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Sample records for t-2 toxin impair

  1. T-2 toxin impairment of enteric reovirus clearance in the mouse associated with suppressed immunoglobulin and IFN-γ responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Maoxiang; Cuff, Christopher F.; Pestka, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Trichothecenes are exquisitely toxic to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and leukocytes and thus are likely to impair gut immunity. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that the Type A trichothecene T-2 toxin interferes with the gut mucosal immune response to enteric reovirus infection. Mice were exposed i.p. first to 1.75 mg/kg bw T-2 and then 2 h later with 3 x 10 7 plaque-forming units of reovirus serotype 1, strain Lang (T1/L). As compared to vehicle-treated control, T-2-treated mice had dramatically elevated intestinal plaque-forming viral titers after 5 days and failed to completely clear the virus from intestine by 10 days. Levels of reovirus λ2 core spike (L2 gene) RNA in feces in T-2-treated mice were significantly higher at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days than controls. T-2 potentiated L2 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner with as little as 50 μg/kg of the toxin having a potentiative effect. T-2 exposure transiently suppressed induction of reovirus-specific IgA in feces (6 and 8 days) as well as specific IgA and IgG 2a in serum (5 days). This suppression corresponded to decreased secretion of reovirus-specific IgA and IgG 2a in Peyer's patch (PP) and lamina propria fragment cultures prepared 5 days after infection. T-2 suppressed IFN-γ responses in PP to reovirus at 3 and 7 days as compared to infected controls whereas IL-2 mRNA concentrations were unaffected. PP IL-6 mRNA levels were increased 2-fold 2 h after T-2 treatment, but no differences between infected T-2-exposed and infected vehicle-treated mice were detectable over the next 7 days. Overall, the results suggest that T-2 toxin increased both the extent of GI tract reovirus infection and fecal shedding which corresponded to both suppressed immunoglobulin and IFN-γ responses

  2. T-2 toxin Analysis in Poultry and Cattle Feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour Azizi, Issa; Azarmi, Masumeh; Danesh Pouya, Naser; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2014-05-01

    T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that is produced by the Fusarium fungi. Consumption of food and feed contaminated with T-2 toxin causes diseases in humans and animals. In this study T-2 toxin was analyzed in poultry and cattle feedstuff in cities of Mazandaran province (Babol, Sari, Chalus), Northern Iran. In this study, 90 samples were analyzed for T-2 toxin contamination by the ELISA method. Out of 60 concentrate and bagasse samples collected from various cities of Mazandaran province, 11.7% and 3.3% were contaminated with T-2 toxin at concentrations > 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. For mixed poultry diets, while 10% of the 30 analyzed samples were contaminated with > 25 µg/kg, none of the tested samples contained T-2 toxin at levels > 50 µg/kg. The results obtained from this study show that poultry and cattle feedstuff can be contaminated with different amounts of T-2 toxin in different conditions and locations. Feedstuff that are contaminated by this toxin cause different diseases in animals; thus, potential transfer of mycotoxins to edible by-products from animals fed mycotoxin-contaminated feeds drives the need to routinely monitor mycotoxins in animal feeds and their components. This is the basis on which effective management of mycotoxins and their effects can be implemented.

  3. Development and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Glucoside of T-2 Toxin (T2-Glc)

    OpenAIRE

    Maragos, Chris M.; Kurtzman, Cletus; Busman, Mark; Price, Neil; McCormick, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between fungi and plants can yield metabolites that are toxic in animal systems. Certain fungi are known to produce sesquiterpenoid trichothecenes, such as T-2 toxin, that are biotransformed by several mechanisms including glucosylation. The glucosylated forms have been found in grain and are of interest as potential reservoirs of T-2 toxin that are not detected by many analytical methods. Hence the glucosides of trichothecenes are often termed “masked” mycotoxins. The glucos...

  4. Electrophysiological response of chicken's jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Kröger, Susan; Tichy, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The present investigations were conducted to test the effects of T-2 toxin on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of chicken. Jejunal segments of broilers were monitored in Ussing chambers in the presence of T-2 toxin at the levels of 0 (negative control), 0 (methanol/vehicle control), 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of buffer. T-2 toxin did not affect basal values of short circuit current (I(sc)), transmural potential difference, or tissue conductivity in the jejunal epithelium. T-2 toxin also did not statistically affect glucose-induced electrophysiological variables during the first 3 min of glucose induction. Compared to the vehicle control, the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) was negatively affected (P = 0.008) only under 5 μg of T-2 toxin/ml. Increasing levels of T-2 toxin negatively affected the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) in a cubic (P = 0.007) fashion. These data indicate that acute exposure to moderate levels of T-2 toxin may progressively impair the cation gradient across the jejunal epithelium.

  5. Identification and apoptotic potential of T-2 toxin metabolites in human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidner, M.; Welsch, T.; Hübner, F.; Schwerdt, G.; Gekle, M.; Humpf, H.U.

    2012-01-01

    The mycotoxin T-2 toxin, produced by various Fusarium species, is a widespread contaminant of grain and grain products. Knowledge about its toxicity and metabolism in the human body is crucial for any risk assessment as T-2 toxin can be detected in processed and unprocessed food samples. Cell

  6. T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sehata

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Comparison of anorectic potencies of the trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and satratoxin G to the ipecac alkaloid emetine

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    Wenda Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichothecene mycotoxins, potent translational inhibitors that are associated with human food poisonings and damp-building illnesses, are of considerable concern to animal and human health. Food refusal is a hallmark of exposure of experimental animals to deoxynivalenol (DON and other Type B trichothecenes but less is known about the anorectic effects of foodborne Type A trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, airborne Type D trichothecenes (e.g., satratoxin G [SG] or functionally analogous metabolites that impair protein synthesis. Here, we utilized a well-described mouse model of food intake to compare the anorectic potencies of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and SG to that of emetine, a medicinal alkaloid derived from ipecac that inhibits translation. Intraperitoneal (IP administration with T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, emetine and SG evoked anorectic responses that occurred within 0.5 h that lasted up to 96, 96, 3 and 96 h, respectively, with lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs being 0.1, 0.1, 2.5 and 0.25 mg/kg BW, respectively. When delivered via natural routes of exposure, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, emetine (oral and SG (intranasal induced anorectic responses that lasted up to 48, 48, 3 and 6 h, respectively with LOAELs being 0.1, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg BW, respectively. All four compounds were generally much more potent than DON which was previously observed to have LOAELs of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW after IP and oral dosing, respectively. Taken together, these anorectic potency data will be valuable in discerning the relative risks from trichothecenes and other translational inhibitors of natural origin.

  8. Spectrodensitometric Quantitative Determination of Trichothecenes in Water: Application to T-2 Toxin and T-2 Tetraol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    3-hydroxy-8-( 3-methybutyryloxy)-1 2,13-epoxytrichothec- *. 9-ene] (la) is an important member of the 12,13-epoxytrichochecene class of mycotoxins ...produced in nat by a number of genera of fungi and recognized increasingly since the late .960’s as responsible for toxic effects in live- stock... poultry , and humans from consumption of contaminated food grains. 1 More recently, since 1981, the issue of possible use of these toxins as " chemical

  9. Influence of Selenium on the Production of T-2 Toxin by Fusarium poae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bolun; Zhang, Yan; Tong, Bei; Yin, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium on the production of T-2 toxin by a Fusarium poae strain cultured in a synthetic medium containing different concentrations of selenium. The T-2 toxin contents in fermentative products were evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the production of T-2 toxin was correlated with the concentration of selenium added to the medium. In all three treatments, the addition of 1 mg/L selenium to the medium resulted in a lower toxin yield than the control (0 mg/L); the yield of the toxin began to increase when selenium concentration was 10 mg/L, while it decreased again at 20 mg/L. In summary, T-2 toxin yield in the fermentative product was affected by the addition of selenium to the medium, and a selenium concentration of 20 mg/L produced the maximum inhibitory effect of T-2 toxin yield in the fermentative product of F. poae.

  10. Acute Respiratory Tract Toxicity of the Trichothecene Mycotoxin, T-2 Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-31

    to 10-week-old, castrated , e male, cross-bred, specific pathogen-free pigs were exposed to an aerosol of T-2 toxin for 45 to 61 minutes with 8 mg of... castrated , crossbred, specific pathogen-free swine to aerosols of T-2 toxin for 42 to 65 minutes with 9 mg of the toxin nebulized per kilogram of body... cattle , Ph.D. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1983. 28. Lorenzana, R.M., Beasley, V.R., Buck, W.B., Ghent, A.W., Lundeen, G.R., and

  11. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradat, Ziad W.; ViIa, Borja; Marquardt, Ronal R.

    2006-01-01

    T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin that is produced by fusarium species, is prevalent mainly in cereal crops and poultry feed. One of the major effects of this toxin is immunomodulation. The effect of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens and the subsequent protection with Vitamin E in both fat and water soluble forms was studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. T-2 toxin was administered in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 ng/mL of lymphocytes in the presence of either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinine (PHA-M) at optimum concentration of 333 ng/mL and a dilution of 1:160 for ConA and PHA-M, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA and PHA-M mitogens was depressed at T-2 doses of 1 ng/mL or higher (p < 0.05). The proliferation was completely abolished at 10 ng/mL when the toxin was added at 0 time, while it was decreased by 80% when the toxin was added to the lymphocytes after 24 h. The addition of Vitamin E in the fat soluble form (α-tocopheryl acetate) did not exert any protection effect against the toxin when it was added at either 25 or 100 μg. However, when the water soluble form (Trolox) was added at a concentration of (200 μg) (equivalent to 100 μM of α-tocopherol), it provided considerable protection (p < 0.05) against T-2 toxin inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. The difference in the effect between the two forms of Vitamin E might be related to their relative solubility in the culture media which in turn may affect their availability for protection

  12. Antidotal Efficacy of a New Combination in Treatment of Subacute T-2 Toxin Poisoning in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacevic, V. M.; Bocarov-Stancic, A. S.; Resanovic, R. D.; Djordjevic, S. B.; Bokonjic, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin is a natural metabolite of Fusarium fungi. T-2 toxin possesses several properties (significant persistence in the environment, cheap manufacture, difficult detection and absence of a specific antidote) that make it a very dangerous potential chemical warfare agent. In our previous experiments, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) nimesulide (NIM), as a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and zeolite absorbent (Min-a-zel Plus, MINplus) administered separately showed a good protective effects against general toxicity induced by T-2 toxin (T2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidotal potential of the combination of these two antidotes. T2 was given in a dose of 0.15 mg/kg sc (0.1 LD50), 5 times per week, 4 weeks to adult Wistar rats. Protected animals were given NIM (20 mg/kg im) or/and MINplus (40 mg/kg po) each time immediately after T2. Mortality, general condition, body weight gain, food and water consumption and gut alterations of the animals were registered on a daily basis during 4 weeks. Treatment with NIM or/and MINplus significantly reduced mortality of the rats treated only with T2. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were significantly decreased in T2-treated animals compared to control ones (p < 0.001), what was not the case in the protected rats. In the groups treated with NIM and MINplus gut alterations were significantly less severe than those observed in animals receiving T2 alone (p less than 0.001). These results imply that combined treatment with nimesulide and zeolite absorbent affords a significant protection against subacute T-2 toxin poisoning in rats.(author)

  13. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Ziad W; Viià, Borja; Marquardt, Ronal R

    2006-08-15

    T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin that is produced by fusarium species, is prevalent mainly in cereal crops and poultry feed. One of the major effects of this toxin is immunomodulation. The effect of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens and the subsequent protection with Vitamin E in both fat and water soluble forms was studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. T-2 toxin was administered in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10ng/mL of lymphocytes in the presence of either concanavalin A (ConA) or phytohemagglutinine (PHA-M) at optimum concentration of 333ng/mL and a dilution of 1:160 for ConA and PHA-M, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to ConA and PHA-M mitogens was depressed at T-2 doses of 1ng/mL or higher (pprotection effect against the toxin when it was added at either 25 or 100microg. However, when the water soluble form (Trolox) was added at a concentration of (200microg) (equivalent to 100microM of alpha-tocopherol), it provided considerable protection (pprotection.

  14. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Badeck, Franz W; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Pascale, Michelangelo; Terzi, Valeria

    2016-08-20

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011-2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae-and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2-in malting barley grown in Italy.

  15. Production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in the presence of different disinfectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hrubošová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to examine the effect of different disinfectants on production trichothecenes (especially of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol. Lipophilicity, chemical structure, the presence of bioactive groups and functional groups in their structure modifies biological activity and toxic potency of trichothecenes. For this reason, limits have been established designating maximum levels of mycotoxins in cereals while maintaining proper growing practices. Appropriate nutritive media were prepared with different concentration of tested disinfectants (Desanal A  plus, ProCura spray and Guaa-Pool and were inoculated using  Fusarium strains. The density of  Fusarium was 105 spores per mililitre. Nutrient media was cultivated at 15 °C and 25 °C for seven days. The strains of Fusarium graminearum CCM F-683 and Fusarium species (isolated from barley produced quantities of deoxynivalenol. Fusarium poae CCM F-584 and Fusarium species (isolated from malthouse air produced quantities of T-2 toxin. Desanal A plus prevented Fusarium growth and production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol at the concentration 10%. It is an alkaline disinfectant on the basis of active chlorine and the surfactant that contains ˂5% of NaClO. ProCura spray at the concentration 0.6% proved to be very effective. This disinfectant contains 35% of propan-1-ol and 25% of propan-2-ol.  Guaa-Pool at the concentration 0.004% proved to be very effective. It is a polymeric disinfectant with anion surface-acting agent and it contains ˂0.9% of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and ˂0.2% of alkyl (C12-C16 dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Lower contentration of  disinfectants that  not prevented growth of Fusarium caused higher production  of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol. The contents of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using commercially produced kits (Agra Quant® Deoxynivalenol Test kit and Agra Quant® T-2 toxin

  16. Effects of T-2 toxin on turkey herpesvirus–induced vaccinal immunity against Marek’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-2 toxin, a very potent immunotoxic Type A trichothecene, is a secondary metabolite produced primarily by Fusarium spp., which grows on cereal grains and can lead to contaminated livestock feed. Repeated exposure to T-2 toxin has been shown to cause immunosuppression and decrease the resistance of ...

  17. T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in grain and grain-based commodities in Europe: occurrence, factors affecting occurrence, co-occurence and toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Stratakou, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the occurrence of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in cereals in Europe and derived food products, factors influencing the occurrence, co-occurrence with other trichothecenes, and toxicological effects of T-2 and HT-2 in human. Of all cereals, oats showed to be most

  18. Comparison of T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin Distributed in the Skeletal System with That in Other Tissues of Rats by Acute Toxicity Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang Fang; Lin, Xia Lu; Yang, Lei; Liu, Huan; Wang, Xi; Fang, Hua; Lammi, ZMikko J; Guo, Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Twelve healthy rats were divided into the T-2 toxin group receiving gavage of 1 mg/kg T-2 toxin and the control group receiving gavage of normal saline. Total relative concentrations of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in the skeletal system (thighbone, knee joints, and costal cartilage) were significantly higher than those in the heart, liver, and kidneys (P skeletal system (thighbone and costal cartilage) were also significantly higher than those in the heart, liver, and kidneys. The rats administered T-2 toxin showed rapid metabolism compared with that in rats administered HT-2 toxin, and the metabolic conversion rates in the different tissues were 68.20%-90.70%. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol in the presence of different disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Hrubošová; Jarmila Vytřasová; Iveta Brožková

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of different disinfectants on production trichothecenes (especially of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol). Lipophilicity, chemical structure, the presence of bioactive groups and functional groups in their structure modifies biological activity and toxic potency of trichothecenes. For this reason, limits have been established designating maximum levels of mycotoxins in cereals while maintaining proper growing practices. Appropriate nutr...

  20. Selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced injury of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Pan, Shengchi; Gan, Fang; Hao, Shu; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Haibin; Huang, Kehe

    2018-04-01

    Keshan disease is a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy in humans. Selenium deficiency, T-2 toxin, and myocarditis virus are thought to be the major factors contributing to Keshan disease. But the relationship among these three factors is poorly described. This study aims to explore whether selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying mechanism. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat and cultured at the physiological (2.0 μM) or lower concentrations of selenium with different concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results showed that selenium deficiencies aggravated T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by MTT bioassay, LDH activity, reactive oxygen species levels and caspase 3 protein expressions. T-2 toxin treatment significantly increased mRNA expressions for stress proteins GRP78 and CHOP in cardiomyocytes compared with the control. Selenium deficiencies further promoted GRP78, CHOP and p-eIF2α expressions. Knockdown of CHOP by the specific small interfering RNA eliminated the effect of selenium deficiencies on T-2 toxin-induced injury. It could be concluded that selenium deficiency aggravates T-2 toxin-induced cardiomyocyte injury through initiating more aggressive endoplasmic reticulum stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolism of T-2 toxin in rats: Effects of dose, route, and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, R.L.; Swanson, S.P.; Buck, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    Metabolic profiles of the excreta from rats following iv, oral, and dermal administration of tritium-labeled T-2 toxin at 0.15 and 0.60 mg/kg were determined. The major metabolites in urine were 3'-OH HT-2, T-2 tetraol, and unknown metabolite M5, whereas the major metabolites in feces were deepoxy T-2 tetraol, 3'-OH HT-2, and unknown metabolites M5, M7, and M9. The metabolite labeled M9 (major metabolite) was tentatively identified as deepoxy 3'-OH HT-2. There was no significant effect on metabolic profiles due to dose, but there was a variable effect associated with the route of administration. The increase over time of appreciable levels of deepoxy metabolites as a percentage of extracted radioactivity was both consistent and statistically significant

  2. Serum Metabonomics of Articular Cartilage Destruction Induced by T-2 Toxin in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Zhi Jun; Ren, Xiao Bin; Li, Qiang; Ding, Hua; Sun, Zhou; Kao, Qing Jun; Wang, Li Hua

    2018-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of T-2 toxin-induced cartilage destruction has not been fully unraveled yet. The aim of this study was to detect changes in serum metabolites in a rat anomaly model with articular cartilage destruction. Thirty healthy male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing T-2 toxin (300 ng/kg chow) for 3 months. Histopathological changes in femorotibial cartilage were characterized in terms of chondrocyte degeneration/necrosis and superficial cartilage defect, and the endogenous metabolite profile of serum was determined by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Treated rats showed extensive areas of chondrocyte necrosis and superficial cartilage defect in the articular cartilage. In addition, 8 metabolites were found to change significantly in these rats compared to the control group, including lysoPE (18:0/0:0), lysoPC(14:0), lysoPC[18:4 (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)], lysoPC[(16:1(9Z)], lysoPC(16:0), L-valine, hippuric acid, and asparaginyl-glycine. These 8 metabolites associated with cartilage injury are mainly involved in phospholipid and amino acid metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Dose-dependent Effect of T-2 Toxin on the Immunity against Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens

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    M. Weber

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2.35 (a and 4.18 (b mg kg-1 feed T-2 toxin dose for 14 days on the haemagglutination inhibition titres against Newcastle disease virus was investigated in broiler chickens. The animals were divided into four groups and two separate experiments were carried out (a, b: (1 intact control group; (2 birds were fed with T-2 toxin contaminated feed and not vaccinated; (3 repeatedly vaccinated (on day 23 of age control group which received uncontaminated feed; (4 birds were both repeatedly vaccinated and fed the T-2 toxin contaminated diet. Blood samples, from which sera titres were measured, were taken on days 7 and 14 of the experiments. It was found that heamagglutination titres were different in the two experiments even in the control (1 group because of the different efficiency of the first immunization at the hatchery. Titres on day 7 showed increases in all groups except for the group fed lower T-2 contaminated diet (a, group 2 but during the second week they increased only in the groups fed the diet with a lower dose of T-2 toxin. On the contrary, a higher dose of T-2 toxin contamination of the diet resulted in a dramatic decrease during the second week (b, groups 2 and 4. The results suggested that contrary to most of the previously published data, feeding of T-2 toxin contaminated feed with an amount of 2.35 mg.kg-1 did not decrease, but increase the antibody formation against attenuated Newcastle disease virus even without a second vaccination on day 1 of the experiment, whereas a higher amount of T-2 toxin (4.18 mg kg-1 decreased to day 14 after the repeated vaccination.

  4. Development of an LC-MS/MS Determination Method for T-2 Toxin and Its Glucoside and Acetyl Derivatives for Estimating the Contamination of Total T-2 Toxins in Staple Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yosuke; McCormick, Susan; Lim, Chee Wei

    2018-05-01

    A determination method previously validated for trichothecenes and zearalenone by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was adapted for the quantification of T-2 toxin (T-2) as well as its glucoside and acetyl derivatives, T-2-3-glucoside (T-2-3G) and 3-acetyl-T-2 (3A-T-2). HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and its acetyl derivative 3-acetyl-HT-2 (3A-HT-2) were also included as the target chemicals. Staple flours (56 samples collected from the Singapore market) were examined for contamination from T-2 and/or HT-2 and their derivatives. Among them, 16 flours were found to be contaminated with T-2 and/or HT-2, whereas none was contaminated with T-2-3G and 3A-HT-2, except for trace 3A-T-2 detected in 2 rye samples. Rye flour samples were frequently contaminated with both T-2 and HT-2. Some of the reference materials (RMs) were further analyzed, and T-2-3G and 3A-T-2 were quantitatively detected in corn and wheat RMs. The ratio of T-2-3G to T-2 in the RMs seemed to be much lower than the ratio of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside to deoxynivalenol usually reported in former studies. To the best of our knowledge, the natural contamination of 3A-T-2 in staple flour is reported here for the first time.

  5. The occurrence of Fusarium toxins (zearalenone, DON, fumonisin, and T2) in some food commodities and feedstuffs in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, I; Al-Arfe, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2010-01-15

    The presence of four Fusarium toxins (namely, zearalenone, Don, fuminosin, and T2) was studied in 129 food commodities and feedstuff samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the percentages of wheat samples contaminated with T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone were : 33%, 31%, 11.6% and 12.5% for each toxin, respectively. Concentrations of these toxins in the contaminated samples fell in the range of 81 - 350, 330 - 1330, 270 - 420 and 42-67 {mu}g kg-1 for each toxin respectively. Barely samples showed higher percentages of contamination with those toxins amounting to 75.9%, 83.3%, 75% and 83.3% with concentrations ranging between 89-145, 270 - 1230, 650 - 3450 and 42-102 {mu}g kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Percentages of contaminated bran samples were 80% for T2 and 100% for each of fumonisin, Don and zearalenone. Concentrations of T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in bran samples ranged between 81-322 , 510 - 1670 , 280 - 750 and 42-81 {mu}g kg-1, respectively. All four tested toxins were present in corn samples. Levels of T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in corn samples were in the range of 112-426 , 730 - 1820, 590 - 1080 and 63-112 {mu}g kg-1, respectively. Similarly, 100% of examined soya seed cake samples were found contaminated with various levels of the four assayed toxins, with levels of contamination ranging between 98-142 , 1340 - 2220 , 330 - 800 and 93-114 {mu}g kg-1, for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. All cotton seed cake samples were contaminated with the four tested toxins with contamination levels ranging between 94 - 142, 1120 - 1920, 280 - 1340 and 56 - 132 {mu}g kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Only 87% of the composite pelletted feed samples were contaminated with zearalenone, but all of theme were contaminated with various levels of the other three tested toxins. (author)

  6. The occurrence of Fusarium toxins (zearalenone, DON, fumonisin, and T2) in some food commodities and feedstuffs in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Al-Arfe, M.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of four Fusarium toxins (namely, zearalenone, Don, fuminosin, and T2) was studied in 129 food commodities and feedstuff samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the percentages of wheat samples contaminated with T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone were : 33%, 31%, 11.6% and 12.5% for each toxin, respectively. Concentrations of these toxins in the contaminated samples fell in the range of 81 - 350, 330 - 1330, 270 - 420 and 42-67 μg kg-1 for each toxin respectively. Barely samples showed higher percentages of contamination with those toxins amounting to 75.9%, 83.3%, 75% and 83.3% with concentrations ranging between 89-145, 270 - 1230, 650 - 3450 and 42-102 μg kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Percentages of contaminated bran samples were 80% for T2 and 100% for each of fumonisin, Don and zearalenone. Concentrations of T2, fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in bran samples ranged between 81-322 , 510 - 1670 , 280 - 750 and 42-81 μg kg-1, respectively. All four tested toxins were present in corn samples. Levels of T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone in corn samples were in the range of 112-426 , 730 - 1820, 590 - 1080 and 63-112 μg kg-1, respectively. Similarly, 100% of examined soya seed cake samples were found contaminated with various levels of the four assayed toxins, with levels of contamination ranging between 98-142 , 1340 - 2220 , 330 - 800 and 93-114 μg kg-1, for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. All cotton seed cake samples were contaminated with the four tested toxins with contamination levels ranging between 94 - 142, 1120 - 1920, 280 - 1340 and 56 - 132 μg kg-1 for T2, , fuminosin, Don and Zearalenone, respectively. Only 87% of the composite pelletted feed samples were contaminated with zearalenone, but all of theme were contaminated with various levels of the other three tested toxins. (author)

  7. Acetylation/deacetylation reactions of T-2, acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2 toxins in bovine rumen fluid in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munger, C.E.; Ivie, G.W.; Christopher, R.J.; Hammock, B.D.; Phillips, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A tritiated preparation of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, underwent both acetylation and deacetylation reactions when incubated with bovine rumen fluid in vitro. Products from incubations of T-2 in rumen fluid included acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2. Direct studies with tritiated samples of each of these metabolites confirmed their relatively facile interconversion in the rumen. Studies with [ 3 H]HT-2 under conditions of inhibited esterase activity (added diisopropyl fluorophosphate) showed that acetylation is preferred at C-3 vs. C-4. Studies with [ 3 H]acetyl T-2 indicated that deacetylation similarly occurs with greater rapidity at C-3. There were no indications that ester hydrolysis of these trichothecenes occurred at C-8 or C-15 or that they were subjected to epoxide reduction reactions. These data suggest that acetylation of T-2 and other trichothecenes in the rumen in situ may ultimately result in the absorption of more lipophilic metabolites whose toxicological and residual properties are at present unknown

  8. Acetylation/deacetylation reactions of T-2, acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2 toxins in bovine rumen fluid in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munger, C.E.; Ivie, G.W.; Christopher, R.J.; Hammock, B.D.; Phillips, T.D.

    A tritiated preparation of the trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin, underwent both acetylation and deacetylation reactions when incubated with bovine rumen fluid in vitro. Products from incubations of T-2 in rumen fluid included acetyl T-2, HT-2, and acetyl HT-2. Direct studies with tritiated samples of each of these metabolites confirmed their relatively facile interconversion in the rumen. Studies with (/sup 3/H)HT-2 under conditions of inhibited esterase activity (added diisopropyl fluorophosphate) showed that acetylation is preferred at C-3 vs. C-4. Studies with (/sup 3/H)acetyl T-2 indicated that deacetylation similarly occurs with greater rapidity at C-3. There were no indications that ester hydrolysis of these trichothecenes occurred at C-8 or C-15 or that they were subjected to epoxide reduction reactions. These data suggest that acetylation of T-2 and other trichothecenes in the rumen in situ may ultimately result in the absorption of more lipophilic metabolites whose toxicological and residual properties are at present unknown.

  9. Gut satiety hormones cholecystokinin and glucagon-like Peptide-17-36 amide mediate anorexia induction by trichothecenes T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and neosolaniol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Shengli; Zhang, Hua; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-11-15

    The food-borne trichothecene mycotoxins have been documented to cause human and animal food poisoning. Anorexia is a hallmark of the trichothecene mycotoxins-induced adverse effects. Type B trichothecenes have been previously demonstrated to elicit robust anorectic responses, and this response has been directly linked to secretion of the gut satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 7-36 amide (GLP-1). However, less is known about the anorectic effects and underlying mechanisms of the type A trichothecenes, including T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO). The purpose of this study was to relate type A trichothecenes T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO-induced anorectic response to changes plasma concentrations of CCK and GLP-1. Following both oral gavage and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of 1mg/kg bw T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO evoked robust anorectic response and secretion of CCK and GLP-1. Elevations of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO. Following oral exposure, plasma CCK was peaked at 6h, 6h, 2h, 2h and lasted up to 24h, 24h, > 6h, > 6h for T-2, HT-2, DAS and NEO, respectively. IP exposed to four toxins all induced elevation of CCK with peak point and duration at 6h and >24h, respectively. In contrast to CCK, GLP-1 was moderately elevated by these toxins. Following both oral and IP exposure, T-2 and HT-2 evoked plasma GLP-1 elevation with peak point and duration at 2h and 6h, respectively. Plasma GLP-1 was peaked at 2h and still increased at 6h for IP and oral administration with DAS and NEO, respectively. In conclusion, CCK plays a contributory role in anorexia induction but GLP-1 might play a lesser role in this response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin and ochratoxin A ELISAs development and in-house validation in food in accordance with the commission regulation (EU) no 519/2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Kleintjens, Tim; Sajic, Nermin; Haasnoot, Willem; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T.; Salden, Martin

    2017-01-01

    T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin (T-2/HT-2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins that can contaminate a variety of agricultural commodities. To protect consumers’ health, indicative limits for T-2/HT-2 and maximum limits for OTA have been set by the European Commission, requiring food business operators and

  11. Role of Peptide YY3-36 and Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide in Anorexia Induction by Trichothecences T-2 Toxin, HT-2 Toxin, Diacetoxyscirpenol, and Neosolaniol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Hui; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Yajie; Wu, Wenda; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-09-01

    Trichothecences, secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium, are serious health risks to humans and animals worldwide. Although type A trichothecence-induced food refusal has been observed, the mechanism underlying the anorexia caused by these compounds is not fully understood. In this study, we hypothesized that anorexia induced by type A trichothecenes, including T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and neosolaniol (NEO), in mice corresponds to the changes in the gut satiety hormones peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in plasma. A well-characterized mouse food refusal model was used in this assay. Oral exposure to or intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 1 mg/kg bw T-2, HT-2, DAS, or NEO resulted in dramatically decreased food intake, and PYY3-36 and GIP concentrations were elevated accordingly. Specifically, the PYY3-36 and GIP concentrations peaked at 2 h following oral exposure to these 4 toxins individually, although the durations were not identical. After ip administration of T-2 or HT-2, PYY3-36 significantly increased within 6 h. However, no significant difference was found in the DAS and NEO groups. The GIP levels peaked within 2, 2, 0.5, and 0.5 h, respectively, and remained increased up to 6, 6, 2, and 6 h, respectively, following T-2, HT-2, DAS, or NEO ip exposure. The increase in GIP was greater than that of PYY3-36 after exposure to the 4 toxins using 2 administration routes. Together, these findings suggest that PYY3-36 and GIP play a role in T-2-, HT-2-, DAS-, and NEO-induced anorexia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of γ-irradiation on F-2 and T-2 toxin production in corn a rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, A.; Badaway, A.; Sawinsky, J.; Kozma-Kovacs, E.; Beczner, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum and F. tricinctum were grown on moistened corn and rice. After inoculation the substrates were exposed to γ radiation and the growth rate and mycotoxin production were measured. A delay in mycelium growth and an increase in F-2 and T-2 toxin production occurred after irradiation with 1 and 3 kGy. The maximum F-2 production was 10.7 mg/kg for rice at 3 kGy whereas for T-2 it was 735 μg/kg for rice at 3 kGy. At 9 kGy neither growth nor toxin production could be detected in any inoculated corn and rice substrate. (author). 3 tabs., 12 refs

  13. Anorectic response to the trichothecene T-2 toxin correspond to plasma elevations of the satiety hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and peptide YY3-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kun; Zhang, Hua; Yue, Jianming; Gu, Wei; Gu, Chao; Zhang, Haibin; Wu, Wenda

    2018-04-22

    T-2 toxin, a potent type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by various Fusarium species and can negatively impact animal and human health. Although anorexia induction is a common hallmark of T-2 toxin-induced toxicity, the underlying mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and Peptide YY 3-36 (PYY 3-36 ) in anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Elevations of plasma GIP and PYY 3-36 markedly corresponded to anorexia induction following oral exposure to T-2 toxin using a nocturnal mouse anorexia model. Direct administration of exogenous GIP and PYY 3-36 similarly induced anorectic responses. Furthermore, the GIP receptor antagonist Pro3GIP dose-dependently attenuated both GIP- and T-2 toxin-induced anorectic responses. Pretreatment with NPY2 receptor antagonist JNJ-31020028 induced a dose-dependent attenuation of both PYY 3-36 - and T-2 toxin-induced anorectic responses. To summarize, these findings suggest that both GIP and PYY 3-36 might be critical mediators of anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-09-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

  15. Selection and Evaluation of Indexes Commonly Used to Determine Contamination with T-2 Toxin in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by the Grey Relational Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengli; Wang, Yaling; Dai, Zhe; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Defeng; Liu, Ying; Ye, Riying; Gooneratne, Ravi; Bi, Siyuan

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin in feed on muscle performance in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, evaluate indexes of physiological variables that indicate T-2 toxin contamination in the shrimp using the grey relational method, and determine the dose-response relationships between T-2 toxin and the indexes. Of the 6 physical, 7 biochemical, and 17 nutritional indexes examined, the values of the grey relational coefficients were highest for the hepatopancreas: body weight ratio (HBR), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, and serine (SER) content (0.83, 0.68, and 0.82, respectively). Therefore, the HBR, ALT activity, and SER content were selected as appropriate indexes for contamination of Pacific white shrimp muscle with T-2 toxin. Based on their dose-response relationship curves, mean effective doses of 1.45, 1.69, and 1.33 mg of T-2 toxin/kg of feed were obtained for the HBR, ALT activity, and SER content, respectively. These results offer technical reference points for the evaluation and control of T-2 toxin in shrimp feed. Received April 28, 2016; accepted April 9, 2017.

