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Sample records for t2 relativity measurements

  1. Detailing the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach of parametric magnetic resonance imaging and invasive physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Hentschel, Jan; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Ladwig, Mechthild; Waiczies, Sonia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to detail the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach that combines parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative physiological measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Experiments were performed in 21 male Wistar rats. In vivo modulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was achieved by brief periods of aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), local cortical and medullary tissue pO2, and blood flux were simultaneously recorded together with T2*, T2 mapping, and magnetic resonance-based kidney size measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on a 9.4-T small-animal magnetic resonance system. Relative changes in the invasive quantitative parameters were correlated with relative changes in the parameters derived from MRI using Spearman analysis and Pearson analysis. Changes in T2* qualitatively reflected tissue pO2 changes induced by the interventions. T2* versus pO2 Spearman rank correlations were significant for all interventions, yet quantitative translation of T2*/pO2 correlations obtained for one intervention to another intervention proved not appropriate. The closest T2*/pO2 correlation was found for hypoxia and recovery. The interlayer comparison revealed closest T2*/pO2 correlations for the outer medulla and showed that extrapolation of results obtained for one renal layer to other renal layers must be made with due caution. For T2* to RBF relation, significant Spearman correlations were deduced for all renal layers and for all interventions. T2*/RBF correlations for the cortex and outer medulla were even superior to those between T2* and tissue pO2. The closest T2*/RBF correlation occurred during hypoxia and recovery. Close correlations were observed between T2* and kidney size during hypoxia and recovery and for occlusion and recovery. In both cases, kidney size correlated well with renal vascular conductance

  2. Gaining insight into the T _2^*-T2 relationship in surface NMR free-induction decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grombacher, Denys; Auken, Esben

    2018-05-01

    One of the primary shortcomings of the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) free-induction decay (FID) measurement is the uncertainty surrounding which mechanism controls the signal's time dependence. Ideally, the FID-estimated relaxation time T_2^* that describes the signal's decay carries an intimate link to the geometry of the pore space. In this limit the parameter T_2^* is closely linked to a related parameter T2, which is more closely linked to pore-geometry. If T_2^* ˜eq {T_2} the FID can provide valuable insight into relative pore-size and can be used to make quantitative permeability estimates. However, given only FID measurements it is difficult to determine whether T_2^* is linked to pore geometry or whether it has been strongly influenced by background magnetic field inhomogeneity. If the link between an observed T_2^* and the underlying T2 could be further constrained the utility of the standard surface NMR FID measurement would be greatly improved. We hypothesize that an approach employing an updated surface NMR forward model that solves the full Bloch equations with appropriately weighted relaxation terms can be used to help constrain the T_2^*-T2 relationship. Weighting the relaxation terms requires estimating the poorly constrained parameters T2 and T1; to deal with this uncertainty we propose to conduct a parameter search involving multiple inversions that employ a suite of forward models each describing a distinct but plausible T_2^*-T2 relationship. We hypothesize that forward models given poor T2 estimates will produce poor data fits when using the complex-inversion, while forward models given reliable T2 estimates will produce satisfactory data fits. By examining the data fits produced by the suite of plausible forward models, the likely T_2^*-T2 can be constrained by identifying the range of T2 estimates that produce reliable data fits. Synthetic and field results are presented to investigate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  3. A study on magnetic relaxation times of various organs and body fluids using superconducting magnetic resonance imaging system part I: measurement of relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time in various portions of brain and cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Han, Man Chang; Kim, Chu Wan

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertake to determine if routine clinical magnetic resonance imaging sequences using only two different repetition times (TRs) and with only two sequential echo times (TEs) can be used to measure reproducible relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation time for normal brain tissues and cerebrospinal fluid using a 2.0T superconducting system. In 47 patients 6 different anatomic sites were measured. For each anatomic location, the mean and standard deviation of these values were determined. On T1-weighted (SE 500msec/30msec) images, in globus pallidus and thalamus, of the CSF, cortical gray matter and retrobulbar fat tissue varied more, with a standard deviation of 11-14% on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted (SE 3000msec/30msec and 3000msec/80msec) images, the relative signal intensity of all anatomic regions varied more than on T1-weighted images. The standard deviation of T2 relaxation times also varied from 10% (fat tissue) to 18% (CSF). These variations might be due to partial volume averaging, signal alteration of CSF secondary to CSF pulsatile motion, etc. Knowing that relative signal intensity and T2 relaxation times calculated from routine imaging sequences are reproducible in only limited area, these normal ranges can be used to investigate changes occurring in disease states of the limited regions.

  4. T2 relaxation time is related to liver fibrosis severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Luiz; Uppal, Ritika; Alford, Jamu; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Yamada, Suguru; Tanabe, Kenneth; Chung, Raymond T.; Lauwers, Gregory; Chew, Michael L.; Boland, Giles W.; Sahani, Duhyant V.; Vangel, Mark; Hahn, Peter F.; Caravan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    echo T2 weighted data. Statistical comparison was performed using ANOVA. Results (I) Histopathologic evaluation of both rat and human livers demonstrated no evidence of steatosis or hemochromatosis There was a monotonic increase in mean T2 value with increasing degree of fibrosis (control 65.4±2.9 ms, n=6 patients); mild (Ishak 1–2) 66.7±1.9 ms (n=30); moderate (Ishak 3–4) 71.6±1.7 ms (n=26); severe (Ishak 5–6) 72.4±1.4 ms (n=61); with relatively low standard error (~2.9 ms). There was a statistically significant difference between degrees of mild (Ishak fibrosis (Ishak >4) (P=0.03) based on logistic regression of T2 and Ishak, which became insignificant (P=0.07) when using inflammatory markers as covariates. Expanding on this model using ordinal logistic regression, there was significance amongst all 4 groups comparing T2 to Ishak (P=0.01), with significance using inflammation as a covariate (P=0.03) and approaching statistical significance amongst all groups by ANOVA (P=0.07); (II) there was a monotonic increase in T2 and statistical significance (ANOVA Pliver (e.g., 20–100 ms), demonstrated no statistical difference between two point fits on turbo spin echo (TSE) data and multi-echo CPMG data (P=0.9). Conclusions The finding of increased T2 with liver fibrosis may relate to inflammation that may be an alternative or adjunct to other noninvasive MR imaging based approaches for assessing liver fibrosis. PMID:27190762

  5. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio; Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar; Matschke, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  6. T2K Replica Target Hadron Production Measurements in NA61/SHINE and T2K Neutrino Flux Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)710687

    Accelerator based neutrino experiments generate their neutrino beams by impinging high energy protons on thick targets. The neutrino beam predictions are thus based on modeling the interactions of the beam protons inside the targets. Different hadronic models can be used with different accuracies depending on the energy range of the incident protons and on the target material. Nevertheless, none of the models can be seen as perfectly describing all different interactions. In order to reach high precision neutrino flux predictions, it is thus mandatory to be able to test and constrain the models with hadron production measurements. The T2K experiment in Japan uses the ancillary NA61/SHINE facility at CERN to constrain the production of hadrons resulting from the interactions of proton beam particles impinging on a 90cm long graphite target. Data taken by NA61/SHINE with a 30 GeV proton beam on a thin (4% interaction length) graphite target have been recorded in 2007 and 2009. They have been analysed and extens...

  7. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  8. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsåker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E × B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport.

  9. Reynolds and Maxwell stress measurements in the reversed field pinch experiment Extrap-T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, N.; Antoni, V.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavazzana, R.; Bergsaaker, H.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    The complete Reynolds stress (RS) has been measured in the edge region of the Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch experiment. The RS exhibits a strong gradient in the region where a high E x B shear takes place. Experimental results show this gradient to be almost entirely due to the electrostatic contribution. This has been interpreted as experimental evidence of flow generation via turbulence mechanism. The scales involved in flow generation are deduced from the frequency decomposition of RS tensor. They are found related to magnetohydrodynamic activity but are different with respect to the scales responsible for turbulent transport

  10. Measurements of hadron yields from the T2K replica target in the NA61/SHINE experiment for neutrino flux prediction in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086777

    T2K is an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan. The main goal of the T2K experiment is a search for CP violation in the lepton sector by measuring electron (anti)neutrino appearance in a muon (anti)neutrino beam. Initial (anti)neutrino flux is produced in decays of hadrons which originate from the interactions and the re-interactions of a $30\\:$GeV proton beam with a $90\\:$cm long graphite target. Knowledge of the T2K neutrino flux is limited due to large hadron production uncertainties. A series of hadron production measurements were done to solve this problem, in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN. Measurements were performed with a proton beam and two target types: a thin graphite target and a replica of the T2K target. Work presented in this thesis concentrates on the T2K replica target data taken in 2010 and the development of the analysis and calibration software. The aim of these measurements is to fully constrain production of $\\pi^+$, $\\pi^-$, $K^+$, $K^-$ and $p$ coming from t...

  11. T2* measurement of the knee articular cartilage in osteoarthritis at 3T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbould, Rexford D.; Miller, Sam R.; Toms, Laurence D.; Swann, Peter; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Gold, Garry E.; Strachan, Robin K.; Taylor, Peter C.; Matthews, Paul M.; Brown, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls. MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy

  12. MR signal-fat-fraction analysis and T2* weighted imaging measure BAT reliably on humans without cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstila, Milja; Pesola, Marko; Saari, Teemu; Koskensalo, Kalle; Raiko, Juho; Borra, Ronald J H; Nuutila, Pirjo; Parkkola, Riitta; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is compositionally distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) in terms of triglyceride and water content. In adult humans, the most significant BAT depot is localized in the supraclavicular area. Our aim is to differentiate brown adipose tissue from white adipose tissue using fat T2* relaxation time mapping and signal-fat-fraction (SFF) analysis based on a commercially available modified 2-point-Dixon (mDixon) water-fat separation method. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can reliably measure BAT regardless of the cold-induced metabolic activation, with BAT having a significantly higher water and iron content compared to WAT. The supraclavicular area of 13 volunteers was studied on 3T PET-MRI scanner using T2* relaxation time and SFF mapping both during cold exposure and at ambient temperature; and 18 F-FDG PET during cold exposure. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined semiautomatically in the supraclavicular fat depot, subcutaneous WAT and muscle. The supraclavicular fat depot (assumed to contain BAT) had a significantly lower SFF and fat T2* relaxation time compared to subcutaneous WAT. Cold exposure did not significantly affect MR-based measurements. SFF and T2* values measured during cold exposure and at ambient temperature correlated inversely with the glucose uptake measured by 18 F-FDG PET. Human BAT can be reliably and safely assessed using MRI without cold activation and PET-related radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  14. Estimation of placenta function using T2* measurements during hyper- and normoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, David Alberg; Sørensen, Anne Nødgård; Fründ, Ernst Torben

    2012-01-01

    MR imaging is becoming widely used for pre natal diagnosis1. Conventional pre natal imaging focuses on structural changes, but recently several groups have begun to investigate changes in the MR signal during oxygen breathing. The main focus has been changes in the BOLD signal2,3 in organs such a...... such as liver, brain, lungs and heart. In this study we invenstigate the feasibility of pre- and post-oxygen T2* measurements to evaluate the function of the placenta....

  15. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, A.T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Krasnokutsky, Michael V. [Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tacoma, WA (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland [Lucas Center, Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  16. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertinsky, A.T.; Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D.; Krasnokutsky, Michael V.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland

    2009-01-01

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  17. Simultaneous Measurement of T2 and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (T2+ADC) in the Heart With Motion-Compensated Spin Echo Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Eric; Moulin, Kévin; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a technique for simultaneous quantitative T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in the heart (T2+ADC) using spin echo (SE) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Theory and Methods T2 maps from T2+ADC were compared with single-echo SE in phantoms and with T2-prepared (T2-prep) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) in healthy volunteers. ADC maps from T2+ADC were compared with conventional DWI in phantoms and in vivo. T2+ADC was also demonstrated in a patient with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Results Phantom T2 values from T2+ADC were closer to a single-echo SE reference than T2-prep bSSFP (−2.3 ± 6.0% vs 22.2 ± 16.3%; P T2 values from T2+ADC were significantly shorter than T2-prep bSSFP (35.8 ± 3.1 vs 46.8 ± 3.8 ms; P T2+ADC and conventional motion-compensated DWI (1.39 ± 0.18 vs 1.38 ± 0.18 mm2/ms; P = N.S.). In the patient, T2 and ADC were both significantly elevated in the infarct compared with remote myocardium (T2: 40.4 ± 7.6 vs 56.8 ± 22.0; P T2+ADC generated coregistered, free-breathing T2 and ADC maps in healthy volunteers and a patient with acute MI with no cost in accuracy, precision, or scan time compared with DWI. PMID:28516485

  18. Measurement of the exchange rate of waters of hydration in elastin by 2D T2-T2 correlation nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Cheng; Boutis, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    We report on a direct measurement of the exchange rate of waters of hydration in elastin by T 2 -T 2 exchange spectroscopy. The exchange rates in bovine nuchal ligament elastin and aortic elastin at temperatures near, below and at the physiological temperature are reported here. Using an inverse Laplace transform (ILT) algorithm, we are able to identify four components in the relaxation times. While three of the components are in good agreement with previous measurements that used multi-exponential fitting, the ILT algorithm distinguishes a fourth component having relaxation times close to that of free water and is identified as water between fibers. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, a model is proposed that allows for the application of a two-site exchange analysis between any two components for the determination of exchange rates between reservoirs. The results of the measurements support a model (described by Urry and Parker 2002 J. Muscle Res. Cell Motil. 23 543-59) wherein the net entropy of waters of hydration should increase with increasing temperature in the inverse temperature transition.

  19. Measurement of the Exchange Rate of Waters of Hydration in Elastin by 2D T(2)-T(2) Correlation Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Boutis, Gregory S

    2011-02-28

    We report on the direct measurement of the exchange rate of waters of hydration in elastin by T(2)-T(2) exchange spectroscopy. The exchange rates in bovine nuchal ligament elastin and aortic elastin at temperatures near, below and at the physiological temperature are reported. Using an Inverse Laplace Transform (ILT) algorithm, we are able to identify four components in the relaxation times. While three of the components are in good agreement with previous measurements that used multi-exponential fitting, the ILT algorithm distinguishes a fourth component having relaxation times close to that of free water and is identified as water between fibers. With the aid of scanning electron microscopy, a model is proposed allowing for the application of a two-site exchange analysis between any two components for the determination of exchange rates between reservoirs. The results of the measurements support a model (described elsewhere [1]) wherein the net entropy of bulk waters of hydration should increase upon increasing temperature in the inverse temperature transition.

  20. Electrostatic and magnetic measurements of turbulence and transport in Extrap T2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, A.; Sallander, E.

    1999-01-01

    Langmuir probe and magnetic pick-up coil measurements are used to study edge turbulence in the Extrap T2 reversed field pinch. Magnetic fluctuations resonant outside the toroidal field reversal surface are observed where previously only fluctuations in the spectra of potential and electron density and temperature have been measured. Results are presented which imply that these fluctuations are coupled to and also correlated to the internally resonant tearing mode fluctuations. Evidence of coupling between low-frequency (<100 kHz) and high-frequency fluctuations is also presented. The normalized floating potential fluctuations are seen to increase with the edge electron temperature. This causes an increase of the potential and density fluctuation driven transport with the temperature which is faster than linear. These results, in combination, are consistent with a picture where internally resonant fluctuations couple to edge fluctuations through radial heat conduction from the stochastic core to the edge. (author)

  1. Electrostatic and magnetic measurements of turbulence and transport in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Anders; Sallander, Eva

    1999-10-01

    Langmuir probe and magnetic pick-up coil measurements are used to study edge turbulence in the Extrap T2 reversed field pinch. Magnetic fluctuations resonant outside the toroidal field reversal surface are observed where previously only fluctuations in the spectra of potential and electron density and temperature have been measured. Results are presented which imply that these fluctuations are coupled to and also correlated to the internally resonant tearing mode fluctuations. Evidence of coupling between low-frequency (<100 kHz) and high-frequency fluctuations is also presented. The normalized floating potential fluctuations are seen to increase with the edge electron temperature. This causes an increase of the potential and density fluctuation driven transport with the temperature which is faster than linear. These results, in combination, are consistent with a picture where internally resonant fluctuations couple to edge fluctuations through radial heat conduction from the stochastic core to the edge.

  2. Peripheral nerve MRI: precision and reproducibility of T2*-derived measurements at 3.0-T. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto [University of Genoa, Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Bignotti, Bianca; Martinoli, Carlo [University of Genoa, Radiology Department, Genoa, Genova (Italy); Tagliafico, Giulio [CNR-IMATI, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Matematica Applicata e Tecnologie Informatiche, Genova (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    To prospectively evaluate the precision and reproducibility of T2*-derived measurements of the peripheral nerves. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained. Bilateral upper and lower limb MRI examination was performed in 40 healthy subjects on a 3.0-T scanner. MRI protocol included T1-turbo spin-echo, T2-turbo spin-echo with fat suppression, and multiecho gradient recalled echo. Measurements of T2* times on T2* maps at different anatomical levels were performed. Three authors measured independently and in different sessions at baseline and after 4 weeks. Non-parametric tests and Bland-Altman statistics were used. Minimum and maximum percentage variability were 10 % and 19 % for T2* (84-91 % of reproducibility). Maximum values of minimum detectable differences between limbs was 16 % (with 95 % CI: 2-37). Intra- and inter-observer agreement of the three radiologists for T2* was considered good. Evaluating the combined influence of the observer and of the repeated measurements the reproducibility was 87-98 %. T2* measurement of the peripheral nerves is precise and reproducible. The healthy contralateral side can be used as an internal control. Variations in T2* values up to 16 % have to be considered. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Quantitative Cartilage T2 Measurements and Qualitative MR Imaging between Professional Ballet Dancers and Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jang Gyu; Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Young Koo

    2015-07-01

    To compare qualitative magnetic resonance (MR) images and quantitative T2 measurements of the tibiotalar cartilage between ballerinas and healthy volunteers. Institutional review board approval for this study and informed consent (from all participants) were obtained. MR examinations were performed by using a 3-T MR imaging system with 21 professional female ballet dancers and 20 healthy female volunteers. Two musculoskeletal radiologists qualitatively measured tibiotalar cartilage T2 values in the anterior zones, middle zones, and posterior zones of cartilage. MR findings were also qualitatively analyzed in both groups. The tibial cartilage T2 values measured in the anterior and posterior zones and the talar cartilage T2 values measured in all three zones were significantly higher in the ballerina group than in the control group (P The posterior zones exhibited the highest T2 values among the three tibiotalar cartilage zones in both groups (P the presence of posterior soft-tissue edema (P = .001) and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis (P The findings showed a trend toward increasing cartilage T2 values in ballerinas when compared with control subjects, indicating that quantitative T2 measurement may potentially be used as a noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of cartilage lesions in the tibiotalar joint.

  4. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Fishbein, Mark H; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Zhang, Gang; Schoeneman, Samantha E; Donaldson, James S

    2014-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*W) and fat (T2*F) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P fat fraction, T2*W (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*F (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*W and T2*F became increasingly more similar when fat fraction was higher than 15-20%. Histological fat

  5. Quantitative MRI for hepatic fat fraction and T2* measurement in pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jie; Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Donaldson, James S. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Fishbein, Mark H. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Schoeneman, Samantha E. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. The gold standard for diagnosis is liver biopsy. MRI is a non-invasive imaging method to provide quantitative measurement of hepatic fat content. The methodology is particularly appealing for the pediatric population because of its rapidity and radiation-free imaging techniques. To develop a multi-point Dixon MRI method with multi-interference models (multi-fat-peak modeling and bi-exponential T2* correction) for accurate hepatic fat fraction (FF) and T2* measurements in pediatric patients with NAFLD. A phantom study was first performed to validate the accuracy of the MRI fat fraction measurement by comparing it with the chemical fat composition of the ex-vivo pork liver-fat homogenate. The most accurate model determined from the phantom study was used for fat fraction and T2* measurements in 52 children and young adults referred from the pediatric hepatology clinic with suspected or identified NAFLD. Separate T2* values of water (T2*{sub W}) and fat (T2*{sub F}) components derived from the bi-exponential fitting were evaluated and plotted as a function of fat fraction. In ten patients undergoing liver biopsy, we compared histological analysis of liver fat fraction with MRI fat fraction. In the phantom study the 6-point Dixon with 5-fat-peak, bi-exponential T2* modeling demonstrated the best precision and accuracy in fat fraction measurements compared with other methods. This model was further calibrated with chemical fat fraction and applied in patients, where similar patterns were observed as in the phantom study that conventional 2-point and 3-point Dixon methods underestimated fat fraction compared to the calibrated 6-point 5-fat-peak bi-exponential model (P < 0.0001). With increasing fat fraction, T2*{sub W} (27.9 ± 3.5 ms) decreased, whereas T2*{sub F} (20.3 ± 5.5 ms) increased; and T2*{sub W} and T2*{sub F} became increasingly more similar when fat

  6. Can T1 w/T2 w ratio be used as a myelin-specific measure in subcortical structures? Comparisons between FSE-based T1 w/T2 w ratios, GRASE-based T1 w/T2 w ratios and multi-echo GRASE-based myelin water fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Nasir; Figley, Teresa D; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Figley, Chase R

    2018-03-01

    Given the growing popularity of T 1 -weighted/T 2 -weighted (T 1 w/T 2 w) ratio measurements, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the concordance between T 1 w/T 2 w ratios obtained using conventional fast spin echo (FSE) versus combined gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequences for T 2 w image acquisition, and to compare the resulting T 1 w/T 2 w ratios with histologically validated myelin water fraction (MWF) measurements in several subcortical brain structures. In order to compare these measurements across a relatively wide range of myelin concentrations, whole-brain T 1 w magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE), T 2 w FSE and three-dimensional multi-echo GRASE data were acquired from 10 participants with multiple sclerosis at 3 T. Then, after high-dimensional, non-linear warping, region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed to compare T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWF estimates (across participants and brain regions) in 11 bilateral white matter (WM) and four bilateral subcortical grey matter (SGM) structures extracted from the JHU_MNI_SS 'Eve' atlas. Although the GRASE sequence systematically underestimated T 1 w/T 2 w values compared to the FSE sequence (revealed by Bland-Altman and mountain plots), linear regressions across participants and ROIs revealed consistently high correlations between the two methods (r 2 = 0.62 for all ROIs, r 2 = 0.62 for WM structures and r 2 = 0.73 for SGM structures). However, correlations between either FSE-based or GRASE-based T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWFs were extremely low in WM structures (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.000020; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.0014), low across all ROIs (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.053; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.029) and moderate in SGM structures (FSE-based, r 2 = 0.20; GRASE-based, r 2 = 0.17). Overall, our findings indicated a high degree of correlation (but not equivalence) between FSE-based and GRASE-based T 1 w/T 2 w ratios, and low correlations between T 1 w/T 2 w ratios and MWFs. This

  7. Assessing the effects of subject motion on T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) cerebral oxygenation measurements using volume navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey N; Tisdall, M Dylan; McDaniel, Patrick; Gagoski, Borjan; Bolar, Divya S; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2017-12-01

    Subject motion may cause errors in estimates of blood T 2 when using the T 2 -relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) technique on noncompliant subjects like neonates. By incorporating 3D volume navigators (vNavs) into the TRUST pulse sequence, independent measurements of motion during scanning permit evaluation of these errors. The effects of integrated vNavs on TRUST-based T 2 estimates were evaluated using simulations and in vivo subject data. Two subjects were scanned with the TRUST+vNav sequence during prescribed movements. Mean motion scores were derived from vNavs and TRUST images, along with a metric of exponential fit quality. Regression analysis was performed between T 2 estimates and mean motion scores. Also, motion scores were determined from independent neonatal scans. vNavs negligibly affected venous blood T 2 estimates and better detected subject motion than fit quality metrics. Regression analysis showed that T 2 is biased upward by 4.1 ms per 1 mm of mean motion score. During neonatal scans, mean motion scores of 0.6 to 2.0 mm were detected. Motion during TRUST causes an overestimate of T 2 , which suggests a cautious approach when comparing TRUST-based cerebral oxygenation measurements of noncompliant subjects. Magn Reson Med 78:2283-2289, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Local measurement of error field using naturally rotating tearing mode dynamics in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R. M.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P.; Fridström, R.; Volpe, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    An error field (EF) detection technique using the amplitude modulation of a naturally rotating tearing mode (TM) is developed and validated in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. The technique was used to identify intrinsic EFs of m/n  =  1/-12, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. The effect of the EF and of a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the TM, in particular on amplitude modulation, is modeled with a first-order solution of the modified Rutherford equation. In the experiment, the TM amplitude is measured as a function of the toroidal angle as the TM rotates rapidly in the presence of an unknown EF and a known, deliberately applied RMP. The RMP amplitude is fixed while the toroidal phase is varied from one discharge to the other, completing a full toroidal scan. Using three such scans with different RMP amplitudes, the EF amplitude and phase are inferred from the phases at which the TM amplitude maximizes. The estimated EF amplitude is consistent with other estimates (e.g. based on the best EF-cancelling RMP, resulting in the fastest TM rotation). A passive variant of this technique is also presented, where no RMPs are applied, and the EF phase is deduced.

  9. The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard Weidemann; Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg

    ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.06 TITLE: The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Anne Sørensen1, 2, Marianne Sinding1, David Peters3, Jens B. Frøkjær4, 2, Astrid Petersen6, Niels Uldbjerg5...... with an increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome, and new methods to predict the intertwin birth weight difference are highly clinical relevant. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) variable placentalT2* reflects placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to investigate...... the association between the intertwin placental T2* difference and the intertwin birth weight difference Methods: A total of 21 dichorionic twin pregnancies (gestational age 20.1 – 34.1 weeks) were included in this study and placental T2* was measured using a gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16...

  10. MR imaging and T2 measurements in peripheral nerve repair with activation of Toll-like receptor 4 of neurotmesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Wen, Xuehua; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate the role of MR imaging in neurotmesis combined with surgical repair and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Forty-eight rats received subepineurial microinjection of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 24) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS, n = 24) immediately after surgical repair of the transected sciatic nerve. Sequential fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and quantitative T2 measurements were obtained at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery, with histologic assessments performed at regular intervals. T2 relaxation times and histological quantification of the distal stumps were measured and compared. The distal stumps of transected nerves treated with LPS or PBS both showed persistent enlargement and hyperintense signal. T2 values of the distal stumps showed a rapid rise to peak level followed by a rapid decline pattern in nerves treated with LPS, while exhibiting a slow rise to peak value followed by a slow decline in nerves treated with PBS. Nerves treated with LPS exhibited more prominent macrophage recruitment, faster myelin debris clearance and more pronounced nerve regeneration. Nerves treated with TLR4 activation had a characteristic pattern of T2 value change over time. Longitudinal T2 measurements can be used to detect the enhanced repair effect associated with TLR4 activation in the surgical repair of neurotmesis. (orig.)

  11. Development and implementation of a novel measure for quantifying training loads in rowing: the T2minute method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    The systematic management of training requires accurate training load measurement. However, quantifying the training of elite Australian rowers is challenging because of (a) the multicenter, multistate structure of the national program; (b) the variety of training undertaken; and (c) the limitations of existing methods for quantifying the loads accumulated from varied training formats. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to develop a new measure for quantifying training loads in rowing (the T2minute method). Sport scientists and senior coaches at the National Rowing Center of Excellence collaborated to develop the measure, which incorporates training duration, intensity, and mode to quantify a single index of training load. To account for training at different intensities, the method uses standardized intensity zones (T zones) established at the Australian Institute of Sport. Each zone was assigned a weighting factor according to the curvilinear relationship between power output and blood lactate response. Each training mode was assigned a weighting factor based on whether coaches perceived it to be "harder" or "easier" than on-water rowing. A common measurement unit, the T2minute, was defined to normalize sessions in different modes to a single index of load; one T2minute is equivalent to 1 minute of on-water single scull rowing at T2 intensity (approximately 60-72% VO2max). The T2minute method was successfully implemented to support national training strategies in Australian high performance rowing. By incorporating duration, intensity, and mode, the T2minute method extends the concepts that underpin current load measures, providing 1 consistent system to quantify loads from varied training formats.

  12. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yang, Yeping [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Wang, Meng [Fudan University, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Soochow University, Division of Endocrinology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Jingjing [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Yao, Zhenwei [Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Lu, Yun [Fudan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-15

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly. (orig.)

  13. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yang, Yeping; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Jingjing; Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei; Yao, Zhenwei; Lu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly. (orig.)

  14. Predictive value of T2 relative signal intensity for response to somatostatin analogs in newly diagnosed acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Meng; Zhu, Jingjing; Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Li, Shiqi; Shou, Xuefei; Li, Yiming; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Ye, Hongying; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Yao, Zhenwei; Lu, Yun; Qiao, Nidan; Ye, Zhao; Zhang, Yichao; Yang, Yeping; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Yongfei

    2016-11-01

    The difficulty of predicting the efficacy of somatostatin analogs (SSA) is not fully resolved. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the predictive value of relative signal intensity (rSI) on T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the short-term efficacy (3 months) of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly and assessed the correlation between MRI rSI and expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR). This was a retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients (37 males and 55 females) with active acromegaly were recruited. All patients were treated with pre-surgical SSA, followed by reassessment and transspenoidal surgery. rSI values were generated by calculating the ratio of SI in the tumor to the SI of normal frontal white matter. The Youden indices were calculated to determine the optimal cutoff of rSI to determine the efficacy of SSA. The correlation between rSI and expression of SSTR2/5 was analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. T2 rSI was strongly correlated with biochemical sensitivity to SSA. The cutoff value of T2 rSI to distinguish biochemical sensitivity was 1.205, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.5 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.3 %. No correlation was found between MRI and tumor size sensitivity. Moreover, T2 rSI was negatively correlated with the expression of SSTR5. T2 rSI correlates with the expression of SSTR5 and quantitatively predicts the biochemical efficacy of SSA in acromegaly.

  15. In-vivo measurement of proton relaxation time (T1 and T2) in paediatric brain by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumura, Michio

    1986-01-01

    The clinical application of MRI led to the detailed imaging of the three-dimentional structure of the brain. Thus, significant information has been obtained with respect to the diagnosis of various diseases, rating severity, evaluation of curative effects, etc. On the other hand, the proportion of the comparative length of the relaxation time to the signal intensity of the images (especially the Spin-Echo image) was not necessarily linear. Consquently, the evaluation of severity was not easy to make. However, if we can obtain T 1 and T 2 precisely as the parameters costituting the images, it will be possible to overcome the above-mentioned difficulties. Further, the usefulness of MRI in activities such as determining the water metabolism of the brain is expected to increase even more. By means of VISTA-MR (0.15 Tesla, resistive magnet ; Picker International Co.) we measured the proton relaxation time (spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) and spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 )) of various intracerebral lesions in paediatric cases. As the control group, 43 children, 4 adolescents and 6 adults were used. The T 1 and T 2 in the normal infantile cases prolonged significantly as compared with adult case. Thereafter, they become shortened by aging. In the age of two or three years, they reach the normal level of adult case. In the cases of degenerative disease, brain tumor, and cerebral contusion, the remarkable prolongation of both T 1 and T 2 , compared with normal value of the same age was observed. In the cases of brain atrophy and epilepsy, T 1 and T 2 were slightly short or within normal value of the same age. In the cases of intracerebral hemorrhage, T 1 was shortened. The in-vivo proton relaxation time obtained by MRI have various limits, but they can be a noninvasive and useful index in evaluation of severity or curative effects in various cerebral diseases. (author)

  16. Liver Lobe Based Multi-Echo Gradient Recalled Echo T2*-Weighted Imaging in Chronic Hepatitis B-Related Cirrhosis: Association with the Presence and Child-Pugh Class of Cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate whether liver lobe based T2* values measured on gradient recalled echo T2*-weighted imaging are associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.Fifty-six patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis and 23 healthy control individuals were enrolled in this study and underwent upper abdominal T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. T2* values of the left lateral lobe (LLL, left medial lobe (LML, right lobe (RL and caudate lobe (CL were measured on T2*-weighted imaging. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the association between liver lobe based T2* values and the presence and Child-Pugh class of cirrhosis.The T2* values of the LLL, LML and RL decreased with the progression of cirrhosis from Child-Pugh class A to C (r = -0.231, -0.223, and -0.395, respectively; all P 0.05. To a certain extent, Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction for multigroup comparisons showed that the T2* values of the LLL, LML and RL could distinguish cirrhotic liver from healthy liver (all P 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the T2* value of the RL could best distinguish cirrhosis from healthy liver, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of 0.713 among T2* values of the liver lobes, and that only the T2* value of the RL could distinguish Child-Pugh class C from A-B, with an AUC of 0.697 (all P < 0.05.The T2* value of the RL can be associated with the presence and Child-Pugh class of hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.

  17. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  18. Hadron Production measurements at the NA61/SHINE experiment for the T2K Neutrino Flux Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Sgalaberna, Davide

    2015-01-01

    The largest source of uncertainty on the initial neutrino flux in modern accelerator neutrino ex- periments is the poor knowledge on the production of hadrons that decay into neutrinos. T2K is a long baseline neutrino experiment that aims to precisely measure the parameters of the PMNS ma- trix via the n m ! n e appearance and n m disappearance as well as to look for the first indication of CP violation in the leptonic sector. The required total systematic uncertainty on the neutrino flux as low as 5% can hopefully be achieved with high precision hadron production measurements, performed by the dedicated auxiliary NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS. Production of hadrons in 31 GeV/c proton interactions on carbon is measured with a thin target (4% of the nuclear interaction length) to study the primary interactions and with a T2K replica target (1.9 interaction length) to investigate re-interactions in the long target. The low statistic pilot data-set taken in 2007 was used to measure hadron multiplicities ...

  19. Measurements of T1 and T2 over time in formalin-fixed human whole-brain specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovi, M.; Ericsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    T1 and T2 were measured in 5 formalin-fixed human whole-brain specimens as a function of time. Gray matter/white matter contrast reversal was observed around the 4th day and was considered to be due to the greater decrease in T1 in gray than in white matter. A possible explanation for this is that the decomposition of the myelin phospholipid structure by formalin somewhat counteracts the general reductive effect of the fixation procedure on relaxation times. (orig.)

  20. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reduction of relative resting myocardial blood flow is related to late enhancement, T2-signal and LV wall thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available To quantify resting myocardial blood flow (MBF in the left ventricular (LV wall of HCM patients and to determine the relationship to important parameters of disease: LV wall thickness, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, T2-signal abnormalities (dark and bright signal, LV outflow tract obstruction and age.Seventy patients with proven HCM underwent cardiac MRI. Absolute and relative resting MBF were calculated from cardiac perfusion MRI by using the Fermi function model. The relationship between relative MBF and LV wall thickness, T2-signal abnormalities (T2 dark and T2 bright signal, LGE, age and LV outflow gradient as determined by echocardiography was determined using simple and multiple linear regression analysis. Categories of reduced and elevated perfusion in relation to non- or mildly affected reference segments were defined, and T2-signal characteristics and extent as well as pattern of LGE were examined. Statistical testing included linear and logistic regression analysis, unpaired t-test, odds ratios, and Fisher's exact test.804 segments in 70 patients were included in the analysis. In a simple linear regression model LV wall thickness (p<0.001, extent of LGE (p<0.001, presence of edema, defined as focal T2 bright signal (p<0.001, T2 dark signal (p<0.001 and age (p = 0.032 correlated inversely with relative resting MBF. The LV outflow gradient did not show any effect on resting perfusion (p = 0.901. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LGE (p<0.001, edema (p = 0.026 and T2 dark signal (p = 0.019 were independent predictors of relative resting MBF. Segments with reduced resting perfusion demonstrated different LGE patterns compared to segments with elevated resting perfusion.In HCM resting MBF is significantly reduced depending on LV wall thickness, extent of LGE, focal T2 signal abnormalities and age. Furthermore, different patterns of perfusion in HCM patients have been defined, which may represent different stages of

  1. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-09-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  2. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-01-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4x10 10 cm -3 for a central electron density of 1x10 13 cm -3 . Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20 m 2 s -1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ∼2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge

  3. Changes in foetal liver T2* measurements by MRI in response to maternal oxygen breathing: application to diagnosing foetal growth restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, David M; Semple, Scott IK; Gilbert, Fiona J; Redpath, Thomas W; Ross, John AS; McVicar, Alexandra; Haggarty, Paul; Abramovich, David R; Smith, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The motivation of the project was to investigate the use of oxygen-challenge magnetic resonance imaging (OC-MRI) as a method of diagnosing foetal growth restriction. Foetal growth restriction is associated with restricted foetal oxygen supply and is also associated with increased risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity, and a number of serious and chronic health problems. Measurements of T2* relaxation time, an MRI parameter which increases with blood oxygenation, were made in the right lobe of the foetal liver in 80 singleton pregnancies, before and after the mother breathed oxygen. The groups consisted of 41 foetuses with normal growth and 39 with apparent growth restriction. The mean ± SD gestational age at scanning was 35 ± 3 weeks. Changes in foetal liver T2* on maternal oxygen breathing showed no significant difference between the groups therefore the OC-MRI protocol used in this study has no value in the diagnosis of foetal growth restriction. A secondary finding was that a significant positive correlation of T2* change with gestational age was observed. Future studies on the use of oxygen-challenge MRI to investigate foetal growth restriction may therefore need to control for gestational age at the time of MR scanning in order to observe any underlying foetal growth-related effects

  4. Measurements of the vacuum-plasma response in EXTRAP T2R using generic closed-loop subspace system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J., E-mail: erik.olofsson@ee.kth.se [School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Brunsell, Per R.; Drake, James R. [School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unstable plasma response safely measured using special signal processing techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction-capable MIMO models obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computational statistics employed to show physical content of these models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multifold cross-validation applied for the supervised learning problem. - Abstract: A multibatch formulation of a multi-input multi-output closed-loop subspace system identification method is employed for the purpose of obtaining control-relevant models of the vacuum-plasma response in the magnetic confinement fusion experiment EXTRAP T2R. The accuracy of the estimate of the plant dynamics is estimated by computing bootstrap replication statistics of the dataset. It is seen that the thus identified models exhibit both predictive capabilities and physical spectral properties.

  5. Refining prognostic stratification of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: different prognosis between T1 and T2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Min; Lee, Sang Wook; Park, Sun Min [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    To validate the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and investigate whether a modified classification better reflects the prognosis. Medical records of patients diagnosed with non-metastatic HPV-related OPSCC between 2010 and 2016 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. HPV status was determined by immunohistochemical analysis of p16 and/or HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We reclassified TNM stage T0-1 and N0-1 as group A, T2-3 or N2 as B, and T4 or N3 as C. Survival analysis according to 8th AJCC/UICC TNM staging and the modified classification was performed. Of 383 OPSCC patients, 211 were positive for HPV DNA PCR or p16. After exclusion, 184 patients were included in this analysis. Median age was 56 years (range, 31 to 81 years). Most primary tumors were in the palatine tonsil (148 tumors, 80%). The eighth AJCC/UICC TNM classification could not differentiate between stage I and II (p = 0.470) or II and III (p = 0.209). Applying modified grouping, the 3-year overall survival rate of group A was significantly higher than that of group B and C (98% vs. 91%, p = 0.039 and 98% vs. 78%, p < 0.001, respectively). Differentiation between group B and C was marginally significant (p = 0.053). The 8th AJCC/UICC TNM staging system did not clearly distinguish the prognosis of stage II from that of other stages. Including the T2N0-1 group in stage II may improve prognostic stratification.

  6. T1ρ and T2 mapping of the proximal tibiofibular joint in relation to aging and cartilage degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Jun; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Eiichi; Oniki, Yasunari; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of aging and cartilage degeneration of the proximal tibiofibular- and femorotibial joint (PTFJ, FTJ) on the cartilage of the PTFJ using T 1 ρ and T 2 mapping. Materials and methods: We performed sagittal T 1 ρ and T 2 mapping of the PTFJ and FTJ on 55 subjects with knee disorders. We placed 3 regions of interest (ROIs) on images of the cartilage in the PTFJ, medial femoral condyle (MFC), and medial tibia plateau (MTP). Correlation analysis was performed for the T 1 ρ and T 2 values of each ROI and the patient age and the osteoarthritic grade of the PTFJ and FTJ. Results: The T 1 ρ and T 2 values of the PTFJ were affected neither by aging nor the osteoarthritic grade of the FTJ. Values of the FTJ normalized to PTFJ values were correlated with the osteoarthritic grade of the FTJ in the MFC (r = 0.851 and 0.779, respectively) and the MTP (r = 0.635 and 0.762, respectively). There was a significant difference in the T 1 ρ but not the T 2 value of the PTFJ and MFC between normal and mildly osteoarthritic cartilage of each joint. Conclusion: We document that the T 1 ρ and T 2 values of PTFJ cartilage were not affected by aging or cartilage degeneration in the FTJ. The T 1 ρ value of the PTFJ may represent a useful internal standard reference for evaluating early degeneration of the FTJ

  7. Meniscal T1rho and T2 measured with 3.0T MRI increases directly after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehling, Christoph [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Luke, Anthony [University of California, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Stahl, Robert [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Baum, Thomas; Joseph, Gabby; Pan, Judong; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2011-06-15

    To prospectively evaluate changes in T1rho and T2 relaxation time in the meniscus using 3.0 T MRI in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners and to compare these findings with those of age-matched healthy subjects. Thirteen marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI including T1rho and T2 mapping sequences before, 48-72 h after, and 3 months after competition. Ten controls were examined at baseline and after 3 months. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous. and other knee abnormalities with WORMS scores. Meniscal segmentation was performed to generate T1rho and T2 maps in six compartments. No differences in morphological knee abnormalities were found before and after the marathon. However, all marathon runners showed a significant increase in T1rho and T2 values after competition in all meniscus compartments (p < 0.0001), which may indicate changes in the biochemical composition of meniscal tissue. While T2 values decreased after 3 months T1rho values remained at a high level, indicating persisting changes in the meniscal matrix composition after a marathon. T2 values in menisci have the potential to be used as biomarkers for identifying reversible meniscus matrix changes indicating potential tissue damage. T1rho values need further study, but may be a valuable marker for diagnosing early, degenerative changes in the menisci following exercise. (orig.)

  8. Constraining neutrino flux predictions with hadron production data: the NA61/SHINE measurements for the T2K experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    From hypothetical particles in the 30s, neutrinos have turned into the first hint for new physics beyond the Standard Model in the late 90s. The observation of a new phenomenon, referred to as neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino of a given flavor transforms into a neutrino of another flavor after traveling over a sufficiently long distance, actually revealed properties of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model that were not described so far: neutrinos have mass, leptons mix, and consequently, there might be CP violation in the leptonic sector. The T2K experiment at Tokai, Japan, will allow us to probe neutrino oscillations with an unprecedented precision on the oscillation parameters in the three-neutrino model. The experiment is designed to perform a precise measurement of the numb to nue oscillation driven by the atmospheric mass squared splitting |∆ m^2_{23}| and the so far unknown mixing angle theta_{13}. To achieve a sensitivity down to sin^2(2 theta_{13})=0.006 at 90% CL and a precision of ...

  9. Identification of the primary motor cortex: value of T2 echo-planar imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient measurement at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Alp; Erzen, Canan; Oezyurt, Onur; Pamir, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the primary motor cortex (PMC) concerning T2 shortening on T2 echo-planar imaging (EPI-T2) and the double-layer sign on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and also to measure its apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). 3-T MR DWI was performed in 134 adult volunteers and 64 patients. T2 shortening was graded as hypointense or isointense compared with the signal of the superior frontal cortex (SFC). The double-layer sign of the PMC was graded as present or absent. Both findings (T2 shortening and double-layer sign) were evaluated independently by two authors. ADC of the PMC and the SFC were calculated using manually selected ROIs. T2 shortening was found in 131 adults and 62 patients by author 1 and in 132 adults and 61 patients by author 2 (κ = 0.96 and 0.91). The double-layer sign was found in 131 adults and 61 patients by author 1 and in 127 adults and 58 patients by author 2 (κ = 0.94 and 0.91). ADC values of the PMC and the SFC were different for all subjects (p < 0.01). T2 shortening and/or the double-layer sign on 3-T MR can be used to locate the PMC. The difference in ADC values between PMC and SFC is a distinguishing feature. (orig.)

  10. T2K off-axis near detector νμ flux measurement and absolute momentum scale calibration of the off-axis near detector tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszczyk, F.

    2011-09-01

    In this thesis we present the results from the ν μ energy spectrum measurement at T2K's near detector and T2K's near detector tracker absolute momentum scale calibration. First we review the main historical steps and the current state of the art of neutrino physics as well as the theoretical framework required to understand the thesis physics analyses presented later on. In particular we focus on the neutrino oscillation parametrization and the neutrino-matter interaction models. We then describe T2K, an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan which consists of a muon neutrino beam sent from J-PARC to Super- Kamiokande, with a magnetized near detector located at 280 m from the neutrino production site. T2K's main goals are measuring the last unknown angle of the PMNS matrix θ 13 through the search of ν e appearance in the ν μ beam and measuring precisely the atmospheric parameters through muon neutrino disappearance. We briefly describe the detectors, in particular the near detector tracker and its performance. We then present the analyses tools, such as the reconstruction techniques used and how the neutrino charged current interaction events needed for the energy spectrum measurement are selected. The main goal of the thesis, the muon neutrino energy spectrum measurement done with the first T2K data is explained next. We give the motivations for such measurement, the results obtained with the first T2K data sample, and the different systematic errors studied. Finally, the absolute momentum scale calibration of T2K's near detector tractor, done through the reconstruction of the neutral kaon invariant mass, is explained. (author)

  11. Selection and Evaluation of Indexes Commonly Used to Determine Contamination with T-2 Toxin in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by the Grey Relational Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengli; Wang, Yaling; Dai, Zhe; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Defeng; Liu, Ying; Ye, Riying; Gooneratne, Ravi; Bi, Siyuan

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin in feed on muscle performance in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, evaluate indexes of physiological variables that indicate T-2 toxin contamination in the shrimp using the grey relational method, and determine the dose-response relationships between T-2 toxin and the indexes. Of the 6 physical, 7 biochemical, and 17 nutritional indexes examined, the values of the grey relational coefficients were highest for the hepatopancreas: body weight ratio (HBR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, and serine (SER) content (0.83, 0.68, and 0.82, respectively). Therefore, the HBR, ALT activity, and SER content were selected as appropriate indexes for contamination of Pacific white shrimp muscle with T-2 toxin. Based on their dose-response relationship curves, mean effective doses of 1.45, 1.69, and 1.33 mg of T-2 toxin/kg of feed were obtained for the HBR, ALT activity, and SER content, respectively. These results offer technical reference points for the evaluation and control of T-2 toxin in shrimp feed. Received April 28, 2016; accepted April 9, 2017.

  12. Agreement between manual relaxometry and semi-automated scanner-based multi-echo Dixon technique for measuring liver T2* in a pediatric and young adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Trout, Andrew T.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.

