Safety, Environment, and Regulatory Approval, held September 29 - October 7, 1996 at the ITER San Diego Joint Work Site; and a report on the Fifth ITER Diagnostics Expert Group Workshop and Technical Meeting on Diagnostics held in Montreal, Canada, 12-13 October 1996

  7. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This issues of the ITER Engineering Design Activities Newsletter contains a report on the Tenth Meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee held at JAERI Headquarters, Tokyo, June 5-6, 1996; on the Fourth ITER Divertor Physics and Divertor Modelling and Database Expert Group Workshop, held at the San Diego ITER Joint Worksite, March 11-15, 1996, and on the Agenda for the 16th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (7-11 October 1996)

  8. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 9, no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA Newsletter contains discussions of three meetings, i.e., (1) the Third ITER International Industry Liaison Meeting held in Toronto, Canada (November 7-9, 2000), (2) an informal meeting on ITER developments held in Sorrento, Italy (October 9, 2000), and (3) the Thirteenth Meeting of the ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics held in Naka, Japan (September 21-22, 2000)

  9. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 9, no. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter reports on the ITER meeting on 29-30 June 2000 in Moscow, summarizes the status report on the ITER EDA by R. Aymar, the ITER Director, and gives overviews of the expert group workshop on transport and internal barrier physics, confinement database and modelling and edge and pedestal physics, and the IEA workshop on transport barriers at edge and core. Individual abstracts have been prepared

  10. Colorado Conference on iterative methods. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference provided a forum on many aspects of iterative methods. Volume I topics were:Session: domain decomposition, nonlinear problems, integral equations and inverse problems, eigenvalue problems, iterative software kernels. Volume II presents nonsymmetric solvers, parallel computation, theory of iterative methods, software and programming environment, ODE solvers, multigrid and multilevel methods, applications, robust iterative methods, preconditioners, Toeplitz and circulation solvers, and saddle point problems. Individual papers are indexed separately on the EDB.

  11. Prospective performances in JT-60SA towards the ITER and DEMO relevant plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, H.; Fujita, T.; Kikuchi, M.

    2006-01-01

    JT-60SA, the former JT-60SC and NCT, a superconducting tokamak positioned as the satellite machine of ITER, collaborating with Japan and EU fusion community, aims at contribution to ITER and DEMO through the demonstration of advanced plasma operation scenario and the plasma applicability test with advanced materials. After the discussions in JA-EU Satellite Tokamak Working Group in 2005, the increased heating power, higher heat removal capacity for the plasma facing components, improvement of the radiation shielding, the remote handling system for the maintenance of in-vessel components, and related equipment are planed to be additionally installed. With such full equipment towards the increased heating power of 41 MW (34 MW-NBI and 7 MW-ECH) with 100 s, the prospective plasma performances, analysed by the equilibrium and transport analysis codes, are rather improved in the view point of the contribution to ITER and DEMO relevant research. Accessibility for higher heating power in a higher density region enables the lower normalized Larmor radius and normalized collision frequency close to the reactor relevant plasma with the ITER-similar configuration of single null divertor plasma with the aspect ratio of A = 3.1, elongation of k95 = 1.7, triangularity of d95 (q95) in the plasma current of I p = 3.5 MA, toroidal magnetic field of B T = 2.59 T and the major radius of Rp=3.16 m. The increases in the electron temperature, beam driven and bootstrap current fraction by the increase of the power of Negative ion based NBI (10 MW) reduce the loop voltage and contribute to increase the maximum plasma current of ITER similar shape. Full non-inductive current drive controllability is also extended into the high density and high plasma current operation towards high beta plasma. Flexibility in aspect ratio and shape parameter is kept the same as NCT, i.e. a double null divertor plasma with A = 2.6, k95 = 1.83, d95 = 0.57, I p = 5.5 MA, B T = 2.72 T, and R p = 3.01 m which

  12. ITER technical advisory committee meeting at Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER Technical Advisory Committee meeting took place on 24-27 February at the Garching Joint Work Site. According to the discussions at the ITER meeting in Yokohama in October 1998, the Technical Advisory Committee was requested to conduct a thorough review of the document 'Options for the reduced technical objectives / reduced cost ITER'

  13. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 9, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter contains the following 5 contributions: CSMC and CSIC charging tests successfully completed; The ITER divertor cassette project meeting; Blanket R and D and design task meeting; IAEA technical committee meeting on fusion safety; ITER L-6 large project ''blanket remote handling and maintenance''

  14. Final ITER CTA project board meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenkov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The final ITER CTA Project Board Meeting (PB) took place in Barcelona, Spain on 8 December 2002. The PB took notes of the comments concerning the status of the International Team and the Participants Teams, including Dr. Aymar's report 'From ITER to a FUSION Power Reactor' and the assessment of the ITER project cost estimate

  15. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 21, April 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about Russian federation Participant Team's activity in the area of preparation for ITER construction and information about International Fusion materials irradiation Facility(IRMIF) project and prospects for implementation

  16. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This edition of the ITER EDA Newsletter is dedicated to celebrate the achievements of the ITER activities at the San Diego Joint Work Site. Articles by E. Velikhov, A. Davies and R. Aymar mark the final days of American participation in the ITER program

  17. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This newsletter contains three articles, namely a report on an ITER meeting (October 20-21,1998) in Yokohama, Japan, a short note on the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (October 19-24, 1998) in Yokohama and a monograph by ITER Director R. Aymar on 'the Legacy of Artsimovitch and the lessons of ITER'

  18. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 6, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter reports on the ITER divertor development project and its objectives; contains a report on the 16th Energy IAEA Fusion Conference (ITER and other Tokamak Issues) held in Montreal, Canada; 287 papers were selected by the Programme Committee for presentation and 178 posters were presented. 3 figs

  19. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 10, no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This issue contains a report on the meeting of the ITER Council (M. Drew), a report on the ITER EDA status (Dr. R. Aymar), a report on the ITER Council tour of the Clarington Site (Dr. D. Dautovich) . Abstracts of the indivdual reports have been included in the database

  20. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This issue of the ITER Newsletter contains an article of the Status of the ITER EDA and the progress of the ITER activities and a report on the 5th Technical Meeting on Quality which was held in San Diego on 20-22 October 1997

  1. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter contains summary reports on the eleventh meeting of the ITER diagnostic expert group in Cadarache, France, on the ITER JCT presentation at the international conference on fusion reactor materials in Colorado Springs, USA and on the seventh workshop on plasma edge theory in fusion devices in Tajimi, Japan. Individual abstracts are prepared for the three contributions

  2. On One-Point Iterations and DIIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerby, Ole; Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg

    2009-01-01

    We analyze various iteration procedures in many dimensions inspired by the SCF iteration used in first principles electronic structure calculations. We show that the simple mixing of densities can turn a divergent (or slowly convergent) iteration into a (faster) convergent process provided all...

  3. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 2, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue is dedicated to the description of the ITER EDA Home Teams (European Community, Japan, Russian Federation, USA), in particular their composition, tasks, responsibilities, national support and activities, aimed to design the ITER tokamak

  4. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 2, March 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This ITER ITA newsletter contains concise information about the JASS (Joint Assessment of Specific Sites) final report. The main conclusion is that all four sites are sound and fully capable to respond to all ITER Site Requirements and Design assumptions, as approved by the ITER Council in its January 2000 Meeting

  5. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 2, no. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains a report of the Second ITER Technical Committee Meeting on Safety, Environment, and Regulatory Approval, San Diego, USA, November 3-12, 1993, and a summary report on an ITER Magnet Technical Meeting, Naka, Japan, October 5-8, 1993

  6. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 2, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue contains a report on the third meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee, a summary report for the ITER Magnetic Technical Meeting, a brief account of the International Workshop on Nuclear Data for Fusion Reactor Technology, and a description of approved arrangements for visiting home team personnel

  7. Determination of linuron in chamomile by LC-MS/MS using the QuEChERS extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana D. Špirović Trifunović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Linuron is a selective herbicide used for the control of broadleaf weeds. Its mode of action is the inhibition of photosynthesis. The QuEChERS method for extraction of linuron residues from chamomile was used. The LC–MS/MS method was used for determination of linuron residues. Its linearity was studied in a range of 0.025-0.50 μg/ml using matrix-matched calibration, and the determination coefficient (R2 was higher than 0.99. Blank chamomile samples were spiked with linuron solution at three concentration levels yielding recoveries of over 90%. The internal standard added in all samples was isoproturon–d6. There were no linuron residues in chamomile flowers, while the residues ranged from 0.010 to 0.040 mg/kg in the flower stalk samples.

  8. ITER-FEAT outline design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In July 1998 the ITER Parties were unable, for financial reasons, to proceed with construction of the ITER design proposed at that time, to meet the detailed technical objectives and target cost set in 1992. It was therefore decided to investigate options for the design of ITER with reduced technical objectives and with possibly decreased technical margins, whose target construction cost was one half that of the 1998 ITER design, while maintaining the overall programmatic objective. To identify designs that might meet the revised objectives, task forces involving the JCT and Home Teams met during 1998 and 1999 to analyse and compare a range of options for the design of such a device. This led at the end of 1999 to a single configuration for the ITER design with parameters considered to be the most credible consistent with technical limitations and the financial target, yet meeting fully the objectives with appropriate margins. This new design of ITER, called ''ITER-FEAT'', was submitted to the ITER Director to the ITER Parties as the ''ITER-FEAT Outline Design Report'' (ODR) in January 2000, at their meeting in Tokyo. The Parties subsequently conducted their domestic assessments of this report and fed the resulting comments back into the progressing design. The progress on the developing design was reported to the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) in June 2000 in the report ''Progress in Resolving Open Design Issues from the ODR'' alongside a report on Progress in Technology R and D for ITER. In addition, the progress in the ITER-FEAT Design and Validating R and D was reported to the ITER Parties. The ITER-FEAT design was subsequently approved by the governing body of ITER in Moscow in June 2000 as the basis for the preparation of the Final Design Report, recognising it as a single mature design for ITER consistent with its revised objectives. This volume contains the documents pertinent to the process described above. More detailed technical information

  9. QuEChERS: um método moderno de preparo de amostra para determinação multirresíduo de pesticidas em alimentos por métodos cromatográficos acoplados à espectrometria de massas QuEChERS: a modern sample preparation method for pesticide multiresidue determination in food by chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar D. Prestes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to provide an updated overview of the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Ruged and Safe (QuEChERS multiresidue extraction method, that involves initial extraction in acetonitrile, an extraction/partition step after the addition of salt, and a cleanup step utilizing dispersive solid phase extraction. QuEChERS method is nowadays the most applied extraction method for the determination of pesticide residues in food samples, providing acceptable recoveries for acidic, neutral and basic pesticides. Several applications for various food matrices (fruits, vegetables, cereals and others in combination with chromatographic mass spectrometry analysis were presented.

  10. The international thermonuclear reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.; Henning, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Four governmental groups, representing Europe, Japan, USSR and U.S. met in March 1987 to consider a new international design of a magnetic fusion device for the 1990's. An interim group was appointed. The author gives a brief synopsis of what might be thought of as a draft charter. The starting point is the objective of the ITER device, which is summarized as demonstrating both scientific and technical feasibility of fusion. The paper presents an update on the current thinking and technical aspects for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This covers not only what is happening in the U.S. but also some reports of preliminary thinking of the last technical work that occurred in Vienna

  11. The ITER poloidal field system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA); Beljakov, V; Kavin, A; Korshakov, V; Kostenko, A; Roshal, A; Zakharov, L [Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (USSR); Bulmer, R; Kaiser, T; Miller, J R; Pearlstein, L D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Hogan, J [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Kurihara, K; Shimomura, Y; Sugihara, M; Yoshino, R [Japan Atomic Energy Resea

    1990-12-15

    The ITER poloidal field (PF) system uses superconducting coils to provide the plasma equilibrium fields, slow equilibrium control and plasma flux linkage (V-s) needed for the ITER Operations and Research Program. Double-null (DN) divertor plasmas and operation scenarios for 22 MA Physics (high-Q/ignition) and 15 MA Technology (high-fluence testing) phases are provided. For 22 MA plasmas, total PF flux swing is 333 V-s. This provides inductive current drive (CD) for start-up with 66 V-s of resistive loss and 440-s (330-s minimum) sustained burn. The PF system also allows plasma start-up and shutdown scenarios, and can maintain the plasma configuration during burn over a range of current and pressure profiles. Other capabilities include increased plasma current (25 MA with inductive CD; 28 MA with non-inductive CD assist), divertor separatrix sweeping, and semi-DN and single-null plasmas.

  12. US ITER limiter module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.; Hassanein, A.

    1996-08-01

    The recent U.S. effort on the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield has been focused on the limiter module design. This is a multi-disciplinary effort that covers design layout, fabrication, thermal hydraulics, materials evaluation, thermo- mechanical response, and predicted response during off-normal events. The results of design analyses are presented. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented concerning, the capability of the limiter modules to meet performance goals and to be fabricated within design specifications using existing technology

  13. Tritium behavior in ITER beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.

    1990-10-01

    The beryllium neutron multiplier in the ITER breeding blanket will generate tritium through transmutations. That tritium constitutes a safety hazard. Experiments evaluating tritium storage and release mechanisms have shown that most of the tritium comes out in a burst during thermal ramping. A small fraction of retained tritium is released by thermally activated processes. Analysis of recent experimental data shows that most of the tritium resides in helium bubbles. That tritium is released when the bubbles undergo swelling sufficient to develop porosity that connects with the surface. That appears to occur when swelling reaches about 10--15%. Other tritium appears to be stored chemically at oxide inclusions, probably as Be(OT) 2 . That component is released by thermal activation. There is considerable variation in published values for tritium diffusion through the beryllium and solubility in it. Data from experiments using highly irradiated beryllium from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory showed diffusivity generally in line with the most commonly accepted values for fully dense material. Lower density material, planned for use in the ITER blanket may have very short diffusion times because of the open structure. The beryllium multiplier of the ITER breeding blanket was analyzed for tritium release characteristics using temperature and helium production figures at the midplane generated in support of the ITER Summer Workshop, 1990 in Garching. Ordinary operation, either in Physics or Technology phases, should not result in the release of tritium trapped in the helium bubbles. Temperature excursions above 600 degree C result in large-scale release of that tritium. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, W. B.; Almeida, N. G. de

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST

  15. Advanced scenarios for ITER operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sips, A.C.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In thermonuclear fusion research using magnetic confinement, the tokamak is the leading candidate for achieving conditions required for a reactor. An international experiment, ITER is proposed as the next essential and critical step on the path to demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. ITER is to produce and study plasmas dominated by self heating. This would give unique opportunities to explore, in reactor relevant conditions, the physics of {alpha}-particle heating, plasma turbulence and turbulent transport, stability limits to the plasma pressure and exhaust of power and particles. Important new results obtained in experiments, theory and modelling, enable an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring in tokamak plasmas and give enhanced confidence in ITER achieving its goals. In particular, progress has been made in research to raise the performance of tokamaks, aimed to extend the discharge pulse length towards steady-state operation (advanced scenarios). Standard tokamak discharges have a current density increasing monotonically towards the centre of the plasma. Advanced scenarios on the other hand use a modified current density profile. Different advanced scenarios range from (i) plasmas that sustain a central region with a flat current density profile (zero magnetic shear), capable of operating stationary at high plasma pressure, to (ii) discharges with an off axis maximum of the current density profile (reversed magnetic shear in the core), able to form internal transport barriers, to increase the confinement of the plasma. The physics of advanced tokamak discharges is described, together with an overview of recent results from different tokamak experiments. International collaboration between experiments aims to provide a better understanding, control and optimisation of these plasmas. The ability to explore advanced scenarios in ITER is very desirable, in order to verify the result obtained in

  16. Infrared laser diagnostics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Ma, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Two infrared laser-based diagnostics are under development at ORNL for measurements on burning plasmas such as ITER. The primary effort is the development of a CO 2 laser Thomson scattering diagnostic for the measurement of the velocity distribution of confined fusion-product alpha particles. Key components of the system include a high-power, single-mode CO 2 pulsed laser, an efficient optics system for beam transport and a multichannel low-noise infrared heterodyne receiver. A successful proof-of-principle experiment has been performed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) stellerator at ORNL utilizing scattering from electron plasma frequency satellites. The diagnostic system is currently being installed on Alcator C-Mod at MIT for measurements of the fast ion tail produced by ICRH heating. A second diagnostic under development at ORNL is an infrared polarimeter for Faraday rotation measurements in future fusion experiments. A preliminary feasibility study of a CO 2 laser tangential viewing polarimeter for measuring electron density profiles in ITER has been completed. For ITER plasma parameters and a polarimeter wavelength of 10.6 microm, a Faraday rotation of up to 26 degree is predicted. An electro-optic polarization modulation technique has been developed at ORNL. Laboratory tests of this polarimeter demonstrated a sensitivity of ≤ 0.01 degree. Because of the similarity in the expected Faraday rotation in ITER and Alcator C-Mod, a collaboration between ORNL and the MIT Plasma Fusion Center has been undertaken to test this polarimeter system on Alcator C-Mod. A 10.6 microm polarimeter for this measurement has been constructed and integrated into the existing C-Mod multichannel two-color interferometer. With present experimental parameters for C-Mod, the predicted Faraday rotation was on the order of 0.1 degree. Significant output signals were observed during preliminary tests. Further experiment and detailed analyses are under way

  17. Matlab modeling of ITER CODAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pangione, L.; Lister, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The ITER CODAC (COntrol, Data Access and Communication) conceptual design resulted from 2 years of activity. One result was a proposed functional partitioning of CODAC into different CODAC Systems, each of them partitioned into other CODAC Systems. Considering the large size of this project, simple use of human language assisted by figures would certainly be ineffective in creating an unambiguous description of all interactions and all relations between these Systems. Moreover, the underlying design is resident in the mind of the designers, who must consider all possible situations that could happen to each system. There is therefore a need to model the whole of CODAC with a clear and preferably graphical method, which allows the designers to verify the correctness and the consistency of their project. The aim of this paper is to describe the work started on ITER CODAC modeling using Matlab/Simulink. The main feature of this tool is the possibility of having a simple, graphical, intuitive representation of a complex system and ultimately to run a numerical simulation of it. Using Matlab/Simulink, each CODAC System was represented in a graphical and intuitive form with its relations and interactions through the definition of a small number of simple rules. In a Simulink diagram, each system was represented as a 'black box', both containing, and connected to, a number of other systems. In this way it is possible to move vertically between systems on different levels, to show the relation of membership, or horizontally to analyse the information exchange between systems at the same level. This process can be iterated, starting from a global diagram, in which only CODAC appears with the Plant Systems and the external sites, and going deeper down to the mathematical model of each CODAC system. The Matlab/Simulink features for simulating the whole top diagram encourage us to develop the idea of completing the functionalities of all systems in order to finally have a full

  18. ITER merges energies in Provence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, J.Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The works around the Cadarache site where the experimental nuclear fusion reactor ITER is to be built have already generated about 366 million euros of contracts and provisions with French companies by September 30, 2009. The advance of the project should bring 3000 to 4000 persons more around the site but the Provence region suffers from the lack of a real projected management of employment and skills. (J.S.)