  16. Down-regulation of ATF2 in the inhibition of T-2-toxin-induced chondrocyte apoptosis by selenium chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Guo, Xiong

    2013-12-01

    Selenium chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles (SeCS) with a size range of 30-200 nm were obtained in our previous study. Meanwhile, the up-regulated expression of ATF2 mRNA and protein levels could be observed in the cartilage from Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) patients. In this paper, we investigated the inhibition effect of SeCS on T-2-toxin-induced apoptosis of chondrocyte from KBD patients. Here, we found that when the chondrocytes were treated with T-2 toxin, the chondrocyte apoptosis performed in a concentration-dependent manner. The apoptosis of chondrocyte induced by T-2 toxin involved the increased levels of ATF2, JNK and p38 mRNAs and related protein expression. SeCS could partly block the T-2-toxin-induced chondrocyte apoptosis by decreasing the expression of ATF2, JNK and p38 mRNAs and p-JNK, p-38, ATF2 and p-ATF2 proteins. JNK and p38 pathways involved in the apoptosis of chondrocyte induced by T-2 toxin, and SeCS was efficient in the inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis by T-2 toxin. These results suggested that SeCS had a potential for further prevention and treatment for KBD as well as other selenium deficiency disease.

  17. Survey of T-2/HT-2 toxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vasilj, Višnja; Kudumija, Nina; Petrović, Danijela; Vilušić, Milica; Škrivanko, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of T-2/HT-2 toxins in different unprocessed cereals (n=201), as well as in marketed cereal-based products (n=58), feed components (n=191) and feedstuffs (n=91) coming from Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. The number of positive samples of unprocessed cereals for food production (>LOD) ranged from 30.4% in barley to 68.8% in oat whereas for feed components ranged from 26.9% in wheat to 86.1% in oat. The maximal values found in unprocessed oat and oat-based feed components were 304.2μg/kg and 521.0μg/kg, respectively. As for final products, the highest T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in oat flakes (89.4μg/kg) and calf feed (129.3μg/kg). Despite of the increased T-2/HT-2 concentrations found in some of the samples, the obtained values were unanimously lower than the indicative levels given as recommendations above which further investigations should be necessary performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxidative stress induction by T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and triggers apoptosis via caspase pathway in human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, Manjari; Jayaraj, R.; Bhaskar, A.S.B.; Lakshmana Rao, P.V.

    2009-01-01

    T-2 toxin is the most toxic trichothecene and both humans and animals suffer from several pathological conditions after consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with trichothecenes. We investigated the molecular mechanism of T-2 toxin induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HeLa cells. T-2 toxin at LC50 of 10 ng/ml caused time dependent increase in cytotoxicity as assessed by dye uptake, lactatedehydrogenase leakage and MTT assay. The toxin caused generation of reactive oxygen species as early as 30 min followed by significant depletion of glutathione levels and increased lipid peroxidation. The results indicate oxidative stress as underlying mechanism of cytotoxicity. Single stranded DNA damage after T-2 treatment was observed as early as 2 and 4 h by DNA diffusion assay. The cells exhibited apoptotic morphology like condensed chromatin and nuclear fragmentation after 4 h of treatment. Downstream of T-2 induced oxidative stress and DNA damage a time dependent increase in expression level of p53 protein was observed. The increase in Bax/Bcl2 ratio indicated shift in response, in favour of apoptotic process in T-2 toxin treated cells. Western blot analysis showed increase in levels of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome-c followed by activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7 leading to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway, our results showed involvement of caspase-independent AIF pathway in T-2 induced apoptosis. Broad spectrum caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk could partially protect the cells from DNA damage but could not inhibit AIF induced oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation beyond 4 h. Results of the study clearly show that oxidative stress is the underlying mechanism by which T-2 toxin causes DNA damage and apoptosis.

  19. O corrência natural de desoxinivalenol e toxina T-2 em milho pós-colheita Natural occurrence of desoxinivalenol and toxin T-2 in recently harvested corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme PRADO

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi verificada a incidência natural de desoxinivalenol (DON e toxina T-2 em 115 amostras de milho em grão, pós-colheita, procedentes de diferentes localidades do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai, safra 1994/1995. Os grãos de milho foram obtidos da Associação Brasileira de Milho. DON foi extraído do grão com acetonitrila-água (84+16 e o extrato foi submetido a uma purificação em coluna de carvão ativo, alumina e Celite. A detecção foi feita por cromatografia em camada delgada, impregnando a placa com solução de cloreto de alumínio, aquecida após desenvolvimento e visualização em luz ultravioleta (366 nm. Para a toxina T-2, um método direto e competitivo de ELISA foi utilizado, após extração da amostra com metanol a 70%. As recuperações médias para o DON e toxina T-2 foram superiores a 70%. O limite de detecção foi cerca de 90 ng/g e 50 ng/g, para DON e toxina T-2, respectivamente. DON foi detectado em 7 das amostras (102-542 ng/g e a toxina T-2 em uma amostra (104 ng/g.One hundred and fifteen samples of postharvest corn from the 1994/1995 season, from different locations of Brasil, Argentina and Paraguay, were examined for deoxynivalenol (DON and T-2 toxin. The samples were obtained from the Brazilian Corn Association. DON was extracted with acetonitrile - water (84 + 16 and the extract submitted to a cleanup on a charcoal - alumina - Celite colunm. The detection was performed on silica gel TLC plates impregnated with aluminum chloride solution. After development the plates were heated and examined under UV light (366 nm. An enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA, direct and competitive, was employed for the detection and quantitation of T-2 toxin. The average recoveries for DON and T-2 toxin were above 70%. The detection limits were 90 ng/g for DON and 50 ng/g for T-2 toxin. DON was found in 7 of the samples (102 - 542 ng/g and T-2 toxin in one sample (104 ng/g.

  20. The effect of chronic feeding of diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and antibody production in turkey poults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklan, D; Shelly, M; Makovsky, B; Geyra, A; Klipper, E; Friedman, A

    2003-03-01

    1. The effects of feeding T-2 toxin or diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) at levels up to 1 ppm for 32 d on performance, health, small intestinal physiology and immune response to enteral and parenteral immunisation were examined in young poults. 2. Slight improvement in growth was observed in some groups of poults fed T-2 or DAS mycotoxins for 32 d, with no change in feed efficiency. Feeding both T-2 and DAS resulted in oral lesions which had maximal severity after 7-15 d. 3. Mild intestinal changes were observed at 32 d but no pathological or histopathological lesions were found. Both mycotoxins altered small intestinal morphology, especially in the jejunum where villi were shorter and thinner. In addition, both DAS and T-2 mycotoxins enhanced the proportion of proliferating cells both in the crypts and along the villi. Migration rates were reduced in the jejunum of poults fed T-2 toxin but did not change in the duodenum or in poults fed DAS. 4. No significant effects of T-2 or DAS were observed on antibody production to antigens administered by enteral or parenteral routes. 5. This study indicates that tricothecene toxins at concentrations of up to 1 ppm for more than 30 d influenced small intestinal morphology but did not affect growth or antibody production.

  1. Effects of Phenolic Acids on the Growth and Production of T-2 and HT-2 Toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruz, Elena; Atanasova-Pénichon, Vessela; Bonnin-Verdal, Marie-Noëlle; Marchegay, Gisèle; Pinson-Gadais, Laëtitia; Ducos, Christine; Lorán, Susana; Ariño, Agustín; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-04-04

    The effect of natural phenolic acids was tested on the growth and production of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides, on Mycotoxin Synthetic medium. Plates treated with 0.5 mM of each phenolic acid (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric) and controls without phenolic acid were incubated for 14 days at 25 °C. Fungal biomass of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides was not reduced by the phenolic acids. However, biosynthesis of T-2 toxin by F. langsethiae was significantly reduced by chlorogenic (23.1%) and ferulic (26.5%) acids. Production of T-2 by F. sporotrichioides also decreased with ferulic acid by 23% (p phenolic acids had a variable effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin production, depending on the strain and the concentration and type of phenolic acid assayed.

  2. Effects of T-2 Toxin on Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Growth, and Antioxidant Defenses and Capacity and Histopathology in the Hepatopancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yijia; Wang, Yaling; Zhang, Xiaodi; Sun, Lijun; Wu, Chaojin; Shi, Qi; Wang, Rundong; Sun, Xiaodong; Bi, Siyuan; Gooneratne, Ravi

    2017-03-01

    Modified-masked T-2 toxin (mT-2) formed during metabolism in edible aquatic animals may go undetected by traditional analytical methods, thereby underestimating T-2 toxicity. The effects of T-2 on growth and antioxidant capacity and histopathological changes in the hepatopancreas were studied in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed for 20 d to 0, 0.5, 1.2, 2.4, 4.8, and 12.2 mg/kg of T-2 in their feed. The concentration of mT-2 in the hepatopancreas was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrophotometry before and after trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) treatment that converted mT-2 to free T-2. A dose-dependent increase in mT-2 concentration was observed in the hepatopancreas. Dietary exposure to T-2 significantly decreased (P shrimp growth and survival rate compared with the controls. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly increased in shrimp exposed to feed with ≥2.4 mg/kg T-2 (P shrimp dosed with 2.4-4.8 mg/kg T-2 but declined at the highest dose (12.2 mg/kg), probably indicating an inability to cope with high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as evident from a marked increase in MDA (P shrimp of a dose-dependent increase in ROS, SOD enzyme activity, and T-AOC at low T-2 exposures, and associated histopathological changes in the hepatopancreas, in response to dietary T-2. Received January 26, 2016; accepted October 9, 2016.

  3. Chondrocytes damage induced by T-2 toxin via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of an endemic osteochondropathy, Kashin-Beck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Yingting; Guo, Xiong

    2017-12-01

    Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, is characterized by cartilage degeneration which is caused by abnormal catabolism in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the expression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in KBD pathogenesis. Among the proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, WNT-3A, FZD1, SOX9, and β-catenin were up-regulated, while FRZB was down-regulated in KBD cartilage. C28/I2 cells were evaluated for cell viability using the MTT assay after exposure to T-2 toxin, a suspicious environmental pathogenic factors of KBD. C28/I2 cells were treated with different intervening concentrations (0.001μg/mL,0.005μg/mL and 0.01μg/mL) of T-2 toxin for 24h. The expression of FZD1 and CTNNB1 (i.e.,β-catenin) was significantly reduced and SOX9 expression was significantly increased in chondrocytes after treatment with different intervening concentrations of T-2 toxin. Our results indicate that alterations in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in articular cartilage play an important role in the onset and pathogenesis of KBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of esterified-glucomannan on performance and organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology in broilers exposed to individual and combined mycotoxicosis (aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M V; Devegowda, G

    2000-12-01

    1. A study was conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin B1 (AF), ochratoxin A (OA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ morphology serum biochemistry and haematology of broiler chickens and the efficacy of esterified-glucomannan (E-GM), a cell wall derivative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026 in their counteraction. 2. Two dietary inclusion rates of AF (0 and 0.3 mg/kg), OA (0 and 2 mg/kg), T-2 (0 and 3 mg/kg) and E-GM (0 and 1 g/kg) were tested in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial manner on a total of 960 broiler chickens from 1 to 35 d of age in an open sided deep litter pen house. 3. Body weight and food intake were depressed by all the mycotoxins, OA being the most toxic during early life. 4. Weights of kidney and adrenals were increased by AF and OA. Liver weight was increased by AF (17.8%), while OA increased gizzard weight (14.6%) and reduced bone ash content (8.1%). T-2 toxin showed no effect on these variables. 5. Serum cholesterol content was decreased and activity of serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) was increased by AF and OA while serum protein content was decreased by AF. These effects were more pronounced at 21 d than at 35 d of age. Inconsistent responses were seen in the other variables: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) content, activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspertate amino transferase. Blood haemoglobin content was depressed by AF and T-2, whereas blood coagulation time was prolonged by OA. 6. Significant interactions were observed between any 2 toxins for their additive effects on body weight, food intake, bone ash content and serum GGT activity at 21 d. Conversely, antagonistic interactions were observed among any 2 of the toxins for their effects on variables such as serum protein and serum cholesterol content. Simultaneous feeding of all 3 mycotoxins did not show increased toxicity above that seen with any 2. 7. Esterified-glucomannan increased body weight (2.26%) and food intake (1.6%), decreased

  5. An On-Site Simultaneous Semi-Quantification of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, and T-2 Toxin in Maize- and Cereal-Based Feed via Multicolor Immunochromatographic Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-food monitoring due to the coexistence of fungi. However, many determination methods focused on a single mycotoxin, highlighting the demand for on-site determination of multiple mycotoxins in a single run. We develop a multicolor-based immunochromatographic strip (ICS for simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, zearalenone (ZEN and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based animal feeds. The nanoparticles with different colors are conjugated with three monoclonal antibodies, which serve as the immunoassay probes. The decrease in color intensity is observed by the naked eyes, providing simultaneous quantification of three mycotoxins. The visible limits of detection for AFB1, ZEN and T-2 are estimated to be 0.5, 2, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. The cut-off values are 1, 10, and 50 ng/mL, respectively. Considerable specificity and stability are found using real samples. The results are in excellent agreement with those from high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The multi-color ICS boasts sensitive and rapid visual differentiation and simultaneous semi-quantification of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and T-2 toxin in maize- and cereal-based feed samples within 20 min.

  6. Alteration of Multiple Cell Membrane Functions in L-6 Myoblasts by T-2 Toxin: An Important Mechanism of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-04

    menbrane functions. All are in a range that would in turn be expected to alter other cell functions. Intracellular LEH was reduced 10 min after T-2... Plasma amino F-id changes in guinea pigs injected with T-2 rnycotoxin. Fed. Proc. 42, 625. 20 1111" ll p J IIIý f%𔃻 11 IC IA 114 WEAVER, G.A., MW1•Z, H.J

  7. Fumonisin and T-2 toxin production of Fusarium spp. isolated from complete feed and individual agricultural commodities used in shrimp farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukul, Nampeung; Maneeboon, Thanapoom; Roopkham, Chanram; Chuaysrinule, Chananya; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa

    2014-02-01

    Fusarium spp. are plant pathogens producing fumonisins and trichothecenes that both affect human and animal health. In the present study, 40 fungal strains were isolated and species identified from 35 shrimp feed samples and from 61 agricultural raw materials. F. verticillioides was the predominant species (85 %) mostly found in corn and soybean meal, while no Fusarium contamination was detected in shrimp feed. Levels of 10 % of F. oxysporum were isolated from peanut and 5 % of F. equiseti contamination in corn and peanut. To determine the ability of toxin production, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction, and ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were performed. All but four of the fumonisin-producing strains contained the FUM1 gene. No Fusarium synthesized T-2 toxin nor contained the Tri5 gene. This survey brings more data on mycotoxin contamination in the food chain of animal feed production, and leads to the awareness of the use of contaminated raw materials in shrimp farming.

  8. Long-term effect of botulinum toxin on impairment and functional health in cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brans, J. W.; Lindeboom, R.; Aramideh, M.; Speelman, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) on impairment as well as functional health in terms of disability, handicap, and quality of life in 64 patients with cervical dystonia. These patients, who first participated in a double-blind trial, were followed for another 12

  9. The association between intra- and juxta-cortical pathology and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis by quantitative T2* mapping at 7 T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louapre, Céline; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T; Giannì, Costanza; Madigan, Nancy; Nielsen, A Scott; Sloane, Jacob A; Kinkel, Revere P; Mainero, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Using quantitative T 2 * at 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether impairment in selective cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS) can be explained by pathology in specific areas and/or layers of the cortex. Thirty-one MS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation, acquisition of 7 T multi-echo T 2 * gradient-echo sequences, and 3 T anatomical images for cortical surfaces reconstruction. Seventeen age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Cortical T 2 * maps were sampled at various depths throughout the cortex and juxtacortex. Relation between T 2 *, neuropsychological scores and a cognitive index (CI), calculated from a principal component analysis on the whole battery, was tested by a general linear model. Cognitive impairment correlated with T 2 * increase, independently from white matter lesions and cortical thickness, in cortical areas highly relevant for cognition belonging to the default-mode network (p < 0.05 corrected). Dysfunction in different cognitive functions correlated with longer T 2 * in selective cortical regions, most of which showed longer T 2 * relative to controls. For most tests, this association was strongest in deeper cortical layers. Executive dysfunction, however, was mainly related with pathology in juxtameningeal cortex. T 2 * explained up to 20% of the variance of the CI, independently of conventional imaging metrics (adjusted-R 2 : 52-67%, p < 5.10 - 4 ). Location of pathology across the cortical width and mantle showed selective correlation with impairment in differing cognitive domains. These findings may guide studies at lower field strength designed to develop surrogate markers of cognitive impairment in MS.

  10. Elimination of Endogenous Toxin, Creatinine from Blood Plasma Depends on Albumin Conformation: Site Specific Uremic Toxicity & Impaired Drug Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ankita; Rehan, Mohd; Subbarao, Naidu; Rabbani, Gulam; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Uremic syndrome results from malfunctioning of various organ systems due to the retention of uremic toxins which, under normal conditions, would be excreted into the urine and/or metabolized by the kidneys. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the renal elimination of uremic toxin creatinine that accumulate in chronic renal failure. Quantitative investigation of the plausible correlations was performed by spectroscopy, calorimetry, molecular docking and accessibility of surface area. Alkalinization of normal plasma from pH 7.0 to 9.0 modifies the distribution of toxin in the body and therefore may affect both the accumulation and the rate of toxin elimination. The ligand loading of HSA with uremic toxin predicts several key side chain interactions of site I that presumably have the potential to impact the specificity and impaired drug binding. These findings provide useful information for elucidating the complicated mechanism of toxin disposition in renal disease state. PMID:21386972

  11. Tobacco toxins deposited on surfaces (third hand smoke) impair wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Sandeep; Alamat, Raquelle; Castro, Anthony; Sarker, Altaf H; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chan, Alex; Hang, Bo; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    Third hand smoke (THS) is the accumulation of second hand smoke (SHS) toxins on surfaces in homes, cars, clothing and hair of smokers. It is known that 88M US nonsmokers ≥3 years old living in homes of smokers are exposed to THS toxicants and show blood cotinine levels of ≥0.05 ng/ml, indicating that the toxins are circulating in their circulatory systems. The goal of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms by which THS causes impaired wound healing. We show that mice living under conditions that mimic THS exposure in humans display delayed wound closure, impaired collagen deposition, altered inflammatory response, decreased angiogenesis, microvessels with fibrin cuffs and a highly proteolytic wound environment. Moreover, THS-exposed mouse wounds have high levels of oxidative stress and significantly lower levels of antioxidant activity leading to molecular damage, including protein nitration, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage that contribute to tissue dysfunction. Furthermore, we show that elastase is elevated, suggesting that elastin is degraded and the plasticity of the wound tissue is decreased. Taken together, our results lead us to conclude that THS toxicants delay and impair wound healing by disrupting the sequential processes that lead to normal healing. In addition, the lack of elastin results in loss of wound plasticity, which may be responsible for reopening of wounds. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  12. Scientific opinion on the appropriateness to set a group health based guidance value for T2 and HT2 toxin and its modified forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for T2 and HT2 of 0.02 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day based on a new in vivo subchronic toxicity study in rats that confirmed that immune- and haematotoxicity are the critical effects of T2...

  13. Botulinum toxin injections for new onset bilateral vocal fold motion impairment in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbom, Dale C; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Yung, Katherine C; Johnson, Felicia L; Billante, Cheryl R; Zealear, David L; Courey, Mark S

    2010-04-01

    Review of clinical experience and results using botulinum toxin type A (BTX) for the management of adult patients with respiratory compromise due to new onset bilateral vocal fold motion impairment (BVFMI). Retrospective case series. The records of 11 patients from two institutions with respiratory compromise due to bilateral vocal fold motion impairment were reviewed. Age, sex, etiology of motion impairment, subjective response to BTX injections, changes in pulmonary function studies pre- and postinjection when available, the dosage of botulinum toxin required to achieve response, the number of injections per patient, and complications were reported. All patients were over 18 years old. There were three male and eight female subjects. The etiology of BVFMI was due to previous anterior cervical surgery in nine patients and prolonged intubation in two. Ten patients reported symptomatic improvement and returned for an average of nine injections over the 10-year period of study. The most common interval between injections was 3 months. In all patients the dose required to achieve symptomatic improvement was at least 2.5 mouse units injected into each vocal fold. One patient without relief of symptoms had bilateral cricoarytenoid joint fixation. Complications were limited to moderate dysphagia in one patient and breathy dysphonia in all patients. BTX injection into the vocal folds provides temporary relief of symptoms in airway obstruction in adult patients with BVFMI. Patients require an average of 2.5 units of botulinum injection into each vocal fold and have an average length of response of 3 months. BTX injection may be used as a form of temporary relief of airway obstruction in patients wishing to avoid ablative surgery or tracheotomy.

  14. SURVEY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL, DIACETOXYSCIRPENOL, AND T2 TOXIN IN POPCORN HYBRIDS PLANTED IN THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO AND IN POPCORN COMMERCIALIZED IN THE CITY OF CAMPINAS, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Adriana de Queiroz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, and T2 toxin (T2 in popcorn was investigated in 90 samples, belonging to 2 commercial and 28 experimental hybrids planted at experimental stations of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas at the locations of Campinas, Mococa, and Capão Bonito, and in 15 samples of popcorn, 9 branded and 6 unbranded, acquired from commercial outlets in the city of Campinas, SP. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector combined with an alumina:carbon cleanup column. The detection limits were 30ng/g for DON, 50ng/g for DAS, and 40ng/g for T2. Five samples were contaminated with DON, four of them commercial and one from an experimental cultivar. The level of contamination in the commercial samples ranged from 30 to 40ng/g. The sample from the experimental cultivar contained 770ng/g DON. DAS and T2 were not detected in any of the popcorn samples analyzed.

  15. DNA Damage and DNA Damage Responses in THP-1 Monocytes after Exposure to Spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Rakkestad, Kirsten E.; Skaar, Ida; Ansteinsson, Vibeke E.; Solhaug, Anita; Holme, Jørn A.; Pestka, James J.; Samuelsen, Jan T.; Dahlman, Hans J.; Hongslo, Jan K.; Becher, Rune

    2010-01-01

    We have characterized cell death in THP-1 cells after exposure to heat-treated spores from satratoxin G–producing Stachybotrys chartarum isolate IBT 9631, atranone-producing S. chartarum isolate IBT 9634, and sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergillus versicolor isolate IBT 3781, as well as the trichothecenes T-2 and satratoxin G. Spores induced cell death within 3–6 h, with Stachybotrys appearing most potent. IBT 9631 induced both apoptosis and necrosis, while IBT 9634 and IBT 3781 induced mostl...

  16. The Influence of Low Doses of Zearalenone and T-2 Toxin on Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide-Like Immunoreactive (CGRP-LI Neurons in the ENS of the Porcine Descending Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Makowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique. Both mycotoxins led to an increase in the percentage of CGRP-LI neurons in all types of enteric plexuses and changed the degree of co-localization of CGRP with other neuronal active substances, such as substance P, galanin, nitric oxide synthase, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide. The obtained results demonstrate that even low doses of ZEN and T-2 can affect living organisms and cause changes in the neurochemical profile of enteric neurons.

  17. Edema toxin impairs anthracidal phospholipase A2 expression by alveolar macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Raymond

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a spore-forming gram-positive bacterium. Infection with this pathogen results in multisystem dysfunction and death. The pathogenicity of B. anthracis is due to the production of virulence factors, including edema toxin (ET. Recently, we established the protective role of type-IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA against B. anthracis. A component of innate immunity produced by alveolar macrophages (AMs, sPLA2-IIA is found in human and animal bronchoalveolar lavages at sufficient levels to kill B. anthracis. However, pulmonary anthrax is almost always fatal, suggesting the potential impairment of sPLA2-IIA synthesis and/or action by B. anthracis factors. We investigated the effect of purified ET and ET-deficient B. anthracis strains on sPLA2-IIA expression in primary guinea pig AMs. We report that ET inhibits sPLA2-IIA expression in AMs at the transcriptional level via a cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent process. Moreover, we show that live B. anthracis strains expressing functional ET inhibit sPLA2-IIA expression, whereas ET-deficient strains induced this expression. This stimulatory effect, mediated partly by the cell wall peptidoglycan, can be counterbalanced by ET. We conclude that B. anthracis down-regulates sPLA2-IIA expression in AMs through a process involving ET. Our study, therefore, describes a new molecular mechanism implemented by B. anthracis to escape innate host defense. These pioneering data will provide new molecular targets for future intervention against this deadly pathogen.

  18. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  19. The association between intra- and juxta-cortical pathology and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis by quantitative T2* mapping at 7 T MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Louapre, MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Location of pathology across the cortical width and mantle showed selective correlation with impairment in differing cognitive domains. These findings may guide studies at lower field strength designed to develop surrogate markers of cognitive impairment in MS.

  20. Increased expression of TLR9 associated with pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 in diabetic wounds could lead to unresolved inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with impaired wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Sinha, Pratima; Singh, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia which causes a chain of abrupt biochemical and physiological changes. Immune dys-regulation is the hallmark of T2DM that could contribute to prolonged inflammation causing transformation of wounds into non-healing chronic ulcers. Toll like receptor -9 (TLR9) is a major receptor involved in innate immune regulation. TLR9 activation induces release of pro-inflammatory molecules like S100A8 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by myeloid cells causing migration of myeloid cells to the site of inflammation. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 proteins could cause persistent inflammation in chronic wounds like diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and may contribute to impaired wound healing in T2DM patients. Expression of TLR9 and its downstream effector molecules S100A8, and IL-8 were analyzed in chronic diabetic wound and non-diabetic control wound tissue samples by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. TLR9 message and protein were higher in diabetic wounds compared to control wounds (p=0.03, t=2.21 for TLR9 mRNA; p=diabetic wounds (p=0.003, t=3.1 for S100A8 mRNA; p=0.04, t=2.04 for IL-8). CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells were decreased in T2DM as compared to non-diabetic controls (p=0.001, t=3.6). DFU subjects had higher levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells as compared to non-DFU T2DM control (p=0.003, t=2.8). Infection in the wound microenvironment could be the cause of increase in CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells in DFU (p=0.03, t=2.5). The up-regulation of myeloid cell-derived pro-inflammatory molecules S100A8 and IL-8 in combination with lower levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells may cause the impairment of wound healing in T2DM subjects leading to chronic ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute Inhalation Toxicity of T-2 Mycotoxin in the Rat and Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    2/kg body weight for the guinea pig . These data show that inhaled T-2 toxin is approximately 20 times more toxic to the rat (0.05 mg T-2/kg body wt...inhaled vs 1.0 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) and at least twice as toxic to the guinea pig (0.4 mg T-2/kg body wt inhaled vs 1-2 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) than ip...administered T-2 toxin. Histopathologic examination of major organs in both the rat and guinea pig after respiratory exposure to T-2 toxin indicated

  2. The Attentional Blink Is Not Affected by Backward Masking of T2, T2-Mask SOA, or Level of T2 Impoverishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the second of two targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). This "attentional blink" (AB) is thought to arise from a delay in T2 processing during which T2 is vulnerable to masking. Conventional studies have measured T2 accuracy which is constrained by the 100% ceiling. We avoided this problem by using…

  3. Association of onabotulinum toxin A treatment with salivary pH and dental caries of neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Beatriz; Dabbagh, Basma; Daniel, Sam J; Schwartz, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Sialorrhea is a common manifestation of several neurological disorders. The use of intraglandular onabotulinum toxin A (OBTXA) injection has been recognized to effectively treat sialorrhea. As OBTXA injection reduces salivary flow rate and alters salivary quality, its use may have a detrimental effect on oral health. To examine the effect of OBTXA injection on caries experience and salivary pH of neurologically impaired children with sialorrhea. Twenty-five children receiving OBTXA treatment and 25 control children were enrolled in the study. Whole saliva was collected to determine salivary pH. All participants underwent an interview on their dietary habits. Dental clinical examinations were carried out to evaluate caries experience and oral hygiene level. Overall, mean salivary pH value was significantly lower in the OBTXA group (6.92 ± 0.77) compared with the control group (7.36 ± 0.70). Caries activity was significantly higher in the OBTXA group (P = 0.01). The regression analyses showed a significant association between OBTXA treatment and salivary pH value (P = 0.03). Results from the logistic regression show that dental caries was significantly associated with OBTXA treatment (OR = 1.73, CI = 1.14-27.3). The study showed an intricate relationship between OBTXA treatment and oral findings. Hence, special dental care should be given to children receiving OBTXA treatment. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A randomized, placebo controlled pilot trial of botulinum toxin for paratonic rigidity in people with advanced cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Kleiner-Fisman

    Full Text Available Evaluate safety and efficacy of Incobotulinumtoxin A in elderly patients with dementia and paratonia.University-affiliated hospital, spasticity management Clinic.Ten subjects were enrolled.1 severe cognitive impairment 2 diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia, and 3 score >3 on the paratonic assessment instrument, with posture in an arm(s interfering with provision of care.1 alternate etiologies for increased tone and 2 injection with botulinum toxin within the 6 months preceding the study.Single center, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with two treatment cycles of 16 weeks. Assessments occurred at 2, 6, 12 and16 weeks following injections. Subjects received up to 300 U of Incobotulinumtoxin A in arm(s.Primary outcome measure was the modified caregiver burden scale (mCBS; exploratory secondary outcome measures were also performed. Analysis of variance and mixed modeling techniques were used to evaluate treatment effects.Incobotulinumtoxin A treatment produced significant improvement in mCBS total score -1.11 (-2.04 to -0.18 (Treatment effect and 95% CI, dressing sub-score -0.36 (-0.59 to 0.12, and cleaning under the left and right armpits sub-score -0.5 (-0.96 to -0.04, -0.41 (-0.79 to -0.04 respectively. PROM in the left and right elbow increased by 27.67 degrees (13.32-42.02 and 22.07 degrees (9.76-34.39 respectively. PROM in the left and right shoulder increased by 11.92 degrees (5.46-18.38 and 8.58 degrees (3.73-13.43 respectively. No significant treatment effect was found for GAS, VAS and PAINAD scales or change in time to perform care. No adverse drug reactions occurred.Administration of Incobotulinumtoxin A in elderly people with advanced dementia and paratonia may be an efficacious and safe treatment to increase range of motion and reduce functional burden. Further studies are needed to confirm results.ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT02212119.

  5. Stool C difficile toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxin; Colitis - toxin; Pseudomembranous - toxin; Necrotizing colitis - toxin; C difficile - toxin ... be analyzed. There are several ways to detect C difficile toxin in the stool sample. Enzyme immunoassay ( ...