    2018-01-01

    Commercially available 3D multi-echo Dixon (mDixon) sequences provide parametric maps of liver T2*, obviating manual curve fitting that is often required with conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE)-based multi-echo relaxometry, potentially simplifying clinical work flow. The purpose of our study was to compare T2* values generated by a 3D mDixon sequence to values generated by GRE-based T2* relaxometry with manual curve fitting in a pediatric and young adult population. We reviewed clinical MRI exams performed at 1.5T for liver iron content estimation between February 2015 and June 2016 that included both mDixon and multi-echo GRE pulse sequences. We obtained mean T2* measurements based on each sequence by drawing regions of interest on each of four axial slices through the mid-liver. We compared mDixon-based and GRE-based T2* measurements using paired t-tests and assessed agreement using single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman difference plots. One hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria (site 1=82; site 2=27). Mean age was 12.4±5.8 years, and 42 subjects (39%) were female. There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2* values for the two sequences (pooled means: 11.7±11.0 [GRE] vs. 11.7±10.9 ms [mDixon]; P=0.93). There was excellent absolute agreement between sequences (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.98 for patients at both sites, confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-0.98 with mean bias of 0.0 ms [-4.2 ms to +4.2 ms]). 3D mDixon is accurate for measuring liver T2* and can likely replace 2D GRE-based relaxometry. (orig.)

  13. Agreement between manual relaxometry and semi-automated scanner-based multi-echo Dixon technique for measuring liver T2* in a pediatric and young adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Trout, Andrew T.; Dillman, Jonathan R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Smith, Ethan A. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Commercially available 3D multi-echo Dixon (mDixon) sequences provide parametric maps of liver T2*, obviating manual curve fitting that is often required with conventional gradient recalled echo (GRE)-based multi-echo relaxometry, potentially simplifying clinical work flow. The purpose of our study was to compare T2* values generated by a 3D mDixon sequence to values generated by GRE-based T2* relaxometry with manual curve fitting in a pediatric and young adult population. We reviewed clinical MRI exams performed at 1.5T for liver iron content estimation between February 2015 and June 2016 that included both mDixon and multi-echo GRE pulse sequences. We obtained mean T2* measurements based on each sequence by drawing regions of interest on each of four axial slices through the mid-liver. We compared mDixon-based and GRE-based T2* measurements using paired t-tests and assessed agreement using single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman difference plots. One hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria (site 1=82; site 2=27). Mean age was 12.4±5.8 years, and 42 subjects (39%) were female. There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2* values for the two sequences (pooled means: 11.7±11.0 [GRE] vs. 11.7±10.9 ms [mDixon]; P=0.93). There was excellent absolute agreement between sequences (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.98 for patients at both sites, confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-0.98 with mean bias of 0.0 ms [-4.2 ms to +4.2 ms]). 3D mDixon is accurate for measuring liver T2* and can likely replace 2D GRE-based relaxometry. (orig.)

  14. The Correlation of Cardiac and Hepatic Hemosiderosis as Measured by T2*MRI Technique with Ferritin Levels and Hemochromatosis Gene Mutations in Iranian Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soleiman Soltanpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Organ-specific hemosiderosis and iron overload complications are more serious and more frequent in some patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM compared with others. We investigated whether coinheritance of HFE H63D or C282Y gene mutations in patients with BTM contributes to the phenotypic variation of iron overload complications and assessed the correlation of cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis with plasma ferritin levels. Methods: We studied 60 patients with BTM with a mean age of 17.5±9.1 years from the Northwest of Iran. HFE gene mutations were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Cardiac and hepatic hemosiderosis was assessed using T2*magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ferritin levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Ferritin levels showed a strong inverse correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values (r = -0.631, p = 0.001 but a poor correlation with cardiac T2*MRI values (r = -0.297, p = 0.044. The correlation between cardiac T2*MRI values and hepatic T2*MRI values was poor and insignificant (r = 0.287, p = 0.058. Genotype and allele distribution of HFE H63D and C282Y mutation did not differ significantly between patients with and without hepatic or cardiac hemosiderosis (p > 0.050. However, carriers of HFE 63D allele had significantly higher ferritin levels compared with non-carriers (1 903±993 vs. 992±683, p < 0.001. Conclusions: Cardiac T2*MRI values showed a poor correlation with hepatic T2*MRI values and ferritin levels. Accurate assessment of cardiac iron overload in patients with BTM can only be done using the T2*MRI technique. Additionally, HFE H63D is a significant determinant factor for elevated ferritin levels in BTM patients.

  15. Simultaneous acquisition for T2 -T2 Exchange and T1 -T2 correlation NMR experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrazi, Elton T.; Lucas-Oliveira, Everton; Araujo-Ferreira, Arthur G.; Barsi-Andreeta, Mariane; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2018-04-01

    The NMR measurements of longitudinal and transverse relaxation times and its multidimensional correlations provide useful information about molecular dynamics. However, these experiments are very time-consuming, and many researchers proposed faster experiments to reduce this issue. This paper presents a new way to simultaneously perform T2 -T2 Exchange and T1 -T2 correlation experiments by taking the advantage of the storage time and the two steps phase cycling used for running the relaxation exchange experiment. The data corresponding to each step is either summed or subtracted to produce the T2 -T2 and T1 -T2 data, enhancing the information obtained while maintaining the experiment duration. Comparing the results from this technique with traditional NMR experiments it was possible to validate the method.

  16. Myocardial area at risk after ST-elevation myocardial infarction measured with the late gadolinium enhancement after scar remodeling and T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the myocardial area at risk (AAR) measured by the endocardial surface area (ESA) method on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) when applied after scar remodeling (3 months after index infarction) compared to T2-weighted CMR imaging. One hundred...... and sixty nine patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, underwent one CMR within 1 week after index treatment to determine the AAR with T2-weighted imaging and a second scan 3 months after to measure AAR with the ESA method...

  17. Myocardial area at risk after ST-elevation myocardial infarction measured with the late gadolinium enhancement after scar remodeling and T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Engstrøm, Thomas; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the myocardial area at risk (AAR) measured by the endocardial surface area (ESA) method on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) when applied after scar remodeling (3 months after index infarction) compared to T2-weighted CMR imaging. One hundred...... and sixty nine patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, underwent one CMR within 1 week after index treatment to determine the AAR with T2-weighted imaging and a second scan 3 months after to measure AAR with the ESA method...

  18. Validation of the AMSU-B Bias Corrections Based on Satellite Measurements from SSM/T-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodner, Marc A.

    1999-01-01

    The NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B) was designed in the same spirit as the Special Sensor Microwave Water Vapor Profiler (SSM/T-2) on board the DMSP F11-14 satellites, to perform remote sensing of spatial and temporal variations in mid and upper troposphere humidity. While the SSM/T-2 instruments have a 48 km spatial resolution at nadir and 28 beam positions per scan, AMSU-B provides an improvement with a 16 km spatial resolution at nadir and 90 beam positions per scan. The AMSU-B instrument, though, has been experiencing radio frequency interference (RFI) contamination from the NOAA-15 transmitters whose effect is dependent upon channel, geographic location, and current spacecraft antenna configuration. This has lead to large cross-track biases reaching as high as 100 Kelvin for channel 17 (150 GHz) and 50 Kelvin for channel 19 (183 +/-3 GHz). NOAA-NESDIS has recently provided a series of bias corrections for AMSU-B data starting from March, 1999. These corrections are available for each of the five channels, for every third field of view, and for three cycles within an eight second period. There is also a quality indicator in each data record to indicate whether or not the bias corrections should be applied. As a precursor to performing retrievals of mid and upper troposphere humidity, a validation study is performed by statistically analyzing the differences between the F14 SSM/T-2 and the bias corrected AMSU-B brightness temperatures for three months in the spring of 1999.

  19. Effect of magnetic boundary on edge plasma profiles studied using probe measurements in EXTRAP T2R

    OpenAIRE

    Moustaphawi, Hawra

    2012-01-01

    In this Master’s thesis project, several experiments are conducted under three different conditions in order to study their effect on the edge plasma profiles. In the first case, the standard case, there is no external interference and the plasma is studied under normal lab environments. In the second case, the plasma position inside the EXTRAP T2R device is changed by a few millimeters and in the third case a magnetic boundary is inserted into the experiment. For each set of the experiment, ...

  20. Evaluation of radiation-induced peripheral nerve injury in rabbits with MR neurography using diffusion tensor imaging and T2 measurements: Correlation with histological and functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Wang, Shiyang; Zhou, Jiaxuan; Zou, Qiao; Deng, Yingshi; Wang, Shouyang; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Xinchun

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and T2 measurements in the evaluation of radiation-induced peripheral nerve injury (RIPNI). RIPNI was produced in a randomly selected side of sciatic nerve in each of 21 rabbits while the contralateral side served as the control. The limb function and MR parameters were evaluated over a 4-month period. Fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (λ∥ ), radial diffusivity (λ⊥ ) and T2 values were obtained using 3T MR for quantitative analysis. Two animals were randomly killed for histological evaluation at each timepoint. The T2 value of irradiated nerve increased at 1 day (63.95 ± 15.60, P = 0.012) and was restored at 1 month (52.34 ± 5.38, P = 0.105). It increased progressively at 2 to 4 months (60.39 ± 10.60, 66.96 ± 6.08, 75.51 ± 7.39, all P evaluate RIPNI compared with T2 measurements. FA and λ⊥ are promising quantitative indices in monitoring RIPNI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1492-1499. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Topographical Variation of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage Thickness, T1rho and T2 Relaxation Times Is Related to Local Loading during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossom, Sam; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Assche, Dieter; Jonkers, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated. Design MR images were acquired in 14 healthy adults and cartilage thickness and T1rho and T2 relaxation times were determined. Experimental gait data was collected and processed using musculoskeletal modeling to identify weight-bearing zones and estimate the contact force impulse during gait. Variation of the cartilage properties (i.e., thickness, T1rho, and T2) over the femoral cartilage was analyzed and compared between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing zone of the medial and lateral condyle as well as the trochlea. Results Medial condyle cartilage thickness was correlated to the contact force impulse ( r = 0.78). Lower T1rho, indicating increased proteoglycan content, was found in the medial weight-bearing zone. T2 was higher in all weight-bearing zones compared with the non-weight-bearing zones, indicating lower relative collagen content. Conclusions The current results suggest that medial condyle cartilage is adapted as a long-term protective response to localized loading during a frequently performed task and that the weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle has superior weight bearing capacities compared with the non-weight-bearing zones.

  2. Development of a Rabbit Model of Radiation-Induced Sciatic Nerve Injury: In Vivo Evaluation Using T2 Relaxation Time Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Zeng, Qian; Li, Xinchun; Sun, Chongpeng; Zhou, Jiaxuan; Zou, Qiao; Deng, Yingshi; Niu, Daoli

    2015-01-01

    To develop a rabbit model of radiation-induced sciatic nerve injury (RISNI), using computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic radiosurgery, and assess the value of T2 measurements of injured nerves. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into A (n = 5) and B (n = 15) groups. Group A rabbits underwent CT and magnetic resonance scan and were then killed for comparison of images and anatomy of sciatic nerves. One side of the sciatic nerve of group B rabbits received irradiation doses of 35, 50, or 70 Gy (n = 5 per group). Magnetic resonance imaging and functional assessments were performed before irradiation and 1, 2, 3, and 4 months thereafter. The thigh section of the sciatic nerve outside the pelvis could be observed by CT and magnetic resonance imaging. T2 values of the irradiated nerve of the 35-Gy group increased gradually, peaking at 4 months; T2 values of the 50-Gy group increased faster, peaking at 3 months. Significant differences between the 35-Gy and control groups were found at 3 and 4 months, and between the 50-Gy and control groups at 2, 3, and 4 months. Functional scores of the 50-Gy group declined progressively, whereas the 35-Gy group scores reached a low point at 3 months posttreatment and then recovered. Functional scores of the irradiated limbs demonstrated a negative correlation with T2 values (r = -0.591 and -0.595, P T2 values are useful for monitoring RISNI, they may not be sensitive enough to evaluate its severity.

  3. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Single Pion Production Cross Section on Water with the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2017-01-26

    The T2K off-axis near detector, ND280, is used to make the first differential cross section measurements of muon neutrino charged current single positive pion production on a water target at energies ${\\sim}0.8$~GeV. The differential measurements are presented as a function of muon and pion kinematics, in the restricted phase-space defined by $p_{\\pi^+}>200$MeV/c, $p_{\\mu^-}>200$MeV/c, $\\cos \\theta_{\\pi^+}>0.3$ and $\\cos \\theta_{\\mu^-}>0.3$. The total flux integrated $\

  4. Microwave Amplitude Modulation Technique to Measure Spin-Lattice (T 1) and Spin-Spin (T 2) Relaxation Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K.

    The measurement of very short spin-lattice, or longitudinal, relaxation (SLR) times (i.e., 10-10 Misra, 1998), and polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions (Pescia et al., 1999a; Pescia et al. 1999b). The ability to measure such fast SLR data on amorphous Si and copper-chromium-tin spinel led to an understanding of the role of exchange interaction in affecting spin-lattice relaxation, while the data on polymer resins doped with rare-earth ions provided evidence of spin-fracton relaxation (Pescia et al., 1999a, b). But such fast SLR times are not measurable by the most commonly used techniques of saturation- and inversion-recovery (Poole, 1982; Alger, 1968), which only measure spin-lattice relaxation times longer than 10-6 s. A summary of relevant experimental data is presented in Table 1.

  5. Lactate and T2 measurements of synovial aspirates at 1.5 T: differentiation of septic from non-septic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, Edzard; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to differentiate septic from non-septic arthritis by measuring lactate concentration with 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) and by estimating total protein content with the assessment of T 2 values. In 30 patients with acute arthritis, synovial fluid was aspirated. Lactate concentrations were analyzed with single voxel HMRS at 1.5 T. T 2 relaxation times were mapped with a multi-spin echo sequence. All samples underwent microbiological testing and routine laboratory analysis to quantify lactate concentration and total protein content. Values obtained in septic and non-septic arthritis were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. Synovial fluid from patients with septic arthritis (n=10) had higher concentrations of lactate (11.4 ± 4.0 mmol/L) and higher total protein content (51.8 ± 10.7 g/L) than fluid obtained in non-septic arthritis (n=20; 5.2±1.1 mmol/L and 40.4±6.9 g/L, respectively, p 2 relaxation times (as an indicator of total protein content) were moderately correlated to laboratory-confirmed lactate concentration (r 2 =0.71) and total protein content (r 2 =0.73). Markedly increased lactate concentrations (>6 mmol/L) in combination with low T 2 values ( 2 may be of value in the differentiation of septic from non-septic arthritis. (orig.)

  6. Measurements of Hadronic Cross Section for Precise Determination of Neutrino Beam Properties in T2K Oscillation Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Posiadała, Magdalena Zofia

    Differential cross sections and mean multiplicities in production processes for low momentum charged pion mesons and protons in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c measured with the large acceptance NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS are presented. A set of data col- lected during the first NA61/SHINE run in 2007 with a thin graphite target was used for the analysis. The results are presented as a function of laboratory momentum in 10 intervals of the laboratory polar angle covering the range from 0 up to 420 mrad. The spectra are compared with predictions of several hadron production models. Measurements for + and

  7. Cross section measurement for the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction at 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 MeV. II. Experimental setup and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhimin; Bai, Huaiyong; Zhang, Luyu; Jiang, Haoyu; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Guohui; Gledenov, Yu. M.; Sedysheva, M. V.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.

    2017-10-01

    Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) three-body reaction were measured at En=4.0 , 4.5, and 5.0 MeV using a twin gridded ionization chamber and a thin-film 10B sample. The present paper is the second part of the work. A digital data-acquisition system was developed for the gridded ionization chamber based on the waveform digitizer. A thin-film 10B sample was designed and prepared. The number of 10B atoms in the sample was determined by the relative method using the thermal neutron induced 10B(nt h,α )7Li and 6Li(nt h,t )4He reactions with a 6LiF sample as the reference. The measurement of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) reaction was performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. In the measurement, the double-coincidence technique was used, which involves the forward-backward and the grid-anode coincidence. In the data processing, the effective event area in the forward two-dimensional spectrum and the time window in the drift-time spectrum were employed to reject the background events. Cross sections of the 10B(n ,t 2 α ) and 10B(n ,α )7Li reactions were obtained. The present results are compared with the data of existing measurements and evaluations.

  8. Measurement of the Water to Scintillator Charged-Current Cross-Section Ratio for Muon Neutrinos at the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083872

    2017-10-02

    The T2K experiment is a 295-km long-baseline neutrino experiment which aims at the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters. Precise measurements of these parameters require accurate extrapolation of interaction rates from the near detector, ND280, mainly made of scintillator (hydrocarbon), to Super-Kamiokande, the water Cherenkov far detector. Measurements on water and of the water to hydrocarbon ratio, contribute to eliminate the uncertainties arising from carbon/oxygen differences. The cross section on water is obtained by subtraction of event distributions in two almost identical sub-detectors, one of which is equipped with water-filled modules. The measurement is performed by selecting a muon neutrino charged-current sample, in an exposure of 5.80 × 10^(20) protons on target. The water to hydrocarbon cross-section ratio is extracted for good acceptance kinematic regions (only forward muons with momentum higher than 100 MeV), in bins of reconstructed energy, the very quantity used in T2K oscillatio...

  9. Quantification of hepatic macrosteatosis in living, related liver donors using T1-independent, T2*-corrected chemical shift MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Eugene; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Kyung Bun; Kim, Soo Jin; Baek, Jee Hyun; Shin, Cheong Il; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam Joon; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic implications of the iterative decomposition of water and fat using echo-asymmetry and the least-squares estimation (IDEAL) technique to detect hepatic steatosis (HS) in potential liver donors using histopathology as the reference standard. Forty-nine potential liver donors (32 male, 17 female; mean age, 31.7 years) were included. All patients were imaged using the in- and out-of-phase (IOP) gradient-echo (GRE) and IDEAL techniques on a 1.5 T MR scanner. To estimate the hepatic fat fraction (FF), two reviewers performed regions-of-interest measurement in 15 areas of the liver seen on the IOP images and on the IDEAL-FF images. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathology values of macrosteatosis were correlated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. We analyzed the diagnostic performance of IOP imaging and IDEAL for detecting HS. The results of the hepatic-FF estimated on IDEAL were well correlated with the histologic degree of macrosteatosis (γ = 0.902, P imaging showed 87.5% sensitivity and 97% specificity, respectively. IDEAL is a useful tool for the preoperative diagnosis of HS in potential living liver donors; it can also help to avoid unnecessary biopsies in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  11. Conservatively treated knee injury is associated with knee cartilage matrix degeneration measured with MRI-based T2 relaxation times. Data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix C. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Neumann, Jan; Heilmeier, Ursula; Joseph, Gabby B.; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the association of cartilage degeneration with previous knee injuries not undergoing surgery, determined by morphologic and quantitative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a nested cross-sectional study of right knee MRIs from participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) aged 45-79 with baseline Kellgren-Lawrence score of 0-2. Cases were 142 right knees of patients with self-reported history of injury limiting the ability to walk for at least 2 days. Controls were 426 right knees without history of injury, frequency-matched to cases on age, BMI, gender, KL scores and race (1:3 ratio). Cases and controls were compared using covariate-adjusted linear regression analysis, with the outcomes of region-specific T2 mean, laminar analysis and heterogeneity measured by texture analysis to investigate early cartilage matrix abnormalities and the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) to investigate morphologic knee lesions. Compared to control subjects, we found significantly higher mean T2 values in the injury [lateral tibia (28.10 ms vs. 29.11 ms, p = 0.001), medial tibia (29.70 ms vs. 30.40 ms, p = 0.014) and global knee cartilage (32.73 ms vs. 33.29 ms, p = 0.005)]. Injury subjects also had more heterogeneous cartilage as measured by GLCM texture contrast, variance and entropy (p < 0.05 in 14 out of 18 texture parameters). WORMS gradings were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). A history of knee injury not treated surgically is associated with higher and more heterogeneous T2 values, but not with morphologic knee abnormalities. Our findings suggest that significant, conservatively treated knee injuries are associated with permanent cartilage matrix abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. Conservatively treated knee injury is associated with knee cartilage matrix degeneration measured with MRI-based T2 relaxation times. Data from the osteoarthritis initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Felix C.; Neumann, Jan; Heilmeier, Ursula; Joseph, Gabby B.; Link, Thomas M.; Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association of cartilage degeneration with previous knee injuries not undergoing surgery, determined by morphologic and quantitative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We performed a nested cross-sectional study of right knee MRIs from participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) aged 45-79 with baseline Kellgren-Lawrence score of 0-2. Cases were 142 right knees of patients with self-reported history of injury limiting the ability to walk for at least 2 days. Controls were 426 right knees without history of injury, frequency-matched to cases on age, BMI, gender, KL scores and race (1:3 ratio). Cases and controls were compared using covariate-adjusted linear regression analysis, with the outcomes of region-specific T2 mean, laminar analysis and heterogeneity measured by texture analysis to investigate early cartilage matrix abnormalities and the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS) to investigate morphologic knee lesions. Compared to control subjects, we found significantly higher mean T2 values in the injury [lateral tibia (28.10 ms vs. 29.11 ms, p = 0.001), medial tibia (29.70 ms vs. 30.40 ms, p = 0.014) and global knee cartilage (32.73 ms vs. 33.29 ms, p = 0.005)]. Injury subjects also had more heterogeneous cartilage as measured by GLCM texture contrast, variance and entropy (p < 0.05 in 14 out of 18 texture parameters). WORMS gradings were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). A history of knee injury not treated surgically is associated with higher and more heterogeneous T2 values, but not with morphologic knee abnormalities. Our findings suggest that significant, conservatively treated knee injuries are associated with permanent cartilage matrix abnormalities. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative t2 values predict time from symptom onset in acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemonsen, Susanne; Mouridsen, Kim; Holst, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that in comparison to diffusion-weighted imaging, quantitative T2 values (qT2) are more directly related to water uptake in ischemic tissue, depending on time from symptom onset. We measured the increase of qT2 in the infarct core to quantify the correlation...

  14. Evaluation of clinical state of patients with acute leukemia, multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma by means of in vitro T1 and T2 measurements in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M.; Urbaniak-Kujda, D.; Burczak, K.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic relaxation times T1 and T2 in vitro study has been performed in the human sera of patients with haematological malignant diseases to monitor their clinical state. Two hundred studies were performed in 20 healthy volunteers and in 180 patients with different malignancies, mostly: acute leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, multiple myeloma. Determinations were performed in active phase of disease and in remission. Measurements were carried out on spectrometer Minispect PC 20B (Bruker; 20 MHz) in 27 C. Additionally, serum proteins of all patients were examined, including total protein content, serum electrophoresis and measurement of Ig classes. Remarkable increase of T1 values in active phase of the disease was found (compared to healthy volunteers) in all malignancies, except multiple myeloma. It was associated with the severeness of the illness, not with diagnose. During remission T1 values did not differ significantly from those of healthy persons. All sera of patients with multiple myeloma in active phase of the disease showed strongly reduced values of T1, associated with the high level of pathological proteins. In 45 patients the measurements were repeated up to 4 times before and during chemotherapy. During treatment resulting in remission, mean T1 values progressively decreased (from 1560 ms to 1394 ms) except of those patients with multiple myeloma. In persons non-responding to therapy these mean values were prolonged (from 1474 ms to 1620 ms) during therapy. In patients with multiple myeloma we noted the reverse changes of mean T1 values in comparison with other malignancies: those responding to the treatment revealed prolonged T1 (from 1165 to 1303 ms) while in those non-responding were decreased (from 1184 ms to 1158 ms). Statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the T1 and total protein content, percentage of gamma-globulin, especially of IgG class. Moreover, a remarkable positive correlation of T1

  15. Evaluation of iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system using T2-relaxation rate of MRI. Relation with serum ferritin and Fe concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Kae; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging is a useful non-invasive technique to detect iron deposits in many organs, but it is difficult to evaluate quantitatively. This study was performed to determine the possibility whether T2 relaxation rate (1/T2) could quantify iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen and bone marrow) of 11 patients and four normal volunteers. A moderate correlation was obtained between T2-relaxation rate and the serum ferritin level. These results suggest that T2-relaxation rate may provide useful information for the repeated quantitative evaluation of patients with iron-overload-syndromes. (author)

  16. The Attentional Blink Is Not Affected by Backward Masking of T2, T2-Mask SOA, or Level of T2 Impoverishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the second of two targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). This "attentional blink" (AB) is thought to arise from a delay in T2 processing during which T2 is vulnerable to masking. Conventional studies have measured T2 accuracy which is constrained by the 100% ceiling. We avoided this problem by using…

  17. Measurements of neutral hydrogen profiles on the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch from time-resolved ? line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallander, J.; Hedqvist, A.; Rachlew-Källne, E.

    1998-09-01

    The investigations of the radial distributions of 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission from the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma show that the emission profile varies a lot, even during one plasma discharge. At central electron temperatures of about 150 eV it was expected that the 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission should emerge from the plasma centre. In comparison, 0953-4075/31/17/015/img4 is always observed to radiate from the centre. Our measurements of 0953-4075/31/17/015/img2 emission have, however, shown that this is not always the case, the emission often comes from the plasma edge. The analysis of the measurements has led us to conclude that the edge emission comes from charge-exchange recombination with neutral hydrogen near the carbon first wall. These observations provide a way to estimate the change in neutral hydrogen density during local plasma-wall interaction.

  18. Measurements of charged pion differential yields from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Ajaz, M.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blümer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Cirkovic, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Deveaux, M.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Garibov, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hervé, A.E.; Hierholzer, M.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Johnson, S.R.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalik, K.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuich, M.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; László, A.; Lewicki, M.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Manic, D.; Marcinek, A.; Marino, A.D.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messerly, B.; Mills, G.B.; Morozov, S.; Mrówczynski, S.; Nagai, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Naskret, M.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paolone, V.; Pavin, M.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadała-Zezula, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rumberger, B.T.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sarnecki, R.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seryakov, A.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Słodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Ströbele, H.; Šuša, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Yarritu, K.; Zambelli, L.; Zimmerman, E.D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Hartz, M.; Hiraki, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Tzanov, M.; Yu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of particle emission from a replica of the T2K 90 cm-long carbon target were performed in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS, using data collected during a high-statistics run in 2009. An efficient use of the long-target measurements for neutrino flux predictions in T2K requires dedicated reconstruction and analysis techniques. Fully-corrected differential yields of charged pions from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons are presented. A possible strategy to implement these results into the T2K neutrino beam predictions is discussed and the propagation of the uncertainties of these results to the final neutrino flux is performed

  19. Measurements of π{sup ±} differential yields from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Ajaz, M.; Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Debieux, S.; Haesler, A.; Korzenev, A.; Ravonel, M. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Aduszkiewicz, A.; Dominik, W.; Kuich, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Posiadala-Zezula, M. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Ali, Y. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Andronov, E.; Feofilov, G.A.; Igolkin, S.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Seryakov, A.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vinogradov, L. [St. Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Susa, T. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Antoniou, N.; Christakoglou, P.; Davis, N.; Diakonos, F.; Kapoyannis, A.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Vassiliou, M. [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Baatar, B.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Malakhov, A.I.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Tereshchenko, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bay, F.; Di Luise, S.; Rubbia, A.; Sgalaberna, D. [ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bluemer, J.; Dembinski, H.; Engel, R.; Herve, A.E.; Mathes, H.J.; Roth, M.; Szuba, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Veberic, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R. [University of Sofia, Faculty of Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Brandin, A.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Taranenko, A. [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Brzychczyk, J.; Larsen, D.; Planeta, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Staszel, P.; Wyszynski, O. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Busygina, O.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Kurepin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cirkovic, M.; Manic, D.; Puzovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Czopowicz, T.; Dynowski, K.; Grebieszkow, K.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Sarnecki, R.; Slodkowski, M.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D. [Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Stroebele, H. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Dumarchez, J.; Robert, A. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Ereditato, A.; Hierholzer, M.; Nirkko, M.; Pistillo, C.; Redij, A. [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fodor, Z. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Garibov, A. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Gazdzicki, M. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce (Poland); Grzeszczuk, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kisiel, J.; Kowalski, S.; Pulawski, S.; Schmidt, K.; Wilczek, A. [University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Hasegawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shibata, M.; Tada, M.; Friend, M. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, S.R.; Marino, A.D.; Rumberger, B.T.; Zimmerman, E.D. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Kowalik, K.; Rondio, E.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Laszlo, A.; Marton, K.; Vesztergombi, G. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Lewicki, M.; Naskret, M.; Turko, L. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Marcinek, A. [Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (PL); Messerly, B.; Nagai, Y.; Paolone, V. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (US); Mills, G.B.; Yarritu, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (US); Morozov, S.; Petukhov, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (RU); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (RU); Mrowczynski, S.; Rybczynski, M.; Seyboth, P.; Stefanek, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A. [Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce (PL); Pavin, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (HR); LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (FR); Popov, B.A. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (FR); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (RU); Rauch, W. [Fachhochschule Frankfurt, Frankfurt (DE); Roehrich, D. [University of Bergen, Bergen (NO); Rustamov, A. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (AZ); University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (DE); Zambelli, L. [LPNHE, University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (FR); Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, Tsukuba (JP); Galymov, V. [IPNL, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne (FR); Hartz, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (JP); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (CA); Hiraki, T.; Ichikawa, A.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (JP); Tzanov, M. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baton Rouge, LA (US); Yu, M. [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toronto, ON (CA); Collaboration: NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of particle emission from a replica of the T2K 90 cm-long carbon target were performed in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS, using data collected during a high-statistics run in 2009. An efficient use of the long-target measurements for neutrino flux predictions in T2K requires dedicated reconstruction and analysis techniques. Fully-corrected differential yields of π{sup ±}-mesons from the surface of the T2K replica target for incoming 31 GeV/c protons are presented. A possible strategy to implement these results into the T2K neutrino beam predictions is discussed and the propagation of the uncertainties of these results to the final neutrino flux is performed. (orig.)

  20. T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay-Based Direct Detection of Three Lyme Disease-Related Borrelia Species in Whole-Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jessica L; Giese, Heidi; Bandoski-Gralinski, Cheryl; Townsend, Jessica; Jacobson, Beck E; Shivers, Robert; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Fritsche, Thomas R; Green, Clayton; Callister, Steven M; Branda, John A; Lowery, Thomas J

    2017-08-01

    In early Lyme disease (LD), serologic testing is insensitive and seroreactivity may reflect active or past infection. In this study, we evaluated a novel assay for the direct detection of three species of Borrelia spirochetes in whole blood. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay platform was used to amplify Borrelia DNA released from intact spirochetes and to detect amplicon. Analytical sensitivity was determined from blood spiked with known concentrations of spirochetes, and the assay's limit of detection was found to be in the single-cell-per-milliliter range: 5 cells/ml for B. afzelii and 8 cells/ml for Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia garinii Clinical samples ( n = 66) from confirmed or suspected early LD patients were also analyzed. B. burgdorferi was detected using T2MR in 2/2 (100%) of blood samples from patients with confirmed early LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans and documentation of seroconversion or a positive real-time blood PCR. T2MR detected B. burgdorferi in blood samples from 17/54 (31%) of patients with probable LD, based on the presence of erythema migrans without documented seroconversion or of documented seroconversion in patients with a compatible clinical syndrome but without erythema migrans. Out of 21 clinical samples tested by real-time PCR, only 1 was positive and 13 were negative with agreement with T2MR. An additional 7 samples that were negative by real-time PCR were positive with T2MR. Therefore, T2MR enables a low limit of detection (LoD) for Borrelia spp. in whole blood samples and is able to detect B. burgdorferi in clinical samples. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Fundamental course of measuring. II. The electrical measuring of non-electrical parameters. Grundkurs der Messtechnik. T. 2. Das elektrische Messen nichtelektrischer Groessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, L [Technische Univ. Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Lehrstuhl und Lab. fuer Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental course of the electrical measuring of non-electrical parameters aims to fulfill the task of presenting the present knowledge on the basic measuring methods in simple language and illustrative form. The present part II deals especially with measuring methods in heat and process engineering in the industrial field. Following the introduction in part A, the techniques of electrical probes are mainly described, and it is shown which mechanical probes cannot yet be replaced by electrical ones. Part C describes the techniques of measuring transducers.

  2. Results from T2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, S.

    2014-01-01

    T2K is an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to measure the θ 13 mixing parameter through the observation of ν e appearance in a ν μ beam. Concurrent measurement of ν μ disappearance allows refined measurements of the atmospheric Δm 23 2 and of the θ 23 mixing parameters. Analysis of data taken from January 2010 to March 2011 led to the first indication to ν μ → ν e appearance, it means θ 13 ≠ 0 (2.5σ significance), opening the way to CP violation searches in the leptonic sector. Measurement for ν μ disappearance were performed as well. Data taking restarted in March 2012 at higher intensities. Results, data taking status and future plans will be discussed. (author)

  3. T2 Relaxometry MRI Predicts Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S

    2018-01-18

    T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. T2-prepared velocity selective labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra M A

    2016-01-01

    2-BIOS correlated with SO2-NIRS (R(2)=0.41, p=0.002) and SvO2-T2-TRIR (R(2)=0.87, p=0.002). In addition, SO2-NIRS correlated with SvO2-T2-TRIR (R(2)=0.85, p=0.003) Frontal cerebral blood flow correlated with SO2-T2-BIOS (R(2)=0.21, p=0.04), but was not significant in relation to SO2-NIRS. DISCUSSION...

  5. CKM related measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalseno, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent CKM-related results on the unitary triangle for B d decays from the BaBar and Belle Collaborations which collect BB-bar pairs at the Υ(4S) resonance produced in asymmetric e + e - collisions. These include the decay channels B 0 → (cc-bar)K 0 and B 0 → D (*)+ D (*)- , which are sensitive to the CP violating phase φ 1 : B 0 → α 1 (1260) ± π ± , which can constrain the CP violating phase φ 2 , and B → hlν, from which V ub can be determined. (author)

  6. Skeletal muscle proton T 2 in chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, D.; Richard, B.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the interest of proton T 2 measurement of skeletal muscle at rest and with exercise in patients with chronic heart failure, we performed associated measurements of proton T 2 using magnetic resonance imaging, of external work using ergometry, and of intra-cellular pH (pH) using magnetic resonance 31 P-spectroscopy, in skeletal muscle of the leg anterior compartment, in 37 patients with chronic heart failure. Sixteen patients were in New York Heart Association class II (NYHA II, moderate cardiac failure) and 21 in NYHA classes III-IV (severe cardiac failure). Rest T 2 was significantly increased in NYHA III-IV patients (30.9 ± 2.2 versus 32.8 ± 209 ms, p i variations were of -8 ± 4 versus -9 ± 5%, p =3D NS. The ratio of relative T 2 variations to W was significantly increased in NYPH III-IV patients (0.24 ± 0.12 versus 0.60 ± 0.41%/J, p i with exercise were coupled with external work, only in group NYHA II. T 2 variations negatively correlated with those of pH i in both groups (r=3D -0.78, p i variations with exercise which seems to depend on the exercise intensity level. (authors). 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Measurement of the Dissociation-Equilibrium Constants for Low Affinity Antibiotic Binding Interaction with Bacterial Ribosomes by the T2 (CPMG) and Line-Broadening Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, L.; Gharbi-Benarous, J.; Bertho, G.; Mauvais, P.; Girault, J.-P.

    1999-10-01

    In this study the dissociation constants of the low antibiotic-ribosomes interaction were determined by the T2 (CPMG), the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo decay rate and the line-broadening methods. Three MLSB antibiotics were studied, a macrolide roxithromycin, a ketolide HMR 3647 and a lincosamide clindamycin for their weak interaction with three bacterial ribosomes, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensitive and resistant to erythromycin. Nous avons mesuré la constante de dissociation, Kd correspondant à l'interaction faible antibiotique-ribosome bactérien pour des antibiotiques de différentes classes, un macrolide (roxithromycine), un kétolide (HMR 3647) et une lincosamide (clindamycine) avec des ribosomes de différentes souches bactériennes (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus sensible ou résistant à l'erythromycin) par deux méthodes : l'une basée sur la variation des largeurs de raies et l'autre sur les temps de relaxation transversaux T2 en utilisant une séquence CPMG.

  8. New results from T2K

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment situated in Japan. A high intensity neutrino beam is produced at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, in Tokai, Japan. In 2011, the collaboration announced the first indication of muon neutrino to electron neutrino transformation, which was then a new type of neutrino oscillation; now, with 3.5 times more data, this transformation is firmly established. This T2K observation is the first of its kind in that an explicit appearance of a unique flavor of neutrino at a detection point is unequivocally observed from a different flavor of neutrino at its production point. The T2K collaboration also reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an ooff-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector is used in both oscillation measurements to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters.

  9. Characterization of the collagen component of cartilage repair tissue of the talus with quantitative MRI: comparison of T2 relaxation time measurements with a diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state sequence (dwDESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Hainc, N.; Studler, U.; Bieri, O.; Miska, M.; Wiewiorski, M.; Valderrabano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI. Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 μm 2 /ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 μm 2 /ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027). Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicate an increased matrix organization of RT. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of the collagen component of cartilage repair tissue of the talus with quantitative MRI: comparison of T2 relaxation time measurements with a diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state sequence (dwDESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretzschmar, M.; Hainc, N.; Studler, U. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bieri, O. [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Miska, M. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Heidelberg (Germany); Wiewiorski, M.; Valderrabano, V. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the collagen component of repair tissue (RT) of the talus after autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) using quantitative T2 and diffusion-weighted imaging. Mean T2 values and diffusion coefficients of AMIC-RT and normal cartilage of the talus of 25 patients with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions and AMIC repair were compared in a cross-sectional design using partially spoiled steady-state free precession (pSSFP) for T2 quantification, and diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state (dwDESS) for diffusion measurement. RT and cartilage were graded with modified Noyes and MOCART scores on morphological sequences. An association between follow-up interval and quantitative MRI measures was assessed using multivariate regression, after stratifying the cohort according to time interval between surgery and MRI. Mean T2 of the AMIC-RT and cartilage were 43.1 ms and 39.1 ms, respectively (p = 0.26). Mean diffusivity of the RT (1.76 μm{sup 2}/ms) was significantly higher compared to normal cartilage (1.46 μm{sup 2}/ms) (p = 0.0092). No correlation was found between morphological and quantitative parameters. RT diffusivity was lowest in the subgroup with follow-up >28 months (p = 0.027). Compared to T2-mapping, dwDESS demonstrated greater sensitivity in detecting differences in the collagen matrix between AMIC-RT and cartilage. Decreased diffusivity in patients with longer follow-up times may indicate an increased matrix organization of RT. (orig.)

  11. Factors associated with diabetes-related distress over time among patients with T2DM in a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maudrene L; Tan, Chuen S; Griva, Konstadina; Lee, Yung S; Lee, Jeannette; Tai, E S; Khoo, Eric Y; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2017-06-23

    Persistent diabetes-related distress (DRD) is experienced by patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Knowing factors associated with persistent DRD will aid clinicians in prioritising interventions efforts. A total of 216 patients were recruited from a tertiary hospital in Singapore, an Asian city state, and followed for 1.5 years (2011-2014). Data was collected by self-completed questionnaires assessing DRD (measured by the Problem Areas in Diabetes score) and other psychosocial aspects such as social support, presenteeism, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at three time points. Clinical data (body-mass-index and glycated haemoglobin) was obtained from medical records. Change score was calculated for each clinical and psychosocial variable to capture changes in these variables from baseline. Generalized Linear Model with Generalized Estimating Equation method was used to assess whether baseline and change scores in clinical and psychosocial are associated with DRD over time. Complete data was available for 73 patients, with mean age 44 (SD 12.5) years and 67% males. Persistent DRD was experienced by 21% of the patients. In the final model, baseline HRQoL (OR = 0.56, p < 0.05) and change score of EDS (OR = 1.22, p < 0.05) was significantly associated with DRD over time. EDS might be a surrogate marker for persistent DRD and should be explored in larger samples of population to confirm the findings from this study.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-related single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifet Terzić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes characterized by vascular permeability, increased tissue ischemia, and angiogenesis. One of the most important proteins involved in angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, also known as VEGFA. A previous study demonstrated that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs6921438 and rs10738760, account for nearly half the variation in circulating VEGF levels. The aim of our study was to assess the association between rs6921438 and rs10738760 and DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This case-control study enrolled 1037 unrelated Slovenian individuals (Caucasians with T2DM. DR group included 415 T2DM patients with DR, while control group included 622 T2DM patients with no clinical signs of DR. The clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. The genotyping of rs6921438 and rs10738760 SNPs was carried out with real-time PCR assays. Significant differences were observed between patients with DR and controls in the duration of diabetes (p < 0.001, insulin therapy (p < 0.001, glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.001, body mass index (p = 0.002, total cholesterol (p = 0.002, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001. However, we did not observe significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of the two SNPs, between DR and control group (p < 0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that rs6921438 and rs10738760 were not independent genetic risk factors for DR in the co-dominant model adjusted for the above-mentioned clinical and laboratory data. In conclusion, VEGF-related SNPs rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with DR in our group of Slovenian patients (Caucasians with T2DM.

  13. T(2)-weighted microMRI and evoked potential of the visual system measurements during the development of hypomyelinated transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Melanie; Reyes, Samuel D; Hiltner, Timothy D; Givogri, M Irene; Tyszka, J Michael; Fisher, Robin; Campagnoni, Anthony T; Fraser, Scott E; Jacobs, Russell E; Readhead, Carol

    2007-02-01

    Our objective was to follow the course of a dysmyelinating disease followed by partial recovery in transgenic mice using non-invasive high-resolution (117 x 117 x 70 microm) magnetic resonance (microMRI) and evoked potential of the visual system (VEP) techniques. We used JOE (for J37 golli overexpressing) transgenic mice engineered to overexpress golli J37, a product of the Golli-mbp gene complex, specifically in oligodendrocytes. Individual JOE transgenics and their unaffected siblings were followed from 21 until 75-days-old using non-invasive in vivo VEPs and 3D T2-weighted microMRI on an 11.7 T scanner, performing what we believe is the first longitudinal study of its kind. The microMRI data indicated clear, global hypomyelination during the period of peak myelination (21-42 days), which was partially corrected at later ages (>60 days) in the JOE mice compared to controls. These microMRI data correlated well with [Campagnoni AT (1995) "Molecular biology of myelination". In: Ransom B, Kettenmann H (eds) Neuroglia--a Treatise. Oxford University Press, London, pp 555-570] myelin staining, [Campagnoni AT, Macklin WB (1988) Cellular and molecular aspects of myelin protein gene-expression. Mol Neurobiol 2:41-89] a transient intention tremor during the peak period of myelination, which abated at later ages, and [Lees MB, Brostoff SW (1984) Proteins in myelin. In: Morell (ed) Myelin. Plenum Press, New York and London, pp 197-224] VEPs which all indicated a significant delay of CNS myelin development and persistent hypomyelination in JOE mice. Overall these non-invasive techniques are capable of spatially resolving the increase in myelination in the normally developing and developmentally delayed mouse brain.

  14. T2K neutrino flux prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2013-01-02

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment studies neutrino oscillations using an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of about 0.6 GeV that originates at the J-PARC accelerator facility. Interactions of the neutrinos are observed at near detectors placed at 280 m from the production target and at the far detector -- Super-Kamiokande (SK) -- located 295 km away. The flux prediction is an essential part of the successful prediction of neutrino interaction rates at the T2K detectors and is an important input to T2K neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements. A FLUKA and GEANT3 based simulation models the physical processes involved in the neutrino production, from the interaction of primary beam protons in the T2K target, to the decay of hadrons and muons that produce neutrinos. The simulation uses proton beam monitor measurements as inputs. The modeling of hadronic interactions is re-weighted using thin target hadron production data, including recent charged pion and kaon measurements from the NA...

  15. Measurement of perfusion using the first-pass dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI in neurooncology. Physical basics and clinical applications; Perfusionsmessung mit der T2*-Kontrastmitteldynamik in der Neuroonkologie. Physikalische Grundlagen und klinische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.-A.; Giesel, F.L.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Essig, M. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Radiologie; Risse, F.; Schad, L.R. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Perfusion imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) is mostly performed using the first-pass dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI. The first-pass of a contrast bolus in brain tissue is monitored by a series of T2*-weighted MR images. The susceptibility effect of the paramagnetic contrast agent leads to a signal loss that can be converted, using the principles of the indicator dilution theory, into an increase of the contrast agent concentration. From these data, parameter maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV) and flow (CBF) can be derived. Regional CBF and CBV values can be obtained by region-of-interest analysis. This review article describes physical basics of DSC MRI and summarizes the literature of DSC MRI in neurooncological issues. Studies, all with relatively limited patient numbers, report that DSC MRI is useful in the preoperative diagnosis of gliomas, CNS-lymphomas, and solitary metastases, as well as in the differentiation of these neoplastic lesions from infections and tumor-like manifestations of demyelinating disease. Additionally, DSC MRI is suitable for determining glioma grade and regions of active tumor growth which should be the target of stereotactic biopsy. After therapy, DSC MRI helps better assessing the tumor response to therapy, residual tumor after therapy, and possible treatment failure and therapy-related complications, such as radiation necrosis. The preliminary results show that DSC MRI is a diagnostic tool depicting regional variations in microvasculature of normal and diseased brains. (orig.) [German] Die MRT-Perfusionsmessungen im Zentralnervensystem (ZNS) werden derzeit hauptsaechlich mit der kontrastmittelverstaerkten T2*-Dynamik durchgefuehrt, die die Passage eines schnellen Kontrastmittelbolus mit einer Serie von T2*-gewichteten MRT-Aufnahmen verfolgt und charakterisiert. Dabei wird der Signalabfall, bedingt durch den Suszeptibilitaetseffekt des paramagnetischen Kontrastmittels, mittels geeigneter

  16. Role of T1 mapping as a complementary tool to T2* for non-invasive cardiac iron overload assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlasco, Camilla; Cassinerio, Elena; Roghi, Alberto; Faini, Andrea; Capecchi, Marco; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Giannattasio, Cristina; Parati, Gianfranco; Moon, James C; Cappellini, Maria D; Pedrotti, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload-related heart failure is the principal cause of death in transfusion dependent patients, including those with Thalassemia Major. Linking cardiac siderosis measured by T2* to therapy improves outcomes. T1 mapping can also measure iron; preliminary data suggests it may have higher sensitivity for iron, particularly for early overload (the conventional cut-point for no iron by T2* is 20ms, but this is believed insensitive). We compared T1 mapping to T2* in cardiac iron overload. In a prospectively large single centre study of 138 Thalassemia Major patients and 32 healthy controls, we compared T1 mapping to dark blood and bright blood T2* acquired at 1.5T. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of T2* and T1. A "moving window" approach was taken to understand the strength of the association at different levels of iron overload. The relationship between T2* (here dark blood) and T1 is described by a log-log linear regression, which can be split in three different slopes: 1) T2* low, 30ms, weak relationship. All subjects with T2*20ms, 38% had low T1 with most of the subjects in the T2* range 20-30ms having a low T1. In established cardiac iron overload, T1 and T2* are concordant. However, in the 20-30ms T2* range, T1 mapping appears to detect iron. These data support previous suggestions that T1 detects missed iron in 1 out of 3 subjects with normal T2*, and that T1 mapping is complementary to T2*. The clinical significance of a low T1 with normal T2* should be further investigated.