  19. Alara applied to iter design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzan-Elbez, Joelle; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Porfiri, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Neil; Gordon, Charles; Garin, Pascal; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the existing data on ITER and the safety options for licensing ITER in Cadarache, the present work assesses the application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principle, as it has been implemented in the design of ITER and will be applied during ITER operation, as well as the compliance of the design with EUR/96-29 directive and regulation applicable in France. The preliminary occupational radiation exposure estimate gives a value of about 250 man mSv/a, which is half the annual target for ITER and comes essentially from maintenance activities. Some examples of the approach are presented

  20. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 3, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the Fifth ITER Council Meeting held in Garching, Germany, 27-28 January 1994, a visit (28 January 1994) of an international group of Harvard Fellows to the San Diego Joint Work Site, the Inauguration Ceremony of the EC-hosted ITER joint work site in Garching (28 January 1994), on an ITER Technical Meeting on Assembly and Maintenance held in Garching, Germany, January 19-26, 1994, and a report on a Technical Committee Meeting on radiation effects on in-vessel components held in Garching, Germany, November 15-19, 1993, as well as an ITER Status Report

  1. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 16, January 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter contains information about some ITER related activities including ITER transitional arrangements (ITA) which will start on 1 January 2003, the USA rejoining ITER and People's Republic of China joining ITER, the visit of Mr. J. Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan, to Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation on 11 January 2003, and the most recent meeting of the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) and Divertor Physics Group of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA), which was held in Lausanne, Switzerland, on October 21-23, 2002 at the CRPP/EFL laboratory

  2. ITER ITA newsletter No. 32, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities. The ITER Parties, at their Ministerial Meeting in May 2006 in Brussels, initialled the draft text of the prospective Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project as well as the draft text of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organisation for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. The Parties have requested that the IAEA Director General serve as Depositary of the two aforementioned Agreements and that the IAEA establish a Trust Fund to Support Common Expenditures under the ITER Transitional Arrangements, pending entry into force of the prospective Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. At its June Meeting in Vienna, the IAEA Board of Governors approved these requests. There is also information about the Tenth Meeting of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics was held at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, from 10-14 April 2006

  3. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 10, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article provides a summary of results of the ITER Physics Committee Meeting, which was held on 14 October 2000 at the ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Germany. The ITER Physics Committee is the body responsible for overseeing, through the seven specialized Expert Groups, the R and D activities contributed voluntarily by the ITER Parties. The Parties' Physics Designated Persons, the Chairs and Co-Chairs of ITER Physics Expert Groups and the JCT members involved attended the Meeting. As usual, the meeting was chaired by the ITER Director, Dr. R. Aymar, who reported on the status of the ITER EDA. Dr. Aymar described the steps being taken in preparing the ITER-FEAT Final Design Report (FDR), and further stated that the Report would be available in time to be of benefit to the Negotiations on the ITER Joint Implementation, expected to start around May 2001. All Parties recognize that the ITER Physics Expert Group structure has been useful in focusing the tokamak physics activity on the ITER-relevant issues and provides an efficient worldwide collaboration on confirming innovative solutions. The concept of an international workshop to be organized as a pre-meeting of each Expert Group meeting, in order to involve U.S. scientists in the discussion of generic tokamak physics issues, was introduced in 2000, with some success, and its goal should be pursued

  4. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 1, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This second issue of the ITER Newsletter during the EDA (Engineering Design Activities) reports on (i) the second ITER Council Meeting held in the Russian Research Centre (RRC) ''Kurchatov Institute'', Moscow, Russia, December 15-16, 1992, (ii) the opening ceremony of the ITER Council Office at the RRC, (iii) the first meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC), (iv) the start-up of the ITER EDA at Garching, Germany, (v) descriptions of the ITER Co-Centres at Naka, Japan, and (vi) San Diego, USA, (vii) contact persons activities, (viii) the adoption by the ITER Council of the recommendations by the Special Working Group 1 (SWG-1), (ix) news in brief, and (x) coming events

  5. Optimization of Iter with Iter-89P scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johner, J.

    1991-10-01

    Ignition in the ITER baseline machine is studied in the frame of a 1/2-D model using the ITER-89P scaling of the energy confinement time. The required value of the enhancement factor f L with respect to the L-mode, allowing ignition with a total fusion power of 1100 MW, is found to be 1.9 at an optimum operating temperature of 11 keV. A sensitivity analysis shows that the critical f L =2 value can be exceeded with relatively small changes in the physical assumptions. It is concluded that the safety margin is not sufficient for this project. Optimization of a thermonuclear plasma in a tokamak is then performed with constraints of given maximum magnetic field B in the superconducting windings, given distance between the plasma and the maximum magnetic field point, imposed safety factor at the plasma edge, and given averaged neutron flux at the plasma surface. The minimum enhancement factor f L with respect to the L-mode, allowing ignition at a given value of the total fusion power P fus , is only a function of the torus aspect ratio A. Taking the ITER reference values for the above constraints, the required value of f L is practically independent of the aspect ratio but can be sensibly improved by increasing the total fusion power P fus . With P fus =1700 MW, a reasonable safety margin (f L ≅ 1.5) is obtained. Analytical expressions of the conditions resulting from the above optimization are also derived for an arbitrary monomial scaling of the energy confinement time, and shown to give excellent agreement with the numerical results

  6. Progress of the KSTAR experiments and perspective for ITER scientific researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-01-01

    KSTAR is a superconducting tokamak aiming to explore the long-pulse high beta confinement. In the 2012 experimental campaign, the duration of the H-mode flattop has been extended up to 16 s at 0.6 MA and plasma current level in H-mode reached at 0.9 MA by adopting the real-time plasma shape control and 3.5 MW neutral beam injection. The equilibrium operating space could be extended surpassing the n=1 ideal no wall limit with betaN and betaN/li up to 2.9 and 4.1, respectively. The pedestal formation and characteristics were investigated according to L- and H-mode transition and during the edge localized mode (ELM). As one of the ITER high priority research topics, exploring the ELM mitigation or suppression by applying n=1 or n=2 resonance magnetic perturbation (RMP) field or by injecting the supersonic molecular beam. The toroidal rotation changes were inspected for the ohmic and H-mode plasma by applying the ECH or 3D magnetic field. Various experimental researches were conducted according to the proposals including the disruption mitigation by using massive gas injection, fast ion loss detection under the edge perturbation, plasma wall interaction and others. (author)

  7. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: Analysis of remote handling compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronden, D.M.S.; Baar, M. de; Chavan, R.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Goodman, T.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Henderson, M.A.; Koning, J.F.; Saibene, G.; Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → RH class 1 requires a full RH compatible design and a detailed maintenance plan that needs to be demonstrated through hardware mockup testing. → RH class 2 requires a full RH compatible design and a detailed and verified maintenance plan. → RH class 3 requires a RH compatible design and a basic maintenance plan. - Abstract: The present design of the ECH (Electron Cyclotron Heating) upper port launcher has been evaluated in light of the ITER remote handling (RH) requirements. Changes to the launcher design associated with the accessibility, maintainability and manageability of replaceable components are presented. Captive bolts were placed along the flange of the Blanket Shielding Module (BSM). A hinge mechanism was integrated to simplify the (dis-)mounting of the BSM and a frame with incorporated cooling and actuation lines was suggested for simplified mounting and replacement of the steerable mirrors. Rotating the upper port plug upside-down improves maintenance access and component handling. Tools are proposed for manipulation of the port plug and its sub-components. The RH compatibility analysis can improve a design. Early consideration of RH requirements and implementation of necessary features is therefore vital.

  8. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 20, February-March 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities including interview on the occasion of Academician E.P. Velikhov' 70th birthday conducted by Dr. Lev Golubbchikov, former ITER Contact Person of the Russian Federation and a new document management system of ITER called IDM (ITER Document Management), which supersedes the old IDoMS

  9. Cryogenic instrumentation for ITER magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, J.-M.; Manzagol, J.; Attard, A.; André, J.; Bizel-Bizellot, L.; Bonnay, P.; Ercolani, E.; Luchier, N.; Girard, A.; Clayton, N.; Devred, A.; Huygen, S.; Journeaux, J.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate measurements of the helium flowrate and of the temperature of the ITER magnets is of fundamental importance to make sure that the magnets operate under well controlled and reliable conditions, and to allow suitable helium flow distribution in the magnets through the helium piping. Therefore, the temperature and flow rate measurements shall be reliable and accurate. In this paper, we present the thermometric chains as well as the venturi flow meters installed in the ITER magnets and their helium piping. The presented thermometric block design is based on the design developed by CERN for the LHC, which has been further optimized via thermal simulations carried out by CEA. The electronic part of the thermometric chain was entirely developed by the CEA and will be presented in detail: it is based on a lock-in measurement and small signal amplification, and also provides a web interface and software to an industrial PLC. This measuring device provides a reliable, accurate, electromagnetically immune, and fast (up to 100 Hz bandwidth) system for resistive temperature sensors between a few ohms to 100 kΩ. The flowmeters (venturi type) which make up part of the helium mass flow measurement chain have been completely designed, and manufacturing is on-going. The behaviour of the helium gas has been studied in detailed thanks to ANSYS CFX software in order to obtain the same differential pressure for all types of flowmeters. Measurement uncertainties have been estimated and the influence of input parameters has been studied. Mechanical calculations have been performed to guarantee the mechanical strength of the venturis required for pressure equipment operating in nuclear environment. In order to complete the helium mass flow measurement chain, different technologies of absolute and differential pressure sensors have been tested in an applied magnetic field to identify equipment compatible with the ITER environment.

  10. Remote handling maintenance of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haange, R.

    1999-01-01

    The remote maintenance strategy and the associated component design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) have reached a high degree of completeness, especially with respect to those components that are expected to require frequent or occasional remote maintenance. Large-scale test stands, to demonstrate the principle feasibility of the remote maintenance procedures and to develop the required equipment and tools, were operational at the end of the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) phase. The initial results are highly encouraging: major remote equipment deployment and component replacement operations have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  11. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  12. The physics role of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, P.H.

    1997-04-01

    Experimental research on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will go far beyond what is possible on present-day tokamaks to address new and challenging issues in the physics of reactor-like plasmas. First and foremost, experiments in ITER will explore the physics issues of burning plasmas--plasmas that are dominantly self-heated by alpha-particles created by the fusion reactions themselves. Such issues will include (i) new plasma-physical effects introduced by the presence within the plasma of an intense population of energetic alpha particles; (ii) the physics of magnetic confinement for a burning plasma, which will involve a complex interplay of transport, stability and an internal self-generated heat source; and (iii) the physics of very-long-pulse/steady-state burning plasmas, in which much of the plasma current is also self-generated and which will require effective control of plasma purity and plasma-wall interactions. Achieving and sustaining burning plasma regimes in a tokamak necessarily requires plasmas that are larger than those in present experiments and have higher energy content and power flow, as well as much longer pulse length. Accordingly, the experimental program on ITER will embrace the study of issues of plasma physics and plasma-materials interactions that are specific to a reactor-scale fusion experiment. Such issues will include (i) confinement physics for a tokamak in which, for the first time, the core-plasma and the edge-plasma are simultaneously in a reactor-like regime; (ii) phenomena arising during plasma transients, including so-called disruptions, in regimes of high plasma current and thermal energy; and (iii) physics of a radiative divertor designed for handling high power flow for long pulses, including novel plasma and atomic-physics effects as well as materials science of surfaces subject to intense plasma interaction. Experiments on ITER will be conducted by researchers in control rooms situated at major

  13. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim

    2011-11-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  14. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim; El Sayed, Tamer S.; Ramadan, Hany E.

    2011-01-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop's task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application's latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  15. Real-time polymerase chain reaction-based approach for quantification of the pat gene in the T25 Zea mays event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weighardt, Florian; Barbati, Cristina; Paoletti, Claudia; Querci, Maddalena; Kay, Simon; De Beuckeleer, Marc; Van den Eede, Guy

    2004-01-01

    In Europe, a growing interest for reliable techniques for the quantification of genetically modified component(s) of food matrixes is arising from the need to comply with the European legislative framework on novel food products. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the most powerful technique for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. Several real-time PCR methodologies based on different molecular principles have been developed for this purpose. The most frequently used approach in the field of genetically modified organism (GMO) quantification in food or feed samples is based on the 5'-3'-exonuclease activity of Taq DNA polymerase on specific degradation probes (TaqMan principle). A novel approach was developed for the establishment of a TaqMan quantification system assessing GMO contents around the 1% threshold stipulated under European Union (EU) legislation for the labeling of food products. The Zea mays T25 elite event was chosen as a model for the development of the novel GMO quantification approach. The most innovative aspect of the system is represented by the use of sequences cloned in plasmids as reference standards. In the field of GMO quantification, plasmids are an easy to use, cheap, and reliable alternative to Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), which are only available for a few of the GMOs authorized in Europe, have a relatively high production cost, and require further processing to be suitable for analysis. Strengths and weaknesses of the use of novel plasmid-based standards are addressed in detail. In addition, the quantification system was designed to avoid the use of a reference gene (e.g., a single copy, species-specific gene) as normalizer, i.e., to perform a GMO quantification based on an absolute instead of a relative measurement. In fact, experimental evidences show that the use of reference genes adds variability to the measurement system because a second independent real-time PCR-based measurement

  16. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables.

  17. The ITER divertor cassette project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Tivey, R.; Akiba, M.

    2001-01-01

    The divertor ''Large Project'' was conceived with the aim of demonstrating the feasibility of meeting the lifetime requirements by employing the candidate armor materials of beryllium, tungsten (W) and carbon-fiber-composite (CFC). At the start, there existed only limited experience with constructing water-cooled high heat flux armored components for tokamaks. To this was added the complication posed by the need to use a silver-free joining technique that avoids the transmutation of n-irradiated silver to cadmium. The research project involving the four Home Teams (HTs) has focused on the design, development, manufacture and testing of full-scale Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) suitable for ITER. The task addressed all the issues facing ITER divertor design, such as providing adequate armor erosion lifetime, meeting the required armor-heat sink joint lifetime and heat sink fatigue life, sustaining thermal-hydraulic and electromechanical loads, and seeking to identify the most cost-effective manufacturing options. This paper will report the results of the divertor large project. (author)

  18. Status of the ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Bauer, P.; Bessette, D.; Devred, A.; Gallix, R.; Jong, C.; Knaster, J.; Libeyre, P.; Lim, B.; Sahu, A.; Simon, F.