  6. Physical therapies as an adjunct to Botulinum toxin-A injection of the upper or lower limb in adults following neurological impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnear Bianca Z

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spasticity of muscles is a common consequence of central nervous system impairment. Traditionally, neurological rehabilitation for spasticity has involved occupational and physical therapy; however, increasingly Botulinum toxin–A injections may be provided. Injection effects are temporary. Consequently, understanding the effect of adjunct physical therapies will help inform multimodal rehabilitation decisions. Presently, these effects are not known. This systematic review will identify and summarize evidence on physical therapies used after Botulinum toxin-A injection to improve motor function in adults with neurological impairments. Method Systematic searching of seven electronic databases will occur to identify relevant randomized trials. Available trial data will be extracted into a list of pre-defined primary outcomes, including range of movement, spasticity and functional limb use. Pre-defined secondary outcomes will also be reviewed where trials have these data available for reporting. Effects will be expressed as mean differences or standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Where possible, comparable results will be meta-analyzed, and a summary of the available pool of evidence produced. All randomized controlled trials will be rated using the PEDro methodological quality scale. Where possible, study data will be meta-analyzed using RevMan 5 Software. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO international prosepective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO 2011:CRD42011001491. Discussion Review results will be the most comprehensive answer available to the following question: Are physical therapies clinically effective after Botulinum toxin-A injections in adults with neurological spasticity? Results will inform healthcare providers and managers who determine who gets access to and provision of Botulinum toxin-A injection and whether this is done with or without physical therapies. Results

  7. Simultaneous acquisition for T2 -T2 Exchange and T1 -T2 correlation NMR experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrazi, Elton T.; Lucas-Oliveira, Everton; Araujo-Ferreira, Arthur G.; Barsi-Andreeta, Mariane; Bonagamba, Tito J.

    2018-04-01

    The NMR measurements of longitudinal and transverse relaxation times and its multidimensional correlations provide useful information about molecular dynamics. However, these experiments are very time-consuming, and many researchers proposed faster experiments to reduce this issue. This paper presents a new way to simultaneously perform T2 -T2 Exchange and T1 -T2 correlation experiments by taking the advantage of the storage time and the two steps phase cycling used for running the relaxation exchange experiment. The data corresponding to each step is either summed or subtracted to produce the T2 -T2 and T1 -T2 data, enhancing the information obtained while maintaining the experiment duration. Comparing the results from this technique with traditional NMR experiments it was possible to validate the method.

  8. Long-term functional impairment of hemopoietic progenitor cells engineered to express the S1 catalytic subunit of pertussis toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonig, Halvard; Rohmer, Laurence; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2005-06-01

    A large body of data suggests that pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein signals in mature and immature hemopoietic cells control their migration patterns in vitro and in vivo. These effects were derived after treatment of cells or animals with PTX. To circumvent several inherent problems of PTX holotoxin treatment, we expressed the S1 catalytic activity of PTX, thus blocking Gi protein signaling, in 32D murine myeloid progenitor cells and in primary human CD34+ cells, and studied its functional consequences. S1 was expressed using viral vectors. Effects of Gi protein blockade on proliferation, migration, adhesion, and gene expression were tested in vitro. S1 expression was nontoxic for the cells; expression and function were stable long-term and not overridden by compensatory mechanisms. S1-transduced 32D cells and primary CD34+ cells migrated poorly and did not contract their cytoskeleton upon treatment with the chemoattractant stromal cell-derived factor -1 (SDF-1), similar to the phenotype induced by PTX treatment. Gene expression studies comparing S1-transduced and control 32D cells uncovered four genes, expression of which was regulated by Gi protein blockade. Of interest, although SDF-1 signaling was inhibited, comparison between SDF-1-treated and untreated cells suggests that SDF-1 stimulation does not depend on de novo gene expression in these cells. Furthermore, when injected into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, seeding of S1-expressing 32D cells to bone marrow was largely blocked. Expression of S1 is an effective approach for studying long-term functional consequences of Gi protein blockade in hemopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Short-term muscle atrophy caused by botulinum toxin-A local injection impairs fracture healing in the rat femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Ma, Yongcheng; Wang, Xuepeng; Jin, Fangchun; Ge, Shengfang

    2012-04-01

    Damaged bone is sensitive to mechanical stimulation throughout the remodeling phase of bone healing. Muscle damage and muscular atrophy associated with open fractures and subsequent fixation are not beneficial to maintaining optimum conditions for mechanical stability. The aim of this study was to investigate whether local muscle atrophy and dysfunction affect fracture healing in a rat femur fracture model. We combined the rat model of a short period atrophy of the quadriceps with femur fracture. Forty-four-month-old male Wistar rats were adopted for this study. Two units of botulinum toxin-A (BXTA) were administered locally into the right side of the quadriceps of each rat, while the same dose of saline was injected into the contralateral quadriceps. After BXTA had been fully absorbed by the quadriceps, osteotomy was performed in both femurs with intramedullary fixation. Gross observation and weighing of muscle tissue, X-ray analysis, callus histology, and bone biomechanical testing were performed at different time points up to 8 weeks post-surgery. Local injection of BXTA led to a significant decrease in the volume and weight of the quadriceps compared to the control side. At the eighth week, the left side femurs of the saline-injected quadriceps almost reached bony union, and fibrous calluses were completely calcified into woven bone. However, a gap was still visible in the BXTA-treated side on X-ray images. As showed by bone histology, there were no mature osseous calluses or woven bone on the BXTA-treated side, but a resorption pattern was evident. Biomechanical testing indicated that the femurs of the BXTA-treated side exhibited inferior mechanical properties compared with the control side. The inferior outcome following BXTA injection, compared with saline injection, in terms of callus resistance may be the consequence of unexpected load and mechanical unsteadiness caused by muscle atrophy and dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. Nonstandard neutrino interactions at DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny; Whisnant, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Here, we study the matter effect caused by nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI) in the next generation long-baseline neutrino experiments, DUNE, T2HK and T2HKK. If multiple NSI parameters are nonzero, the potential of these experiments to detect CP violation, determine the mass hierarchy and constrain NSI is severely impaired by degeneracies between the NSI parameters and by the generalized mass hierarchy degeneracy. In particular, a cancellation between leading order terms in the appearance channels when ϵ_e_τ= cot θ _2_3ϵ_e_μ, strongly affects the sensitivities to these two NSI parameters at T2HK and T2HKK. We also study the dependence of the sensitivities on the true CP phase and the true mass hierarchy, and find that overall DUNE has the best sensitivity to the magnitude of the NSI parameters, while T2HKK has the best sensitivity to CP violation whether or not there are NSI. Furthermore, for T2HKK a smaller off-axis angle for the Korean detector is better overall. We find that due to the structure of the leading order terms in the appearance channel probabilities, the NSI sensitivities in a given experiment are similar for both mass hierarchies, modulo the phase change δ→δ + 180°.

  11. Polyamine toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Jensen, Lars S; Vogensen, Stine B

    2005-01-01

    Polyamine toxins, isolated from spiders and wasps, have been used as pharmacological tools for the study of ionotropic receptors, but their use have so far been hampered by their lack of selectivity. In this mini-review, we describe how careful synthetic modification of native polyamine toxins ha...

  12. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Benhar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin.

  13. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai

    2010-01-01

    Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin. PMID:22069564

  14. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  15. Injection of high dose botulinum-toxin A leads to impaired skeletal muscle function and damage of the fibrilar and non-fibrilar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Lauridsen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum-toxin A (BoNT/A) is used for a wide range of conditions. Intramuscular administration of BoNT/A inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction from presynaptic motor neurons causing muscle-paralysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high...

  16. Botulinum toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C 1 , C 2 , D, E, F and G. All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about three months. Botulinum toxins now play a very significant role in the management of a wide variety of medical conditions, especially strabismus and focal dystonias, hemifacial spasm, and various spastic movement disorders, headaches, hypersalivation, hyperhidrosis, and some chronic conditions that respond only partially to medical treatment. The list of possible new indications is rapidly expanding. The cosmetological applications include correction of lines, creases and wrinkling all over the face, chin, neck, and chest to dermatological applications such as hyperhidrosis. Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and side effects are few. A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice.

  17. Results from T2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, S.

    2014-01-01

    T2K is an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to measure the θ 13 mixing parameter through the observation of ν e appearance in a ν μ beam. Concurrent measurement of ν μ disappearance allows refined measurements of the atmospheric Δm 23 2 and of the θ 23 mixing parameters. Analysis of data taken from January 2010 to March 2011 led to the first indication to ν μ → ν e appearance, it means θ 13 ≠ 0 (2.5σ significance), opening the way to CP violation searches in the leptonic sector. Measurement for ν μ disappearance were performed as well. Data taking restarted in March 2012 at higher intensities. Results, data taking status and future plans will be discussed. (author)

  18. On the Labile Memory Buffer in the Attentional Blink: Masking the T2 Representation by Onset Transients Mediates the AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Report of a second target (T2) is impaired when presented within 500 ms of the first (T1). This attentional blink (AB) is known to cause a delay in T2 processing during which T2 must be stored in a labile memory buffer. We explored the buffer's characteristics using different types of masks after T2. These characteristics were inferred by…

  19. Detection of T-2 mycotoxin metabolites in urines of exposed rats. Comparison of a potentially fieldable kit with a laboratory assay. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewetson, J.F.; Wannemacher, R.W.; Hawley, R.J.

    1988-03-09

    Rapid methods to detect toxin exposure have been a concern of the Army since the reported use of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological warfare agent in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan. T-2 toxin was included in an exploratory development program of rapid identification systems for biological agents sponsored by the United States Army Medical Materiel Development Activity. Reported here is evidence of T-2W exposure in urines collected up to 2 weeks after rats were exposed to a sublethal dose of T-2 toxin. A laboratory radioimmunoassay (RIA) using polyclonal antibody was used to assay the urines for HT-2 or T-2 tetraol. The sensitivity of the RIA for HT-2 was 5 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml for T-2 tetraol. Some of the urines were assayed in parallel with a potentially fieldable enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) developed for T-2 with a monoclonal antibody that cross reacts with HT-2.

  20. T2 shortening in childhood moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, J.; Sugita, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ito, C.; Date, H.; Niimi, H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined T2 shortening in six children with infarcts due to moyamoya disease to clarify whether there are characteristic patterns of T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter. Profound T2 shortening in the deep grey and white matter was observed in the acute stage of infarct in two cases, which changed to high intensity in the chronic stage; in this stage no T2 shortening was demonstrated in any case. Neither haemorrhagic infarction nor calcification was seen on CT or MRI. There could be longitudinally different T2 shortening patterns between infarcts due to moyamoya disease and other disorders. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Comparison between T2*- and T2-weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hideo; Ito, Hisao; Kubo, Atsushi.

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the merits of T2 * -weighted images in diagnosing rotator cuff tear, compared with T2-weighted images. T2- and T2 * -weighted images were obtained in 10 asymptomatic volunteers and 94 patients with symptoms referable to the rotator cuff. The increased signal with full thickness of the rotator cuff was not shown on either T2- or T2 * -weighted images in the volunteers. These findings on T2-weighted images and on T2 * -weighted images were observed in 33 and 58 of 94 patients with symptoms, respectively. Every patient who showed these abnormal findings on T2-weighted images had the abnormal findings on T2 * -weighted images. These findings on T2 * -weighted images were wider than those on T2-weighted images in 20 of 33 patients. Surgical findings were available in 21 of 94 patients. Rotator cuff tears were surgically confirmed in 20 patients whose MR images showed increased signal lesions on both T2- and T2 * -weighted images. On the other hand, one patient who did not have rotator cuff tear showed increased signal lesion with full thickness on T2 * -weighted images, but not on T2-weighted images. We think increased signal lesions on T2-weighted images may strongly suggest rotator cuff tear, whereas those on T2 * -weighted images are not specific. (author)

  2. T 2 mapping of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spijkerman, Jolanda M; Petersen, Esben T; Hendrikse, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    the performance of this method at 7 T and evaluated the influence of partial volume and B 1 and B 0 inhomogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T 2-preparation-based CSF T 2-mapping was performed in seven healthy volunteers at 7 and 3 T, and was compared with a single echo spin-echo sequence with various echo times......OBJECT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) T 2 mapping can potentially be used to investigate CSF composition. A previously proposed CSF T 2-mapping method reported a T 2 difference between peripheral and ventricular CSF, and suggested that this reflected different CSF compositions. We studied....... The influence of partial volume was assessed by our analyzing the longest echo times only. B 1 and B 0 maps were acquired. B 1 and B 0 dependency of the sequences was tested with a phantom. RESULTS: T 2,CSF was shorter at 7 T compared with 3 T. At 3 T, but not at 7 T, peripheral T 2,CSF was significantly...

  3. T2-prepared velocity selective labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra M A

    2016-01-01

    2-BIOS correlated with SO2-NIRS (R(2)=0.41, p=0.002) and SvO2-T2-TRIR (R(2)=0.87, p=0.002). In addition, SO2-NIRS correlated with SvO2-T2-TRIR (R(2)=0.85, p=0.003) Frontal cerebral blood flow correlated with SO2-T2-BIOS (R(2)=0.21, p=0.04), but was not significant in relation to SO2-NIRS. DISCUSSION...

  4. Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes-resistant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presa, Maximiliano; Ortiz, Angela Zarama; Garabatos, Nahir; Izquierdo, Cristina; Rivas, Elisa I; Teyton, Luc; Mora, Conchi; Serreze, David; Stratmann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) has been used as adjuvant to improve oral vaccine delivery in type 1 diabetes. The effect of CTB/peptide formulations on Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells has remained largely unexplored. Here, using tetramer analysis, we investigated how oral delivery of CTB fused to two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes, the BDC-2.5 T-cell 2.5 mi mimotope and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 286-300, affected diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. When administered i.p., CTB-2.5 mi activated 2.5 mi(+) T cells and following intragastric delivery generated Ag-specific Foxp3(+) Treg and Th2 cells. While 2.5 mi(+) and GAD-specific T cells were tolerized in diabetes-resistant NODxB6.Foxp3(EGFP) F1 and nonobese resistant (NOR) mice, this did not occur in NOD mice. This indicated that NOD mice had a recessive genetic resistance to induce oral tolerance to both CTB-fused epitopes. In contrast to NODxB6.Foxp3(EGFP) F1 mice, oral treatment in NOD mice lead to strong 2.5 mi(+) T-cell activation and the sequestration of these cells to the effector-memory pool. Oral treatment of NOD mice with CTB-2.5 mi failed to prevent diabetes. These findings underline the importance of investigating the effect of oral vaccine formulations on diabetogenic T cells as in selected cases they may have counterproductive consequences in human patients. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. T2*-weighted image/T2-weighted image fusion in postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yoshio, Kotaro

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion is considered to be the best method for postimplant dosimetry of permanent prostate brachytherapy; however, it is inconvenient and costly. In T2 * -weighted image (T2 * -WI), seeds can be easily detected without the use of an intravenous contrast material. We present a novel method for postimplant dosimetry using T2 * -WI/T2-weighted image (T2-WI) fusion. We compared the outcomes of T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Between April 2008 and July 2009, 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients underwent brachytherapy. All the patients were treated with 144 Gy of brachytherapy alone. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters (prostate D90, prostate V100, prostate V150, urethral D10, and rectal D2cc) were prospectively compared between T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based and CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry. All the DVH parameters estimated by T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry strongly correlated to those estimated by CT/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry (0.77≤ R ≤0.91). No significant difference was observed in these parameters between the two methods, except for prostate V150 (p=0.04). These results show that T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion-based dosimetry is comparable or superior to MRI-based dosimetry as previously reported, because no intravenous contrast material is required. For some patients, rather large differences were observed in the value between the 2 methods. We thought these large differences were a result of seed miscounts in T2 * -WI and shifts in fusion. Improving the image quality of T2 * -WI and the image acquisition speed of T2 * -WI and T2-WI may decrease seed miscounts and fusion shifts. Therefore, in the future, T2 * -WI/T2-WI fusion may be more useful for postimplant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy. (author)

  6. In vivo effects of T-2 mycotoxin on synthesis of proteins and DNA in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were given an ip injection of T-2 mycotoxin (T-2), the T-2 metabolite, T-2 tetraol (tetraol), or cycloheximide. Serum, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, muscle, and intestine were collected at 3, 6, and 9 hr postinjection after a 2-hr pulse at each time with [14C]leucine and [3H]thymidine. Protein and DNA synthesis levels in rats were determined by dual-label counting of the acid-precipitable fraction of tissue homogenates. Rats given a lethal dose of T-2, tetraol, or cycloheximide died between 14 and 20 hr. Maximum inhibition of protein synthesis at the earliest time period was observed in additional rats given the same lethal dose of the three treatments and continued for the duration of the study (9 hr). With sublethal doses of T-2 or tetraol, the same early decrease in protein synthesis was observed but, in most of the tissues, recovery was seen with time. In the T-2-treated rats. DNA synthesis in the six tissues studied was also suppressed, although to a lesser degree. With sublethal doses, complete recovery of DNA synthesis took place in four of the six tissues by 9 hr after toxin exposure. The appearance of newly translated serum proteins did not occur in the animals treated with T-2 mycotoxin or cycloheximide, as evidenced by total and PCA-soluble serum levels of labeled leucine. An increase in tissue-pool levels of free leucine and thymidine in response to T-2 mycotoxin was also noted. T-2 mycotoxin, its metabolite, T-2 tetraol, and cycloheximide cause a rapid inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis in all tissue types studied. These results are compared with the responses seen in in vitro studies

  7. T2 mapping in patellar chondromalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío; Almansa López, Julio; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María Del Mar

    2014-06-01

    To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16-45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet-proximal-lateral (EPL), external facet-proximal-central (EPC), internal facet-proximal-central (IPC), internal facet-proximal-medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet-middle-lateral (EML), external facet-middle-central (EMC), internal facet-middle-central (IMC), internal facet-middle-medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet-distal-lateral (EDL), external facet-distal-central (EDC), internal facet-distal-central (IDC), internal facet-distal-medial (IDM). T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (pchondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (pchondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the central area of the middle section, where T2 values remain increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaim, Olga Meiri; Sade, Youssef Bacila; Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael; Toma, Leny; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl Peter von; Nader, Helena B.; Sanches Veiga, Silvio

    2006-01-01

    Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from

  9. T-2 mycotoxin treatment of newborn rat pups does not significantly affect nervous system functions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, Petra; Béldi, Melinda; Kovács, Melinda; Világi, Ildikó

    2018-03-01

    T-2 toxin is primarily produced by Fusarium sp. abundant under temperate climatic conditions. Its main harmful effect is the inhibition of protein synthesis. Causing oxidative stress, it also promotes lipid peroxidation and changes plasma membrane phospholipid composition; this may lead to nervous system alterations. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a single dose of T-2 toxin administered at newborn age has any long-lasting effects on nervous system functions. Rat pups were treated on the first postnatal day with a single intraperitoneal dose of T-2 toxin (0.2 mg/bwkg). Body weight of treated pups was lower during the second and third week of life, compared to littermates; later, weight gain was recovered. At young adulthood, behavior was tested in the open field, and no difference was observed between treated and control rats. Field potential recordings from somatosensory cortex and hippocampus slices did not reveal any significant difference in neuronal network functions. In case of neocortical field EPSP, the shape was slightly different in treated pups. Long-term synaptic plasticity was also comparable in both groups. Seizure susceptibility of the slices was not different, either. In conclusion, T-2 toxin did not significantly affect basic nervous system functions at this dose.

  10. New results from T2K

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment situated in Japan. A high intensity neutrino beam is produced at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, in Tokai, Japan. In 2011, the collaboration announced the first indication of muon neutrino to electron neutrino transformation, which was then a new type of neutrino oscillation; now, with 3.5 times more data, this transformation is firmly established. This T2K observation is the first of its kind in that an explicit appearance of a unique flavor of neutrino at a detection point is unequivocally observed from a different flavor of neutrino at its production point. The T2K collaboration also reports a precision measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with an ooff-axis neutrino beam with a peak energy of 0.6 GeV. Near detector is used in both oscillation measurements to constrain the neutrino flux and cross section parameters.

  11. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, M C; Benavides, J; García-Pariente, C; Delgado, L; Fuertes, M; Muñoz, M; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V

    2013-02-01

    A flock of approximately 1,000 sheep were exposed intermittently to food contaminated with T-2 toxin (T-2), a potent type-A trichothecene mycotoxin produced primarily by Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae. In the acute stage of the intoxication, affected sheep developed anorexia, decreased water consumption, ruminal atony, soft faeces and apathy. One hundred and ninety of the exposed sheep died. The main gross lesions observed in animals dying during the acute disease were rumenitis and ulcerative abomasitis, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, necrosis of the exocrine pancreas, myocarditis and intense oedema of the skin and brain. Sheep developing the chronic stage of disease showed weight loss and reproductive inefficiency and the main pathological features observed in animals dying during this stage were gastrointestinal inflammation, myocardial fibrosis and necrotic and suppurative lesions in the oral cavity. Opportunistic infections (e.g. mycotic mastitis or parasitic pneumonia) were also identified in these animals. Increased serum concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were observed, most likely related to heart lesions. T-2 toxins were detected in all samples of the diet of these animals that were analyzed. The changes in the sheep reported here are similar to those described previously in experimental studies. Lesions observed in the present animals suggest an additional cardiotoxic effect of T-2 in sheep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. T2 mapping in patellar chondromalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío; Almansa López, Julio; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. Methods: This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16–45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5 T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet–proximal–lateral (EPL), external facet–proximal–central (EPC), internal facet–proximal–central (IPC), internal facet–proximal–medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet–middle–lateral (EML), external facet–middle–central (EMC), internal facet–middle–central (IMC), internal facet–middle–medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet–distal–lateral (EDL), external facet–distal–central (EDC), internal facet–distal–central (IDC), internal facet–distal–medial (IDM). Results: T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (p < 0.05), except in the internal distal facet (IDC and IDM), EPC, EDL, and IMM. Severe chondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Steepest increase in T2 values of patellar cartilage occurs in early stages of patellar cartilage degeneration. Progression of morphologic changes of chondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the

  13. T2 mapping in patellar chondromalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan12@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Traumatology Hospital, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocío [Department of Rehabilitation and Physical therapy, Traumatology Hospital, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain); Almansa López, Julio [Department of Physic, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain); Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, María del Mar [Department of Radiology, Traumatology Hospital, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: To study the correlation between the T2 relaxation times of the patellar cartilage and morphological MRI findings of chondromalacia. Methods: This prospective study comprises 50 patients, 27 men and 23 women suffering of anterior knee pain (mean age: 29.7, SD 8.3 years; range: 16–45 years). MRI of 97 knees were performed in these patients at 1.5 T magnet including sagittal T1, coronal intermediate, axial intermediate fat sat and T2 mapping. Chondromalacia was assessed using a modified version of Noyes classification. The relaxation time, T2, was studied segmenting the full thickness of the patellar cartilage in 12 areas: 4 proximal (external facet–proximal–lateral (EPL), external facet–proximal–central (EPC), internal facet–proximal–central (IPC), internal facet–proximal–medial (IPM), 4 in the middle section (external facet–middle–lateral (EML), external facet–middle–central (EMC), internal facet–middle–central (IMC), internal facet–middle–medial (IMM) and 4 distal (external facet–distal–lateral (EDL), external facet–distal–central (EDC), internal facet–distal–central (IDC), internal facet–distal–medial (IDM). Results: T2 values showed a significant increase in mild chondromalacia regarding normal cartilage in most of the cartilage areas (p < 0.05), except in the internal distal facet (IDC and IDM), EPC, EDL, and IMM. Severe chondromalacia was characterized by a fall of T2 relaxation times with loss of statistical significant differences in comparison with normal cartilage, except in EMC and IMC, where similar values as mild chondromalacia were maintained (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Steepest increase in T2 values of patellar cartilage occurs in early stages of patellar cartilage degeneration. Progression of morphologic changes of chondromalacia to more severe degrees is associated to a new drop of T2 relaxation times approaching basal values in most of the areas of the patellar cartilage, except in the

  14. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  15. Defense against Toxin Weapons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franz, David

    1998-01-01

    .... We typically fear what we do not understand. Although un- derstanding toxin poisoning is less useful in a toxin attack than knowledge of cold injury on an Arctic battlefield, information on any threat reduces its potential to harm...

  16. T2K neutrino flux prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2013-01-02

    The Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment studies neutrino oscillations using an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a peak energy of about 0.6 GeV that originates at the J-PARC accelerator facility. Interactions of the neutrinos are observed at near detectors placed at 280 m from the production target and at the far detector -- Super-Kamiokande (SK) -- located 295 km away. The flux prediction is an essential part of the successful prediction of neutrino interaction rates at the T2K detectors and is an important input to T2K neutrino oscillation and cross section measurements. A FLUKA and GEANT3 based simulation models the physical processes involved in the neutrino production, from the interaction of primary beam protons in the T2K target, to the decay of hadrons and muons that produce neutrinos. The simulation uses proton beam monitor measurements as inputs. The modeling of hadronic interactions is re-weighted using thin target hadron production data, including recent charged pion and kaon measurements from the NA...

  17. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  18. T2K Liquid Argon TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-09-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment since it would play an important part in reducing the systematics and improving the ultimate θ sensitivity. It would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique, providing in-situ R&D and paving the way for future large LAr detectors. Its main features are discussed in this talk.

  19. T2K Liquid Argon TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-01-01

    A 2 km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment since it would play an important part in reducing the systematics and improving the ultimate θ 13 sensitivity. It would also be an important milestone for the LAr TPC technique, providing in-situ R and D and paving the way for future large LAr detectors. Its main features are discussed in this talk

  20. New results from T2K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The T2K experiment is a 295-km long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan employing an off-axis muon neutrino beam with a 0.6 GeV peak energy. The beam, produced from 30-GeV protons at the J-PARC complex on the Pacific coast, is directed to the Super-Kamiokande detector. T2K released the first long-baseline measurement of a nonzero value for the θ13 mixing parameter through the observation of electron neutrino appearance (vµ → ve) and produced the most precise measurement of θ23 through the observation of muon neutrino disappearance (vµ → vµ). T2K data, in combination with reactor experiments, also excludes at 90% C.L. a significant region of the Dirac CP phase: δCP -0.49(-0.98) for the normal (inverted) hierarchy. A full joint appearance and disappearance fit including both neutrino (7×1020 protons on target, PoT) and anti-neutrino (4 × 1020 PoT) data and, for the first time, a constraint from water target data in the near detector, is presented yielding improved sensitivity on δCP and improved precision on sin2 2θ23 and the atmospheric mass splitting.

  1. Radiolabelling of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R.G.; Neves, Nicoli M.J. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Abdalla, L.F.; Brandao, R.L.; Etchehebehere, L. [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Lab. de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Microorganismos; Lima, M.E. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Nicoli, J.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Microbiologia

    1999-11-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to ganglioside receptors of enterocyte microvilli catalyzes the activation of adenylate cyclase causing a rise in cAMP which final result is a copious diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast has been used to prevent diarrhea. Although the antidiarrheic properties of S. boulardii are widely recognized, this yeast has been used on empirical basis, and the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The addition of cholera toxin to S. boulardii induces the raising of cAMP that triggers the activation of neutral trehalase. This suggests that toxin specifically binding to cells, is internalized and active the protein phosphorylation cascade. Our objective is labeling the cholera toxin to verify the presence of binding sites on yeast cell surfaces for the cholera toxin. Cholera toxin was radiolabelled with Na {sup 125} I by a chloramine-T method modified from Cuatrecasas and Griffiths et alii. The {sup 125} I-Cholera toxin showed a specific radioactivity at about 1000 cpm/fmol toxin. Biological activity of labeled cholera toxin measured by trehalase activation was similar to the native toxin. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: nevesmj at urano.cdtn.br

  2. Radiolabelling of cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.G.; Neves, Nicoli M.J.; Abdalla, L.F.; Brandao, R.L.; Etchehebehere, L.; Lima, M.E. de; Nicoli, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Binding of cholera toxin to ganglioside receptors of enterocyte microvilli catalyzes the activation of adenylate cyclase causing a rise in cAMP which final result is a copious diarrhea. Saccharomyces boulardii, a nonpathogenic yeast has been used to prevent diarrhea. Although the antidiarrheic properties of S. boulardii are widely recognized, this yeast has been used on empirical basis, and the mechanism of this protective effect is unknown. The addition of cholera toxin to S. boulardii induces the raising of cAMP that triggers the activation of neutral trehalase. This suggests that toxin specifically binding to cells, is internalized and active the protein phosphorylation cascade. Our objective is labeling the cholera toxin to verify the presence of binding sites on yeast cell surfaces for the cholera toxin. Cholera toxin was radiolabelled with Na 125 I by a chloramine-T method modified from Cuatrecasas and Griffiths et alii. The 125 I-Cholera toxin showed a specific radioactivity at about 1000 cpm/fmol toxin. Biological activity of labeled cholera toxin measured by trehalase activation was similar to the native toxin. (author)

  3. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  4. Comparative investigation on the effect of T-2 mycotoxin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in different poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mézes, M; Barta, M; Nagy, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of low dose T-2 toxin was investigated in chicken, duck and goose. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of T-2 toxin on the lipid peroxidation and on the activity of glutathione redox system (amount of reduced and oxidised glutathione and the activity of glutathione peroxidase) in blood and liver. The treatment lasted days and two samples were taken, first at the time of lowest feed intake and second when the intake was the same as the control. It was found, that lipid per oxidation as detected by the amount of malondialdehyde increased in all of the species and tissues but the changes varied by species. The most sensitive species was goose followed by duck and chicken, and the most sensitive tissue was the liver followed by blood plasma and red blood cells.

  5. Botulinum Toxin in Management of Limb Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Zakin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential tremor is characterized by persistent, usually bilateral and symmetric, postural or kinetic activation of agonist and antagonist muscles involving either the distal or proximal upper extremity. Quality of life is often affected and one’s ability to perform daily tasks becomes impaired. Oral therapies, including propranolol and primidone, can be effective in the management of essential tremor, although adverse effects can limit their use and about 50% of individuals lack response to oral pharmacotherapy. Locally administered botulinum toxin injection has become increasingly useful in the management of essential tremor. Targeting of select muscles with botulinum toxin is an area of active research, and muscle selection has important implications for toxin dosing and functional outcomes. The use of anatomical landmarks with palpation, EMG guidance, electrical stimulation, and ultrasound has been studied as a technique for muscle localization in toxin injection. Earlier studies implemented a standard protocol for the injection of (predominantly wrist flexors and extensors using palpation and EMG guidance. Targeting of muscles by selection of specific activators of tremor (tailored to each patient using kinematic analysis might allow for improvement in efficacy, including functional outcomes. It is this individualized muscle selection and toxin dosing (requiring injection within various sites of a single muscle that has allowed for success in the management of tremors.

  6. T2KLAr: a liquid Argon TPC for the T2K neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-01-01

    A 2km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment, especially because of its role in reducing the systematics. It would also be an important milestone for this technique paving the way for future applications. Its main features are explained in this talk

  7. T2KLAr: a liquid Argon TPC for the T2K neutrino experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meregaglia, Anselmo

    2006-05-01

    A 2km LAr detector would be an important asset for the T2K experiment, especially because of its role in reducing the systematics. It would also be an important milestone for this technique paving the way for future applications. Its main features are explained in this talk.

  8. Microalgal toxin(s): characteristics and importance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microalgae produce a wide array of compounds with biological activities. These include antibiotics, algicides, toxins, pharmaceutically active compounds and plant growth regulators. Toxic microalgae, in this sense, are common only among the cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The microalgal ...