  17. Relative ultrasound energy measurement circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, E.Martin I.; Johansson, Jonny; Delsing, Jerker

    2005-01-01

    A relative ultrasound energy estimation circuit has been designed in a standard 0.35-μm CMOS process, to be a part of a thumb size internet connected wireless ultrasound measurement system. This circuit measures the relative energy between received ultrasound pulses, and presents an output signal that is linear to the received energy. Post-layout simulations indicate 7 bit linearity for 500 mV input signals, 5 μsec startup and stop times, 2.6 mW power consumption during active state. The acti...

  18. Quantitative evaluation of hyaline articular cartilage T2 maps of knee and determine the relationship of cartilage T2 values with age, gender, articular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, E; Şahin, G; Oğur, T; Aktaş, E

    2014-11-01

    To identify changes in knee joint cartilage transverse relaxation values depending on the patient's age and gender and to investigate the relationship between knee joint pathologies and the transverse relaxation time. Knee MRI images of 107 symptomatic patients with various pathologic knee conditions were analyzed retrospectively. T2 values were measured at patellar cartilage, posteromedial and posterolateral femoral cartilage adjacent to the central horn of posterior meniscus. 963 measurements were done for 107 knees MRI. Relationship of T2 values with seven features including subarticular bone marrow edema, subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, anterior-posterior cruciate and collateral ligament tears, posterior medial and posterior lateral meniscal tears, synovial thickening and effusion were analyzed. T2 values in all three compartments were evaluated according to age and gender. A T2 value increase correlated with age was present in all three compartments measured in the subgroup with no knee joint pathology and in all patient groups. According to the ROC curve, an increase showing a statistically significant difference was present in the patient group aged over 40 compared to the patient group aged 40 and below in all patient groups. There is a statistically difference at T2 values with and without subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, synovial thickening and effusion. T2 relaxation time showed a statistically significant increase in the patients with a medial meniscus tear compared to those without a tear and no statistically significant difference was found in T2 relaxation times of patients with and without a posterior lateral meniscus tear. T2 cartilage mapping on MRI provides opportunity to exhibit biochemical and structural changes related with cartilage extracellular matrix without using invasive diagnostic methods.

  19. New results from T2K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The T2K experiment is a 295-km long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan employing an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a 0.6 GeV peak energy. The beam, produced from 30-GeV protons at the J-PARC complex on the Pacific coast, is directed to the Super-Kamiokande detector. T2K released the first long-baseline measurement of a nonzero value for the θ13 mixing parameter through the observation of electron neutrino appearance (vµ → ve) and produced the most precise measurement of θ23 through the observation of muon neutrino disappearance (vµ → vµ). T2K data, in combination with reactor experiments, also excludes at 90% C.L. a significant region of the Dirac CP phase: δCP -0.49(-0.98) for the normal (inverted) hierarchy. A full joint appearance and disappearance fit including both neutrino (7×1020 protons on target, PoT) and anti-neutrino (4 × 1020 PoT) data and, for the first time, a constraint from water target data in the near detector, is presented yielding improved sensitivity on δCP and improved precision on sin2 2θ23 and the atmospheric mass splitting.

  20. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  1. The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone and T-2 Toxin on Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide-Like Immunoreactive (CGRP-LI Neurons in the ENS of the Porcine Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Makowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique. Both mycotoxins led to an increase in the percentage of CGRP-LI neurons in all types of enteric plexuses and changed the degree of co-localization of CGRP with other neuronal active substances, such as substance P, galanin, nitric oxide synthase, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide. The obtained results demonstrate that even low doses of ZEN and T-2 can affect living organisms and cause changes in the neurochemical profile of enteric neurons.

  2. Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Shelley; Lerski, Richard [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, Colin [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Michie, Caroline [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Oncology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Evans, Andrew; Vinnicombe, Sarah [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Johnston, Marilyn [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, Alastair M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether interim changes in hetereogeneity (measured using entropy features) on MRI were associated with pathological residual cancer burden (RCB) at final surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for primary breast cancer. This was a retrospective study of 88 consenting women (age: 30-79 years). Scanning was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner prior to NAC (baseline) and after 2-3 cycles of treatment (interim). Entropy was derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix, on slice-matched baseline/interim T2-weighted images. Response, assessed using RCB score on surgically resected specimens, was compared statistically with entropy/heterogeneity changes and ROC analysis performed. Association of pCR within each tumour immunophenotype was evaluated. Mean entropy percent differences between examinations, by response category, were: pCR: 32.8%, RCB-I: 10.5%, RCB-II: 9.7% and RCB-III: 3.0%. Association of ultimate pCR with coarse entropy changes between baseline/interim MRI across all lesions yielded 85.2% accuracy (area under ROC curve: 0.845). Excellent sensitivity/specificity was obtained for pCR prediction within each immunophenotype: ER+: 100%/100%; HER2+: 83.3%/95.7%, TNBC: 87.5%/80.0%. Lesion T2 heterogeneity changes are associated with response to NAC using RCB scores, particularly for pCR, and can be useful across all immunophenotypes with good diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  3. Proportional incidence and radiological review of large (T2+) breast cancers as surrogate indicators of screening programme performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Bernardi, D.; Pellegrini, M.; Borsato, G.; Peterlongo, P.; Gentilini, M.A.; Caumo, F.; Frigerio, A.; Houssami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Surrogate measures of screening performance [e.g. interval cancer (IC) proportional incidence] allow timely monitoring of sensitivity and quality. This study explored measures using large (T2+) breast cancers as potential indicators of screening performance. The proportional incidence of T2+ cancers (observed/expected cases) in a population-based screening programme (Trento, 2001-2009) was estimated. A parallel review of 'negative' preceding mammograms for screen-detected T2+ and for all ICs, using 'blinded' independent readings and case-mixes (54 T2+, 50 ICs, 170 controls) was also performed. T2+ cancers were observed in 168 screening participants: 48 at first screen, 67 at repeat screening and 53 ICs. The T2+ estimated proportional incidence was 68% (observed/expected = 168/247), corresponding to an estimated 32% reduction in the rate of T2+ cancers in screening participants relative to that expected without screening. Majority review classified 27.8% (15/54) of T2+ and 28% (14/50) of ICs as screening error (P = 0.84), with variable recall rates amongst radiologists (8.8-15.2%). T2+ review could be integrated as part of quality monitoring and potentially prove more feasible than IC review for some screening services. circle Interval breast cancers, assumed as screening failures, are monitored to estimate screening performance circle Large (T2+) cancers at screening may also represent failed prior screening detection circle Analysis of T2+ lesions may be more feasible than assessing interval cancers circle Analysis of T2+ cancers is a potential further measure of screening performance. (orig.)

  4. Proportional incidence and radiological review of large (T2+) breast cancers as surrogate indicators of screening programme performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, S.; Bernardi, D.; Pellegrini, M.; Borsato, G.; Peterlongo, P. [APSS, U.O. Senologia Clinica e Screening Mammografico, Dipartimento di Radiodiagnostica, Trento (Italy); Gentilini, M.A. [APSS, Servizio Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Direzione promozione ed educazione alla salute, Trento (Italy); Caumo, F. [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, Verona (Italy); Frigerio, A. [CRR, Centro di Riferimento Regionale per lo Screening Mammografico, Torino (Italy); Houssami, N. [University of Sydney, Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Surrogate measures of screening performance [e.g. interval cancer (IC) proportional incidence] allow timely monitoring of sensitivity and quality. This study explored measures using large (T2+) breast cancers as potential indicators of screening performance. The proportional incidence of T2+ cancers (observed/expected cases) in a population-based screening programme (Trento, 2001-2009) was estimated. A parallel review of 'negative' preceding mammograms for screen-detected T2+ and for all ICs, using 'blinded' independent readings and case-mixes (54 T2+, 50 ICs, 170 controls) was also performed. T2+ cancers were observed in 168 screening participants: 48 at first screen, 67 at repeat screening and 53 ICs. The T2+ estimated proportional incidence was 68% (observed/expected = 168/247), corresponding to an estimated 32% reduction in the rate of T2+ cancers in screening participants relative to that expected without screening. Majority review classified 27.8% (15/54) of T2+ and 28% (14/50) of ICs as screening error (P = 0.84), with variable recall rates amongst radiologists (8.8-15.2%). T2+ review could be integrated as part of quality monitoring and potentially prove more feasible than IC review for some screening services. circle Interval breast cancers, assumed as screening failures, are monitored to estimate screening performance circle Large (T2+) cancers at screening may also represent failed prior screening detection circle Analysis of T2+ lesions may be more feasible than assessing interval cancers circle Analysis of T2+ cancers is a potential further measure of screening performance. (orig.)

  5. Three dimensional orbital magnetic resonance T2-mapping in the evaluation of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kai; Ai, Tao; Hu, Wei-Kun; Luo, Ban; Wu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Rong

    2017-12-01

    The clinical application of orbital magnetic resonance (MR) T2-mapping imaging in detecting the disease activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and the predictive values of therapy response to intravenous glucocorticoid (ivGC) were investigated. Approved by the local institutional review board (IRB), 106 consecutive patients with GO were included in this prospective study. All subjects were divided into two groups according to the patients' clinical activity score (CAS): the CAS positive group (CAS ≥3) or the CAS negative group (CAS T2 relaxation time of extraocular muscles (T2RT; ms) and the areas of four extra-ocular muscles (AEOMs; mm 2 ) were measured by 3D T2-mapping MR sequence before and after methylprednisolone treatment, so as the CAS and some ophthalmic examinations including visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, eyeball movement, diplopia and proptosis. In addition, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The mean T2RT and AEOMs in CAS positive group were higher than those in CAS negative group. Both CAS positive and negative groups had significantly higher mean T2RT and AEOMs than the control group (Pevaluate the activity of GO, CAS was mostly related to inflammation symptoms of ocular surface, more than that, T2RT and AEOMs were also related to abnormal findings of the ophthalmic examinations including high ocular pressure, impaired eyeball movement, diplopia and proptosis. T2RT and AEOMs can reflex the inflammation state of ocular muscles better. CAS combined with 3D T2-mapping MR imaging could improve the sensitivity of detection of active GO so as the prediction and evaluation of the response to methylprednisolone treatment.

  6. Correlation between T2 relaxation time and intervertebral disk degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hiroyuki; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Ida, Kazunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Magnetic resonance T2 mapping allows for the quantification of water and proteoglycan content within tissues and can be used to detect early cartilage abnormalities as well as to track the response to therapy. The goal of the present study was to use T2 mapping to quantify intervertebral disk water content according to the Pfirrmann classification. This study involved 60 subjects who underwent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (a total of 300 lumbar disks). The degree of disk degeneration was assessed in the midsagittal section on T2-weighted images according to the Pfirrmann classification (grades I to V). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed among grades to determine the cut-off values. In the nucleus pulposus, T2 values tended to decrease with increasing grade, and there was a significant difference in T2 values between each grade from grades I to IV. However, there was no significant difference in T2 values in the anterior or posterior annulus fibrosus. T2 values according to disk degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>116.8 ms), grade II (92.7-116.7 ms), grade III (72.1-92.6 ms), grade IV (<72.0 ms). T2 values decreased with increasing Pfirrmann classification grade in the nucleus pulposus, likely reflecting a decrease in proteoglycan and water content. Thus, T2 value-based measurements of intervertebral disk water content may be useful for future clinical research on degenerative disk diseases. (orig.)

  7. Heavy neutrino mixing in the T2HK, the T2HKK and an extension of the T2HK with a detector at Oki Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yugo; Asano, Yusuke; Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    We study the discovery potential for the mixing of heavy isospin-singlet neutrinos in extensions of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK), the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea (T2HKK) with a Korea detector with ≅ 1000 km baseline length and 1 circle off-axis angle, and a plan of adding a small detector at Oki Islands to the T2HK. We further pursue the possibility of measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy and the standard CP-violating phase δ CP in the presence of heavy neutrino mixing by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only. We show that the sensitivity to heavy neutrino mixing is highly dependent on δ CP and new CP-violating phases in the heavy neutrino mixing matrix, and deteriorates considerably when these phases conspire to suppress interference between the standard oscillation amplitude and an amplitude arising from heavy neutrino mixing, at the first oscillation peak. Although this suppression is avoided by the use of a beam with smaller off-axis angle, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector do not show improvement over the T2HK. As for the mass hierarchy measurement, the wrong mass hierarchy is possibly favored in the T2HK because heavy neutrino mixing can mimic matter effects. In contrast, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector are capable of correctly measuring the mass hierarchy despite heavy neutrino mixing, as measurements with different baselines resolve degeneracy between heavy neutrino mixing and matter effects. Notably, adding a small detector at Oki to the T2HK drastically ameliorates the sensitivity, which is the central appeal of this paper. As for the δ CP measurement, there can be a sizable discrepancy between the true δ CP and the value obtained by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only, which can be comparable to 1σ resolution of the δ CP measurement. Hence, if a hint of heavy neutrino mixing is discovered, it is necessary to incorporate the effects

  8. Heavy neutrino mixing in the T2HK, the T2HKK and an extension of the T2HK with a detector at Oki Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yugo [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan); Miyakonojo College, National Institute of Technology, Miyakonojo-shi Miyazaki (Japan); Asano, Yusuke; Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    We study the discovery potential for the mixing of heavy isospin-singlet neutrinos in extensions of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK), the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea (T2HKK) with a Korea detector with ≅ 1000 km baseline length and 1 {sup circle} off-axis angle, and a plan of adding a small detector at Oki Islands to the T2HK. We further pursue the possibility of measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy and the standard CP-violating phase δ{sub CP} in the presence of heavy neutrino mixing by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only. We show that the sensitivity to heavy neutrino mixing is highly dependent on δ{sub CP} and new CP-violating phases in the heavy neutrino mixing matrix, and deteriorates considerably when these phases conspire to suppress interference between the standard oscillation amplitude and an amplitude arising from heavy neutrino mixing, at the first oscillation peak. Although this suppression is avoided by the use of a beam with smaller off-axis angle, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector do not show improvement over the T2HK. As for the mass hierarchy measurement, the wrong mass hierarchy is possibly favored in the T2HK because heavy neutrino mixing can mimic matter effects. In contrast, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector are capable of correctly measuring the mass hierarchy despite heavy neutrino mixing, as measurements with different baselines resolve degeneracy between heavy neutrino mixing and matter effects. Notably, adding a small detector at Oki to the T2HK drastically ameliorates the sensitivity, which is the central appeal of this paper. As for the δ{sub CP} measurement, there can be a sizable discrepancy between the true δ{sub CP} and the value obtained by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only, which can be comparable to 1σ resolution of the δ{sub CP} measurement. Hence, if a hint of heavy neutrino mixing is discovered, it is

  9. Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Shelley; Purdie, Colin; Michie, Caroline; Evans, Andrew; Lerski, Richard; Johnston, Marilyn; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Thompson, Alastair M

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether interim changes in hetereogeneity (measured using entropy features) on MRI were associated with pathological residual cancer burden (RCB) at final surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for primary breast cancer. This was a retrospective study of 88 consenting women (age: 30-79 years). Scanning was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner prior to NAC (baseline) and after 2-3 cycles of treatment (interim). Entropy was derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix, on slice-matched baseline/interim T2-weighted images. Response, assessed using RCB score on surgically resected specimens, was compared statistically with entropy/heterogeneity changes and ROC analysis performed. Association of pCR within each tumour immunophenotype was evaluated. Mean entropy percent differences between examinations, by response category, were: pCR: 32.8%, RCB-I: 10.5%, RCB-II: 9.7% and RCB-III: 3.0%. Association of ultimate pCR with coarse entropy changes between baseline/interim MRI across all lesions yielded 85.2% accuracy (area under ROC curve: 0.845). Excellent sensitivity/specificity was obtained for pCR prediction within each immunophenotype: ER+: 100%/100%; HER2+: 83.3%/95.7%, TNBC: 87.5%/80.0%. Lesion T2 heterogeneity changes are associated with response to NAC using RCB scores, particularly for pCR, and can be useful across all immunophenotypes with good diagnostic accuracy. • Texture analysis provides a means of measuring lesion heterogeneity on MRI images. • Heterogeneity changes between baseline/interim MRI can be linked with ultimate pathological response. • Heterogeneity changes give good diagnostic accuracy of pCR response across all immunophenotypes. • Percentage reduction in heterogeneity is associated with pCR with good accuracy and NPV.

  10. A biomarker-responsive T2ex MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, Iman; Randtke, Edward A; Pagel, Mark D

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated a fundamentally new type of responsive MRI contrast agent for molecular imaging that alters T 2 exchange (T 2ex ) properties after interacting with a molecular biomarker. The contrast agent Tm-DO3A-oAA was treated with nitric oxide (NO) and O 2 . The R 1 and R 2 relaxation rates of the reactant and product were measured with respect to concentration, temperature, and pH. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) spectra of the reactant and product were acquired using a 7 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and analyzed to estimate the chemical exchange rates and r 2ex relaxivities. The reaction of Tm-DO3A-oAA with NO and O 2 caused a 6.4-fold increase in the r 2 relaxivity of the agent, whereas r 1 relaxivity remained unchanged, which demonstrated that Tm-DO3A-oAA is a responsive T 2ex agent. The effects of pH and temperature on the r 2 relaxivities of the reactant and product supported the conclusion that the product's benzimidazole ligand caused the agent to have a fast chemical exchange rate relative to the slow exchange rate of the reactant's ortho-aminoanilide ligand. T 2ex MRI contrast agents are a new type of responsive agent that have good detection sensitivity and specificity for detecting a biomarker, which can serve as a new tool for molecular imaging. Magn Reson Med 77:1665-1670, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Neutrino Oscillation Experiments with J-PARC: T2K, T2K-II and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The T2K experiment started the operation in 2010, and advances neutrino physics with the discovery of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam and precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters. In 2016, the measurements of anti-neutrino oscillation directly constrain CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this colloquium, we introduce many physics results from T2K including the most recent one of the CP violation. By utilizing the J-PARC neutrino beam, the upgrade of the T2K experiment (naming T2K-II) is planned and Hyper-Kamiokande is proposed to explore neutrino physics further. In T2K-II, the beam power of J-PARC will be upgraded to 1.3 MW around 2020. Hyper-Kamiokande is the larger Water Cherenkov detector of 520 k...

  12. Rapid Evaluation of Platelet Function With T2 Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuker, Adam; Husseinzadeh, Holleh; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Marturano, Joseph E.; Massefski, Walter; Lowery, Thomas J.; Lambert, Michele P.; Abrams, Charles S.; Weisel, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical diagnosis of qualitative platelet disorders (QPDs) based on light transmission aggregometry (LTA) requires significant blood volume, time, and expertise, all of which can be barriers to utilization in some populations and settings. Our objective was to develop a more rapid assay of platelet function by measuring platelet-mediated clot contraction in small volumes (35 µL) of whole blood using T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). Methods: We established normal ranges for platelet-mediated clot contraction using T2MR, used these ranges to study patients with known platelet dysfunction, and then evaluated agreement between T2MR and LTA with arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor activator peptide. Results: Blood from 21 healthy donors was studied. T2MR showed 100% agreement with LTA with each of the four agonists and their cognate inhibitors tested. T2MR successfully detected abnormalities in each of seven patients with known QPDs, with the exception of one patient with a novel mutation leading to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. T2MR appeared to detect platelet function at similar or lower platelet counts than LTA. Conclusions: T2MR may provide a clinically useful approach to diagnose QPDs using small volumes of whole blood, while also providing new insight into platelet biology not evident using plasma-based platelet aggregation tests. PMID:28028118

  13. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, J.; Sugita, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ito, C.; Date, H.; Niimi, H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 7 Tesla quantitative hip MRI: T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik, Andrea; Theysohn, Jens M.; Geis, Christina [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Johst, Soeren; Kraff, Oliver [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and applicability of quantitative MR techniques (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 mapping, T2* mapping) at 7 T MRI for assessing hip cartilage. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T MRI with an 8-channel radiofrequency transmit/receive body coil using multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping and a dual flip angle gradient-echo sequence before (T1{sub 0}) and after intravenous contrast agent administration (T1{sub Gd}; 0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA{sup 2-} followed by 0.5 h of walking and 0.5 h of rest) for dGEMRIC. Relaxation times of cartilage were measured manually in 10 regions of interest. Pearson's correlations between R1{sub delta} = 1/T1{sub Gd} - 1/T1{sub 0} and T1{sub Gd} and between T2 and T2* were calculated. Image quality and the delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage in the relaxation time maps were evaluated using discrete rating scales. High correlations were found between R1{sub delta} and T1{sub Gd} and between T2 and T2* relaxation times (all p < 0.01). All techniques delivered diagnostic image quality, with best delineation of femoral and acetabular cartilage in the T2* maps (mean 3.2 out of a maximum of 4 points). T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage with diagnostic image quality is feasible at 7 T. To perform dGEMRIC at 7 T, pre-contrast T1 mapping can be omitted. (orig.)

  16. Comparison between T2*- and T2-weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hideo; Ito, Hisao; Kubo, Atsushi.

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the merits of T2 * -weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tear, compared with T2-weighted images. T2- and T2 * -weighted images were obtained in 10 asymptomatic volunteers and 94 patients with symptoms referable to the rotator cuff. The increased signal with full thickness of the rotator cuff was not shown on either T2- or T2 * -weighted images in the volunteers. These findings on T2-weighted images and on T2 * -weighted images were observed in 33 and 58 of 94 patients with symptoms, respectively. Every patient who showed these abnormal findings on T2-weighted images had the abnormal findings on T2 * -weighted images. These findings on T2 * -weighted images were wider than those on T2-weighted images in 20 of 33 patients. Surgical findings were available in 21 of 94 patients. Rotator cuff tears were surgically confirmed in 20 patients whose MR images showed increased signal lesions on both T2- and T2 * -weighted images. On the other hand, one patient who did not have rotator cuff tear showed increased signal lesion with full thickness on T2 * -weighted images, but not on T2-weighted images. We think increased signal lesions on T2-weighted images may strongly suggest rotator cuff tear, whereas those on T2 * -weighted images are not specific. (author)

  17. Characterization of D-maltose as a T2 -exchange contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Joshua M; Pagel, Mark D; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio

    2018-09-01

    We sought to investigate the potential of D-maltose, D-sorbitol, and D-mannitol as T 2 exchange magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. We also sought to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetics of D-maltose with D-glucose with dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. T 1 and T 2 relaxation time constants of the saccharides were measured using eight pH values and nine concentrations. The effect of echo spacing in a multiecho acquisition sequence used for the T 2 measurement was evaluated for all samples. Finally, performances of D-maltose and D-glucose during T 2 -weighted DCE-MRI were compared in vivo. Estimated T 2 relaxivities (r 2 ) of D-glucose and D-maltose were highly and nonlinearly dependent on pH and echo spacing, reaching their maximum at pH = 7.0 (∼0.08 mM -1 s -1 ). The r 2 values of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol were estimated to be ∼0.02 mM -1 s -1 and were invariant to pH and echo spacing for pH ≤7.0. The change in T 2 in tumor and muscle tissues remained constant after administration of D-maltose, whereas the change in T 2 decreased in tumor and muscle after administration of D-glucose. Therefore, D-maltose has a longer time window for T 2 -weighted DCE-MRI in tumors. We have demonstrated that D-maltose can be used as a T 2 exchange MRI contrast agent. The larger, sustained T 2 -weighted contrast from D-maltose relative to D-glucose has practical advantages for tumor diagnoses during T 2 -weighted DCE-MRI. Magn Reson Med 80:1158-1164, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Experimental studies of confinement in the EXTRAP T2 and T2R reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The confinement properties of fusion plasmas are affected by magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations. The determination of the plasma confinement properties requires the measurement of several global and local quantities such as the ion and electron temperatures, the electron and neutral density profiles, the radiation emissivity profiles, the ohmic input power and the particle and heat diffusivities. The focus of this thesis is the study of the plasma confinement properties based on measurements of these quantities under different experimental conditions. The studies have been carried out on the reversed field pinch experiments EXTRAP T2 and T2R at the Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Studies carried out in EXTRAP T2 were focused on dynamo activity and on the effect of phase alignment and locking to the wall of magnetic instabilities. These were observed with a dedicated imaging system. The experimental studies in EXTRAP T2R were focused on the measurement of the confinement properties of different configurations. To this aim, a set of diagnostics were used some of which were upgraded, such as the interferometer, while others were newly installed, such as a neutral particle energy analyser and a bolometer array. The dynamo, which is responsible for the plasma sustainment, involves resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that enhance stochastic transport. Furthermore, the plasma confinement properties are in general improved in the presence of mode rotation. The possibility of reducing the stochastic transport and thereby further improving the confinement has been demonstrated in a current profile control experiment. These results indicate that long pulse operations with a resistive shell and current profile control are indeed feasible

  19. Measurement of the top quark mass in the dileptonic $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ decay channel using the mass observables $M_{\\mathrm{ b }\\ell}$, $M_{\\mathrm{T}2}$, and $M_{\\mathrm{ b }\\ell\

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mahrous, Ayman; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Markin, Oleg; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; 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Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; 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Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; 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    2017-08-22

    A measurement of the top quark mass ($M_{\\mathrm{ t }}$) in the dileptonic $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} }$ decay channel is performed using data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data was recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\pm$ 0.5 fb$^{-1}$. Events are selected with two oppositely charged leptons ($\\ell=$ e, $\\mu$) and two jets identified as originating from b quarks. The analysis is based on three kinematic observables whose distributions are sensitive to the value of $M_{\\mathrm{ t }}$. An invariant mass observable, $M_{\\mathrm{ b }\\ell}$, and a 'stransverse mass' observable, $M_{\\mathrm{T}2}$, are employed in a simultaneous fit to determine the value of $M_{\\mathrm{ t }}$ and an overall jet energy scale factor (JSF). A complementary approach is used to construct an invariant mass observable, $M_{\\mathrm{ b }\\ell\

  20. Multicomponent T2 relaxation studies of the avian egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Mulkern, Robert V; Maier, Stephan E

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the tissue-like multiexponential T2 signal decays in avian eggs. Transverse relaxation studies of raw, soft-boiled and hard-boiled eggs were performed at 3 Tesla using a three-dimensional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging sequence. Signal decays over a TE range of 11 to 354 ms were fitted assuming single- and multicomponent signal decays with up to three separately decaying components. Fat saturation was used to facilitate spectral assignment of observed decay components. Egg white, yolk and the centrally located latebra all demonstrate nonmonoexponential T2 decays. Specifically, egg white exhibits two-component decays with intermediate and long T2 times. Meanwhile, yolk and latebra are generally best characterized with triexponential decays, with short, intermediate and very long T2 decay times. Fat saturation revealed that the intermediate component of yolk could be attributed to lipids. Cooking of the egg profoundly altered the decay curves. Avian egg T2 decay curves cover a wide range of decay times. Observed T2 components in yolk and latebra as short as 10 ms, may prove valuable for testing clinical sequences designed to measure short T2 components, such as myelin-associated water in the brain. Thus we propose that the egg can be a versatile and widely available MR transverse relaxation phantom. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. T 2 mapping of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Jolanda M; Petersen, Esben T; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    the performance of this method at 7 T and evaluated the influence of partial volume and B 1 and B 0 inhomogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T 2-preparation-based CSF T 2-mapping was performed in seven healthy volunteers at 7 and 3 T, and was compared with a single echo spin-echo sequence with various echo times......OBJECT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T 2 mapping can potentially be used to investigate CSF composition. A previously proposed CSF T 2-mapping method reported a T 2 difference between peripheral and ventricular CSF, and suggested that this reflected different CSF compositions. We studied....... The influence of partial volume was assessed by our analyzing the longest echo times only. B 1 and B 0 maps were acquired. B 1 and B 0 dependency of the sequences was tested with a phantom. RESULTS: T 2,CSF was shorter at 7 T compared with 3 T. At 3 T, but not at 7 T, peripheral T 2,CSF was significantly...

  2. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C.; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N.; Chalissos, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with β-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 ± 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 ± 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 ± 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 ± 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 ± 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 ± 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  3. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Chalissos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-seven patients with {beta}-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 {+-} 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 {+-} 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 {+-} 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 {+-} 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 {+-} 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 {+-} 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  4. T2 and T2* mapping in patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation: initial results on clinical use with 3.0-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Goetz H.; Trattnig, Siegfried; Quirbach, Sebastian; Hughes, Timothy; Olk, Alexander; Blanke, Matthias; Marlovits, Stefan; Mamisch, Tallal C.

    2010-01-01

    To use T2 and T2* mapping in patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) of the knee, and to compare and correlate both methodologies. 3.0-Tesla MRI was performed on 30 patients (34.6 ± 9.9 years) with a follow-up period of 28.1 ± 18.8 months after MACT. Multi-echo, spin-echo-based T2 mapping using six echoes and gradient-echo-based T2* mapping using six echoes were prepared. T2 and T2* maps were obtained using a pixel-wise, mono-exponential, non-negative least-squares fit analysis. Region-of-interest analysis was performed for mean (full-thickness) as well as deep and superficial aspects of the cartilage repair tissue and control cartilage sites. Mean T2 values (ms) were comparable for the control cartilage (53.4 ± 11.7) and the repair tissue (55.5 ± 11.6) (p > 0.05). Mean T2* values (ms) for control cartilage (30.9 ± 6.6) were significantly higher than those of the repair tissue (24.5 ± 8.1) (p < 0.001). Zonal stratification was more pronounced for T2* than for T2. The correlation between T2 and T2* was highly significant (p < 0.001), with a Pearson coefficient between 0.276 and 0.433. T2 and T2* relaxation time measurements in the evaluation of cartilage repair tissue and its zonal variation show promising results, although the properties visualised by T2 and T2* may differ. (orig.)

  5. T2*-weighted image/T2-weighted image fusion in postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yoshio, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion is considered to be the best method for postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy; however, it is inconvenient and costly. In T2 * -weighted image (T2 * -WI), seeds can be easily detected without the use of an intravenous contrast material. We present a novel method for postimplant dosimetry using T2 * -WI/T2-weighted image (T2-WI) fusion. We compared the outcomes of T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Between April 2008 and July 2009, 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy. All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (prostate D90, prostate V100, prostate V150, urethral D10, and rectal D2cc) were prospectively compared between T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry. All the DVH parameters estimated by T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry strongly correlated to those estimated by CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry (0.77≤ R ≤0.91). No significant difference was observed in these parameters between the two methods, except for prostate V150 (p=0.04). These results show that T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry is comparable or superior to MRI-based dosimetry as previously reported, because no intravenous contrast material is required. For some patients, rather large differences were observed in the value between the 2 methods. We thought these large differences were a result of seed miscounts in T2 * -WI and shifts in fusion. Improving the image quality of T2 * -WI and the image acquisition speed of T2 * -WI and T2-WI may decrease seed miscounts and fusion shifts. Therefore, in the future, T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion may be more useful for postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  6. T2 laryngeal cancer study in our department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenoya, Yoichi; Shimane, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Sei

    2011-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck region. Because early detection and treatment are possible, outcomes are relatively good. Many studies have reported on the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Different hospitals have used generally similar treatment regimens. However, factors such as laryngeal preservation and the treatment of choice for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer still differ among hospitals. Survival rates can be increased depending on treatment, sometimes at the cost of losing voice functions that could have been preserved. In our department, we have emphasized curative treatment and the preservation of organs and functions. We have mainly used chemoradiotherapy concurrently with S-1 and nedaplatin for the treatment of T2 laryngeal cancer. We studied 27 patients (23 men and 4 women) with T2 laryngeal cancer, who received first-line therapy in our department from April 2005 through March 2010. Their mean age was 64.1 years (range, 42 to 80). The mean follow-up period was 30.6 months (range, 2 to 60 months). The tumor-node-metastasis classification was T2N0M0 in 24 patients, T2N1M0 in 1, and T2N2bM0 in 2.In our department, the disease-specific survival rate was 96.3%. The complete response rate was 88.9%, and the laryngeal preservation rate was 92.6%. (author)

  7. Wettability of Chalk and Argillaceous Sandstones Assessed from T1/T2 Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Saidian, M.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    ratio can quantify the affinity between the rock and wetting pore fluid. The affinity is a measure directly linked to wettability. In order to investigate the T2-shortening, we performed T1-T2 NMR experiments on different samples of chalk, Berea sandstone, and chloritic greensand, saturated either...... with water, oil or oil/water at irreducible water saturation. The T1/T2 ratio obtained from T1-T2 maps reflects the T2-shortening. We compare the T1/T2 ratio for the same type of rock, saturated with different fluids. The chalk shows high affinity for water, Berea sandstone has no clear preference for oil...

  8. Optimal entropic uncertainty relation for successive measurements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    measurements in quantum information theory. M D SRINIVAS ... derived by Robertson in 1929 [2] from the first principles of quantum theory, does not ... systems and may hence be referred to as 'uncertainty relations for distinct measurements'.

  9. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    -keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian Pi...... PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic....... Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution. Moreover, in combination, our studies of the gene structure of the human PiT1 and PiT2 genes (SLC20A1 and SLC20A2, respectively) and alignment of protein...

  10. A worldwide comparison of the management of T1 and T2 anterior floor of the mouth and tongue squamous cell carcinoma - Extent of surgical resection and reconstructive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansy, Katinka; Mueller, Andreas Albert; Mücke, Thomas; Koersgen, Friederike; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Hölzle, Frank; Pradel, Winnie; Schneider, Matthias; Kolk, Andreas; Smeets, Ralf; Acero, Julio; Haers, Piet; Ghali, G E; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Microvascular surgery following tumor resection has become an important field of oral maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Following the results on general aspects of current reconstructive practice in German-speaking countries, Europe and worldwide, this paper presents specific concepts for the management of resection and reconstruction of T1/T2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior floor of the mouth and tongue. The DOESAK questionnaire was distributed in three different phases to a growing number of maxillofacial units worldwide. Within this survey, clinical patient settings were presented to participants and center-specific treatment strategies were evaluated. A total of 188 OMFS units from 36 different countries documented their treatment strategies for T1/T2 anterior floor of the mouth squamous cell carcinoma and tongue carcinoma. For floor of mouth carcinoma close to the mandible, a wide variety of concepts are presented: subperiosteal removal of the tumor versus continuity resection of the mandible and reconstruction ranging from locoregional closure to microvascular bony reconstruction. For T2 tongue carcinoma, concepts are more uniform. These results demonstrate the lack of evidence and the controversy of different guidelines for the extent of safety margins and underline the crucial need of global prospective randomized trials on this topic to finally obtain evidence for a common guideline based on a strong community of OMFS units. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. T2 mapping in patellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío; Almansa López, Julio; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María Del Mar

    2014-06-01

    To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16-45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet-proximal-lateral (EPL), external facet-proximal-central (EPC), internal facet-proximal-central (IPC), internal facet-proximal-medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet-middle-lateral (EML), external facet-middle-central (EMC), internal facet-middle-central (IMC), internal facet-middle-medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet-distal-lateral (EDL), external facet-distal-central (EDC), internal facet-distal-central (IDC), internal facet-distal-medial (IDM). T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (pchondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (pchondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the central area of the middle section, where T2 values remain increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Treat-to-target (T2T) recommendations for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; Smolen, J; Bardin, T; Cohen Solal, A; Dalbeth, N; Doherty, M; Engel, B; Flader, C; Kay, J; Matsuoka, M; Perez-Ruiz, F; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G; Saag, K; So, A; Vazquez Mellado, J; Weisman, M; Westhoff, T H; Yamanaka, H; Braun, J

    2017-04-01

    The treat-to-target (T2T) concept has been applied successfully in several inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Gout is a chronic disease with a high burden of pain and inflammation. Because the pathogenesis of gout is strongly related to serum urate levels, gout may be an ideal disease in which to apply a T2T approach. Our aim was to develop international T2T recommendations for patients with gout. A committee of experts with experience in gout agreed upon potential targets and outcomes, which was the basis for the systematic literature search. Eleven rheumatologists, one cardiologist, one nephrologist, one general practitioner and one patient met in October 2015 to develop T2T recommendations based on the available scientific evidence. Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Although no randomised trial was identified in which a comparison with standard treatment or an evaluation of a T2T approach had been performed in patients with gout, indirect evidence was provided to focus on targets such as normalisation of serum urate levels. The expert group developed four overarching principles and nine T2T recommendations. They considered dissolution of crystals and prevention of flares to be fundamental; patient education, ensuring adherence to medications and monitoring of serum urate levels were also considered to be of major importance. This is the first application of the T2T approach developed for gout. Since no publication reports a trial comparing treatment strategies for gout, highly credible overarching principles and level D expert recommendations were created and agreed upon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Sequential change in T2* values of cartilage, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow in a rat model of knee osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huei Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is an emerging interest in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI T2* measurement for the evaluation of degenerative cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA. However, relatively few studies have addressed OA-related changes in adjacent knee structures. This study used MRI T2* measurement to investigate sequential changes in knee cartilage, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow in a rat OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLX. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly separated into three groups (n = 6 each group. Group 1 was the normal control group. Groups 2 and 3 received ACLX and sham-ACLX, respectively, of the right knee. T2* values were measured in the knee cartilage, the meniscus, and femoral subchondral bone marrow of all rats at 0, 4, 13, and 18 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: Cartilage T2* values were significantly higher at 4, 13, and 18 weeks postoperatively in rats of the ACLX group than in rats of the control and sham groups (p<0.001. In the ACLX group (compared to the sham and control groups, T2* values increased significantly first in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus at 4 weeks (p = 0.001, then in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus at 13 weeks (p<0.001, and began to increase significantly in the femoral subchondral bone marrow at 13 weeks (p = 0.043. CONCLUSION: Quantitative MR T2* measurements of OA-related tissues are feasible. Sequential change in T2* over time in cartilage, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow were documented. This information could be potentially useful for in vivo monitoring of disease progression.

  14. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  15. The TOTEM GEM Telescope (T2) at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinto, M.; Berretti, M.; David, E.; Garcia, F.; Greco, V.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oliveri, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N.; Stenis, M. van

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM T2 telescope will measure inelastically produced charged particles in the forward region of the LHC Interaction Point 5. Each arm of the telescope consists in a set of 20 triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors with tracking and trigger capabilities. The GEM technology has been considered for the design of TOTEM very forward T2 telescopes thanks to its characteristics: large active areas, good position and timing resolution, excellent rate capability and radiation hardness. Each of the four T2 half arms has been fully assembled and equipped with electronics at CERN and systematically tested in the SPS beam line H8 in 2008/09. After some optimization, the operation of the GEM chambers was fully satisfactory and the T2 telescopes were installed and commissioned in their final positions at the LHC interaction point. During the first LHC run (December 2009) the T2 telescopes have collected data, at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. We will present here the performances of the detector and the preliminary results obtained using the data collected.

  16. The TOTEM GEM Telescope (T2) at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via E.Orabona n 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); David, E. [CERN, PH Department, 1211 Geneva 23, Geneva (Switzerland); Garcia, F. [University of Helsinki, Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Greco, V. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kurvinen, K. [University of Helsinki, Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Lami, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Latino, G. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Lauhakangas, R. [University of Helsinki, Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Oliveri, E. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, PH Department, 1211 Geneva 23, Geneva (Switzerland); Scribano, A.; Turini, N. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Stenis, M. van [CERN, PH Department, 1211 Geneva 23, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    The TOTEM T2 telescope will measure inelastically produced charged particles in the forward region of the LHC Interaction Point 5. Each arm of the telescope consists in a set of 20 triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors with tracking and trigger capabilities. The GEM technology has been considered for the design of TOTEM very forward T2 telescopes thanks to its characteristics: large active areas, good position and timing resolution, excellent rate capability and radiation hardness. Each of the four T2 half arms has been fully assembled and equipped with electronics at CERN and systematically tested in the SPS beam line H8 in 2008/09. After some optimization, the operation of the GEM chambers was fully satisfactory and the T2 telescopes were installed and commissioned in their final positions at the LHC interaction point. During the first LHC run (December 2009) the T2 telescopes have collected data, at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. We will present here the performances of the detector and the preliminary results obtained using the data collected.

  17. T2 mapping in patellar chondromalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío; Almansa López, Julio; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. Methods: This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16–45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5 T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet–proximal–lateral (EPL), external facet–proximal–central (EPC), internal facet–proximal–central (IPC), internal facet–proximal–medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet–middle–lateral (EML), external facet–middle–central (EMC), internal facet–middle–central (IMC), internal facet–middle–medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet–distal–lateral (EDL), external facet–distal–central (EDC), internal facet–distal–central (IDC), internal facet–distal–medial (IDM). Results: T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (p < 0.05), except in the internal distal facet (IDC and IDM), EPC, EDL, and IMM. Severe chondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Steepest increase in T2 values of patellar cartilage occurs in early stages of patellar cartilage degeneration. Progression of morphologic changes of chondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the

  18. T2 mapping in patellar chondromalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan12@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Traumatology Hospital, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío [Department of Rehabilitation and Physical therapy, Traumatology Hospital, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain); Almansa López, Julio [Department of Physic, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain); Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María del Mar [Department of Radiology, Traumatology Hospital, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. Methods: This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16–45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5 T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet–proximal–lateral (EPL), external facet–proximal–central (EPC), internal facet–proximal–central (IPC), internal facet–proximal–medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet–middle–lateral (EML), external facet–middle–central (EMC), internal facet–middle–central (IMC), internal facet–middle–medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet–distal–lateral (EDL), external facet–distal–central (EDC), internal facet–distal–central (IDC), internal facet–distal–medial (IDM). Results: T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (p < 0.05), except in the internal distal facet (IDC and IDM), EPC, EDL, and IMM. Severe chondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Steepest increase in T2 values of patellar cartilage occurs in early stages of patellar cartilage degeneration. Progression of morphologic changes of chondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the

  19. T2 mapping of muscle activity using ultrafast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Noriyuki; Nitta, Osamu; Kuruma, Hironobu; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itoh, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Measuring exercise-induced muscle activity is essential in sports medicine. Previous studies proposed measuring transverse relaxation time (T 2 ) using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) to map muscle activity. However, mfMRI uses a spin-echo (SE) sequence that requires several minutes for acquisition. We evaluated the feasibility of T 2 mapping of muscle activity using ultrafast imaging, called fast-acquired mfMRI (fast-mfMRI), to reduce image acquisition time. The current method uses 2 pulse sequences, spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) and true fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP). SE-EPI images are used to calculate T 2 , and TrueFISP images are used to obtain morphological information. The functional image is produced by subtracting the image of muscle activity obtained using T 2 at rest from that produced after exercise. Final fast-mfMRI images are produced by fusing the functional images with the morphologic images. Ten subjects repeated ankle plantar flexion 200 times. In the fused images, the areas of activated muscle in the fast-mfMRI and SE-EPI images were identical. The geometric location of the fast-mfMRI did not differ between the morphologic and functional images. Morphological and functional information from fast-mfMRI can be applied to the human trunk, which requires limited scan duration. The difference obtained by subtracting T 2 at rest from T 2 after exercise can be used as a functional image of muscle activity. (author)

  20. Quantitative assessment of the supraspinatus tendon on MRI using T2/T2* mapping and shear-wave ultrasound elastography: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepkin, Konstantin; Adler, Ronald S.; Gyftopoulos, Soterios [NYU Langone Medical Center/Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Bruno, Mary; Raya, Jose G. [NYU Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine whether there is an association between T2/T2* mapping and supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties as assessed by shear-wave ultrasound elastography (SWE). This HIPAA-compliant prospective pilot study received approval from our hospital's institutional review board. Eight patients (3 males/5 females; age range 44-72 years) and nine shoulders underwent conventional shoulder MRI, T2/T2* mapping on a 3-T scanner, and SWE. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the MRI examinations in consensus for evidence of supraspinatus tendon pathology, with tear size measured for full-thickness tears. T2/T2* values and ultrasound shear-wave velocities (SWV) were calculated in three corresponding equidistant regions of interest (ROIs) within the insertional 1-2 cm of the supraspinatus tendon (medial, middle, lateral). Pearson correlation coefficients between T2/T2* values and SWV, as well as among T2, T2*, SWV and tear size, were calculated. There was a significant negative correlation between T2* and SWV in the lateral ROI (r = -0.86, p = 0.013) and overall mean ROI (r = -0.90, p = 0.006). There was significant positive correlation between T2 and measures of tear size in the lateral and mean ROIs (r range 0.71-0.77, p range 0.016-0.034). There was significant negative correlation between SWV and tear size in the middle and mean ROIs (r range -0.79-0.68, p range 0.011-0.046). Our pilot study demonstrated a potential relationship between T2* values and shear wave velocity values in the supraspinatus tendon, a finding that could lead to an improved, more quantitative evaluation of the rotator cuff tendons. (orig.)

  1. Quantitative assessment of the supraspinatus tendon on MRI using T2/T2* mapping and shear-wave ultrasound elastography: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepkin, Konstantin; Adler, Ronald S.; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Bruno, Mary; Raya, Jose G.

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between T2/T2* mapping and supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties as assessed by shear-wave ultrasound elastography (SWE). This HIPAA-compliant prospective pilot study received approval from our hospital's institutional review board. Eight patients (3 males/5 females; age range 44-72 years) and nine shoulders underwent conventional shoulder MRI, T2/T2* mapping on a 3-T scanner, and SWE. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the MRI examinations in consensus for evidence of supraspinatus tendon pathology, with tear size measured for full-thickness tears. T2/T2* values and ultrasound shear-wave velocities (SWV) were calculated in three corresponding equidistant regions of interest (ROIs) within the insertional 1-2 cm of the supraspinatus tendon (medial, middle, lateral). Pearson correlation coefficients between T2/T2* values and SWV, as well as among T2, T2*, SWV and tear size, were calculated. There was a significant negative correlation between T2* and SWV in the lateral ROI (r = -0.86, p = 0.013) and overall mean ROI (r = -0.90, p = 0.006). There was significant positive correlation between T2 and measures of tear size in the lateral and mean ROIs (r range 0.71-0.77, p range 0.016-0.034). There was significant negative correlation between SWV and tear size in the middle and mean ROIs (r range -0.79-0.68, p range 0.011-0.046). Our pilot study demonstrated a potential relationship between T2* values and shear wave velocity values in the supraspinatus tendon, a finding that could lead to an improved, more quantitative evaluation of the rotator cuff tendons. (orig.)