    2009-01-01

    The first 2 years of the ITER IO has seen substantial progress towards the construction of the magnets, in three main areas. Firstly, the design has been developed under the conflicting constraints to minimise construction costs and to maximise plasma physics performance. Building construction momentum while updating the design to take account of new physics assessments of the coil requirements has been challenging. Secondly, with a stabilising design, it has been possible for the Domestic Agencies to launch the first industrial procurement contracts. And thirdly, critical R and D to confirm the performance of the Nb3Sn cable in conduit design is proceeding successfully. The design consolidation has been accompanied by design reviews involving the international community. The reviews conducted by magnet experts have enabled a consensus to be built on choosing between some of the design options in the original ITER basic design in 2001. The major design decisions were to maintain the circular Nb 3 Sn conductor embedded in radial plates for the toroidal field (TF) coils and to maintain NbTi-based conductors for the PF coils. Cold testing, at low current, is also being introduced for quality control purposes for all coils.

  19. Design of ITER shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Tokami, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Kazunori; Miura, Hidenori; Ito, Yutaka; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1997-05-01

    A mechanical configuration of ITER integrated primary first wall/shield blanket module were developed focusing on the welded attachment of its support leg to the back plate. A 100 mm x 150 mm space between the legs of adjacent modules was incorporated for the working space of welding/cutting tools. A concept of coolant branch pipe connection to accommodate deformation due to the leg welding and differential displacement of the module and the manifold/back plate during operation was introduced. Two-dimensional FEM analyses showed that thermal stresses in Cu-alloy (first wall) and stainless steel (first wall coolant tube and shield block) satisfied the stress criteria following ASME code for ITER BPP operation. On the other hand, three-dimensional FEM analyses for overall in-vessel structures exhibited excessive primary stresses in the back plate and its support structure to the vacuum vessel under VDE disruption load and marginal stresses in the support leg of module No.4. Fabrication procedure of the integrated primary first wall/shield blanket module was developed based on single step solid HIP for the joining of Cu-alloy/Cu-alloy, Cu-alloy/stainless steel, and stainless steel/stainless steel. (author)

  20. ETR/ITER systems code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. ETR/ITER systems code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs

  2. The ITER divertor cassette project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Tivey, R.; Akiba, M.

    1999-01-01

    The divertor 'Large Project' was conceived with the aim of demonstrating the feasibility of meeting the lifetime requirements by employing the candidate armor materials of beryllium, tungsten (W) and carbon-fiber-composite (CFC). At the start, there existed only limited experience with constructing water-cooled high heat flux armored components for tokamaks. To this was added the complication posed by the need to use a silver-free joining technique that avoids the transmutation of n-irradiated silver to cadmium. The research project involving the four Home Teams (HTs) has focused on the design, development, manufacture and testing of full-scale Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) suitable for ITER. The task addressed all the issues facing ITER divertor design, such as providing adequate armor erosion lifetime, meeting the required armor-heat sink joint lifetime and heat sink fatigue life, sustaining thermal-hydraulic and electromechanical loads, and seeking to identify the most cost-effective manufacturing options. This paper will report the results of the divertor large project. (author)

  3. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... on thecomponentwise calculations done in the course of the iteration. These componentwisetests are useful for parallel implementation of the search, sincethe tests can then be performed local to each processor and only when a test issuccessful do a processor communicate this result to other processors....

  4. Simultaneous analysis of 70 pesticides using HPlc/MS/MS: a comparison of the multiresidue method of Klein and Alder and the QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Melanie; Speer, Karl; Stuke, Sven; Schmeer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003, two new multipesticide residue methods for screening crops for a large number of pesticides, developed by Klein and Alder and Anastassiades et al. (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe; QuEChERS), have been published. Our intention was to compare these two important methods on the basis of their extraction efficiency, reproducibility, ruggedness, ease of use, and speed. In total, 70 pesticides belonging to numerous different substance classes were analyzed at two concentration levels by applying both methods, using five different representative matrixes. In the case of the QuEChERS method, the results of the three sample preparation steps (crude extract, extract after SPE, and extract after SPE and acidification) were compared with each other and with the results obtained with the Klein and Alder method. The extraction efficiencies of the QuEChERS method were far higher, and the sample preparation was much quicker when the last two steps were omitted. In most cases, the extraction efficiencies after the first step were approximately 100%. With extraction efficiencies of mostly less than 70%, the Klein and Alder method did not compare favorably. Some analytes caused problems during evaluation, mostly due to matrix influences.

  5. ITER EDA Newsletter. V.2, no.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities), Newsletter issue includes reports on the third ITER council meeting in Tokyo on the involvement of other countries, on an outline of the report by the Management Advisory Committee (MAC), on such involvement, and on the improvement by the MAC and the ITER Council to proceed with Task Agreements on the Research and Development programme of the Superconductor Coils and Structures Division

  6. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

  7. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 2, no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue includes a description of the ITER Joint Central Team's management, the ITER Management System and supporting software progress, activities of the Special Working Group 2, a brief summary of a technical meeting on the experimental approach to the physics of the high density divertor, a summary on the status of the International Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL), and an obituary on Dr. Henry Seligman (IAEA)

  8. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on the sixth meeting on the ITER management advisory committee (MAC-6); on the sixth meeting of the ITER technical advisory committee (TAC-6); a summary of a magnet technical meeting, held at Naka, Japan, June 27-30 1994 is also included. It finally contains an in memoriam on the passing away of Dr. A.I. Kostenko

  9. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 4, no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on (i) the ITER Magnet Technical Meeting held at the Naka Joint Work Site on February 7-10, 1995; (ii) the Second Technical Meeting on ITER Power Supply held on February 20-24, 1995, in St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and (iii) a description by the Nuclear Data section of the IAEA (Vienna, Austria) on the availability and current status of the FENDL-1 Nuclear Data Libraries for fusion applications

  10. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 6, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on new ITER Home Page and contains a report on the combined workshop of the ITER confinement and transport expert group and of the confinement modeling and database expert group, by D. Boucher, V. Mukhavatov (both ITER JCT), J.G. Cordey, JET Joint Undertaking , M. Wakatani, Kyoto University held at the Max-Planck-Institut for Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany on September 25 - 30 1997

  11. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 4, no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter reports on (i) the Second Meeting of the ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics held at the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Japan, on February 8-10, 1995; and (ii) a summary of the Second Workshop of the Confinement Modelling and Database Expert Group, held at the ITER San Diego Work Site, March 13-15, 1995

  12. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 19, January 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This issue of the ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings, namely, the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, which was held on 1-6 November 2004 in Vilamoura, Portugal and the seventh meeting of the ITPA topical group on diagnostics which was held at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP), Hefei, P. R. China, from 11-15 October 2004

  13. Preconditioned iterations to calculate extreme eigenvalues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, C.W.; Petrova, S. [Institut fuer Angewandte Mathematik, Leoben (Austria)

    1994-12-31

    Common iterative algorithms to calculate a few extreme eigenvalues of a large, sparse matrix are Lanczos methods or power iterations. They converge at a rate proportional to the separation of the extreme eigenvalues from the rest of the spectrum. Appropriate preconditioning improves the separation of the eigenvalues. Davidson`s method and its generalizations exploit this fact. The authors examine a preconditioned iteration that resembles a truncated version of Davidson`s method with a different preconditioning strategy.

  14. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 2, no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains progress reports on the Fourth ITER Council Meeting in San Diego, 29 September - 1 October 1993, on the Third Meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) in Naka, Japan, 16-17 September 1993, and on the flag raising ceremony at the US hosted joint work site in San Diego, California, 1 October 1993

  15. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 23, June 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meeting the Eighth Meeting of the ITPA Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics was held at the Culham Science Centre, UKAEA, from 14-18 March 2005 and the Third International Atomic Energy Agency - Technical Meeting (TM) on Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) in ITER, following those in Oharai, Japan in 1999, and in Kloster Seeon, Germany in 2003, was held in Como, Italy, from May 2 to May 5, 2005, in a two-and-half day intense workshop

  16. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on (i) the ITER-relevant statements made at the occasion of the 15th IAEA fusion conference in Seville, Spain, September 26 - October 1, 1994; (ii) a comprehensive technical presentation of the ITER EDA developments at the same conference; (iii) the first Workshop of the ITER Expert Group on Confinement and Transport, held at the San Diego Joint Work Site on 22-25 August 1994; and (iv) the visit to the San Diego Work Site of the representatives of a local philanthropic group, the ARCS Foundation (Achievement Rewards for College Scientists).

  17. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on (i) the ITER-relevant statements made at the occasion of the 15th IAEA fusion conference in Seville, Spain, September 26 - October 1, 1994; (ii) a comprehensive technical presentation of the ITER EDA developments at the same conference; (iii) the first Workshop of the ITER Expert Group on Confinement and Transport, held at the San Diego Joint Work Site on 22-25 August 1994; and (iv) the visit to the San Diego Work Site of the representatives of a local philanthropic group, the ARCS Foundation (Achievement Rewards for College Scientists)

  18. First formal ITER negotiations make excellent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, P.

    2001-01-01

    November 8 and 9 2001 marked the historic beginning of formal negotiations meetings on the ITER project. Delegations from Canada, the European Union, Japan and the Russian Federation met in Toronto, Canada, for the first in a series of Negotiations that is expected to lead, by the end of 2002, to an agreement on the joint implementation of ITER. This agreement will govern, under international law, the construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. The Negotiations concluded by issuing a joint news release, reflecting a commitment to share the progress reports on the efforts to implement ITER

  19. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter on the Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on the Eleventh ITER Council Meeting held on December 17-18, 1996 in Tokyo, Japan; a report on the Eleventh Meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC-11) Meeting held 3-7 December, 1996, at the ITER Naka Joint Work Site, Japan; and a report on the Fifth Workshop of the Confinement Modelling and Database Expert Group held in Montreal, Canada, October 13-16, 1996

  20. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue contains a description of the ITER Physics Research and Development (F.Perkins), a report on the first meeting of the ITER Divertor Physics and Divertor Modelling and Database Expert Groups (D. Post, G. Janeschitz, R. Stambaugh, M. Shimada), a report on the first meeting of the ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics (A.E. Costley and K.M. Young), and a contribution entitled ''to meet or not to meet? If yes, for how long?'' (L. Golubchikov)

  1. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 10, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    In 2000, the Fusion Power Associates Awards were given, among others, to persons closely associated with the developments of ITER. These Awards are given annually for Distinguished Career, for Leadership, and for Excellence in Fusion Engineering. Distinguished Career Award to Ken Tomabechi, a leading fusion researcher and director of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Leadership Award to: Robert Aymar, a leading European fusion researcher and has been ITER Director since 1994. Excellence in Fusion Engineering to: Gianfrano Federici, a staff member of the ITER Joint Central Team, working at the ITER Joint Work Site at Garching, Germany

  2. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This issue of the ITER Engineering Design Activities Newsletter contains a report on the Tenth Meeting of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee; on the papers relevant to the ITER project that were presented during the 12th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices held at St. Raphael, France, on 20-24 May 1996; and a note on the interrelationship between ITER and the PSI Conference, initiated more than twenty years ago by surface and solid-state physicists

  3. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 6, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter reports on the STATUS OF THE ITER EDA Overview, Design Work, ITER Physics; contains a report of the Third Technical Meeting on Quality Assurance was held at the ITER Garching Joint Work Site on 25-27 November 1996. The objectives of the meeting were to review the progress made in the Implementation of QA and to identify weal areas which require improvement. The focus was on the Large R and D Projects assigned to the EU Home Team(HT) or placed under the responsibility of the Garching JWS. 1 fig, 3 tabs

  4. Third ITER International Industry Liaison Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.

    2000-01-01

    Following previous meetings held in 1996 in San Diego and in 1997 in Tokyo, the Third ITER International Industry Liaison Meeting (IILM) meeting was held under the European Chairmanship in Toronto, Canada, November 7-9, 2000. The intention of such meetings is to provide a forum for industrialists of the ITER EDA parties and other interested countries to develop common understandings on important issues of the timing and nature of Industry involvement in the ITER project. This article describes the main views from Industry on the preconstruction and construction phases and the cost and benefit schemes, while summarizing the progress made by the ITER project since the Tokyo meeting

  5. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  6. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed

  7. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  8. Distributed Video Coding: Iterative Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van

    Nowadays, emerging applications such as wireless visual sensor networks and wireless video surveillance are requiring lightweight video encoding with high coding efficiency and error-resilience. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a new coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics...... and noise modeling and also learn from the previous decoded Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames, side information and noise learning (SING) is proposed. The SING scheme introduces an optical flow technique to compensate the weaknesses of the block based SI generation and also utilizes clustering of DCT blocks to capture...... cross band correlation and increase local adaptivity in noise modeling. During decoding, the updated information is used to iteratively reestimate the motion and reconstruction in the proposed motion and reconstruction reestimation (MORE) scheme. The MORE scheme not only reestimates the motion vectors...

  9. Installation of the ITER committee industry. Participants guide; Installation du Comite industrie ITER. Dossier des participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept. This guide presents the ITER project and objectives and the associated organizations in France, the recommendations and actions for ITER, the industrial mobilization, the industrial committee and its members, technological sheets for the enterprises and the statistical document of the SESSI. (A.L.B.)

  10. Chemometric-assisted QuEChERS extraction method for post-harvest pesticide determination in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minmin; Dai, Chao; Wang, Fengzhong; Kong, Zhiqiang; He, Yan; Huang, Ya Tao; Fan, Bei

    2017-02-01

    An effective analysis method was developed based on a chemometric tool for the simultaneous quantification of five different post-harvest pesticides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), carbendazim, thiabendazole, iprodione, and prochloraz) in fruits and vegetables. In the modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method, the factors and responses for optimization of the extraction and cleanup analyses were compared using the Plackett-Burman (P-B) screening design. Furthermore, the significant factors (toluene percentage, hydrochloric acid (HCl) percentage, and graphitized carbon black (GCB) amount) were optimized using a central composite design (CCD) combined with Derringer’s desirability function (DF). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were estimated to be 1.0 μg/kg for 2,4-D, carbendazim, thiabendazole, and prochloraz, and 1.5 μg/kg for iprodione in food matrices. The mean recoveries were in the range of 70.4-113.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.9% at three spiking levels. The measurement uncertainty of the analytical method was determined using the bottom-up approach, which yielded an average value of 7.6%. Carbendazim was most frequently found in real samples analyzed using the developed method. Consequently, the analytical method can serve as an advantageous and rapid tool for determination of five preservative pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

  11. ECH power deposition at 3rd harmonic in high elongation TCV discharges sustained by 2nd harmonic current profile broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochelon, A. . E-mail : Antoine.Pochelon@epfl.ch; Arnoux, G.; Camenen, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises the present effort aimed at developing high elongation heated discharges and testing their confinement properties at normalised currents for which the highest ideal MHD β-limits are predicted. 2nd harmonic (X2) far off-axis ECH/CD is used to stabilise the plasma vertically at high elongation by broadening the current profile in stationary conditions (during the current flat top and over several current diffusion times). Current broadening is maximal for a power deposition in a narrow region (∼a/5), for a finite toroidal injection angle and for high plasma density using upper lateral launchers to minimise refraction. In these discharges which are twice X2 overdense in the centre, 3rd harmonic (X3) is injected from a top launcher to deposit power in the centre and increase the central pressure, simultaneously with far off-axis X2. Using modulated X3, full absorption is measured by the diamagnetic probe. Absorption higher than calculated by thermal ray tracing is occasionally found, indicating absorption on the electron bulk as well as in the suprathermal electron population sometimes with a hollow deposition profile. The high sensitivity of the power coupling to the beam angle stresses the need for developing a mirror feedback scheme to increase the coupling efficiency in transient heating scenarios. (author)

  12. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC–MS-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4–25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81–101% with relative standard deviations of 5–19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0–1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49–5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10–14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964

  13. Evaluation of the QuEChERS sample preparation approach for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Sara C; Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Fernandes, José O; Beatriz, Maria; Oliveira, P P

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the use of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for extraction and cleanup of 16 pesticide residues of interest in olives and olive oil. These products contain a high lipid content, which can adversely affect pesticide recoveries and harm traditional chromatographic systems. For extraction, the main factors (oil and water content) were studied and optimized in experiments to maximize pesticide recoveries. Dispersive SPE with different sorbents was also investigated to minimize matrix coextractives and interferences. For analysis, a new automated DSI device was tested in GC-MS to avoid nonvolatile coextractives from contaminating the instrument. LC-MS/MS with positive ESI was used for those pesticides that were difficult to detect by GC-MS. The final method was validated for olives in terms of recoveries, repeatabilities, and reproducibilities using both detection techniques. The results demonstrated that the method achieved acceptable quantitative recoveries of 70-109% with RSDs < 20% for DSI-GC-MS and 88-130% with RSDs < 10% for LC-MS/MS, and LOQ at or below the regulatory maximum residue limits for the pesticides were achieved.