  9. Three dimensional orbital magnetic resonance T2-mapping in the evaluation of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kai; Ai, Tao; Hu, Wei-Kun; Luo, Ban; Wu, Yi-Ping; Liu, Rong

    2017-12-01

    The clinical application of orbital magnetic resonance (MR) T2-mapping imaging in detecting the disease activity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), and the predictive values of therapy response to intravenous glucocorticoid (ivGC) were investigated. Approved by the local institutional review board (IRB), 106 consecutive patients with GO were included in this prospective study. All subjects were divided into two groups according to the patients' clinical activity score (CAS): the CAS positive group (CAS ≥3) or the CAS negative group (CAS T2 relaxation time of extraocular muscles (T2RT; ms) and the areas of four extra-ocular muscles (AEOMs; mm 2 ) were measured by 3D T2-mapping MR sequence before and after methylprednisolone treatment, so as the CAS and some ophthalmic examinations including visual acuity, intra-ocular pressure, eyeball movement, diplopia and proptosis. In addition, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The mean T2RT and AEOMs in CAS positive group were higher than those in CAS negative group. Both CAS positive and negative groups had significantly higher mean T2RT and AEOMs than the control group (Pevaluate the activity of GO, CAS was mostly related to inflammation symptoms of ocular surface, more than that, T2RT and AEOMs were also related to abnormal findings of the ophthalmic examinations including high ocular pressure, impaired eyeball movement, diplopia and proptosis. T2RT and AEOMs can reflex the inflammation state of ocular muscles better. CAS combined with 3D T2-mapping MR imaging could improve the sensitivity of detection of active GO so as the prediction and evaluation of the response to methylprednisolone treatment.

  10. Aphid Infestation Increases Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Mycotoxins in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulic, Jassy; Ajigboye, Olubukola; Swarup, Ranjan; Bruce, Toby

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium langsethiae is a fungal pathogen of cereal crops that is an increasing problem in northern Europe, but much of its epidemiology is poorly understood. The species produces the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2, which are highly toxic. It was hypothesized that grain aphids, Sitobion avenae, may transmit F. langsethiae inoculum between wheat plants, and a series of transmission experiments and volatile chemical analyses was performed to test this. Manual translocation of aphids from inoculated to uninfected hosts resulted in pathogen DNA accumulation in hosts. However, the free movement of wingless aphids from infected to healthy plants did not. The addition of winged aphids reared on F. langsethiae-inoculated wheat seedlings to wheat plants also did not achieve successful pathogen transfer. While our data suggested that aphid transmission of the pathogen was not very efficient, we observed an increase in disease when aphids were present. After seedling inoculation, an increase in pathogen DNA accumulation in seedling leaves was observed upon treatment with aphids. Furthermore, the presence of aphids on wheat plants with F. langsethiae-inoculated ears not only led to a rise in the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in infected grain but also to an increase in the concentrations of T-2 and HT-2 toxins, with more than 3-fold higher toxin levels than diseased plants without aphids. This work highlights that aphids increase the susceptibility of wheat host plants to F. langsethiae and that aphid infestation is a risk factor for accumulating increased levels of T-2 and HT-2 in wheat products. IMPORTANCE Fusarium langsethiae is shown here to cause increased contamination levels of grain with toxins produced by fungus when aphids share the host plant. This effect has also recently been demonstrated with Fusarium graminearum, yet the two fungal species show stark differences in their effect on aphid populations. In both cases, aphids improve the ability of the pathogens to

  11. Gaining insight into the T _2^*-T2 relationship in surface NMR free-induction decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grombacher, Denys; Auken, Esben

    2018-05-01

    One of the primary shortcomings of the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) free-induction decay (FID) measurement is the uncertainty surrounding which mechanism controls the signal's time dependence. Ideally, the FID-estimated relaxation time T_2^* that describes the signal's decay carries an intimate link to the geometry of the pore space. In this limit the parameter T_2^* is closely linked to a related parameter T2, which is more closely linked to pore-geometry. If T_2^* ˜eq {T_2} the FID can provide valuable insight into relative pore-size and can be used to make quantitative permeability estimates. However, given only FID measurements it is difficult to determine whether T_2^* is linked to pore geometry or whether it has been strongly influenced by background magnetic field inhomogeneity. If the link between an observed T_2^* and the underlying T2 could be further constrained the utility of the standard surface NMR FID measurement would be greatly improved. We hypothesize that an approach employing an updated surface NMR forward model that solves the full Bloch equations with appropriately weighted relaxation terms can be used to help constrain the T_2^*-T2 relationship. Weighting the relaxation terms requires estimating the poorly constrained parameters T2 and T1; to deal with this uncertainty we propose to conduct a parameter search involving multiple inversions that employ a suite of forward models each describing a distinct but plausible T_2^*-T2 relationship. We hypothesize that forward models given poor T2 estimates will produce poor data fits when using the complex-inversion, while forward models given reliable T2 estimates will produce satisfactory data fits. By examining the data fits produced by the suite of plausible forward models, the likely T_2^*-T2 can be constrained by identifying the range of T2 estimates that produce reliable data fits. Synthetic and field results are presented to investigate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  12. A randomized trial of upper limb botulimun toxin versus placebo injection, combined with physiotherapy, in children with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Adriano; Maoret, Anna Rosa; Muzzini, Simonetta; Alboresi, Silvia; Lombardi, Francesco; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Paolicelli, Paola Bruna; Sicola, Elisa; Cioni, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A), combined with an individualized intensive physiotherapy/orthoses treatment, in improving upper limb activity and competence in daily activity in children with hemiplegia, and to compare its effectiveness with that of non-pharmacological instruments. It was a Randomized Clinical Trial of 27 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy, outpatients of two high speciality Centres for child rehabilitation. Each child was assigned by simple randomization to experimental group (BoNT-A) or control group (placebo). Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was chosen as primary outcome measure; other measures were selected according to ICF dimensions. Participants were assessed at baseline (T0), at T1, T2, T3 (1-3-6 months after injection, respectively). Every patient was given a specific physiotherapeutic treatment, consisting of individualized goal directed exercises, task oriented activities, daily stretching manoeuvres, functional and/or static orthoses. BoNT-A group showed a significant increase of AHA raw scores at T2, compared to control group (T2-T0: p=.025) and functional goals achievement (GAS) was also slightly better in the same group (p=.033). Other measures indicated some improvement in both groups, without significant intergroup differences. Children with intermediate severity of hand function at House scale for upper limb impairment seem to have a better benefit from BoNT-A protocol. BoNT-A was effective in improving manipulation in the activity domain, in association with individualized goal-directed physiotherapy and orthoses; the combined treatment is recommended. The study brings more evidence for the efficacy of a combined treatment botulinum toxin injection-physiotherapy-orthoses, and it gives some suggestions for candidate selection and individualized treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental studies of confinement in the EXTRAP T2 and T2R reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecconello, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The confinement properties of fusion plasmas are affected by magnetic and electrostatic fluctuations. The determination of the plasma confinement properties requires the measurement of several global and local quantities such as the ion and electron temperatures, the electron and neutral density profiles, the radiation emissivity profiles, the ohmic input power and the particle and heat diffusivities. The focus of this thesis is the study of the plasma confinement properties based on measurements of these quantities under different experimental conditions. The studies have been carried out on the reversed field pinch experiments EXTRAP T2 and T2R at the Alfven Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Studies carried out in EXTRAP T2 were focused on dynamo activity and on the effect of phase alignment and locking to the wall of magnetic instabilities. These were observed with a dedicated imaging system. The experimental studies in EXTRAP T2R were focused on the measurement of the confinement properties of different configurations. To this aim, a set of diagnostics were used some of which were upgraded, such as the interferometer, while others were newly installed, such as a neutral particle energy analyser and a bolometer array. The dynamo, which is responsible for the plasma sustainment, involves resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that enhance stochastic transport. Furthermore, the plasma confinement properties are in general improved in the presence of mode rotation. The possibility of reducing the stochastic transport and thereby further improving the confinement has been demonstrated in a current profile control experiment. These results indicate that long pulse operations with a resistive shell and current profile control are indeed feasible

  14. Topical botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indications have been for the management of axillary hyperhydrosis and facial rhytides. Traditional methods of botulinum toxin delivery have been needle-based. These have been associated with increased pain and cost. Newer methods of botulinum toxin formulation have yielded topical preparations that are bioactive in small pilot clinical studies. While there are some risks associated with topical delivery, the refinement and standardization of delivery systems and techniques for the topical administration of botulinum toxin using nanotechnology is anticipated in the near future.

  15. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the contamination of Danish cereals and cereal products with Fusarium toxins is limited and the last survey is from 1984/1985. In the present study, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZON) was investigated in. our of common...... wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190. our samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all......)). Contents of NIV, HT-2 toxin and ZON in samples of wheat and rye were generally low, and even in positive samples the contents were close to the detection limit of the methods. The T-2 toxin was detected in only a few of the wheat samples and in low amounts. However, the toxin was found in about 50...

  16. RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibit hippocampal neuropathology and deficits in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkevicius, Kerstin W; Morrison, Thomas R; Kulkarni, Praveen; Cagliostro, Martha K Caffrey; Iriah, Sade; Malmberg, Samantha; Sabrick, Julia; Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Askew, Kim L; Trivedi, Malav; Ferris, Craig F

    2018-05-10

    RNASET2 deficiency in humans is associated with infant cystic leukoencephalopathy, which causes psychomotor impairment, spasticity, and epilepsy. A zebrafish mutant model suggests that loss of RNASET2 function leads to neurodegeneration due to the accumulation of non-degraded RNA in the lysosomes. The goal of this study was to characterize the first rodent model of RNASET2 deficiency. The brains of 3- and 12-month-old RNaseT2 knockout rats were studied using multiple magnetic resonance imaging modalities and behavioral tests. While T1 and T2 weighted images of RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited no evidence of cystic lesions, the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal complex were enlarged in knockout animals. Diffusion weighted imaging showed altered anisotropy and putative gray matter changes in the hippocampal complex of the RNaseT2 knockout rats. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed the presence of hippocampal neuroinflammation. Decreased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) and elevated acid phosphatase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities indicated that the RNASET2 knockout rats likely had altered lysosomal function and potential defects in autophagy. Object recognition tests confirmed the RNaseT2 knockout rats exhibited memory deficits. However, the Barnes maze, and balance beam and rotarod tests, indicated there were no differences in spatial memory or motor impairments, respectively. Overall, patients with RNASET2 deficiency exhibited a more severe neurodegeneration phenotype than was observed in the RNaseT2 knockout rats. However, the vulnerability of the knockout rat hippocampus as evidenced by neuroinflammation, altered lysosomal function, and cognitive defects indicates this is still a useful in vivo model to study RNASET2 function. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Upregulation of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/Gb3 and interleukin-1β expression in the brain of EHEC patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurologic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Christian; Krasemann, Susanne; Löffler, Judith; Püschel, Klaus; Magnus, Tim; Glatzel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections occurred in northern Germany, which mainly affected adults. Out of 3842 patients, 104 experienced a complicated course comprising hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurological complications, including cognitive impairment, aphasia, seizures and coma. T2 hyperintensities on magnet resonance imaging (MRI) bilateral in the thalami and in the dorsal pons were found suggestive of a metabolic toxic effect. Five of the 104 patients died because of toxic heart failure. In the present study, the post-mortem neuropathological findings of the five EHEC patients are described. Histological investigation of 13 brain regions (frontal, temporal, occipital cortex, corpora mammillaria, thalamus, frontal operculum, corona radiata, gyrus angularis, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemisphere) showed no thrombosis, ischemic changes or fresh infarctions. Further, no changes were found in electron microscopy. In comparison with five age-matched controls, slightly increased activation of microglia and a higher neuronal expression of interleukin-1β and of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/globotriaosylceramide 3 was observed. The findings were confirmed by Western blot analyses. It is suggested that CD77/globotriaosylceramide upregulation may be a consequence to Shiga toxin exposure, whereas increased interleukin-1β expression may point to activation of inflammatory cascades. © 2014 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. MRI T2 relaxometry of brain regions and cognitive dysfunction following electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kunigiri, Girish; Jayakumar, P. N.; Janakiramaiah, N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) causes no structural brain damage, recent studies reported altered brain perfusion acutely following ECT. This is in keeping with brain edema which was noted in animal experiments following electroconvulsive shock. Aim: This study examined alteration in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 relaxation time, a measure of brain edema, and its relation to therapeutic efficacy, orientation and memory impairment with ECT. Materials and Methods: Fi...

  19. ACTION OF DIPHTHERIA TOXIN IN THE GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseman, Joel B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.; Gill, D. M.; Harper, Annabel A.

    1970-01-01

    The blood clearance and distribution in the tissues of 125I after intravenous injection of small doses (1.5–5 MLD or 0.08–0.25 µg) of 125I-labeled diphtheria toxin has been followed in guinea pigs and rabbits and compared with the fate of equivalent amounts of injected 125I-labeled toxoid and bovine serum albumin. Toxoid disappeared most rapidly from the blood stream and label accumulated and was retained in liver, spleen, and especially in kidney. Both toxin and BSA behaved differently. Label was found widely distributed among all the organs except the nervous system and its rate of disappearance from the tissues paralleled its disappearance from the circulation. There was no evidence for any particular affinity of toxin for muscle tissue or for a "target" organ. Previous reports by others that toxin causes specific and selective impairment of protein synthesis in muscle tissue were not confirmed. On the contrary, both in guinea pigs and rabbits, a reduced rate of protein synthesis was observed in all tissues that had taken up the toxin label. In tissues removed from intoxicated animals of both species there was an associated reduction in aminoacyl transferase 2 content. It is concluded that the primary action of diphtheria toxin in the living animal is to effect the inactivation of aminoacyl transferase 2. The resulting inhibition in rate of protein synthesis leads to morphologic damage in all tissues reached by the toxin and ultimately to death of the animal. PMID:5511567

  20. Marine and freshwater toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, James M

    2006-01-01

    In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods

  1. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  2. Magnetic properties of Np2T2Sn compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.P.; Colineau, E.; Jeandey, C.; Oddou, J.L.; Rebizant, J.; Seret, A.; Spirlet, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the Np 2 T 2 Sn series investigated by 237 Np Moessbauer spectroscopy are reported. Magnetic ordering is shown to occur for T = Ni, Pd, Pt, whereas the Np ions do not carry a local moment when T = Co, Ru, Rh. Comparison is made with the corresponding Np 2 T 2 In and U 2 T 2 Sn compounds. (authors). 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Effects of repetitive freeze–thawing cycles on T2 and T2* of the Achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y., E-mail: ericchangmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Bae, Won C., E-mail: wbae@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Statum, Sheronda, E-mail: sherondastatum@msn.com [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Du, Jiang, E-mail: jiangdu@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Chung, Christine B., E-mail: cbchung@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, 200 West Arbor St., San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Department of Radiology, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: In this study we sought to evaluate the effects of multiple freezing and thawing cycles on two MR parameters to study Achilles tendon, T2 and T2*. Materials and methods: Four fresh Achilles tendons were imaged on a 3T clinical scanner and again after 1, 2, 4, and 5 freeze–thaw cycles with spin-echo (SE) and ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences. Regions of interest were manually drawn over the entire Achilles tendon and mono-exponential curves were used to determine T2 and T2* relaxation times. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2 or T2* values between the fresh specimens and after subsequent cycles of freeze–thaw treatment (p > 0.1). Linear regression between SE T2 values at baseline and after successive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrated moderate agreement (r = 0.60) whereas UTE T2* values at baseline and after successive-freeze thaw cycles demonstrated strong agreement (r = 0.92). Conclusion: These findings suggest that changes between specimens seen in vitro are due to factors other than frozen storage. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is stronger agreement between baseline (fresh) and successive freeze–thaw T2* values of tendon obtained with the UTE technique in comparison to T2 values obtained with a conventional clinical CPMG technique.

  4. Effects of repetitive freeze–thawing cycles on T2 and T2* of the Achilles tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Bae, Won C.; Statum, Sheronda; Du, Jiang; Chung, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we sought to evaluate the effects of multiple freezing and thawing cycles on two MR parameters to study Achilles tendon, T2 and T2*. Materials and methods: Four fresh Achilles tendons were imaged on a 3T clinical scanner and again after 1, 2, 4, and 5 freeze–thaw cycles with spin-echo (SE) and ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences. Regions of interest were manually drawn over the entire Achilles tendon and mono-exponential curves were used to determine T2 and T2* relaxation times. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean T2 or T2* values between the fresh specimens and after subsequent cycles of freeze–thaw treatment (p > 0.1). Linear regression between SE T2 values at baseline and after successive freeze–thaw cycles demonstrated moderate agreement (r = 0.60) whereas UTE T2* values at baseline and after successive-freeze thaw cycles demonstrated strong agreement (r = 0.92). Conclusion: These findings suggest that changes between specimens seen in vitro are due to factors other than frozen storage. Furthermore, our results suggest that there is stronger agreement between baseline (fresh) and successive freeze–thaw T2* values of tendon obtained with the UTE technique in comparison to T2 values obtained with a conventional clinical CPMG technique

  5. Heavy neutrino mixing in the T2HK, the T2HKK and an extension of the T2HK with a detector at Oki Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yugo; Asano, Yusuke; Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    We study the discovery potential for the mixing of heavy isospin-singlet neutrinos in extensions of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK), the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea (T2HKK) with a Korea detector with ≅ 1000 km baseline length and 1 circle off-axis angle, and a plan of adding a small detector at Oki Islands to the T2HK. We further pursue the possibility of measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy and the standard CP-violating phase δ CP in the presence of heavy neutrino mixing by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only. We show that the sensitivity to heavy neutrino mixing is highly dependent on δ CP and new CP-violating phases in the heavy neutrino mixing matrix, and deteriorates considerably when these phases conspire to suppress interference between the standard oscillation amplitude and an amplitude arising from heavy neutrino mixing, at the first oscillation peak. Although this suppression is avoided by the use of a beam with smaller off-axis angle, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector do not show improvement over the T2HK. As for the mass hierarchy measurement, the wrong mass hierarchy is possibly favored in the T2HK because heavy neutrino mixing can mimic matter effects. In contrast, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector are capable of correctly measuring the mass hierarchy despite heavy neutrino mixing, as measurements with different baselines resolve degeneracy between heavy neutrino mixing and matter effects. Notably, adding a small detector at Oki to the T2HK drastically ameliorates the sensitivity, which is the central appeal of this paper. As for the δ CP measurement, there can be a sizable discrepancy between the true δ CP and the value obtained by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only, which can be comparable to 1σ resolution of the δ CP measurement. Hence, if a hint of heavy neutrino mixing is discovered, it is necessary to incorporate the effects

  6. Heavy neutrino mixing in the T2HK, the T2HKK and an extension of the T2HK with a detector at Oki Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yugo [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan); Miyakonojo College, National Institute of Technology, Miyakonojo-shi Miyazaki (Japan); Asano, Yusuke; Haba, Naoyuki; Yamada, Toshifumi [Shimane University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Matsue (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    We study the discovery potential for the mixing of heavy isospin-singlet neutrinos in extensions of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment, the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande (T2HK), the Tokai-to-Hyper-Kamiokande-to-Korea (T2HKK) with a Korea detector with ≅ 1000 km baseline length and 1 {sup circle} off-axis angle, and a plan of adding a small detector at Oki Islands to the T2HK. We further pursue the possibility of measuring the neutrino mass hierarchy and the standard CP-violating phase δ{sub CP} in the presence of heavy neutrino mixing by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only. We show that the sensitivity to heavy neutrino mixing is highly dependent on δ{sub CP} and new CP-violating phases in the heavy neutrino mixing matrix, and deteriorates considerably when these phases conspire to suppress interference between the standard oscillation amplitude and an amplitude arising from heavy neutrino mixing, at the first oscillation peak. Although this suppression is avoided by the use of a beam with smaller off-axis angle, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector do not show improvement over the T2HK. As for the mass hierarchy measurement, the wrong mass hierarchy is possibly favored in the T2HK because heavy neutrino mixing can mimic matter effects. In contrast, the T2HKK and the T2HK+small Oki detector are capable of correctly measuring the mass hierarchy despite heavy neutrino mixing, as measurements with different baselines resolve degeneracy between heavy neutrino mixing and matter effects. Notably, adding a small detector at Oki to the T2HK drastically ameliorates the sensitivity, which is the central appeal of this paper. As for the δ{sub CP} measurement, there can be a sizable discrepancy between the true δ{sub CP} and the value obtained by fitting data with the standard oscillation parameters only, which can be comparable to 1σ resolution of the δ{sub CP} measurement. Hence, if a hint of heavy neutrino mixing is discovered, it is

  7. Correlation between T2 relaxation time and intervertebral disk degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hiroyuki; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Ida, Kazunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Magnetic resonance T2 mapping allows for the quantification of water and proteoglycan content within tissues and can be used to detect early cartilage abnormalities as well as to track the response to therapy. The goal of the present study was to use T2 mapping to quantify intervertebral disk water content according to the Pfirrmann classification. This study involved 60 subjects who underwent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (a total of 300 lumbar disks). The degree of disk degeneration was assessed in the midsagittal section on T2-weighted images according to the Pfirrmann classification (grades I to V). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed among grades to determine the cut-off values. In the nucleus pulposus, T2 values tended to decrease with increasing grade, and there was a significant difference in T2 values between each grade from grades I to IV. However, there was no significant difference in T2 values in the anterior or posterior annulus fibrosus. T2 values according to disk degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>116.8 ms), grade II (92.7-116.7 ms), grade III (72.1-92.6 ms), grade IV (<72.0 ms). T2 values decreased with increasing Pfirrmann classification grade in the nucleus pulposus, likely reflecting a decrease in proteoglycan and water content. Thus, T2 value-based measurements of intervertebral disk water content may be useful for future clinical research on degenerative disk diseases. (orig.)

  8. The evaluation of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 for patients with acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Gyu; Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Myung Joon; Kang, Ik Won; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 for patients with mild acute trauma of the spine. Between July 1998 and June 2002, 36 patients with acute spinal trauma underwent MRI within four months of injury. One, whose clinal symptoms indicated neurological paralysis, was excluded form our study. A superconductive 1.0-T MRI scanner was used, and conventional T1W1, T2W1, and additional fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 were performed. Two radiologists compared conventional T2-weighted sagittal imaging and fat-saturation T2-weighted sagittal imaging in terms of the extension of increased high signal intensities in soft tissue and vertebral bodies, bone marrow signal change, disk herniation, and signal change of the disk. The detection rate of focal high signal intensities in soft tissue and bone marrow was significantly higher at fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 than at conventional T2W1. Fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 is useful for the evaluation of patients with mild acute spinal trauma without neurological impairment

  9. Botulinum toxin: yesterday, today, tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Artemenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin (BoNT is a bacterial neurotoxin presented with seven serotypes that inhibit neurotransmitter release from nerve endings. The serotypes of BoNT are antigenically dissimilar, act via different, but interconnected mechanisms, and are not interchangeable. The activity of BoNT is associated with impaired neuroexocytosis occurring in several steps: from the binding of BoNT to its specific receptor on the axon terminal membrane to the proteolytic enzymatic cleavage of SNARE substrate. The effect of BoNT is considered to be restricted to the peripheral nervous system, but when given in particularly high doses, it has been recently shown to affect individual brain structures. In addition, by modulating peripheral afferentation, BoNT may influence the excitability of central neuronal structures at both spinal and cortical levels. Only BoNT serotypes A and B are used in clinical practice and aesthetic medicine. The type A has gained the widest acceptance as a therapeutic agent for more than 100 abnormalities manifesting themselves as muscular hyperactivity, hyperfunction of endocrine gland, and chronic pain. The effect of BoNT preparations shows itself 2-5 days after injection, lasts 3 months or more, and gradually decreases with as a result of pharmacokinetic and intracellular reparative processes. Biotechnology advances and potentialities allow purposefully modification of the protein molecular structure of BoNT, which expands the use and efficiency of performed therapy with neurotoxins. Recombinant technologies provide a combination of major therapeutic properties of each used BoNT serotype and expand indications for recombinant chimeric toxins.

  10. Headache and botulinum toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, M.; Camerlingo, M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss clinical and international experience about botulinum toxins (BTX types A and B) in headache treatment. Data from literature suggest good results for the treatment of tensiontype headache, migraine and chronic tension–type headache. In the present paper mechanisms of action and injection sites will also be discussed.

  11. Botulinum Toxin for Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Cengiz; Ismi, Onur

    2016-08-01

    Rhinitis is a common clinical entity. Besides nasal obstruction, itching, and sneezing, one of the most important symptoms of rhinitis is nasal hypersecretion produced by nasal glands and exudate from the nasal vascular bed. Allergic rhinitis is an IgE-mediated inflammatory reaction of nasal mucosa after exposure to environmental allergens. Idiopathic rhinitis describes rhinitis symptoms that occur after non-allergic, noninfectious irritants. Specific allergen avoidance, topical nasal decongestants, nasal corticosteroids, immunotherapy, and sinonasal surgery are the main treatment options. Because the current treatment modalities are not enough for reducing rhinorrhea in some patients, novel treatment options are required to solve this problem. Botulinum toxin is an exotoxin generated by Clostridium botulinum. It disturbs the signal transmission at the neuromuscular and neuroglandular junction by inhibiting the acetylcholine release from the presynaptic nerve terminal. It has been widely used in neuromuscular, hypersecretory, and autonomic nerve system disorders. There have been a lot of published articles concerning the effect of this toxin on rhinitis symptoms. Based on the results of these reports, intranasal botulinum toxin A administration appears to be a safe and effective treatment method for decreasing rhinitis symptoms in rhinitis patients with a long-lasting effect. Botulinum toxin type A will be a good treatment option for the chronic rhinitis patients who are resistant to other treatment methods.

  12. Diffusion of Botulinum Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Brodsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is generally agreed that diffusion of botulinum toxin occurs, but the extent of the spread and its clinical importance are disputed. Many factors have been suggested to play a role but which have the most clinical relevance is a subject of much discussion.Methods: This review discusses the variables affecting diffusion, including protein composition and molecular size as well as injection factors (e.g., volume, dose, injection method. It also discusses data on diffusion from comparative studies in animal models and human clinical trials that illustrate differences between the available botulinum toxin products (onabotulinumtoxinA, abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, and rimabotulinumtoxinB.Results: Neither molecular weight nor the presence of complexing proteins appears to affect diffusion; however, injection volume, concentration, and dose all play roles and are modifiable. Both animal and human studies show that botulinum toxin products are not interchangeable, and that some products are associated with greater diffusion and higher rates of diffusion-related adverse events than others.Discussion: Each of the botulinum toxins is a unique pharmacologic entity. A working knowledge of the different serotypes is essential to avoid unwanted diffusion-related adverse events. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the factors influencing diffusion may range from properties intrinsic to the drug to accurate muscle selection as well as dilution, volume, and dose injected.

  13. Topical Botulinum Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Ashley; Nasir, Adnan

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline that capitalizes on the unique properties of matter engineered on the nanoscale. Vehicles incorporating nanotechnology have led to great strides in drug delivery, allowing for increased active ingredient stability, bioavailability, and site-specific targeting. Botulinum toxin has historically been used for the correction of neurological and neuromuscular disorders, such as torticollis, blepharospasm, and strabismus. Recent dermatological indicati...

  14. Rapid Evaluation of Platelet Function With T2 Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuker, Adam; Husseinzadeh, Holleh; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Marturano, Joseph E.; Massefski, Walter; Lowery, Thomas J.; Lambert, Michele P.; Abrams, Charles S.; Weisel, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical diagnosis of qualitative platelet disorders (QPDs) based on light transmission aggregometry (LTA) requires significant blood volume, time, and expertise, all of which can be barriers to utilization in some populations and settings. Our objective was to develop a more rapid assay of platelet function by measuring platelet-mediated clot contraction in small volumes (35 µL) of whole blood using T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). Methods: We established normal ranges for platelet-mediated clot contraction using T2MR, used these ranges to study patients with known platelet dysfunction, and then evaluated agreement between T2MR and LTA with arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor activator peptide. Results: Blood from 21 healthy donors was studied. T2MR showed 100% agreement with LTA with each of the four agonists and their cognate inhibitors tested. T2MR successfully detected abnormalities in each of seven patients with known QPDs, with the exception of one patient with a novel mutation leading to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. T2MR appeared to detect platelet function at similar or lower platelet counts than LTA. Conclusions: T2MR may provide a clinically useful approach to diagnose QPDs using small volumes of whole blood, while also providing new insight into platelet biology not evident using plasma-based platelet aggregation tests. PMID:28028118

  15. Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology : T-2 : LANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    linked in Search T-2, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology T-2 Home T Division Focus Areas Nuclear Information Service Nuclear Physics Particle Physics Astrophysics Cosmology CONTACTS Group fundamental and applied theoretical research in applied and fundamental nuclear physics, particle physics

  16. Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Shen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6, which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins.

  17. 7 Tesla quantitative hip MRI: T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik, Andrea; Theysohn, Jens M.; Geis, Christina [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Johst, Soeren; Kraff, Oliver [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and applicability of quantitative MR techniques (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), T2 mapping, T2* mapping) at 7 T MRI for assessing hip cartilage. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T MRI with an 8-channel radiofrequency transmit/receive body coil using multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping and a dual flip angle gradient-echo sequence before (T1{sub 0}) and after intravenous contrast agent administration (T1{sub Gd}; 0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA{sup 2-} followed by 0.5 h of walking and 0.5 h of rest) for dGEMRIC. Relaxation times of cartilage were measured manually in 10 regions of interest. Pearson's correlations between R1{sub delta} = 1/T1{sub Gd} - 1/T1{sub 0} and T1{sub Gd} and between T2 and T2* were calculated. Image quality and the delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage in the relaxation time maps were evaluated using discrete rating scales. High correlations were found between R1{sub delta} and T1{sub Gd} and between T2 and T2* relaxation times (all p < 0.01). All techniques delivered diagnostic image quality, with best delineation of femoral and acetabular cartilage in the T2* maps (mean 3.2 out of a maximum of 4 points). T1, T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage with diagnostic image quality is feasible at 7 T. To perform dGEMRIC at 7 T, pre-contrast T1 mapping can be omitted. (orig.)

  18. Botulinum toxin treatment for facial palsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lilli; Lui, Michael; Nduka, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Facial palsy may be complicated by ipsilateral synkinesis or contralateral hyperkinesis. Botulinum toxin is increasingly used in the management of facial palsy; however, the optimum dose, treatment interval, adjunct therapy and performance as compared with alternative treatments have not been well established. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence for the use of botulinum toxin in facial palsy. The Cochrane central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE(R) (1946 to September 2015) and Embase Classic + Embase (1947 to September 2015) were searched for randomised studies using botulinum toxin in facial palsy. Forty-seven studies were identified, and three included. Their physical and patient-reported outcomes are described, and observations and cautions are discussed. Facial asymmetry has a strong correlation to subjective domains such as impairment in social interaction and perception of self-image and appearance. Botulinum toxin injections represent a minimally invasive technique that is helpful in restoring facial symmetry at rest and during movement in chronic, and potentially acute, facial palsy. Botulinum toxin in combination with physical therapy may be particularly helpful. Currently, there is a paucity of data; areas for further research are suggested. A strong body of evidence may allow botulinum toxin treatment to be nationally standardised and recommended in the management of facial palsy. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutrino Oscillation Experiments with J-PARC: T2K, T2K-II and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The T2K experiment started the operation in 2010, and advances neutrino physics with the discovery of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam and precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters. In 2016, the measurements of anti-neutrino oscillation directly constrain CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this colloquium, we introduce many physics results from T2K including the most recent one of the CP violation. By utilizing the J-PARC neutrino beam, the upgrade of the T2K experiment (naming T2K-II) is planned and Hyper-Kamiokande is proposed to explore neutrino physics further. In T2K-II, the beam power of J-PARC will be upgraded to 1.3 MW around 2020. Hyper-Kamiokande is the larger Water Cherenkov detector of 520 k...