  2. Disability in progressive MS is associated with T2 lesion changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Lyksborg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by diffuse changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which complicates the use of MRI as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. The relationship between MRI measures (conventional and non-conventional) and clinical disability...... in progressive MS therefore warrants further investigation. Objective: To investigate the relationship between clinical disability and MRI measures in patients with progressive MS. Methods: Data from 93 primary and secondary progressive MS patients who had participated in 3 phase 2 clinical trials were included...... matter. Disability was assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the MS functional composite. Results: T2 lesion volume was associated with impairment by all clinical measures. MD and MTR in T2 lesions were significantly related to disability, and lower FA values correlated with worse...

  3. MRI T2 relaxometry of brain regions and cognitive dysfunction following electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kunigiri, Girish; Jayakumar, P. N.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) causes no structural brain damage, recent studies reported altered brain perfusion acutely following ECT. This is in keeping with brain edema which was noted in animal experiments following electroconvulsive shock. Aim: This study examined alteration in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxation time, a measure of brain edema, and its relation to therapeutic efficacy, orientation and memory impairment with ECT. Materials and Methods: Fi...

  4. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M.; Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren; Ladd, Mark E.; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  5. Fetal liver T2* values: defining a standardized scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Hoffmann, Chen; Raviv-Zilka, Lisa; Salem, Yishay; Hamdan, Ashraf; Goitein, David; Kushnir, Tamar; Eshed, Iris; Di-Segni, Elio; Konen, Eli

    2013-12-01

    To define the normal T2* values of liver in the third trimester of pregnancy in normal fetuses. Multi-echo gradient echo T2* sequence was applied to the fetal abdomen in the axial plane in women undergoing a fetal MRI (1.5 Tesla [T], MRI system). A region of interest, best visualizing in the liver parenchyma was used for measurements. Studies were independently read by two experienced readers to assess intra- and interobserver variability. The study cohort included 46 pregnant women undergoing fetal MRI for any indication other than liver pathology evaluation. Three scans were excluded due to fetal motion. Average maternal and gestational age were 33 ± 4 years and 31.9 ± 3 weeks, respectively. Average T2* values were found to be 19.7 ± 7.4 ms. The intra- and interobserver agreement were very good: 0.93 and 0.8-0.084, respectively. T2* MRI allows noninvasive evaluation liver iron content in the third trimester fetus. Measured values at this stage of pregnancy are significantly lower compared with values cited in the literature for adults. This is of major importance in the correct diagnosis of fetal iron overload states. We propose this as the standard reference when evaluating fetal iron overload pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of Renal Oxygenation Level Changes after Water Loading Using Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and T2* Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiule; Xing, Wei; Wu, Dongmei; Chen, Jie; Pan, Liang; Sun, Jun; Xing, Shijun; Dai, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) while monitoring changes in renal oxygenation level after water loading. Thirty-two volunteers (age, 28.0 ± 2.2 years) were enrolled in this study. SWI and multi-echo gradient echo sequence-based T2(*) mapping were used to cover the kidney before and after water loading. Cortical and medullary parameters were measured using small regions of interest, and their relative changes due to water loading were calculated based on baseline and post-water loading data. An intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess inter-observer reliability of each parameter. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to compare the performance of the two methods for detecting renal oxygenation changes due to water loading. Both medullary phase and medullary T2(*) values increased after water loading (p T2(*) changes (p > 0.05). Interobserver reliability was excellent for the T2(*) values, good for SWI cortical phase values, and moderate for the SWI medullary phase values. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of the SWI medullary phase values was 0.85 and was not different from the medullary T2(*) value (0.84). Susceptibility-weighted imaging enabled monitoring changes in the oxygenation level in the medulla after water loading, and may allow comparable feasibility to detect renal oxygenation level changes due to water loading compared with that of T2(*) mapping.

  7. T2K Liquid Argon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-09-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment since it would play an important part in reducing the systematics and improving the ultimate θ sensitivity. It would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique, providing in-situ R&D and paving the way for future large LAr detectors. Its main features are discussed in this talk.

  8. T2K Liquid Argon TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-01-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment since it would play an important part in reducing the systematics and improving the ultimate θ 13 sensitivity. It would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique, providing in-situ R and D and paving the way for future large LAr detectors. Its main features are discussed in this talk

  9. Lifestyle measures for primary prevention of T2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S A Mansur Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the number of adults with diabetes was 285 million in 2010 and it will be 439 million in the year 2030. Although the genes we inherit may influence the development of type 2 diabetes, they take a back seat to behavioral and lifestyle factors. Data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that 90 percent of type 2 diabetes in women can be attributed to five such factors: excess weight, lack of exercise, a less-than-healthy diet, smoking, and abstaining from alcohol. From this data it can be said that up to 90 percent of diabetes prevention is possible with behavioral and lifestyle factors intervention. This intervention should be given to the people through primary prevention. The purpose of primary prevention is to limit the number of people who develop a disease by controlling causes and risk factors for the disease.

  10. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  11. Measurement Uncertainty Relations for Discrete Observables: Relative Entropy Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchielli, Alberto; Gregoratti, Matteo; Toigo, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new information-theoretic formulation of quantum measurement uncertainty relations, based on the notion of relative entropy between measurement probabilities. In the case of a finite-dimensional system and for any approximate joint measurement of two target discrete observables, we define the entropic divergence as the maximal total loss of information occurring in the approximation at hand. For fixed target observables, we study the joint measurements minimizing the entropic divergence, and we prove the general properties of its minimum value. Such a minimum is our uncertainty lower bound: the total information lost by replacing the target observables with their optimal approximations, evaluated at the worst possible state. The bound turns out to be also an entropic incompatibility degree, that is, a good information-theoretic measure of incompatibility: indeed, it vanishes if and only if the target observables are compatible, it is state-independent, and it enjoys all the invariance properties which are desirable for such a measure. In this context, we point out the difference between general approximate joint measurements and sequential approximate joint measurements; to do this, we introduce a separate index for the tradeoff between the error of the first measurement and the disturbance of the second one. By exploiting the symmetry properties of the target observables, exact values, lower bounds and optimal approximations are evaluated in two different concrete examples: (1) a couple of spin-1/2 components (not necessarily orthogonal); (2) two Fourier conjugate mutually unbiased bases in prime power dimension. Finally, the entropic incompatibility degree straightforwardly generalizes to the case of many observables, still maintaining all its relevant properties; we explicitly compute it for three orthogonal spin-1/2 components.

  12. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  13. Development and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Glucoside of T-2 Toxin (T2-Glc)

    OpenAIRE

    Maragos, Chris M.; Kurtzman, Cletus; Busman, Mark; Price, Neil; McCormick, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between fungi and plants can yield metabolites that are toxic in animal systems. Certain fungi are known to produce sesquiterpenoid trichothecenes, such as T-2 toxin, that are biotransformed by several mechanisms including glucosylation. The glucosylated forms have been found in grain and are of interest as potential reservoirs of T-2 toxin that are not detected by many analytical methods. Hence the glucosides of trichothecenes are often termed “masked” mycotoxins. The glucos...

  14. The infrared spectrum of polypyrrole-T2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Isao; Oda, Kazuhiro

    1995-01-01

    The infrared spectra of polypyrrole contacting with T 2 O gas were observed for ca. 100 days. After adding T 2 O (1.2 Ci; isotopic purity: 15%) the band at 2180 cm -1 was observed, which is assigned to the N-T stretch. Although the bands at 1560 and 1204 cm -1 were initially strong, they became relatively weak by Tβ-irradiation. On the other hand, the bands at 1655 and 1400 cm -1 , as well as 1700 cm -1 , became relatively strong by Tβ-irradiation. This is explained in that the quinonoid-type structure with partially aromatic-type structure decreases and a structure with probable C=N bonds is formed. It was also found that many carbonyl defects are formed in both the atmosphere and Tβ-radiolysis. (author)

  15. Nonstandard neutrino interactions at DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny; Whisnant, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Here, we study the matter effect caused by nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) in the next generation long-baseline neutrino experiments, DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK. If multiple NSI parameters are nonzero, the potential of these experiments to detect CP violation, determine the mass hierarchy and constrain NSI is severely impaired by degeneracies between the NSI parameters and by the generalized mass hierarchy degeneracy. In particular, a cancellation between leading order terms in the appearance channels when ϵ_e_τ= cot θ _2_3ϵ_e_μ, strongly affects the sensitivities to these two NSI parameters at T2HK and T2HKK. We also study the dependence of the sensitivities on the true CP phase and the true mass hierarchy, and find that overall DUNE has the best sensitivity to the magnitude of the NSI parameters, while T2HKK has the best sensitivity to CP violation whether or not there are NSI. Furthermore, for T2HKK a smaller off-axis angle for the Korean detector is better overall. We find that due to the structure of the leading order terms in the appearance channel probabilities, the NSI sensitivities in a given experiment are similar for both mass hierarchies, modulo the phase change δ→δ + 180°.

  16. Quantitative T2-Mapping and T2⁎-Mapping Evaluation of Changes in Cartilage Matrix after Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and the Correlation between the Results of Both Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hongyue; Qiao, Yang; Hu, Yiwen; Xie, Yuxue; Lu, Rong; Yan, Xu; Chen, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    To quantitatively assess changes in cartilage matrix after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture using T2- and T2 ⁎ -mapping and analyze the correlation between the results of both methods. Twenty-three patients and 23 healthy controls were enrolled and underwent quantitative MRI examination. The knee cartilage was segmented into six compartments, including lateral femur (LF), lateral tibia (LT), medial femur (MF), medial tibia (MT), trochlea (Tr), and patella (Pa). T2 and T2 ⁎ values were measured in full-thickness as well as superficial and deep layers of each cartilage compartment. Differences of T2 and T2 ⁎ values between patients and controls were compared using unpaired Student's t -test, and the correlation between their reciprocals was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. ACL-ruptured patients showed higher T2 and T2 ⁎ values in full-thickness and superficial layers of medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint. Meanwhile, patients exhibited higher T2 ⁎ values in deep layers of lateral tibiofemoral joint. The elevated percentages of T2 and T2 ⁎ value in superficial LT were most significant (20.738%, 17.525%). The reciprocal of T2 ⁎ value was correlated with that of T2 value ( r = 0.886, P T2 ⁎ -mapping might be more sensitive in detecting deep layer of cartilage than T2-mapping.

  17. New results from the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oser, Scott M., E-mail: oser@phas.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Collaboration: T2K Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    The T2K experiment searches for the appearance of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam. The rate of this process is sensitive to the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Recent measurements that {theta}{sub 13} {ne} 0 imply that {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations should be observable. Using all data through May 15, 2012 the T2K experiment has detected 10 candidate {nu}{sub e} events, with an expected background for {theta}{sub 13} = 0 of 2.73{+-}0.37 events. This 3.2{sigma} excess of {nu}{sub e} events is the strongest indication to date for appearance of electron neutrinos in a neutrino oscillation experiment, and for normal mass hierarchy and {delta}{sub CP} = 0 yields 0.059 < sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.164 at the 68 % C.L.

  18. Voltage control in smart grid using T2FLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodayar, Yaser; Sabahi, Kamel; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    coordinated to keep the voltage within the standard range. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-agent controller based on type-2 fuzzy logic system (T2FLS) is utilized to coordinate the DG, ULTC, and load to regulate the voltage of the smart grid in the presence of noise and uncertainty. The proposed fuzzy...... system identifies the different parts of the smart grid as an agent (i.e. ULTC, DG, and load) and regulates the voltage by managing them. A 16-bus power system has been utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed T2FLS controller outperforms...... the type-1 fuzzy controller and regulates the voltage in an appropriate way even in the presence of the different levels of measurement noise and uncertainty....

  19. Differences in fatty degeneration of rotator cuff muscles at different sites, as quantified by T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yuki; Matsuki, Keisuke; Hoshika, Shota; Ueda, Yusuke; Onishi, Kazutomo; Tokai, Morihito; Takahashi, Norimasa; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Dougo, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Atsuya

    2017-03-01

    Fatty degeneration of the cuff muscles is usually evaluated at the Y-view in oblique sagittal images. It was recently proposed that muscle shift after repair may influence the fatty degeneration values, and the evaluation of the muscles at a more medial site was recommended. However, the differences in muscle quality in accord with measurement sites have been unclear. Here we evaluated differences in fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles measured quantitatively at different sites, using T2 mapping. We assessed 702 shoulders of 675 patients (335 males, 340 females; mean age, 62 years) who underwent MRI including T2 mapping. There were 345 shoulders without rotator cuff tears and 357 shoulders with tears: partial tear = 103 shoulders; small = 63; medium = 94; large = 71; massive = 26. T2 values of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were measured on the Y-view and on the image that was 15 mm medial to the Y-view. The T2 values at the medial site increased with the tear extent, as did those on the Y-view. There were no significant differences in supraspinatus T2 values between those on the Y-view and at the medial site in all tear size groups except medium and large tears (p = 0.008 and p tear size groups except large tears (p = 0.002). However, the differences were relatively small (2.4-5.6 ms), which were within the standard deviations of the measurements. The T2 values of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles on the Y-view and at 15 mm medial to it were almost identical, with the exception of small differences in the case of larger tears. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  1. MRI Evaluation of Non-Necrotic T2-Hyperintense Foci in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerk-Lamalice, O; Reddick, W E; Li, X; Li, Y; Edwards, A; Glass, J O; Patay, Z

    2016-05-19

    The conventional MR imaging appearance of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma suggests intralesional histopathologic heterogeneity, and various distinct lesion components, including T2-hypointense foci, have been described. Here we report the prevalence, conventional MR imaging semiology, and advanced MR imaging features of non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Twenty-five patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas were included in this study. MR imaging was performed at 3T by using conventional and advanced MR imaging sequences. Perfusion (CBV), vascular permeability (v e , K trans ), and diffusion (ADC) metrics were calculated and used to characterize non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci in comparison with other lesion components, namely necrotic T2-hyperintense foci, T2-hypointense foci, peritumoral edema, and normal brain stem. Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Sixteen non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci were found in 12 tumors. In these foci, ADC values were significantly higher than those in either T2-hypointense foci (P = .002) or normal parenchyma (P = .0002), and relative CBV values were significantly lower than those in either T2-hypointense (P = .0002) or necrotic T2-hyperintense (P = .006) foci. Volume transfer coefficient values in T2-hyperintense foci were lower than those in T2-hypointense (P = .0005) or necrotic T2-hyperintense (P = .0348) foci. Non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci are common, distinct lesion components within diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Advanced MR imaging data suggest low cellularity and an early stage of angioneogenesis with leaky vessels resulting in expansion of the extracellular space. Because of the lack of biopsy validation, the underlying histoarchitectural and pathophysiologic changes remain unclear; therefore, these foci may correspond to a poorly understood biologic event in tumor evolution. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  2. T2-weighted imaging of the heart—A pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; Anca, Nicoleta; Mikami, Yoko; Merchant, Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Spin-Echo techniques in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have been used for decades, primarily to image cardiac anatomy. More recently, T2-weighted (T2W) imaging has seen an increased role in CMR protocols, especially in tissue characterization in acute myocardial processes. This article will review current methodologies of cardiac T2W acquisition and their limitations, as well as approach to both semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses. The appearance and utility of T2W imaging in a myriad of pathologic myocardial processes such as acute myocardial infarction, acute viral myocarditis, reversible stress-related cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac sarcoidosis, will also be discussed

  3. Effect of clenching on T2 and diffusion parameters of the masseter muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikui, Toru; Kawazu, Toshiyuki; Kami, Yukiko; Yoshiura, Kazunori (Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)), e-mail: chikui@rad.dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yuasa, Kenji (Section of Image Diagnosis, Dept. of Diagnostics and General Care, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)); Ichihara, Takahiro (Dept. of Radiology, Fukuoka Dental College Medical and Dental Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Hatakenaka, Masamitsu (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Faculty of Medical Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    2010-01-15

    Background: Persistent muscle contractions during clenching are considered to be one reason for temporomandibular disorders. However, no report has evaluated the effect of clenching on the masticatory muscles, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To investigate whether clenching has an effect on either T2 or the coefficients for diffusion of the masseter muscles (MM), and to evaluate the effect of the distribution of bite force on such indices. Material and Methods: Twenty-three subjects were examined. Bite force was measured by a pressure-sensitive sheet, and the force of the right and the left sides was calculated. MRI was used to evaluate T2, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and the primary (1), secondary (2), and tertiary eigenvalues (3). These indices on the stronger side of the bite force were compared to those on the weaker side. Thereafter, the indices were compared between at rest and during clenching. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the indices (T2, ADC, 1, 2, and 3) between the side of stronger bite force and the side with weaker. T2 increased by clenching, and the difference was significant in the side with stronger bite force (P = 0.006). ADC, 1, 2, and 3 increased significantly by clenching (P <0.01, P <0.01, P <0.01, and P <0.01, respectively) on both sides. The percentage of change of 2 by clenching was 26.2+-15.7% on the stronger side and 26.9+-18.6% on the weaker side, which was significantly greater than either that of 1 or 3. Conclusion: The coefficients for diffusion of the MM were sensitive to change by clenching, and 2 was the most sensitive. Moreover, the relative distribution of the bite forces had no effect on any of the indices

  4. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High-Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, P.M.; Pande, K.C.; Patwardhan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  6. Parametric T2 and T2* mapping techniques to visualize intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with low back pain: initial results on the clinical use of 3.0 Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Goetz Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried; Goed, Sabine; Stelzeneder, David; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Bohndorf, Klaus; Mamisch, Tallal Charles

    2011-01-01

    To assess, compare and correlate quantitative T2 and T2* relaxation time measurements of intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients suffering from low back pain, with respect to the IVD degeneration as assessed by the morphological Pfirrmann Score. Special focus was on the spatial variation of T2 and T2* between the annulus fibrosus (AF) and the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thirty patients (mean age: 38.1 ± 9.1 years; 20 female, 10 male) suffering from low back pain were included. Morphological (sagittal T1-FSE, sagittal and axial T2-FSE) and biochemical (sagittal T2- and T2* mapping) MRI was performed at 3 Tesla covering IVDs L1-L2 to L5-S1. All IVDs were morphologically classified using the Pfirrmann score. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on midsagittal T2 and T2* maps at five ROIs from anterior to posterior to obtain information on spatial variation between the AF and the NP. Statistical analysis-of-variance and Pearson correlation was performed. The spatial variation as an increase in T2 and T2* values from the AF to the NP was highest at Pfirmann grade I and declined at higher Pfirmann grades II-IV (p < 0.05). With increased IVD degeneration, T2 and T2* revealed a clear differences in the NP, whereas T2* was additionally able to depict changes in the posterior AF. Correlation between T2 and T2* showed a medium Pearson's correlation (0.210 to 0.356 [p < 0.001]). The clear differentiation of IVD degeneration and the possible quantification by means of T2 and fast T2* mapping may provide a new tool for follow-up therapy protocols in patients with low back pain. (orig.)

  7. Changes in Regional t2 Relaxation in Compressed Cartilage: a Microscopic MRI (µMRI) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, Hisham; Xia, Yang

    2004-10-01

    T2-anisotropy of articular cartilage in magnetic field has its origin on the proton dipolar interactions and the collagen matrix organization, which influences T2 with a dependency as (3s^2(θ)-1). Seven specimens from a beagle humeral head were compressed at 12% and 20% strain values in μMRI experiments. T2 mappings at two orientations (0r and 55r) before and during compression were conducted on a Bruker AMX 300 NMR. Under load, the 2D cartilage maps at the magic angle lost its usual homogenous appearance. T2 values were averaged at the superficial zone (SZ), the transitional zone (TZ), and the radial zone (RZ). At 0r and relative to uncompressed tissue, SZ T2 was significantly lower, and RZ T2 increased significantly at both strain rates (12% and 20%). At 55r and relative to uncompressed tissue, ``bulk'' T2 and RZ T2 were significantly lower at only 20% strain. However, SZ T2 and TZ T2 were significantly lower at both strain rates. In addition, relative to 12% strain, SZ T2 was significantly lower at 0r; and ``bulk'' T2 and TZ T2 were significantly lower at 55r. The results demonstrate the modifications in collagen fiber organization as the dipolar interaction is altered due to tissue compression.

  8. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2 * : 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2 * : 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2 * : 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2 * : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2 * values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  9. T2KLAr: a liquid Argon TPC for the T2K neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-01-01

    A 2km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment, especially because of its role in reducing the systematics. It would also be an important milestone for this technique paving the way for future applications. Its main features are explained in this talk

  10. T2KLAr: a liquid Argon TPC for the T2K neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-05-01

    A 2km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment, especially because of its role in reducing the systematics. It would also be an important milestone for this technique paving the way for future applications. Its main features are explained in this talk.

  11. Distinction of salvaged and infarcted myocardium within the ischaemic area-at-risk with T2 mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Ugander, Martin; Hsu, Li-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    values from T2 maps and signal intensities on T2-weighted images were measured in the corresponding areas. RESULTS: At both imaging time points, the T2 of the salvaged myocardium was longer than of remote (66.0 ± 6.9 vs. 51.4 ± 3.5 ms, P ...AIM: Area-at-risk (AAR) measurements often rely on T2-weighted images, but subtle differences in T2 may be overlooked with this method. To determine the differences in oedema between salvaged and infarcted myocardium, we performed quantitative T2 mapping of the AAR. We also aimed to determine...... (14.7 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.1 ms, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: T2 relaxation parameters are different in the infarcted and salvaged myocardium, and both are significantly longer than remote. Furthermore, the magnitude of increase in T2 was less in the salvaged myocardium after longer reperfusion, indicating...

  12. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nketiah, G.; Elschot, M.; Kim, E.; Teruel, J.R.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Bathen, T.F.; Selnaes, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  13. Quantitative evaluation of cerebral white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis using multicomponent T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovicova, Eva; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Kantorova, Ema; Hnilicova, Petra; Dobrota, Dusan

    2016-05-01

    A standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation of white matter (WM) areas with visible or expected pathology does not explain satisfactorily the relation between pathology and clinical outcome. Therefore, we focused on multicomponent T2 mapping of WM with the intention to characterize the WM, including normal-appearing white matter that has normal and prolonged T2 and lesions, including degenerated tissue. Twenty-nine patients with clinically diagnosed MS and 27 healthy controls underwent MRI examination. T2 mapping of the WM across the two whole MRI slices was carried out. The relative abundance of biologically relevant T2 regions was correlated with age and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The relative abundance of the T2 values of water trapped in myelin increased with age in both healthy subjects (p T2 assigned to intra- and extracellular water decreased with age in both groups (p T2 above 110 ms were not related to age, but strongly increased with EDSS (p T2 mapping of the WM can be a useful parameter for monitoring the progression of MS in patients.

  14. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance T2-STIR Imaging is Unable to Discriminate Between Intramyocardial Haemorrhage and Microvascular Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have used cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and T2-weighted short tau inversion recovery (T2-STIR) imaging to detect intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) as a measure of ischemic/reperfusion injury. We investigated the ability of T2-STIR to differentiate between microvascular...

  15. T2* mapping of hip joint cartilage in various histological grades of degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittersohl, B; Miese, F R; Hosalkar, H S; Herten, M; Antoch, G; Krauspe, R; Zilkens, C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate T2* values in various histological severities of osteoarthritis (OA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T2* mapping including a three-dimensional (3D) double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence for morphological cartilage assessment and a 3D multiecho data image combination (MEDIC) sequence for T2* mapping were conducted in 21 human femoral head specimens with varying severities of OA. Subsequently, histological assessment was undertaken in all specimens to correlate the observations of T2* mapping with histological analyses. According to the Mankin score, four grades of histological changes were determined: grade 0 (Mankin scores of 0-4), grade I (scores of 5-8), grade II (scores of 9-10), and grade III (scores of 11-14). For reliability assessment, cartilage T2* measurements were repeated after 4 weeks in 10 randomly selected femoral head specimens. T2* values decreased significantly with increasing cartilage degeneration (total P-values fair correlation between T2* values and Mankin score (correlation coefficient = -0.362) that was statistically significant (P-value advantages of the T2* mapping technique with no need for contrast medium, high image resolution and ability to perform 3D biochemically sensitive imaging, T2* mapping may be a strong addition to the currently evolving era of cartilage biochemical imaging. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Signal-to-noise ratio, T2 , and T2* for hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI of the human lung at three magnetic field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlosi, Peter; Altes, Talissa A; Qing, Kun; Mooney, Karen E; Miller, G Wilson; Mata, Jaime F; de Lange, Eduard E; Tobias, William A; Cates, Gordon D; Mugler, John P

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate T 2 , T2*, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for hyperpolarized helium-3 ( 3 He) MRI of the human lung at three magnetic field strengths ranging from 0.43T to 1.5T. Sixteen healthy volunteers were imaged using a commercial whole body scanner at 0.43T, 0.79T, and 1.5T. Whole-lung T 2 values were calculated from a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo-train acquisition. T2* maps and SNR were determined from dual-echo and single-echo gradient-echo images, respectively. Mean whole-lung SNR values were normalized by ventilated lung volume and administered 3 He dose. As expected, T 2 and T2* values demonstrated a significant inverse relationship to field strength. Hyperpolarized 3 He images acquired at all three field strengths had comparable SNR values and thus appeared visually very similar. Nonetheless, the relatively small SNR differences among field strengths were statistically significant. Hyperpolarized 3 He images of the human lung with similar image quality were obtained at three field strengths ranging from 0.43T and 1.5T. The decrease in susceptibility effects at lower fields that are reflected in longer T 2 and T2* values may be advantageous for optimizing pulse sequences inherently sensitive to such effects. The three-fold increase in T2* at lower field strength would allow lower receiver bandwidths, providing a concomitant decrease in noise and relative increase in SNR. Magn Reson Med 78:1458-1463, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Prognostic role of tumor volume for radiotherapy outcome in patient with T2 laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, T.; Wygoda, A.; Skladowski, K.; Rutkowski, R.; Maciejewski, B.; Hejduk, B.; Kolosza, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tumor volume (TV) is recognized as a prognostic factor of treatment outcome for head and neck tumors but is not routinely included in the treatment decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to define its prognostic role for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. Material and methods: TV of 160 patients who underwent RT between 2002 and 2006 for T2 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were reviewed. The tumor was located in the glottis and epiglottis in 82 (51 %) and 78 (49 %) patients, respectively. TV was manually contoured on pretreatment, planning, contrast-enhanced CT scans and the volumetric measurement (cm 3 ) was calculated by the volume algorithm. Results: The median TV value was 2.01 cm 3 (range 0.15-21.68 cm 3 ). The median TV was significantly lower in patients with glottic tumors (p < 0.0001), N0 (p < 0.001), or well histopatologically differentiated tumors (p = 0.01). A significant correlation between TV, hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.01), and total dose (TD; p < 0.001) was observed. On univariate analyses, TV influenced local control (LC; p = 0.02) and overall survival (OS, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, both age (HR 1.038, p = 0.03) and TV (HR = 1.075, p = 0.01) remained significantly related to LC and OS (age: HR 1.038, p = 0.005; TV: HR 1.097, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: Large TV worsen prognosis of patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. A large TV is more common for supraglottic, poorly differentiated tumors and may suggest higher risk of nodal spread. The routine estimation of TV prior to therapy may be essential in order to select the best treatment option for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer. (orig.)

  18. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Performance of T2 Maps in the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aritrick; Devaraj, Ajit; Mathew, Melvy; Szasz, Teodora; Antic, Tatjana; Karczmar, Gregory S; Oto, Aytekin

    2018-05-03

    This study compares the performance of T2 maps in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in comparison to T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance images. The prospective study was institutional review board approved. Consenting patients (n = 45) with histologic confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with or without endorectal coil. Two radiologists, working independently, marked regions of interests (ROIs) on PCa lesions separately on T2W images and T2 maps. Each ROI was assigned a score of 1-5 based on the confidence in accurately detecting cancer, with 5 being the highest confidence. Subsequently, the histologically confirmed PCa lesions (n = 112) on whole-mount sections were matched with ROIs to calculate sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and radiologist confidence score. Quantitative T2 values of PCa and benign tissue ROIs were measured. Sensitivity and confidence score for PCa detection were similar for T2W images (51%, 4.5 ± 0.8) and T2 maps (52%, 4.5 ± 0.6). However, PPV was significantly higher (P = .001) for T2 maps (88%) compared to T2W (72%) images. The use of endorectal coils nominally improved sensitivity (T2W: 55 vs 47%, T2 map: 54% vs 48%) compared to the use of no endorectal coils, but not the PPV and the confidence score. Quantitative T2 values for PCa (105 ± 28 milliseconds) were significantly (P = 9.3 × 10 -14 ) lower than benign peripheral zone tissue (211 ± 71 milliseconds), with moderate significant correlation with Gleason score (ρ = -0.284). Our study shows that review of T2 maps by radiologists has similar sensitivity but higher PPV compared to T2W images. Additional quantitative information obtained from T2 maps is helpful in differentiating cancer from normal prostate tissue and determining its aggressiveness. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Relative Coupling Strength in Circadian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Herzog, Erik D; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators. Simulations of different oscillator networks show that period and phase distributions become narrower with increasing coupling strength. Moreover, amplitudes can increase due to resonance effects. Variances of periods and phases decay monotonically with coupling strength, and can serve therefore as measures of relative coupling strength. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by studying recently published experimental data from PERIOD2 expression in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus during and after the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX). On analyzing the corresponding period, phase, and amplitude distributions, we can show that treatment with TTX can be associated with a reduced coupling strength in the system of coupled oscillators. Analysis of an oscillator network derived directly from the data confirms our conclusions. We suggest that our approach is also applicable to quantify coupling in fibroblast cultures and hepatocyte networks, and for social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in rodents, flies, and bees.

  1. Evaluation of median nerve T2 signal changes in patients with surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Yavuz; Karagöz, Yeşim; Yaman, Mehmet; Atçı, İbrahim Burak; Emre, Ufuk; Kılıçkesmez, Nuri Özgür; Çelik, Suat Erol

    2016-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of median nerve T2 evaluation and its relation with Boston Questionnaire (BQ) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in pre-operative and post-operative carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-three CTS patients and 24 healthy volunteers underwent NCSs, median nerve T2 evaluation and self-administered BQ. Pre-operative and 1st year post-operative median nerve T2 values and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were compared both within pre-operative and post-operative CTS groups, and with healthy volunteers. The relationship between MRI findings and BQ and NCSs was analyzed. The ROC curve analysis was used for determining the accuracy. The comparison of pre-operative and post-operative T2 values and CSAs revealed statistically significant improvements in the post-operative patient group (pT2 values at all levels and BQ values, and positive and negative correlations were also found regarding T2 values and NCS findings in CTS patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for defined cut-off levels of median nerve T2 values in hands with severe CTS yielded excellent accuracy at all levels. However, this accuracy could not be demonstrated in hands with mild CTS. This study is the first to analyze T2 values in both pre-operative and post-operative CTS patients. The presence of increased T2 values in CTS patients compared to controls and excellent accuracy in hands with severe CTS indicates T2 signal changes related to CTS pathophysiology and possible utilization of T2 signal evaluation in hands with severe CTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analysis of disc degeneration using axial T2 mapping in a percutaneous annular puncture model in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jee Won; Kim, Su Jin [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate T2 relaxation time change using axial T2 mapping in a rabbit degenerated disc model and determine the most correlated variable with histologic score among T2 relaxation time, disc height index, and Pfirrmann grade. Degenerated disc model was made in 4 lumbar discs of 11 rabbits (n = 44) by percutaneous annular puncture with various severities of an injury. Lumbar spine lateral radiograph, MR T2 sagittal scan and MR axial T2 mapping were obtained at baseline and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the injury in 7 rabbits and at baseline and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the injury in 4 rabbits. Generalized estimating equations were used for a longitudinal analysis of changes in T2 relaxation time in degenerated disc model. T2 relaxation time, disc height index and Pfirrmann grade were correlated with the histologic scoring of disc degeneration using Spearman's rho test. There was a significant difference in T2 relaxation time between uninjured and injured discs after annular puncture. Progressive decrease in T2 relaxation time was observed in injured discs throughout the study period. Lower T2 relaxation time was observed in the more severely injured discs. T2 relaxation time showed the strongest inverse correlation with the histologic score among the variables investigated (r = -0.811, p < 0.001). T2 relaxation time measured with axial T2 mapping in degenerated discs is a potential method to assess disc degeneration.

  3. Evaluation of renal oxygenation level changes after water loading using susceptibility-weighted imaging and T2{sup *} mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jiule; Xing, Wei; Chen, Jie; Pan, Liang; Sun, Jun; Xing, Shi Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Changzhou (China); Wu, Dong Mei [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Dai, Yong Ming [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China)

    2015-08-15

    To assess the feasibility of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) while monitoring changes in renal oxygenation level after water loading. Thirty-two volunteers (age, 28.0 ± 2.2 years) were enrolled in this study. SWI and multi-echo gradient echo sequence-based T2{sup *} mapping were used to cover the kidney before and after water loading. Cortical and medullary parameters were measured using small regions of interest, and their relative changes due to water loading were calculated based on baseline and post-water loading data. An intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess inter-observer reliability of each parameter. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to compare the performance of the two methods for detecting renal oxygenation changes due to water loading. Both medullary phase and medullary T2{sup *} values increased after water loading (p < 0.001), although poor correlations were found between the phase changes and the T2{sup *} changes (p > 0.05). Interobserver reliability was excellent for the T2{sup *} values, good for SWI cortical phase values, and moderate for the SWI medullary phase values. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve of the SWI medullary phase values was 0.85 and was not different from the medullary T2{sup *} value (0.84). Susceptibility-weighted imaging enabled monitoring changes in the oxygenation level in the medulla after water loading, and may allow comparable feasibility to detect renal oxygenation level changes due to water loading compared with that of T2{sup *} mapping.

  4. T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sehata

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Dynamic T2-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate ( 2 , since T 2 increases linearly in fat during heating. T 2 -mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T 2 . Calibration of T 2 -based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T 2 and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T 2 temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/°C was observed. Dynamic T 2 -mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  6. Thomson scattering in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welander, A.

    1996-11-01

    A Thomson scattering system has been installed on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP experiment. The system measures the electron density and temperature in three radial points using three spectral channels. A description of the system, the calibration techniques and examples of data obtained are given. The error bars for the electron temperature measurements are estimated to be < 10% for typical T2-plasmas. 4 refs

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Christopher Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bush, Jason William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Porter Jack [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, Kurt Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  8. Simultaneous T1 and T2 Brain Relaxometry in Asymptomatic Volunteers using Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badve, Chaitra; Yu, Alice; Rogers, Matthew; Ma, Dan; Liu, Yiying; Schluchter, Mark; Sunshine, Jeffrey; Griswold, Mark; Gulani, Vikas

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) is a method of image acquisition that produces multiple MR parametric maps from a single scan. Here, we describe the normal range and progression of MRF-derived relaxometry values with age in healthy individuals. 56 normal volunteers (ages 11-71 years, M:F 24:32) were scanned. Regions of interest were drawn on T 1 and T 2 maps in 38 areas, including lobar and deep white matter, deep gray nuclei, thalami and posterior fossa structures. Relaxometry differences were assessed using a forward stepwise selection of a baseline model including either gender, age, or both, where variables were included if they contributed significantly (p<0.05). Additionally, differences in regional anatomy, including comparisons between hemispheres and between anatomical subcomponents, were assessed by paired t-tests. Using this protocol, MRF-derived T 1 and T 2 in frontal WM regions were found to increase in with age, while occipital and temporal regions remained relatively stable. Deep gray nuclei, including substantia nigra, were found to have age-related decreases in relaxometry. Gender differences were observed in T 1 and T 2 of temporal regions, cerebellum and pons. Males were also found to have more rapid age-related changes in frontal and parietal WM. Regional differences were identified between hemispheres, between genu and splenium of corpus callosum, and between posteromedial and anterolateral thalami. In conclusion, MRF quantification can measure relaxometry trends in healthy individuals that are in agreement with current understanding of neuroanatomy and neurobiology, and has the ability to uncover additional patterns that have not yet been explored.

  9. Edge profiles and limiter tests in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Hedin, G.; Ilyinsky, L.; Larsson, D.; Möller, A.

    New edge profile measurements, including calorimetric measurements of the parallel heat flux, were made in Extrap T2. Test limiters of pure molybdenum and the TZM molybdenum alloy have been exposed in the edge plasma. The surface damage was studied, mainly by microscopy. Tungsten coated graphite probes were also exposed, and the surfaces were studied by microscopy, ion beam analysis and XPS. In this case cracking and mixing of carbon and tungsten at the interface was observed in the most heated areas, whereas carbide formation at the surface was seen in less heated areas. In these tests pure Mo generally fared better than TZM, and thin and cleaner coatings fared better than thicker and less clean.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by axial T2* mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Leitao; Liu, Yuan; Ding, Yi; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Ning; Lai, Qi; Zeng, Xianjun; Wan, Zongmiao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the clinical value and demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2* mapping-based grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease (DDD) using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting.Fifty patients with low back pain and 20 healthy volunteers (control) underwent standard MRI protocols including axial T2* mapping. All the intervertebral discs (IVDs) were classified morphologically. Lumbar IVDs were graded using Pfirrmann score (I to IV). The T2* values of the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and nucleus pulposus (NP) of each lumbar IVD were measured. The differences between groups were analyzed regarding specific T2* pattern at different regions of interest.The T2* values of the NP and posterior AF in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P T2* value of the anterior AF was not significantly different between the patients and the controls (P > .05). The mean T2*values of the lumbar IVD in the patient group were significantly lower, especially the posterior AF, followed by the NP, and finally, the anterior AF. In the anterior AF, comparison of grade I with grade III and grade I with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). Similarly, in the NP, comparison of grade I with grade III, grade I with grade IV, grade II with grade III, and grade II with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P T2 values decreased linearly with increasing degeneration based on the Pfirrmann scoring system (ρ T2* value can signify early degenerative IVD diseases. Hence, T2* mapping can be used as a diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of IVD degeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by axial T2∗ mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Leitao; Liu, Yuan; Ding, Yi; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Ning; Lai, Qi; Zeng, Xianjun; Wan, Zongmiao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To quantitatively evaluate the clinical value and demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2∗ mapping-based grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease (DDD) using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting. Fifty patients with low back pain and 20 healthy volunteers (control) underwent standard MRI protocols including axial T2∗ mapping. All the intervertebral discs (IVDs) were classified morphologically. Lumbar IVDs were graded using Pfirrmann score (I to IV). The T2∗ values of the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and nucleus pulposus (NP) of each lumbar IVD were measured. The differences between groups were analyzed regarding specific T2∗ pattern at different regions of interest. The T2∗ values of the NP and posterior AF in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P T2∗ value of the anterior AF was not significantly different between the patients and the controls (P > .05). The mean T2∗values of the lumbar IVD in the patient group were significantly lower, especially the posterior AF, followed by the NP, and finally, the anterior AF. In the anterior AF, comparison of grade I with grade III and grade I with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). Similarly, in the NP, comparison of grade I with grade III, grade I with grade IV, grade II with grade III, and grade II with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P T2∗ values decreased linearly with increasing degeneration based on the Pfirrmann scoring system (ρ T2∗ value can signify early degenerative IVD diseases. Hence, T2∗ mapping can be used as a diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of IVD degeneration. PMID:29390547

  12. Isotropic three-dimensional T2 mapping of knee cartilage: Development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotti, Roberto; Omoumi, Patrick; Bonanno, Gabriele; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; van Heeswijk, Ruud B

    2018-02-01

    1) To implement a higher-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping technique that uses sequential T 2 -prepared segmented gradient-recalled echo (Iso3DGRE) images for knee cartilage evaluation, and 2) to validate it both in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Iso3DGRE sequence with an isotropic 0.6 mm spatial resolution was developed on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the pulse sequence parameters. A phantom study was performed to validate the T 2 estimation accuracy. The repeatability of the sequence was assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 7). T 2 values were compared with those from a clinical standard 2D multislice multiecho (MSME) T 2 mapping sequence in knees of healthy volunteers (n = 13) and in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA, n = 5). The numerical simulations resulted in 100 excitations per segment and an optimal radiofrequency (RF) excitation angle of 15°. The phantom study demonstrated a good correlation of the technique with the reference standard (slope 0.9 ± 0.05, intercept 0.2 ± 1.7 msec, R 2 ≥ 0.99). Repeated measurements of cartilage T 2 values in healthy volunteers showed a coefficient of variation of 5.6%. Both Iso3DGRE and MSME techniques found significantly higher cartilage T 2 values (P < 0.03) in OA patients. Iso3DGRE precision was equal to that of the MSME T 2 mapping in healthy volunteers, and significantly higher in OA (P = 0.01). This study successfully demonstrated that high-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping for knee cartilage characterization is feasible, accurate, repeatable, and precise. The technique allows for multiplanar reformatting and thus T 2 quantification in any plane of interest. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:362-371. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. T2* relaxometry of fetal brain at 1.5 Tesla using a motion tolerant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylechko, Serge; Malamateniou, Christina; Nunes, Rita G; Fox, Matthew; Allsop, Joanna; Rutherford, Mary; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine T2* values for the fetal brain in utero and to compare them with previously reported values in preterm and term neonates. Knowledge of T2* may be useful for assessing brain development, brain abnormalities, and for optimizing functional imaging studies. Maternal respiration and unpredictable fetal motion mean that conventional multishot acquisition techniques used in adult T2* relaxometry studies are not practical. Single shot multiecho echo planar imaging was used as a rapid method for measuring fetal T2* by effectively freezing intra-slice motion. T2* determined from a sample of 24 subjects correlated negatively with gestational age with mean values of 220 ms (±45) for frontal white matter, 159 ms (±32) for thalamic gray matter, and 236 ms (±45) for occipital white matter. Fetal T2* values are higher than those previously reported for preterm neonates and decline with a consistent trend across gestational age. The data suggest that longer than usual echo times or direct T2* measurement should be considered when performing fetal fMRI to reach optimal BOLD sensitivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  15. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  16. Volumetric brain differences in children with periventricular T2-signal hyperintensities: a grouping by gestational age at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, A; Barnes, P D; Robertson, R L; Back, S A; Sleeper, L A; Sayre, J W; Kinney, H C; Volpe, J J

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare both the volumes of the lateral ventricles and the cerebral white matter with gestational age at birth of children with periventricular white matter (PVWM) T2-signal hyperintensities on MR images. The spectrum of neuromotor abnormalities associated with these hyperintensities was also determined. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 70 patients who were between the ages of 1 and 5 years and whose images showed PVWM T2-signal hyperintensities. The patients were divided into premature (n = 35 children) and term (n = 35) groups depending on their gestational age at birth. Volumetric analysis was performed on four standardized axial sections using T2-weighted images. Volumes of interest were digitized on the basis of gray-scale densities of signal intensities to define the hemispheric cerebral white matter and lateral ventricles. Age-adjusted comparisons of volumetric measurements between the premature and term groups were performed using analysis of covariance. The volume of the cerebral white matter was smaller in the premature group (54 +/- 2 cm(3)) than in the term group (79 +/- 3 cm(3), p group (30 +/- 2 cm(3)) than among those in the term group (13 +/- 1 cm(3), p groups whose PVWM T2-signal hyperintensities did not correlate with any neuromotor abnormalities but were associated with seizures or developmental delays. The differences in volumetric measurements of cerebral white matter and lateral ventricles in children with PVWM T2-signal hyperintensities are related to their gestational age at birth. Several neurologic motor abnormalities are found in children with such hyperintensities.

  17. The application of T1 and T2 relaxation time and magnetization transfer ratios to the early diagnosis of patellar cartilage osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Weiwu; Qu, Nan; Lu, Zhihua; Yang, Shixun [Shanghai Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    We compare the T1 and T2 relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratios (MTRs) of normal subjects and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to evaluate the ability of these techniques to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of OA. The knee joints in 11 normal volunteers and 40 patients with OA were prospectively evaluated using T1 relaxation times as measured using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 relaxation times (multiple spin-echo sequence, T2 mapping), and MTRs. The OA patients were further categorized into mild, moderate, and severe OA. The mean T1 relaxation times of the four groups (normal, mild OA, moderate OA, and severe OA) were: 487.3{+-}27.7, 458.0{+-}55.9, 405.9{+-}57.3, and 357.9{+-}36.7 respectively (p<0.001). The mean T2 relaxation times of the four groups were: 37.8{+-}3.3, 44.0{+-}8.5, 50.9{+-}9.5, and 57.4{+-}4.8 respectively (p<0.001). T1 relaxation time decreased and T2 relaxation time increased with worsening degeneration of patellar cartilage. The result of the covariance analysis showed that the covariate age had a significant influence on T2 relaxation time (p<0.001). No significant differences between the normal and OA groups using MTR were noted. T1 and T2 relaxation times are relatively sensitive to early degenerative changes in the patellar cartilage, whereas the MTR may have some limitations with regard to early detection of OA. In addition, The T1 and T2 relaxation times negatively correlate with each other, which is a novel finding. (orig.)

  18. Registration of T-2 mycotoxin with total internal reflection ellipsometry and QCM impedance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabok, A V; Tsargorodskaya, A; Holloway, A; Starodub, N F; Gojster, O

    2007-01-15

    A sensitive optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) in conjunction with immune assay approach was exploited for the registration of T-2 mycotoxin in a wide range of concentrations from 100 microg/ml down to 0.15 ng/ml. Association constants of 1.4x10(6) and 1.9x10(7)mol(-1)s for poly- and monoclonal T-2 antibodies, respectively, were evaluated from TIRE kinetic measurements. According to TIRE data fitting, binding of T-2 molecules to antibodies (at saturation) has resulted in the increase in adsorbed layer thickness of 4-5 nm. The QCM impedance measurements data showed anomalously large mass increase and film softening, most likely, due to the binding of large T-2 aggregates to antibodies.

  19. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  20. Electrical and calorimetric measurements and related software

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N; Koratzinos, M; Rijllart, A; Siemko, A; Strait, J; Tavian, L; Wolf, R

    2009-01-01

    During the incident of sector 3-4 on September 19th, the temperature of a number of magnets increased over the expected values prior to the circuit failure. A review of the data logged during powering tests on all circuits indicated potential resistive splices in sectors 1-2 and 6-7. Calorimetric and electrical measurements confirmed a high resistance in magnet B16. R1 and B32R6. Systematic measurements have been performed in other cold sectors of the LHC during which the temperature increase and voltage across magnets were acquired at different currents. Cryogenic subsectors on which the temperature increase was abnormal were equipped with precise voltmeters to detect eventual resistive splices in the bus-bars. The findings of the measurement campaign will be shown as well as the plans to implement similar diagnostics as a routine check prior to powering the superconducting circuits of the LHC.