  14. Determination of bromothalonil residues and degradation in apple and soil by QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Zheng, Lin

    2014-04-01

    The dissipation and residues of bromothalonil in apple and soil under field condition were analyzed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer method. The recoveries were ranged from 80.8 % to 106 % with coefficient variation for repeatability ranged from 3.08 % to 7.09 % at fortification levels of 0.02, 0.04 and 0.2 mg/kg in apple and soil. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.31 μg/kg. The dissipation rates of bromothalonil followed the first-order kinetics and the half-lives were from 3.61 to 3.98 days in apple and from 4.65 to 9.29 days in soil. In apple, the terminal residues of bromothalonil were below the China maximum residue limit (0.2 mg/kg) after 7 days of application. This work contributed to provide the basic information for a safe usage of bromothalonil in apple orchard and preventing health problem from consumers in China.

  15. Improved cross-calibration of Thomson scattering and electron cyclotron emission with ECH on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Austin, M. E.; McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94500 (United States); Carlstrom, T. N.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lohr, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92122 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Thomson scattering produces n{sub e} profiles from measurement of scattered laser beam intensity. Rayleigh scattering provides a first calibration of the relation n{sub e} ∝ I{sub TS}, which depends on many factors (e.g., laser alignment and power, optics, and measurement systems). On DIII-D, the n{sub e} calibration is adjusted against an absolute n{sub e} from the density-driven cutoff of the 48 channel 2nd harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron emission system. This method has been used to calibrate Thomson n{sub e} from the edge to near the core (r/a > 0.15). Application of core electron cyclotron heating improves the quality of cutoff and depth of its penetration into the core, and also changes underlying MHD activity, minimizing crashes which confound calibration. Less fueling is needed as “ECH pump-out” generates a plasma ready to take up gas. On removal of gyrotron power, cutoff penetrates into the core as channels fall successively and smoothly into cutoff.

  16. Residue dynamics of pyraclostrobin in peanut and field soil by QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengzu; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Di; Pan, Hongji; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A modified QuEChERS-LC-MS/MS (acronym of quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) method for the analysis of pyraclostrobin residue in peanut and soil was developed and validated. Pyraclostrobin residue dynamics and final residues in supervised field trials at Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) conditions in peanut and soil were studied. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for pyraclostrobin in soil, plant, shell and peanut samples were 0.00057, 0.00026, 0.003 and 0.0037 mg kg(-1), respectively. At fortification levels of 0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) in all samples, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 80.3% to 109.4% with relative standard deviations of 1.1-8.2% (n=5). The dissipation experiments showed the half-lives (T(1/2)) of pyraclostrobin in soil and plants were 13.1-16.5 days and 10.3-11.2 days, respectively. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 14, 21 and 28 days, pyraclostrobin residue were 0.005-0.20 mg kg(-1) in soil, 0.006-0.27 mg kg(-1) in plants, below 0.053 mg kg(-1) in shells and not detectable in peanuts. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave response of ITER vacuum windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Maquet, P.; Sirinelli, A.; Udintsev, V.S.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic systems are essential for the development of ITER discharges and to reach the ITER goals. Many of these diagnostics require a line of sight to relay signals from the plasma to the diagnostic, typically located outside the torus hall. Such diagnostics then require vacuum windows that

  18. Iterative optimization of quantum error correcting codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimpell, M.; Werner, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a convergent iterative algorithm for finding the optimal coding and decoding operations for an arbitrary noisy quantum channel. This algorithm does not require any error syndrome to be corrected completely, and hence also finds codes outside the usual Knill-Laflamme definition of error correcting codes. The iteration is shown to improve the figure of merit 'channel fidelity' in every step

  19. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the Technical Committee Meeting of the Working Group on Gyrotrons and Windows, held at the Garching Joint Work Site from 16-18 May 1994, and on the Technical Committee Meeting on the ITER Power Supply held at the Naka Joint Work Site from May 10-13, 1994. 1 tab

  20. Operational limits and disruptions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunematsu, T; Mizoguchi, T; Yoshino, R [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Borrass, K; Engelmann, F; Pacher, G; Pacher, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). NET Design Team; Cohen, S; Post, D [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Hogan, J; Uckan, N A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Krasheninnikov, S; Mukhovatov, V; Parail, V

    1990-12-15

    Detailed knowledge of the operational limits for beta, q and the plasma density will be required for successful and flexible operation of ITER. In this paper, the present data base and guidelines on operational limits and disruptions in the ITER design are presented. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  1. The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naylor, G.A.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M.; Walsh, M.J.; Pastor, I.; Donné, A.J.H.; Snijders, B.; Biel, W.; Meszaros, B.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    The central electron temperature and density of the ITER plasma may be determined by Thomson scattering. A LIDAR topology is proposed in order to minimize the port access required of the ITER vacuum vessel. By using a LIDAR technique, a profile of the electron temperature and density can be

  2. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time...

  3. ITER jako živý

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2010), s. 18-19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Fusion * ITER * magnetic field * ELMs * cryo pumps * central solenoid * correction coils * superconducting coils * toroidal field coils * poloidal field coils * divertor * Cadarache Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.tretipol.cz/900-iter-jako-zivy

  4. ITER technical meeting on nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khripunov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The ITER technical meeting on nuclear analysis was organized on 24-25 February 2000 at the ITER Joint Work Site in Garching. It was clear from the meeting that continuous nuclear analysis is a fundamental part of the design process

  5. On equivalence classes in iterative learning control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, M.H.A.; Meinsma, Gjerrit; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper advocates a new approach to study the relation between causal iterative learning control (ILC) and conventional feedback control. Central to this approach is the introduction of the set of admissible pairs (of operators) defined with respect to a family of iterations. Considered are two

  6. ITER ISS system alternative specification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    Recent comments suggested that the fuel systems, in particular the ISS, could be simplified if the ITER specifications were relaxed from the data specified for ITER. This interim report addresses the first part of the analysis, which considers the impact of design specifications on fuel systems design

  7. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This newsletter contains the articles 'The materials selection in ITER and the first materials workshop', 'US fusion community discussion on fusion strategies', 'ITER central solenoid model coil heat treatment complete and assembly started' and 'Programme of the 17th IAEA fusion energy conference'. There is also a note in memoriam of Hiroschi Shibata, who died on the 5th of June 1998

  8. Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.

  9. Iterative solvers in forming process simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Rietman, Bert; Huetink, Han

    1998-01-01

    The use of iterative solvers in implicit forming process simulations is studied. The time and memory requirements are compared with direct solvers and assessed in relation with the rest of the Newton-Raphson iteration process. It is shown that conjugate gradient{like solvers with a proper

  10. Iterative methods for weighted least-squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovnikova, E.Y.; Vavasis, S.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A weighted least-squares problem with a very ill-conditioned weight matrix arises in many applications. Because of round-off errors, the standard conjugate gradient method for solving this system does not give the correct answer even after n iterations. In this paper we propose an iterative algorithm based on a new type of reorthogonalization that converges to the solution.

  11. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  12. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 16, June-July-August 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER Transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings, namely, the third preparatory meeting for ITER decision making, which was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 18 June 2004, the third meeting of the ITER preparatory committee, which was held on 22nd June 2004 at IPP Garching and ITA technical activities status report

  13. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Newsletter containing the two articles 'Parties working on continuation of ITER EDA' and 'ITER exhibit at the Austria Centre, Vienna'. The first article describes efforts of the 4 ITER partners, the European Atomic Energy Community and the governments of Japan, the Russian Federation and the USA, to agree to continuation of the ITER EDA. While the former 3 partners signed an Extension to the EDA, the Americans were refused funding by the US Congress und will therefore be phased out within one year. Copies of the documents signed are provided. The second article reports on exhibition featuring a model of ITER and various other means of information on nuclear fusion which took place at the IAEA Headquarters from the 21st to 25th of September 1998. There is also an article in memoriam of Alexander V. Kashirski, who died on the 29th of September 1998

  14. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 4, no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains a report on the Ninth Meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee held in St. Petersburg, Russia, on November 3, 1995; a report on the Seventh International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials held at Obninsk, Russia, 25-29 September, 1995; on the presentation of the ITER Project during a symposium on fusion energy held at Champaign, Illinois, USA, October 1-5, 1995; and on two meetings on ITER diagnostics, i.e., an international workshop on diagnostics for ITER held in Varenna, Italy, 28 August - 1 September, 1995; followed by the Third Diagnostics Expert Group Workshop held September 4-5 in the same location

  15. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 14, November 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Sixth ITER Negotiations Meeting (N6) took place on 29-30 October 2002 at Rokkasho-mura in the Aomori Prefecture - the location of the site that Japan has offered to host the ITER project. Japan hosted the meeting, which was also attended by delegations from Canada, the European Union, and the Russian Federation. At the start of the meeting, Mr. Yoshiro Mori, the former Prime Minister of Japan said that energy issues are important to achieving human prosperity, world peace and conservation of the environment, and that therefore the Japanese Government as a whole should promote the ITER project under international collaboration to realize fusion energy. The JA delegation reported that JA had sent a letter to China on 22 October 2002 on behalf of the ITER Negotiators in response to a letter from Mr. Liu, Vice Minister of Science and Technology of China. The Canadian delegation reported on the special informal ITER session at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Lyon, France, and noted that it raised the ITER profile in a positive way. The EU delegation reported on the adoption, within the Sixth Framework Programme, of the Specific Euratom Programme, which gives an explicit basis for continuing activities in the period up to the end of 2006, including a provision of up to Euro 200 million for a possible start of ITER construction. The RF delegation reported that the ITER activities in the Russian Federation are conducted in accordance with the Federal Program (2002-2005) approved by the Russian Government. Funding for ITER activities in 2003 is expected to be on the same level as in previous years. It was reported that the mandate of the Russian delegation to participate in the Negotiations in 2003 is expected to be approved soon by the Government. The RF delegation also reported that they had received informal enquiries from the Republic of Korea about possible participation in ITER. Significant progress was also made on a wide range of other issues, including

  16. Fourteenth meeting of the ITER management advisory committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    Following the Director's report on the progress made in the ITER Engineering Design Activities, the ITER Management Advisory Committee reviewed the Task Status Summary, Work Program and Task Agreements for EDA Extension, Joint Fund and a schedule of ITER meetings

  17. Iterants, Fermions and Majorana Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Louis H.

    Beginning with an elementary, oscillatory discrete dynamical system associated with the square root of minus one, we study both the foundations of mathematics and physics. Position and momentum do not commute in our discrete physics. Their commutator is related to the diffusion constant for a Brownian process and to the Heisenberg commutator in quantum mechanics. We take John Wheeler's idea of It from Bit as an essential clue and we rework the structure of that bit to a logical particle that is its own anti-particle, a logical Marjorana particle. This is our key example of the amphibian nature of mathematics and the external world. We show how the dynamical system for the square root of minus one is essentially the dynamics of a distinction whose self-reference leads to both the fusion algebra and the operator algebra for the Majorana Fermion. In the course of this, we develop an iterant algebra that supports all of matrix algebra and we end the essay with a discussion of the Dirac equation based on these principles.

  18. Magnetic fusion and project ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ''International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind

  19. Advanced fuelling system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Roger [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)], E-mail: raman@aa.washington.edu

    2008-12-15

    Steady-state high-performance discharges in reactors, such as the Advanced Tokamak (AT) scenarios would rely on optimized density and pressure profiles that must be maintained. This maximizes the bootstrap current fraction, reduces reactor recycling power and reduces thermal stresses. Other than a system for the balance of current drive not provided by bootstrap current drive, no other sources of input power, such as from neutral beams, are allowed. For these systems, a precision fuelling system would be the ideal way to control the fusion burn by controlling and maintaining the required pressure profile. This requires a fuelling system that is capable of depositing fuel at any radial location within the plasma while at the same time not altering the density profile to a level that degrades the required pressure profile. Present fuelling systems are incapable of meeting these requirements. An advanced fuelling system based on Compact Toroid injection has the potential to meet these needs while simultaneously providing a source of toroidal momentum input. Description of a conceptual Compact Toroid fueller for ITER is presented in conjunction with a plan for developing this much needed technology.

  20. Active beam spectroscopy for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hellermann, M.; Giroud, C.; Jaspers, R.; Hawkes, N.C.; Mullane, M.O.; Zastrow, K.D.; Krasilnikov, A.; Tugarinov, S.; Lotte, P.; Malaquias, A.; Rachlew, E.

    2003-01-01

    The latest status of 'Active Beam' related spectroscopy aspects as part of the ITER diagnostic scenario is presented. A key issue of the proposed scheme is based on the concept that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of global data consistency, all particles involved, that is, intrinsic and seeded impurity ions as well as helium ash ions and bulk plasma ions and also the plasma background data (e.g. magnetic and electric fields, electron density and temperature profiles) need to be addressed. A further sensible step in this direction is the decision of exploiting both a dedicated low-energy, low-power diagnostic beam (DNB, 2.2 MW 100 keV/amu) as well as the high-power, high-energy heating beams (HNB, 17 MW 500 keV/amu) for maximum diagnostic information. The authors report some new aspects referring to the use of DNB for motional Stark effect (MSE) where the main idea is to treat both beams (HNB and DNB) as potential diagnostic tools with complementary roles. The equatorial ports for the DNB promise excellent spatial resolution, however, the angles are less favourable for a polarimetric MSE exploitation. HNB can be used as probe beam for diagnosing slowing-down fusion alpha with a birth energy of 3,5 MeV

  1. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Roedig, M.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Linke, J.; Gervash, A. A.; Giniyatulin, R. N.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Khimchenko, L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m-2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m-2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m-2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm3) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m-2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  2. Recent results on high thermal energy load testing of beryllium for ITER first wall application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I B; Nikolaev, G N; Kurbatova, L A; Roedig, M; Linke, J; Gervash, A A; Giniyatulin, R N; Podkovyrov, V L; Muzichenko, A D; Khimchenko, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, progress in the high heat flux (HHF) qualification testing of TGP-56FW beryllium grade for ITER first wall applications is presented. Two actively cooled Be/CuCrZr brazing mock-ups were tested under complex thermal loading conditions in the electron beam facility JUDITH-1 (step 1: vertical displacement event test at 40 MJ m - 2, 0.3 s, 1 shot; step 2: disruption tests at 3 MJ m - 2, 1 shot, Δt=5 ms; step 3: repetitive fatigue test at 80 MW m - 2, 1000 shots, Δt=25 ms). After testing, metallographic investigations on the microstructure and crack morphology were carried out. The results of these studies of Be tiles are reported and discussed. The overall results of TGP-56FW grade qualification testing have demonstrated the reliable performance capability of TGP-56FW for application as the armor of the ITER first wall. In addition, the results of first experiments with TGP-56FW and S-65C beryllium grades in the QSPA-Be plasma gun facility are also reported. In these experiments, beryllium tiles (80×80×10 mm 3 ) were tested in a hydrogen plasma stream (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration 0.5 ms and heat loads of 0.5-2 MJ m - 2. Experiments were performed at room temperature. The evolution of the surface microstructure and mass loss of beryllium exposed to up to 100 shots is presented.

  3. People's Republic of China joins ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yuping

    2003-01-01

    The People's Republic of China is the largest developing country with a projected population of 1.6 - 2 billion people and an energy consumption growing from the current 1.3 Billion Tons Coal Equivalent (TCE) to more than 4 Billion TCE by 2050. This large demand needs to be accommodated in a sustainable way, requiring energy generation in an environmentally friendly way. Fusion is one of the most promising candidates to solve this important issue. This explains why in the second half of 2002, the ITER Participants' delegations to the ITER Negotiations received expression of interest from the People's Republic of China in the possibility of Chinese participation in ITER, including joining the ongoing Negotiations. The speed with which the Chinese authorities had made their decision to participate in the ITER Negotiations was impressive. The Prime Minister and the State Council had already confirmed their decision to apply to join ITER as soon as possible, and Mr. Xu Guanhua, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology, wrote on behalf of his government, on 10 January 2003, to the four heads of delegation in the ITER Negotiations, requesting that China participate in the present ITER Negotiations, pointing out that China intends to provide a substantial contribution to the Project, comparable to what is currently envisaged by some of the participants in the present Negotiations

  4. Iterative solutions of finite difference diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.V.G.; Khandekar, D.C.; Trasi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The heterogeneous arrangement of materials and the three-dimensional character of the reactor physics problems encountered in the design and operation of nuclear reactors makes it necessary to use numerical methods for solution of the neutron diffusion equations which are based on the linear Boltzmann equation. The commonly used numerical method for this purpose is the finite difference method. It converts the diffusion equations to a system of algebraic equations. In practice, the size of this resulting algebraic system is so large that the iterative methods have to be used. Most frequently used iterative methods are discussed. They include : (1) basic iterative methods for one-group problems, (2) iterative methods for eigenvalue problems, and (3) iterative methods which use variable acceleration parameters. Application of Chebyshev theorem to iterative methods is discussed. The extension of the above iterative methods to multigroup neutron diffusion equations is also considered. These methods are applicable to elliptic boundary value problems in reactor design studies in particular, and to elliptic partial differential equations in general. Solution of sample problems is included to illustrate their applications. The subject matter is presented in as simple a manner as possible. However, a working knowledge of matrix theory is presupposed. (M.G.B.)