  20. Multicomponent T2 relaxation studies of the avian egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Mulkern, Robert V; Maier, Stephan E

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the tissue-like multiexponential T2 signal decays in avian eggs. Transverse relaxation studies of raw, soft-boiled and hard-boiled eggs were performed at 3 Tesla using a three-dimensional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill imaging sequence. Signal decays over a TE range of 11 to 354 ms were fitted assuming single- and multicomponent signal decays with up to three separately decaying components. Fat saturation was used to facilitate spectral assignment of observed decay components. Egg white, yolk and the centrally located latebra all demonstrate nonmonoexponential T2 decays. Specifically, egg white exhibits two-component decays with intermediate and long T2 times. Meanwhile, yolk and latebra are generally best characterized with triexponential decays, with short, intermediate and very long T2 decay times. Fat saturation revealed that the intermediate component of yolk could be attributed to lipids. Cooking of the egg profoundly altered the decay curves. Avian egg T2 decay curves cover a wide range of decay times. Observed T2 components in yolk and latebra as short as 10 ms, may prove valuable for testing clinical sequences designed to measure short T2 components, such as myelin-associated water in the brain. Thus we propose that the egg can be a versatile and widely available MR transverse relaxation phantom. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. GRIN: "GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial": study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachel E; Johnston, Leanne M; Boyd, Roslyn N; Sakzewski, Leanne; Kentish, Megan J

    2014-02-07

    Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child's occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised comparison trial comparing group versus

  3. Disability in progressive MS is associated with T2 lesion changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn; Lyksborg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by diffuse changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which complicates the use of MRI as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. The relationship between MRI measures (conventional and non-conventional) and clinical disability...... in progressive MS therefore warrants further investigation. Objective: To investigate the relationship between clinical disability and MRI measures in patients with progressive MS. Methods: Data from 93 primary and secondary progressive MS patients who had participated in 3 phase 2 clinical trials were included...... matter. Disability was assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the MS functional composite. Results: T2 lesion volume was associated with impairment by all clinical measures. MD and MTR in T2 lesions were significantly related to disability, and lower FA values correlated with worse...

  4. Clinical and pathomorphological diagnostics of mycotoxicosis in parent poultry flock caused by T-2 trychotecene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapetanov Miloš C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most relevant mycotoxin from the trychotecene group, T-2, causes prominent citotoxic effects. The toxin is a secondary product of fungi from the genus Fusarium that contaminates feed. Oraly intaken, T-2 is absorbed fast in the upper digestive system and within only 3 to 4 hours later reaches liver, kidneys and muscle tissue. Clinical and pathological changes are sometimes not obvious. The case of mycotoxicosis in a breeder flock of chickens, here presented, is aimed to underline the significance of clinical and pathological diagnosis supported with laboratory analysis that gave an objective causative diagnosis. On the farm, the disease occurred suddenly and with total cessation of feed consumption. First cases were recorded in the flock at the age of 42 weeks. Grouping, intensive breathing and lying with overstretched legs and extended neck were symptoms observed in birds. Evident necrosis of beak tips and painful multi-focal necrosis in oral cavity were recorded during the clinical examination. On section, dark unclothed blood was first observed. Other postmortem findings included: filled gizzard with mucosal erosions and easy-removable cuticle, enlarged congested liver with multi-focal necrosis and subcapsulary bleeding. The mortality rate increased by 4%, and the drop of laying rate was by about 18%. The fertility rate decreased by 22%. There was the increased number of rejected hatching eggs, 12%. Culture of the complete diet resulted in approximately 150000 colonies per 1g of Fusarium. T-2 was detected by using ELISA in concentration of 480 μg/kg, which corresponded to the upper limit of maximum permitted concentrations for chickens, according to national legislations. This bylaw interpretation of “tolerable” concentrations of mycotoxins provokes controversy among experts and public. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31071

  5. T2 relaxometry of ring lesions of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, P.N.; Srikanth, S.G.; Chandrashekar, H.S.; Subbakrishna, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To differentiate two common aetiologies of 'ring lesions,' tuberculomas and cysticercal cysts, using T2 relaxometry. Materials and methods: Fifty-five ring-enhancing lesions of the brain (32 cysticercal cysts; 23 tuberculomas) in 27 patients with focal seizures were studied for T2 relaxation times. Results: The mean T2 relaxation times of cysticercal cysts was 617 ms (range 305-1365 ms; SD 272.2) and that of tuberculomas 161 ms (range 83-290 ms; SD 60.3; 95% confidence). Conclusion: T2 relaxometry is a simple, reliable and valuable non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to differentiate between intracranial cysticercal cysts and tuberculomas, and may be incorporated in routine diagnostic protocols

  6. T2 Relaxometry MRI Predicts Cerebral Palsy in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-W; Wang, S-T; Huang, C-C; Tu, Y-F; Tsai, Y-S

    2018-01-18

    T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging enables objective measurement of brain maturation based on the water-macromolecule ratio in white matter, but the outcome correlation is not established in preterm infants. Our study aimed to predict neurodevelopment with T2-relaxation values of brain MR imaging among preterm infants. From January 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015, preterm infants who underwent both T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging and neurodevelopmental follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. T2-relaxation values were measured over the periventricular white matter, including sections through the frontal horns, midbody of the lateral ventricles, and centrum semiovale. Periventricular T2 relaxometry in relation to corrected age was analyzed with restricted cubic spline regression. Prediction of cerebral palsy was examined with the receiver operating characteristic curve. Thirty-eight preterm infants were enrolled for analysis. Twenty patients (52.6%) had neurodevelopmental abnormalities, including 8 (21%) with developmental delay without cerebral palsy and 12 (31.6%) with cerebral palsy. The periventricular T2-relaxation values in relation to age were curvilinear in preterm infants with normal development, linear in those with developmental delay without cerebral palsy, and flat in those with cerebral palsy. When MR imaging was performed at >1 month corrected age, cerebral palsy could be predicted with T2 relaxometry of the periventricular white matter on sections through the midbody of the lateral ventricles (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.738; cutoff value of >217.4 with 63.6% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity). T2-relaxometry brain MR imaging could provide prognostic prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in premature infants. Age-dependent and area-selective interpretation in preterm brains should be emphasized. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Proteasome modulator 9 and macrovascular pathology of T2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gragnoli Claudia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Coronary artery disease (CAD and stroke share a major linkage at the chromosome 12q24 locus. The same chromosome region entails at least a major risk gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D within NIDDM2, the non-insulin-dependent-diabetes 2 locus. The gene of Proteasome Modulator 9 (PSMD9 lies in the NIDDM2 region and is implicated in diabetes in mice. PSMD9 mutations rarely cause T2D and common variants are linked to both late-onset T2D and maturity-onset-diabetes of the young (MODY3. In this study, we aimed at determining whether PSMD9 is linked to macrovascular pathology of T2D. Methods and Results In our 200 T2D families from Italy, we characterized the clinical phenotype of macrovascular pathology by defining the subjects for presence or absence of CAD, stroke and/or transitory ischemic attacks (TIA, plaques of the large arterial vessels (macro-vasculopathy and arterial angioplasty performance. We then screened 200 T2D siblings/families for PSMD9 +nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and performed a non-parametric linkage study to test for linkage for coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, macro-vasculopathy and macrovascular pathology of T2D. We performed 1,000 replicates to test the power of our significant results. Our results show a consistent significant LOD score in linkage with all the above-mentioned phenotypes. Our 1000 simulation analyses, performed for each single test, confirm that the results are not due to random chance. Conclusions In summary, the PSMD9 IVS3+nt460A/G, +nt437C/T and exon E197G A/G SNPs are linked to CAD, stroke/TIA and macrovascular pathology of T2D in Italians.

  8. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  9. T2 laryngeal cancer study in our department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenoya, Yoichi; Shimane, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Sei

    2011-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck region. Because early detection and treatment are possible, outcomes are relatively good. Many studies have reported on the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Different hospitals have used generally similar treatment regimens. However, factors such as laryngeal preservation and the treatment of choice for patients with T2 laryngeal cancer still differ among hospitals. Survival rates can be increased depending on treatment, sometimes at the cost of losing voice functions that could have been preserved. In our department, we have emphasized curative treatment and the preservation of organs and functions. We have mainly used chemoradiotherapy concurrently with S-1 and nedaplatin for the treatment of T2 laryngeal cancer. We studied 27 patients (23 men and 4 women) with T2 laryngeal cancer, who received first-line therapy in our department from April 2005 through March 2010. Their mean age was 64.1 years (range, 42 to 80). The mean follow-up period was 30.6 months (range, 2 to 60 months). The tumor-node-metastasis classification was T2N0M0 in 24 patients, T2N1M0 in 1, and T2N2bM0 in 2.In our department, the disease-specific survival rate was 96.3%. The complete response rate was 88.9%, and the laryngeal preservation rate was 92.6%. (author)

  10. Intracellular lipid in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC): T2 weighted (T2W) MRI and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieda, Nicola; Van der Pol, Christian B.; Moosavi, Bardia; McInnes, Matthew D.F. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mai, Kien T.; Flood, Trevor A. [The Ottawa Hospital, The University of Ottawa, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate if pRCCs demonstrate intracellular lipid (i-lipid) at chemical-shift (CS) MRI, and assess T2W-MRI and pathologic characteristics. Sixty-two patients with a pRCC diagnosis underwent MRI over 11 years (IRB-approved). Two radiologists independently assessed for presence of i-lipid on CS-MRI and homogeneity on T2W-MRI. Inter-observer agreement was assessed via an intraclass correlation and results were compared using the Chi-square test. Discordant cases were reviewed to establish consensus. T2W SI-ratios (SI.tumor/SI.kidney) and CS-SI index were compared using independent t-tests and Spearman correlation. Two pathologists re-evaluated the histopathology. Nine of the 62 pRCCs (14.5 %) demonstrated i-lipid; agreement was moderate (ICC = 0.63). Pathology review depicted clear cells in four tumours and foamy histiocytes in five tumours. 25.8-35.4 % (ICC = 0.65) of tumours were homogeneous on T2W-MRI. No pRCC with i-lipid was considered homogeneous (p = 0.01-0.04). Overall, T2W SI-ratio and CS-SI index were 0.89 (±0.29) and -3.63 % (-7.27 to 11.42). pRCC with i-lipid had significantly higher T2W SI-ratio (p = 0.003). There was a correlation between the CS-SI index and T2W SI-ratio, (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Intracellular lipid is uncommonly detected in pRCCs due to clear cell changes and foamy histiocytes. These tumours are associated with heterogeneously-increased SI in T2W-MRI. (orig.)

  11. Treat-to-target (T2T) recommendations for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiltz, U; Smolen, J; Bardin, T; Cohen Solal, A; Dalbeth, N; Doherty, M; Engel, B; Flader, C; Kay, J; Matsuoka, M; Perez-Ruiz, F; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G; Saag, K; So, A; Vazquez Mellado, J; Weisman, M; Westhoff, T H; Yamanaka, H; Braun, J

    2017-04-01

    The treat-to-target (T2T) concept has been applied successfully in several inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Gout is a chronic disease with a high burden of pain and inflammation. Because the pathogenesis of gout is strongly related to serum urate levels, gout may be an ideal disease in which to apply a T2T approach. Our aim was to develop international T2T recommendations for patients with gout. A committee of experts with experience in gout agreed upon potential targets and outcomes, which was the basis for the systematic literature search. Eleven rheumatologists, one cardiologist, one nephrologist, one general practitioner and one patient met in October 2015 to develop T2T recommendations based on the available scientific evidence. Levels of evidence, strength of recommendations and levels of agreement were derived. Although no randomised trial was identified in which a comparison with standard treatment or an evaluation of a T2T approach had been performed in patients with gout, indirect evidence was provided to focus on targets such as normalisation of serum urate levels. The expert group developed four overarching principles and nine T2T recommendations. They considered dissolution of crystals and prevention of flares to be fundamental; patient education, ensuring adherence to medications and monitoring of serum urate levels were also considered to be of major importance. This is the first application of the T2T approach developed for gout. Since no publication reports a trial comparing treatment strategies for gout, highly credible overarching principles and level D expert recommendations were created and agreed upon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. The toxins of Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, J

    2001-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, formerly called "blue-green algae", are simple, primitive photosynthetic microorganism wide occurrence in fresh, brackish and salt waters. Forty different genera of Cyanobacteria are known and many of them are producers of potent toxins responsible for a wide array of human illnesses, aquatic mammal and bird morbidity and mortality, and extensive fish kills. These cyanotoxins act as neurotoxins or hepatotoxins and are structurally and functionally diverse, and many are derived from unique biosynthetic pathways. All known cyanotoxins and their chemical and toxicological characteristics are presented in this article.

  13. The TOTEM GEM Telescope (T2) at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinto, M.; Berretti, M.; David, E.; Garcia, F.; Greco, V.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oliveri, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Scribano, A.; Turini, N.; Stenis, M. van

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM T2 telescope will measure inelastically produced charged particles in the forward region of the LHC Interaction Point 5. Each arm of the telescope consists in a set of 20 triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors with tracking and trigger capabilities. The GEM technology has been considered for the design of TOTEM very forward T2 telescopes thanks to its characteristics: large active areas, good position and timing resolution, excellent rate capability and radiation hardness. Each of the four T2 half arms has been fully assembled and equipped with electronics at CERN and systematically tested in the SPS beam line H8 in 2008/09. After some optimization, the operation of the GEM chambers was fully satisfactory and the T2 telescopes were installed and commissioned in their final positions at the LHC interaction point. During the first LHC run (December 2009) the T2 telescopes have collected data, at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. We will present here the performances of the detector and the preliminary results obtained using the data collected.

  14. The TOTEM GEM Telescope (T2) at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinto, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Via E.Orabona n 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); David, E. [CERN, PH Department, 1211 Geneva 23, Geneva (Switzerland); Garcia, F. [University of Helsinki, Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Greco, V. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Kurvinen, K. [University of Helsinki, Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Lami, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Latino, G. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Lauhakangas, R. [University of Helsinki, Institute of Physics and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki (Finland); Oliveri, E. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, PH Department, 1211 Geneva 23, Geneva (Switzerland); Scribano, A.; Turini, N. [University of Siena, Physics Department, Via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3. I-56127. Pisa (Italy); Stenis, M. van [CERN, PH Department, 1211 Geneva 23, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    The TOTEM T2 telescope will measure inelastically produced charged particles in the forward region of the LHC Interaction Point 5. Each arm of the telescope consists in a set of 20 triple-GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors with tracking and trigger capabilities. The GEM technology has been considered for the design of TOTEM very forward T2 telescopes thanks to its characteristics: large active areas, good position and timing resolution, excellent rate capability and radiation hardness. Each of the four T2 half arms has been fully assembled and equipped with electronics at CERN and systematically tested in the SPS beam line H8 in 2008/09. After some optimization, the operation of the GEM chambers was fully satisfactory and the T2 telescopes were installed and commissioned in their final positions at the LHC interaction point. During the first LHC run (December 2009) the T2 telescopes have collected data, at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. We will present here the performances of the detector and the preliminary results obtained using the data collected.

  15. T2 relaxometry of brain in myotonic dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Costanzo, A.; Bonavita, V.; Tedeschi, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, 2. Univ. of Naples (Italy); Di Salle, F. [Dept. of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Univ. ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Santoro, L. [Dept. of Neurological Sciences, University ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the nature and extent of brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM), examining possible T2 relaxation abnormalities in the brain of 20 patients with adult-onset DM and 20 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Brain MRI was performed at 0.5 T, and T2 values were calculated from signal intensity in two echoes. Regions of interest included: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and callosal (rostral and splenial) normal-appearing white matter; frontal, occipital, insular and hippocampal cortex; caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. All white-matter and occipital and right frontal cortex regions showed a significantly longer T2 in the patients. Multiple regression analysis, including grey- and white-matter T2 as dependent variables, plus age at onset and at imaging, disease duration, muscular disability, brain atrophy and CTG trinucleotide repeats as independent variables, revealed that only white-matter T2 elongation and disease duration correlated positively. White-matter involvement in DM is more extensive than previously reported by MRI and neuropathological studies and seems to be progressive in the course of disease. (orig.)

  16. Value of black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter John Paul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess whether black blood T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance is superior to conventional white blood imaging of cardiac iron in patients with thalassaemia major (TM. Materials and methods We performed both conventional white blood and black blood T2* CMR sequences in 100 TM patients to determine intra and inter-observer variability and presence of artefacts. In 23 patients, 2 separate studies of both techniques were performed to assess interstudy reproducibility. Results Cardiac T2* values ranged from 4.5 to 43.8 ms. The mean T2* values were not different between black blood and white blood acquisitions (20.5 vs 21.6 ms, p = 0.26. Compared with the conventional white blood diastolic acquisition, the coefficient of variance of the black blood CMR technique was superior for intra-observer reproducibility (1.47% vs 4.23%, p Conclusions Black blood T2* CMR has superior reproducibility and reduced imaging artefacts for the assessment of cardiac iron, in comparison with the conventional white blood technique, which make it the preferred technique for clinical practice.

  17. Skeletal muscle proton T 2 in chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morvan, D.; Richard, B.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the interest of proton T 2 measurement of skeletal muscle at rest and with exercise in patients with chronic heart failure, we performed associated measurements of proton T 2 using magnetic resonance imaging, of external work using ergometry, and of intra-cellular pH (pH) using magnetic resonance 31 P-spectroscopy, in skeletal muscle of the leg anterior compartment, in 37 patients with chronic heart failure. Sixteen patients were in New York Heart Association class II (NYHA II, moderate cardiac failure) and 21 in NYHA classes III-IV (severe cardiac failure). Rest T 2 was significantly increased in NYHA III-IV patients (30.9 ± 2.2 versus 32.8 ± 209 ms, p i variations were of -8 ± 4 versus -9 ± 5%, p =3D NS. The ratio of relative T 2 variations to W was significantly increased in NYPH III-IV patients (0.24 ± 0.12 versus 0.60 ± 0.41%/J, p i with exercise were coupled with external work, only in group NYHA II. T 2 variations negatively correlated with those of pH i in both groups (r=3D -0.78, p i variations with exercise which seems to depend on the exercise intensity level. (authors). 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. T2 relaxometry of brain in myotonic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Costanzo, A.; Bonavita, V.; Tedeschi, G.; Di Salle, F.; Santoro, L.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the nature and extent of brain involvement in myotonic dystrophy (DM), examining possible T2 relaxation abnormalities in the brain of 20 patients with adult-onset DM and 20 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Brain MRI was performed at 0.5 T, and T2 values were calculated from signal intensity in two echoes. Regions of interest included: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital and callosal (rostral and splenial) normal-appearing white matter; frontal, occipital, insular and hippocampal cortex; caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. All white-matter and occipital and right frontal cortex regions showed a significantly longer T2 in the patients. Multiple regression analysis, including grey- and white-matter T2 as dependent variables, plus age at onset and at imaging, disease duration, muscular disability, brain atrophy and CTG trinucleotide repeats as independent variables, revealed that only white-matter T2 elongation and disease duration correlated positively. White-matter involvement in DM is more extensive than previously reported by MRI and neuropathological studies and seems to be progressive in the course of disease. (orig.)

  19. The evaluation of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2WI for patients with acute spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Gyu; Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Myung Joon; Kang, Ik Won; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fat saturation fast spin-echo T2WI for patients with mild acute trauma of the spine. Between July 1998 and June 2002, 36 patients with acute spinal trauma underwent MRI within four months of injury. One, whose clinal symptoms indicated neurological paralysis, was excluded form our study. A superconductive 1.0-T MRI scanner was used, and conventional T1W1, T2W1, and additional fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 were performed. Two radiologists compared conventional T2-weighted sagittal imaging and fat-saturation T2-weighted sagittal imaging in terms of the extension of increased high signal intensities in soft tissue and vertebral bodies, bone marrow signal change, disk herniation, and signal change of the disk. The detection rate of focal high signal intensities in soft tissue and bone marrow was significantly higher at fat-saturation fast spin-echo T2W1 is useful the evaluation of patients with mild acute spinal trauma without neurological impairment

  20. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  1. Botulinum toxin: bioweapon & magic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Singh, Padma; Gupta, Pallavi

    2010-11-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins, causative agents of botulism in humans, are produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-former Gram positive bacillus. Botulinum neurotoxin poses a major bioweapon threat because of its extreme potency and lethality; its ease of production, transport, and misuse; and the need for prolonged intensive care among affected persons. A single gram of crystalline toxin, evenly dispersed and inhaled, can kill more than one million people. The basis of the phenomenal potency of botulinum toxin is enzymatic; the toxin is a zinc proteinase that cleaves neuronal vesicle associated proteins responsible for acetylcholine release into the neuromuscular junction. As a military or terrorist weapon, botulinum toxin could be disseminated via aerosol or by contamination of water or food supplies, causing widespread casualties. A fascinating aspect of botulinum toxin research in recent years has been development of the most potent toxin into a molecule of significant therapeutic utility . It is the first biological toxin which is licensed for treatment of human diseases. In the late 1980s, Canada approved use of the toxin to treat strabismus, in 2001 in the removal of facial wrinkles and in 2002, the FDA in the United States followed suit. The present review focuses on both warfare potential and medical uses of botulinum neurotoxin.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin ExoU induces a PAF-dependent impairment of alveolar fibrin turnover secondary to enhanced activation of coagulation and increased expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the course of mice pneumosepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suassuna José HR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ExoU, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin with phospholipase A2 activity, was shown to induce vascular hyperpermeability and thrombus formation in a murine model of pneumosepsis. In this study, we investigated the toxin ability to induce alterations in pulmonary fibrinolysis and the contribution of the platelet activating factor (PAF in the ExoU-induced overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. Methods Mice were intratracheally instilled with the ExoU producing PA103 P. aeruginosa or its mutant with deletion of the exoU gene. After 24 h, animal bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF were analyzed and lung sections were submitted to fibrin and PAI-1 immunohistochemical localization. Supernatants from A549 airway epithelial cells and THP-1 macrophage cultures infected with both bacterial strains were also analyzed at 24 h post-infection. Results In PA103-infected mice, but not in control animals or in mice infected with the bacterial mutant, extensive fibrin deposition was detected in lung parenchyma and microvasculature whereas mice BALF exhibited elevated tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity and PAI-1 concentration. ExoU-triggered PAI-1 overexpression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In in vitro assays, PA103-infected A549 cells exhibited overexpression of PAI-1 mRNA. Increased concentration of PAI-1 protein was detected in both A549 and THP-1 culture supernatants. Mice treatment with a PAF antagonist prior to PA103 infection reduced significantly PAI-1 concentrations in mice BALF. Similarly, A549 cell treatment with an antibody against PAF receptor significantly reduced PAI-1 mRNA expression and PAI-1 concentrations in cell supernatants, respectively. Conclusion ExoU was shown to induce disturbed fibrin turnover, secondary to enhanced procoagulant and antifibrinolytic activity during P. aeruginosa pneumosepsis, by a PAF-dependent mechanism. Besides its possible pathophysiological relevance, in

  3. Occipital lobe seizures and subcortical T2 and T2* hypointensity associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Fuyuko; Kawajiri, Sumihiro; Nakajima, Sho; Yamaguchi, Ai; Tomizawa, Yuji; Noda, Kazuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-12

    Nonketotic hyperglycemia often causes seizures. Recently, seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia have been found to be associated with subcortical T2 hypointensity on magnetic resonance imaging, especially in the occipital lobes. However, the mechanism remains unclear, although iron accumulation is suggested. We present a case of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism of subcortical T2 hypointensity is iron accumulation using gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. A 65-year-old Japanese man complained of intermittent pastel-colored flashing lights. On neurological examination, he also had lower right-side quadrant hemianopia. No other abnormal neurological findings were found. On laboratory analysis, his blood glucose level was 370 mg/dL, HbA1c was 11.4 %, and serum osmolarity was 326 mOsm/L. No ketones were detected in urine. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his head showed subcortical T2 and T2* hypointensity in his left occipital lobe. Single-photon emission computed tomography with I123-N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine revealed hyperperfusion in the left dominant occipital lobe. These magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities resolved during clinical recovery and treatment to control his blood sugar level. Therefore, a diagnosis of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of occipital lobe seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia supporting the role of iron accumulation as a mechanism for subcortical T2 hypointensity using T2*-magnetic resonance imaging.

  4. T2 black lesions on routine knee MRI: differential considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Cho, Gina; Moore, Daniel; Pezeshk, Parham; Coyner, Katherine; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-01-01

    The majority of abnormal findings or lesions on T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are hyperintense due to increased perfusion or fluid content, such as infections, tumours or synovitis. Hypointense lesions on T2-weighted images (both fat-suppressed and non-fat-suppressed) are less common and can sometimes be overlooked. Such lesions have limited differential diagnostic possibilities, and include vacuum phenomenon, loose body, tenosynovial giant cell tumour, rheumatoid arthritis, haemochromatosis, gout, amyloid, chondrocalcinosis, hydroxyapetite deposition disease, lipoma arborescens, arthrofibrosis and iatrogenic lesions. These lesions often show characteristic appearances and predilections in the knee. In this article, the authors describe the MRI features of hypointense T2 lesions on routine knee MRI and outline a systematic diagnostic approach towards their evaluation. (orig.)

  5. HOTELLING'S T2 CONTROL CHARTS BASED ON ROBUST ESTIMATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO YÁÑEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the presence of multivariate outliers, in a Phase I analysis of historical set of data, the T 2 control chart based on the usual sample mean vector and sample variance covariance matrix performs poorly. Several alternative estimators have been proposed. Among them, estimators based on the minimum volume ellipsoid (MVE and the minimum covariance determinant (MCD are powerful in detecting a reasonable number of outliers. In this paper we propose a T 2 control chart using the biweight S estimators for the location and dispersion parameters when monitoring multivariate individual observations. Simulation studies show that this method outperforms the T 2 control chart based on MVE estimators for a small number of observations.

  6. T2 mapping of muscle activity using ultrafast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, Noriyuki; Nitta, Osamu; Kuruma, Hironobu; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itoh, Akiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Measuring exercise-induced muscle activity is essential in sports medicine. Previous studies proposed measuring transverse relaxation time (T 2 ) using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) to map muscle activity. However, mfMRI uses a spin-echo (SE) sequence that requires several minutes for acquisition. We evaluated the feasibility of T 2 mapping of muscle activity using ultrafast imaging, called fast-acquired mfMRI (fast-mfMRI), to reduce image acquisition time. The current method uses 2 pulse sequences, spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) and true fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP). SE-EPI images are used to calculate T 2 , and TrueFISP images are used to obtain morphological information. The functional image is produced by subtracting the image of muscle activity obtained using T 2 at rest from that produced after exercise. Final fast-mfMRI images are produced by fusing the functional images with the morphologic images. Ten subjects repeated ankle plantar flexion 200 times. In the fused images, the areas of activated muscle in the fast-mfMRI and SE-EPI images were identical. The geometric location of the fast-mfMRI did not differ between the morphologic and functional images. Morphological and functional information from fast-mfMRI can be applied to the human trunk, which requires limited scan duration. The difference obtained by subtracting T 2 at rest from T 2 after exercise can be used as a functional image of muscle activity. (author)

  7. Are T2-weighted images necessary in renal mass characterization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dann, Phoebe; Thakur, Ravi; Chin, Deanne; Krinsky, Glenn; Israel, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine what role T2-weighted images play in characterizing renal masses. Methods: Forty-four pathologically proven renal masses (34 renal cell carcinomas, 8 oncocytomas, 1 metanephric adenoma, 1 angiomyolipoma without macroscopic fat) and 38 simple renal cysts were evaluated with T1- and T2-weighted images at 1.5 T. Two independent and blinded readers initially characterized all masses using only the T1-weighed images (in- and opposed-phase chemical shift, unenhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed, gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed and subtraction images) and placed each mass into one of three categories: nonsurgical, in need of follow-up, or surgical. The masses were then re-evaluated with the addition of the T2-weighted images. It was determined if the T2-weighted images changed the initial classification. Results: Forty-three of the 44 (98%) pathologically proven renal masses were characterized as a surgical mass using only the T1-weighted images. The remaining renal mass (a renal cell carcinoma) was characterized as a mass in which follow-up exams would be suggested. Thirty-eight of 38 (100%) simple renal cysts were correctly characterized using only the T1-weighted images. The T2-weighted images did not change the initial interpretation of the T1-weighted images in any of the cases. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that T2-weighted images are not necessary in the evaluation of all renal masses and are specifically not necessary in the differentiation of solid and cystic renal neoplasms from simple renal cysts

  8. Undiagnosed cognitive impairment, health status and depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Paula S.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kooistra, Minke; Janssen, Jolien; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We examined whether undiagnosed cognitive impairment in T2DM-patients is associated with a reduced health status and depressive symptoms. Methods In an observational study, 225 T2DM-patients aged < 70 years were examined at their

  9. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of [ 3 H]ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site

  10. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. (Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  11. Mapping pathological changes in brain structure by combining T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzetti, Marco; Mantini, Dante; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    A workflow based on the ratio between standardized T1-weighted (T1-w) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MR images has been proposed as a new tool to study brain structure. This approach was previously used to map structural properties in the healthy brain. Here, we evaluate whether the T1-w/T2-w approach can support the assessment of structural impairments in the diseased brain. We use schizophrenia data to demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the technique. We analyzed T1-w and T2-w images of 36 schizophrenic patients and 35 age-matched controls. These were collected for the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (fBIRN) collaborative project, which had an IRB approval and followed the HIPAA guidelines. We computed T1-w/T2-w images for each individual and compared intensities in schizophrenic and control groups on a voxel-wise basis, as well as in regions of interest (ROIs). Our results revealed that the T1-w/T2-w image permits to discriminate brain regions showing group-level differences between patients and controls with greater accuracy than conventional T1-w and T2-w images. Both the ROIs and the voxel-wise analysis showed globally reduced gray and white matter values in patients compared to controls. Significantly reduced values were found in regions such as insula, primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Our findings were consistent with previous meta-analyses in schizophrenia corroborating the hypothesis of a potential ''disconnection'' syndrome in conjunction with structural alterations in local gray matter regions. Overall, our study suggested that the T1-w/T2-w technique permits to reliably map structural differences between the brains of patients and healthy individuals. (orig.)

  12. Mapping pathological changes in brain structure by combining T1- and T2-weighted MR imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzetti, Marco; Mantini, Dante [ETH Zurich, Neural Control of Movement Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Oxford, Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wenderoth, Nicole [ETH Zurich, Neural Control of Movement Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Movement Control and Neuroplasticity, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    A workflow based on the ratio between standardized T1-weighted (T1-w) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MR images has been proposed as a new tool to study brain structure. This approach was previously used to map structural properties in the healthy brain. Here, we evaluate whether the T1-w/T2-w approach can support the assessment of structural impairments in the diseased brain. We use schizophrenia data to demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the technique. We analyzed T1-w and T2-w images of 36 schizophrenic patients and 35 age-matched controls. These were collected for the Function Biomedical Informatics Research Network (fBIRN) collaborative project, which had an IRB approval and followed the HIPAA guidelines. We computed T1-w/T2-w images for each individual and compared intensities in schizophrenic and control groups on a voxel-wise basis, as well as in regions of interest (ROIs). Our results revealed that the T1-w/T2-w image permits to discriminate brain regions showing group-level differences between patients and controls with greater accuracy than conventional T1-w and T2-w images. Both the ROIs and the voxel-wise analysis showed globally reduced gray and white matter values in patients compared to controls. Significantly reduced values were found in regions such as insula, primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Our findings were consistent with previous meta-analyses in schizophrenia corroborating the hypothesis of a potential ''disconnection'' syndrome in conjunction with structural alterations in local gray matter regions. Overall, our study suggested that the T1-w/T2-w technique permits to reliably map structural differences between the brains of patients and healthy individuals. (orig.)