  1. Magnetic properties of Np2T2Sn compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.P.; Colineau, E.; Jeandey, C.; Oddou, J.L.; Rebizant, J.; Seret, A.; Spirlet, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the Np 2 T 2 Sn series investigated by 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy are reported. Magnetic ordering is shown to occur for T = Ni, Pd, Pt, whereas the Np ions do not carry a local moment when T = Co, Ru, Rh. Comparison is made with the corresponding Np 2 T 2 In and U 2 T 2 Sn compounds. (authors). 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Effects of repetitive freeze–thawing cycles on T2 and T2* of the Achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y., E-mail: ericchangmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Bae, Won C., E-mail: wbae@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Statum, Sheronda, E-mail: sherondastatum@msn.com [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Du, Jiang, E-mail: jiangdu@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Chung, Christine B., E-mail: cbchung@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Department of Radiology, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: In this study we sought to evaluate the effects of multiple freezing and thawing cycles on two MR parameters to study Achilles tendon, T2 and T2*. Materials and methods: Four fresh Achilles tendons were imaged on a 3T clinical scanner and again after 1, 2, 4, and 5 freeze–thaw cycles with spin-echo (SE) and ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences. Regions of interest were manually drawn over the entire Achilles tendon and mono-exponential curves were used to determine T2 and T2* relaxation times. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2 or T2* values between the fresh specimens and after subsequent cycles of freeze–thaw treatment (p > 0.1). Linear regression between SE T2 values at baseline and after successive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrated moderate agreement (r = 0.60) whereas UTE T2* values at baseline and after successive-freeze thaw cycles demonstrated strong agreement (r = 0.92). Conclusion: These findings suggest that changes between specimens seen in vitro are due to factors other than frozen storage. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is stronger agreement between baseline (fresh) and successive freeze–thaw T2* values of tendon obtained with the UTE technique in comparison to T2 values obtained with a conventional clinical CPMG technique.

  3. Effects of repetitive freeze–thawing cycles on T2 and T2* of the Achilles tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Bae, Won C.; Statum, Sheronda; Du, Jiang; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we sought to evaluate the effects of multiple freezing and thawing cycles on two MR parameters to study Achilles tendon, T2 and T2*. Materials and methods: Four fresh Achilles tendons were imaged on a 3T clinical scanner and again after 1, 2, 4, and 5 freeze–thaw cycles with spin-echo (SE) and ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences. Regions of interest were manually drawn over the entire Achilles tendon and mono-exponential curves were used to determine T2 and T2* relaxation times. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2 or T2* values between the fresh specimens and after subsequent cycles of freeze–thaw treatment (p > 0.1). Linear regression between SE T2 values at baseline and after successive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrated moderate agreement (r = 0.60) whereas UTE T2* values at baseline and after successive-freeze thaw cycles demonstrated strong agreement (r = 0.92). Conclusion: These findings suggest that changes between specimens seen in vitro are due to factors other than frozen storage. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is stronger agreement between baseline (fresh) and successive freeze–thaw T2* values of tendon obtained with the UTE technique in comparison to T2 values obtained with a conventional clinical CPMG technique

  4. The immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in young healthy adults at 3.0 T MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Welsch, Goetz H; Laqmani, Azien; Henes, Frank O; Kaul, Michael G; Schoen, Gerhard; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2016-08-01

    To quantitatively assess the immediate effect of long-distance running on T2 and T2* relaxation times of the articular cartilage of the knee at 3.0 T in young healthy adults. 30 healthy male adults (18-31 years) who perform sports at an amateur level underwent an initial MRI at 3.0 T with T2 weighted [16 echo times (TEs): 9.7-154.6 ms] and T2* weighted (24 TEs: 4.6-53.6 ms) relaxation measurements. Thereafter, all participants performed a 45-min run. After the run, all individuals were immediately re-examined. Data sets were post-processed using dedicated software (ImageJ; National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD). 22 regions of interest were manually drawn in segmented areas of the femoral, tibial and patellar cartilage. For statistical evaluation, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and confidence intervals were computed. Mean initial values were 35.7 ms for T2 and 25.1 ms for T2*. After the run, a significant decrease in the mean T2 and T2* relaxation times was observed for all segments in all participants. A mean decrease of relaxation time was observed for T2 with 4.6 ms (±3.6 ms) and for T2* with 3.6 ms (±5.1 ms) after running. A significant decrease could be observed in all cartilage segments for both biomarkers. Both quantitative techniques, T2 and T2*, seem to be valuable parameters in the evaluation of immediate changes in the cartilage ultrastructure after running. This is the first direct comparison of immediate changes in T2 and T2* relaxation times after running in healthy adults.

  5. T2 Mapping of the Sacroiliac Joints With 3-T MRI: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Guillaume; Bergère, Antonin; Rafei, Mazen El; Duhamel, Alain; Teixeira, Pedro; Cotten, Anne

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of T2 relaxation time measurements of the sacroiliac joints. The sacroiliac joints of 40 patients were imaged by 3-T MRI using an oblique axial multislice multiecho spin-echo T2-weighted sequence. Manual plotting and automatic subdivision of ROIs allowed us to obtain T2 values for up to 48 different areas per patient (posterior and anterior parts, sacral, intermediate, and iliac parts). Intraand interobserver reproducibility of T2 values were calculated after independent assessment by two musculoskeletal radiologists. A total of 1656 measurement sites could be analyzed. Mean (± SD) T2 values were 40.6 ± 6.7 ms and 41.2 ± 6.3 ms for observer 1 and 39.9 ± 6.6 ms for observer 2. The intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.70-0.74), and the interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68-0.72). Our study shows the feasibility of T2 relaxation time measurements at the sacroiliac joints.

  6. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  7. Quantitative T2* assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesper, Tobias; Miese, Falk R.; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Behringer, Michael; Zilkens, Christoph; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2 ** relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2 ** mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2 ** after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2 ** values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2 * assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2 * mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2 * values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2 * after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2 * values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2 * values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2 * values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2 * values in the medial tibial plateau may be related

  8. Quantitative T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk R. [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Behringer, Michael [German Sport University, Cologne (Germany); Zilkens, Christoph [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Krauspe, Rüdiger [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd, E-mail: bbittersohl@partners.org [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup **} relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2{sup **} mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2{sup **} after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2{sup **} values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2{sup *} mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2{sup *} values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2{sup *} after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2{sup *} values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2{sup *} values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2{sup *} values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2

  9. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  10. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  11. Precision measurement of relative oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, D.E.; Ibbetson, P.A.; Petford, A.D.; Shallis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of the Oxford method of comparing oscillator strengths has been improved by a factor of 10 to 0.5 per cent (0.002 dex) for low excitation lines. The improvements made to the apparatus are briefly described and its new performance discussed. A test for LTE in the furnace is also described. Relative oscillator strengths for 60 lines of Fe I with excitation potentials between 0.00 and 0.12 eV are given. Those with lambda > 320 nm have an accuracy of 0.5 per cent, and those with lambda < 320 nm have an accuracy of 1.0 per cent. Absolute values with an accuracy of 2.5 per cent for all lines are given. (author)

  12. Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology : T-2 : LANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    linked in Search T-2, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology T-2 Home T Division Focus Areas Nuclear Information Service Nuclear Physics Particle Physics Astrophysics Cosmology CONTACTS Group fundamental and applied theoretical research in applied and fundamental nuclear physics, particle physics

  13. Acetylation/deacetylation reactions of T-2, acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2 toxins in bovine rumen fluid in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munger, C.E.; Ivie, G.W.; Christopher, R.J.; Hammock, B.D.; Phillips, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A tritiated preparation of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, underwent both acetylation and deacetylation reactions when incubated with bovine rumen fluid in vitro. Products from incubations of T-2 in rumen fluid included acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2. Direct studies with tritiated samples of each of these metabolites confirmed their relatively facile interconversion in the rumen. Studies with [ 3 H]HT-2 under conditions of inhibited esterase activity (added diisopropyl fluorophosphate) showed that acetylation is preferred at C-3 vs. C-4. Studies with [ 3 H]acetyl T-2 indicated that deacetylation similarly occurs with greater rapidity at C-3. There were no indications that ester hydrolysis of these trichothecenes occurred at C-8 or C-15 or that they were subjected to epoxide reduction reactions. These data suggest that acetylation of T-2 and other trichothecenes in the rumen in situ may ultimately result in the absorption of more lipophilic metabolites whose toxicological and residual properties are at present unknown

  14. Acetylation/deacetylation reactions of T-2, acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2 toxins in bovine rumen fluid in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, C.E.; Ivie, G.W.; Christopher, R.J.; Hammock, B.D.; Phillips, T.D.

    A tritiated preparation of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, underwent both acetylation and deacetylation reactions when incubated with bovine rumen fluid in vitro. Products from incubations of T-2 in rumen fluid included acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2. Direct studies with tritiated samples of each of these metabolites confirmed their relatively facile interconversion in the rumen. Studies with (/sup 3/H)HT-2 under conditions of inhibited esterase activity (added diisopropyl fluorophosphate) showed that acetylation is preferred at C-3 vs. C-4. Studies with (/sup 3/H)acetyl T-2 indicated that deacetylation similarly occurs with greater rapidity at C-3. There were no indications that ester hydrolysis of these trichothecenes occurred at C-8 or C-15 or that they were subjected to epoxide reduction reactions. These data suggest that acetylation of T-2 and other trichothecenes in the rumen in situ may ultimately result in the absorption of more lipophilic metabolites whose toxicological and residual properties are at present unknown.

  15. Myocardial T1 and T2 mapping: Techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Pan Ki; Hong, Yoo Jin; Im, Dong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in various medical fields related to cardiovascular diseases. Rapid technological innovations in magnetic resonance imaging in recent times have resulted in the development of new techniques for CMR imaging. T1 and T2 image mapping sequences enable the direct quantification of T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values of the myocardium, leading to the progressive integration of these sequences into routine CMR settings. Currently, T1, T2, and ECV values are being recognized as not only robust biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but also predictive factors for treatment monitoring and prognosis. In this study, we have reviewed various T1 and T2 mapping sequence techniques and their clinical applications.

  16. Articular Cartilage of the Human Knee Joint: In Vivo Multicomponent T2 Analysis at 3.0 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwang Won; Samsonov, Alexey; Spencer, Richard G.; Wilson, John J.; Block, Walter F.; Kijowski, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare multicomponent T2 parameters of the articular cartilage of the knee joint measured by using multicomponent driven equilibrium single-shot observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) in asymptomatic volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed with institutional review board approval and with written informed consent from all subjects. The mcDESPOT sequence was performed in the knee joint of 13 asymptomatic volunteers and 14 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Single-component T2 (T2Single), T2 of the fast-relaxing water component (T2F) and of the slow-relaxing water component (T2S), and the fraction of the fast-relaxing water component (FF) of cartilage were measured. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and multivariate linear regression models were used to compare mcDESPOT parameters between volunteers and patients with osteoarthritis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess diagnostic performance with mcDESPOT parameters for distinguishing morphologically normal cartilage from morphologically degenerative cartilage identified at magnetic resonance imaging in eight cartilage subsections of the knee joint. Results Higher cartilage T2Single (P cartilage FF (P cartilage T2F (P = .079) and T2S (P = .124) values were seen in patients with osteoarthritis compared with those in asymptomatic volunteers. Differences in T2Single and FF remained significant (P cartilage (P cartilage T2Single and significantly lower cartilage FF than did asymptomatic volunteers, and receiver operating characteristic analysis results suggested that FF may allow greater diagnostic performance than that with T2Single for distinguishing between normal and degenerative cartilage. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26024307

  17. T2 relaxation times of irradiated vertebral bone marrow in patients with seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A; Maris, T; Vlahos, L

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to demonstrate the effects of localized radiotherapy on lumbar vertebral bone marrow with the use of quantitative MRI with measurements of T2 relaxation times. Ten patients with early stage testicular seminoma with a history of radiation therapy to a "dog-leg" field including the lumbar vertebrae underwent MR imaging of their lumbar spine using a 0.5 Tesla magnet. Five healthy subjects and two nonirradiated patients were imaged as well. The intervals from the beginning of radiotherapy to MRI examination varied from 1.5 to 52 months, and the radiation dose ranged from 3000-4200 cGy. The T2 relaxation times of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow and subcutaneous fat were calculated for each subject. Postirradiation bone marrow in irradiated seminoma patients exhibited significantly longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow in controls (71.1 vs. 63.6 ms, p = 0.047, t-test). The differences between the T2 relaxation times of bone marrow and subcutaneous fat for each subject allowed for even better differentiation between irradiated patients and controls (10.4 vs. 0.4 ms, p = 0.0004, t-test). Postirradiation bone marrow had significantly longer T2 relaxation times than subcutaneous fat in irradiated patients (N = 10, 71.1 vs. 60.7 ms, p = 0.00009, t-test), while nonirradiated bone marrow had T2 relaxation times not statistically different from subcutaneous fat in nonirradiated subjects (N = 7, 63.6 vs. 63.2 ms). Measurements of T2 relaxation times of bone marrow enabled us to differentiate between irradiated seminoma patients and controls. Postirradiation bone marrow undergoes late radiation effects resulting in longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow and subcutaneous fat.

  18. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  19. Metal impurity fluxes and plasma-surface interactions in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.; Drake, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    The EXTRAP T2R is a large aspect ratio Reversed Field Pinch device. The main focus of interest for the experiments is the active feedback control of resistive wall modes [1]. With feedback it has been possible to prolong plasma discharges in T2R from about 20 ms to nearly 100 ms. In a series of experiments in T2R, in H- and D- plasmas with and without feedback, quantitative spectroscopy and passive collector probes have been used to study the flux of metal impurities. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements of Cr and Mo lines showed large metal release towards discharge termination without feedback. Discharge integrated fluxes of Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo were also measured with collector probes at wall position. Reasonable quantitative agreement was found between the spectroscopic and collector probe measurements. The roles of sputtering, thermal evaporation and arcing in impurity production are evaluated based on the composition of the measured impurity flux.

  20. Metal impurity fluxes and plasma-surface interactions in EXTRAP T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsaaker, H; Brunsell, P R; Frassinetti, L; Drake, J R; Menmuir, S; Rachlew, E

    2008-01-01

    The EXTRAP T2R is a large aspect ratio Reversed Field Pinch device. The main focus of interest for the experiments is the active feedback control of resistive wall modes. With feedback it has been possible to prolong plasma discharges in T2R from about 20 ms to nearly 100 ms. In a series of experiments in T2R, in H- and D- plasmas with and without feedback, quantitative spectroscopy and passive collector probes have been used to study the flux of metal impurities. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements of Cr and Mo lines showed large metal release towards discharge termination without feedback. Discharge integrated fluxes of Cr, Fe, Ni and Mo were also measured with collector probes at wall position. Reasonable quantitative agreement was found between the spectroscopic and collector probe measurements. The roles of sputtering, thermal evaporation and arcing in impurity production are evaluated based on the composition of the measured impurity flux

  1. MR fingerprinting for rapid quantification of myocardial T1 , T2 , and proton spin density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jesse I; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Yong; Ma, Dan; Lo, Wei-Ching; Griswold, Mark; Seiberlich, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    To introduce a two-dimensional MR fingerprinting (MRF) technique for quantification of T 1 , T 2 , and M 0 in myocardium. An electrocardiograph-triggered MRF method is introduced for mapping myocardial T 1 , T 2 , and M 0 during a single breath-hold in as short as four heartbeats. The pulse sequence uses variable flip angles, repetition times, inversion recovery times, and T 2 preparation dephasing times. A dictionary of possible signal evolutions is simulated for each scan that incorporates the subject's unique variations in heart rate. Aspects of the sequence design were explored in simulations, and the accuracy and precision of cardiac MRF were assessed in a phantom study. In vivo imaging was performed at 3 Tesla in 11 volunteers to generate native parametric maps. T 1 and T 2 measurements from the proposed cardiac MRF sequence correlated well with standard spin echo measurements in the phantom study (R 2  > 0.99). A Bland-Altman analysis revealed good agreement for myocardial T 1 measurements between MRF and MOLLI (bias 1 ms, 95% limits of agreement -72 to 72 ms) and T 2 measurements between MRF and T 2 -prepared balanced steady-state free precession (bias, -2.6 ms; 95% limits of agreement, -8.5 to 3.3 ms). MRF can provide quantitative single slice T 1 , T 2 , and M 0 maps in the heart within a single breath-hold. Magn Reson Med 77:1446-1458, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  2. Revisiting T2KK and T2KO physics potential and ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} beam ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Kaoru [Theory Center, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokendai, Department of Accelerator Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon [KIAS, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Okamura, Naotoshi [International University of Health and Welfare, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Takaesu, Yoshitaro [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We revisit the sensitivity study of the Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea (T2KK) and Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Oki (T2KO) proposals where a water Cerenkov detector with the 100 kton fiducial volume is placed in Korea (L = 1000 km) and Oki island (L = 653 km) in Japan, respectively, in addition to the Super-Kamiokande for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and leptonic CP phase (δ{sub CP}). We systematically study the running ratio of the ν{sub μ} and anti ν{sub μ} focusing beams with dedicated background estimation for the ν{sub e} appearance and ν{sub μ} disappearance signals, especially improving treatment of the neutral-current π{sup 0} backgrounds. Using a ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} beam ratio between 3:2 and 2.5:2.5 (in units of 10{sup 21}POT with the proton energy of 40 GeV), the mass-hierarchy determination with the median sensitivity of 3-5 σ by the T2KK and 1-4 σ by the T2KO experiment are expected when sin{sup 2}θ{sub 23} = 0.5, depending on the mass-hierarchy pattern and CP phase. These sensitivities are enhanced (reduced) by 30-40% in Δχ{sup 2} when sin{sup 2}θ{sub 23} = 0.6 (0.4). The CP phase is measured with the uncertainty of 20 {sup circle} -50 {sup circle} by the T2KK and T2KO using the ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} focusing beam ratio between 3.5:1.5 and 1.5:3.5. These findings indicate that inclusion of the anti ν{sub μ} focusing beam improves the sensitivities of the T2KK and T2KO experiments to both the mass-hierarchy determination and the leptonic CP phase measurement simultaneously with the preferred beam ratio being between 3:2-2.5:2.5 (x 10{sup 21}POT). (orig.)

  3. T-2 toxin Analysis in Poultry and Cattle Feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour Azizi, Issa; Azarmi, Masumeh; Danesh Pouya, Naser; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2014-05-01

    T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that is produced by the Fusarium fungi. Consumption of food and feed contaminated with T-2 toxin causes diseases in humans and animals. In this study T-2 toxin was analyzed in poultry and cattle feedstuff in cities of Mazandaran province (Babol, Sari, Chalus), Northern Iran. In this study, 90 samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin contamination by the ELISA method. Out of 60 concentrate and bagasse samples collected from various cities of Mazandaran province, 11.7% and 3.3% were contaminated with T-2 toxin at concentrations > 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. For mixed poultry diets, while 10% of the 30 analyzed samples were contaminated with > 25 µg/kg, none of the tested samples contained T-2 toxin at levels > 50 µg/kg. The results obtained from this study show that poultry and cattle feedstuff can be contaminated with different amounts of T-2 toxin in different conditions and locations. Feedstuff that are contaminated by this toxin cause different diseases in animals; thus, potential transfer of mycotoxins to edible by-products from animals fed mycotoxin-contaminated feeds drives the need to routinely monitor mycotoxins in animal feeds and their components. This is the basis on which effective management of mycotoxins and their effects can be implemented.

  4. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Trims Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment examines the branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). Measuring this branching ratio helps to validate the current molecular final-state theory applied in neutrino mass experiments such as KATRIN and Project 8. TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question. We will give an update on the apparatus, simulation software, and analysis tools, including efforts to improve the resolution of our detectors and to characterize the stability and uniformity of our field sources. We will also share our commissioning results and prospects for physics data. The TRIMS experiment is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  5. Changes in the T2 value of cartilage after meniscus transplantation over 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Shin, Myung Jin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the mean T2 values of articular cartilage on serial follow-up images up to 1 year in patients who underwent lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Fifty-two patients who underwent lateral MAT surgery at our hospital were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after MAT using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included T2 mapping. T2 value changes according to the arthroscopic grading of chondromalacia were evaluated in the lateral and medial compartment. Lysholm scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively. The T2 values of cartilage were significantly increased 2 days after operation, and then gradually reduced to the baseline level after 1 year in both compartments. In morphologic assessment performed after 1 year, most areas (92.9 %) showed no interval change of chondromalacia grade. Lyshom knee scores increased significantly from the mean preoperative value of 62.5 (range, 23-95) to 89.7 (range, 64-100) at 1 year (p < 0.001). Mean T2 values of cartilage following MAT exhibited a return to baseline level after 1 year. T2 measurement can be a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of postoperative cartilage changes compared to conventional MRI. (orig.)

  6. Changes in the T2 value of cartilage after meniscus transplantation over 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the changes in the mean T2 values of articular cartilage on serial follow-up images up to 1 year in patients who underwent lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Fifty-two patients who underwent lateral MAT surgery at our hospital were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after MAT using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included T2 mapping. T2 value changes according to the arthroscopic grading of chondromalacia were evaluated in the lateral and medial compartment. Lysholm scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively. The T2 values of cartilage were significantly increased 2 days after operation, and then gradually reduced to the baseline level after 1 year in both compartments. In morphologic assessment performed after 1 year, most areas (92.9 %) showed no interval change of chondromalacia grade. Lyshom knee scores increased significantly from the mean preoperative value of 62.5 (range, 23-95) to 89.7 (range, 64-100) at 1 year (p < 0.001). Mean T2 values of cartilage following MAT exhibited a return to baseline level after 1 year. T2 measurement can be a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of postoperative cartilage changes compared to conventional MRI. (orig.)

  7. Does joint alignment affect the T2 values of cartilage in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Klaus M.; Shepard, Timothy; Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Babb, James S.; Regatte, Ravinder; Schweitzer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    To assess the relationship between T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and knee alignment in patients with clinical symptoms of medial osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty-four patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 62.5 ± 9.9 years) with clinical symptoms of medial knee OA, 12 with varus and 12 with valgus alignment of the femorotibial joint, were investigated on 3T MR using a 2D multi-echo spin echo (MESE) sequence for T2 mapping. Analysis of covariance, Spearman correlation coefficients, exact Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Overall the T2 values of cartilage in the medial compartment (median ± interquartile-range, 49.44 ± 6.58) were significantly higher (P = 0.0043) than those in the lateral compartment (47.15 ± 6.87). Patients with varus alignment (50.83 ± 6.30 ms) had significantly higher T2 values of cartilage (P < 0.0001) than patients with valgus alignment (46.20 ± 6.00 ms). No statistically significant association between the T2 values of cartilage (in either location) and the Kellgren Lawrence score was found in the varus or in the valgus group. T2 measurements were increased in medial knee OA patients with varus alignment, adding support to the theory of an association of OA and joint alignment. (orig.)

  8. Does joint alignment affect the T2 values of cartilage in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Klaus M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Shepard, Timothy; Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Babb, James S.; Regatte, Ravinder [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Schweitzer, Mark [Ottawa Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the relationship between T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and knee alignment in patients with clinical symptoms of medial osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty-four patients (mean age {+-} standard deviation, 62.5 {+-} 9.9 years) with clinical symptoms of medial knee OA, 12 with varus and 12 with valgus alignment of the femorotibial joint, were investigated on 3T MR using a 2D multi-echo spin echo (MESE) sequence for T2 mapping. Analysis of covariance, Spearman correlation coefficients, exact Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Overall the T2 values of cartilage in the medial compartment (median {+-} interquartile-range, 49.44 {+-} 6.58) were significantly higher (P = 0.0043) than those in the lateral compartment (47.15 {+-} 6.87). Patients with varus alignment (50.83 {+-} 6.30 ms) had significantly higher T2 values of cartilage (P < 0.0001) than patients with valgus alignment (46.20 {+-} 6.00 ms). No statistically significant association between the T2 values of cartilage (in either location) and the Kellgren Lawrence score was found in the varus or in the valgus group. T2 measurements were increased in medial knee OA patients with varus alignment, adding support to the theory of an association of OA and joint alignment. (orig.)

  9. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T2 relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Zainab; Brooks, Jonathan; Percy, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T 2 relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T 2 relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T 2 Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T 2 relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T 2 relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p 2 of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T 2 of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T 2 relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T 2 were not significantly different from normal menstrual variations

  10. Serum metabonomics of NAFLD plus T2DM based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Chunlong; Liu, Liyan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Songtao; Huang, Lina; Sun, Changhao; Feng, Rennan

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a main liver disease around the world, is closely associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. The objective of this study is to identify distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. We used a biomarker-discovery population to find distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. Then, a validation population was applied to test the model of the biomarker-discovery population. All the individuals received anthropometric and common biochemical measurements. The metabolic data were analyzed by multivariable statistical analyses using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 7, 7, 2 metabolites in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) mode, which were identified between groups from both the biomarker-discovery and validation population. The NAFLD group showed higher concentrations of oleamide, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, bilirubin, l-palmitoylcarnitine, and PC (20:5) and a lower concentration of Lyso-PAF C-18 than those of control. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD+T2DM group displayed higher oleamide, l-leucine, LysoPC (14:0), bilirubin, tetradecenoylcarnitine, linoleyl carnitine, and tetradecadiencarnitine in serum. Tetradecenoylcarnitine and tetradecadiencarnitine were more elevated in patients with NAFLD+T2DM than in the NAFLD group. Serum metabonomic analyses displayed great metabolic changes in patients with NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Our study is beneficial in providing a further view into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM, which might be useful for the prevention and therapy of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence. Although FSE-SPAIR demonstrated significantly improved image quality and decreased artifacts, isolated interpretations of each T2-weighted technique demonstrated high specificity but overall low sensitivity for the detection of myocardial injury, with no difference in accuracy between the techniques. However, real-world interpretation in combination with cine and LGE CMR methods significantly improves the overall sensitivity and diagnostic performance.

  12. Changes in the T2 value of cartilage after meniscus transplantation over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Shin, Myung Jin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the changes in the mean T2 values of articular cartilage on serial follow-up images up to 1 year in patients who underwent lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Fifty-two patients who underwent lateral MAT surgery at our hospital were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after MAT using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included T2 mapping. T2 value changes according to the arthroscopic grading of chondromalacia were evaluated in the lateral and medial compartment. Lysholm scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively. The T2 values of cartilage were significantly increased 2 days after operation, and then gradually reduced to the baseline level after 1 year in both compartments. In morphologic assessment performed after 1 year, most areas (92.9 %) showed no interval change of chondromalacia grade. Lyshom knee scores increased significantly from the mean preoperative value of 62.5 (range, 23-95) to 89.7 (range, 64-100) at 1 year (p < 0.001). Mean T2 values of cartilage following MAT exhibited a return to baseline level after 1 year. T2 measurement can be a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of postoperative cartilage changes compared to conventional MRI. • T2 mapping provides objective data for longitudinal monitoring following surgery. • Increased cartilage T2 values post-MAT returned to baseline in one year. • Further studies are required to predict the chondroprotective effect of MAT.

  13. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Brian; Mann, Sumeer A.; King, Chris; Forster, Bruce B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  14. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Brian [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Mann, Sumeer A. [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta, Walter Mackenzie Health Sciences Center, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7 (Canada); King, Chris [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Forster, Bruce B., E-mail: bruce.forster@vch.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  15. MR spectroscopy of liver in overweight children and adolescents: Investigation of 1H T2 relaxation times at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S.; Thisted, Ebbe; Holm, Jens-Christian; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate T 2 relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Subjects: The study included 123 consecutive children and adolescents with a body mass index above the 97th percentile according to age and sex. 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed at 3.0 T using point resolved spectroscopy sequence with series TE. T 2 relaxation values and hepatic fat content corrected for the T 2 relaxation effects were calculated. Results: T 2 values for water ranged from 22 ms to 42 ms (mean value 28 ms) and T 2 values for fat ranged from 36 ms to 99 ms (mean value 64 ms). Poor correlation was observed: (1) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and T 2 relaxation times of water (correlation coefficient r = 0.038, P = 0.79); (2) between T 2 relaxation times of fat and fat content (r = 0.057, P = 0.69); (3) between T 2 relaxation times of water and fat content (r = 0.160, P = 0.26). Correlation between fat peak content and the T 2 corrected fat content decreased with increasing echo time TE: r = 0.97 for TE = 45, r = 0.93 for TE = 75, r = 0.89 for TE = 105, P 1 H MRS at 3 T is an effective technique for measuring hepatic fat content in overweight and obese children and adolescents. It is necessary to measure T 2 relaxation values and to correct the spectra for the T 2 relaxation effects in order to obtain an accurate estimate of the hepatic fat content.

  16. Performance of a fast and high-resolution multi-echo spin-echo sequence for prostate T2 mapping across multiple systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdt, Petra J; Agarwal, Harsh K; van Buuren, Laurens D; Heijmink, Stijn W T P J; Haack, Søren; van der Poel, Henk G; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Pos, Floris J; Peeters, Johannes M; Choyke, Peter L; van der Heide, Uulke A

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of a multi-echo spin-echo sequence with k-t undersampling scheme (k-t T 2 ) in prostate cancer. Phantom experiments were performed at five systems to estimate the bias, short-term repeatability, and reproducibility across all systems expressed with the within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV). Monthly measurements were performed on two systems for long-term repeatability estimation. To evaluate clinical repeatability, two T 2 maps (voxel size 0.8 × 0.8 × 3 mm 3 ; 5 min) were acquired at separate visits on one system for 13 prostate cancer patients. Repeatability was assessed per patient in relation to spatial resolution. T 2 values were compared for tumor, peripheral zone, and transition zone. Phantom measurements showed a small bias (median = -0.9 ms) and good short-term repeatability (median wCV = 0.5%). Long-term repeatability was 0.9 and 1.1% and reproducibility between systems was 1.7%. The median bias observed in patients was -1.1 ms. At voxel level, the median wCV was 15%, dropping to 4% for structures of 0.5 cm 3 . The median tumor T 2 values (79 ms) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in the peripheral zone (149 ms), but overlapped with the transition zone (91 ms). Reproducible T 2 mapping of the prostate is feasible with good spatial resolution in a clinically reasonable scan time, allowing reliable measurement of T 2 in structures as small as 0.5 cm 3 . Magn Reson Med 79:1586-1594, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. T2 relaxometry of ring lesions of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, P.N.; Srikanth, S.G.; Chandrashekar, H.S.; Subbakrishna, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To differentiate two common aetiologies of 'ring lesions,' tuberculomas and cysticercal cysts, using T2 relaxometry. Materials and methods: Fifty-five ring-enhancing lesions of the brain (32 cysticercal cysts; 23 tuberculomas) in 27 patients with focal seizures were studied for T2 relaxation times. Results: The mean T2 relaxation times of cysticercal cysts was 617 ms (range 305-1365 ms; SD 272.2) and that of tuberculomas 161 ms (range 83-290 ms; SD 60.3; 95% confidence). Conclusion: T2 relaxometry is a simple, reliable and valuable non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to differentiate between intracranial cysticercal cysts and tuberculomas, and may be incorporated in routine diagnostic protocols

  18. Proteasome modulator 9 and macrovascular pathology of T2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gragnoli Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Coronary artery disease (CAD and stroke share a major linkage at the chromosome 12q24 locus. The same chromosome region entails at least a major risk gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D within NIDDM2, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 locus. The gene of Proteasome Modulator 9 (PSMD9 lies in the NIDDM2 region and is implicated in diabetes in mice. PSMD9 mutations rarely cause T2D and common variants are linked to both late-onset T2D and maturity-onset-diabetes of the young (MODY3. In this study, we aimed at determining whether PSMD9 is linked to macrovascular pathology of T2D. Methods and Results In our 200 T2D families from Italy, we characterized the clinical phenotype of macrovascular pathology by defining the subjects for presence or absence of CAD, stroke and/or transitory ischemic attacks (TIA, plaques of the large arterial vessels (macro-vasculopathy and arterial angioplasty performance. We then screened 200 T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 +nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and performed a non-parametric linkage study to test for linkage for coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, macro-vasculopathy and macrovascular pathology of T2D. We performed 1,000 replicates to test the power of our significant results. Our results show a consistent significant LOD score in linkage with all the above-mentioned phenotypes. Our 1000 simulation analyses, performed for each single test, confirm that the results are not due to random chance. Conclusions In summary, the PSMD9 IVS3+nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G SNPs are linked to CAD, stroke/TIA and macrovascular pathology of T2D in Italians.

  19. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  20. Current profile control experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Malmberg, J. A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

    2002-11-01

    EXTRAP T2R is a high aspect ratio (R=1.24 m, a = 0.183 m) reversed-field pinch device, characterised by a double, thin shell system. The simultaneous presence of many m=1, |n| > 11 tearing modes is responsible for a magnetic field turbulence, which is believed to produce the rather high energy and particle transport that is observed in this type of magnetic configuration. In this paper first results from current profile control experiments (PPCD) in a thin shell device are shown. When an edge poloidal electric field is transiently applied, an increase of the electron temperature and of the electron density is seen, which is consistent with an increase of the thermal content of the plasma. At the same time, the soft x-ray emission, measured with a newly installed miniaturised camera, shows a peaking of the profile in the core. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the m=1 tearing modes are reduced and and the rotation velocities increase during PPCD, which is also consistent with a reduction of magnetic turbulence and a heating of the plasma

  1. Quantification of glutathione transverse relaxation time T2 using echo time extension with variable refocusing selectivity and symmetry in the human brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Kelley M.; Prinsen, Hetty; Coman, Daniel; de Graaf, Robin A.; Juchem, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an endogenous antioxidant implicated in numerous biological processes, including those associated with multiple sclerosis, aging, and cancer. Spectral editing techniques have greatly facilitated the acquisition of glutathione signal in living humans via proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, but signal quantification at 7 Tesla is still hampered by uncertainty about the glutathione transverse decay rate T2 relative to those of commonly employed quantitative references like N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total creatine, or water. While the T2 of uncoupled singlets can be derived in a straightforward manner from exponential signal decay as a function of echo time, similar estimation of signal decay in GSH is complicated by a spin system that involves both weak and strong J-couplings as well as resonances that overlap those of several other metabolites and macromolecules. Here, we extend a previously published method for quantifying the T2 of GABA, a weakly coupled system, to quantify T2 of the strongly coupled spin system glutathione in the human brain at 7 Tesla. Using full density matrix simulation of glutathione signal behavior, we selected an array of eight optimized echo times between 72 and 322 ms for glutathione signal acquisition by J-difference editing (JDE). We varied the selectivity and symmetry parameters of the inversion pulses used for echo time extension to further optimize the intensity, simplicity, and distinctiveness of glutathione signals at chosen echo times. Pairs of selective adiabatic inversion pulses replaced nonselective pulses at three extended echo times, and symmetry of the time intervals between the two extension pulses was adjusted at one extended echo time to compensate for J-modulation, thereby resulting in appreciable signal-to-noise ratio and quantifiable signal shapes at all measured points. Glutathione signal across all echo times fit smooth monoexponential curves over ten scans of occipital cortex voxels in nine

  2. Serial measurement of relative changes in net magnetization, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Furuse, Masahiro; Izawa, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    We assessed to what extent relative changes in net magnetization could be measured with the low field (0.043 T) MR imager. By the procedure to stabilize the whole MR imager hardware, we could measure the minute relative changes of the net magnetization (less than 1%) from the forearm presumably related to blood volume change. This method may be useful to measure physiological changes of blood volume in various human tissues though we need further development of hardware to measure minute relative changes in MR signal intensity with small volume selection. (author)

  3. Automatic Mapping Extraction from Multiecho T2-Star Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images for Improving Morphological Evaluations in Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaode Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping extraction is useful in medical image analysis. Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM replaced signal response to time course in tissue similarity mapping with signal response to TE changes in multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agent. Since different tissues are with different sensitivities to reference signals, a new algorithm is proposed by adding a sensitivity index to SCM. It generates two mappings. One measures relative signal strength (SSM and the other depicts fluctuation magnitude (FMM. Meanwhile, the new method is adaptive to generate a proper reference signal by maximizing the sum of contrast index (CI from SSM and FMM without manual delineation. Based on four groups of images from multiecho T2-star weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the capacity of SSM and FMM in enhancing image contrast and morphological evaluation is validated. Average contrast improvement index (CII of SSM is 1.57, 1.38, 1.34, and 1.41. Average CII of FMM is 2.42, 2.30, 2.24, and 2.35. Visual analysis of regions of interest demonstrates that SSM and FMM show better morphological structures than original images, T2-star mapping and SCM. These extracted mappings can be further applied in information fusion, signal investigation, and tissue segmentation.

  4. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 ± 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 ± 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  5. Intracellular lipid in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC): T2 weighted (T2W) MRI and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; Van der Pol, Christian B.; Moosavi, Bardia; McInnes, Matthew D.F. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mai, Kien T.; Flood, Trevor A. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate if pRCCs demonstrate intracellular lipid (i-lipid) at chemical-shift (CS) MRI, and assess T2W-MRI and pathologic characteristics. Sixty-two patients with a pRCC diagnosis underwent MRI over 11 years (IRB-approved). Two radiologists independently assessed for presence of i-lipid on CS-MRI and homogeneity on T2W-MRI. Inter-observer agreement was assessed via an intraclass correlation and results were compared using the Chi-square test. Discordant cases were reviewed to establish consensus. T2W SI-ratios (SI.tumor/SI.kidney) and CS-SI index were compared using independent t-tests and Spearman correlation. Two pathologists re-evaluated the histopathology. Nine of the 62 pRCCs (14.5 %) demonstrated i-lipid; agreement was moderate (ICC = 0.63). Pathology review depicted clear cells in four tumours and foamy histiocytes in five tumours. 25.8-35.4 % (ICC = 0.65) of tumours were homogeneous on T2W-MRI. No pRCC with i-lipid was considered homogeneous (p = 0.01-0.04). Overall, T2W SI-ratio and CS-SI index were 0.89 (±0.29) and -3.63 % (-7.27 to 11.42). pRCC with i-lipid had significantly higher T2W SI-ratio (p = 0.003). There was a correlation between the CS-SI index and T2W SI-ratio, (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Intracellular lipid is uncommonly detected in pRCCs due to clear cell changes and foamy histiocytes. These tumours are associated with heterogeneously-increased SI in T2W-MRI. (orig.)

  6. A systematic evaluation of three different cardiac T2-mapping sequences at 1.5 and 3T in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeßler, Bettina; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Stehning, Christian; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Maintz, David; Bunck, Alexander C

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies showed that myocardial T2 relaxation times measured by cardiac T2-mapping vary significantly depending on sequence and field strength. Therefore, a systematic comparison of different T2-mapping sequences and the establishment of dedicated T2 reference values is mandatory for diagnostic decision-making. Phantom experiments using gel probes with a range of different T1 and T2 times were performed on a clinical 1.5T and 3T scanner. In addition, 30 healthy volunteers were examined at 1.5 and 3T in immediate succession. In each examination, three different T2-mapping sequences were performed at three short-axis slices: Multi Echo Spin Echo (MESE), T2-prepared balanced SSFP (T2prep), and Gradient Spin Echo with and without fat saturation (GraSEFS/GraSE). Segmented T2-Maps were generated according to the AHA 16-segment model and statistical analysis was performed. Significant intra-individual differences between mean T2 times were observed for all sequences. In general, T2prep resulted in lowest and GraSE in highest T2 times. A significant variation with field strength was observed for mean T2 in phantom as well as in vivo, with higher T2 values at 1.5T compared to 3T, regardless of the sequence used. Segmental T2 values for each sequence at 1.5 and 3T are presented. Despite a careful selection of sequence parameters and volunteers, significant variations of the measured T2 values were observed between field strengths, MR sequences and myocardial segments. Therefore, we present segmental T2 values for each sequence at 1.5 and 3T with the inherent potential to serve as reference values for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Acyl-Glycine Inhibitors of GlyT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostyn, Shannon N; Carland, Jane E; Shimmon, Susan; Ryan, Renae M; Rawling, Tristan; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2017-09-20

    It has been demonstrated previously that the endogenous compound N-arachidonyl-glycine inhibits the glycine transporter GlyT2, stimulates glycinergic neurotransmission, and provides analgesia in animal models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, it is a relatively weak inhibitor with an IC 50 of 9 μM and is subject to oxidation via cyclooxygenase, limiting its therapeutic value. In this paper we describe the synthesis and testing of a novel series of monounsaturated C18 and C16 acyl-glycine molecules as inhibitors of the glycine transporter GlyT2. We demonstrate that they are up to 28 fold more potent that N-arachidonyl-glycine with no activity at the closely related GlyT1 transporter at concentrations up to 30 μM. This novel class of compounds show considerable promise as a first generation of GlyT2 transport inhibitors.

  8. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy provides no benefit compared to radiotherapy alone for T2 glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Naoto; Mikami, Ryuji; Hasegawa, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if chemoradiotherapy improves local control of T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma. From 1989 to 2003, 61 patients with T2 glottic cancer were treated with radiation alone or radiation in conjunction with various chemotherapy agents. Overall survival and local control rates for all 61 patients were 83.6% and 82.0%, respectively at five years. The addition of chemotherapy offered no survival benefit or improvement in local control rates compared to radiotherapy alone. Extending treatment duration lowered local control rates, however, no survival-related prognostic factors were identified. No treatment-related late toxicity was observed. The addition of chemotherapy in patients with T2 glottic cancer treated with radiation does not improve outcomes. This validates the use of radiotherapy alone as the standard of care for patients with this disease. (author)

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.

  10. Evaluation of neonatal brain myelination using the T1- and T2-weighted MRI ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soun, Jennifer E; Liu, Michael Z; Cauley, Keith A; Grinband, Jack

    2017-09-01

    To validate the T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) MRI ratio technique in evaluating myelin in the neonatal brain. T1w and T2w MR images of 10 term neonates with normal-appearing brain parenchyma were obtained from a single 1.5 Tesla MRI and retrospectively analyzed. T1w/T2w ratio images were created with a postprocessing pipeline and qualitatively compared with standard clinical sequences (T1w, T2w, and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). Quantitative assessment was also performed to assess the ratio technique in detecting areas of known myelination (e.g., posterior limb of the internal capsule) and very low myelination (e.g., optic radiations) using linear regression analysis and the Michelson Contrast equation, a measure of luminance contrast intensity. The ratio image provided qualitative improvements in the ability to visualize regional variation in myelin content of neonates. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the ratio intensity values and ADC values in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the optic radiations (R 2  = 0.96 and P ratio images were 1.6 times higher than T1w, 2.6 times higher than T2w, and 1.8 times higher than ADC (all P ratio improved visualization of the corticospinal tract, one of the earliest myelinated pathways. The T1w/T2w ratio accentuates contrast between myelinated and less myelinated structures and may enhance our diagnostic ability to detect myelination patterns in the neonatal brain. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:690-696. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Evaluation of Water Retention in Lumbar Intervertebral Disks Before and After Exercise Stress With T2 Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokan, Kou; Murakami, Hideki; Endo, Hirooki; Mimata, Yoshikuni; Yamabe, Daisuke; Tsukimura, Itsuko; Oikawa, Ryosuke; Doita, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    T2 mapping was used to quantify moisture content of the lumbar spinal disk nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus before and after exercise stress, and after rest, to evaluate the intervertebral disk function. To clarify water retention in intervertebral disks of the lumbar vertebrae by performing magnetic resonance imaging before and after exercise stress and quantitatively measuring changes in moisture content of intervertebral disks with T2 mapping. To date, a few case studies describe functional evaluation of articular cartilage with T2 mapping; however, T2 mapping to the functional evaluation of intervertebral disks has rarely been applied. Using T2 mapping might help detect changes in the moisture content of intervertebral disks, including articular cartilage, before and after exercise stress, thus enabling the evaluation of changes in water retention shock absorber function. Subjects, comprising 40 healthy individuals (males: 26, females: 14), underwent magnetic resonance imaging T2 mapping before and after exercise stress and after rest. Image J image analysis software was then used to set regions of interest in the obtained images of the anterior annulus fibrosus, posterior annulus fibrosus, and NP. T2 values were measured and compared according to upper vertebrae position and degeneration grade. T2 values significantly decreased in the NP after exercise stress and significantly increased after rest. According to upper vertebrae position, in all of the upper vertebrae positions, T2 values for the NP significantly decreased after exercise stress and significantly increased after rest. According to the degeneration grade, in the NP of grade 1 and 2 cases, T2 values significantly decreased after exercise stress and significantly increased after rest. T2 mapping could be used to not only diagnose the degree of degeneration but also evaluate intervertebral disk function. 3.