  5. ITER technical term bilingual glossary year 2008 first half edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Koichi; Sengoku, Akio; Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Koizumi, Koichi; Seki, Fumiko; Hasegawa, Shiori

    2008-09-01

    On October 24th, 2007, the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project (the 'ITER Agreement') came into force, and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was appointed to a Domestic Agency (DA). The DA will contribute to the ITER construction in cooperation with ITER Organization (IO) where many ITER-specific technical terms and abbreviations were used. This book is a collection of those terms and abbreviations translated to Japanese. (author)

  6. ITER Council proceedings: April 1988 - August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The ITER documentation series, of which this is the sixth report, began with a concise record of the decisions and actions taken in establishing ITER. The contents of that first report include the Terms of Reference Concerning Conceptual Design Activities for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The Terms of Reference, which were part of the IAEA's invitation to the prospective parties, formally describe how the co-operative work of the four Parties in the specified activities is directed and managed. The first report in the series also covered activities from the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in March 1987 through March 1988. The present report is intended to make available in convenient form the essential information on ''landmark'' events in the direction of the ITER activities from the first meeting of the ITER Council (IC), in April 1988, through the letter report by the Council following their fourth meeting in July 1989. This report therefore covers approximately the first half of the Conceptual Design Activities, which are to be concluded in December 1990. THe next section of this report provides, for convenient reference, an overview of the organization and schedule that were adopted for the ITER activities through 1990. The sections that follow contain, for each of the four IC meetings during the period covered by this report, a copy of the official record of the transactions. The written reports of the ITER Management Committee (IMC) and the ITER Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC) to the IC in connection with the meetings are represented by summaries, prepared by the ITER Secretariat. These summaries include direct quotations of especially significant statements in the reports. In general, other supporting material is included only if it is of more than transitory significance. 1 fig and tabs

  7. The ITER Remote Maintenance Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, Alessandro; Rolfe, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for the ITER project is to develop and implement a Remote Maintenance System, which can deliver high Tokamak availability within the constraints of the overall ITER programme objectives. Much of the maintenance of ITER will be performed using remote handling methods and some with combined manual and remote activities working together. The organization and management of the ITER remote handling facilities will be of a scale unlike any other remote handling application in the world. The ITER remote handling design and procurement activities will require co-ordination and management across many different sites throughout the world. It will be a major challenge for the ITER project to ensure a consistent quality and technical approach in all of the contributing parties. To address this issue the IO remote handling team are implementing the ITER Maintenance Management Plan (IMMP) comprising an overarching document defining the policies and methodologies (ITER Remote Maintenance Management System or IMMS) and an associated ITER remote handling code of practise (IRHCOP). The IMMS will be in document form available as a pdf file or similar. The IRHCOP will be implemented as a web based application and will provide access to the central resource of the entire code of practise from any location in the world. The IRHCOP data library will be centrally controlled in order that users can be assured of the data relevance and authenticity. This paper will describe the overall approach being taken to deal with this challenge and go on to detail the structure and content of both the IMMS and the IRHCOP.

  8. Potential for Australian involvement in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D. J.; Collins, G. A.; Hole, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Fusion, the process that powers the sun and stars, offers a solution to the world's long-term energy needs: providing large scale energy production with zero greenhouse gas emissions, short-lived radio-active waste compared to conventional nuclear fission cycles, and a virtually limitless supply of fuel. Almost three decades of fusion research has produced spectacular progress. Present-day experiments have a power gain ratio of approximately 1 (ratio of power out to power in), with a power output in the 10's of megawatts. The world's next major fusion experiment, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will be a pre-prototype power plant. Since announcement of the ITER site in June 2005, the ITER project, has gained momentum and political support. Despite Australia's foundation role in the field of fusion science, through the pioneering work of Sir Mark Oliphant, and significant contributions to the international fusion program over the succeeding years, Australia is not involved in the ITER project. In this talk, the activities of a recently formed consortium of scientists and engineers, the Australian ITER Forum will be outlined. The Forum is drawn from five Universities, ANSTO (the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and AINSE (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering), and seeks to promote fusion energy in the Australian community and negotiate a role for Australia in the ITER project. As part of this activity, the Australian government recently funded a workshop that discussed the ways and means of engaging Australia in ITER. The workshop brought the research, industrial, government and general public communities, together with the ITER partners, and forged an opportunity for ITER engagement; with scientific, industrial, and energy security rewards for Australia. We will report on the emerging scope for Australian involvement

  9. Studies for site preparation for ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, A.; Blanc, F.; Cardettini, J.D.; Mandine, J.R.; Guerin, R.; Patisson, L.; Bergegere, P.; Santagiustina, A.; Garin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The implantation of a nuclear facility such as ITER (about 20 buildings on 40 ha) requires many preparatory studies, particularly with respect to: Underground characteristics; Topography, layout; Deforestation, excavations; Networks, fences and roads; Impact of seismic hazard on design. This paper presents the main results of these studies, carried out within the European ITER Site Studies framework. A dedicated paper in the conference deals with the transport studies. To choose the site for ITER implantation, detailed geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have been carried out. Taking into account the meteorological data (particularly the main wind direction), topography, access, electrical supply, fluids needs and constraints (gravity systems), buildings and roads have been implemented. (authors)

  10. Iterative numerical solution of scattering problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomio, L; Adhikari, S K

    1995-05-01

    An iterative Neumann series method, employing a real auxiliary scattering integral equation, is used to calculate scattering lengths and phase shifts for the atomic Yukawa and exponential potentials. For these potentials the original Neumann series diverges. The present iterative method yields results that are far better, in convergence, stability and precision, than other momentum space methods. Accurate result is obtained in both cases with an estimated error of about 1 in 10{sup 10} after some-8-10 iterations. (author). 31 refs, 2 tabs.

  11. Iterative numerical solution of scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomio, L.; Adhikari, S.K.

    1995-05-01

    An iterative Neumann series method, employing a real auxiliary scattering integral equation, is used to calculate scattering lengths and phase shifts for the atomic Yukawa and exponential potentials. For these potentials the original Neumann series diverges. The present iterative method yields results that are far better, in convergence, stability and precision, than other momentum space methods. Accurate result is obtained in both cases with an estimated error of about 1 in 10 10 after some-8-10 iterations. (author). 31 refs, 2 tabs

  12. ITER CTA newsletter. No. 12, September 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    This ITER CTA newsletter issue comprises information about two ITER meetings: The meeting of the ITER CTA Project Board (PB), which took place in Toronto, Canada on 16 September 2002 on the occasion of the fifth Negotiations Meeting (N-5) and the second meeting of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) coordinating committee, consisting of representatives from the ITPA participants and the topical physics group chairs and co-chairs, which was held at GA Technologies, San Diego, USA on 1-2 March 2002

  13. ITER co-ordinated technical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As agreed upon between the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) Parties 'Co-ordinated Technical Activities' (CTA) means technical activities which are deemed necessary to maintain the integrity of the international project, so as to prepare for the ITER joint implementation. The scope of these activities includes design adaptation to the specific site conditions, safety analysis and licensing preparation that are based on specific site offers, evaluation of cost and construction schedule, preparation of procurement documents and other issues raised by the Parties collectively, whilst assuring the coherence of the ITER project including design control

  14. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 4, no. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue contains reports on the 8th meeting of the ITER council and on the first Special Review Group (SRG) meeting held 21-23 June, 1995, at the San Diego Joint Work Site, USA. The SWG was established in July 1994 to review the technical, social, and the safety and environmental requirements for siting ITER which will be prepared by the Director and the JCT, and to report the results of the review to the council. Furthermore, a description of the design office at the Garching Joint Work Site is given

  15. Geometric interpretation of optimal iteration strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between inner and outer iteration errors is extremely complex, and even formal description of total error behavior is difficult. Inner and outer iteration error propagation is analyzed in a variational formalism for a reactor model describing multidimensional, one-group theory. In a generalization the work of Akimov and Sabek, the number of inner iterations performed during each outer serial that minimizes the total computation time is determined. The generalized analysis admits a geometric interpretation of total error behavior. The results can be applied to both transport and diffusion theory computer methods. 1 figure

  16. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 6, no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter reports on the Toroidal Field Model Coil Project (Coil System, Objectives, Design, Project Management, Testing); contains a report of A Combined Workshop of Confinement Modeling and Database and Confinement and Transport Expert Groups held at the San Diego ITER Joint Work Site from April 14. to 18. Progress and status on implementing the ITER Confinement R and D needs as specified at the last Workshops of the Expert Groups in Montreal (Oct. 1996) were reported. 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Report of ITER Special Working Group 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1994-01-01

    ITER Special Working Group 2 (SWG-2) was established by the terms of the ITER-EDA Agreement. According to that agreement, open-quotes SWG-2 shall submit guidelines for implementation of task assignments by the Home Teams to the Council for approval at its second meeting. This SWG shall also draft Protocol 2 to the ITER-EDA Agreement and submit a draft to the Council not later than by 21 May 1993.close quotes The members of SWG-2 for Protocol 2 drafting are listed. The rest of this paper is the verbatim report of SWG-2 on Protocol 2

  18. [Determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Cao, Lili; Li, Yu; Shen, Hao; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Shufen; Man, Zhengyin

    2016-02-01

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables was developed by using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, purified by a mixed sorbent of MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18, separated on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 µm) and detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used as a dewatering agent. The effects of the amounts of MgSO4, PSA, GCB and C18 added on the recoveries of 250 pesticides were investigated. The results showed that the purification effect was best when 300 mg MgSO4, 200 mg PSA, 10 mg GCB and 100 mg C18 in 2 mL of the extract were added. For the 250 pesticide residues, the limits of detection (LODs) of the method were from 0. 01 to 50. 00 g/kg. The recoveries obtained ranged from 60. 1% to 120% at three spiked levels in Chinese chives with the relative standard deviations between 3. 5% and 19. 5% using matrix matched external standard method. The results showed that the method is able to meet requirements of the multiresidue detection of the 250 pesticides in vegetable. The method has the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and better purification effect. It is suitable for the rapid determination of the common pesticides in vegetables, and it provides a strong guarantee for the risk assessments of the quality and safety of vegetables.

  19. Analysis of forchlorfenuron in vegetables by LC/TOF-MS after extraction with the buffered QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Antonio; Aguilera, Ana; Ferrer, Carmen; Camacho, Francisco; Cammarano, Anita

    2010-03-10

    This paper describes the application of liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS), with electrospray ionization, for residue analysis of forchlorfenuron in tomato, zucchini and watermelon. The assessed method includes a sample preparation step based on the buffered QuEChERS approach. The TOF-MS fragmentation pattern of forchlorfenuron was studied at different fragmention voltages in the range of 120-270 V. Analyses were carried out under full-scan conditions by using the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) of the m/z 248 ion with a 0.2 Da window. The linearity of the analytical response across the studied range of concentrations (10-500 microg/kg) was excellent, obtaining correlation coefficients higher than 0.999, and relative standard deviations of the response factors lower than 14%, for the 15 linear calibration curves of forchlorfenuron evaluated along the complete validation study. No significant matrix effects were observed. The signal-to-noise ratios obtained for the 10 microg/kg forchlorfenuron in matrix matched standards were >70 for all three matrices. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked tomato, zucchini and watermelon blank samples, at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 200 microg/kg) performing five replicates at each level. Forchlorfenuron mean recoveries ranged between 80% and 87% in watermelon and zucchini, and between 65% and 71% in tomato, obtaining in all cases relative standard deviation values lower than 10%. The method readily achieved a lowest validated level of 10 microg/kg, which was fit-for-purpose in residue monitoring applications.

  20. Structural analysis of the ITER Vacuum Vessel regarding 2012 ITER Project-Level Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.martinez@live.fr [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Jun, C.H.; Portafaix, C.; Choi, C.-H.; Ioki, K.; Sannazzaro, G.; Sborchia, C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul lez Durance (France); Cambazar, M.; Corti, Ph.; Pinori, K.; Sfarni, S.; Tailhardat, O. [Assystem EOS, 117 rue Jacquard, L' Atrium, 84120 Pertuis (France); Borrelly, S. [Sogeti High Tech, RE2, 180 rue René Descartes, Le Millenium – Bat C, 13857 Aix en Provence (France); Albin, V.; Pelletier, N. [SOM Calcul – Groupe ORTEC, 121 ancien Chemin de Cassis – Immeuble Grand Pré, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel is a part of the first barrier to confine the plasma. • ITER Vacuum Vessel as Nuclear Pressure Equipment (NPE) necessitates a third party organization authorized by the French nuclear regulator to assure design, fabrication, conformance testing and quality assurance, i.e. Agreed Notified Body (ANB). • A revision of the ITER Project-Level Load Specification was implemented in April 2012. • ITER Vacuum Vessel Loads (seismic, pressure, thermal and electromagnetic loads) were summarized. • ITER Vacuum Vessel Structural Margins with regards to RCC-MR code were summarized. - Abstract: A revision of the ITER Project-Level Load Specification (to be used for all systems of the ITER machine) was implemented in April 2012. This revision supports ITER's licensing by accommodating requests from the French regulator to maintain consistency with the plasma physics database and our present understanding of plasma transients and electro-magnetic (EM) loads, to investigate the possibility of removing unnecessary conservatism in the load requirements and to review the list and definition of incidental cases. The purpose of this paper is to present the impact of this 2012 revision of the ITER Project-Level Load Specification (LS) on the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) loads and the main structural margins required by the applicable French code, RCC-MR.

  1. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  2. Clinical applications of iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, S.

    1998-01-01

    Expectation maximisation (EM) reconstruction largely eliminates the hot and cold streaking artifacts characteristic of filtered-back projection (FBP) reconstruction around localised hot areas, such as the bladder. It also substantially reduces the problem of decreased inferior wall counts in MIBI myocardial perfusion studies due to ''streaking'' from high liver uptake. Non-uniform attenuation and scatter correction, resolution recovery, anatomical information, e.g. from MRI or CT tracer kinetic modelling, can all be built into the EM reconstruction imaging model. The properties of ordered subset EM (OSEM) have also been used to correct for known patient motion as part of the reconstruction process. These uses of EM are elaborated more fully in some of the other abstracts of this meeting. Currently we use OSEM routinely for: (i) studies where streaking is a problem, including all MIBI myocardial perfusion studies, to avoid hot liver inferior wall artifact, (ii) all whole body FDG PET, all lung V/Q SPECT (which have a short acquisition time) and all gated 201 TI myocardial perfusion studies due to improved noise characteristics of OSEM in these studies; (iii) studies with measured, non-uniform attenuation correction. With the accelerated OSEM algorithm, iterative reconstruction is practical for routine clinical applications and we have found OSEM to provide clearly superior reconstructions for the areas listed above and are investigating its application to other studies. In clinical use, we have not found OSEM to introduce artifacts which would not also occur with FBP, e.g. uncorrected patient motion will cause artifacts with both OSEM and FBP

  3. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Bayon, A.; Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B.; Kim, B.C.; Kuzmin, E.; Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M.; Pathak, H.; Preble, J.; Sa, J.W.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure

  4. Finanční analýza společnosti Lázně Teplice v Čechách, a.s.

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Pavla

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of my bachelor work is financial analysis and evaluation of financial health of the company Lázně Teplice v Čechách, a.s. in years 2004 -- 2007. It is a financial analysis from the view of external user. For evaluation of the financial standing of this company were used horizontal and vertikal analysis, ratio analysis and some of moredimensional models for prediction of corporate bankruptcy. It contains comparison with some companies in the branch of spas.

  5. Método QuEChERS para determinação de ocratoxina a e citrinina em arroz e farelo de arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. dos S. Hackbart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to establish the optimal conditions for performing ochratoxin A (OTA and citrinin (CIT extraction using the QuEChERS method in rice. Employing the factorial experimental design, variables that significantly influenced the extraction stages were determined. The following variables were analyzed: addition of water, acidification of acetonitrile with glacial acetic acid, as well as amounts of magnesium sulfate, sodium acetate, sodium citrate and diatomaceous earth. The best combining procedure resulted in a predictive model using more water and less diatomaceous earth. Recoveries of CIT and OTA were 78-105%.