  13. T2 relaxation time is related to liver fibrosis severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Luiz; Uppal, Ritika; Alford, Jamu; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Yamada, Suguru; Tanabe, Kenneth; Chung, Raymond T.; Lauwers, Gregory; Chew, Michael L.; Boland, Giles W.; Sahani, Duhyant V.; Vangel, Mark; Hahn, Peter F.; Caravan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The grading of liver fibrosis relies on liver biopsy. Imaging techniques, including elastography and relaxometric, techniques have had varying success in diagnosing moderate fibrosis. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the T2-relaxation time of hepatic parenchyma and the histologic grade of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C undergoing both routine, liver MRI and liver biopsy, and to validate our methodology with phantoms and in a rat model of liver fibrosis. Methods This study is composed of three parts: (I) 123 patients who underwent both routine, clinical liver MRI and biopsy within a 6-month period, between July 1999 and January 2010 were enrolled in a retrospective study. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T using dual-echo turbo-spin echo equivalent pulse sequence. T2 relaxation time of liver parenchyma in patients was calculated by mono-exponential fit of a region of interest (ROI) within the right lobe correlating to histopathologic grading (Ishak 0–6) and routine serum liver inflammation [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]. Statistical comparison was performed using ordinary logistic and ordinal logistic regression and ANOVA comparing T2 to Ishak fibrosis without and using AST and ALT as covariates; (II) a phantom was prepared using serial dilutions of dextran coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. T2 weighed imaging was performed by comparing a dual echo fast spin echo sequence to a Carr-Purcell-Meigboom-Gill (CPMG) multi-echo sequence at 1.5 T. Statistical comparison was performed using a paired t-test; (III) male Wistar rats receiving weekly intraperitoneal injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) control (n=4 rats); diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for either 5 (n=5 rats) or 8 weeks (n=4 rats) were MR imaged on a Bruker Pharmascan 4.7 T magnet with a home-built bird-cage coil. T2 was quantified by using a mono-exponential fitting algorithm on multi-slice multi

  14. Retracted: Association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohui; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zongpei; Zheng, Dongwen

    2015-03-01

    The association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism with type-2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) susceptibility and the risk of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic databases. Sixteen articles were identified for the analysis of the association of ACE I/D gene polymorphism with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in Caucasian populations. ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of patients with T2DM developing T2DN in Caucasian populations. Sensitivity analysis according to sample size of case (ACE I/D gene polymorphism was not associated with T2DN susceptibility and the risk of patients with T2DM developing T2DN in Caucasian populations. However, more studies should be performed in the future. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. The cytolethal distending toxin contributes to microbial virulence and disease pathogenesis by acting as a tri-perditious toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika D Scuron

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current status and recent advances in our understanding of the role that the cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt plays as a virulence factor in promoting disease by toxin-producing pathogens. A major focus of this review is on the relationship between structure and function of the individual subunits that comprise the AB2 Cdt holotoxin. In particular, we concentrate on the molecular mechanisms that characterize this toxin and which account for the ability of Cdt to intoxicate multiple cell types by utilizing a ubiquitous binding partner on the cell membrane. Furthermore, we propose a paradigm shift for the molecular mode of action by which the active Cdt subunit, CdtB, is able to block a key signaling cascade and thereby lead to outcomes based upon programming and the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K in a variety of cells. Based upon the collective Cdt literature, we now propose that Cdt is a unique and potent virulence factor capable of acting as a tri-perditious toxin that impairs host defenses by: 1 disrupting epithelial barriers; 2 suppressing acquired immunity; 3 promoting pro-inflammatory responses. Thus Cdt plays a key role in facilitating the early stages of infection and the later stages of disease progression by contributing to persistence and impairing host elimination.

  16. Fetal liver T2* values: defining a standardized scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitein, Orly; Eshet, Yael; Hoffmann, Chen; Raviv-Zilka, Lisa; Salem, Yishay; Hamdan, Ashraf; Goitein, David; Kushnir, Tamar; Eshed, Iris; Di-Segni, Elio; Konen, Eli

    2013-12-01

    To define the normal T2* values of liver in the third trimester of pregnancy in normal fetuses. Multi-echo gradient echo T2* sequence was applied to the fetal abdomen in the axial plane in women undergoing a fetal MRI (1.5 Tesla [T], MRI system). A region of interest, best visualizing in the liver parenchyma was used for measurements. Studies were independently read by two experienced readers to assess intra- and interobserver variability. The study cohort included 46 pregnant women undergoing fetal MRI for any indication other than liver pathology evaluation. Three scans were excluded due to fetal motion. Average maternal and gestational age were 33 ± 4 years and 31.9 ± 3 weeks, respectively. Average T2* values were found to be 19.7 ± 7.4 ms. The intra- and interobserver agreement were very good: 0.93 and 0.8-0.084, respectively. T2* MRI allows noninvasive evaluation liver iron content in the third trimester fetus. Measured values at this stage of pregnancy are significantly lower compared with values cited in the literature for adults. This is of major importance in the correct diagnosis of fetal iron overload states. We propose this as the standard reference when evaluating fetal iron overload pathology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pediatric cervical spine marrow T2 hyperintensity: a systematic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gefen, Ron [Cooper University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Candem, NJ (United States); Schweitzer, Mark E. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Shabshin, Nogah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-HaShomer (Israel); Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Hyperintense areas of vertebral bone marrow on fluid-sensitive sequences are at times seen on pediatric MRI of the cervical spine in children without suspicious clinical conditions to explain marrow pathology. Although these likely have no clinical significance they may be mistaken for pathology. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the locations and patterns of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the pediatric cervical spine, with respect to age. At 1.5 T, the C2 through T3 vertebrae of 82 children aged 0-17 years without clinically suspicious marrow abnormality were retrospectively reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who were blinded to patients' age. The frequency, intensity, and location of the foci of marrow T2 hyperintensity were recorded for each vertebra on a 12-point scoring system and were correlated with the patients' age. Foci of marrow hyperintensity were seen in 46/82 (56.1%) patients and in 241/734 (32.8%) vertebrae. Foci were most common in C4 (42% of patients), C5 (45.7%), and C6 (37.8%). The foci of T2 hyperintensity were more common inferiorly (188 foci) and adjacent to the anterior cortex (123). Analysis revealed no significant correlation between age and marrow score (Spearman = -0.147, P = 0.19), but did find a trend towards increased presence of marrow T2 hyperintensity in the ages of most rapid growth, 8-14 years (81.5% of patients). Vertebral body marrow T2 hyperintensity was most common endosteally and in the mid-cervical spine with a slight peak in adolescence. We therefore believe that these pediatric cervical marrow changes may be related to rapid bone growth at the point of maximal kyphotic stress. (orig.)

  18. Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

  19. Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Sections Botulinum Toxin (Botox) ... Facial Wrinkles How Does Botulinum Toxin (Botox) Work? Botulinum Toxin (Botox) for Facial Wrinkles Leer en Español: La ...

  20. A non-linear model for temperature-dependent sporulation and T-2 and HT-2 production of Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium sporotrichioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Leyla; Manstretta, Valentina; Rossi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    This research has produced new quantitative data on the sporulation and T-2+HT-2 toxin production that could be further integrated to develop a comprehensive disease or toxin prediction model for Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium sporotrichioides. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of temperature or incubation time on sporulation and the effect of temperature on T-2+HT-2 toxin production of strains of the two species. F. sporotrichioides demonstrated a preference for higher temperatures than F. langsethiae during sporulation; the optimum temperature was 24.5 ± 0.7 °C for F. langsethiae and 32.3 ± 2.1 °C for F. sporotrichioides, according to the Beta equation fitted to the data. The dynamics of sporulation over different incubation times were fitted by a Gompertz function. The maximum spore production was estimated to be after 18 and 8 d incubation at optimum temperatures for F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides, respectively. F. sporotrichioides produced more T-2+HT-2 than F. langsethiae. The best fit of the effect of temperature on T-2+HT-2 production in wheat grains was obtained with a Beta equation showing an optimum temperature of 14.7 ± 0.8 °C for F. langsethiae and 12.1 ± 0.2 °C for F. sporotrichioides. The optimum temperature for mycotoxin production was lower than for sporulation. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-mycotoxin stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for Fusarium toxins in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, Katharina; Gotthardt, Marina; Schüler, Jan; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-03-01

    A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin method was developed for 12 different Fusarium toxins including modified mycotoxins in beer (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, HT2-toxin, T2-toxin, enniatin B, B1, A1, A, beauvericin and zearalenone). As sample preparation and purification of beer a combined solid phase extraction for trichothecenes, enniatins, beauvericin and zearalenone was firstly developed. The validation of the new method gave satisfying results: intra-day and inter-day precision and recoveries were 1-5%, 2-8% and 72-117%, respectively. In total, 61 different organic and conventional beer samples from Germany and all over the world were analyzed by using the newly developed multi-mycotoxin method. In summary, deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivaleneol and enniatin B were quantified in rather low contents in the investigated beer samples. None of the other monitored Fusarium toxins like 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, HT2- and T2-toxin, zearalenone, enniatin B1, A1, A or beauvericin were detectable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. T2-weighted liver MRI using the multiVane technique at 3T: Comparison with conventional T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung A [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dong Il; Lee, Won Jae [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Philips, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sin Ho; Baek, Sun Young [Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the value of applying MultiVane to liver T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) compared with conventional T2WIs with emphasis on detection of focal liver lesions. Seventy-eight patients (43 men and 35 women) with 86 hepatic lesions and 20 pancreatico-biliary diseases underwent MRI including T2WIs acquired using breath-hold (BH), respiratory-triggered (RT), and MultiVane technique at 3T. Two reviewers evaluated each T2WI with respect to artefacts, organ sharpness, and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels, hilar duct, and main lesion using five-point scales, and made pairwise comparisons between T2WI sequences for these categories. Diagnostic accuracy (Az) and sensitivity for hepatic lesion detection were evaluated using alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. MultiVane T2WI was significantly better than BH-T2WI or RT-T2WI for organ sharpness and conspicuity of intrahepatic vessels and main lesion in both separate reviews and pairwise comparisons (p < 0.001). With regard to motion artefacts, MultiVane T2WI or BH-T2WI was better than RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). Conspicuity of hilar duct was better with BH-T2WI than with MultiVane T2WI (p = 0.030) or RT-T2WI (p < 0.001). For detection of 86 hepatic lesions, sensitivity (mean, 97.7%) of MultiVane T2WI was significantly higher than that of BH-T2WI (mean, 89.5%) (p = 0.008) or RT-T2WI (mean, 84.9%) (p = 0.001). Applying the MultiVane technique to T2WI of the liver is a promising approach to improving image quality that results in increased detection of focal liver lesions compared with conventional T2WI.

  3. Bio Warfare and Terrorism: Toxins and Other Mid-Spectrum Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madsen, James M

    2005-01-01

    ... counterparts are still by definition toxins. Related terms include phycotoxins (toxins from algae), mycotoxins (fungal toxins), phytotoxins (plant toxins), and venoms (toxins from animals, especially vertebrates...

  4. Botulinum toxin in trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Hernando de la Bárcena, Ignacio; Marzo-Sola, María Eugenia

    2017-01-06

    Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most disabling facial pain syndromes, with a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Pharmacotherapy is the first choice for treatment but cases of drug resistance often require new strategies, among which various interventional treatments have been used. In recent years a new therapeutic strategy consisting of botulinum toxin has emerged, with promising results. We reviewed clinical cases and case series, open-label studies and randomized clinical trials examining the use of botulinum toxin for drug-refractory trigeminal neuralgia published in the literature. The administration of botulinum toxin has proven to be a safe and effective therapeutic strategy in patients with drug-refractory idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia, but many questions remain unanswered as to the precise role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The infrared spectrum of polypyrrole-T2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Isao; Oda, Kazuhiro

    1995-01-01

    The infrared spectra of polypyrrole contacting with T 2 O gas were observed for ca. 100 days. After adding T 2 O (1.2 Ci; isotopic purity: 15%) the band at 2180 cm -1 was observed, which is assigned to the N-T stretch. Although the bands at 1560 and 1204 cm -1 were initially strong, they became relatively weak by Tβ-irradiation. On the other hand, the bands at 1655 and 1400 cm -1 , as well as 1700 cm -1 , became relatively strong by Tβ-irradiation. This is explained in that the quinonoid-type structure with partially aromatic-type structure decreases and a structure with probable C=N bonds is formed. It was also found that many carbonyl defects are formed in both the atmosphere and Tβ-radiolysis. (author)

  6. New results from the T2K neutrino oscillation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oser, Scott M., E-mail: oser@phas.ubc.ca [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Collaboration: T2K Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    The T2K experiment searches for the appearance of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam. The rate of this process is sensitive to the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Recent measurements that {theta}{sub 13} {ne} 0 imply that {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations should be observable. Using all data through May 15, 2012 the T2K experiment has detected 10 candidate {nu}{sub e} events, with an expected background for {theta}{sub 13} = 0 of 2.73{+-}0.37 events. This 3.2{sigma} excess of {nu}{sub e} events is the strongest indication to date for appearance of electron neutrinos in a neutrino oscillation experiment, and for normal mass hierarchy and {delta}{sub CP} = 0 yields 0.059 < sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} < 0.164 at the 68 % C.L.

  7. Voltage control in smart grid using T2FLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodayar, Yaser; Sabahi, Kamel; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2017-01-01

    coordinated to keep the voltage within the standard range. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-agent controller based on type-2 fuzzy logic system (T2FLS) is utilized to coordinate the DG, ULTC, and load to regulate the voltage of the smart grid in the presence of noise and uncertainty. The proposed fuzzy...... system identifies the different parts of the smart grid as an agent (i.e. ULTC, DG, and load) and regulates the voltage by managing them. A 16-bus power system has been utilized to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It has been shown that the proposed T2FLS controller outperforms...... the type-1 fuzzy controller and regulates the voltage in an appropriate way even in the presence of the different levels of measurement noise and uncertainty....

  8. Simultaneous Measurement of T2 and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (T2+ADC) in the Heart With Motion-Compensated Spin Echo Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Eric; Moulin, Kévin; Zhang, Zhaohuan; Ennis, Daniel B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a technique for simultaneous quantitative T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping in the heart (T2+ADC) using spin echo (SE) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Theory and Methods T2 maps from T2+ADC were compared with single-echo SE in phantoms and with T2-prepared (T2-prep) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) in healthy volunteers. ADC maps from T2+ADC were compared with conventional DWI in phantoms and in vivo. T2+ADC was also demonstrated in a patient with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Results Phantom T2 values from T2+ADC were closer to a single-echo SE reference than T2-prep bSSFP (−2.3 ± 6.0% vs 22.2 ± 16.3%; P T2 values from T2+ADC were significantly shorter than T2-prep bSSFP (35.8 ± 3.1 vs 46.8 ± 3.8 ms; P T2+ADC and conventional motion-compensated DWI (1.39 ± 0.18 vs 1.38 ± 0.18 mm2/ms; P = N.S.). In the patient, T2 and ADC were both significantly elevated in the infarct compared with remote myocardium (T2: 40.4 ± 7.6 vs 56.8 ± 22.0; P T2+ADC generated coregistered, free-breathing T2 and ADC maps in healthy volunteers and a patient with acute MI with no cost in accuracy, precision, or scan time compared with DWI. PMID:28516485

  9. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Benhar; Assaf Shapira

    2010-01-01

    Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmac...

  10. A biomarker-responsive T2ex MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, Iman; Randtke, Edward A; Pagel, Mark D

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated a fundamentally new type of responsive MRI contrast agent for molecular imaging that alters T 2 exchange (T 2ex ) properties after interacting with a molecular biomarker. The contrast agent Tm-DO3A-oAA was treated with nitric oxide (NO) and O 2 . The R 1 and R 2 relaxation rates of the reactant and product were measured with respect to concentration, temperature, and pH. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) spectra of the reactant and product were acquired using a 7 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and analyzed to estimate the chemical exchange rates and r 2ex relaxivities. The reaction of Tm-DO3A-oAA with NO and O 2 caused a 6.4-fold increase in the r 2 relaxivity of the agent, whereas r 1 relaxivity remained unchanged, which demonstrated that Tm-DO3A-oAA is a responsive T 2ex agent. The effects of pH and temperature on the r 2 relaxivities of the reactant and product supported the conclusion that the product's benzimidazole ligand caused the agent to have a fast chemical exchange rate relative to the slow exchange rate of the reactant's ortho-aminoanilide ligand. T 2ex MRI contrast agents are a new type of responsive agent that have good detection sensitivity and specificity for detecting a biomarker, which can serve as a new tool for molecular imaging. Magn Reson Med 77:1665-1670, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Signatures of a light sterile neutrino in T2HK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Chatterjee, Sabya Sachi; Palazzo, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the performance of T2HK in the presence of a light eV scale sterile neutrino. We study in detail its influence in resolving fundamental issues like mass hierarchy, CP-violation (CPV) induced by the standard CP-phase δ 13 and new CP-phase δ 14, and the octant ambiguity of θ 23. We show for the first time in detail that due to the impressive energy reconstruction capabilities of T2HK, the available spectral information plays an important role to enhance the mass hierarchy discovery reach of this experiment in 3 ν framework and also to keep it almost intact even in 4 ν scheme. This feature is also of the utmost importance in establishing the CPV due to δ 14. As far as the sensitivity to CPV due to δ 13 is concerned, it does not change much going from 3 ν to 4 ν case. We also examine the reconstruction capability of the two phases δ 13 and δ 14, and find that the typical 1 σ uncertainty on δ 13 ( δ 14) in T2HK is ˜ 150 (300). While determining the octant of θ 23, we face a complete loss of sensitivity for unfavorable combinations of unknown δ 13 and δ 14.

  12. Evaluation of renal quantitative T2* changes on MRI following administration of ferumoxytol as a T2* contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgire, Sandeep S; McDermott, Shaunagh; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Abtahi, Seyed Mahdi; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Gaglia, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the time-dependent changes in regional quantitative T2* maps of the kidney following intravenous administration of ferumoxytol. Twenty-four individuals with normal kidney function underwent T2*-weighted MRI of the kidney before, immediately after, and 48 hours after intravenous administration of ferumoxytol at a dose of 4 mg/kg (group A, n=12) or 6 mg/kg (group B, n=12). T2* values were statistically analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests. In group A, the percentage changes from baseline to immediate post and baseline to 48 hours were 85.3% and 64.2% for the cortex and 90.8% and 64.6% for the medulla, respectively. In group B, the percentage changes from baseline to immediate post and baseline to 48 hours were 85.2% and 73.4% for the cortex and 94.5% and 74% for the medulla, respectively. This difference was significant for both groups (P<0.0001). There is significant and differential uptake of ferumoxytol in the cortex and medulla of physiologically normal kidneys. This differential uptake may offer the ability to interrogate renal cortex and medulla with possible clinical applications in medical renal disease and transplant organ assessment. We propose an organ of interest based dose titration of ferumoxytol to better differentiate circulating from intracellular ferumoxytol particles.

  13. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health.

  14. Comparative genomics evidence that only protein toxins are tagging bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The term toxin was introduced by Roux and Yersin and describes macromolecular substances that, when produced during infection or when introduced parenterally or orally, cause an impairment of physiological functions that lead to disease or to the death of the infected organism. Long after the discovery of toxins, early genetic studies on bacterial virulence demonstrated that removing a certain number of genes from pathogenic bacteria decreases their capacity to infect hosts. Each of the removed factors was therefore referred to as a virulence factor, and it was speculated that non-pathogenic bacteria lack such supplementary factors. However, many recent comparative studies demonstrate that the specialization of bacteria to eukaryotic hosts is associated with massive gene loss. We recently demonstrated that the only features that seem to characterize 12 epidemic bacteria are toxin-antitoxin (TA modules, which are addiction molecules in host bacteria. In this study, we investigated if protein toxins are indeed the only molecules specific to pathogenic bacteria by comparing 14 epidemic bacterial killers (bad bugs with their 14 closest non-epidemic relatives (controls. We found protein toxins in significantly more elevated numbers in all of the bad bugs. For the first time, statistical principal components analysis, including genome size, GC%, TA modules, restriction enzymes and toxins, revealed that toxins are the only proteins other than TA modules that are correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria. Moreover, intracellular toxins appear to be more correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria than secreted toxins. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the only truly identifiable phenomena, witnessing the convergent evolution of the most pathogenic bacteria for humans are the loss of metabolic activities, i.e., the outcome of the loss of regulatory and transcription factors and the presence of protein toxins, alone or coupled as TA

  15. A Simple and Specific Noncompetitive ELISA Method for HT-2 Toxin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri O. Arola

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed an HT-2 toxin-specific simple ELISA format with a positive read-out. The assay is based on an anti-immune complex (IC scFv antibody fragment, which is genetically fused with alkaline phosphatase (AP. The anti-IC antibody specifically recognizes the IC between a primary anti-HT-2 toxin Fab fragment and an HT-2 toxin molecule. In the IC ELISA format, the sample is added together with the scFv-AP antibody to the ELISA plate coated with the primary antibody. After 15 min of incubation and a washing step, the ELISA response is read. A competitive ELISA including only the primary antibody recognizes both HT-2 and T-2 toxins. The anti-IC antibody makes the assay specific for HT-2 toxin, and the IC ELISA is over 10 times more sensitive compared to the competitive assay. Three different naturally contaminated matrices: wheat, barley and oats, were used to evaluate the assay performance with real samples. The corresponding limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL (13 µg/kg, 0.1 ng/mL (4 µg/kg and 0.3 ng/mL (16 µg/kg, respectively. The IC ELISA can be used for screening HT-2 toxin specifically and in relevant concentration ranges from all three tested grain matrices.

  16. Aberrant brain regional homogeneity and functional connectivity in middle-aged T2DM patients: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihong Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity (FC analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquisition. ReHo analysis was conducted to determine the peak coordinates of brain regions with abnormal local brain activity synchronization. Then, the identified brain regions were considered as seeds, and FC between these brain regions and global voxels was computed. Finally, the potential correlations between the imaging indices and neuropsychological data were also explored. Compared with healthy controls, T2DM patients exhibited higher ReHo values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and lower ReHo in right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right medial orbit of the superior frontal gyrus. Considering these areas as seed regions, T2DM patients displayed aberrant FC, mainly in the frontal and parietal lobes. The pattern of FC alterations in T2DM patients was characterized by decreased connectivity and positive to negative or negative to positive converted connectivity. Digital Span Test forward scores revealed significant correlations with the ReHo values of the right precentral gyrus (ρ = 0.527, p = 0.014 and FC between the right fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus (ρ = -0.437, p = 0.048. Our findings suggest that T2DM patients suffer from cognitive dysfunction related to spatially local and remote brain activity synchronization impairment. The patterns of ReHo and FC alterations shed light on the mechanisms underlying T2DM-associated brain

  17. Significance of periventricular hyperintensity in T2 weighted MRI on memory dysfunction and depression after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokura, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Yamashita, Kazuya; Koide, Hiromi

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effect of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) in T2 weighted MRI on memory function and post-stroke depression in 159 patients with cerebrovacular disease. Memory function was assessed with Hasegawa's scale, and depressive state was estimated with Zung's self-rating depression scale. Patients showing diffusely distributed PVH had significantly low scores in memory function tests. Localized PVH around the anterior horns of the laterals ventricle was also associated with impaired memory function when the area of PVH was large. The incidence of post-stroke depression was high in patients with large PVH around the anterior horn in comparison with patients with PVH around the posterior horn. The severity of PVH around the posterior horn did not affect memory function and post-stroke depression. These findings suggest that memory dysfunction and post-stroke depression were accelerated by the diffusely or anteriorly distributed PVH. (author)

  18. Wall conditioning and particle control in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Larsson, D.; Brunsell, P.; Möller, A.; Tramontin, L.

    1997-02-01

    The Extrap T2 reversed field pinch experiment is operated with the former OHTE vacuum vessel, of dimensions R = 1.24 m and a = 0.18 m and with a complete graphite liner. It is shown that a rudimentary density control can be achieved by means of frequent helium glow discharge conditioning of the wall. The standard He-GDC is well characterized and reproducible. The trapping and release of hydrogen and impurities at the wall surfaces have been studied by mass spectrometry and surface analysis. The shot to shot particle exchange between wall and plasma can be approximately accounted for.

  19. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Stuhr, Fritz [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lindner, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body.

  20. Methods of fetal MR: beyond T2-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Stuhr, Fritz; Lindner, Christian; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The present work reviews the basic methods of performing fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since fetal MRI differs in many respects from a postnatal study, several factors have to be taken into account to achieve satisfying image quality. Image quality depends on adequate positioning of the pregnant woman in the magnet, use of appropriate coils and the selection of sequences. Ultrafast T2-weighted sequences are regarded as the mainstay of fetal MR-imaging. However, additional sequences, such as T1-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images, echoplanar imaging may provide further information, especially in extra- central-nervous system regions of the fetal body

  1. Botulinum toxin in pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhado, Orlando Carlos Gomes; Boeing, Marcelo; Ortega, Luciano Bornia

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known and its effectiveness in the treatment of some pain syndromes is well known. However, the efficacy of some of its indications is still in the process of being confirmed. The objective of this study was to review the history, pharmacological properties, and clinical applications of BTX in the treatment of pain of different origins. Botulinum toxin is produced by fermentation of Clostridium botulinum, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium. Commercially, BTX comes in two presentations, types A and B. Botulinum toxin, a neurotoxin with high affinity for cholinergic synapses, blocks the release of acetylcholine by nerve endings without interfering with neuronal conduction of electrical signals or synthesis and storage of acetylcholine. It has been proven that BTX can selectively weaken painful muscles, interrupting the spasm-pain cycle. Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of BTX-A in the treatment of tension headaches, migraines, chronic lumbar pain, and myofascial pain. Botulinum toxin type A is well tolerated in the treatment of chronic pain disorders in which pharmacotherapy regimens can cause side effects. The reduction in the consumption of analgesics and length of action of 3 to 4 months per dose represent other advantages of its use. However, further studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of BTX-A in chronic pain disorders and its exact mechanism of action, as well as its potential in multifactorial treatments.

  2. Diagnostic Quality of 3D T2-SPACE Compared with T2-FSE in the Evaluation of Cervical Spine MRI Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, F H; Sadigh, G; Carpenter, W; Allen, J W

    2017-04-01

    Spinal anatomy has been variably investigated using 3D MRI. We aimed to compare the diagnostic quality of T2 sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using flip angle evolution (SPACE) with T2-FSE sequences for visualization of cervical spine anatomy. We predicted that T2-SPACE will be equivalent or superior to T2-FSE for visibility of anatomic structures. Adult patients undergoing cervical spine MR imaging with both T2-SPACE and T2-FSE sequences for radiculopathy or myelopathy between September 2014 and February 2015 were included. Two blinded subspecialty-trained radiologists independently assessed the visibility of 12 anatomic structures by using a 5-point scale and assessed CSF pulsation artifact by using a 4-point scale. Sagittal images and 6 axial levels from C2-T1 on T2-FSE were reviewed; 2 weeks later and after randomization, T2-SPACE was evaluated. Diagnostic quality for each structure and CSF pulsation artifact visibility on both sequences were compared by using a paired t test. Interobserver agreement was calculated (κ). Forty-five patients were included (mean age, 57 years; 40% male). The average visibility scores for intervertebral disc signal, neural foramina, ligamentum flavum, ventral rootlets, and dorsal rootlets were higher for T2-SPACE compared with T2-FSE for both reviewers ( P T2-SPACE showed less degree of CSF flow artifact ( P T2-SPACE and -0.02-0.30 for T2-FSE (slight to fair agreement). T2-SPACE may be equivalent or superior to T2-FSE for the evaluation of cervical spine anatomic structures, and T2-SPACE shows a lower degree of CSF pulsation artifact. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. T2 and T2* mapping in patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation: initial results on clinical use with 3.0-Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Goetz H.; Trattnig, Siegfried; Quirbach, Sebastian; Hughes, Timothy; Olk, Alexander; Blanke, Matthias; Marlovits, Stefan; Mamisch, Tallal C.

    2010-01-01

    To use T2 and T2* mapping in patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) of the knee, and to compare and correlate both methodologies. 3.0-Tesla MRI was performed on 30 patients (34.6 ± 9.9 years) with a follow-up period of 28.1 ± 18.8 months after MACT. Multi-echo, spin-echo-based T2 mapping using six echoes and gradient-echo-based T2* mapping using six echoes were prepared. T2 and T2* maps were obtained using a pixel-wise, mono-exponential, non-negative least-squares fit analysis. Region-of-interest analysis was performed for mean (full-thickness) as well as deep and superficial aspects of the cartilage repair tissue and control cartilage sites. Mean T2 values (ms) were comparable for the control cartilage (53.4 ± 11.7) and the repair tissue (55.5 ± 11.6) (p > 0.05). Mean T2* values (ms) for control cartilage (30.9 ± 6.6) were significantly higher than those of the repair tissue (24.5 ± 8.1) (p < 0.001). Zonal stratification was more pronounced for T2* than for T2. The correlation between T2 and T2* was highly significant (p < 0.001), with a Pearson coefficient between 0.276 and 0.433. T2 and T2* relaxation time measurements in the evaluation of cartilage repair tissue and its zonal variation show promising results, although the properties visualised by T2 and T2* may differ. (orig.)

  4. In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Helluy

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. However, new non-invasive MRI techniques hold great potential in visualizing cardiac non-ischemic inflammatory lesions at high spatial resolution, which could improve the investigation of the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis.Here we present the discovery of a novel endogenous T2* MRI contrast of myocardial lesions in murine models of acute and chronic CVB3 myocarditis. The evaluation of infected hearts ex vivo and in vivo by 3D T2w and T2*w MRI allowed direct localization of virus-induced myocardial lesions without any MRI tracer or contrast agent. T2*w weighted MRI is able to detect both small cardiac lesions of acute myocarditis and larger necrotic areas at later stages of chronic myocarditis, which was confirmed by spatial correlation of MRI hypointensity in myocardium with myocardial lesions histologically. Additional in vivo and ex vivo MRI analysis proved that the contrast mechanism was due to a strong paramagnetic tissue alteration in the vicinity of myocardial lesions, effectively pointing towards iron deposits as the primary contributor of contrast. The evaluation of the biological origin of the MR contrast by specific histological staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that impaired iron metabolism primarily in mitochondria caused iron deposits within necrotic myocytes, which induces strong magnetic susceptibility in myocardial lesions and results in strong T2* contrast.This T2*w MRI technique provides a fast and sensitive diagnostic tool to determine the patterns and the severity of acute and chronic enteroviral myocarditis and the precise localization of

  5. In vivo T2* weighted MRI visualizes cardiac lesions in murine models of acute and chronic viral myocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helluy, Xavier; Sauter, Martina; Ye, Yu-Xiang; Lykowsky, Gunthard; Kreutner, Jakob; Yilmaz, Ali; Jahns, Roland; Boivin, Valerie; Kandolf, Reinhard; Jakob, Peter M.; Hiller, Karl-Heinz; Klingel, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Acute and chronic forms of myocarditis are mainly induced by virus infections. As a consequence of myocardial damage and inflammation dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic heart failure may develop. The gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis is endomyocardial biopsies which are required to determine the etiopathogenesis of cardiac inflammatory processes. However, new non-invasive MRI techniques hold great potential in visualizing cardiac non-ischemic inflammatory lesions at high spatial resolution, which could improve the investigation of the pathophysiology of viral myocarditis. Results Here we present the discovery of a novel endogenous T2* MRI contrast of myocardial lesions in murine models of acute and chronic CVB3 myocarditis. The evaluation of infected hearts ex vivo and in vivo by 3D T2w and T2*w MRI allowed direct localization of virus-induced myocardial lesions without any MRI tracer or contrast agent. T2*w weighted MRI is able to detect both small cardiac lesions of acute myocarditis and larger necrotic areas at later stages of chronic myocarditis, which was confirmed by spatial correlation of MRI hypointensity in myocardium with myocardial lesions histologically. Additional in vivo and ex vivo MRI analysis proved that the contrast mechanism was due to a strong paramagnetic tissue alteration in the vicinity of myocardial lesions, effectively pointing towards iron deposits as the primary contributor of contrast. The evaluation of the biological origin of the MR contrast by specific histological staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that impaired iron metabolism primarily in mitochondria caused iron deposits within necrotic myocytes, which induces strong magnetic susceptibility in myocardial lesions and results in strong T2* contrast. Conclusion This T2*w MRI technique provides a fast and sensitive diagnostic tool to determine the patterns and the severity of acute and chronic enteroviral myocarditis and the precise

  6. Early Articular Cartilage MRI T2 Changes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Correlate With Later Changes in T2 and Cartilage Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley; Winalski, Carl S.; Chu, Constance R.