  12. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R; Scheenen, Tom W; Bathen, Tone F; Selnæs, Kirsten M

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans and V e ) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p textural features correlated insignificantly with K trans and V e . GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K trans , and V e . The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. • T2W MRI-derived textural features correlate significantly with Gleason score and ADC. • T2W MRI-derived textural features differentiate Gleason score 3+4 from 4+3 cancers. • T2W image textural features could augment tumour characterization.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles using T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Atsuya; Ochiai, Shunsuke; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Obata, Takayuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Wada, Yuichi; Okubo, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles has been reported to affect the outcomes of rotator cuff repairs, only a few studies have attempted to quantitatively evaluate this degeneration. T2 mapping is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique that potentially evaluates the concentration of fat in muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles by using T2 mapping, as well as to evaluate the reliability of T2 measurement. We obtained magnetic resonance images including T2 mapping from 184 shoulders (180 patients; 110 male patients [112 shoulders] and 70 female patients [72 shoulders]; mean age, 62 years [range, 16-84 years]). Eighty-three shoulders had no rotator cuff tear (group A), whereas 101 shoulders had tears, of which 62 were incomplete to medium (group B) and 39 were large to massive (group C). T2 values of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were measured and compared among groups. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities also were examined. The mean T2 values of the supraspinatus in groups A, B, and C were 36.3 ± 4.7 milliseconds, 44.2 ± 11.3 milliseconds, and 57.0 ± 18.8 milliseconds, respectively. The mean T2 values of the infraspinatus in groups A, B, and C were 36.1 ± 5.1 milliseconds, 40.0 ± 11.1 milliseconds, and 51.9 ± 18.2 milliseconds, respectively. The T2 value significantly increased with the extent of the tear in both muscles. Both intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were more than 0.99. T2 mapping can be a reliable tool to quantify fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Uncertainty relation and simultaneous measurements in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the question for the interpretation of the uncertainty relation is picked up, and a program for the justification of its individualistic interpretation is formulated. By means of quantum mechanical models for the position and momentum measurement a justification of the interpretaton has been tried by reconstruction of the origin of the uncertainties from the conditions of the measuring devices and the determination of the relation of the measured results to the object. By means of a model of the common measurement it could be shown how the uncertainty relation results from the not eliminable mutual disturbance of the devices and the uncertainty relation for the measuring system. So finally the commutation relation is conclusive. For the illustration the split experiment is discussed, first according to Heisenberg with fixed split, then for the quantum mechanical, movable split (Bohr-Einstein). (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Quantitative T2 evaluation at 3.0 T compared to morphological grading of the lumbar intervertebral disc: A standardized evaluation approach in patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzeneder, David; Welsch, Goetz Hannes; Kovács, Balázs Krisztián; Goed, Sabine; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Vlychou, Marianna; Friedrich, Klaus; Mamisch, Tallal Charles; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of our investigation was to compare quantitative T2 relaxation time measurement evaluation of lumbar intervertebral discs with morphological grading in young to middle-aged patients with low back pain, using a standardized region-of-interest evaluation approach. Patients and methods: Three hundred thirty lumbar discs from 66 patients (mean age, 39 years) with low back pain were examined on a 3.0 T MR unit. Sagittal T1-FSE, sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted FSE for morphological MRI, as well as a multi-echo spin-echo sequence for T2 mapping, were performed. Morphologically, all discs were classified according to Pfirrmann et al. Equally sized rectangular regions of interest (ROIs) for the annulus fibrosus were selected anteriorly and posteriorly in the outermost 20% of the disc. The space between was defined as the nucleus pulposus. To assess the reproducibility of this evaluation, inter- and intraobserver statistics were performed. Results: The Pfirrmann scoring of 330 discs showed the following results: grade I: six discs (1.8%); grade II: 189 (57.3%); grade III: 96 (29.1%); grade IV: 38 (11.5%); and grade V: one (0.3%). The mean T2 values (in milliseconds) for the anterior and the posterior annulus, and the nucleus pulposus for the respective Pfirrmann groups were: I: 57/30/239; II: 44/67/129; III: 42/51/82; and IV: 42/44/56. The nucleus pulposus T2 values showed a stepwise decrease from Pfirrmann grade I to IV. The posterior annulus showed the highest T2 values in Pfirrmann group II, while the anterior annulus showed relatively constant T2 values in all Pfirrmann groups. The inter- and intraobserver analysis yielded intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for average measures in a range from 0.82 (anterior annulus) to 0.99 (nucleus). Conclusions: Our standardized method of region-specific quantitative T2 relaxation time evaluation seems to be able to characterize different degrees of disc degeneration quantitatively. The

  16. Quantitative T2 evaluation at 3.0T compared to morphological grading of the lumbar intervertebral disc: a standardized evaluation approach in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzeneder, David; Welsch, Goetz Hannes; Kovács, Balázs Krisztián; Goed, Sabine; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Vlychou, Marianna; Friedrich, Klaus; Mamisch, Tallal Charles; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to compare quantitative T2 relaxation time measurement evaluation of lumbar intervertebral discs with morphological grading in young to middle-aged patients with low back pain, using a standardized region-of-interest evaluation approach. Three hundred thirty lumbar discs from 66 patients (mean age, 39 years) with low back pain were examined on a 3.0T MR unit. Sagittal T1-FSE, sagittal, coronal, and axial T2-weighted FSE for morphological MRI, as well as a multi-echo spin-echo sequence for T2 mapping, were performed. Morphologically, all discs were classified according to Pfirrmann et al. Equally sized rectangular regions of interest (ROIs) for the annulus fibrosus were selected anteriorly and posteriorly in the outermost 20% of the disc. The space between was defined as the nucleus pulposus. To assess the reproducibility of this evaluation, inter- and intraobserver statistics were performed. The Pfirrmann scoring of 330 discs showed the following results: grade I: six discs (1.8%); grade II: 189 (57.3%); grade III: 96 (29.1%); grade IV: 38 (11.5%); and grade V: one (0.3%). The mean T2 values (in milliseconds) for the anterior and the posterior annulus, and the nucleus pulposus for the respective Pfirrmann groups were: I: 57/30/239; II: 44/67/129; III: 42/51/82; and IV: 42/44/56. The nucleus pulposus T2 values showed a stepwise decrease from Pfirrmann grade I to IV. The posterior annulus showed the highest T2 values in Pfirrmann group II, while the anterior annulus showed relatively constant T2 values in all Pfirrmann groups. The inter- and intraobserver analysis yielded intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for average measures in a range from 0.82 (anterior annulus) to 0.99 (nucleus). Our standardized method of region-specific quantitative T2 relaxation time evaluation seems to be able to characterize different degrees of disc degeneration quantitatively. The reproducibility of our ROI measurements is sufficient to

  17. T2 relaxometry of brain in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Costanzo, A.; Bonavita, V.; Tedeschi, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, 2. Univ. of Naples (Italy); Di Salle, F. [Dept. of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Univ. ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Santoro, L. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the nature and extent of brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM), examining possible T2 relaxation abnormalities in the brain of 20 patients with adult-onset DM and 20 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Brain MRI was performed at 0.5 T, and T2 values were calculated from signal intensity in two echoes. Regions of interest included: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and callosal (rostral and splenial) normal-appearing white matter; frontal, occipital, insular and hippocampal cortex; caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. All white-matter and occipital and right frontal cortex regions showed a significantly longer T2 in the patients. Multiple regression analysis, including grey- and white-matter T2 as dependent variables, plus age at onset and at imaging, disease duration, muscular disability, brain atrophy and CTG trinucleotide repeats as independent variables, revealed that only white-matter T2 elongation and disease duration correlated positively. White-matter involvement in DM is more extensive than previously reported by MRI and neuropathological studies and seems to be progressive in the course of disease. (orig.)

  18. Value of black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter John Paul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess whether black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance is superior to conventional white blood imaging of cardiac iron in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Materials and methods We performed both conventional white blood and black blood T2* CMR sequences in 100 TM patients to determine intra and inter-observer variability and presence of artefacts. In 23 patients, 2 separate studies of both techniques were performed to assess interstudy reproducibility. Results Cardiac T2* values ranged from 4.5 to 43.8 ms. The mean T2* values were not different between black blood and white blood acquisitions (20.5 vs 21.6 ms, p = 0.26. Compared with the conventional white blood diastolic acquisition, the coefficient of variance of the black blood CMR technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (1.47% vs 4.23%, p Conclusions Black blood T2* CMR has superior reproducibility and reduced imaging artefacts for the assessment of cardiac iron, in comparison with the conventional white blood technique, which make it the preferred technique for clinical practice.

  19. T2 relaxometry of brain in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Costanzo, A.; Bonavita, V.; Tedeschi, G.; Di Salle, F.; Santoro, L.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the nature and extent of brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM), examining possible T2 relaxation abnormalities in the brain of 20 patients with adult-onset DM and 20 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Brain MRI was performed at 0.5 T, and T2 values were calculated from signal intensity in two echoes. Regions of interest included: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and callosal (rostral and splenial) normal-appearing white matter; frontal, occipital, insular and hippocampal cortex; caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. All white-matter and occipital and right frontal cortex regions showed a significantly longer T2 in the patients. Multiple regression analysis, including grey- and white-matter T2 as dependent variables, plus age at onset and at imaging, disease duration, muscular disability, brain atrophy and CTG trinucleotide repeats as independent variables, revealed that only white-matter T2 elongation and disease duration correlated positively. White-matter involvement in DM is more extensive than previously reported by MRI and neuropathological studies and seems to be progressive in the course of disease. (orig.)

  20. Pressure and Relative Humidity Measurement Devices for Mars 2020 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieta, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the scientific payloads onboard the NASA Mars 2020 rover mission is Mars Environmental Dynamic Analyzer (MEDA): a set of environmental sensors for Mars surface weather measurements. Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provides a pressure measurement device (MEDA PS) and a relative humidity measurement device (MEDA HS) for MEDA.

  1. Measuring relational security in forensic mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Verity; Alexander, Regi T; Morgan, Wendy

    2017-12-01

    Aims and method Relational security is an important component of care and risk assessment in mental health services, but the utility of available measures remains under-researched. This study analysed the psychometric properties of two relational security tools, the See Think Act (STA) scale and the Relational Security Explorer (RSE). Results The STA scale had good internal consistency and could highlight differences between occupational groups, whereas the RSE did not perform well as a psychometric measure. Clinical implications The measures provide unique and complimentary perspectives on the quality of relational security within secure services, but have some limitations. Use of the RSE should be restricted to its intended purpose; to guide team discussions about relational security, and services should refrain from collecting and aggregating this data. Until further research validates their use, relational security measurement should be multidimensional and form part of a wider process of service quality assessment.

  2. Measuring relational security in forensic mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Verity; Alexander, Regi T.; Morgan, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Aims and method Relational security is an important component of care and risk assessment in mental health services, but the utility of available measures remains under-researched. This study analysed the psychometric properties of two relational security tools, the See Think Act (STA) scale and the Relational Security Explorer (RSE). Results The STA scale had good internal consistency and could highlight differences between occupational groups, whereas the RSE did not perform well as a psychometric measure. Clinical implications The measures provide unique and complimentary perspectives on the quality of relational security within secure services, but have some limitations. Use of the RSE should be restricted to its intended purpose; to guide team discussions about relational security, and services should refrain from collecting and aggregating this data. Until further research validates their use, relational security measurement should be multidimensional and form part of a wider process of service quality assessment. PMID:29234515

  3. Association of medial meniscal extrusion with medial tibial osteophyte distance detected by T2 mapping MRI in patients with early-stage knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Shinnosuke; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Liu, Lizu; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Futami, Ippei; Yusup, Anwajan; Takamura, Tomohiro; Arita, Hitoshi; Shiozawa, Jun; Aoki, Takako; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shigeki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Okada, Yasunori; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) is associated with progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), but no or little information is available for relationships between MME and osteophytes, which are found in cartilage and bone parts. Because of the limitation in detectability of the cartilage part of osteophytes by radiography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the rate of development and size of osteophytes appear to have been underestimated. Because T2 mapping MRI may enable us to evaluate the cartilage part of osteophytes, we aimed to examine the association between MME and OA-related changes, including osteophytes, by using conventional and T2 mapping MRI. Patients with early-stage knee OA (n = 50) were examined. MRI-detected OA-related changes, in addition to MME, were evaluated according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. T2 values of the medial meniscus and osteophytes were measured on T2 mapping images. Osteophytes surgically removed from patients with end-stage knee OA were histologically analyzed and compared with findings derived by radiography and MRI. Medial side osteophytes were detected by T2 mapping MRI in 98% of patients with early-stage knee OA, although the detection rate was 48% by conventional MRI and 40% by radiography. Among the OA-related changes, medial tibial osteophyte distance was most closely associated with MME, as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis, in the patients with early-stage knee OA (β = 0.711, p T2 values of the medial meniscus were directly correlated with MME in patients with early-stage knee OA, who showed ≥ 3 mm of MME (r = 0.58, p = 0.003). The accuracy of osteophyte evaluation by T2 mapping MRI was confirmed by histological analysis of the osteophytes removed from patients with end-stage knee OA. Our study demonstrates that medial tibial osteophyte evaluated by T2 mapping MRI is frequently observed in the patients with early-stage knee OA, showing

  4. Association study of 25 type 2 diabetes related Loci with measures of obesity in Indian sib pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Vinay, Donipadi Guru; Sovio, Ulla; Rafiq, Sajjad; Kranthi Kumar, Madamchetty Venkata; Janipalli, Charles Spurgeon; Evans, David; Mani, Kulathu Radha; Sandeep, Madana Narasimha; Taylor, Amy; Kinra, Sanjay; Sullivan, Ruth; Bowen, Liza; Timpson, Nicholas; Smith, George Davey; Dudbridge, Frank; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and they are metabolically related through the mechanism of insulin resistance. In order to explore how common genetic variants associated with T2D correlate with body mass index (BMI), we examined the influence of 25 T2D associated loci on obesity risk. We used 5056 individuals (2528 sib-pairs) recruited in Indian Migration Study and conducted within sib-pair analysis for six obesity phenotypes. We found associations of variants in CXCR4 (rs932206) and HHEX (rs5015480) with higher body mass index (BMI) (β=0.13, p=0.001) and (β=0.09, p=0.002), respectively and weight (β=0.13, p=0.001) and (β=0.09, p=0.001), respectively. CXCR4 variant was also strongly associated with body fat (β=0.10, p=0.0004). In addition, we demonstrated associations of CXCR4 and HHEX with overweight/obesity (OR=1.6, p=0.003) and (OR=1.4, p=0.002), respectively, in 1333 sib-pairs (2666 individuals). We observed marginal evidence of associations between variants at six loci (TCF7L2, NGN3, FOXA2, LOC646279, FLJ39370 and THADA) and waist hip ratio (WHR), BMI and/or overweight which needs to be validated in larger set of samples. All the above findings were independent of daily energy consumption and physical activity level. The risk score estimates based on eight significant loci (including nominal associations) showed associations with WHR and body fat which were independent of BMI. In summary, we establish the role of T2D associated loci in influencing the measures of obesity in Indian population, suggesting common underlying pathophysiology across populations.

  5. Association study of 25 type 2 diabetes related Loci with measures of obesity in Indian sib pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Gupta

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and they are metabolically related through the mechanism of insulin resistance. In order to explore how common genetic variants associated with T2D correlate with body mass index (BMI, we examined the influence of 25 T2D associated loci on obesity risk. We used 5056 individuals (2528 sib-pairs recruited in Indian Migration Study and conducted within sib-pair analysis for six obesity phenotypes. We found associations of variants in CXCR4 (rs932206 and HHEX (rs5015480 with higher body mass index (BMI (β=0.13, p=0.001 and (β=0.09, p=0.002, respectively and weight (β=0.13, p=0.001 and (β=0.09, p=0.001, respectively. CXCR4 variant was also strongly associated with body fat (β=0.10, p=0.0004. In addition, we demonstrated associations of CXCR4 and HHEX with overweight/obesity (OR=1.6, p=0.003 and (OR=1.4, p=0.002, respectively, in 1333 sib-pairs (2666 individuals. We observed marginal evidence of associations between variants at six loci (TCF7L2, NGN3, FOXA2, LOC646279, FLJ39370 and THADA and waist hip ratio (WHR, BMI and/or overweight which needs to be validated in larger set of samples. All the above findings were independent of daily energy consumption and physical activity level. The risk score estimates based on eight significant loci (including nominal associations showed associations with WHR and body fat which were independent of BMI. In summary, we establish the role of T2D associated loci in influencing the measures of obesity in Indian population, suggesting common underlying pathophysiology across populations.

  6. Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging in cerebral glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Shan; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Hsu, Fei-Ting; Cho, Nai-Yu; Wang, Chao-Ying; Chou, Ming-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of histogram analysis of the T2*-based permeability parameter volume transfer constant (K trans ) for glioma grading and to explore the diagnostic performance of the histogram analysis of K trans and blood plasma volume (v p ). We recruited 31 and 11 patients with high- and low-grade gliomas, respectively. The histogram parameters of K trans and v p , derived from the first-pass pharmacokinetic modeling based on the T2* dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2* DSC-PW-MRI) from the entire tumor volume, were evaluated for differentiating glioma grades. Histogram parameters of K trans and v p showed significant differences between high- and low-grade gliomas and exhibited significant correlations with tumor grades. The mean K trans derived from the T2* DSC-PW-MRI had the highest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas compared with other histogram parameters of K trans and v p . Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging is useful for cerebral glioma grading. The histogram parameters of the entire tumor K trans measurement can provide increased accuracy with additional information regarding microvascular permeability changes for identifying high-grade brain tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-center transferability of a breath-hold T2 technique for myocardial iron assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Godfrey CF

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac iron overload is the leading cause of death in thalassemia major and is usually assessed using myocardial T2* measurements. Recently a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR breath-hold T2 sequence has been developed as a possible alternative. This cardiac T2 technique has good interstudy reproducibility, but its transferability to different centres has not yet been investigated. Methods and Results The breath-hold black blood spin echo T2 sequence was installed and validated on 1.5T Siemens MR scanners at 4 different centres across the world. Using this sequence, 5–10 thalassemia patients from each centre were scanned twice locally within a week for local interstudy reproducibility (n = 34 and all were rescanned within one month at the standardization centre in London (intersite reproducibility. The local interstudy reproducibility (coefficient of variance and mean difference were 4.4% and -0.06 ms. The intersite reproducibility and mean difference between scanners were 5.2% and -0.07 ms. Conclusion The breath-hold myocardial T2 technique is transferable between Siemens scanners with good intersite and local interstudy reproducibility. This technique may have value in the diagnosis and management of patients with iron overload conditions such as thalassemia.

  8. Occipital lobe seizures and subcortical T2 and T2* hypointensity associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Fuyuko; Kawajiri, Sumihiro; Nakajima, Sho; Yamaguchi, Ai; Tomizawa, Yuji; Noda, Kazuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-12

    Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes seizures. Recently, seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia have been found to be associated with subcortical T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance imaging, especially in the occipital lobes. However, the mechanism remains unclear, although iron accumulation is suggested. We present a case of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of subcortical T2 hypointensity is iron accumulation using gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. A 65-year-old Japanese man complained of intermittent pastel-colored flashing lights. On neurological examination, he also had lower right-side quadrant hemianopia. No other abnormal neurological findings were found. On laboratory analysis, his blood glucose level was 370 mg/dL, HbA1c was 11.4 %, and serum osmolarity was 326 mOsm/L. No ketones were detected in urine. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his head showed subcortical T2 and T2* hypointensity in his left occipital lobe. Single-photon emission computed tomography with I123-N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine revealed hyperperfusion in the left dominant occipital lobe. These magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities resolved during clinical recovery and treatment to control his blood sugar level. Therefore, a diagnosis of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia supporting the role of iron accumulation as a mechanism for subcortical T2 hypointensity using T2*-magnetic resonance imaging.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging and T2 relaxometry of human median nerve at 7 Tesla.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambarota, G.; Veltien, A.A.; Klomp, D.W.J.; Alfen, N. van; Mulkern, R.V.; Heerschap, A.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of T2 relaxation times in tissues have provided a unique, noninvasive method to investigate the microenvironment of water molecules in vivo. As more clinical imaging is performed at higher field strengths, tissue relaxation times need to be reassessed in order to optimize tissue

  10. Evaluation of the MIT-Scan-T2 for non-destructive PCC pavement thickness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The MIT-Scan-T2 device is marketed as a non-destructive way to determine pavement thickness on both : HMA and PCC pavements. PCC pavement thickness determination is an important incentivedisincentive : measurement for the Iowa DOT and contractors. Th...

  11. Electrostatic fluxes and plasma rotation in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bergsaaker, H.; Brunsell, P.; Drake, J.R.; Spolaore, M.; Saetherblom, H.E.; Vianello, N.

    2001-01-01

    The EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch has undergone a significant reconstruction into the new T2R device. This paper reports the first measurements performed with Langmuir probes in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R. The radial profiles of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature, plasma potential, electrical fields and electrostatic turbulence-driven particle flux are presented. These profiles are interpreted in a momentum balance model where finite Larmor radius losses occur over a distance of about two Larmor radii from the limiter position. The double shear layer of the ExB drift velocity is discussed in terms of the Biglari-Diamond-Terry theory of turbulence decorrelation. (author)

  12. Electrostatic Fluxes and Plasma Rotation in the Edge Region of EXTRAP-T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bergsåker, H.; Brunsell, P.; Drake, J. R.; Spolaore, M.; Sätherblom, H. E.; Vianello, N.

    2001-10-01

    The EXTRAP-T2 reversed field pinch has undergone a significant reconstruction into the new T2R device. This paper reports the first measurements performed with Langmuir probes in the edge region of EXTRAP-T2R. The radial profiles of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature, plasma potential, electrical fields and electrostatic turbulence-driven particle flux are presented. These profiles are interpreted in a momentum balance model where finite Larmor radius losses occur over a distance of about two Larmor radii from the limiter position. The double shear layer of the E×B drift velocity is discussed in terms of the Biglari-Diamond-Terry theory of turbulence decorrelation.

  13. T2 black lesions on routine knee MRI: differential considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Cho, Gina; Moore, Daniel; Pezeshk, Parham; Coyner, Katherine; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-01-01

    The majority of abnormal findings or lesions on T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are hyperintense due to increased perfusion or fluid content, such as infections, tumours or synovitis. Hypointense lesions on T2-weighted images (both fat-suppressed and non-fat-suppressed) are less common and can sometimes be overlooked. Such lesions have limited differential diagnostic possibilities, and include vacuum phenomenon, loose body, tenosynovial giant cell tumour, rheumatoid arthritis, haemochromatosis, gout, amyloid, chondrocalcinosis, hydroxyapetite deposition disease, lipoma arborescens, arthrofibrosis and iatrogenic lesions. These lesions often show characteristic appearances and predilections in the knee. In this article, the authors describe the MRI features of hypointense T2 lesions on routine knee MRI and outline a systematic diagnostic approach towards their evaluation. (orig.)

  14. HOTELLING'S T2 CONTROL CHARTS BASED ON ROBUST ESTIMATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO YÁÑEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the presence of multivariate outliers, in a Phase I analysis of historical set of data, the T 2 control chart based on the usual sample mean vector and sample variance covariance matrix performs poorly. Several alternative estimators have been proposed. Among them, estimators based on the minimum volume ellipsoid (MVE and the minimum covariance determinant (MCD are powerful in detecting a reasonable number of outliers. In this paper we propose a T 2 control chart using the biweight S estimators for the location and dispersion parameters when monitoring multivariate individual observations. Simulation studies show that this method outperforms the T 2 control chart based on MVE estimators for a small number of observations.

  15. T2-weighted four dimensional magnetic resonance imaging with result-driven phase sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yilin; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cai, Jing; Czito, Brian G.; Bashir, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the feasibility of this technique. Results: 4D data acquisition completeness (C_p) increases as NR increases in an inverse-exponential fashion (C_p = 100 − 99 × exp(−0.18 × N_R), when N_B = 6, fitted using 29 patients’ data). The N_R required for 4D-MRI reconstruction (defined as achieving 95% completeness, C_p = 95%, N_R = N_R_,_9_5) is proportional to N_B (N_R_,_9_5 ∼ 2.86 × N_B, r = 1.0), but independent of N_S and P_0. Simulated XCAT 4D-MRI showed a clear pattern of respiratory motion. Tumor motion trajectories measured on 4D-MRI were comparable to the average input signal, with a mean relative amplitude error of 2.7% ± 2.9%. Reconstructed 4D-MRI for healthy volunteers illustrated clear respiratory motion on three orthogonal planes, with minimal image artifacts. The artifacts were presumably caused by breathing irregularity and incompleteness of data acquisition (95% acquired only). The mean relative amplitude error between critical structure trajectory and average breathing curve for 12 healthy volunteers is 2.5 ± 0.3 mm in superior–inferior direction. Conclusions: A novel T2-weighted retrospective phase sorting 4D-MRI technique has been developed and successfully applied on digital phantom and healthy volunteers

  16. Are T2-weighted images necessary in renal mass characterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, Phoebe; Thakur, Ravi; Chin, Deanne; Krinsky, Glenn; Israel, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine what role T2-weighted images play in characterizing renal masses. Methods: Forty-four pathologically proven renal masses (34 renal cell carcinomas, 8 oncocytomas, 1 metanephric adenoma, 1 angiomyolipoma without macroscopic fat) and 38 simple renal cysts were evaluated with T1- and T2-weighted images at 1.5 T. Two independent and blinded readers initially characterized all masses using only the T1-weighed images (in- and opposed-phase chemical shift, unenhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed, gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed and subtraction images) and placed each mass into one of three categories: nonsurgical, in need of follow-up, or surgical. The masses were then re-evaluated with the addition of the T2-weighted images. It was determined if the T2-weighted images changed the initial classification. Results: Forty-three of the 44 (98%) pathologically proven renal masses were characterized as a surgical mass using only the T1-weighted images. The remaining renal mass (a renal cell carcinoma) was characterized as a mass in which follow-up exams would be suggested. Thirty-eight of 38 (100%) simple renal cysts were correctly characterized using only the T1-weighted images. The T2-weighted images did not change the initial interpretation of the T1-weighted images in any of the cases. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that T2-weighted images are not necessary in the evaluation of all renal masses and are specifically not necessary in the differentiation of solid and cystic renal neoplasms from simple renal cysts

  17. Repeatability of magnetic resonance fingerprinting T1 and T2 estimates assessed using the ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Keenan, Kathryn E; Stupic, Karl F; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate accuracy and repeatability of T 1 and T 2 estimates of a MR fingerprinting (MRF) method using the ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom. The ISMRM/NIST MRI system phantom contains multiple compartments with standardized T 1 , T 2 , and proton density values. Conventional inversion-recovery spin echo and spin echo methods were used to characterize the T 1 and T 2 values in the phantom. The phantom was scanned using the MRF-FISP method over 34 consecutive days. The mean T 1 and T 2 values were compared with the values from the spin echo methods. The repeatability was characterized as the coefficient of variation of the measurements over 34 days. T 1 and T 2 values from MRF-FISP over 34 days showed a strong linear correlation with the measurements from the spin echo methods (R 2  = 0.999 for T 1 ; R 2  = 0.996 for T 2 ). The MRF estimates over the wide ranges of T 1 and T 2 values have less than 5% variation, except for the shortest T 2 relaxation times where the method still maintains less than 8% variation. MRF measurements of T 1 and T 2 are highly repeatable over time and across wide ranges of T 1 and T 2 values. Magn Reson Med 78:1452-1457, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. T2 values of femoral cartilage of the knee joint: Comparison between pre-contrast and post-contrast images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choe, Bong Keun

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between T2 values of pre- and post-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) images of femoral cartilage in patients with varying degrees of osteoarthritis. A total of 19 patients underwent delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage. Six regions of interest for T2 value measurement were obtained from pre- and post-contrast T2-weighted, sagittal, multi-slice, multi-echo, source images in each subject. Regions with modified Noyes classification grade 2B and 3 were excluded. Comparison of T2 values between pre- and post-contrast images and T2 values among regions with the grade 0, 1 and 2A groups were statistically analyzed. Of a total of 114 regions, 79 regions showing grade 0 (n = 46), 1 (n = 18), or 2A (n = 15) were analyzed. The overall and individual T2 values of post-contrast images were significantly lower than those of pre-contrast images (overall, 35.3 ± 9.2 [mean ± SD] vs. 29.9 ± 8.2, p < 0.01; range of individual, 28.9-37.6 vs. 27.1-36.4, p < 0.01). Pearson correlation coefficients showed a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images (rho-Pearson = 0.712-0.905). T2 values of pre- and post-contrast images of the grade 0 group were significantly lower than those of the grade 1/2A group (pre T2, p = 0.003; post T2, p = 0.006). T2 values of the femoral cartilage of the knee joint are significantly lower on post-contrast images than on pre-contrast images. Furthermore, these T2 values have a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images.

  19. Comparison of T1rho and T2 mapping of knee articular cartilage in an asymptomatic population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min A; Hong, Suk Joo; Im, A Lan [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Baek Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Seong [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To analyze subregional differences in T1rho (T1ρ) and T2 values and their correlation in asymptomatic knee cartilage, and to evaluate angular dependence with magic angles. Six asymptomatic volunteers underwent knee MRI with T1ρ and T2 mapping. T1ρ and T2 values were measured by two radiologists independently, at nine subregions in the medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage, at angles of ± 0°, 15°, 35°, 55°, 75° respective to a vertical line (B0) bisecting the width of the distal femur, and at two locations in the patella. Subregional values of T1ρ and T2 were analyzed and significant differences in three divided portions of the MFC (anterior, central, and posterior) were statistically evaluated. Correlation between T1ρ and T2 and angular dependence with magic angles were also assessed for statistical significance. T1ρ values were lowest at +15° and highest at -55°. T2 values were lowest at +75° and highest at +35°. Both T1ρ and T2 were higher in superior patella than inferior patella. T1ρ showed significant differences in the three divided portions of the MFC, while T2 showed significant differences only between central and posterior portions. There was a weak correlation between T1ρ and T2 (r = 0.217, p = 0.127). T1ρ showed more angular dependence than T2. T1ρ and T2 showed different subregional values and angular dependence in asymptomatic knee cartilage with a weak correlation. Awareness of these differences will aid in assessment of cartilage in a specific subregion of the knee.

  20. T2 values of femoral cartilage of the knee joint: Comparison between pre-contrast and post-contrast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Young Cheol [Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between T2 values of pre- and post-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) images of femoral cartilage in patients with varying degrees of osteoarthritis. A total of 19 patients underwent delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage. Six regions of interest for T2 value measurement were obtained from pre- and post-contrast T2-weighted, sagittal, multi-slice, multi-echo, source images in each subject. Regions with modified Noyes classification grade 2B and 3 were excluded. Comparison of T2 values between pre- and post-contrast images and T2 values among regions with the grade 0, 1 and 2A groups were statistically analyzed. Of a total of 114 regions, 79 regions showing grade 0 (n = 46), 1 (n = 18), or 2A (n = 15) were analyzed. The overall and individual T2 values of post-contrast images were significantly lower than those of pre-contrast images (overall, 35.3 ± 9.2 [mean ± SD] vs. 29.9 ± 8.2, p < 0.01; range of individual, 28.9-37.6 vs. 27.1-36.4, p < 0.01). Pearson correlation coefficients showed a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images (rho-Pearson = 0.712-0.905). T2 values of pre- and post-contrast images of the grade 0 group were significantly lower than those of the grade 1/2A group (pre T2, p = 0.003; post T2, p = 0.006). T2 values of the femoral cartilage of the knee joint are significantly lower on post-contrast images than on pre-contrast images. Furthermore, these T2 values have a strong positive correlation between pre- and post-contrast images.

  1. Brain extraction in partial volumes T2*@7T by using a quasi-anatomic segmentation with bias field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, João; Vieira, Pedro M; Couto, Carlos; Lima, Carlos S

    2018-02-01

    Poor brain extraction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has negative consequences in several types of brain post-extraction such as tissue segmentation and related statistical measures or pattern recognition algorithms. Current state of the art algorithms for brain extraction work on weighted T1 and T2, being not adequate for non-whole brain images such as the case of T2*FLASH@7T partial volumes. This paper proposes two new methods that work directly in T2*FLASH@7T partial volumes. The first is an improvement of the semi-automatic threshold-with-morphology approach adapted to incomplete volumes. The second method uses an improved version of a current implementation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm with bias correction for brain segmentation. Under high inhomogeneity conditions the performance of the first method degrades, requiring user intervention which is unacceptable. The second method performed well for all volumes, being entirely automatic. State of the art algorithms for brain extraction are mainly semi-automatic, requiring a correct initialization by the user and knowledge of the software. These methods can't deal with partial volumes and/or need information from atlas which is not available in T2*FLASH@7T. Also, combined volumes suffer from manipulations such as re-sampling which deteriorates significantly voxel intensity structures making segmentation tasks difficult. The proposed method can overcome all these difficulties, reaching good results for brain extraction using only T2*FLASH@7T volumes. The development of this work will lead to an improvement of automatic brain lesions segmentation in T2*FLASH@7T volumes, becoming more important when lesions such as cortical Multiple-Sclerosis need to be detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining the neutrino mass hierarchy with INO, T2K, NOvA and reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Anushree; Choubey, Sandhya; Thakore, Tarak

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large measured value of θ 13 has opened up the possibility of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy through earth matter effects. Amongst the current accelerator experiments only NOvA has a long enough baseline to observe earth matter effects. However, even NOvA is plagued with uncertainty on the knowledge of the true value of Δ CP which drastically reduces its sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. Earth matter effects in atmospheric neutrinos on the other hand is almost independent of δ CP . The 50 kton magnetized Iron CALorimeter at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (ICAL at the rate lNO) will be observing atmospheric neutrinos. The charge identification capability of this detector gives it an edge over others for mass hierarchy determination through observation of earth matter effects. We study in detail the neutrino mass hierarchy sensitivity of the data from this experiment simulated using the Nuance based generator developed for ICAL at the rate lNO and folded with the detector resolution and efficiencies obtained by the INO collaboration from a full detector Geant based simulation. The data from ICAL at the rate lNO is then combined with simulated of T2K, NOvA Double Chooz, RENO and Daya Bay experiments and a combined sensitivity study to the mass hierarchy performed. With 10 years of ICAL at the rate lNO data combined with T2K, NOvA and reactor data, one could get 2.8σ - 5σ discovery for the neutrino mass hierarchy depending on the true value of (θ23, θ13 and δ CP . (author)

  3. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma

    2017-01-01

    saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.49, p = 0.023), but no significant correlations could be demonstrated with frontal and whole brain cerebral blood flow. These results suggest that measuring oxygen saturation by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation is feasible, even in neonates. Strong...... sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (R(2 )= 0.64, p ..., and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p 

  4. In vivo determination of T1 and T2 in the brain of patients with severe but stable multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Frederiksen, J; Kjaer, L

    1988-01-01

    investigated, using a whole-body superconductive MR scanner, operating at 1.5 T. By employing 12-point (or 6-point) partial saturation inversion recovery (PSIR) and 32-echo multiple spin-echo sequences we measured T1 and T2 in MS plaques, white matter, and cortical gray matter. We also focused on the issue......, whether T1 and T2 relaxation processes in fact were monoexponential. T1 and T2 in plaques were found to cover a wide range, which could be explained only by inherent biophysical dissimilarity of the plaques, possibly due to differences in disease activity, edema and gliosis. T1 appeared monoexponential...... in all the plaques, but in seven cases T2 showed biexponential behavior. This was found to be most pronounced near the cerebrospinal fluid of the ventricles, probably caused by partial volume effects or increased free water content. The T2 of apparently normal white matter was significantly longer in MS...

  5. Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum

    (MRI) variable T2* reflects the placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. Methods: The study population......CONTROL ID: 2516296 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.05 TITLE: Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Marianne Sinding1, David Peters2, Jens B. Frøkjær3, 4, Ole B. Christiansen1, 4, Astrid Petersen5...... had an EFW T2* was measured by MRI at 1.5T. A gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16 echo times was used, and the placental T2* value was obtained by fitting the signal intensity as a function of the echo times...

  6. Myometrial invasion and overall staging of endometrial carcinoma: assessment using fusion of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Y

    2017-12-01

    T2WI; 97.7% for T2WI-DWI. In summary, T2WI-DWI fusion exhibits higher diagnostic accuracy with respect to staging relative to T2WI only (81.0% for T2WI; 94.8% for T2WI-DWI.Conclusion: Fused T2WI-DWI may represent a noninvasive, lower cost approach for the effective assessment of myometrial invasion and staging of endometrial carcinoma. Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, T2WI, DWI, myometrial invasion, magnetic resonance imaging, fusion, staging

  7. Retracted: Association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohui; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zongpei; Zheng, Dongwen

    2015-03-01

    The association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism with type-2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) susceptibility and the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic databases. Sixteen articles were identified for the analysis of the association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations. ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of patients with T2DM developing T2DN in Caucasian populations. Sensitivity analysis according to sample size of case (ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of patients with T2DM developing T2DN in Caucasian populations. However, more studies should be performed in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Skeletal muscle water T2 as a biomarker of disease status and exercise effects in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, Ami; Azzabou, Noura; Bulea, Thomas; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Shimellis, Hirity; Ren, Yupeng; Kim, Eunhee; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Carlier, Pierre G

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exercise effects on muscle water T 2 in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In 12 DMD subjects and 19 controls, lower leg muscle fat (%) was measured by Dixon and muscle water T 2 and R 2 (1/T 2 ) by the tri-exponential model. Muscle water R 2 was measured again at 3 hours after an ankle dorsiflexion exercise. The muscle fat fraction was higher in DMD participants than in controls (p muscle. Muscle water T 2 was measured independent of the degree of fatty degeneration in DMD muscle. At baseline, muscle water T 2 was higher in all but the extensor digitorum longus muscles of DMD participants than controls (p muscle torque (p muscle water R 2 decreased (T 2 increased) after exercise from baseline in DMD subjects and controls with greater changes in the target muscles of the exercise than in ankle plantarflexor muscles. Skeletal muscle water T 2 is a sensitive biomarker of the disease status in DMD and of the exercise response in DMD patients and controls. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Assessing errors related to characteristics of the items measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggett, W.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that are related to some intrinsic property of the items measured are often encountered in nuclear material accounting. An example is the error in nondestructive assay measurements caused by uncorrected matrix effects. Nuclear material accounting requires for each materials type one measurement method for which bounds on these errors can be determined. If such a method is available, a second method might be used to reduce costs or to improve precision. If the measurement error for the first method is longer-tailed than Gaussian, then precision might be improved by measuring all items by both methods. 8 refs

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging and T2 mapping in early denervated skeletal muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sunseob; Kang, Eun-Ju; Park, Hwan Tae

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the temporal changes of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, T2 values, and visual signal intensity on various fat suppression techniques in the early state of denervated skeletal muscle in a rat model. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval was obtained. Sciatic nerves of eight rats were transected for irreversible neurotmesis model. We examined normal lower leg and denervated muscles at 3 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks on a 3 Tesla MR. fractional anisotropy (FA), mean apparent diffusion coefficient (mADC), and T2 values were measured by using DTI and T2 mapping scan. We subjectively classified the signal intensity change on various fat suppression images into the following three grades: negative, suspicious, and definite change. Wilcoxon-sign rank test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for the comparison of FA, mADC, T2 values. McNemar's test was used for comparing signal intensity change among fat suppression techniques. FA values of denervated muscles at 3 days (0.35 ± 0.06), 1 week (0.29 ± 0.04), and 2 weeks (0.34 ± 0.05) were significantly (P  0.05) change. T2 values were significantly increased at 1 week (38.11 ± 6.42 ms, P = 0.017) and markedly increased at 2 weeks (46.53 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.012). The grade of visual signal intensity change on chemical shift selective fat saturation, STIR and IDEAL images were identical in all cases (P = 1.000). FA and T2 values can demonstrate the early temporal changes in denervated rat skeletal muscle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  12. Optimal MR pulse sequences for hepatic hemangiomas : comparison of T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, T2-weighted breath-hold turbo-spin-echo, and T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen Chao; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cho, Soon Gu

    1997-01-01

    To optimize MR imaging pulse sequences in the imaging of hepatic hemangioma and to evaluate on dynamic MR imaging the enhancing characteristics of the lesions. Twenty patients with 35 hemangiomas were studied by using Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence (T2-weighted, T2- and heavily T2-weighted breath-hold) and T1-weighted FLASH imaging acquired before, immediately on, and 1, 3 and 5 minutes after injection of a bolus of Gd-DTPA (0.1mmol/kg). Phased-array multicoil was employed. Images were quantitatively analyzed for lesion-to-liver signal difference to noise ratios (SD/Ns), and lesion-to-liver signal ratios (H/Ls), and qualitatively analyzed for lesion conspicuity. The enhancing characteristics of the hemangiomas were described by measuring the change of signal intensity as a curve in T1-weighted FLASH dynamic imaging. For T2-weighted images, breath-hold T2-weighted TSE had a slightly higher SD/N than other pulse sequences, but there was no statistical difference in three fast pulse sequences (p=0.211). For lesion conspicuity, heavily T2-weighted breath-hold TSE images was superior to T2-weighted breath-hold or non-breath-hold TSE (H/L, 5.75, 3.81, 2.87, respectively, p<0.05). T2-weighted breath-hold TSE imaging was more effective than T2-weighted TSE imaging in removing lesion blurring or lack of sharpness, and there was a 12-fold decrease in acquisition time (20sec versus 245 sec). T1-weighted FLASH dynamic images of normal liver showed peak enhancement at less than 1 minute, and of hemangioma at more than 3 minutes;the degree of enhancement for hemangioma decreased after a 3 minute delay. T2-weighed breath-hold TSE imaging and Gd-DTPA enhanced FLASH dynamic imaging with 5 minutes delay are sufficient for imaging hepatic hemangiomas

  13. Automated image quality evaluation of T2 -weighted liver MRI utilizing deep learning architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esses, Steven J; Lu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Dane, Bari; Bruno, Mary; Chandarana, Hersh

    2018-03-01

    To develop and test a deep learning approach named Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for automated screening of T 2 -weighted (T 2 WI) liver acquisitions for nondiagnostic images, and compare this automated approach to evaluation by two radiologists. We evaluated 522 liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed at 1.5T and 3T at our institution between November 2014 and May 2016 for CNN training and validation. The CNN consisted of an input layer, convolutional layer, fully connected layer, and output layer. 351 T 2 WI were anonymized for training. Each case was annotated with a label of being diagnostic or nondiagnostic for detecting lesions and assessing liver morphology. Another independently collected 171 cases were sequestered for a blind test. These 171 T 2 WI were assessed independently by two radiologists and annotated as being diagnostic or nondiagnostic. These 171 T 2 WI were presented to the CNN algorithm and image quality (IQ) output of the algorithm was compared to that of two radiologists. There was concordance in IQ label between Reader 1 and CNN in 79% of cases and between Reader 2 and CNN in 73%. The sensitivity and the specificity of the CNN algorithm in identifying nondiagnostic IQ was 67% and 81% with respect to Reader 1 and 47% and 80% with respect to Reader 2. The negative predictive value of the algorithm for identifying nondiagnostic IQ was 94% and 86% (relative to Readers 1 and 2). We demonstrate a CNN algorithm that yields a high negative predictive value when screening for nondiagnostic T 2 WI of the liver. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:723-728. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. A measure of satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Dean, Moira; Raats, Monique M.

    2007-01-01

    A measure of satisfaction with food-related life is developed and tested in three studies in eight European countries. Five items are retained from an original pool of seven; these items exhibit good reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha, good temporal stability, convergent validity with two...... related measures, and construct validity as indicated by relationships with other indicators of quality of life, including the Satisfaction With Life and the SF-8 scales. It is concluded that this scale will be useful in studies trying to identify factors contributing to satisfaction with food...

  15. Dynamic equivalence relation on the fuzzy measure algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghasemkhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to extend classical results from the measure theory and dynamical systems to the fuzzy subset setting. In this paper, the notion of  dynamic equivalence relation is introduced and then it is proved that this relation is an equivalence relation. Also, a new metric on the collection of all equivalence classes is introduced and it is proved that this metric is complete.

  16. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  17. T2-weighted liver MRI using the multiVane technique at 3T: Comparison with conventional T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung A [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dong Il; Lee, Won Jae [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Philips, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin Ho; Baek, Sun Young [Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the value of applying MultiVane to liver T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with conventional T2WIs with emphasis on detection of focal liver lesions. Seventy-eight patients (43 men and 35 women) with 86 hepatic lesions and 20 pancreatico-biliary diseases underwent MRI including T2WIs acquired using breath-hold (BH), respiratory-triggered (RT), and MultiVane technique at 3T. Two reviewers evaluated each T2WI with respect to artefacts, organ sharpness, and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels, hilar duct, and main lesion using five-point scales, and made pairwise comparisons between T2WI sequences for these categories. Diagnostic accuracy (Az) and sensitivity for hepatic lesion detection were evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. MultiVane T2WI was significantly better than BH-T2WI or RT-T2WI for organ sharpness and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels and main lesion in both separate reviews and pairwise comparisons (p < 0.001). With regard to motion artefacts, MultiVane T2WI or BH-T2WI was better than RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). Conspicuity of hilar duct was better with BH-T2WI than with MultiVane T2WI (p = 0.030) or RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). For detection of 86 hepatic lesions, sensitivity (mean, 97.7%) of MultiVane T2WI was significantly higher than that of BH-T2WI (mean, 89.5%) (p = 0.008) or RT-T2WI (mean, 84.9%) (p = 0.001). Applying the MultiVane technique to T2WI of the liver is a promising approach to improving image quality that results in increased detection of focal liver lesions compared with conventional T2WI.

  18. Curative Radiation Therapy for T2N0M0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Kyu; Kim, Jae Choel

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Surgery is the treatment of choice for resectable non-small cell lung cancer. For patients who are medically unable to tolerate a surgical resection or who refuse surgery, radiation therapy is an acceptable alternative. A retrospective analysis of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with curative radiation therapy was performed to determine the results of curative radiation therapy and patterns of failure, and to identify factors that may influence survival. Materials and Methods : From 1986 through 1993, 39 patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer were treated with curative radiation therapy at department of radiation oncology, Kyungpook national university hospital All patients were not candidates for surgical resection because of either patient refusal (16 patients), poor pulmonary function (12 patients), old age (7 patients), poor performance (2 patients) or coexisting medical disease (2 patients). Median age of patients was 67 years. Histologic cell type was squamous cell carcinoma in 1. All patients were treated with megavoltage irradiation and radiation dose raged from 5000cGy to 6150 cGy with a median dose of 600cGy. The median follow-up was 17 months with a range of 4 to 82 months. Survival was measured from the date therapy initiated. Results : The overall survival rate for entire patients was 40.6% at 2 years and 27.7% at 3 years, with a median survival time of 21 months he disease-free survival at 2 and 3 years was 51.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Of evaluable 20 Patients with complete response, 15 Patients were considered to have failed. Of these, 13 patients showed local failure and 2 patients failed distantly. Response to treatment (p=0.0001), tumor size (p=0.0019) and age p=0.0247) were favorably associated with overall survival. Only age was predictive for disease-free survival (p=0.0452). Conclusion : Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for small (less than 3 cm) tumors, and should be offered as an

  19. Identification of a 3rd Na+ Binding Site of the Glycine Transporter, GlyT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandhitha Subramanian

    Full Text Available The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown. A bacterial betaine transporter, BetP, has also been crystallized and shows structural similarity to LeuTAa. Although betaine transport by BetP is coupled to the co-transport of two Na+ ions, the first Na+ site is not conserved between BetP and LeuTAa, the so called Na1' site. We hypothesized that the third Na+ binding site (Na3 site of GlyT2 corresponds to the BetP Na1' binding site. To identify the Na3 binding site of GlyT2, we performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Surprisingly, a Na+ placed at the location consistent with the Na1' site of BetP spontaneously dissociated from its initial location and bound instead to a novel Na3 site. Using a combination of MD simulations of a comparative model of GlyT2 together with an analysis of the functional properties of wild type and mutant GlyTs we have identified an electrostatically favorable novel third Na+ binding site in GlyT2 formed by Trp263 and Met276 in TM3, Ala481 in TM6 and Glu648 in TM10.

  20. Air sparging for subsurface remediation: Numerical analysis using T2VOC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCray, J.E.; Falta, R.W. [Clemson Univ. SC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Air sparging is under active investigation as a promising remediation technology for aquifers contaminated with folatile organic dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A theoretical study for the removal of DNAPLs from the subsurface using this technology is presented. T2VOC is used to conduct multiphase numerical simulations of DNAPL removal utilizing a model aquifer with a radially-symmetric geometry. Both homogeneous and macroscale heterogeneous systems are considered. These simulations suggest that DNAPLs are efficiently removed in a zone of contaminant cleanup at relatively low gas saturations within the injected air plume. The zone of effective removal may be referred to as the radius of influence (ROI). The sparging-induced pressure increase below the water table, which may be measured in the field, is recommended as the best method for determining the ROI. Multiphase numerical simulations are used to support this recommendation, to relate the injected gas ROI to the zone of NAPL cleanup, and to illustrate the transient and steady-state aquifer behavior.