  6. Fire risk analysis in ITER tritium building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignini, Franck; Uzan-Elbez, Joelle; Girard, Jean-Philippe; Porfiri, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina

    2005-01-01

    Events, such as fire, have been considered in ITER documentation of low probability and a general approach has been defined in [Technical basis for the ITER final design, EDA Documentation Series I, No. 22, IAEA, Vienna, 2001] to be developed later for the ITER specific site. It was said that 'these hazards will be treated according to the industrial safety regulations and practices of the host country'. In the framework of studies for the European ITER site in Cadarache, an assessment of fire hazard has been done in order to ensure compliance with French safety requirements. In this report, a summary of existing laws is presented and an example of the deterministic approach to be followed for the preliminary safety report (PSR) is given on the analysis of tritium building design

  7. The Physics Basis of ITER Confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.

    2009-01-01

    ITER will be the first fusion reactor and the 50 year old dream of fusion scientists will become reality. The quality of magnetic confinement will decide about the success of ITER, directly in the form of the confinement time and indirectly because it decides about the plasma parameters and the fluxes, which cross the separatrix and have to be handled externally by technical means. This lecture portrays some of the basic principles which govern plasma confinement, uses dimensionless scaling to set the limits for the predictions for ITER, an approach which also shows the limitations of the predictions, and describes briefly the major characteristics and physics behind the H-mode--the preferred confinement regime of ITER.

  8. Status and verification strategy for ITER neutronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughlin, Michael, E-mail: michael.loughlin@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Angelone, Maurizio [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Batistoni, Paola [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bertalot, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Eskhult, Jonas [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 Nyköping (Sweden); Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Pampin, Raul [F4E Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Polevoi, Alexei; Polunovskiy, Eduard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    The paper summarizes the current status of neutronics at ITER and a first set of proposals for experimental programmes to be conducted in the early operational life-time of ITER are described for the more crucial areas. These include a TF coils heating benchmark, a streaming benchmark and streaming measurements by activation on ITER itself. Also on ITER the measurement of activated water from triton burn-up should be planned and performed. This will require the measurement of triton burn-up in DD phase. Measurements of neutron flux in the tokamak building during DD operations should also be carried out. The use of JET for verification of shut down dose rate estimates is desirable. Other facilities to examine the production and behaviour of activated corrosion products and the shielding properties of concretes to high energy (6 MeV) gamma-rays are recommended.

  9. Overview and status of ITER internal components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, Mario; Escourbiac, Frederic; Raffray, René; Chappuis, Philippe; Hirai, Takeshi; Martin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing technologies for the ITER internal components have been developed. • The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013. • The decision to start operation with a Divertor with a full-W armour has been taken. - Abstract: The internal components of ITER are one of the most design and technically challenging components of the ITER machine, and include the Blanket System and the Divertor. The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013 and now it is entering into the procurement phase. The design and qualification of the Divertor with a full-tungsten armour was successfully completed and this enabled the decision in November 2013 to start operation with this material option. This paper summarizes the engineering design, the R and D, the technology qualification and procurement status of the Blanket System and of the Divertor of the ITER machine

  10. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 9, no. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This newsletter contains the reports of the twelfth meeting of the ITER physics expert group on diagnostics and the 14. international conference on plasma-surface interactions in controlled fusion devices. Individual abstracts have been prepared

  11. Iterative Prototyping of Strategy Implementation Workshop Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a strategy implementation workshop design can be developed and tested while minimizing the time spent on developing the design. Design/methodology/approach: This multiple case study at a diesel engine company shows how iterative prototyping...... can be used to structure the design process of a strategy implementation workshop. Findings: Strategy implementation workshop design can be developed in resource-constrained environments through iterative prototyping of the workshop design. Each workshop iteration can generate value in its own right...... draw on his/her experience as well as add to his/her knowledge base. Originality/value: Introducing iterative prototyping in an organizational context can facilitate fast yet structured development of a rigorous workshop design. Strategy consultants are provided with empirical examples of how...

  12. Integration of diagnostics into the ITER machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeschitz, G.; Walker, C.; Costley, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper defines and discusses the integration of diagnostics systems into the ITER machine. For each machine region, the key constraints and solutions adopted are discussed, and illustrated with selected examples. (author)

  13. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 6, no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter reports on the Central Solenoid Model Coil Project (Function, Objectives, Design, Project Management, Testing, Work Organization and Status). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Anderson Acceleration for Fixed-Point Iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Homer F. [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, MA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this grant was to support research on acceleration methods for fixed-point iterations, with applications to computational frameworks and simulation problems that are of interest to DOE.

  15. Outline and status of ITER program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    ITER is an international joint program for the next-step fusion experimental reactor which aims to demonstrate extended/steady-state fusion burn of deuterium-tritium plasmas and to demonstrate the fusion technologies in an integrated manner as well as to perform integrated testing of components required to utilize fusion energy for practical purposes. On the basis of the recent scientific and engineering achievements in the world-wide tokamak research, the Engineering Design Activities for nine years were fully completed in July 2001. The so-called compact ITER with a finite Q≥10 was proposed and its detailed engineering design was developed along the line of world fusion research. Large scale engineering research and development were completed for superconducting coils, remote-maintenance technology, etc.. The four ITER Parties (Japan, the European Union, the Soviet Federation, and Canada) have initiated the governmental negotiations for the joint implementation of ITER. (author)

  16. ITER ITA Newsletter. No. 28, February 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities and meetings, namely, the first staff arrival at the Cadarache Joint Work Site (JWS) and IAEA activities in 2005 in support of fusion and ITER. On 30 January 2006 the first staff began working at JWS. Among the first arrivals are members of the Safety, Environment and Health Group, who are charged to prepare the necessary license applications in close cooperation with the host. Other arrivals include members of the Nuclear Technology Division and Site Buildings and Assembly Group charged with the preparations for initial construction work. A branch of the Configuration Management Group, Design Integration Division, has also been installed at Cadarache. The acting Head of the JWS is Eisuke Tada who was previously acting Head at Naka, where Neil Mitchell has taken over the position

  17. ITER delegation visits the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2003-01-01

    Following the expression of interest of the Republic of Korea in joining the ITER Negotiations, a technical delegation from the ITER International Team and the Participant Teams visited the country on 14-16 April 2003. The goal was to assess, through visits to laboratories and some relevant industries, the capability of the Republic of Korea to contribute 'in kind' to ITER construction. There is presently in the Republic of Korea a strong interest at Government and industry levels in supporting fusion research within the framework of the long term development of alternative energy supplies. The large investment in the Korean Superconducting Tokamak (KSTAR), a very ambitious project from a previously very limited programme, is a concrete demonstration of this interest and the expression of interest to participate in ITER follows the same line

  18. Overview and status of ITER internal components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, Mario, E-mail: mario.merola@iter.org; Escourbiac, Frederic; Raffray, René; Chappuis, Philippe; Hirai, Takeshi; Martin, Alex

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Manufacturing technologies for the ITER internal components have been developed. • The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013. • The decision to start operation with a Divertor with a full-W armour has been taken. - Abstract: The internal components of ITER are one of the most design and technically challenging components of the ITER machine, and include the Blanket System and the Divertor. The Blanket System successfully went through its Final Design Review in April 2013 and now it is entering into the procurement phase. The design and qualification of the Divertor with a full-tungsten armour was successfully completed and this enabled the decision in November 2013 to start operation with this material option. This paper summarizes the engineering design, the R and D, the technology qualification and procurement status of the Blanket System and of the Divertor of the ITER machine.

  19. Eighth ITER negotiations meeting (N-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.

    2003-01-01

    The eighth ITER Negotiations meeting was held on 18-19 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The delegations of People's Republic of China and the USA joined those from Canada, The European Union, Japan and the Russian federation in their efforts to reach agreement on the implementation of the ITER project. The delegations took note of the progress of discussions on procurement allocations, ITER decommissioning issues, management structure and intellectual property rights. The Negotiators approved the report on the Joint Assessment of Specific Sites and noted the report on the start of the ITER Transitional Arrangements (ITA). The delegations also noted that China has stated its willingness to participate in ITA and that the USA is considering participation

  20. ITMETH, Iterative Routines for Linear System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenbaum, A.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ITMETH is a collection of iterative routines for solving large, sparse linear systems. 2 - Method of solution: ITMETH solves general linear systems of the form AX=B using a variety of methods: Jacobi iteration; Gauss-Seidel iteration; incomplete LU decomposition or matrix splitting with iterative refinement; diagonal scaling, matrix splitting, or incomplete LU decomposition with the conjugate gradient method for the problem AA'Y=B, X=A'Y; bi-conjugate gradient method with diagonal scaling, matrix splitting, or incomplete LU decomposition; and ortho-min method with diagonal scaling, matrix splitting, or incomplete LU decomposition. ITMETH also solves symmetric positive definite linear systems AX=B using the conjugate gradient method with diagonal scaling or matrix splitting, or the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient method

  1. Iterative Adaptive Sampling For Accurate Direct Illumination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donikian, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new multipass algorithm, Iterative Adaptive Sampling, for efficiently computing the direct illumination in scenes with many lights, including area lights that cause realistic soft shadows...

  2. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 8, no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter contains summary reports on the seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations in Frascati, Italy, on the fifth international symposium on fusion nuclear technology in Rome, Italy and on the IAEA technical committee meeting on electron cyclotron resonance heating physics and technology for fusion devices in Oh-arai, Japan. Individual abstracts are prepared for the three contributions

  3. Parties working on continuation of ITER EDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes efforts of the 4 ITER partners, the European Atomic Energy Community and the governments of Japan, the Russian Federation and the USA, to agree to continuation of the ITER EDA. While the former 3 partners signed an Extension to the EDA, the Americans were refused funding by the US Congress und will therefore be phased out within one year. Copies of the documents signed are provided

  4. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 7, no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This ITER EDA Newsletter contains a report on the delivery of the outer module of the CS model coil to Naka by K. Okuno et al, a special lecture by H. Yoshikawa, the president of the Science Council of Japan on the future outlook of nuclear fusion and a report on an ITER display during the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, from October 19 to 24, 1998

  5. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 6, no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This issue of the newsletter on Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on Second International Industries` Liaison meeting which was held in Tokyo on 2-4 April 1997 (by Y. Kaneki, JAIF, Japan); an overview report on the Blanket project (by A. Cardella, I.Ioki (ITER Central Team), W. Daenner (EU Home Team)); and a progress report on microwave reflectometry (by J. Sanchez, Madrid, Spain).

  6. ITER activities status report: December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Beginning in 1988 and continuing through 1990, the four Parties involved, under the auspices of the IAEA, have been cooperating in the ITER Conceptual Design Activities. This activity resulted in a single conceptual design for a facility that could achieve the objectives established for ITER. This report is an interim report which gives a brief summary of the Conceptual Design Activities through December, 1989. 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs

  8. ITER EDA Newsletter. V.4, no.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on (i) the seventh ITER Council Meeting held at the Naka Joint Work Site on 14-15 December 1994, (ii) the ''Confinement Modelling and Database Expert Group Workshop'' held in Seville, Spain, 3-4 October 1994, and (iii) the first meeting of the International Organizing Committee for the Seventh International Fusion Reactor Materials Conference

  9. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on (i) the seventh Meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC-7) held at the Joint Work Site in Naka, Japan, 5-7 December 1994; (ii) the seventh Meeting of the ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC-7) held at the Naka Joint Work Site, November 30 - December 1, 1994; (iii) the Magnet Technical Meeting, held at the Naka Joint Work Site on November 8-11, 1994

  10. Design of the ITER Tokamak Assembly Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyunki; Her, Namil; Kim, Byungchul; Im, Kihak; Jung, Kijung; Lee, Jaehyuk; Im, Kisuk

    2006-01-01

    ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) Procurement allocation among the seven Parties, EU, JA, CN, IN , KO, RF and US had been decided in Dec. 2005. ITER Tokamak assembly tools is one of the nine components allocated to Korea for the construction of the ITER. Assembly tools except measurement and common tools are supplied to assemble the ITER Tokamak and classified into 9 groups according to components to be assembled. Among the 9 groups of assembly tools, large-sized Sector Sub-assembly Tools and Sector Assembly Tools are used at the first stage of ITER Tokamak construction and need to be designed faster than seven other assembly tools. ITER IT (International Team) proposed Korea to accomplish ITA (ITER Transitional Arrangements) Task on detailed design, manufacturing feasibility and contract specification of specific, large sized tools such as Upending Tool, Lifting Tool, Sector Sub-assembly Tool and Sector Assembly Tool in Oct. 2004. Based on the concept design by ITER IT, Korea carried out ITA Task on detailed design of large-sized and specific Sector Sub-assembly and Sector Assembly Tools until Mar. 2006. The Sector Sub-assembly Tools mainly consist of the Upending, Lifting, Vacuum Vessel Support and Bracing, and Sector Sub-assembly Tool, among which the design of three tools are herein. The Sector Assembly Tools mainly consist of the Toroidal Field (TF) Gravity Support Assembly, Sector In-pit Assembly, TF Coil Assembly, Vacuum Vessel (VV) Welding and Vacuum Vessel Thermal Shield (TS) Assembly Tool, among which the design of Sector In-pit Assembly Tool is described herein

  11. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 6, no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This issue of the newsletter on Engineering Design Activities (EDA) for the ITER Tokamak project contains a report on Second International Industries' Liaison meeting which was held in Tokyo on 2-4 April 1997 (by Y. Kaneki, JAIF, Japan); an overview report on the Blanket project (by A. Cardella, I.Ioki (ITER Central Team), W. Daenner (EU Home Team)); and a progress report on microwave reflectometry (by J. Sanchez, Madrid, Spain)

  12. ITER parametric analysis and operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.; Spears, W.R.; Galambos, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    One of the key components of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) is the determination of optimum design, investigation of operation in various modes, recommendation of baseline performance specifications, studies of sensitivity of ITER design to uncertainties in physics, investigation of operational flexibility, assessment of alternative designs, and determination of implications for extrapolation to prospective DEMO reactors. These terms of reference are reported in this document. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A. [General Atomics P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A. [CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Vries, P. de; Kim, S. H.; Snipes, J.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, St. Paul Lez durance Cedex (France); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lister, J.; Sauter, O. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moreau, D. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 St. Paul-lez Durance (France); Schuster, E. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  14. Overview and status of ITER Cryostat manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil K., E-mail: anil.bhardwaj@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Gupta, Girish; Prajapati, Rajnikant; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gourav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish; Shukla, Dileep [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Iyer, Ganesh; Jadhav, Pandurang; Goyal, Dipesh; Desai, Anish [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India); Sekachev, I.; Vitupier, Guillaume [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Manufacturing status of one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world (ITER Cryostat). • Overview of manufacturing stages and its segmentation. • Overview of manufacturing procedures and assembly and installation. - Abstract: One of ITER-India's commitments to the ITER Organization is procurement of the ITER Cryostat. It is a large vacuum vessel (∼29 m dia. and ∼29 m height), which is made up of 304/304 L dual marked stainless steel and has a total mass over 3500 t. The thickness of the vessel wall varies from 50 mm to 190 mm. It is one of the largest and the heaviest fully welded stainless steel vacuum chambers in the world which provides vacuum thermal insulation for the superconducting magnets operating at 4.5 K and for the thermal shield operating at 80 K. It also mechanically supports the magnet system along with the vacuum vessel (VV). The cryostat is designed and constructed according to ASME Section-VIII Division-2 with additional ITER Vacuum Handbook requirements and it is classified as protection important component (PIC-2). Manufacturing of cryostat segments is ongoing in India; sub-assembly of four major sections of the cryostat from the segments will be done at the ITER site in a temporary workshop building and the final assembly will be done in the pit of the tokamak building, the final location. The cryostat manufacturing contract has been awarded to Larsen and Toubro Limited in August 2012 after completion of design [4] and signing of Procurement Arrangement [1] with ITER Organization. Manufacturing of the cryostat was started in January 2014 after approval of the manufacturing drawings and procedures. The temporary workshop of 44 m × 110 m × 26 m in height has been completed in November 2014 at the ITER site with a 200 t crane installed. This paper gives an overview and the status of the cryostat manufacturing.

  15. ITER containment design-assist analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.H.

    1992-03-01

    In this report, the analysis methods, models and assumptions used to predict the pressure and temperature transients in the ITER containment following a loss of coolant accident are presented. The ITER reactor building is divided into 10 different volumes (zones) based on their functional design. The base model presented in this report will be modified in volume 2 in order to determine the peak pressure, the required size of openings between various functional zones and the differential pressures on walls separating these zones

  16. ITER EDA Newsletter. V. 3, no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter issue reports on (i) the third Technical Meeting on Safety and Environment held at the San Diego Joint Work Site, October 10-14, 1994; (ii) the ITER Expert Group Meeting on Disruptions, Plasma Control and MHD, held in Seville, Spain, September 29-30, 1994; in addition to a brief contribution on aspects of family life for foreigners at the Naka Joint Work Site

  17. Development and test of prototype components for ITER; Entwicklung und Test von Prototypkomponenten fuer ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biel, Wolfgang; Behr, Wilfried; Castano-Bardawil, David; and others

    2015-08-15

    The scientific program of the project is divided into the following partial projects: (1.) ITER Diagnostic Port Plug for the charge-exchange spectroscopy (CXRS) with the subthemes: (a) Development of prototypes for critical mechanical components, (b) development of a roboter for the laser welding of vacuum seals and pipings at the Port Plug, (c) mirror studies, (d) CXRS prototype spectrometer, (2.) ITER tritium retention diagnostics (TR), (3.) ITER disruption mitigation ventile (DMV).