    2018-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a known risk factor for future development of osteoarthritis (OA). This human clinical study seeks to determine if early changes to cartilage MRI T2 maps between baseline and 6 months following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) are associated with changes to cartilage T2 and cartilage thickness between baseline and 2 years after ACLR. Changes to T2 texture metrics and T2 mean values in medial knee cartilage of 17 human subjects 6 months after ACLR were compared to 2-year changes in T2 and in cartilage thickness of the same areas. T2 texture and mean assessments were also compared to that of 11 uninjured controls. In ACLR subjects, six-month changes in mean T2 correlated to 2-year changes in mean T2 (R = 0.80, p = 0.0001), and 6-month changes to T2 texture metrics, but not T2 mean, correlated with 2-year changes in medial femoral cartilage thickness in 9 of the 20 texture features assessed (R = 0.48–0.72, p ≤ 0.05). Both mean T2 and texture differed (p evaluation of T2 map and textural changes may provide early warning of cartilage at risk for progressive degeneration after ACL injury and reconstruction. PMID:27381512

  7. Entry of Shiga toxin into cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; van Deurs, Bo

    1994-01-01

    Cellebiologi, Shiga toxin, receptors, glycolipids, endocytosis, trans-Golgi network, endoplasmic reticulum, retrograde transport......Cellebiologi, Shiga toxin, receptors, glycolipids, endocytosis, trans-Golgi network, endoplasmic reticulum, retrograde transport...

  8. Factors influencing the treatment outcome for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Ichiro; Kanehira, Chihiro; Kobayashi, Masao; Aoki, Manabu; Takagi, Sayako; Shirahama, Jun; Honda, Chikara

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors affecting local outcomes for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy. A total of 48 patients with T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma treated by definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2005 were studied. Cumulative probability of overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control and larynx-preserving were calculated according the Kaplan-Meier method, and the prognostic significance of patient's age, number of subsites involved, impaired cord mobility, anterior commisure involved, total dose and overall treatment time were analyzed using the log-rank test in univariate analysis and Cox regression in multivariate analysis. Follow-up ranged from 13 to 141 months (median, 62 months). Five-year survivals were: overall, 95.3%; cause-specific, 97.9% and five years rates were local control, 61.4%; larynx-preserving, 76.4%. Multivariate analyses of the six parameters showed that overall treatment time significantly influenced the probability of local control, and impaired mobility and overall treatment time affected the probability of larynx-preserving. Our study showed that longer overall treatment time significantly worsened the percentage of local control and larynx-preserving for patients with T2N0 glottic carcinoma treated with definitive radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest treating, the patients in a shorter treatment course. (author)

  9. Inhibition of cholera toxin and other AB toxins by polyphenolic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    All AB-type protein toxins have intracellular targets despite an initial extracellular location. These toxins use different methods to reach the cytosol and have different effects on the target cell. Broad-spectrum inhibitors against AB toxins are therefore hard to develop because the toxins use dif...

  10. Toxin synergism in snake venoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Synergism between venom toxins exists for a range of snake species. Synergism can be derived from both intermolecular interactions and supramolecular interactions between venom components, and can be the result of toxins targeting the same protein, biochemical pathway or physiological process. Few...... simple systematic tools and methods for determining the presence of synergism exist, but include co-administration of venom components and assessment of Accumulated Toxicity Scores. A better understanding of how to investigate synergism in snake venoms may help unravel strategies for developing novel...

  11. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertinsky, A.T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D. [Stanford University Medical Center, Lucile Salter Packard Children' s Hospital, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Krasnokutsky, Michael V. [Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tacoma, WA (United States); Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, Department of Radiology, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland [Lucas Center, Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  12. Performance of PROPELLER relative to standard FSE T2-weighted imaging in pediatric brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertinsky, A.T.; Rubesova, Erika; Bammer, Sabine; White, Allan; Barnes, Patrick D.; Krasnokutsky, Michael V.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Bammer, Roland

    2009-01-01

    T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging (T2-W FSE) is frequently degraded by motion in pediatric patients. MR imaging with periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) employs alternate sampling of k-space to achieve motion reduction. To compare T2-W PROPELLER FSE (T2-W PROP) with conventional T2-W FSE for: (1) image quality; (2) presence of artefacts; and (3) ability to detect lesions. Ninety-five pediatric patients undergoing brain MRI (1.5 T) were evaluated with T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP. Three independent radiologists rated T2-W FSE and T2-W PROP, assessing image quality, presence of artefacts, and diagnostic confidence. Chi-square analysis and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to assess the radiologists' responses. Compared with T2-W FSE, T2-W PROP demonstrated better image quality and reduced motion artefacts, with the greatest benefit in children younger than 6 months. Although detection rates were comparable for the two sequences, blood products were more conspicuous on T2-W FSE. Diagnostic confidence was higher using T2-W PROP in children younger than 6 months. Average inter-rater agreement was 87%. T2-W PROP showed reduced motion artefacts and improved diagnostic confidence in children younger than 6 months. Thus, use of T2-W PROP rather than T2-W FSE should be considered in routine imaging of this age group, with caution required in identifying blood products. (orig.)

  13. Heat transport modelling in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.

    2009-02-01

    A model to estimate the heat transport in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) is described. The model, based on experimental and theoretical results, divides the RFP electron heat diffusivity χe into three regions, one in the plasma core, where χe is assumed to be determined by the tearing modes, one located around the reversal radius, where χe is assumed not dependent on the magnetic fluctuations and one in the extreme edge, where high χe is assumed. The absolute values of the core and of the reversal χe are determined by simulating the electron temperature and the soft x-ray and by comparing the simulated signals with the experimental ones. The model is used to estimate the heat diffusivity and the energy confinement time during the flat top of standard plasmas, of deep F plasmas and of plasmas obtained with the intelligent shell.

  14. Edge profiles and limiter tests in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsåker, H.; Hedin, G.; Ilyinsky, L.; Larsson, D.; Möller, A.

    New edge profile measurements, including calorimetric measurements of the parallel heat flux, were made in Extrap T2. Test limiters of pure molybdenum and the TZM molybdenum alloy have been exposed in the edge plasma. The surface damage was studied, mainly by microscopy. Tungsten coated graphite probes were also exposed, and the surfaces were studied by microscopy, ion beam analysis and XPS. In this case cracking and mixing of carbon and tungsten at the interface was observed in the most heated areas, whereas carbide formation at the surface was seen in less heated areas. In these tests pure Mo generally fared better than TZM, and thin and cleaner coatings fared better than thicker and less clean.

  15. Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Spizzo, G.; Chapman, B. E.; Gravestjin, R. M.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 µs. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  16. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hakil; Lee, Hyun Young; Kwack, Kyu-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  17. Development of a recombinant toxin fragment vaccine for Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Jerzy; Zorman, Julie; Wang, Su; Miezeiewski, Matthew; Xie, Jinfu; Soring, Keri; Petrescu, Ioan; Rogers, Irene; Thiriot, David S; Cook, James C; Chamberlin, Mihaela; Xoconostle, Rachel F; Nahas, Debbie D; Joyce, Joseph G; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Heinrichs, Jon H; Secore, Susan

    2014-05-19

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, a disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease is mostly of nosocomial origin, with elderly patients undergoing anti-microbial therapy being particularly at risk. C. difficile produces two large toxins: Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB). The two toxins act synergistically to damage and impair the colonic epithelium, and are primarily responsible for the pathogenesis associated with CDI. The feasibility of toxin-based vaccination against C. difficile is being vigorously investigated. A vaccine based on formaldehyde-inactivated Toxin A and Toxin B (toxoids) was reported to be safe and immunogenic in healthy volunteers and is now undergoing evaluation in clinical efficacy trials. In order to eliminate cytotoxic effects, a chemical inactivation step must be included in the manufacturing process of this toxin-based vaccine. In addition, the large-scale production of highly toxic antigens could be a challenging and costly process. Vaccines based on non-toxic fragments of genetically engineered versions of the toxins alleviate most of these limitations. We have evaluated a vaccine assembled from two recombinant fragments of TcdB and explored their potential as components of a novel experimental vaccine against CDI. Golden Syrian hamsters vaccinated with recombinant fragments of TcdB combined with full length TcdA (Toxoid A) developed high titer IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibody titers. We also show here that the recombinant vaccine protected animals against lethal challenge with C. difficile spores, with efficacy equivalent to the toxoid vaccine. The development of a two-segment recombinant vaccine could provide several advantages over toxoid TcdA/TcdB such as improvements in manufacturability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physiological noise in murine solid tumours using T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging: a marker of tumour acute hypoxia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudelet, Christine; Ansiaux, Reginald; Jordan, Benedicte F; Havaux, Xavier; Macq, Benoit; Gallez, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    with no contrast enhancement as the result of vessel functional impairment. Furthermore, transient fluctuations appeared to occur preferentially in neoangiogenic hyperpermeable vessels. The present study suggests that spontaneous T2*-weighted GRE fluctuations are very likely to be related to the spontaneous fluctuations in blood flow and oxygenation associated with the pathophysiology of acute hypoxia in tumours. The disadvantage of the T2*-weighted GRE MRI technique is the complexity of signal interpretation with regard to pO 2 changes. Compared to established techniques such as intravital microscopy or histological assessments, the major advantage of the MRI technique lies in its capacity to provide simultaneously both temporal and detailed spatial information on spontaneous fluctuations throughout the tumour

  19. [Environmental toxins in breast milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratlid, Dag

    2009-12-17

    Breast milk is very important to ensure infants a well-composed and safe diet during the first year of life. However, the quality of breast milk seems to be affected by an increasing amount of environmental toxins (particularly so-called Persistent, Bioaccumulative Toxins [PBTs]). Many concerns have been raised about the negative effects this may have on infant health. The article is a review of literature (mainly review articles) identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed. The concentration of PBTs in breast milk is mainly caused by man's position as the terminal link in the nutritional chain. Many breast-fed infants have a daily intake of such toxins that exceed limits defined for the population in general. Animal studies demonstrate effects on endocrine function and neurotoxicity in the offspring, and a number of human studies seem to point in the same direction. However the "original" optimal composition of breast milk still seems to protect against long-term effects of such toxicity. There is international consensus about the need to monitor breast milk for the presence of PBTs. Such surveillance will be a good indicator of the population's general exposure to these toxins and may also contribute to identifying groups as risk who should not breast-feed their children for a long time.

  20. Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Munday

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved.

  1. Food irradiation and bacterial toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranter, H.S.; Modi, N.K.; Hambleton, P.; Melling, J.; Rose, S.; Stringer, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' findings indicate that irradiation confers no advantage over heat processing in respect of bacterial toxins (clostridium botulinum, neurotoxin A and staphylococcal enterotoxin A). It follows that irradiation at doses less than the ACINF recommended upper limit of 10 kGy could not be used to improve the ambient temperature shelf life on non-acid foods. (author)

  2. Botulinum toxin for vaginismus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juliana Rocha; Souza, Renan Pedra

    2012-01-01

    Vaginismus is characterized by recurrent or persistent involuntary contraction of the perineal muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina when penile, finger, tampon, or speculum penetration is attempted. Recent results have suggested the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of vaginismus. Here, we assessed previously published data to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of botulinum toxin for vaginismus. We have carried out a systematic review followed by a meta-analysis. Our results indicate that botulinum toxin is an effective therapeutic option for patients with vaginismus (pooled odds ratio of 8.723 with 95% confidence interval limits of 1.942 and 39.162, p = 0.005). This may hold particularly true in treatment-refractory patients because most of the studies included in this meta-analysis have enrolled these subjects in their primary analysis. Botulinum toxin appears to bea reasonable intervention for vaginismus. However, this conclusion should be read carefully because of the deficiency of placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials and the quality issues presented in the existing ones.

  3. Shigella Sonnei and Shiga Toxin

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-28

    Katherine Lamba, an infectious disease epidemiologist with the California Department of Public Health, discusses Shiga Toxin producing Shigella sonnei.  Created: 7/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/28/2016.

  4. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M.; Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren; Ladd, Mark E.; Quick, Harald H.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  5. Cardiac MRI. T2-mapping versus T2-weighted dark-blood TSE imaging for myocardial edema visualization in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassenstein, K.; Nensa, F.; Schlosser, T.; Umutlu, L.; Lauenstein, T.; Bruder, O.; Maderwald, S.; Ladd, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of T2 mapping for the detection of myocardial edema in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to compare this diagnostic accuracy with that of the current standard for myocardial edema imaging, which is T2w dark-blood TSE imaging. Materials and Methods: 29 patients with AMI were examined at 1.5 T. For the visualization of myocardial edema, T2 maps, calculated from three T2w SSFP images, and T2w dark-blood TSE images were acquired in standard short- and long-axis views. Cine SSFP images were acquired for the analysis of left ventricular (LV) function and late gadolinium enhancement images (LGE) for the visualization of myocardial necrosis. The T2 maps as well as the T2w dark-blood TSE images were evaluated twice independently from the cine SSFP and LGE images. The presence or absence of myocardial edema was rated visually for each LV segment. As the standard of reference, the infarct zone was defined based on the cine SSFP and the LGE images. Results: In this segment-based analysis, T2 mapping showed a sensitivity of 82 % and a specificity of 94 % for the detection of edema in the infarct zone. T2w dark-blood TSE imaging revealed a sensitivity of 50 % and a specificity of 98 %. T2 mapping showed a higher intra-rater agreement compared to T2w dark-blood TSE imaging (κ: 0.87 vs. 0.76). Conclusions: T2 mapping allows for the visualization of myocardial edema in AMI with a high sensitivity and specificity, and features better diagnostic accuracy in terms of a higher sensitivity compared to T2w dark-blood TSE imaging. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative assessment of the supraspinatus tendon on MRI using T2/T2* mapping and shear-wave ultrasound elastography: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krepkin, Konstantin; Adler, Ronald S.; Gyftopoulos, Soterios [NYU Langone Medical Center/Hospital for Joint Diseases, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Bruno, Mary; Raya, Jose G. [NYU Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine whether there is an association between T2/T2* mapping and supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties as assessed by shear-wave ultrasound elastography (SWE). This HIPAA-compliant prospective pilot study received approval from our hospital's institutional review board. Eight patients (3 males/5 females; age range 44-72 years) and nine shoulders underwent conventional shoulder MRI, T2/T2* mapping on a 3-T scanner, and SWE. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the MRI examinations in consensus for evidence of supraspinatus tendon pathology, with tear size measured for full-thickness tears. T2/T2* values and ultrasound shear-wave velocities (SWV) were calculated in three corresponding equidistant regions of interest (ROIs) within the insertional 1-2 cm of the supraspinatus tendon (medial, middle, lateral). Pearson correlation coefficients between T2/T2* values and SWV, as well as among T2, T2*, SWV and tear size, were calculated. There was a significant negative correlation between T2* and SWV in the lateral ROI (r = -0.86, p = 0.013) and overall mean ROI (r = -0.90, p = 0.006). There was significant positive correlation between T2 and measures of tear size in the lateral and mean ROIs (r range 0.71-0.77, p range 0.016-0.034). There was significant negative correlation between SWV and tear size in the middle and mean ROIs (r range -0.79-0.68, p range 0.011-0.046). Our pilot study demonstrated a potential relationship between T2* values and shear wave velocity values in the supraspinatus tendon, a finding that could lead to an improved, more quantitative evaluation of the rotator cuff tendons. (orig.)

  7. Quantitative assessment of the supraspinatus tendon on MRI using T2/T2* mapping and shear-wave ultrasound elastography: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepkin, Konstantin; Adler, Ronald S.; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Bruno, Mary; Raya, Jose G.

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between T2/T2* mapping and supraspinatus tendon mechanical properties as assessed by shear-wave ultrasound elastography (SWE). This HIPAA-compliant prospective pilot study received approval from our hospital's institutional review board. Eight patients (3 males/5 females; age range 44-72 years) and nine shoulders underwent conventional shoulder MRI, T2/T2* mapping on a 3-T scanner, and SWE. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the MRI examinations in consensus for evidence of supraspinatus tendon pathology, with tear size measured for full-thickness tears. T2/T2* values and ultrasound shear-wave velocities (SWV) were calculated in three corresponding equidistant regions of interest (ROIs) within the insertional 1-2 cm of the supraspinatus tendon (medial, middle, lateral). Pearson correlation coefficients between T2/T2* values and SWV, as well as among T2, T2*, SWV and tear size, were calculated. There was a significant negative correlation between T2* and SWV in the lateral ROI (r = -0.86, p = 0.013) and overall mean ROI (r = -0.90, p = 0.006). There was significant positive correlation between T2 and measures of tear size in the lateral and mean ROIs (r range 0.71-0.77, p range 0.016-0.034). There was significant negative correlation between SWV and tear size in the middle and mean ROIs (r range -0.79-0.68, p range 0.011-0.046). Our pilot study demonstrated a potential relationship between T2* values and shear wave velocity values in the supraspinatus tendon, a finding that could lead to an improved, more quantitative evaluation of the rotator cuff tendons. (orig.)

  8. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2-mapping at 3T MRI: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, W; Apprich, S; Welsch, G H; Mamisch, T C; Trattnig, S

    2012-05-01

    To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2 maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2 values were then statistically analysed. The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2 values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2 values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2 values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. T2 and T2 mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage in patients with osteochondrosis dissecans by means of quantitative T2- and T2*-mapping at 3 T MRI: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marik, W.; Apprich, S.; Welsch, G.H.; Mamisch, T.C.; Trattnig, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To perform an in vivo evaluation comparing overlying articular cartilage in patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) in the talocrural joint and healthy volunteers using quantitative T2 mapping at 3.0 T. Method and materials: Ten patients with OCD of Grade II or lower and 9 healthy age matched volunteers were examined at a 3.0 T whole body MR scanner using a flexible multi-element coil. In all investigated persons MRI included proton-density (PD)-FSE and 3D GRE (TrueFisp) sequences for morphological diagnosis and location of anatomical site and quantitative T2 and T2* maps. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed for the cartilage layer above the OCD and for a morphologically healthy graded cartilage layer. Mean T2 and T2* values were then statistically analysed. Results: The cartilage layer of healthy volunteers showed mean T2 and T2* values of 29.4 ms (SD 4.9) and 11.8 ms (SD 2.7), respectively. In patients with OCD of grade I and II lesions mean T2 values were 40.9 ms (SD 6.6), 48.7 ms (SD 11.2) and mean T2* values were 16.1 ms (SD 3.2), 16.2 ms (SD 4.8). Therefore statistically significantly higher mean T2 and T2* values were found in patients suffering from OCD compared to healthy volunteers. Conclusion: T2 and T2* mapping can help assess the microstructural composition of cartilage overlying osteochondral lesions.

  10. Botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent to prevent relapse in deep bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Thomas; Löffel, Anja; Kanatas, Anastasios; Karnezi, Sandy; Rana, Majeed; Fichter, Andreas; Haarmann, Stephan; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys John

    2016-05-01

    The etiology of deep bite is multifactorial. One of the causes is increased muscular activity. This makes the treatment of deep bite malocclusions difficult and often results in relapse in many cases. In this work we compared patients with surgical orthognathic treatment only and surgical orthognathic treatment with additional injections of botulinum toxin after mandibular advancement for class II division 2 malocclusion. This is a prospective study. Adult patients were assessed pretreatment (T1), posttreatment (T2), and long-term after 1 year (T3). In total, 32 patients (mean age, 30.7 years; 23 women and 9 men) reached the study end point (T3); 24 patients were treated without botulinum toxin and 8 patients received preoperative injections of botulinum toxin. Significant differences between both groups were observed, with a more stable result for the experimental group treated with botulinum toxin. In a selective group of adult patients with a class II division II incisor relationship and with a class II skeletal base, botulinum toxin injections can effectively prevent relapse. This may present an alternative to a conventional myotomy. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current profile control experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Malmberg, J. A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

    2002-11-01

    EXTRAP T2R is a high aspect ratio (R=1.24 m, a = 0.183 m) reversed-field pinch device, characterised by a double, thin shell system. The simultaneous presence of many m=1, |n| > 11 tearing modes is responsible for a magnetic field turbulence, which is believed to produce the rather high energy and particle transport that is observed in this type of magnetic configuration. In this paper first results from current profile control experiments (PPCD) in a thin shell device are shown. When an edge poloidal electric field is transiently applied, an increase of the electron temperature and of the electron density is seen, which is consistent with an increase of the thermal content of the plasma. At the same time, the soft x-ray emission, measured with a newly installed miniaturised camera, shows a peaking of the profile in the core. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the m=1 tearing modes are reduced and and the rotation velocities increase during PPCD, which is also consistent with a reduction of magnetic turbulence and a heating of the plasma

  12. The T2K fine-grained detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaudruz, P.-A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Barbi, M. [University of Regina, Physics Department, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Bishop, D. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Braam, N. [University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Brook-Roberge, D.G. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Giffin, S. [University of Regina, Physics Department, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Gomi, S. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Gumplinger, P.; Hamano, K. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hastings, N.C. [University of Regina, Physics Department, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Hastings, S. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Helmer, R.L., E-mail: helmer@triumf.ca [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Henderson, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Ieki, K. [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Jamieson, B. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kato, I.; Khan, N. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kim, J.; Kirby, B. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kitching, P. [University of Alberta, Centre for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); and others

    2012-12-22

    T2K is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment searching for {nu}{sub e} appearance in a {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The beam is produced at the J-PARC accelerator complex in Tokai, Japan, and the neutrinos are detected by the Super-Kamiokande detector located 295 km away in Kamioka. A suite of near detectors (ND280) located 280 m downstream of the production target is used to characterize the components of the beam before they have had a chance to oscillate and to better understand various neutrino interactions on several nuclei. This paper describes the design and construction of two massive fine-grained detectors (FGDs) that serve as active targets in the ND280 tracker. One FGD is composed solely of scintillator bars while the other is partly scintillator and partly water. Each element of the FGDs is described, including the wavelength shifting fiber and Multi-Pixel Photon Counter used to collect the light signals, the readout electronics, and the calibration system. Initial tests and in situ results of the FGDs' performance are also presented.

  13. Towards MRI T2 contrast agents of increased efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branca, Marlène [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205, route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Marciello, Marzia, E-mail: marziamarciello@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ciuculescu-Pradines, Diana [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205, route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Respaud, Marc [LPCNO, INSA, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Morales, Maria del Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Serra, Raphael; Casanove, Marie-José [CNRS, CEMES (Centre d' Elaboration des Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales) (France); Amiens, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.amiens@lcc-toulouse.fr [CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205, route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LCC, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles can be efficient contrast agents for T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after tuning of some key parameters such as size, surface state, colloidal stability and magnetization, thus motivating the development of new synthetic pathways. In this paper we report the effects of surface coating on the efficiency of two different types of iron based nanoparticles (NPs) as MRI contrast agents. Starting from well-defined hydrophobic iron oxide nanospheres and iron nanocubes of 13 nm size, we have used three methods to increase their hydrophilicity and transfer them into water: surface ligand modification, ligand exchange or encapsulation. The NPs obtained have been characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, and the relaxivities of their stable colloidal solutions in water have been determined. Among all samples prepared, iron nanocubes coated by silica display the highest relaxivity (r{sub 2}) value: 628 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Surface coating effect on the efficiency of iron based nanoparticles (NPs) as MRI contrast agents. • Synthesis of 2 different types of hydrophobic iron based NPs: iron oxide nanospheres and iron nanocubes (13 nm). • Development of three different procedures to stabilize iron based NPs in water. • Iron nanocubes coated by silica displayed the highest r{sub 2} value (628 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1})

  14. TRIMS: Validating T2 Molecular Effects for Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Trims Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Tritium Recoil-Ion Mass Spectrometer (TRIMS) experiment examines the branching ratio of the molecular tritium (T2) beta decay to the bound state (3HeT+). Measuring this branching ratio helps to validate the current molecular final-state theory applied in neutrino mass experiments such as KATRIN and Project 8. TRIMS consists of a magnet-guided time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a detector located on each end. By measuring the kinetic energy and time-of-flight difference of the ions and beta particles reaching the detectors, we will be able to distinguish molecular ions from atomic ones and hence derive the ratio in question. We will give an update on the apparatus, simulation software, and analysis tools, including efforts to improve the resolution of our detectors and to characterize the stability and uniformity of our field sources. We will also share our commissioning results and prospects for physics data. The TRIMS experiment is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, Award Number DE-FG02-97ER41020.

  15. MR imaging findings of diffuse axonal injury: comparison of T2-weighted gradient images and T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seo Young; Lee, Ghi Jai; Kim, Jeong Seok; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To compare T2-weighted images with spin-echo T1- and turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted images in patients with diffuse axonal injury(DAI). Using a 1.0T MR unit, SE T1-, TSE T2-, and and FLASH T2-weighted images were obtained from 69 patients with a history of head trauma. In 18MR images of 17 patients with imaging findings of DAI, T2-weighted images were retrospectively compared with SE T1- and TSE T2-weighted images. The interval between trauma and MR scan varied from 5 days to 24(mean, 11) months. Focusing on the number of lesions, and their location and signal intensity, as weel as associated findings, three images were simultaueously evaluated. In 18 MR images of 17 patients with MR imaging findings of DAI, 21 lesions were detected on T1-weighted images, 28 on TSE T2-weighted images, and 70 on T2-weighted images;the last of these revealed all lesions detected on the other two. Most lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images(17/21), hyperintense on TSE T2-weighted (21/28), and hypointense on T2-weighted (63/70). Common locations for DAI were the frontal lobe (n=3D35) and corpus callosum (n=3D22). Associated brain injuries were cortical contusion (n=3D5), brainstem injury (n=3D3), deep gray matter injury (n=3D2), and subdural hematoma(n=3D1). In patients with DAI. T2-weighted images can detect more lesions and associated petechial hemorrhage than can TSE T2-weighted images. This modality is thus useful for the evaluation of patients with head trauma.=20.

  16. Objective measurement of minimal fat in normal skeletal muscles of healthy children using T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Serai, Suraj; Merrow, Arnold C; Wang, Lily; Horn, Paul S; Laor, Tal

    2014-02-01

    Various skeletal muscle diseases result in fatty infiltration, making it important to develop noninvasive biomarkers to objectively measure muscular fat. We compared T2 relaxation time mapping (T2 maps) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with physical characteristics previously correlated with intramuscular fat to validate T2 maps and MRS as objective measures of skeletal muscle fat. We evaluated gluteus maximus muscles in 30 healthy boys (ages 5-19 years) at 3 T with T1-weighted images, T2-W images with fat saturation, T2 maps with and without fat saturation, and MR spectroscopy. We calculated body surface area (BSA), body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile (BMI %). We performed fat and inflammation grading on T1-W imaging and fat-saturated T2-W imaging, respectively. Mean T2 values from T2 maps with fat saturation were subtracted from T2 maps without fat saturation to determine T2 fat values. We obtained lipid-to-water ratios by MR spectroscopy. Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships between BSA, BMI, BMI %, T2 fat values, and lipid-to-water ratios for each boy. Twenty-four boys completed all exams; 21 showed minimal and 3 showed no fatty infiltration. None showed muscle inflammation. There was correlation between BSA, BMI, and BMI %, and T2 fat values (P values and lipid-to-water ratios (P skeletal muscles, even in microscopic amounts, and validate each other. Both techniques might enable detection of minimal pathological fatty infiltration in children with skeletal muscle disorders.

  17. Wettability of Chalk and Argillaceous Sandstones Assessed from T1/T2 Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Saidian, M.; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    ratio can quantify the affinity between the rock and wetting pore fluid. The affinity is a measure directly linked to wettability. In order to investigate the T2-shortening, we performed T1-T2 NMR experiments on different samples of chalk, Berea sandstone, and chloritic greensand, saturated either...... with water, oil or oil/water at irreducible water saturation. The T1/T2 ratio obtained from T1-T2 maps reflects the T2-shortening. We compare the T1/T2 ratio for the same type of rock, saturated with different fluids. The chalk shows high affinity for water, Berea sandstone has no clear preference for oil...

  18. Verification of T2VOC using an analytical solution for VOC transport in vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    T2VOC represents an adaption of the STMVOC to the TOUGH2 environment. In may contaminated sites, transport of volatile organic chemicals (VOC) is a serious problem which can be simulated by T2VOC. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the code, we chose a practical problem of VOC transport as the test case, conducted T2VOC simulations, and compared the results of T2VOC with those of an analytical solution. The agreements between T2VOC and the analytical solutions are excellent. In addition, the numerical results of T2VOC are less sensitive to grid size and time step to a certain extent.

  19. Regulating Toxin-Antitoxin Expression: Controlled Detonation of Intracellular Molecular Timebombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finbarr Hayes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes for toxin-antitoxin (TA complexes are widely disseminated in bacteria, including in pathogenic and antibiotic resistant species. The toxins are liberated from association with the cognate antitoxins by certain physiological triggers to impair vital cellular functions. TAs also are implicated in antibiotic persistence, biofilm formation, and bacteriophage resistance. Among the ever increasing number of TA modules that have been identified, the most numerous are complexes in which both toxin and antitoxin are proteins. Transcriptional autoregulation of the operons encoding these complexes is key to ensuring balanced TA production and to prevent inadvertent toxin release. Control typically is exerted by binding of the antitoxin to regulatory sequences upstream of the operons. The toxin protein commonly works as a transcriptional corepressor that remodels and stabilizes the antitoxin. However, there are notable exceptions to this paradigm. Moreover, it is becoming clear that TA complexes often form one strand in an interconnected web of stress responses suggesting that their transcriptional regulation may prove to be more intricate than currently understood. Furthermore, interference with TA gene transcriptional autoregulation holds considerable promise as a novel antibacterial strategy: artificial release of the toxin factor using designer drugs is a potential approach to induce bacterial suicide from within.

  20. Why do we study animal toxins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Venom (toxins) is an important trait evolved along the evolutionary tree of animals. Our knowledges on venoms, such as their origins and loss, the biological relevance and the coevolutionary patterns with other organisms are greatly helpful in understanding many fundamental biological questions, i.e., the environmental adaptation and survival competition, the evolution shaped development and balance of venoms, and the sophisticated correlations among venom, immunity, body power, intelligence, their genetic basis, inherent association, as well as the cost-benefit and trade-offs of biological economy. Lethal animal envenomation can be found worldwide. However, from foe to friend, toxin studies have led lots of important discoveries and exciting avenues in deciphering and fighting human diseases, including the works awarded the Nobel Prize and lots of key clinic therapeutics. According to our survey, so far, only less than 0.1% of the toxins of the venomous animals in China have been explored. We emphasize on the similarities shared by venom and immune systems, as well as the studies of toxin knowledge-based physiological toxin-like proteins/peptides (TLPs). We propose the natural pairing hypothesis. Evolution links toxins with humans. Our mission is to find out the right natural pairings and interactions of our body elements with toxins, and with endogenous toxin-like molecules. Although, in nature, toxins may endanger human lives, but from a philosophical point of view, knowing them well is an effective way to better understand ourselves. So, this is why we study toxins. PMID:26228472

  1. T2K Replica Target Hadron Production Measurements in NA61/SHINE and T2K Neutrino Flux Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)710687

    Accelerator based neutrino experiments generate their neutrino beams by impinging high energy protons on thick targets. The neutrino beam predictions are thus based on modeling the interactions of the beam protons inside the targets. Different hadronic models can be used with different accuracies depending on the energy range of the incident protons and on the target material. Nevertheless, none of the models can be seen as perfectly describing all different interactions. In order to reach high precision neutrino flux predictions, it is thus mandatory to be able to test and constrain the models with hadron production measurements. The T2K experiment in Japan uses the ancillary NA61/SHINE facility at CERN to constrain the production of hadrons resulting from the interactions of proton beam particles impinging on a 90cm long graphite target. Data taken by NA61/SHINE with a 30 GeV proton beam on a thin (4% interaction length) graphite target have been recorded in 2007 and 2009. They have been analysed and extens...

  2. A comparison of lesion detection and conspicuity on T2-weighted images (T2 FFE), FLAIR and diffusion-weighted images in patients with traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Eun Yong; Lee, Myeong sub; Kim, Myung Soon; Hong, In Soo; Kim, Young Ju; Whang, Gum

    2001-01-01

    To compare the lesion detectability and conspicuity in traumatic brain injury on T-2 FFE, FLAIR and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) sequences. Thirty-three patients who underwent MR brain imaging after traumatic brain injury were reviewed. T-2 FFE, FLAIR and diffusion-weighted MR sequences were obtained and were compared in terms of the detectability and conspicuity of intra- and extra-axial lesions which showed abnormal signal intensities. Among 33 patients, a total of 108 lesions were found, T-2 FFE sequences detected 88(81%) of these, FLAIR sequences 91%(84%), and diffusion-weighted sequences 57(52%). In the case of petechial hemorrhagic lesions, 16 were detected by T-2 FFE imaging but only one by FLAIR and one by DWI. Sixteen extra-axial lesions (73%) were detected by T-2 FFE, 21 (95%) by FLAIR, and 11(50%) by DWI. Lesion conspicuity on FLAIR images was judged superior to that on T-2 FFE and diffusion-weighted images in 42 lesions (75%). Eleven extra-axial Lesions (92%) were more conspicuous on FLAIR than on T-2 FFE and DWI. For detecting traumatic brain lesions and determining their conspicuity, FLAIR imaging was more useful than T-2 FFE and diffusion weighting , while T-2 FFE imaging was more sensitive for the detecion of petechial hemorrhage. Although diffusion-weighted imaging was generally inferior to both FLAIR and T-2 FFE in terms of lesion detection and conspicuity, for some lesions it was superior. The results suggest that images obtained at each pulse sequence can be used as complementary imaging sequences, and that in traumatic brain injury, the acquisition of FLAIR, T-2 FFE and diffusion-weighted images is useful

  3. Estimation of T2 relaxation time of breast cancer: Correlation with clinical, imaging and pathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.