  1. Repeatability and correlations of dynamic contrast enhanced and T2* MRI in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Remy; Gurney-Champion, Oliver J; Wilmink, Johanna W; Besselink, Marc G; Engelbrecht, Marc R W; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2018-07-01

    In current oncological practice of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), there is a great demand for response predictors and markers for early treatment evaluation. In this study, we investigated the repeatability and the interaction of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and T2* MRI in patients with advanced PDAC to enable for such evaluation using these techniques. 15 PDAC patients underwent two DCE, T2* and anatomical 3 T MRI sessions before start of treatment. Parametric maps were calculated for the transfer constant (K trans ), rate constant (k ep ), extracellular extravascular space (v e ) and perfusion fraction (v p ). Quantitative R2* (1/T2*) maps were obtained from the multi-echo T2* images. Differences between normal and cancerous pancreas were determined using a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Repeatability was obtained using Bland-Altman analysis and relations between DCE and T2*/R2* were observed by Spearman correlation and voxel-wise binned plots of tumor voxels. PDAC K trans (p = 0.007), k ep (p T2*. Voxel wise analysis showed a steep increase in R2* for tumor voxels with lower K trans and v e . We showed good repeatability of DCE and T2* related MRI parameters in advanced PDAC patients. Furthermore, we have illustrated the relation of DCE K trans and v e with tissue T2* and R2* indicating substantial value of these parameters for detecting tumor hypoxia in future studies. The results from our study pave the way for further response evaluation studies and patient selection based on DCE and T2* parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  3. Signatures of a light sterile neutrino in T2HK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Palazzo, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the performance of T2HK in the presence of a light eV scale sterile neutrino. We study in detail its influence in resolving fundamental issues like mass hierarchy, CP-violation (CPV) induced by the standard CP-phase δ 13 and new CP-phase δ 14, and the octant ambiguity of θ 23. We show for the first time in detail that due to the impressive energy reconstruction capabilities of T2HK, the available spectral information plays an important role to enhance the mass hierarchy discovery reach of this experiment in 3 ν framework and also to keep it almost intact even in 4 ν scheme. This feature is also of the utmost importance in establishing the CPV due to δ 14. As far as the sensitivity to CPV due to δ 13 is concerned, it does not change much going from 3 ν to 4 ν case. We also examine the reconstruction capability of the two phases δ 13 and δ 14, and find that the typical 1 σ uncertainty on δ 13 ( δ 14) in T2HK is ˜ 150 (300). While determining the octant of θ 23, we face a complete loss of sensitivity for unfavorable combinations of unknown δ 13 and δ 14.

  4. Sealing performance test for main flange of pressure vessel of T2 test section in HENDEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kiminori; Kondou, Yasuo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Asami, Masanobu.

    1990-12-01

    A pressure vessel of T 2 test section in helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) was fabricated to the same scale of the reactor pressure vessel made of 2(1/4)Cr-1Mo steel in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Also, the sealing structure of a main flange of pressure vessel in T 2 test section was composed of the double metal O-rings and Ω-seal which would be used in the sealing structure of HTTR. The sealing performance test for the main flange of the pressure vessel in T 2 test section was carried out to confirm the integrity of sealing structure of a main flange in HTTR. T 2 test section has been operated about 7700 hours in previous 18 cycles. The leakage of helium gas from inner metal O-ring was measured by the static pressurized process under the operating condition of HTTR (helium gas: 400degC, 40kg/cm 2 G, 4gk/s). The calculated leakage of helium gas was less than 9.6x10 -7 atm·cm 3 /sec. From the result, it is expected that the sealing structure of main flange in HTTR would maintain the leak tightness in the life. (author)

  5. Bi-exponential T2 analysis of healthy and diseased Achilles tendons: an in vivo preliminary magnetic resonance study and correlation with clinical score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juras, Vladimir; Apprich, Sebastian; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Bieri, Oliver; Deligianni, Xeni; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2013-10-01

    To compare mono- and bi-exponential T2 analysis in healthy and degenerated Achilles tendons using a recently introduced magnetic resonance variable-echo-time sequence (vTE) for T2 mapping. Ten volunteers and ten patients were included in the study. A variable-echo-time sequence was used with 20 echo times. Images were post-processed with both techniques, mono- and bi-exponential [T2 m, short T2 component (T2 s) and long T2 component (T2 l)]. The number of mono- and bi-exponentially decaying pixels in each region of interest was expressed as a ratio (B/M). Patients were clinically assessed with the Achilles Tendon Rupture Score (ATRS), and these values were correlated with the T2 values. The means for both T2 m and T2 s were statistically significantly different between patients and volunteers; however, for T2 s, the P value was lower. In patients, the Pearson correlation coefficient between ATRS and T2 s was -0.816 (P = 0.007). The proposed variable-echo-time sequence can be successfully used as an alternative method to UTE sequences with some added benefits, such as a short imaging time along with relatively high resolution and minimised blurring artefacts, and minimised susceptibility artefacts and chemical shift artefacts. Bi-exponential T2 calculation is superior to mono-exponential in terms of statistical significance for the diagnosis of Achilles tendinopathy. • Magnetic resonance imaging offers new insight into healthy and diseased Achilles tendons • Bi-exponential T2 calculation in Achilles tendons is more beneficial than mono-exponential • A short T2 component correlates strongly with clinical score • Variable echo time sequences successfully used instead of ultrashort echo time sequences.

  6. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradat, Ziad W.; ViIa, Borja; Marquardt, Ronal R.

    2006-01-01

    T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin that is produced by fusarium species, is prevalent mainly in cereal crops and poultry feed. One of the major effects of this toxin is immunomodulation. The effect of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens and the subsequent protection with Vitamin E in both fat and water soluble forms was studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. T-2 toxin was administered in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 ng/mL of lymphocytes in the presence of either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinine (PHA-M) at optimum concentration of 333 ng/mL and a dilution of 1:160 for ConA and PHA-M, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA and PHA-M mitogens was depressed at T-2 doses of 1 ng/mL or higher (p < 0.05). The proliferation was completely abolished at 10 ng/mL when the toxin was added at 0 time, while it was decreased by 80% when the toxin was added to the lymphocytes after 24 h. The addition of Vitamin E in the fat soluble form (α-tocopheryl acetate) did not exert any protection effect against the toxin when it was added at either 25 or 100 μg. However, when the water soluble form (Trolox) was added at a concentration of (200 μg) (equivalent to 100 μM of α-tocopherol), it provided considerable protection (p < 0.05) against T-2 toxin inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. The difference in the effect between the two forms of Vitamin E might be related to their relative solubility in the culture media which in turn may affect their availability for protection

  7. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, M C; Benavides, J; García-Pariente, C; Delgado, L; Fuertes, M; Muñoz, M; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V

    2013-02-01

    A flock of approximately 1,000 sheep were exposed intermittently to food contaminated with T-2 toxin (T-2), a potent type-A trichothecene mycotoxin produced primarily by Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae. In the acute stage of the intoxication, affected sheep developed anorexia, decreased water consumption, ruminal atony, soft faeces and apathy. One hundred and ninety of the exposed sheep died. The main gross lesions observed in animals dying during the acute disease were rumenitis and ulcerative abomasitis, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, necrosis of the exocrine pancreas, myocarditis and intense oedema of the skin and brain. Sheep developing the chronic stage of disease showed weight loss and reproductive inefficiency and the main pathological features observed in animals dying during this stage were gastrointestinal inflammation, myocardial fibrosis and necrotic and suppurative lesions in the oral cavity. Opportunistic infections (e.g. mycotic mastitis or parasitic pneumonia) were also identified in these animals. Increased serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were observed, most likely related to heart lesions. T-2 toxins were detected in all samples of the diet of these animals that were analyzed. The changes in the sheep reported here are similar to those described previously in experimental studies. Lesions observed in the present animals suggest an additional cardiotoxic effect of T-2 in sheep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Scheenen, Tom W. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bathen, Tone F.; Selnaes, Kirsten M. [NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K{sup trans} and V{sub e}) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with both GS and median ADC. Contrast correlated moderately with median ADC. The textural features correlated insignificantly with K{sup trans} and V{sub e}. GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K{sup trans}, and V{sub e}. The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. (orig.)

  9. Mathematic modeling of the method of measurement relative dielectric permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Stepanov, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The method of measuring relative permittivity’s and the position of the interface between layers of a liquid medium is considered in the article. An electric capacitor is a system consisting of two conductors that are separated by a dielectric layer. It is mathematically proven that at any given time it is possible to obtain the values of the relative permittivity in the layers of the liquid medium and to determine the level of the interface between the layers of the two-layer liquid. The estimation of measurement errors is made.

  10. Relating Standardized Visual Perception Measures to Simulator Visual System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2013-01-01

    Human vision is quantified through the use of standardized clinical vision measurements. These measurements typically include visual acuity (near and far), contrast sensitivity, color vision, stereopsis (a.k.a. stereo acuity), and visual field periphery. Simulator visual system performance is specified in terms such as brightness, contrast, color depth, color gamut, gamma, resolution, and field-of-view. How do these simulator performance characteristics relate to the perceptual experience of the pilot in the simulator? In this paper, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity will be related to simulator visual system resolution, contrast, and dynamic range; similarly, color vision will be related to color depth/color gamut. Finally, we will consider how some characteristics of human vision not typically included in current clinical assessments could be used to better inform simulator requirements (e.g., relating dynamic characteristics of human vision to update rate and other temporal display characteristics).

  11. Assessment of Myocardial Fibrosis in Mice Using a T2*-Weighted 3D Radial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan J van Nierop

    Full Text Available Myocardial fibrosis is a common hallmark of many diseases of the heart. Late gadolinium enhanced MRI is a powerful tool to image replacement fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI. Interstitial fibrosis can be assessed indirectly from an extracellular volume fraction measurement using contrast-enhanced T1 mapping. Detection of short T2* species resulting from fibrotic tissue may provide an attractive non-contrast-enhanced alternative to directly visualize the presence of both replacement and interstitial fibrosis.To goal of this paper was to explore the use of a T2*-weighted radial sequence for the visualization of fibrosis in mouse heart.C57BL/6 mice were studied with MI (n = 20, replacement fibrosis, transverse aortic constriction (TAC (n = 18, diffuse fibrosis, and as control (n = 10. 3D center-out radial T2*-weighted images with varying TE were acquired in vivo and ex vivo (TE = 21 μs-4 ms. Ex vivo T2*-weighted signal decay with TE was analyzed using a 3-component model. Subtraction of short- and long-TE images was used to highlight fibrotic tissue with short T2*. The presence of fibrosis was validated using histology and correlated to MRI findings.Detailed ex vivo T2*-weighted signal analysis revealed a fast (T2*fast, slow (T2*slow and lipid (T2*lipid pool. T2*fast remained essentially constant. Infarct T2*slow decreased significantly, while a moderate decrease was observed in remote tissue in post-MI hearts and in TAC hearts. T2*slow correlated with the presence of diffuse fibrosis in TAC hearts (r = 0.82, P = 0.01. Ex vivo and in vivo subtraction images depicted a positive contrast in the infarct co-localizing with the scar. Infarct volumes from histology and subtraction images linearly correlated (r = 0.94, P<0.001. Region-of-interest analysis in the in vivo post-MI and TAC hearts revealed significant T2* shortening due to fibrosis, in agreement with the ex vivo results. However, in vivo contrast on subtraction images was rather poor

  12. 3D isotropic T2-weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) versus 2D T2-weighted fast spin echo in evaluation of the calcaneofibular ligament in the oblique coronal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Lee, S Y; Choi, Y J; Hong, H P; Park, S J; Park, J H; Kim, E

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the image quality of three-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic fast spin echo acquisition (VISTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) view is comparable to that of 2D fast spin echo T2-weighted images (2D T2 FSE) for the evaluation of the CFL, and whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T2 FSE for the evaluation of CFL injuries. This retrospective study included 76 patients who underwent ankle MRI with CFL views of both 2D T2 FSE MRI and 3D VISTA. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of both techniques were measured. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performances were evaluated by two readers independently. The diagnostic performances of 3D VISTA and 2D T2 FSE were analysed by sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing CFL injury with reference standards of surgically or clinically confirmed diagnoses. Surgical correlation was performed in 29% of the patients, and clinical examination was used in those who did not have surgery (71%). The SNRs and CNRs of 3D VISTA were significantly higher than those of 2D T2 FSE. The anatomical identification scores on 3D VISTA were inferior to those on 2D T2 FSE, and the differences were statistically significant (pT2 FSE for the anatomical evaluation of CFL, 3D VISTA has a diagnostic performance comparable to that of 2D T2 FSE for the diagnosis of CFL injuries. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior: Measurement and Relations With Sociometric Status and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M; Card, Noel A; Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to measure participant role behavior across overt and relational forms of aggression. The Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior Scales were designed to measure aggression, assisting, reinforcing, defending, victimization, and outsider behavior during acts of peer aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 609 adolescents (M age = 12 years). The data fit the hypothesized 12-factor model, and measurement invariance was established across gender. Relational victimization, but not overt victimization, was positively associated with all other relational aggression roles. Each participant role subscale was positively associated with depressive symptoms with the exception of the overt and relational outsider subscales. Future research and intervention efforts should consider overt and relational aggression participant roles, separately. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  15. Neutrino-argon interactions in the T2K near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Lukas; Radermacher, Thomas; Roth, Stefan; Steinmann, Jochen [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The T2K near detector employs three large, argon-filled TPCs with a total fiducial volume of about 10 m{sup 3} at ambient pressure. These TPCs have been exposed to the intense T2K muon-neutrino beam since the start of the experiment. The beam has a mean neutrino energy of 600 MeV and so far, data corresponding to over 6 . 10{sup 20}(4 . 10{sup 20}) protons on target was recorded in neutrino (anti-neutrino) mode. We expect about 600 charged current neutrino-argon interactions in the data. That enables us to do the world's first neutrino-Argon cross section measurement in gaseous argon, thus making an important contribution to constraining nuclear interaction models for future neutrino oscillation measurements. This talk describes the physics goals and present the current status of the analysis.

  16. Evaluation of renal quantitative T2* changes on MRI following administration of ferumoxytol as a T2* contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; McDermott, Shaunagh; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Abtahi, Seyed Mahdi; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Gaglia, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the time-dependent changes in regional quantitative T2* maps of the kidney following intravenous administration of ferumoxytol. Twenty-four individuals with normal kidney function underwent T2*-weighted MRI of the kidney before, immediately after, and 48 hours after intravenous administration of ferumoxytol at a dose of 4 mg/kg (group A, n=12) or 6 mg/kg (group B, n=12). T2* values were statistically analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests. In group A, the percentage changes from baseline to immediate post and baseline to 48 hours were 85.3% and 64.2% for the cortex and 90.8% and 64.6% for the medulla, respectively. In group B, the percentage changes from baseline to immediate post and baseline to 48 hours were 85.2% and 73.4% for the cortex and 94.5% and 74% for the medulla, respectively. This difference was significant for both groups (P<0.0001). There is significant and differential uptake of ferumoxytol in the cortex and medulla of physiologically normal kidneys. This differential uptake may offer the ability to interrogate renal cortex and medulla with possible clinical applications in medical renal disease and transplant organ assessment. We propose an organ of interest based dose titration of ferumoxytol to better differentiate circulating from intracellular ferumoxytol particles.

  17. Paradoxical signal pattern of mediastinal cysts on T2-weighted MR imaging: phantom and clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueguchi, Takashi [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the intracystic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) signal intensity of mediastinal cystic masses on T2-weighted images. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed to evaluate the signal intensity of a mediastinal cystic mass phantom (rubber balloon containing water) adjacent to a cardiac phantom pulsing at the rate of 60/min. T2-weighted images (sequence, fast spin echo [FSE] and single shot fast spin echo [SSFSE]) were acquired for the mediastinal cystic mass phantom. Further, a clinical study was performed in 33 patients (16 men, 17 women; age range, 19-85 years; mean, 65years) with thymic cysts or pericardial cysts. In all patients, T2-weighted images (FSE and SSFSE) were acquired. The signal intensity of cystic lesion was evaluated and was compared with that of muscle. A region of interest (ROI) was positioned on the standard MR console, and signal intensity of the cystic mass (cSI), that of the muscle (mSI), and the rate of absolute value of cSI–mSI to standard deviation (SD) of background noise (|cSI–mSI|/SD = CNR [contrast-to-noise ratio]) were measured. Results: The phantom study demonstrated that the rate phantom-ROI/saline-ROI was higher in SSFSE (0.36) than in FSE (0.19). In clinical cases, the degree of the signal intensity was higher in SSFSE than in FSE. The CNR was significantly higher in SSFSE (mean ± standard deviation, 111.0 ± 47.6) than in FSE (72.8 ± 36.6) (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusions: Anterior mediastinal cysts often show lower signal intensity than the original signal intensity of water on T2-weighted images. SSFSE sequence reduces this paradoxical signal pattern on T2-weighted images, which may otherwise cause misinterpretation when assessing cystic lesions.

  18. Comparison of T2 and FLAIR imaging for target delineation in high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background FLAIR and T2 weighted MRIs are used based on institutional preference to delineate high grade gliomas and surrounding edema for radiation treatment planning. Although these sequences have inherent physical differences there is limited data on the clinical and dosimetric impact of using either or both sequences. Methods 40 patients with high grade gliomas consecutively treated between 2002 and 2008 of which 32 had pretreatment MRIs with T1, T2 and FLAIR available for review were selected for this study. These MRIs were fused with the treatment planning CT. Normal structures, clinical tumor volume (CTV and planning tumor volume (PTV were then defined on the T2 and FLAIR sequences. A Venn diagram analysis was performed for each pair of tumor volumes as well as a fractional component analysis to assess the contribution of each sequence to the union volume. For each patient the tumor volumes were compared in terms of total volume in cubic centimeters as well as anatomic location using a discordance index. The overlap of the tumor volumes with critical structures was calculated as a measure of predicted toxicity. For patients with MRI documented failures, the tumor volumes obtained using the different sequences were compared with the recurrent gross tumor volume (rGTV. Results The FLAIR CTVs and PTVs were significantly larger than the T2 CTVs and PTVs (p Conclusions Although both T2 and FLAIR MRI sequences are used to define high grade glial neoplasm and surrounding edema, our results show that the volumes generated using these techniques are different and not interchangeable. These differences have bearing on the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and highly conformal treatment as well as on future clinical trials where the bias of using one technique over the other may influence the study outcome.

  19. Paradoxical signal pattern of mediastinal cysts on T2-weighted MR imaging: phantom and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Ueguchi, Takashi; Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intracystic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) signal intensity of mediastinal cystic masses on T2-weighted images. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed to evaluate the signal intensity of a mediastinal cystic mass phantom (rubber balloon containing water) adjacent to a cardiac phantom pulsing at the rate of 60/min. T2-weighted images (sequence, fast spin echo [FSE] and single shot fast spin echo [SSFSE]) were acquired for the mediastinal cystic mass phantom. Further, a clinical study was performed in 33 patients (16 men, 17 women; age range, 19-85 years; mean, 65years) with thymic cysts or pericardial cysts. In all patients, T2-weighted images (FSE and SSFSE) were acquired. The signal intensity of cystic lesion was evaluated and was compared with that of muscle. A region of interest (ROI) was positioned on the standard MR console, and signal intensity of the cystic mass (cSI), that of the muscle (mSI), and the rate of absolute value of cSI–mSI to standard deviation (SD) of background noise (|cSI–mSI|/SD = CNR [contrast-to-noise ratio]) were measured. Results: The phantom study demonstrated that the rate phantom-ROI/saline-ROI was higher in SSFSE (0.36) than in FSE (0.19). In clinical cases, the degree of the signal intensity was higher in SSFSE than in FSE. The CNR was significantly higher in SSFSE (mean ± standard deviation, 111.0 ± 47.6) than in FSE (72.8 ± 36.6) (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Conclusions: Anterior mediastinal cysts often show lower signal intensity than the original signal intensity of water on T2-weighted images. SSFSE sequence reduces this paradoxical signal pattern on T2-weighted images, which may otherwise cause misinterpretation when assessing cystic lesions

  20. [HDL-C/apoA-I]: A multivessel cardiometabolic risk marker in women with T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michel P; Valensi, Paul; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2018-01-01

    Although women have higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than have men, their HDL particles are also prone to become small, dense, and dysfunctional in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To assess the vascular risk related to HDLs of different sizes/densities without direct measurement, we adjusted HDL-C to its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) as [HDL-C/apoA-I]. This ratio estimates HDL sizes and provides indices as to their number, cholesterol load, and density. We stratified 280 Caucasian T2DM women according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q) to determine how they are segregated according to cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycaemic control, and vascular complications. Five parameters were derived from combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I: HDL size, HDL number, cholesterol load per particle (pP), apoA-I pP, and HDL density. An adverse cardiometabolic profile characterized QI and QII patients whose HDLs were denser and depleted in apoA-I, whereas QIII patients had HDLs with characteristics closer to those of controls. QIV patients had HDLs of supernormal size/composition and a more favourable phenotype in terms of fat distribution; insulin sensitivity (64% vs 41%), metabolic syndrome, and β-cell function (32% vs 23%); exogenous insulin (44 vs 89 U·d -1 ); and glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin, 56 vs 61 mmol·mol -1 ), associated with lower prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications: all-cause microangiopathy 47% vs 61%; retinopathy 22% vs 34%; all-cause macroangiopathy 19% vs 31%; and coronary artery disease 6% vs 24% (P women according to metabolic phenotype, macrovascular and coronary damage, β-cell function, microangiopathic risk, and retinopathy. This ratio is a versatile and readily available marker of cardiometabolic status and vascular complications in T2DM women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Fuzzy Relational Databases: Representational Issues and Reduction Using Similarity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Testemale, Claudette

    1987-01-01

    Compares and expands upon two approaches to dealing with fuzzy relational databases. The proposed similarity measure is based on a fuzzy Hausdorff distance and estimates the mismatch between two possibility distributions using a reduction process. The consequences of the reduction process on query evaluation are studied. (Author/EM)

  2. On the measurement of the relative viscosity of suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acrivos, A.; Fan, X.; Mauri, R.

    1994-01-01

    The relative viscosity of a suspension of rigid, noncolloidal particles immersed in a Newtonian fluid was measured in a Couette device and was found to be shear thinning even for values of the solids fraction as low as 20%. Although such behavior was reported previously, no satisfactory explanation appears to have been given thus far. It shall be shown presently, however, that, at least for our systems, this shear-thinning effect was due to a slight mismatch in the densities of the two phases. Moreover, the apparent relative viscosities measured in our apparatus were found to be in excellent agreement with those predicted theoretically using a model, originally proposed by Leighton and Acrivos [Chem. Eng. Sci. 41, 1377--1384 (1986)], to describe viscous resuspension, according to which the measured relative viscosity should depend on the bulk particle concentration and on the dimensionless Shields number A, and should attain its correct value for a well-mixed suspension only as A→∞. The predictions of this model are also in excellent agreement with the measured transient response of the apparent relative viscosity due to a sudden change in the shear rate

  3. Characterizing the microstructural basis of "unidentified bright objects" in neurofibromatosis type 1: A combined in vivo multicomponent T2 relaxation and multi-shell diffusion MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Thibo; Mädler, Burkhard; D'Arco, Felice; Peeters, Ronald; Deprez, Sabine; Plasschaert, Ellen; Leemans, Alexander; Zhang, Hui; den Bergh, Bea Van; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Legius, Eric; Sunaert, Stefan; Emsell, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The histopathological basis of "unidentified bright objects" (UBOs) (hyperintense regions seen on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain scans in neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1)) remains unclear. New in vivo MRI-based techniques (multi-exponential T2 relaxation (MET2) and diffusion MR imaging (dMRI)) provide measures relating to microstructural change. We combined these methods and present previously unreported data on in vivo UBO microstructure in NF1. 3-Tesla dMRI data were acquired on 17 NF1 patients, covering 30 white matter UBOs. Diffusion tensor, kurtosis and neurite orientation and dispersion density imaging parameters were calculated within UBO sites and in contralateral normal appearing white matter (cNAWM). Analysis of MET2 parameters was performed on 24 UBO-cNAWM pairs. No significant alterations in the myelin water fraction and intra- and extracellular (IE) water fraction were found. Mean T2 time of IE water was significantly higher in UBOs. UBOs furthermore showed increased axial, radial and mean diffusivity, and decreased fractional anisotropy, mean kurtosis and neurite density index compared to cNAWM. Neurite orientation dispersion and isotropic fluid fraction were unaltered. Our results suggest that demyelination and axonal degeneration are unlikely to be present in UBOs, which appear to be mainly caused by a shift towards a higher T2-value of the intra- and extracellular water pool. This may arise from altered microstructural compartmentalization, and an increase in 'extracellular-like', intracellular water, possibly due to intramyelinic edema. These findings confirm the added value of combining dMRI and MET2 to characterize the microstructural basis of T2 hyperintensities in vivo.

  4. Role of MRI T2-DRIVE in the assessment of pituitary stalk abnormalities without gadolinium in pituitary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godano, Elisabetta; Morana, Giovanni; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Gastaldi, Roberto; Calcagno, Annalisa; Patti, Giuseppa; Gallizia, Annalisa; Notarnicola, Sara; Giaccardi, Marta; Noli, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the role of T2-DRIVE MRI sequence in the accurate measurement of pituitary stalk (PS) size and the identification of PS abnormalities in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders without the use of gadolinium. This was a retrospective study conducted on 242 patients who underwent MRI due to pituitary dysfunction between 2006 and 2015. Among 135 eligible patients, 102 showed eutopic posterior pituitary (PP) gland and 33 showed 'ectopic' PP (EPP). Two readers independently measured the size of PS in patients with eutopic PP at the proximal, midpoint and distal levels on pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted as well as T2-DRIVE images; PS visibility was assessed on pre-contrast T1 and T2-DRIVE sequences in those with EPP. The length, height, width and volume of the anterior pituitary (AP), PP height and length and PP area were analyzed. Significant agreement between the two readers was obtained for T2-DRIVE PS measurements in patients with 'eutopic' PP; a significant difference was demonstrated between the intraclass correlation coefficient calculated on the T2-DRIVE and the T1-pre- and post-contrast sequences. The percentage of PS identified by T2-DRIVE in EPP patients was 72.7% compared to 30.3% of T1 pre-contrast sequences. A significant association was found between the visibility of PS on T2-DRIVE and the height of AP. T2-DRIVE sequence is extremely precise and reliable for the evaluation of PS size and the recognition of PS abnormalities; the use of gadolinium-based contrast media does not add significant information and may thus be avoided. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Comparison of T2 and FLAIR imaging for target delineation in high grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stall, Bronwyn; Zach, Leor; Ning, Holly; Ondos, John; Arora, Barbara; Shankavaram, Uma; Miller, Robert W; Citrin, Deborah; Camphausen, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    FLAIR and T2 weighted MRIs are used based on institutional preference to delineate high grade gliomas and surrounding edema for radiation treatment planning. Although these sequences have inherent physical differences there is limited data on the clinical and dosimetric impact of using either or both sequences. 40 patients with high grade gliomas consecutively treated between 2002 and 2008 of which 32 had pretreatment MRIs with T1, T2 and FLAIR available for review were selected for this study. These MRIs were fused with the treatment planning CT. Normal structures, clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning tumor volume (PTV) were then defined on the T2 and FLAIR sequences. A Venn diagram analysis was performed for each pair of tumor volumes as well as a fractional component analysis to assess the contribution of each sequence to the union volume. For each patient the tumor volumes were compared in terms of total volume in cubic centimeters as well as anatomic location using a discordance index. The overlap of the tumor volumes with critical structures was calculated as a measure of predicted toxicity. For patients with MRI documented failures, the tumor volumes obtained using the different sequences were compared with the recurrent gross tumor volume (rGTV). The FLAIR CTVs and PTVs were significantly larger than the T2 CTVs and PTVs (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0001 respectively). Based on the discordance index, the abnormality identified using the different sequences also differed in location. Fractional component analysis showed that the intersection of the tumor volumes as defined on both T2 and FLAIR defined the majority of the union volume contributing 63.6% to the CTV union and 82.1% to the PTV union. T2 alone uniquely identified 12.9% and 5.2% of the CTV and PTV unions respectively while FLAIR alone uniquely identified 25.7% and 12% of the CTV and PTV unions respectively. There was no difference in predicted toxicity to normal structures using T2 or FLAIR. At the

  6. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  7. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  8. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Stuhr, Fritz; Lindner, Christian; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body

  9. A primary reduced TCA flux governs substrate oxidation in T2D skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Our current knowledge on substrate oxidation in skeletal muscle in relation to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) originate mainly from in vivo studies. The oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle is highly influenced by physical activity, ageing, hormonal status, and fiber type composition...... further regulatory mechanism to our understanding of substrate oxidation in human skeletal muscle during normo- an pathophysiological conditions, focusing especially on the governing influence of a primary reduced TCA flux for the diabetic phenotype in skeletal muscle....

  10. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  11. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shames, D.M.; Korobkin, M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131 -hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131 I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85 Sr- or 95 Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131 I-hippurate

  12. Ozone production in the reaction of T2 and O2 gas: A comparison of experimental results and model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, R.A.; Souers, P.C.; Magnotta, F.

    1992-01-01

    Ozone, predicted to be an important intermediate species in T 2 oxidation, was monitored in situ by UV absorption spectroscopy for 0.01-1.0 mol % T 2 in O 2 (1 atm, 298 K). These are the first measurements of a tritium oxidation reaction intermediate. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of the author's comprehensive model of tritium oxidation. The experimentally determined temporal variation in ozone concentration is qualitatively reproduced by the model. As predicted, the measured initial rate of ozone production varied linearly with the initial T 2 concentration ([T 2 ] o ), but with a value one-third of that predicted. The steady-state ozone concentration ([O 3 ] ss ) a factor of 4 larger than predicted for a 1.0% T 2 -O 2 mixture. Addition of H 2 to the T 2 O 2 mixture, to differentiate between the radiolytic and chemical behavior of the tritium, produced a decrease in [O 3 ] ss which was larger than predicted. Changing the reaction cell surface-to-volume ratio showed indications of minor surface removal of ozone. No reasonable variation in model input parameters brought both the predicted initial ozone production rates and steady-state concentrations of ozone into agreement with the experimental results. Though qualitative agreement was achieved, further studies, with emphasis on surface effects, are necessary to explain quantitative differences and gain a greater understanding of the oxidation mechanism. 27 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented and new correlations for in-plane relative permeability of water and air are established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Particle Identification in the T2K TPCs and study of the electron neutrino component in the T2K neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giganti, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the work done on the TPCs of the Near Detector of the T2K experiment. T2K is an experiment installed in Japan and its main purpose is the measurement of the last angle of the neutrino mixing matrix, Θ 13 . The other two angles of the matrix have already been measured in the last years, through the phenomenon of the neutrino oscillations, showing that the neutrinos have masses different from zero. The measurement of the missing angle Θ 13 is of fundamental importance for the neutrino physics as, if this angle is different from zero, CP violation in the lepton sector can occur. Up to now only upper limits on the value of Θ 13 exist: the aim of T2K is to measure this angle or to put upper limits on it with a sensitivity 20 times better than the current limit. This measurement will be done measuring the appearance at the far detector, SuperKamiokande, of electron neutrinos in the muon neutrino beam produced at JPARC. The main background to the measurement of Θ 13 is the electron neutrinos produced together with the muon neutrinos in the beam: this component, expected to be of the order of 1% of the total neutrino flux, has to be measured at the T2K Near Detector, before the oscillations. This can be done selecting neutrino interactions in the Near Detector tracker and using the TPC particle identification capabilities to distinguish electrons from muons. This allows to select a sample of electron neutrino interactions and to measure their spectrum at the Near Detector. During this thesis I have developed the methods to perform the particle identification in the TPCs: the method is based on the measurement of the truncated mean of the energy deposited by the charged particles in the gas: at the typical energy of the T2K neutrinos the difference in the deposited energy between muons and electrons is of the order of 40% and for this reason a resolution better than 10% is needed to distinguish the two particles: as we will show in the thesis, with

  15. Diagnostic Quality of 3D T2-SPACE Compared with T2-FSE in the Evaluation of Cervical Spine MRI Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, F H; Sadigh, G; Carpenter, W; Allen, J W

    2017-04-01

    Spinal anatomy has been variably investigated using 3D MRI. We aimed to compare the diagnostic quality of T2 sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using flip angle evolution (SPACE) with T2-FSE sequences for visualization of cervical spine anatomy. We predicted that T2-SPACE will be equivalent or superior to T2-FSE for visibility of anatomic structures. Adult patients undergoing cervical spine MR imaging with both T2-SPACE and T2-FSE sequences for radiculopathy or myelopathy between September 2014 and February 2015 were included. Two blinded subspecialty-trained radiologists independently assessed the visibility of 12 anatomic structures by using a 5-point scale and assessed CSF pulsation artifact by using a 4-point scale. Sagittal images and 6 axial levels from C2-T1 on T2-FSE were reviewed; 2 weeks later and after randomization, T2-SPACE was evaluated. Diagnostic quality for each structure and CSF pulsation artifact visibility on both sequences were compared by using a paired t test. Interobserver agreement was calculated (κ). Forty-five patients were included (mean age, 57 years; 40% male). The average visibility scores for intervertebral disc signal, neural foramina, ligamentum flavum, ventral rootlets, and dorsal rootlets were higher for T2-SPACE compared with T2-FSE for both reviewers ( P T2-SPACE showed less degree of CSF flow artifact ( P T2-SPACE and -0.02-0.30 for T2-FSE (slight to fair agreement). T2-SPACE may be equivalent or superior to T2-FSE for the evaluation of cervical spine anatomic structures, and T2-SPACE shows a lower degree of CSF pulsation artifact. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Early Articular Cartilage MRI T2 Changes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Correlate With Later Changes in T2 and Cartilage Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley; Winalski, Carl S.; Chu, Constance R.

    2018-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a known risk factor for future development of osteoarthritis (OA). This human clinical study seeks to determine if early changes to cartilage MRI T2 maps between baseline and 6 months following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are associated with changes to cartilage T2 and cartilage thickness between baseline and 2 years after ACLR. Changes to T2 texture metrics and T2 mean values in medial knee cartilage of 17 human subjects 6 months after ACLR were compared to 2-year changes in T2 and in cartilage thickness of the same areas. T2 texture and mean assessments were also compared to that of 11 uninjured controls. In ACLR subjects, six-month changes in mean T2 correlated to 2-year changes in mean T2 (R = 0.80, p = 0.0001), and 6-month changes to T2 texture metrics, but not T2 mean, correlated with 2-year changes in medial femoral cartilage thickness in 9 of the 20 texture features assessed (R = 0.48–0.72, p ≤ 0.05). Both mean T2 and texture differed (p evaluation of T2 map and textural changes may provide early warning of cartilage at risk for progressive degeneration after ACL injury and reconstruction. PMID:27381512

  17. Interpreting doubly special relativity as a modified theory of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2005-01-01

    In this article we develop a physical interpretation for the deformed (doubly) special relativity theories (DSRs), based on a modification of the theory of measurement in special relativity. We suggest that it is useful to regard the DSRs as reflecting the manner in which quantum gravity effects induce Planck-suppressed distortions in the measurement of the 'true' energy and momentum. This interpretation provides a framework for the DSRs that is manifestly consistent, nontrivial, and in principle falsifiable. However, it does so at the cost of demoting such theories from the level of fundamental physics to the level of phenomenological models - models that should in principle be derivable from whatever theory of quantum gravity one ultimately chooses to adopt

  18. Measurement of event-related potentials and placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Platon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ERP is common abbreviation for event-related brain potentials, which are measured and used in clinical practice as well as in research practice. Contemporary studies of placebo effect are often based on functional neuromagnetic resonance (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, and event related potentials (ERP. This paper considers an ERP instrumentation system used in experimental researches of placebo effect. This instrumentation system can be divided into four modules: electrodes and cables, conditioning module, digital measurement module, and PC module for stimulations, presentations, acquisition and data processing. The experimental oddball paradigm is supported by the software of the instrumentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32019 and Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia under research grant No. 114-451-2723

  19. Relations of mitochondrial genetic variants to measures of vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Liu, Chunyu; Mitchell, Gary F; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Vita, Joseph A; Hamburg, Naomi M; Levy, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Mitochondrial genetic variation with resultant alterations in oxidative phosphorylation may influence vascular function and contribute to cardiovascular disease susceptibility. We assessed relations of peptide-encoding variants in the mitochondrial genome with measures of vascular function in Framingham Heart Study participants. Of 258 variants assessed, 40 were predicted to have functional consequences by bioinformatics programs. A maternal pattern of heritability was estimated to contribute to the variability of aortic stiffness. A putative association with a microvascular function measure was identified that requires replication. The methods we have developed can be applied to assess the relations of mitochondrial genetic variation to other phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of neutrino interactions in the near detector of T2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferchichi, Chiraz

    2014-01-01

    The T2K experiment studies the properties of neutrinos, particularly neutrino oscillations. It takes place in Japan and uses a muonic neutrino beam produced by the J-PARC accelerator complex, a near detector, ND280 on the J-PARC site in order to characterise the beam, and a far detector, Super-Kamiokande 295 km away in order to measure the neutrino oscillations. The near detector is also used to study the neutrino interactions and the goal of this thesis is the measurement of muonic neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross sections.The thesis first introduces neutrino physics, then the T2K experiment and more particularly the time projection chambers of the near detector, and its data quality checking that I was in charge of. The analysis is based on the T2K data recorded until 2013. The selection of charged current muonic neutrino interactions is then presented, as well as a preliminary study of the selection of charged current muonic neutrino interactions with the production of a neutral pion. A criterion on track multiplicity allows enriching the former sample in interactions corresponding to a neutrino deep inelastic scattering. Finally a fit, first validated on simulated data, allows the extraction of the muonic neutrino deep inelastic scattering cross sections. (author) [fr

  1. Study of Anti-Neutrino Beam with Muon Monitor in the T2K experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Takahiro

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. In 2013, the T2K collaboration observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam at 7.3 sigma significance. One of the next main goals of the T2K experiment is to measure electron anti-neutrino appearance. In June 2014 we took anti-neutrino beam data for the first time. The anti-neutrino beam was obtained by reversing the polarity of horn focusing magnets. To monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam which is produced from the decay of pions and kaons, the muon beam is continuously measured by Muon Monitor (MUMON). To reconstruct the profile of the muon beam, MUMON is equipped with 49 sensors distributed on a plane behind the beam dump. In this report, we show some results of the anti-neutrino beam data taken by monitors including MUMON. In particular, dependence of the muon beam intensity on electric current of the horns, correlation between the proton beam position and the MUMON profile, and beam stability are presented. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed.

  2. Study of anti-neutrino beam with Muon Monitor in the T2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The T2K experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. In 2013, the T2K collaboration observed electron neutrino appearance in a muon neutrino beam at 7.3 sigma significance. One of the next main goals of the T2K experiment is to measure electron anti-neutrino appearance. In June 2014 we took anti-neutrino beam data for the first time. The anti-neutrino beam was obtained by reversing the polarity of horn focusing magnets. To monitor the direction and intensity of the neutrino beam which is produced from the decay of pions and kaons, the muon beam is continuously measured by Muon Monitor (MUMON). To reconstruct the profile of the muon beam, MUMON is equipped with 49 sensors distributed on a plane behind the beam dump. In this report, we show some results of the anti-neutrino beam data taken by monitors including MUMON. In particular, dependence of the muon beam intensity on electric current of the horns, correlation between the proton beam position and the MUMON profile, and beam stability are presented. Comparison between the data and Monte Carlo simulation is also discussed. (author)

  3. MUSIC. a fast T2* - sensitive MRI technique with enhanced volume coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loenneker, Thomas; Hennig, Juergen

    1994-01-01

    A fast imaging method based on gradient-recalled echoes and echo time inter-leaved multi-slice excitation is presented. This method maintains the sensitivity of T 2 * by using a long echo time of at least 35 milliseconds. Bipolar gradients are used to shift the gradient echoes in order to ensure constant TE for each slab and prevent ghost-artefacts within the images caused by spin- or stimulated echoes. This method enhances the total imaging time of a conventional multi-slice gradient echo technique, while maintaining the high volume coverage. Thus, stimulated human cortical activation maps can be detected on standard clinical MR instruments at several planes within measuring times of a few seconds. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated in the detection of temporary changes in T 2 * in functional MRI experiments of the human visual cortex at a magnetic field strength of 2 tesla. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  4. Evaluation of tissue doppler echocardiography and T2* magnetic resonance imaging in iron load of patients with thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravi, Mehrdad; Tamadoni, Ahmad; Jalalian, Rozita; Mahmoodi-Nesheli, Hassan; Hojati, Mosatafa; Ramezani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Iron-mediated cardiomyopathy is the main complication of thalassemia major (TM) patients. Therefore, there is an important clinical need in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue doppler imaging (TDI) to study cardiac iron overload in patients with TM using T2* magnetic resonance (MR) as the gold-standard non-invasive diagnostic test. A total of 100 TM patients with the mean age of 19±7 years and 100 healthy controls 18.8±7 years were evaluated. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and cardiac MRI T2* were performed in all subjects. TDI measures included myocardial systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities at basal and middle segments of septal and lateral LV wall. The TM patients were also subgrouped according to those with iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) and those without (T2* > 20 ms), and also severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) versus the non-severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms). Using T2* cardiovascular MR, abnormal myocardial iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) was detected in 84% of the patients and among these, 50% (42/84) had severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) iron load. The mean T2* was 11.6±8.6 ms (5-36.7). A negative linear correlation existed between transfusion period of patients and T2* levels (r = -0.53, p=0.02). The following TDI measures were lower in patients than in controls: basal septal Am (p<0.05), mid-septal Em and Am (p<0.05), basal lateral Am (p<0.05), mid-lateral LV wall Sm (p<0.05) and Am (p<0.05). Tissue doppler imaging is helpful in predicting the presence of myocardial iron load in Thalassemia patients. Therefore, it can be used for screening of thalassemia major patients.

  5. Radioactivity measurement in imported food and food related items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Santos, F.L.; Rosa, A.M. de la; Tangonan, M.C.; Bulos, A.D.; Nuguid, Z.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), formerly Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) undertook the radioactivity monitoring of imported food and food-related products after the Chernobyl Plant accident in April 1986. Food samples were analyzed for 137 Cs and 134 Cs by gamma spectral method of analysis. This report deals with the measurement process and gives the result of the activity covering the period June 1986 to December 1987. (Auth.). 9 tabs., 7 figs., 4 refs

  6. Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.

    2017-12-26

    Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.

  7. Improved GPS-based Satellite Relative Navigation Using Femtosecond Laser Relative Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjik Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for improving Carrier-phase Differential Global Positioning System (CDGPS based realtime satellite relative navigation by applying laser baseline measurement data. The robustness against the space operational environment was considered, and a Synthetic Wavelength Interferometer (SWI algorithm based on a femtosecond laser measurement model was developed. The phase differences between two laser wavelengths were combined to measure precise distance. Generated laser data were used to improve estimation accuracy for the float ambiguity of CDGPS data. Relative navigation simulations in real-time were performed using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. The GPS and laser-combined relative navigation accuracy was compared with GPS-only relative navigation solutions to determine the impact of laser data on relative navigation. In numerical simulations, the success rate of integer ambiguity resolution increased when laser data was added to GPS data. The relative navigational errors also improved five-fold and two-fold, relative to the GPS-only error, for 250 m and 5 km initial relative distances, respectively. The methodology developed in this study is suitable for application to future satellite formation-flying missions.

  8. Evaluation of the Talar Cartilage in Chronic Lateral Ankle Instability with Lateral Ligament Injury Using Biochemical T2* Mapping: Correlation with Clinical Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiwen; Tao, Hongyue; Qiao, Yang; Ma, Kui; Hua, Yinghui; Yan, Xu; Chen, Shuang

    2018-06-19

    This study aims to quantitatively compare T2* measurements of the talar cartilage between chronic lateral ankle instability (LAI) patients with lateral ligament injury and healthy volunteers, and to assess the association of T2* value with American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score. Nineteen consecutive patients with chronic LAI (LAI group) and 19 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled. Biochemical magnetic resonance examination of the ankle was performed in all participants using three-dimensional gradient-echo T2* mapping. Total talar cartilage was divided into six subcompartments, including medial anterior (MA), central medial, medial posterior, lateral anterior, central lateral (LC), and lateral posterior regions. T2* values of respective cartilage areas were measured and compared between the two groups using Student t test. AOFAS scoring was performed for clinical evaluation. Then, the association of T2* value with AOFAS score was evaluated by Pearson correlation. The T2* values of total talar cartilage, as well as MA and LC cartilage compartments, in the chronic LAI group were significantly higher than control values (P T2* value of MA in the chronic LAI group was negatively correlated with AOFAS score (r =-0.8089, P T2* measurements. The clinical score correlates highly with T2* value of the MA cartilage compartment, indicating that MA may be the principal cartilage area conferring clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. MR T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as a potential non-invasive and quantitative biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongye; Duan, Xiaohui; Yang, Zehong; Bai, Zhiqiang; Hu, Huijun; Shen, Jun; Wang, Chuan; Yan, Li

    2018-01-01

    To determine the role of quantitative tibial nerve T2 value in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). MR imaging and T2 mapping of the tibial nerve were performed in 22 diabetic patients with DPN, 20 diabetic patients without DPN and 20 healthy controls. Nerve T2 values were measured, and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic ability of T2 value to identify DPN. Nerve T2 value was 55.06 ± 4.05 ms, 48.91 ± 3.06 ms and 45.61 ± 1.86 ms in patients with DPN, patients without DPN and controls, respectively. Patients with DPN had significantly higher nerve T2 values than patients without DPN (P < 0.001). Nerve T2 values in patients without DPN were higher than in controls (P < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that T2 values had a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.8 %, specificity of 89.2 % and area under the curve of 0.922 for identifying patients with DPN from patients without DPN plus controls when the cutoff point was 51.34 ms. T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as an alternative, non-invasive quantitative parameter to assess DPN in diabetic patients. circle Tibial nerves in patients with DPN showed T2 hyperintensity and enlargement. (orig.)