  18. Overview of physics basis for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhovatov, V; Shimada, M; Chudnovskiy, A N; Costley, A E; Gribov, Y; Federici, G; Kardaun, O; Kukushkin, A S; Polevoi, A; Pustovitov, V D; Shimomura, Y; Sugie, T; Sugihara, M; Vayakis, G

    2003-01-01

    ITER will be the first magnetic confinement device with burning DT plasma and fusion power of about 0.5 GW. Parameters of ITER plasma have been predicted using methodologies summarized in the ITER Physics Basis (1999 Nucl. Fusion 39 2175). During the past few years, new results have been obtained that substantiate confidence in achieving Q>=10 in ITER with inductive H-mode operation. These include achievement of a good H-mode confinement near the Greenwald density at high triangularity of the plasma cross section; improvements in theory-based confinement projections for the core plasma, even though further studies are needed for understanding the transport near the plasma edge; improvement in helium ash removal due to the elastic collisions of He atoms with D/T ions in the divertor predicted by modelling; demonstration of feedback control of neoclassical tearing modes and resultant improvement in the achievable beta values; better understanding of edge localized mode (ELM) physics and development of ELM mitigation techniques; and demonstration of mitigation of plasma disruptions. ITER will have a flexibility to operate also in steady-state and intermediate (hybrid) regimes. The 'advanced tokamak' regimes with weak or negative central magnetic shear and internal transport barriers are considered as potential scenarios for steady-state operation. The paper concentrates on inductively driven plasma performance and discusses requirements for steady-state operation in ITER

  19. ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) lifecycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesini, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.tesini@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Otto' , Bede [Oxford Technologies Ltd, 7, Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Blight, John [FAAST 31c Allee de la Granette, 13600 Ceyreste (France); Choi, Chang-Hwan; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar; Hamilton, David [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Heckendorn, Frank [FD Technologies, PO Box 6686, Aiken, SC (United States); Martins, Jean-Pierre [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Marty, Thomas [Westinghouse, 122, avenue de Hambourg, 13008 Marseille (France); Nakahira, Masataka; Palmer, Jim; Subramanian, Rajendran [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    The availability of the ITER machine to perform its scientific program is strongly dependent on the performance of the different Remote Handling (RH) systems constituting the ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS). The lifecycle of the IRMS will largely exceed 40 years from initial concept design and proof testing through to machine decommissioning. Such a long lifecycle requires that a rigorous approach is put in place to guarantee the technical capabilities of the highly innovative IRMS, its efficiency and its availability. For this purpose, an IRMS System Engineering and IRMS lifecycle management approach has been adopted by ITER. The approach aims at ensuring the IRMS full operability and availability at an acceptable cost of ownership over the full ITER machine assembly and operations period. The IRMS lifecycle management method described in this paper covers such subjects as specific requirements for IRMS design reviews, monitoring during manufacture, factory and site acceptance testing, integrated commissioning, decontamination, maintenance and re-qualification strategies, requirements for Integrated Logistical Support during operations. The updating and implementation of the IRMS lifecycle strategy and this procedure will be managed and monitored by the Remote Handling Integrated Product Team (RH-IPT). Although developed for the IRMS, the basic principles and procedures of lifecycle management could be applied to other ITER plant systems whose reliability and availability will be essential for the continued operation of the ITER machine.

  20. ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) lifecycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesini, Alessandro; Otto', Bede; Blight, John; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Gotewal, Krishan Kumar; Hamilton, David; Heckendorn, Frank; Martins, Jean-Pierre; Marty, Thomas; Nakahira, Masataka; Palmer, Jim; Subramanian, Rajendran

    2011-01-01

    The availability of the ITER machine to perform its scientific program is strongly dependent on the performance of the different Remote Handling (RH) systems constituting the ITER Remote Maintenance System (IRMS). The lifecycle of the IRMS will largely exceed 40 years from initial concept design and proof testing through to machine decommissioning. Such a long lifecycle requires that a rigorous approach is put in place to guarantee the technical capabilities of the highly innovative IRMS, its efficiency and its availability. For this purpose, an IRMS System Engineering and IRMS lifecycle management approach has been adopted by ITER. The approach aims at ensuring the IRMS full operability and availability at an acceptable cost of ownership over the full ITER machine assembly and operations period. The IRMS lifecycle management method described in this paper covers such subjects as specific requirements for IRMS design reviews, monitoring during manufacture, factory and site acceptance testing, integrated commissioning, decontamination, maintenance and re-qualification strategies, requirements for Integrated Logistical Support during operations. The updating and implementation of the IRMS lifecycle strategy and this procedure will be managed and monitored by the Remote Handling Integrated Product Team (RH-IPT). Although developed for the IRMS, the basic principles and procedures of lifecycle management could be applied to other ITER plant systems whose reliability and availability will be essential for the continued operation of the ITER machine.

  1. Parallel S/sub n/ iteration schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienke, B.R.; Hiromoto, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The iterative, multigroup, discrete ordinates (S/sub n/) technique for solving the linear transport equation enjoys widespread usage and appeal. Serial iteration schemes and numerical algorithms developed over the years provide a timely framework for parallel extension. On the Denelcor HEP, the authors investigate three parallel iteration schemes for solving the one-dimensional S/sub n/ transport equation. The multigroup representation and serial iteration methods are also reviewed. This analysis represents a first attempt to extend serial S/sub n/ algorithms to parallel environments and provides good baseline estimates on ease of parallel implementation, relative algorithm efficiency, comparative speedup, and some future directions. The authors examine ordered and chaotic versions of these strategies, with and without concurrent rebalance and diffusion acceleration. Two strategies efficiently support high degrees of parallelization and appear to be robust parallel iteration techniques. The third strategy is a weaker parallel algorithm. Chaotic iteration, difficult to simulate on serial machines, holds promise and converges faster than ordered versions of the schemes. Actual parallel speedup and efficiency are high and payoff appears substantial

  2. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  3. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  4. Status and plans for US ITER studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doggett, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    The United States' participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) began in later 1987 when the initiative to start a cooperative program among the four Parties -- the Soviet Union, Japan, the European Community, and the United States -- was initiated. Participation then continued through the start of Joint Work in May 1988 until the conclusion of the Conceptual Design Activities (CDA) in December 1990. In the period between the conclusion of the CDA and the agreement to execute the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), the US ITER Home Team continued to do work on the design, executed additional research and development, and participated in the preparations for the EDA. Activities included one major design study on a High-Aspect-Ratio Design and input to the National ITER Technical Review, the ITER Steering Committee -- US, Special Working Group 1, and the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee's Panel 1. Research and development was continued in areas of work that were identified as critical-path elements by an international panel chartered by the four ITER Parties near the end of the CDA. I will describe the conclusion of the CDA and the interim US ITER activities and will give an indication of our involvement in the EDA

  5. Support for ITER ECRF design. Substask 3. Design and optimzation of the window unit. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumm, M.; Braz, O.; Iatrou, C.T.; Heidinger, S.; Henry, S.; Makowski, M.; Spoerl, R.; Szczesny, J.

    1999-02-01

    The proposed ITER ECH window unit employs a single, edge-cooled (water, e.g. 20 C) CVD-diamond disk in a corrugated HE 11 waveguide with 52 mm inner diameter, with an outer disk diameter of 77 mm and a thickness of 1.482 mm (4 λ/2). Thermal computations show that for larger outer disk diameters the peak temperature is unaffected. Thus due to the high thermal conductivity of the diamond, the exposed window edge area does not have to be large to obtain significant heat transfer. This implies that the window diameter can be minimized which has the added benefit of reducing the cost. For a power of 1 MW at 170 GHz, a loss tangent of 1.10 -5 , a thermal conductivity of 1800 W/mK (at room temperature) and a heat transfer coefficient of 12 kW/m 2 K (water flow: 13.5 1/min, water velocity: 2 m/s, room temperature) to the cooling water the central window temperature will not be higher than approx. 45 C and the edge temperature is about 30 C. The absorbed power is 176 W. Simulations also show that steady state conditions are generally achieved in under 3 s and that a 2 MW window should be feasible. Owing to the negligible temperature dependence of the CVD-diamond loss tangent, also the approximately 100 C hot torus cooling water could be used to cool the window. Simulations of an ''encased'' window, a window in which the edge of the disk has been covered with a 0.4 mm thick layer of electrodeposited copper (tritium barrier in case of broken window disk), show that this is feasible without a significant decrease in heat transfer rate. Neutron irradiation tests were extended to fluences of 10 21 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV)

  6. Report of the international symposium for ITER. 'Burning plasma science and technology on ITER'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This report contains the presentations on the International Symposium for ITER, held on Jan. 24, 2002 on the occasion of the ITER Governmental Negotiations in Tokyo. This symposium is organized by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute with the support of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The meaningful results were obtained through this symposium especially on new frontiers of science and technology brought by ITER, accelerated road maps towards realizing fusion energy, and portfolio of other fusion configurations from ITER. The 5 of the presented papers are indexed individually (J.P.N.)

  7. Safety-factor profile tailoring by improved electron cyclotron system for sawtooth control and reverse shear scenarios in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucca, C.; Sauter, O.; Fable, E.; Henderson, M. A.; Polevoi, A.; Farina, D.; Ramponi, G.; Saibene, G.; Zohm, H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the predicted local electron cyclotron current driven by the optimized electron cyclotron system on ITER is discussed. A design variant was recently proposed to enlarge the physics program covered by the upper and equatorial launchers. By extending the functionality range of the upper launcher, significant control capabilities of the sawtooth period can be obtained. The upper launcher improvement still allows enough margin to exceed the requirements for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, for which it was originally designed. The analysis of the sawtooth control is carried on with the ASTRA transport code, coupled with the threshold model by Por-celli, to study the control capabilities of the improved upper launcher on the sawtooth instability. The simulations take into account the significant stabilizing effect of the fusion alpha particles. The sawtooth period can be increased by a factor of 1.5 with co-ECCD outside the q = 1 surface, and decreased by at least 30% with co-ECCD inside q = 1. The present ITER base-line design has the electron cyclotron launchers providing only co-ECCD. The variant for the equatorial launcher proposes the possibility to drive counter-ECCD with 1 of the 3 rows of mirrors: the counter-ECCD can then be balanced with co-ECCD and provide pure ECH with no net driven current. The difference between full co-ECCD off-axis using all 20MW from the equatorial launcher and 20MW co-ECCD driven by 2/3 from the equatorial launcher and 1/3 from the upper launcher is shown to be negligible. Cnt-ECCD also offers greater control of the plasma current density, therefore this analysis addresses the performance of the equatorial launcher to control the central q profile. The equatorial launcher is shown to control very efficiently the value of q 0.2 -q min in advanced scenarios, if one row provides counter-ECCD.

  8. On Controlled Iterated GSM Mappings and Related Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In [17] G. Paun studied families of languages generated by iterated gsm mappings, iterated finite substitutions, and iterated homomorphisms. In this note we generalize some results in [17], and we discuss the relation between iterated finite substitutions (homomorphisms) and (deterministic) tabled

  9. On Controlled Iterated GSM Mappings and Related Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In [17] G. Paun studied families of languages generated by iterated gsm mappings, iterated finite substitutions, and iterated homomorphisms. In this note we generalize some results in [17], and we discuss the relation between iterated finite substitutions (homomorphisms) and (deterministic) tabled

  10. Note: interpreting iterative methods convergence with diffusion point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Dohy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the convergence speed of different iteration schemes with the fluid diffusion view when solving a linear fixed point problem. This interpretation allows one to better understand why power iteration or Jacobi iteration may converge faster or slower than Gauss-Seidel iteration.

  11. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 18, October-November-December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER Transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related meetings, namely, the fourth preparatory meeting for ITER decision making, which was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 9 November 2004 and the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, which was held on 1-6 November 2004 in Vilamoura, Portugal

  12. The ITER Management Advisory Committee (MAC) meeting in Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    1999-01-01

    The ITER management advisory committee meeting was held on 22-23 July 1999 in Garching, Germany. The main topics were the ITER EDA status, task status summary and work program, joint fund, information technology needs at the ITER joint work sites, the disposition of R and D components and a schedule of ITER meetings

  13. Simultaneous Analysis of Ursolic Acid and Oleanolic Acid in Guava Leaves Using QuEChERS-Based Extraction Followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Liao, Yiyi; Fang, Chunyan; Zhang, Yingxia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method of QuEChERS-based extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) in guava leaves. The QuEChERS-based extraction parameters, including the amount of added salt, vortex-assisted extraction time, and absorbent amount, and the chromatographic conditions were investigated for the analysis of UA and OA in guava leaves. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity over a range of 1–320 μg mL−1, with correlation coefficients above 0.999. The limits of detection of UA and OA were 0.18 and 0.36 μg mL−1, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were below 1.95 and 2.55%, respectively. The accuracies of the UA and OA determinations ranged from 97.4 to 111.4%. The contents of UA and OA in the guava leaf samples were 2.50 and 0.73 mg g−1, respectively. These results demonstrate that the developed method is applicable to the simultaneous determination of UA and OA in guava leaves. PMID:28781908

  14. Evaluation of various QuEChERS based methods for the analysis of herbicides and other commonly used pesticides in polished rice by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2011-02-15

    Four different extraction and clean-up protocols based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the development of an optimized sample preparation procedure for the multiresidue analysis of 16 commonly applied herbicides in rice crops using LC-QqQ/MS. Additionally the methods were evaluated for the analysis of 26 insecticides and fungicides currently used in rice crops. The methods comprise, in general, the hydratation of the sample with water followed by the extraction with acetonitrile, phase separation with the addition of different salts and finally a clean-up step with various sorbents. Matrix effects were evaluated for the 4 studied methods using LC-QqQ/MS. Additionally LC-TOF/MS was used to compare the co-extractants obtained with the four assayed methodologies. Thirty-six pesticides presented good performance with recoveries in the range 70-120% and relative standard deviations below 20% using 7.5 g of milled polished rice and the buffered acetate QuEChERS method without clean-up at both fortification levels: 10 and 300 μg kg(-1). The other six pesticides presented low recovery rates, nevertheless all these analytes could be analyzed with at least one of the other three studied procedures. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. QuEChERS Purification Combined with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Quantification of 25 Mycotoxins in Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Li, Weixi; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Xuexu; Wu, Li; Wang, Bujun

    2016-01-01

    A method based on the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) purification combined with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS), was optimized for the simultaneous quantification of 25 mycotoxins in cereals. Samples were extracted with a solution containing 80% acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid, and purified with QuEChERS before being separated by a C18 column. The mass spectrometry was conducted by using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) models. The method gave good linear relations with regression coefficients ranging from 0.9950 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.03 to 15.0 µg·kg−1, and the average recovery at three different concentrations ranged from 60.2% to 115.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSD%) varying from 0.7% to 19.6% for the 25 mycotoxins. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, and an improvement compared with the existing methods published so far. PMID:27983693

  16. APPLICATION OF QuEChERS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PHENYLUREA HERBICIDES IN BEETROOT BY HPLC WITH UV-VIS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Surma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylurea herbicides are an important group of herbicides utilized in weed control. They have been on sale since the 1950s and are still in common use throughout the world from pre- and post-emergence control of many annual and perennial broad-leaved weeds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the utility of the QuEChERS method for the determination of phenylurea pesticides (chlortoluron, isoproturon, linuron, metobromuron, metoxuron, monolinuron in beetroot by HPLC with UV/Vis detection. Different types of sorbents (PSA, C18, SAX and NH2 and solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate were applied. The obtained results showed that the best recovery ratios were received for the method with PSA and GCB sorbents and using acetonitrile as an extraction solvent with RSD lower than 15% for most compounds. The linearity of calibration curves was higher than 0.98 for all target analytes. The results show that the QuEChERS method can be successfully applied for the determination of phenylurea herbicides in beetroot.