  10. MR T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as a potential non-invasive and quantitative biomarker for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Duan, Xiaohui; Yang, Zehong; Bai, Zhiqiang; Hu, Huijun; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Wang, Chuan; Yan, Li [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Endocrinology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2018-03-15

    To determine the role of quantitative tibial nerve T2 value in the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). MR imaging and T2 mapping of the tibial nerve were performed in 22 diabetic patients with DPN, 20 diabetic patients without DPN and 20 healthy controls. Nerve T2 values were measured, and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic ability of T2 value to identify DPN. Nerve T2 value was 55.06 ± 4.05 ms, 48.91 ± 3.06 ms and 45.61 ± 1.86 ms in patients with DPN, patients without DPN and controls, respectively. Patients with DPN had significantly higher nerve T2 values than patients without DPN (P < 0.001). Nerve T2 values in patients without DPN were higher than in controls (P < 0.001). ROC analysis showed that T2 values had a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.8 %, specificity of 89.2 % and area under the curve of 0.922 for identifying patients with DPN from patients without DPN plus controls when the cutoff point was 51.34 ms. T2 value of the tibial nerve can be used as an alternative, non-invasive quantitative parameter to assess DPN in diabetic patients. circle Tibial nerves in patients with DPN showed T2 hyperintensity and enlargement. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of two-dimensional fast spin echo T2 weighted sequences and three-dimensional volume isotropic T2 weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) MRI in the evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Kang, Kyung A; Kim, Eun Young; Shin, Hun Kyu; Park, Se Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Kim, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    To compare image quality of three-dimensional volume isotropic T 2 weighted fast spin echo (3D VISTA) and two-dimensional (2D) T 2 weighted images (T2WI) for evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) and to investigate whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T 2 WI in evaluating TFC injury. This retrospective study included 69 patients who received wrist MRIs using both 2D T 2 WI and 3D VISTA techniques for assessment of wrist pathology, including TFC injury. Two radiologists measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the two sequences. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performance were independently assessed by two interpreters. The diagnostic abilities of 3D VISTA and 2D T 2 WI were analysed by sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing TFC injury using surgically or clinically confirmed diagnostic reference standards. 17 cases (25%) were classified as having TFC injury. 2 cases (12%) were diagnosed surgically, and 15 cases (88%) were diagnosed by physical examination. 52 cases (75%) were diagnosed as having intact TFC. 8 of these cases (15%) were surgically confirmed, while the others were diagnosed by physical examination and clinical findings. The 3D VISTA images had significantly higher SNR and CNR values for the TFC than 2D T 2 WI images. The scores of 3D VISTA's total length, full width and sharpness were similar to those of 2D T 2 WI. We were unable to find a significant difference between 3D VISTA and 2D T 2 WI in the ability to diagnose TFC injury. 3D VISTA image quality is similar to that of 2D T 2 WI for TFC evaluation and is also excellent for tissue contrast. 3D VISTA can replace 2D images in TFC injury assessment. Advances in knowledge: 3D VISTA image quality is similar to that of 2D T 2 WI for TFC evaluation and is also excellent for tissue contrast. 3D VISTA can replace 2D images in TFC injury assessment.

  12. Broadband polarized emission from P(NDI2OD-T2) polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Steve; Sutch, Tabitha; Szulczewski, Greg; Schweizer, Matthias; Barbosa, Newton; Araujo, Paulo

    2018-05-18

    We investigate the P(NDI2OD-T2) photophysical properties via absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, in association with the experimental approach baptized Stokes Spectroscopy, which provides valuable material information through the acquisition and analysis of the fluorescence polarization degree. By changing solvents and using different samples such as solutions, thick, and thin films, it is possible to control the polarization degree spectrum associated to the fluorescence emitted by the polymer's isolated chains and aggregates. We show that the polarization degree could become a powerful tool to obtain information related to the samples morphology, which is connected to their microscopic structure. Moreover, the polarization degree spectra suggest that depolarization effects linked to energy and charge transfer mechanisms are likely taking place. Our findings indicate that P(NDI2OD-T2) polymers are excellent candidates for the advancement of organic technologies that rely on the emission and detection of polarized lights. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Optimized T1- and T2-weighted volumetric brain imaging as a diagnostic tool in very preterm neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nossin-Manor, Revital; Chung, Andrew D.; Morris, Drew; Thomas, Bejoy; Shroff, Manohar M.; Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Cheng, Hai-Ling M.; Whyte, Hilary E.A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Sled, John G.

    2011-01-01

    T1- and T2-W MR sequences used for obtaining diagnostic information and morphometric measurements in the neonatal brain are frequently acquired using different imaging protocols. Optimizing one protocol for obtaining both kinds of information is valuable. To determine whether high-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences optimized for preterm brain imaging could provide both diagnostic and morphometric value. Thirty preterm neonates born between 24 and 32 weeks' gestational age were scanned during the first 2 weeks after birth. T1- and T2-W high-resolution sequences were optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and scan time and compared to conventional spin-echo-based sequences. No differences were found between conventional and high-resolution T1-W sequences for diagnostic confidence, image quality and motion artifacts. A preference for conventional over high-resolution T2-W sequences for image quality was observed. High-resolution T1 images provided better delineation of thalamic myelination and the superior temporal sulcus. No differences were found for detection of myelination and sulcation using conventional and high-resolution T2-W images. High-resolution T1- and T2-W volumetric sequences can be used in clinical MRI in the very preterm brain to provide both diagnostic and morphometric information. (orig.)

  14. Seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: prediction with combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jing; Huan, Yi; Ge, YaLi; Chang, YingJuan; Yin, Hong; Sun, LiJun; Wang, He

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). A total of 283 patients underwent conventional MRI and DWI before prostate cancer surgery. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of all PCa foci, SVI and seminal vesicle were measured. T2 images alone and then T2 images combined with DWI were scored for the likelihood of SVI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess accuracy. Statistical significance was inferred at P<0.05. On pathological analysis, 39 patients had SVI. The ADC values of SVI were significantly lower than those of SV. The AUC for T2-weighted imaging plus DW imaging (0.897) was significantly larger (P<0.05) than that for T2-weighted imaging alone (0.779). T2 images combined with DWI shows significantly higher accuracy than T2-weighted imaging alone in the detection of SVI. (orig.)

  15. Relationship between myocardial T2* values and cardiac volumetric and functional parameters in β-thalassemia patients evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance in association with serum ferritin levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Carlo, E-mail: c.liguori@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Pitocco, Francesca, E-mail: f.pitocco@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Di Giampietro, Ilenia, E-mail: i.digiampietro@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Vivo, Aldo Eros de, E-mail: devivoeros@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Schena, Emiliano, E-mail: e.schena@unicampus.it [Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy); Cianciulli, Paolo, E-mail: CIANCIULLI.PAOLO@aslrmc.it [Thalassemia Unit, Ospedale Sant Eugenio, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00143 Rome (Italy); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte, E-mail: b.zobel@unicampus.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Campus Bio Medico University, via Alvaro del Portillo 200, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Myocardial T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of cardiac iron load in thalassemia patients. Although cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by left ventricular dysfunction caused by iron overload, little is known about right ventricular function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T2* value in myocardium and left–right ventricular volumetric and functional parameters and to evaluate the existing associations between left–right ventricles volumetric and functional parameter, myocardial T2* values and blood ferritin levels. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 208 patients with β-thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia was performed (109 males and 99 females; mean age 37.7 ± 13 years; 143 thalassemia major, 65 thalassemia intermedia). Myocardial iron load was assessed by T2* measurements, and volumetric functions were analyzed using the steady state free precession sequence. Results: A significant correlation was observed between EFLV and T2* (p = 0.0001), EFRV and T2* (p = 0.0279). An inverse correlation was present between DVLV and T2* (p = 0.0468), SVLV and T2* (p = 0.0003), SVRV and T2* (p = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between cardiac T2* and LV–RV mass indices. A significant correlation was observed between T2* and serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) and between EFLV and serum ferritin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial iron load assessed by T2* cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with deterioration in left–right ventricular function; this is more evident when T2* values fall below 14 ms. CMR appears to be a promising approach for cardiac risk evaluation in TM patients.

  16. Relationship between myocardial T2* values and cardiac volumetric and functional parameters in β-thalassemia patients evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance in association with serum ferritin levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liguori, Carlo; Pitocco, Francesca; Di Giampietro, Ilenia; Vivo, Aldo Eros de; Schena, Emiliano; Cianciulli, Paolo; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Myocardial T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance provides a rapid and reproducible assessment of cardiac iron load in thalassemia patients. Although cardiac involvement is mainly characterized by left ventricular dysfunction caused by iron overload, little is known about right ventricular function. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between T2* value in myocardium and left–right ventricular volumetric and functional parameters and to evaluate the existing associations between left–right ventricles volumetric and functional parameter, myocardial T2* values and blood ferritin levels. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 208 patients with β-thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia was performed (109 males and 99 females; mean age 37.7 ± 13 years; 143 thalassemia major, 65 thalassemia intermedia). Myocardial iron load was assessed by T2* measurements, and volumetric functions were analyzed using the steady state free precession sequence. Results: A significant correlation was observed between EFLV and T2* (p = 0.0001), EFRV and T2* (p = 0.0279). An inverse correlation was present between DVLV and T2* (p = 0.0468), SVLV and T2* (p = 0.0003), SVRV and T2* (p = 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between cardiac T2* and LV–RV mass indices. A significant correlation was observed between T2* and serum ferritin levels (p < 0.001) and between EFLV and serum ferritin (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Myocardial iron load assessed by T2* cardiac magnetic resonance is associated with deterioration in left–right ventricular function; this is more evident when T2* values fall below 14 ms. CMR appears to be a promising approach for cardiac risk evaluation in TM patients

  17. Dose-dependent Effect of T-2 Toxin on the Immunity against Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2.35 (a and 4.18 (b mg kg-1 feed T-2 toxin dose for 14 days on the haemagglutination inhibition titres against Newcastle disease virus was investigated in broiler chickens. The animals were divided into four groups and two separate experiments were carried out (a, b: (1 intact control group; (2 birds were fed with T-2 toxin contaminated feed and not vaccinated; (3 repeatedly vaccinated (on day 23 of age control group which received uncontaminated feed; (4 birds were both repeatedly vaccinated and fed the T-2 toxin contaminated diet. Blood samples, from which sera titres were measured, were taken on days 7 and 14 of the experiments. It was found that heamagglutination titres were different in the two experiments even in the control (1 group because of the different efficiency of the first immunization at the hatchery. Titres on day 7 showed increases in all groups except for the group fed lower T-2 contaminated diet (a, group 2 but during the second week they increased only in the groups fed the diet with a lower dose of T-2 toxin. On the contrary, a higher dose of T-2 toxin contamination of the diet resulted in a dramatic decrease during the second week (b, groups 2 and 4. The results suggested that contrary to most of the previously published data, feeding of T-2 toxin contaminated feed with an amount of 2.35 mg.kg-1 did not decrease, but increase the antibody formation against attenuated Newcastle disease virus even without a second vaccination on day 1 of the experiment, whereas a higher amount of T-2 toxin (4.18 mg kg-1 decreased to day 14 after the repeated vaccination.

  18. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology Rev 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; White, Michael K.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Andrews, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Documentation of the methodology used to calculate relative hazard and risk measure results for the DOE complex wide risk profiles. This methodology is used on major site risk profiles. In February 1997, the Center for Risk Excellence (CRE) was created and charged as a technical, field-based partner to the Office of Science and Risk Policy (EM-52). One of the initial charges to the CRE is to assist the sites in the development of ''site risk profiles.'' These profiles are to be relatively short summaries (periodically updated) that present a broad perspective on the major risk related challenges that face the respective site. The risk profiles are intended to serve as a high-level communication tool for interested internal and external parties to enhance the understanding of these risk-related challenges. The risk profiles for each site have been designed to qualitatively present the following information: (1) a brief overview of the site, (2) a brief discussion on the historical mission of the site, (3) a quote from the site manager indicating the site's commitment to risk management, (4) a listing of the site's top risk-related challenges, (5) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's current risk picture, (6) a brief discussion and detailed table presenting the site's future risk reduction picture, and (7) graphic illustrations of the projected management of the relative hazards at the site. The graphic illustrations were included to provide the reader of the risk profiles with a high-level mental picture to associate with all the qualitative information presented in the risk profile. Inclusion of these graphic illustrations presented the CRE with the challenge of how to fold this high-level qualitative risk information into a system to produce a numeric result that would depict the relative change in hazard, associated with each major risk management action, so it could be presented graphically. This report presents the methodology developed

  19. The Usefulness of Fast-Spin-Echo T2-Weighted MR Imaging in Nutcracker Syndrome: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Heong Leng; Chen, Matt Chiung Yu; Wu, Cgek Siung; Fu, Kuo An; Lin, Cheng Hao [Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Weng, Mei Jui; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [National Yang-Ming University, Taipei (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Nutcracker syndrome occurs when the left renal vein (LRV) is compressed between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta, and this syndrome is often characterized by venous hypertension and related pathologies. However, invasive studies such as phlebography and measuring the reno-caval pressure gradient should be performed to identify venous hypertension. Here we present a case of Nutcracker syndrome where the LRV and intra-renal varicosities appeared homogeneously hyperintense on magnetic resonance (MR) fast-spin-echo T2- weighted imaging, which suggested markedly stagnant intravenous blood flow and the presence of venous hypertension. The patient was diagnosed and treated without obtaining the reno-caval pressure gradient. The discomfort of the patient lessened after treatment. Furthermore, on follow-up evaluation, the LRV displayed a signal void, and this was suggestive of a restoration of the normal LRV flow and a decrease in LRV pressure.

  20. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A.; Speer, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    is a relatively common finding (12.5%) on MR imaging examinations of the shoulder and in most cases is of no clinical significance. However, in patients with chronic AC joint pain and no other abnormality on plain film or MR imaging, increased T2 signal may represent an early manifestation of, or a process similar to, osteolysis of the distal clavicle. Patients with this presentation who continue to suffer from disabling pain following conservative therapy may benefit from surgical resection of the distal clavicle. (orig.)

  1. Increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle: incidence and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorella, D.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-12-01

    is a relatively common finding (12.5%) on MR imaging examinations of the shoulder and in most cases is of no clinical significance. However, in patients with chronic AC joint pain and no other abnormality on plain film or MR imaging, increased T2 signal may represent an early manifestation of, or a process similar to, osteolysis of the distal clavicle. Patients with this presentation who continue to suffer from disabling pain following conservative therapy may benefit from surgical resection of the distal clavicle. (orig.)

  2. Acute Inhalation Toxicity of T-2 Mycotoxin in the Rat and Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    2/kg body weight for the guinea pig . These data show that inhaled T-2 toxin is approximately 20 times more toxic to the rat (0.05 mg T-2/kg body wt...inhaled vs 1.0 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) and at least twice as toxic to the guinea pig (0.4 mg T-2/kg body wt inhaled vs 1-2 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) than ip...administered T-2 toxin. Histopathologic examination of major organs in both the rat and guinea pig after respiratory exposure to T-2 toxin indicated

  3. Heat transport modelling in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    A model to estimate the heat transport in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) is described. The model, based on experimental and theoretical results, divides the RFP electron heat diffusivity χe into three regions, one in the plasma core, where χe is assumed to be determined by the tearing modes, one located around the reversal radius, where χe is assumed not dependent on the magnetic fluctuations and one in the extreme edge, where high χe is assumed. The absolute values of the core and of the reversal χe are determined by simulating the electron temperature and the soft x-ray and by comparing the simulated signals with the experimental ones. The model is used to estimate the heat diffusivity and the energy confinement time during the flat top of standard plasmas, of deep F plasmas and of plasmas obtained with the intelligent shell.

  4. Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Spizzo, G.; Chapman, B. E.; Gravestjin, R. M.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 µs. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  5. Do implicit measures of attitudes incrementally predict snacking behaviour over explicit affect-related measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Karen; Conner, Mark T; Prestwich, Andrew; Smith, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated an association between implicit measures of attitudes and dietary-related behaviours. However, no study has tested whether implicit measures of attitudes predict dietary behaviour after controlling for explicit measures of palatability. In a prospective design, two studies assessed the validity of measures of implicit attitude (Implicit Association Test, IAT) and explicit measures of palatability and health-related attitudes on self-reported (Studies 1 and 2) and objective food (fruit vs. chocolate) choice (Study 2). Following regression analyses, in both studies, implicit measures of attitudes were correlated with food choice but failed to significantly predict food choice when controlling specifically for explicit measures of palatability. These consistent relationships emerged despite using different category labels within the IAT in the two studies. The current research suggests implicit measures of attitudes may not predict dietary behaviours after taking into account the palatability of food. This is important in order to establish determinants that explain unique variance in dietary behaviours and to inform dietary change interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Fertility Problem Inventory: measuring perceived infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C R; Sherrard, W; Glavac, I

    1999-07-01

    To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress. Prospective study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment. None. Participants' infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined. Women described greater global stress than men and higher specific stress in terms of social concerns, sexual concerns, and need for parenthood. Both men and women facing male infertility reported higher global stress and more social and sexual concerns than men and women experiencing female infertility. Social, sexual, and relationship concerns related to infertility were more effective predictors of depression and marital dissatisfaction than expressed needs for parenthood or attitudes toward child-free living. The Fertility Problem Inventory provides a reliable measure of perceived infertility-related stress and specific information on five separate domains of patient concern. Patterns of infertility-related stress differed depending on gender, fertility history, and infertility diagnosis. Among patients receiving treatment, social, sexual, and relationship concerns appear central to current distress. Counseling interventions that target these domains appear likely to offer maximal therapeutic benefit.

  7. Normal variation of focal T2 Hyperintensities in anterior parietal periventricular white matter: Another 'Terminal Zones of Myelination'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Oag; Woo, Je Ho; Ki, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Hwa; Chung, Jin Woo; Lee, Don Young

    1994-01-01

    It has been known that there are several areas of T2 hyperintensity in normal white matter of brain, such as terminal zones of myelination, ependymitis granularis, ones of posterior internal capsule, and perivascular space. The aim of our study is to demonstrate another region of T2 hyperintensities in normal pediatric age group. We have studied brain MR for 10 normal volunteers and 35 patients without having intracranial lesions in pediatric age group(3-19 years). In 5 among 45 cases, focal T2 hyperintensities were seen in the parietal periventricular white matter beneath the postcentral gyri. They were noted as poorly defined, 5-10 mm sized areas of increased signal intensities on T2-weighted axial images. They were also characterized by bilateral, posteromedially oriented, short band-like or oval areas. Interestingly, they were directly continuous with the T2 hyperintensity of posterior internal capsule. In spite of the relatively highly frequency in the pediatric population as in our study, this finding has not been reported in the asymptomatic adults. The results show that the bilateral anterior parietal hyperintense areas may be another terminal zones of delayed myelination affecting the parietopontine tract. They should be differentiated from pathologic T2 hyperintensities by their characteristic findings

  8. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hakil; Lee, Hyun Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  9. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We reported previously that Low T 2 intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T 2 -weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  10. Technical aspects and preliminary results of the CCD camera diagnostics on Extrap T2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, M.; Brzozowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last months of Extrap T2 operations an imaging acquisition system, based on charge-coupled devices (CCD) cameras, has been operated. CCD cameras are a standard diagnostic used in many fusion experiments: i) to obtain a direct insight of the plasma behaviour during the pulse, of the evolution of plasma-wall interactions and, eventually, of locked modes, ii) to measure local quantities such as the wall temperature and the impurity influxes, iii) to study the hydrogen recycling behaviour and iv) to estimate the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers. One of the aims of our imaging campaign was to check the utility of such diagnostic for T2. The purpose of this report is to describe the technical aspects involved in the use of such diagnostic and to briefly describe the results obtained. In this view, this report aims to be a guide to the development of a dedicated image acquisition system for Extrap T2, after the planned rebuild, by stressing the problems and limitations encountered during this campaign

  11. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Martys, Nicos S

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to "scientifically" improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis.

  12. Change in T2-Fat Saturation MRI Correlates With Outcome in Cervical Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Daniel J.; Zhu Jianming; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare pretreatment and midtreatment tumor intensity as measured by T2 fat-saturation (T2-FS) MRI and its association with treatment response in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Weekly MRI scans were performed for brachytherapy planning on 23 consecutive patients with clinical Stage IB1 to IIIB cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. These scans were performed on a 1.5-T clinical scanner using a specialized pelvic coil. Mean signal intensity from T2-FS imaging was calculated for each tumor voxel. Average tumor intensity and tumor volume were recorded pre- and midtreatment (at Weeks 0 and 4). All patients subsequently underwent routine follow-up, including periodic clinical examinations and fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography imaging. Results: Mean follow-up for surviving patients was 14.5 months. Mean tumor volume at presentation was 49.6 cc, and mean midtreatment tumor volume was 16.0 cc. There was no correlation between initial tumor volume and pretreatment signal intensity (r = 0.44), nor was there a correlation between pre- or midtreatment tumor volume with disease-free survival (p = 0.18, p = 0.08 respectively.) However, having at least a 30% drop in signal intensity from pretreatment to midtreatment was correlated with having disease resolution on posttreatment fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography imaging (p = 0.05) and with disease-free survival (p = 0.03.) Estimated disease-free survival at 22 months was 100% for patients with at least a 30% drop in tumor signal intensity compared with 33% for patients above this selected threshold (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Longitudinal changes in T2-FS tumor intensity during chemoradiation correlated with disease-free survival in cervical cancer patients. Persistently high midtreatment tumor intensities correlated with a high risk of treatment failure, whereas large decreases in tumor intensity correlated with a favorable outcome.

  13. 7 Tesla quantitative hip MRI: a comparison between TESS and CPMG for T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraff, Oliver; Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Heule, Rahel; Theysohn, Jens M; Bieri, Oliver; Quick, Harald H

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of triple-echo steady state (TESS) T2 mapping as an alternative to conventional multi-echo-spin-echo (CPMG) T2 mapping for the quantitative assessment of hip joint cartilage at 7 T. A total of eight healthy volunteers and three patients were included. Reproducibility of both techniques was evaluated in five volunteers in five scans each. T2 relaxation times were measured by manually drawing regions of interest in multiple regions of the hip joint. Data from both methods were compared using Pearson correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation coefficient, and coefficient of repeatability. The overall image quality and presence of artifacts was assessed. Cartilage transplant and surrounding fluid were well depicted by both methods. Compared to CPMG, TESS provided systematically reduced T2 values (43.3 ± 7.3 vs. 19.2 ± 5.5 ms for acetabular cartilage, and 41.4 ± 5.6 vs. 21.7 ± 5.2 ms for femoral cartilage), in line with previously reported values. No correlation between both methods was found. TESS yielded a slightly better reproducibility than CPMG, while CPMG showed pronounced sensitivity to B1 inhomogeneities. TESS seems to be an attractive alternative to CPMG for improvements in quantitative hip joint imaging at 7 T, allowing shortening of the total acquisition time paired with insensitivity to B1, while rendering comparable image quality with good repeatability.

  14. Integrated CMOS dew point sensors for relative humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Nicolo; Baglio, Salvatore; Castorina, Salvatore; Sacco, Vincenzo; Tringali, Cristina

    2004-07-01

    This work deals with the development of integrated relative humidity dew point sensors realized by adopting standard CMOS technology for applications in various fields. The proposed system is composed by a suspended plate that is cooled by exploiting integrated Peltier cells. The cold junctions of the cells have been spread over the plate surface to improve the homogeneity of the temperature distribution over its surface, where cooling will cause the water condensation. The temperature at which water drops occur, named dew point temperature, is a function of the air humidity. Measurement of such dew point temperature and the ambient temperature allows to know the relative humidity. The detection of water drops is achieved by adopting a capacitive sensing strategy realized by interdigited fixed combs, composed by the upper layer of the adopted process. Such a capacitive sensor, together with its conditioning circuit, drives a trigger that stops the cooling of the plate and enables the reading of the dew point temperature. Temperature measurements are achieved by means of suitably integrated thermocouples. The analytical model of the proposed system has been developed and has been used to design a prototype device and to estimate its performances. In such a prototype, the thermoelectric cooler is composed by 56 Peltier cells, made by metal 1/poly 1 junctions. The plate has a square shape with 200 μm side, and it is realized by exploiting the oxide layers. Starting from the ambient temperature a temperature variation of ΔT = 15 K can be reached in 10 ms thus allowing to measure a relative humidity greater than 40%.

  15. Measurements of jet-related observables at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkas, P.

    2015-11-01

    During the first years of the LHC operation a large amount of jet data was recorded by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. In this review several measurements of jet-related observables are presented, such as multi-jet rates and cross sections, ratios of jet cross sections, jet shapes and event shape observables. All results presented here are based on jet data collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Data are compared to various Monte Carlo generators, as well as to theoretical next-to-leading-order calculations allowing a test of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics in a previously unexplored energy region.

  16. Labor Relations and Social Dialogue: Measurement and Diagnosis Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Social dialogue and tripartism play an important role in promoting and strengthening fundamental principles and rights at work, promoting job creation and expanding social protection. In the context of the severe challenges of globalization, a growing number of developing countries are recognizing the need to faster dialogue, partnership and participatory approaches to decision-making. Thus, social dialogue becomes a prerequisite for efficient corporate governance and means to attain national economic and social objectives and to contribute to poverty reduction policies. We shall propose a diagnosis and analysis system in order to measure and monitor the evolution of the industrial relations and social dialogue.

  17. Some Thoughts on Commutation Relations and Measurement Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-01-01

    We show that measuring the trajectories of charged particles to finite accuracy leads to the commutation relations needed for the derivation of the free space Maxwell equations using the discrete ordered calculus (DOC). We note that the finite step length derivation of the discrete difference version of the single particle Dirac equation implies the discrete version of the p, q commutation relations for a free particle. We speculate that a careful operational analysis of the change in momenta occurring in a step-wise continuous solution of the discrete Dirac equation could supply the missing source-sink terms in the DOC derivation of the Maxwell equations, and lead to a finite and discrete (''renormalized'') quantum electrodynamics (QED)

  18. Relational humility: conceptualizing and measuring humility as a personality judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don E; Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Gartner, Aubrey L; Jennings, David J; Emmons, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    The study of humility has progressed slowly due to measurement problems. We describe a model of relational humility that conceptualizes humility as a personality judgment. In this set of 5 studies, we developed the 16-item Relational Humility Scale (RHS) and offered initial evidence for the theoretical model. In Study 1 (N = 300), we developed the RHS and its subscales--Global Humility, Superiority, and Accurate View of Self. In Study 2, we confirmed the factor structure of the scale in an independent sample (N = 196). In Study 3, we provided initial evidence supporting construct validity using an experimental design (N = 200). In Study 4 (N = 150), we provided additional evidence of construct validity by examining the relationships between humility and empathy, forgiveness, and other virtues. In Study 5 (N = 163), we adduced evidence of discriminant and incremental validity of the RHS compared with the Honesty-Humility subscale of the HEXACO-PI (Lee & Ashton, 2004).

  19. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers for TOUGH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Pruess, K.; Antunez, E.

    1994-03-01

    Most of the computational work in the numerical simulation of fluid and heat flows in permeable media arises in the solution of large systems of linear equations. The simplest technique for solving such equations is by direct methods. However, because of large storage requirements and accumulation of roundoff errors, the application of direct solution techniques is limited, depending on matrix bandwidth, to systems of a few hundred to at most a few thousand simultaneous equations. T2CG1, a package of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers, has been added to TOUGH2 to complement its direct solver and significantly increase the size of problems tractable on PCs. T2CG1 includes three different solvers: a Bi-Conjugate Gradient (BCG) solver, a Bi-Conjugate Gradient Squared (BCGS) solver, and a Generalized Minimum Residual (GMRES) solver. Results from six test problems with up to 30,000 equations show that T2CG1 (1) is significantly (and invariably) faster and requires far less memory than the MA28 direct solver, (2) it makes possible the solution of very large three-dimensional problems on PCs, and (3) that the BCGS solver is the fastest of the three in the tested problems. Sample problems are presented related to heat and fluid flow at Yucca Mountain and WIPP, environmental remediation by the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System, and geothermal resources

  20. A neurotological study of patients with pontine hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Toru; Tominaga, Satoru; Yukimasa, Akiko; Oku, Masaya; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2002-01-01

    Pontine hyperintense lesions seen on T2-weighted MRI were thought to be related to disequilibrium. Some of these lesions have a low signal on T1-weighted imaging, while others have an iso-signal. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between neurological findings and pontine lesions detected by MRI. The subjects were 11 patients (6 males, 5 females; age range: 30 to 83 years [mean: 64.1 years]) with pontine hyperintense lesions identified on T2-weighted MRI. We compared the clinical signs and the MRI findings. Six of the patients had low-intensity areas on T1-weighted images, and the other 5 had iso-intensity areas. Six patients complained of vertigo, and 5 complained of dizziness. Eight complained of positionaly evoked disequilibrium. Positional nystagmus was seen in 4 patients. In 9 patients, abnormalities were found on the ENG test, including the saccadic eye movement test, ETT, and OKP. Numbness on the lips occurred in 2 patients, and cerebellar signs were present in 4. None of the patients had facial paralysis. Disequilibrium originating in the central nervous system was suggested in 10 patients. Clinical examinations revealed similar findings in patients with a low signal on T1-weighted MRI and those with an iso-signal. Our results indicate that pontine lesions identified by T2-weighted MRI cause vertigo or dizziness, and, in most cases, these lesions cause abnormal neurological or neurological abnormalities. (author)

  1. A neurotological study of patients with pontine hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Toru; Tominaga, Satoru; Yukimasa, Akiko; Oku, Masaya; Sakagami, Masafumi [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Pontine hyperintense lesions seen on T2-weighted MRI were thought to be related to disequilibrium. Some of these lesions have a low signal on T1-weighted imaging, while others have an iso-signal. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between neurological findings and pontine lesions detected by MRI. The subjects were 11 patients (6 males, 5 females; age range: 30 to 83 years [mean: 64.1 years]) with pontine hyperintense lesions identified on T2-weighted MRI. We compared the clinical signs and the MRI findings. Six of the patients had low-intensity areas on T1-weighted images, and the other 5 had iso-intensity areas. Six patients complained of vertigo, and 5 complained of dizziness. Eight complained of positionaly evoked disequilibrium. Positional nystagmus was seen in 4 patients. In 9 patients, abnormalities were found on the ENG test, including the saccadic eye movement test, ETT, and OKP. Numbness on the lips occurred in 2 patients, and cerebellar signs were present in 4. None of the patients had facial paralysis. Disequilibrium originating in the central nervous system was suggested in 10 patients. Clinical examinations revealed similar findings in patients with a low signal on T1-weighted MRI and those with an iso-signal. Our results indicate that pontine lesions identified by T2-weighted MRI cause vertigo or dizziness, and, in most cases, these lesions cause abnormal neurological or neurological abnormalities. (author)

  2. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by local excision in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Seob; Park, Jin Hong; Ahn, Seung Do

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by local excision (LE) is feasible approach in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer patients. Patients who received PCRT and LE because of clinical T2 rectal cancer within 7 cm from anal verge between January 2006 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. LE was performed in case of a good clinical response after PCRT. Patients' characteristics, treatment record, tumor recurrence, and treatment-related complications were reviewed at a median follow-up of 49 months. All patients received transanal excision or transanal minimally invasive surgery. Of 34 patients, 19 patients (55.9%) presented pathologic complete response (pCR). The 3-year local recurrence-free survival and disease free-survival were 100.0% and 97.1%, respectively. There was no recurrence among the patients with pCR. Except for 1 case of grade 4 enterovesical fistula, all other late complications were mild and self-limiting. PCRT followed by an LE might be feasible as an alternative to total mesorectal excision in good responders with clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer

  3. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by local excision in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Seob; Park, Jin Hong; Ahn, Seung Do [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To investigate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by local excision (LE) is feasible approach in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer patients. Patients who received PCRT and LE because of clinical T2 rectal cancer within 7 cm from anal verge between January 2006 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. LE was performed in case of a good clinical response after PCRT. Patients' characteristics, treatment record, tumor recurrence, and treatment-related complications were reviewed at a median follow-up of 49 months. All patients received transanal excision or transanal minimally invasive surgery. Of 34 patients, 19 patients (55.9%) presented pathologic complete response (pCR). The 3-year local recurrence-free survival and disease free-survival were 100.0% and 97.1%, respectively. There was no recurrence among the patients with pCR. Except for 1 case of grade 4 enterovesical fistula, all other late complications were mild and self-limiting. PCRT followed by an LE might be feasible as an alternative to total mesorectal excision in good responders with clinical T2N0 distal rectal cancer.

  4. Relative humidity measurements with thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Naihsien.

    1991-01-01

    The relative humidity is one of the important hydrological parameters affecting waste package performance. Water potential of a system is defined as the amount of work required to reversibly and isothermally move an infinitesimal quantity of water from a pool of pure water to that system at the same elevation. The thermocouple psychrometer, which acts as a wet-dry bulb instrument based on the Peltier effect, is used to measure water potential. The thermocouple psychrometer works only for relative humidity greater than 94 percent. Other sensors must be used for drier conditions. Hence, the author also uses a Vaisala Humicap, which measures the capacitance change due to relative humidity change. The operation range of the Humicap (Model HMP 135Y) is from 0 to 100 percent relative humidity and up to 160C (320F) in temperature. A psychrometer has three thermocouple junctions. Two copper-constantan junctions serve as reference temperature junctions and the constantan-chromel junction is the sensing junction. Current is passed through the thermocouple causing cooling of the sensing junction by the Peltier effect. When the temperature of the junction is below the dew point, water will condense upon the junction from the air. The Peltier current is discontinued and the thermocouple output is recorded as the temperature of the thermocouple returns to ambient. The temperature changes rapidly toward the ambient temperature until it reaches the wet bulb depression temperature. At this point, evaporation of the water from the junction produces a cooling effect upon the junction that offsets the heat absorbed from the ambient surroundings. This continues until the water is depleted and the thermocouple temperature returns to the ambient temperature (Briscoe, 1984). The datalogger starts to take data roughly at the wet bulb depression temperature

  5. Quantitative assessment of iron load in myocardial overload rabbit model: preliminary study of MRI T2* map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lu; Han Rui; Li Zhiwei; Yuan Sishu; Xia Liming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily investigate the feasibility of MRI-T 2 * map in evaluating myocardial iron load of myocardial iron overload rabbit models. Methods: Eleven rabbits were included in this study and divided into two groups, myocardial iron overload group (n =10) and the control group (n = 1). Iron dextrin (dose of 50 mg/kg) was injected in muscles of thigh once a week, totally 12 weeks. Serum iron test and MRI examination were performed before iron injection,and 1 week to 12 weeks after iron injection. MRI scan protocol included short axial T 2 * map of the left ventricle and cross-section T 2 * map of the liver. T 2 * and R 2 * of the heart and the liver were measured. One rabbit was killed after MRI examination at pre-iron injection, 1 week to 8 weeks, 11 weeks and 12 weeks after iron injection,respectively. Heart and liver were avulsed to undergo in vitro MRI scan and then paraffin embedded for pathological slices. MRI scan protocol and measurements of the heart and the liver samples were the same to that of in vivo ones. Pearson correlation was used to calculate the relationships between the parameters. Results: Myocardial T 2 * [(32.5 ± 8.3 ms)] and R 2 * values [(38.4 ± 7.9) Hz] had significant correlation with injecting iron content (1033.2 ± 673.4 mg), the Pearson coefficients were -0.799 (P = 0.001) and 0.770 (P = 0.002), respectively. Myocardial T 2 * had no significant correlation with liver T 2 * values (r = 0.556, P = 0.070). T 2 * values of heart and liver in vivo [(32.5 ± 8.3) ms and (8.8 ± 5.4) ms], respectively had strong correlation with those in vitro [(19.4 ± 6.5) ms and (9.8 ± 5.0) ms], respectively (r = 0.757, P = 0.007 and r = 0.861, P = 0.001). T 2 * and R 2 * values of the heart and the liver in vivo and in vitro had no significant correlations with serum iron (P>0.05). On Prussian blue staining slices,blue particles of myocardium, sinus hepaticas and hepatocyte increased with injecting iron content. Conclusions: It is

  6. Measurement-induced localization of relative degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, Hugo; Knight, Peter L.; Rudolph, Terry

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study, using both analytical and numerical methods, of measurement-induced localization of relational degrees of freedom. Looking first at the interference of two optical modes, we find that the localization of the relative phase can be as good for mixed states--in particular, for two initially Poissonian or thermal states--as for the well-known case of two Fock states. In a realistic setup the localization for mixed states is robust and experimentally accessible, and we discuss applications to superselection rules. For an ideal setup we show how a relational Schroedinger cat state emerges and investigate circumstances under which such a state is destroyed. In our second example we consider the localization of relative atomic phase between two Bose Einstein condensates, looking particularly at the build up of spatial interference patterns, an area which has attracted much attention since the work of Javanainen and Yoo. We show that the relative phase localizes much faster than was intimated in previous studies focusing on the emerging interference pattern itself. Finally, we explore the localization of relative spatial parameters discussed in recent work by Rau, Dunningham, and Burnett. We retain their models of indistinguishable scattering but make different assumptions. In particular we consider the case of a real distant observer monitoring light scattering off two particles, who records events only from a narrow field of view. The localization is only partial regardless of the number of observations. This paper contributes to the wider debate on relationism in quantum mechanics, which treats fundamental concepts - reference frames and conservation laws - from a fully quantum and operational perspective

  7. Measuring the relative performance of stock market using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, investors used some basic financial ratios to measure the relative performance of various active industries based on two-digit ISIC classification. However, direct implementation of basic financial figures may not be practical in today's business environment since investors face with different criteria. The proposed model of this paper uses Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS to compare 37 various industries based on different financial figures. We gather the necessary data over the period of 2009-2010 from Tehran Stock Exchange and investigate the data in two stages. In the first stage, we perform fundamental analysis to select the most appropriate firms and the in the second stage, we use TOPSIS to rank selected firms based on different criteria. The results of the study confirm that information and communication technology, which is one of the biggest firms in this exchange is considered as the best option (relative ranking 0.88 in two years followed by some Cement industry (with relative ranking of 0.26 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010 and oil refinery units (with relative ranking of 0.23 in 2009 and 0.19 in 2010. The figure also shows that other firms maintain low ratios varied from 0.23 to 0.01. The lowest industry ranking belongs to marine industry.

  8. Prognostic value of gradient echo T2* sequences for brain MR imaging in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruine, Francisca T. de; Berg-Huysmans, Annette A. van den; Buchem, Mark A. van; Grond, Jeroen van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, PO Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Steggerda, Sylke J.; Leijser, Lara M.; Rijken, Monique [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, subdivision of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, Gerda van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, subdivision of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    Gradient echo T2*-W sequences are more sensitive than T2-W spin-echo sequences for detecting hemorrhages in the brain. The aim of this study is to correlate presence of hemosiderin deposits in the brain of very preterm infants (gestational age <32 weeks) detected by T2*-W gradient echo MRI to white matter injury and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. In 101 preterm infants, presence and location of hemosiderin were assessed on T2*-W gradient echo MRI performed around term-equivalent age (range: 40-60 weeks). White matter injury was defined as the presence of >6 non-hemorrhagic punctate white matter lesions (PWML), cysts and/or ventricular dilatation. Six infants with post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation detected by US in the neonatal period were excluded. Infants were seen for follow-up at 2 years. Univariate and regression analysis assessed the relation between presence and location of hemosiderin, white matter injury and neurodevelopmental outcome. In 38/95 (40%) of the infants, hemosiderin was detected. Twenty percent (19/95) of the infants were lost to follow-up. There was a correlation between hemosiderin in the ventricular wall with >6 PWML (P < 0.001) and cysts (P < 0.001) at term-equivalent age, and with a lower psychomotor development index (PDI) (P=0.02) at 2 years. After correcting for known confounders (gestational age, gender, intrauterine growth retardation and white matter injury), the correlation with PDI was no longer significant. The clinical importance of detecting small hemosiderin deposits is limited as there is no independent association with neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  9. Artifact free T2{sup *}-weighted imaging at high spatial resolution using segmented EPI sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiler, Patrick Michael; Schad, Lothar Rudi [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Schmitter, Sebastian [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiology

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was the development of novel measurement techniques that acquire high resolution T2{sup *}-weighted datasets in measurement times as short as possible without suffering from noticeable blurring and ghosting artifacts. Therefore, two new measurement techniques were developed that acquire a smoother k-space than generic multi shot echo planar imaging sequences. One is based on the principle of echo train shifting, the other on the reversed gradient method. Simulations and phantom measurements demonstrate that echo train shifting works properly and reduces artifacts in multi shot echo planar imaging. For maximum SNR-efficiency this technique was further improved by adding a second contrast. Both contrasts can be acquired within a prolongation in measurement time by a factor of 1.5, leading to an SNR increase by approximately {radical}2. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the reversed gradient method remarkably reduces artifacts caused by a discontinuous k-space weighting. Assuming sequence parameters as feasible for fMRI experiments, artifact free T2{sup *}-weighted images with a matrix size of 256 x 256 leading to an in-plane resolution in the submillimeter range can be obtained in about 2 s per slice. (orig.)

  10. Artifact free T2*-weighted imaging at high spatial resolution using segmented EPI sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiler, Patrick Michael; Schad, Lothar Rudi; Schmitter, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of novel measurement techniques that acquire high resolution T2 * -weighted datasets in measurement times as short as possible without suffering from noticeable blurring and ghosting artifacts. Therefore, two new measurement techniques were developed that acquire a smoother k-space than generic multi shot echo planar imaging sequences. One is based on the principle of echo train shifting, the other on the reversed gradient method. Simulations and phantom measurements demonstrate that echo train shifting works properly and reduces artifacts in multi shot echo planar imaging. For maximum SNR-efficiency this technique was further improved by adding a second contrast. Both contrasts can be acquired within a prolongation in measurement time by a factor of 1.5, leading to an SNR increase by approximately √2. Furthermore it is demonstrated that the reversed gradient method remarkably reduces artifacts caused by a discontinuous k-space weighting. Assuming sequence parameters as feasible for fMRI experiments, artifact free T2 * -weighted images with a matrix size of 256 x 256 leading to an in-plane resolution in the submillimeter range can be obtained in about 2 s per slice. (orig.)

  11. Cardiac MRI. T2-mapping versus T2-weighted dark-blood TSE imaging for myocardial edema visualization in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, K.; Nensa, F.; Schlosser, T.; Umutlu, L.; Lauenstein, T.; Bruder, O.; Maderwald, S.; Ladd, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of T2 mapping for the detection of myocardial edema in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to compare this diagnostic accuracy with that of the current standard for myocardial edema imaging, which is T2w dark-blood TSE imaging. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with AMI were examined at 1.5 T. For the visualization of myocardial edema, T2 maps, calculated from three T2w SSFP images, and T2w dark-blood TSE images were acquired in standard short- and long-axis views. Cine SSFP images were acquired for the analysis of left ventricular (LV) function and late gadolinium enhancement images (LGE) for the visualization of myocardial necrosis. The T2 maps as well as the T2w dark-blood TSE images were evaluated twice independently from the cine SSFP and LGE images. The presence or absence of myocardial edema was rated visually for each LV segment. As the standard of reference, the infarct zone was defined based on the cine SSFP and the LGE images. Results: In this segment-based analysis, T2 mapping showed a sensitivity of 82 % and a specificity of 94 % for the detection of edema in the infarct zone. T2w dark-blood TSE imaging revealed a sensitivity of 50 % and a specificity of 98 %. T2 mapping showed a higher intra-rater agreement compared to T2w dark-blood TSE imaging (κ: 0.87 vs. 0.76). Conclusions: T2 mapping allows for the visualization of myocardial edema in AMI with a high sensitivity and specificity, and features better diagnostic accuracy in terms of a higher sensitivity compared to T2w dark-blood TSE imaging. (orig.)

  12. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2-mapping at 3T MRI: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, W; Apprich, S; Welsch, G H; Mamisch, T C; Trattnig, S

    2012-05-01

    To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2 maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2 values were then statistically analysed. The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2 values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2 values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2 values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. T2 and T2 mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2*-mapping at 3 T MRI: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, W.; Apprich, S.; Welsch, G.H.; Mamisch, T.C.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Method and materials: Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2* maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2* values were then statistically analysed. Results: The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2* values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2* values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2* values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. Conclusion: T2 and T2* mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions.

  14. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  15. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  16. T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Application in Magnetic Resonance–Guided Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua N.; Collins, David J.; Bainbridge, Hannah; Rank, Christopher M.; Nill, Simeon; Kachelrieß, Marc; Oelfke, Uwe; Leach, Martin O.; Wetscherek, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop and verify a method to obtain good temporal resolution T2-weighted 4-dimensional (4D-T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using motion information from T1-weighted 4D (4D-T1w) MRI, to support treatment planning in MR-guided radiotherapy. Materials and Methods Ten patients with primary non–small cell lung cancer were scanned at 1.5 T axially with a volumetric T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence gated to exhalation and a volumetric T1-weighted stack-of-stars spoiled gradient echo sequence with golden angle spacing acquired in free breathing. From the latter, 20 respiratory phases were reconstructed using the recently developed 4D joint MoCo-HDTV algorithm based on the self-gating signal obtained from the k-space center. Motion vector fields describing the respiratory cycle were obtained by deformable image registration between the respiratory phases and projected onto the T2-weighted image volume. The resulting 4D-T2w volumes were verified against the 4D-T1w volumes: an edge-detection method was used to measure the diaphragm positions; the locations of anatomical landmarks delineated by a radiation oncologist were compared and normalized mutual information was calculated to evaluate volumetric image similarity. Results High-resolution 4D-T2w MRI was obtained. Respiratory motion was preserved on calculated 4D-T2w MRI, with median diaphragm positions being consistent with less than 6.6 mm (2 voxels) for all patients and less than 3.3 mm (1 voxel) for 9 of 10 patients. Geometrical positions were coherent between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI as Euclidean distances between all corresponding anatomical landmarks agreed to within 7.6 mm (Euclidean distance of 2 voxels) and were below 3.8 mm (Euclidean distance of 1 voxel) for 355 of 470 pairs of anatomical landmarks. Volumetric image similarity was commensurate between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI, as mean percentage differences in normalized mutual information (calculated over all

  17. T2-Weighted 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Application in Magnetic Resonance-Guided Radiotherapy Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua N; Collins, David J; Bainbridge, Hannah; Rank, Christopher M; Nill, Simeon; Kachelrieß, Marc; Oelfke, Uwe; Leach, Martin O; Wetscherek, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and verify a method to obtain good temporal resolution T2-weighted 4-dimensional (4D-T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by using motion information from T1-weighted 4D (4D-T1w) MRI, to support treatment planning in MR-guided radiotherapy. Ten patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer were scanned at 1.5 T axially with a volumetric T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence gated to exhalation and a volumetric T1-weighted stack-of-stars spoiled gradient echo sequence with golden angle spacing acquired in free breathing. From the latter, 20 respiratory phases were reconstructed using the recently developed 4D joint MoCo-HDTV algorithm based on the self-gating signal obtained from the k-space center. Motion vector fields describing the respiratory cycle were obtained by deformable image registration between the respiratory phases and projected onto the T2-weighted image volume. The resulting 4D-T2w volumes were verified against the 4D-T1w volumes: an edge-detection method was used to measure the diaphragm positions; the locations of anatomical landmarks delineated by a radiation oncologist were compared and normalized mutual information was calculated to evaluate volumetric image similarity. High-resolution 4D-T2w MRI was obtained. Respiratory motion was preserved on calculated 4D-T2w MRI, with median diaphragm positions being consistent with less than 6.6 mm (2 voxels) for all patients and less than 3.3 mm (1 voxel) for 9 of 10 patients. Geometrical positions were coherent between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI as Euclidean distances between all corresponding anatomical landmarks agreed to within 7.6 mm (Euclidean distance of 2 voxels) and were below 3.8 mm (Euclidean distance of 1 voxel) for 355 of 470 pairs of anatomical landmarks. Volumetric image similarity was commensurate between 4D-T1w and 4D-T2w MRI, as mean percentage differences in normalized mutual information (calculated over all respiratory phases and patients), between

  18. An automated tool for cortical feature analysis: Application to differences on 7 Tesla T2* -weighted images between young and older healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; Buijs, Mathijs; Webb, Andrew G; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Milles, Julien

    2015-07-01

    High field T 2 * -weighted MR images of the cerebral cortex are