  17. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 24, July 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about the Ministerial Meeting on the ITER site selection (MMI-2) took place in Moscow, Russian Federation, on 28 June 2005. About one hundred participants from the Parties to the ITER Negotiations and the IAEA attended at the Meeting. Mr. A.Yu. Rumyantsev, Director of Rosatom, welcomed the participants and pointed out that the goal of the meeting was to resolve the most difficult issue: to select the site for implementation of the ITER project. Once this decision had been taken, one could expect a swift and successful accomplishment of negotiations and beginning of work on the ITER constriction. Mr. A. Yu. Rumyantsev, Director of Rosatom, welcomed the participants and pointed out that the goal of the meeting was to resolve the most difficult issue: to select the site for implementation of the ITER project. Once this decision had been taken, one could expect a swift and successful accomplishment of negotiations and beginning of work on the ITER construction. Mr. Rumyantsev invited the Heads of Delegations of Japan, the European Union, the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Korea and the United States of America to express the positions of their Parties on the choice of a site. Mr. N. Nakayama, Japanese Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, recognized that three years had passed since the start of Negotiations on the site issue and that a consensus on the roles of the Host Party and the Non-Host Party had been reached. It was therefore not desirable that both Japan and the EU still advocate their own sites and allow the Negotiations to continue with no prospect of coming to a conclusion. So, considering that the ITER project should be started as soon as possible for the future benefit of humankind, that the six-Party-framework for implementing the ITER project should not be broken, that the ITER project starting smoothly will be a major

  19. ITER ITA newsletter No. 30, April-May 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This issue of ITER ITA (ITER transitional Arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about ITER related activities including visit of Kaname Ikeda, director general nominee, to Naka; the common message from 6th preparatory meeting for ITER decision making; the eighth ITER preparatory committee and leaders meeting; principal deputy director-general Norbert Holtkamp and recollections of Dr. Michael Roberts on the occasion of his retirement

  20. ITER ITA newsletter. No. 25, August-September-October 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This issue of the ITER ITA (ITER transitional arrangements) newsletter contains concise information about two ITER related meetings including the tenth ITER Negotiations and related meetings held in the period 7-12 September 2005 at Cadarache, France, the ITER Divertor meeting, which was held in Genova, Italy on 26-28 October 2005, and information about the forty-ninth regular session of IAEA General Conference and eighth Scientific Forum, 26-30 September 2005, Vienna, Austria

  1. News from ITER controls - a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallander, A.; Abadie, L.; Di Maio, F.; Evrard, B.; Fourneron, J.M.; Gulati, H.; Hansalia, C.; Journeaux, J.Y.; Kim, C.; Klotz, W.D.; Mahajan, K.; Makijarvi, P; Matsumoto, Y.; Pande, S.; Simrock, S.; Stepanov, D.; Utzel, N.; Vergara, A.; Winter, A.; Yonekawa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Construction of ITER has started at the Cadarache site in southern France. The first buildings are taking shape and more than 60 % of the in-kind procurement has been committed by the seven ITER member states (China, Europe, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and United States). The design and manufacturing of the main components of the machine is now underway all over the world. Each of these components comes with a local control system, which must be integrated in the central control system. The control group at ITER has developed two products to facilitate it; the plant control design handbook (PCDH) and the control, data access and communication (CODAC) core system. PCDH is a document which prescribes the technologies and methods to be used in developing local control systems and sets the rules applicable to the in-kind procurements. CODAC core system is a software package, distributed to all in-kind procurement developers, which implements the PCDH and facilitates the compliance of the local control system. In parallel, the ITER control group is proceeding with the design of the central control system to allow fully integrated and automated operation of ITER. In this paper we report on the progress of the design and technology choices and we discuss justifications of those choices. We also report on the results of some pilot projects aimed at validating the design and technologies. (authors)

  2. U.S. Contributions to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, Ned R.

    2005-01-01

    The United States participates in the ITER project and program to enable the study of the science and technology of burning plasmas, a key programmatic element missing from the world fusion program. The 2003 U.S. decision to enter the ITER negotiations followed an extensive series of community and governmental reviews of the benefits, readiness, and approaches to the study of burning plasmas. This paper describes both the technical and the organizational preparations and plans for U.S. participation in the ITER construction activity: in-kind contributions, staff contributions, and cash contributions as well as supporting physics and technology research. Near-term technical activities focus on the completion of R and D and design and mitigation of risks in the areas of the central solenoid magnet, shield/blanket, diagnostics, ion cyclotron system, electron cyclotron system, pellet fueling system, vacuum system, tritium processing system, and conventional systems. Outside the project, the U .S. is engaged in preparations for the test blanket module program. Organizational activities focus on preparations of the project management arrangements to maximize the overall success of the ITER Project; elements include refinement of U.S. directions on the international arrangements, the establishment of the U.S. Domestic Agency, progress along the path of the U.S. Department of Energy's Project Management Order, and overall preparations for commencement of the fabrication of major items of equipment and for provision of staff and cash as specified in the upcoming ITER agreement

  3. Status of ITER neutron diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, M.; Krasilnikov, A.V.; Kaschuck, Yu.A.; Nishitani, T.; Batistoni, P.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Popovichev, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Iguchi, T.; Kaellne, J.; Fiore, C.L.; Roquemore, A.L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Fisher, R.; Gorini, G.; Donne, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Walker, C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the high neutron yield and the large plasma size many ITER plasma parameters such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy and their spatial distributions in the plasma core can be well measured by various neutron diagnostics. Neutron diagnostic systems under consideration and development for ITER include: radial and vertical neutron cameras (RNC and VNC), internal and external neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The two-dimensional neutron source strength and spectral measurements can be provided by the combined RNC and VNC. The neutron flux monitors need to meet the ITER requirement of time-resolved measurements of the neutron source strength and can provide the signals necessary for real-time control of the ITER fusion power. Compact and high throughput neutron spectrometers are under development. A concept for the absolute calibration of neutron diagnostic systems is proposed. The development, testing in existing experiments and the engineering integration of all neutron diagnostic systems into ITER are in progress and the main results are presented. (author)

  4. Status of ITER neutron diagnostic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Sasao, M.; Kaschuck, Yu. A.; Nishitani, T.; Batistoni, P.; Zaveryaev, V. S.; Popovichev, S.; Iguchi, T.; Jarvis, O. N.; Källne, J.; Fiore, C. L.; Roquemore, A. L.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Fisher, R.; Gorini, G.; Prosvirin, D. V.; Tsutskikh, A. Yu.; Donné, A. J. H.; Costley, A. E.; Walker, C. I.

    2005-12-01

    Due to the high neutron yield and the large plasma size many ITER plasma parameters such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy and their spatial distributions in the plasma core can be measured well by various neutron diagnostics. Neutron diagnostic systems under consideration and development for ITER include radial and vertical neutron cameras (RNC and VNC), internal and external neutron flux monitors (NFMs), neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The two-dimensional neutron source strength and spectral measurements can be provided by the combined RNC and VNC. The NFMs need to meet the ITER requirement of time-resolved measurements of the neutron source strength and can provide the signals necessary for real-time control of the ITER fusion power. Compact and high throughput neutron spectrometers are under development. A concept for the absolute calibration of neutron diagnostic systems is proposed. The development, testing in existing experiments and the engineering integration of all neutron diagnostic systems into ITER are in progress and the main results are presented.

  5. Status of ITER neutron diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A.V.; Sasao, M.; Kaschuck, Yu.A.; Nishitani, T.; Batistoni, P.; Zaveryaev, V.S.; Popovichev, S.; Iguchi, T.; Jarvis, O.N.; Kaellne, J.; Fiore, C.L.; Roquemore, A.L.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Fisher, R.; Gorini, G.; Prosvirin, D.V.; Tsutskikh, A.Yu.; Donne, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Walker, C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the high neutron yield and the large plasma size many ITER plasma parameters such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy and their spatial distributions in the plasma core can be measured well by various neutron diagnostics. Neutron diagnostic systems under consideration and development for ITER include radial and vertical neutron cameras (RNC and VNC), internal and external neutron flux monitors (NFMs), neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The two-dimensional neutron source strength and spectral measurements can be provided by the combined RNC and VNC. The NFMs need to meet the ITER requirement of time-resolved measurements of the neutron source strength and can provide the signals necessary for real-time control of the ITER fusion power. Compact and high throughput neutron spectrometers are under development. A concept for the absolute calibration of neutron diagnostic systems is proposed. The development, testing in existing experiments and the engineering integration of all neutron diagnostic systems into ITER are in progress and the main results are presented

  6. ITER status, design and material objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2002-01-01

    During the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA), completed in July 2001, the Joint Central Team and Home Teams developed a robust design of ITER, summarised in this paper, with parameters which fully meet the required scientific and technological objectives, construction costs and safety requirements, with appropriate margins. The design is backed by R and D to qualify the technology, including materials R and D. Materials for ITER components have been selected largely because of their availability and well-established manufacturing technologies, taking account of the low fluence experienced during neutron irradiation, and the experimental nature of the device. Nevertheless, for specific needs relevant to a future fusion reactor, improved materials, in particular for magnet structures, in-vessel components, and joints between the different materials needed for plasma facing components, have been successfully developed. Now, with the technical readiness to decide on ITER construction, negotiations, supported by coordinated technical activities of an international team and teams from participant countries, are underway on joint construction of ITER with a view to the signature/ratification of an agreement in 2003

  7. U.S. contributions to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, Ned R.

    2006-01-01

    The United States participates in the ITER project to undertake the study of the science and technology of burning plasmas. The 2003 U.S. decision to enter the ITER negotiations followed an extensive series of community and governmental reviews of the benefits, readiness, and approaches to the study of burning plasmas. This paper describes both the technical and the organizational preparations and plans for U.S. participation in the ITER construction activity: in-kind contributions, staff contributions, and cash contributions as well as supporting physics and technology research. Near-term technical activities focus on the completion of R and D and design and mitigation of risks in the areas of provisionally assigned US contributions. Outside the project, the U.S. is engaged in preparations for the test blanket module program. Organizational activities focus on preparations of the project management arrangements to maximize the overall success of the ITER project: elements include refinement of U.S. positions on the international arrangements, the establishment of the U.S. Domestic Agency, progress along the path of the U.S. Department of Energy's Project Management Order, and overall preparations for commencement of the fabrication of major items of equipment and for provision of staff and cash as specified in the upcoming ITER agreement

  8. Study of neutron spectrometers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellne, Jan

    2005-11-15

    A review is presented of the developments in the field of neutron emission spectrometry (NES) which is of relevance for identifying the role of NES diagnostics on ITER and selecting suitable instrumentation. Neutron spectrometers will be part of the ITER neutron diagnostic complement and this study makes a special effort to examine which performance characteristics the spectrometers should possess to provide the best burning plasma diagnostic information together with neutron cameras and neutron yield monitors. The performance of NES diagnostics is coupled to how much interface space can be provided which has lead to an interest to find compact instruments and their NES capabilities. This study assesses all known spectrometer types of potential interest for ITER and makes a ranking of their performance (as demonstrated or projected), which, in turn, are compared with ITER measurement requirements as a reference; the ratio of diagnostic performance to interface cost for different spectrometers is also discussed for different spectrometer types. The overall result of the study is an assessment of which diagnostic functions neutron measurements can provide in burning plasma fusion experiments on ITER and the role that NES can play depending on the category of instrument installed. Of special note is the result that much higher quality diagnostic information can be obtained from neutron measurements with total yield monitors, profile flux cameras and spectrometers when the synergy in the data is considered in the analysis and interpretation.

  9. Determination of six parabens residues in fresh-cut vegetables using QuEChERS with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an optimized QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to analyze residues of six parabens: methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, and isobutyl-paraben in five fresh-cut vegetables (potato, broccoli, carrot, celery and cabbage) with high performance liquid chromatogr...

  10. Divertor cassette movers prototypes for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusch, E.; Batz, R.; Bieber, O.; Gottfried, R.; Cerdan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Following competitive tendering, in October 1996 Siemens was contracted by the European Commission to design and supply an assembly of four Divertor Cassette Movers Prototypes including the control and command systems for the movers proper. The assembly consisting of one Cassette Toroidal Mover (CTM), one Radial Mover Tractor (TRC), one Second Cassette Carrier (SCC), and one Radial Cassette Carrier (RCC) represents key components of the Divertor Test Platform at Brasimone, one of the seven large R+D projects for ITER. By detailed design, high-precision manufacturing and testing of these devices, Siemens contributed to the verification of an important task within the European R and D program towards ITER construction. Replacement of the divertor cassettes is a scheduled maintenance operation throughout the life of ITER. The successful fabrication and testing of the Divertor Cassette Movers Prototypes is all important milestone to verify this delicate operation. (authors)

  11. Regarding overrelaxation for accelerating an iteration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1984-06-01

    The solution for a vector that satisfies a set of coupled equations is often obtained economically in iteration. Application of an overrelaxation coefficient to augment the calculated iterate changes is done to accelerate the rate of convergence. This scheme is simple to implement and often effective. Much is known theoretically about the iterative behavior when the system of equations is linear, although there are complexities that are not widely known. Extensive use is made of the scheme even to non-linear systems of equations where behavior depends on the situation. Of much concern to the developer of solution methods (typically an engineer or applied mathematician) is implementing an effective procedure at a modest investment in development and testing. Applications are described to thermal cell and neutron diffusion modeling

  12. ITER EDA newsletter. V. 5, no.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the ITER EDA (Engineering Design Activities) Newsletter contains reports on the RF-Based ITER JCT (Joint Central Team) Support Design Team (by N. Kornev), the third international workshop on plasma disruptions (by Dr. A. Hassanein and Dr. V. Litunovski) held at Obninsk, Russia, September 28-29, 1995, and the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Completion of Fendl-1 and the start of Fendl-2 (by Dr. A.B. Pashchenko); the Fendl library is a comprehensive collection of high-quality nuclear data, selected from the various existing national data libraries, covering the necessary nuclear input data for all physics and engineering aspects of the material development, design, operation, and safety of the ITER project in its current EDA phase

  13. Transport, logistics and packaging of ITER components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Olivier; Couturier, Bruno; Maas, Akko

    2005-01-01

    Cadarache, the European site for ITER, is located at around 50km as the crow flies from the sea. The feasibility of the transport of large and heavy ITER components has thus been thoroughly studied. These studies have covered the following items: - possible itineraries between the most convenient harbour (Fos) and Cadarache; - packaging (in particular for the largest and heaviest components); - means of transport (two types of trailers allowing to avoid lifting and load transfers); - logistics (analysis of transfer kinematics, including temporary storage); - administrative procedures and planning for the road adaptation, taking benefit of the recent successful implementation in the south-west of France of an itinerary for the Airbus A380 components. These studies, performed between 2001 and 2003, led to a viable solution, with a reasonable cost, fully supported by the French authorities. The planning necessary to implement the road modifications is also fully compatible with the expected dates of ITER components delivery

  14. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Larsen, Axel Wright; Meo, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The EFDA Contract 04-1213 with Risø National Laboratory concerning a detailed integrated design of a Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic for ITER was signed on 31 December 2004. In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER Fast Ion...... Collective Thomson Scattering System (Contract 01.654) [1, 2]. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma. The feasibility study demonstrated that the only system that can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas is a 60...... the blanket gap, and calculations of diagnosing fuel ion ratio and rotation velocity by CTS....

  15. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  16. Edge database analysis for extrapolation to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, M.; Janeschitz, G.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    An edge database has been archived to facilitate cross-machine comparisons of SOL and edge pedestal characteristics, and to enable comparison with theoretical models with an aim to extrapolate to ITER. The SOL decay lengths of power, density and temperature become broader for increasing density and q 95 . The power decay length is predicted to be 1.4-3.5 cm (L-mode) and 1.4-2.7 cm (H-mode) at the midplane in ITER. Analysis of Type I ELMs suggests that each giant ELM on ITER would exceed the ablation threshold of the divertor plates. Theoretical models are proposed for the H-mode transition, for Type I and Type III ELMs and are compared with the edge pedestal database. (author)

  17. Ceramics radiation effects issues for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The key radiation effects issues associated with the successful operation of ceramic materials in components of the planned International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are discussed. Radiation-induced volume changes and degradation of the mechanical properties should not be a serious issue for the fluences planned for ITER. On the other hand, radiation-induced electrical degradation effects may severely limit the allowable exposure of ceramic insulators. Degradation of the loss tangent and thermal conductivity may also restrict the location of some components such as ICRH feedthrough insulators to positions far away from the first wall. In-situ measurements suggest that the degradation of physical properties in ceramics during irradiation is greater than that measured in postirradiation tests. Additional in-situ data during neutron irradiation are needed before engineering designs for ITER can be finalized

  18. Status of the ITER vacuum vessel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.H.; Sborchia, C.; Ioki, K.; Giraud, B.; Utin, Yu.; Sa, J.W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Wang, X., E-mail: xiaoyuwww@gmail.com [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Teissier, P.; Martinez, J.M.; Le Barbier, R.; Jun, C.; Dani, S.; Barabash, V.; Vertongen, P.; Alekseev, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Jucker, P.; Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, n. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Pathak, H.; Raval, J. [ITER-India, IPR, A-29, Electronics Estate, GIDC, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Ahn, H.J. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Final design of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV). • Procurement of the ITER VV. • Manufacturing results of real scale mock-ups. • Manufacturing status of the VV in domestic agencies. - Abstract: The ITER vacuum vessel (VV) is under manufacturing by four domestic agencies after completion of engineering designs that have been approved by the Agreed Notified Body (ANB). Manufacturing designs of the VV have been being completed, component by component, by accommodating requirements of the RCC-MR 2007 edition. Manufacturing of the VV first sector has been started in February 2012 in Korea and in-wall shielding in May 2013 in India. EU will start manufacturing of its first sector from September 2013 and Russia the upper port by the end of 2013. All DAs have manufactured several mock-ups including real-size ones to justify/qualify and establish manufacturing techniques and procedures.

  19. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  20. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)