  4. Observation of exchange of micropore water in cement pastes by two-dimensional T(2)-T(2) nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteilhet, L; Korb, J-P; Mitchell, J; McDonald, P J

    2006-12-01

    The first detailed analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) NMR T(2)-T(2) exchange experiment with a period of magnetization storage between the two T(2) relaxation encoding periods (T(2)-store-T(2)) is presented. It is shown that this experiment has certain advantages over the T(1)-T(2) variant for the quantization of chemical exchange. New T(2)-store-T(2) 2D 1H NMR spectra of the pore water within white cement paste are presented. Based on these spectra, the exchange rate of water between the two smallest porosity reservoirs is estimated for the first time. It is found to be of the order of 5 ms{-1}. Further, a careful estimate of the pore sizes of these reservoirs is made. They are found to be of the order of 1.4 nm and 10-30 nm , respectively. A discussion of the results is developed in terms of possible calcium silicate hydrate products. A water diffusion coefficient inferred from the exchange rate and the cement particle size is found to compare favorably with the results of molecular-dynamics simulations to be found in the literature.

  5. Application of fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging for examination of the neurocranium. Comparison with the conventional T2-weighted spin-echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, C.; Hosten, N.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    T 2 -weighted spin-echo imaging is the standard screening procedure in MR imaging of the neutrocranium. We evaluated fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted imaging (TT 2 ) of the neurocranium in comparison to conventional spin-echo T 2 -weighted imaging (T 2 ). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio of normal brain tissues (basal ganglia, grey and white matter, CSF fluid) and different pathologies were calculated. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher than TT 2 than in T 2 (with the exception of grey-to-white matter contrast). Tissues with increased content of water protons (mobile protons) showed the highest contrast to surrounding tissues. The increased signal intensity of fat must be given due attention in fatty lesions. Because the contrast-to-noise ratio between white matter and basal ganglia is less in TT 2 , Parkinson patients have to be examined by conventional T 2 . If these limitations are taken into account, fast spin-echo T 2 -weighted imaging is well appropriate for MR imaging of the neurocranium, resulting in heavy T 2 -weighting achieved in a short acquisition time. (orig.) [de

  6. [The use of the T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence in studying the neurocranium. A comparison with the conventional T2-weighted spin-echo sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, C; Hosten, N; Felix, R

    1994-07-01

    T2-weighted spin-echo imaging is the standard screening procedure in MR imaging of the neurocranium. We evaluated fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging (TT2) of the neurocranium in comparison to conventional spin-echo T2-weighted imaging (T2). Signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio of normal brain tissues (basal ganglia, grey and white matter, CSF fluid) and different pathologies were calculated. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher in TT2 than in T2 (with the exception of gray-to-white matter contrast). Tissues with increased content of water protons (mobile protons) showed the highest contrast to surrounding tissues. The increased signal intensity of fat must be given due attention in fatty lesions. Because the contrast-to-noise ratio between white matter and basal ganglia is less in TT2, Parkinson patients have to be examined by conventional T2. If these limitations are taken into account, fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging is well appropriate for MR imaging of the neurocranium, resulting in heavy T2-weighting achieved in a short acquisition time.

  7. Curative Radiation Therapy for T2N0M0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Kyu; Kim, Jae Choel

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Surgery is the treatment of choice for resectable non-small cell lung cancer. For patients who are medically unable to tolerate a surgical resection or who refuse surgery, radiation therapy is an acceptable alternative. A retrospective analysis of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with curative radiation therapy was performed to determine the results of curative radiation therapy and patterns of failure, and to identify factors that may influence survival. Materials and Methods : From 1986 through 1993, 39 patients with T2N0M0 non-small cell lung cancer were treated with curative radiation therapy at department of radiation oncology, Kyungpook national university hospital All patients were not candidates for surgical resection because of either patient refusal (16 patients), poor pulmonary function (12 patients), old age (7 patients), poor performance (2 patients) or coexisting medical disease (2 patients). Median age of patients was 67 years. Histologic cell type was squamous cell carcinoma in 1. All patients were treated with megavoltage irradiation and radiation dose raged from 5000cGy to 6150 cGy with a median dose of 600cGy. The median follow-up was 17 months with a range of 4 to 82 months. Survival was measured from the date therapy initiated. Results : The overall survival rate for entire patients was 40.6% at 2 years and 27.7% at 3 years, with a median survival time of 21 months he disease-free survival at 2 and 3 years was 51.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Of evaluable 20 Patients with complete response, 15 Patients were considered to have failed. Of these, 13 patients showed local failure and 2 patients failed distantly. Response to treatment (p=0.0001), tumor size (p=0.0019) and age p=0.0247) were favorably associated with overall survival. Only age was predictive for disease-free survival (p=0.0452). Conclusion : Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for small (less than 3 cm) tumors, and should be offered as an

  8. An in vitro comparative study of T2 and T2* mappings of human articular cartilage at 3-Tesla MRI using histology as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehee; Park, Sunghoon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byoung-Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung-Hyun [Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hakil [INHA University, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Young [Ajou University Medical Center, Regional Clinical Trial Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwack, Kyu-Sung [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Imaging Laboratory, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Cartilage Regeneration Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between T2 value, T2* value, and histological grades of degenerated human articular cartilage. T2 mapping and T2* mapping of nine tibial osteochondral specimens were obtained using a 3-T MRI after total knee arthroplasty. A total of 94 ROIs were analyzed. Histological grades were assessed using the David-Vaudey scale. Spearman's rho correlation analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed. The mean relaxation values in T2 map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 51.9 ± 9.2 ms, 55.8 ± 12.8 ms, and 59.6 ± 10.2 ms, respectively. The mean relaxation values in T2* map with different histological grades (0, 1, 2) of the cartilage were 20.3 ± 10.3 ms, 21.1 ± 12.4 ms, and 15.4 ± 8.5 ms, respectively. Spearman's rho correlation analysis confirmed a positive correlation between T2 value and histological grade (ρ = 0.313, p < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between T2 and T2* (r = -0.322, p < 0.05). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, this correlation was not statistically significant in this study (ρ = -0.192, p = 0.129). T2 mapping was correlated with histological degeneration, and it may be a good biomarker for osteoarthritis in human articular cartilage. However, the strength of the correlation was weak (ρ = 0.313). Although T2* values showed a decreasing trend with an increase in cartilage degeneration, the correlation was not statistically significant. Therefore, T2 mapping may be more appropriate for the initial diagnosis of articular cartilage degeneration in the knee joint. Further studies on T2* mapping are needed to confirm its reliability and mechanism in cartilage degeneration. (orig.)

  9. Signal intensity in T2' magnetic resonance imaging is related to brain glioma grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio; Heese, Oliver; Westphal, Manfred; Foerster, Ann-Freya; Siemonsen, Susanne; Fiehler, Jens; Goebell, Einar; Matschke, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    T2' values reflect the presence of deoxyhaemoglobin related to high local oxygen extraction. We assessed the feasibility of T2' imaging to display regions with high metabolic activity in brain gliomas. MRI was performed in 25 patients (12 female; median age 46 years; range 2-69) with brain gliomas with additional T2 and T2* sequences. T2' maps were derived from T2 and T2*. Dynamic susceptibility weighted contrast (DSC) perfusion was performed in 12/25 patients. Images were visually assessed by two readers and five ROIs were evaluated for each patient. Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied for statistical analysis. Three patients were not further evaluated because of artefacts. Mean values of high-grade (III-IV) gliomas showed significantly lower T2' values than low-grade (II) gliomas (p < 0.001). An inverse relationship was observed between rCBV and sqr (T2') (r = -0.463, p < 0.001). No correlation was observed between T2' and rCBV for grade II tumours (r = 0.038; p = 0.875). High-grade tumours revealed lower T2' values, presumably because of higher oxygen consumption in proliferating tissue. Our results indicate that T2' imaging can be used as an alternative to DSC perfusion in the detection of subtle deviations in tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative t2 values predict time from symptom onset in acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemonsen, Susanne; Mouridsen, Kim; Holst, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that in comparison to diffusion-weighted imaging, quantitative T2 values (qT2) are more directly related to water uptake in ischemic tissue, depending on time from symptom onset. We measured the increase of qT2 in the infarct core to quantify the correlation...

  11. Morphological imaging and T2 and T2* mapping of hip cartilage at 7 Tesla MRI under the influence of intravenous gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazik-Palm, Andrea; Geis, Christina; Goebel, Juliane; Theysohn, Jens M. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Kraff, Oliver; Johst, Soeren [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Quick, Harald H. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); University Hospital Essen, High-Field and Hybrid MR Imaging, Essen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the influence of intravenous gadolinium on cartilage T2 and T2* relaxation times and on morphological image quality at 7-T hip MRI. Hips of 11 healthy volunteers were examined at 7 T. Multi-echo sequences for T2 and T2* mapping, 3D T1 volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) and double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequences were acquired before and after intravenous application of gadolinium according to a delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) protocol. Cartilage relaxation times were measured in both scans. Morphological sequences were assessed quantitatively using contrast ratios and qualitatively using a 4-point Likert scale. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation (ρ) and Wilcoxon sign-rank test were used for statistical comparisons. Pre- and post-contrast T2 and T2* values were highly correlated (T2: acetabular: ρ = 0.76, femoral: ρ = 0.77; T2*: acetabular: ρ = 0.80, femoral: ρ = 0.72). Gadolinium enhanced contrasts between cartilage and joint fluid in DESS and T1 VIBE according to the qualitative (p = 0.01) and quantitative (p < 0.001) analysis. The delineation of acetabular and femoral cartilage and the labrum predominantly improved with gadolinium. Gadolinium showed no relevant influence on T2 or T2* relaxation times and improved morphological image quality at 7 T. Therefore, morphological and quantitative sequences including dGEMRIC can be conducted in a one-stop-shop examination. (orig.)

  12. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Paola G. Ojeda; David Ramírez; Jans Alzate-Morales; Julio Caballero; Quentin Kaas; Wendy González

    2017-01-01

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics t...

  13. Collaborative Research Program on Seafood Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-14

    Crystallographic Structures of Saxitoxins Cl and C2 Appendix C: Collaborative Research Program an Seafcod Toxins Progress Report on Ciguatera and Related...radioimmunoassay for PSP were also evalumted. The Hokama stick test for ciguatera toxin was also evaluated. 4. initiate Studies on the Accumulation...tco•d which caie a form of b-mnn poisoning referred to as ciguatera . The respcnsible toxins originate from ll1ular rine algae of the division

  14. Are prostate carcinoma clinical stages T1C and T2 similar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanase Billis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A recent study has found that PSA recurrence rate for clinical T1c tumors is similar to T2 tumors, indicating a need for further refinement of clinical staging system. To test this finding we compared clinicopathologic characteristics and the time to PSA progression following radical retropubic prostatectomy of patients with clinical stage T1c tumors to those with stage T2, T2a or T2b tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a total of 186 consecutive patients submitted to prostatectomy, 33.52% had clinical stage T1c tumors, 45.45% stage T2a tumors and 21.02% stage T2b tumors. The variables studied were age, preoperative PSA, prostate weight, Gleason score, tumor extent, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension (pT3a, seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b, and time to PSA progression. Tumor extent was evaluated by a point-count method. RESULTS: Patients with clinical stage T1c were younger and had the lowest mean preoperative PSA. In the surgical specimen, they had higher frequency of Gleason score < 7 and more organ confined cancer. In 40.54% of the patients with clinical stage T2b tumors, there was extraprostatic extension (pT3a. During the study period, 54 patients (30.68% developed a biochemical progression. Kaplan-Meier product-limit analysis revealed no significant difference in the time to PSA progression between men with clinical stage T1c versus clinical stage T2 (p = 0.7959, T2a (p = 0.6060 or T2b (p = 0.2941 as well as between men with clinical stage T2a versus stage T2b (p = 0.0994. CONCLUSION: Clinicopathological features are not similar considering clinical stage T1c versus clinical stages T2, T2a or T2b.

  15. Function-based Biosensor for Hazardous Waste Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James J Hickman

    2008-07-09

    There is a need for new types of toxicity sensors in the DOE and other agencies that are based on biological function as the toxins encountered during decontamination or waste remediation may be previously unknown or their effects subtle. Many times the contents of the environmental waste, especially the minor components, have not been fully identified and characterized. New sensors of this type could target unknown toxins that cause death as well as intermediate levels of toxicity that impair function or cause long term impairment that may eventually lead to death. The primary question posed in this grant was to create an electronically coupled neuronal cellular circuit to be used as sensor elements for a hybrid non-biological/biological toxin sensor system. A sensor based on the electrical signals transmitted between two mammalian neurons would allow the marriage of advances in solid state electronics with a functioning biological system to develop a new type of biosensor. Sensors of this type would be a unique addition to the field of sensor technology but would also be complementary to existing sensor technology that depends on knowledge of what is to be detected beforehand. We integrated physics, electronics, surface chemistry, biotechnology, and fundamental neuroscience in the development of this biosensor. Methods were developed to create artificial surfaces that enabled the patterning of discrete cells, and networks of cells, in culture; the networks were then aligned with transducers. The transducers were designed to measure electromagnetic fields (EMF) at low field strength. We have achieved all of the primary goals of the project. We can now pattern neurons routinely in our labs as well as align them with transducers. We have also shown the signals between neurons can be modulated by different biochemicals. In addition, we have made another significant advance where we have repeated the patterning results with adult hippocampal cells. Finally, we

  16. Clinical investigation of twice-a-day fractionated radiotherapy for T2 laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, K.; Kaneyasu, Y.; Fukuhara, N.; Kita-Okawa, M.; Okawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    glottic T2b (impaired vocal cord mobility) cases, five year actuarial local control rate was 78.6 % (14 cases) in the TDFR group and 64.3 % (13 cases) in the control group (n.s.). As for supraglottic cases, five year actuarial local control rate was 100 % (6 cases) in the TDFR group and 60.0% (8 cases) in the control group (n.s.). Acute reaction was slightly stronger in the TDFR cases, but by proper supportive therapy, all cases could complete the radiotherapy. There was no Grade III nor IV (severe) late complication in either group. Conclusion: From these data we can conclude that TDFR does not enhance late toxicity and might improve survival in a selected group of patients which have impaired vocal cord mobility and/or supraglottic lesion. We have to reanalyze survival data carefully with a larger number of cases in Phase III multiinstitutional randomized trial

  17. Failure of botulinum toxin injection for neurogenic detrusor overactivity: Switch of toxin versus second injection of the same toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronnet, Benoit; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Manunta, Andréa; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal; Gamé, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a second injection of the same toxin versus switching to a different botulinum toxin A after failure of a first detrusor injection in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The charts of all patients who underwent detrusor injections of botulinum toxin A (either abobotulinumtoxinA or onabotulinumtoxinA) for the management of neurogenic detrusor overactivity at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients in whom a first detrusor injection had failed were included in the present study. They were managed by a second injection of the same toxin at the same dosage or by a new detrusor injection using a different botulinum toxin A. Success was defined as a resolution of urgency, urinary incontinence and detrusor overactivity in a patient self-catheterizing seven times or less per 24 h. A total of 58 patients were included for analysis. A toxin switch was carried out in 29 patients, whereas the other 29 patients received a reinjection of the same toxin at the same dose. The success rate was higher in patients who received a toxin switch (51.7% vs. 24.1%, P = 0.03). Patients treated with a switch from abobotulinumtoxinA to onabotulinumtoxinA and those treated with a switch from onabotulinumtoxinA to abobotulinumtoxinA had similar success rates (52.9% vs. 50%, P = 0.88). After failure of a first detrusor injection of botulinum toxin for neurogenic detrusor overactivity, a switch to a different toxin seems to be more effective than a second injection of the same toxin. The replacement of onabotulinumtoxin by abobotulinumtoxin or the reverse provides similar results. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2 * : 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2 * : 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2 * : 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2 * : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2 * values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  19. Role of imaging in the follow-up of T2-T3 glottic cancer treated by transoral laser microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Filippo; Piazza, Cesare; Ravanelli, Marco; Gaggero, Giovanna; Parrinello, Giampiero; Paderno, Alberto; Perotti, Pietro; Filauro, Marta; Maroldi, Roberto; Peretti, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    An unblinded retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was carried out on 138 patients affected by glottic pT2 and selected pT3 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) treated by transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). The entire cohort was divided into two groups: Group A included 78 "high-risk" patients (pT2 with impaired vocal cord mobility, pT3 for anterior paraglottic and/or pre-epiglottic space invasion, presence of angioembolization, perineural spread, and positive lymph nodes in the neck) who underwent postoperative surveillance by endoscopy and imaging (CT or MR), while Group B included 60 "low-risk" patients (pT2 with absence of the above-mentioned features) who underwent endoscopic follow-up alone. Aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic gain in performing combined endoscopic and radiologic surveillance in the "high-risk" group compared to endoscopy alone in the "low-risk" one. There was no significant difference in terms of overall and disease-specific survivals between the two follow-up policies in spite of their different risk profiles. The same was true for organ preservation rate, which was 81% in the "high-risk" and 89% in the "low-risk" group. In contrast, the cumulative probability of disease-free survival was 54% for Group A and 65% for Group B (p = 0.0023). Therefore, our combined endoscopy and imaging surveillance protocol allowed increasing the submucosal recurrence detection rate in "high-risk" pT2-pT3 glottic SCC to 43%. An earlier detection of submucosal recurrences made salvage surgery by TLM feasible in at least half of cases, thus closing the gap between oncologic outcomes obtained in "high-"- vs. "low-risk" patients and leading to organ preservation rates that are favorably comparable to those obtained with open-neck partial laryngectomies and non-surgical organ preservation protocols.

  20. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  1. Effects of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting induced by botulinum toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, S; Duchen, L W [National Hospital, London (UK); Hornsey, S [Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit

    1982-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation on axonal sprouting of motor nerves induced by botulinum toxin was examined. Muscles of one leg in the mouse were X-irradiated (15Gy) prior to the injection of a locally paralysing dose of botulinum toxin. It was found that axonal sprouting occurred as expected, but the sprouts remained unmyelinated and many degenerated. Fewer new end-plates were formed, muscles remained more severely atrophied and supersensitive to acetylcholine and recovery of neuromuscular transmission was greatly delayed when compared with the effects of botulinum toxin alone. X-irradiation did not prevent sprouting but, probably by impairing Schwann cell proliferation, altered axon-Schwann cell relationships and prevented the maturation of newly-formed axons and the differentiation of new end-plates.

  2. Signal-to-noise ratio, T2 , and T2* for hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI of the human lung at three magnetic field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlosi, Peter; Altes, Talissa A; Qing, Kun; Mooney, Karen E; Miller, G Wilson; Mata, Jaime F; de Lange, Eduard E; Tobias, William A; Cates, Gordon D; Mugler, John P

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate T 2 , T2*, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for hyperpolarized helium-3 ( 3 He) MRI of the human lung at three magnetic field strengths ranging from 0.43T to 1.5T. Sixteen healthy volunteers were imaged using a commercial whole body scanner at 0.43T, 0.79T, and 1.5T. Whole-lung T 2 values were calculated from a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-echo-train acquisition. T2* maps and SNR were determined from dual-echo and single-echo gradient-echo images, respectively. Mean whole-lung SNR values were normalized by ventilated lung volume and administered 3 He dose. As expected, T 2 and T2* values demonstrated a significant inverse relationship to field strength. Hyperpolarized 3 He images acquired at all three field strengths had comparable SNR values and thus appeared visually very similar. Nonetheless, the relatively small SNR differences among field strengths were statistically significant. Hyperpolarized 3 He images of the human lung with similar image quality were obtained at three field strengths ranging from 0.43T and 1.5T. The decrease in susceptibility effects at lower fields that are reflected in longer T 2 and T2* values may be advantageous for optimizing pulse sequences inherently sensitive to such effects. The three-fold increase in T2* at lower field strength would allow lower receiver bandwidths, providing a concomitant decrease in noise and relative increase in SNR. Magn Reson Med 78:1458-1463, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  4. Botulinum toxin in bruxism treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Piech

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bruxism is defined as abnormal, fixed, unconscious chewing organ function, deviating qualitatively and quantitatively from normal function. Another definition speaks of motor dysfunction in the mouth, characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth, occurring during sleep. The etiology of this disorder has not been explained until now, but it is believed to be related to localized, mental, nervous and neurotransmitter disorders. Purpose: The aim of the study is to review literature and knowledge about the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of bruxism. Methods of treatment: The patient reports to the physician usually after a distressing, difficult to locate pain. The basis for proper treatment is to detect parafunctions and to make the patient aware of their existence. Diagnostic symptoms include dentinal lesions, recesses, enamel cracks and abfractive cavities, as well as changes in the mucosal area of the cheeks. Treatment begins with the use of an occlusive therapy to relax muscles, reduce parafunction and relieve pain. In the form of severe pain, NSAIDs are introduced and, if necessary, anxiolytics, sedatives and antidepressants. In the absence of response to the treatment used, botulinum toxin type A injections are used. The dose of the agent depends on the initial muscle tone and the effect of decrease in its activity is maintained for 4 to 6 months. Conclusions: The use of botulinum toxin makes it possible to selectively exclude overactive muscles, which is a great advantage over other techniques. An additional benefit of this therapy is achieved good cosmetic effect, reversible effect and minimal amount of side effects.

  5. Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, P S; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases.

  6. Synthesis and biology of cyclic imine toxins, an emerging class of potent, globally distributed marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen

    2015-03-01

    From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.

  7. A Quantitative Electrochemiluminescence Assay for Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Gerald A; Rivera, Victor R; Neal, Dwayne D; Young, Charles; Poli, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    .... Biotinylated antibodies to C. perfringens alpha toxin bound to streptavidin paramagnetic beads specifically immunoadsorbed soluble sample alpha toxin which subsequently selectively immunoadsorbed ruthenium (Ru...

  8. Toxin-Antitoxin Battle in Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria

    This PhD thesis consists of three research projects revolving around the common thread of investigation of the properties and biological functions of Toxin-Antitoxin loci. Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) loci are transcriptionally regulated via an auto-inhibition mechanism called conditional cooperativity, ...

  9. Plant insecticidal toxins in ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Sébastien; Gallet, Christiane; Després, Laurence

    2012-04-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to act against plant toxins, e.g., avoidance, excretion, sequestration and degradation of the toxin, eventually leading to a co-evolutionary arms race between insects and plants and to co-diversification. Anti-herbivore defences also negatively impact mutualistic partners, possibly leading to an ecological cost of toxin production. However, in other cases toxins can also be used by plants involved in mutualistic interactions to exclude inadequate partners and to modify the cost/benefit ratio of mutualism to their advantage. When considering the whole community, toxins have an effect at many trophic levels. Aposematic insects sequester toxins to defend themselves against predators. Depending on the ecological context, toxins can either increase insects' vulnerability to parasitoids and entomopathogens or protect them, eventually leading to self-medication. We conclude that studying the community-level impacts of plant toxins can provide new insights into the synthesis between community and evolutionary ecology.

  10. Plant Insecticidal Toxins in Ecological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ibanez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to act against plant toxins, e.g., avoidance, excretion, sequestration and degradation of the toxin, eventually leading to a co-evolutionary arms race between insects and plants and to co-diversification. Anti-herbivore defences also negatively impact mutualistic partners, possibly leading to an ecological cost of toxin production. However, in other cases toxins can also be used by plants involved in mutualistic interactions to exclude inadequate partners and to modify the cost/benefit ratio of mutualism to their advantage. When considering the whole community, toxins have an effect at many trophic levels. Aposematic insects sequester toxins to defend themselves against predators. Depending on the ecological context, toxins can either increase insects’ vulnerability to parasitoids and entomopathogens or protect them, eventually leading to self-medication. We conclude that studying the community-level impacts of plant toxins can provide new insights into the synthesis between community and evolutionary ecology.

  11. Stealth and mimicry by deadly bacterial toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yates, S.P.; Jørgensen, Rene; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2006-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A are well-characterized members of the ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin family that serve as virulence factors in the pathogenic bacteria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  New high-resolution structural data of the Michaelis complex...

  12. Automated T2 relaxometry of the hippocampus for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gavin P; Vos, Sjoerd B; Burdett, Jane L; Cardoso, M Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Duncan, John S

    2017-09-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, is associated with hippocampal volume loss and increased T2 signal. These can be identified on quantitative imaging with hippocampal volumetry and T2 relaxometry. Although hippocampal segmentation for volumetry has been automated, T2 relaxometry currently involves subjective and time-consuming manual delineation of regions of interest. In this work, we develop and validate an automated technique for hippocampal T2 relaxometry. Fifty patients with unilateral or bilateral HS and 50 healthy controls underwent T 1 -weighted and dual-echo fast recovery fast spin echo scans. Hippocampi were automatically segmented using a multi-atlas-based segmentation algorithm (STEPS) and a template database. Voxelwise T2 maps were determined using a monoexponential fit. The hippocampal segmentations were registered to the T2 maps and eroded to reduce partial volume effect. Voxels with T2 >170 msec excluded to minimize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contamination. Manual determination of T2 values was performed twice in each subject. Twenty controls underwent repeat scans to assess interscan reproducibility. Hippocampal T2 values were reliably determined using the automated method. There was a significant ipsilateral increase in T2 values in HS (p epilepsy. © 2017 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. MRI Evaluation of Non-Necrotic T2-Hyperintense Foci in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerk-Lamalice, O; Reddick, W E; Li, X; Li, Y; Edwards, A; Glass, J O; Patay, Z

    2016-05-19

    The conventional MR imaging appearance of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma suggests intralesional histopathologic heterogeneity, and various distinct lesion components, including T2-hypointense foci, have been described. Here we report the prevalence, conventional MR imaging semiology, and advanced MR imaging features of non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Twenty-five patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas were included in this study. MR imaging was performed at 3T by using conventional and advanced MR imaging sequences. Perfusion (CBV), vascular permeability (v e , K trans ), and diffusion (ADC) metrics were calculated and used to characterize non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci in comparison with other lesion components, namely necrotic T2-hyperintense foci, T2-hypointense foci, peritumoral edema, and normal brain stem. Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Sixteen non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci were found in 12 tumors. In these foci, ADC values were significantly higher than those in either T2-hypointense foci (P = .002) or normal parenchyma (P = .0002), and relative CBV values were significantly lower than those in either T2-hypointense (P = .0002) or necrotic T2-hyperintense (P = .006) foci. Volume transfer coefficient values in T2-hyperintense foci were lower than those in T2-hypointense (P = .0005) or necrotic T2-hyperintense (P = .0348) foci. Non-necrotic T2-hyperintense foci are common, distinct lesion components within diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. Advanced MR imaging data suggest low cellularity and an early stage of angioneogenesis with leaky vessels resulting in expansion of the extracellular space. Because of the lack of biopsy validation, the underlying histoarchitectural and pathophysiologic changes remain unclear; therefore, these foci may correspond to a poorly understood biologic event in tumor evolution. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  14. The woodrat gut microbiota as an experimental system for understanding microbial metabolism of dietary toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Kohl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbial communities inhabiting the alimentary tracts of mammals, particularly those of herbivores, are estimated to be one of the densest microbial reservoirs on Earth. The significance of these gut microbes in influencing the physiology, ecology and evolution of their hosts is only beginning to be realized. To understand the microbiome of herbivores with a focus on nutritional ecology, while evaluating the roles of host evolution and environment in sculpting microbial diversity, we have developed an experimental system consisting of the microbial communities of several species of herbivorous woodrats (genus Neotoma that naturally feed on a variety of dietary toxins. We designed this system to investigate the long-standing, but experimentally neglected hypothesis that ingestion of toxic diets by herbivores is facilitated by the gut microbiota. Like several other rodent species, the woodrat stomach has a sacculated, nongastric foregut portion. We have documented a dense and diverse community of microbes in the woodrat foregut, with several genera potentially capable of degrading dietary toxins and/or playing a role in stimulating hepatic detoxification enzymes of the host. The biodiversity of these gut microbes appears to be a function of host evolution, ecological experience and diet, such that dietary toxins increase microbial diversity in hosts with experience with these toxins while novel toxins depress microbial diversity. These microbial communities are critical to the ingestion of a toxic diet as reducing the microbial community with antibiotics impairs the host’s ability to feed on dietary toxins. Furthermore, the detoxification capacity of gut microbes can be transferred from Neotoma both intra and interspecifically to naïve animals that lack ecological and evolutionary history with these toxins. In addition to advancing our knowledge of complex host-microbes interactions, this system holds promise for identifying microbes that

  15. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted cervical MRI at 3 T: Comparison with two-dimensional T2-weighted sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.W.; Yoon, Y.C.; Choi, S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and reformation with two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted sequences regarding image quality of the cervical spine at 3 T. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed using a water-filled cylinder. The signal-to-noise and image homogeneity were evaluated. Fourteen (n = 14) volunteers were examined at 3 T using 3D isotropic T2-weighted sagittal and conventional 2D T2-weighted sagittal, axial, and oblique sagittal MRI. Multiplanar reformation (MPR) of the 3D T2-weighted sagittal dataset was performed simultaneously with image evaluation. In addition to artefact assessment, the visibility of anatomical structures in the 3D and 2D sequences was qualitatively assessed by two radiologists independently. Cohen’s kappa and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for the statistical analysis. Result: The 3D isotropic T2-weighted sequence resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and lowest non-uniformity (NU) among the sequences in the phantom study. Quantitative evaluation revealed lower NU values of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and muscles in 2D T2-weighted sagittal sequences compared to the 3D volume isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition (VISTA) sequence. The other NU values revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2D turbo spin-echo (TSE) and 3D VISTA sequences (0.059 < p < 0.959). 3D VISTA images showed significantly fewer CSF flow artefacts (p < 0.001) and better delineated intradural nerve rootlets (p = 0.001) and neural foramina (p = 0.016) compared to 2D sequences. Conclusion: A 3D T2 weighted sequence is superior to conventional 2D sequences for the delineation of intradural nerve rootlets and neural foramina and is less affected by CSF flow artefacts.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of hyaline articular cartilage T2 maps of knee and determine the relationship of cartilage T2 values with age, gender, articular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cağlar, E; Şahin, G; Oğur, T; Aktaş, E

    2014-11-01

    To identify changes in knee joint cartilage transverse relaxation values depending on the patient's age and gender and to investigate the relationship between knee joint pathologies and the transverse relaxation time. Knee MRI images of 107 symptomatic patients with various pathologic knee conditions were analyzed retrospectively. T2 values were measured at patellar cartilage, posteromedial and posterolateral femoral cartilage adjacent to the central horn of posterior meniscus. 963 measurements were done for 107 knees MRI. Relationship of T2 values with seven features including subarticular bone marrow edema, subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, anterior-posterior cruciate and collateral ligament tears, posterior medial and posterior lateral meniscal tears, synovial thickening and effusion were analyzed. T2 values in all three compartments were evaluated according to age and gender. A T2 value increase correlated with age was present in all three compartments measured in the subgroup with no knee joint pathology and in all patient groups. According to the ROC curve, an increase showing a statistically significant difference was present in the patient group aged over 40 compared to the patient group aged 40 and below in all patient groups. There is a statistically difference at T2 values with and without subarticular cysts, marginal osteophytes, synovial thickening and effusion. T2 relaxation time showed a statistically significant increase in the patients with a medial meniscus tear compared to those without a tear and no statistically significant difference was found in T2 relaxation times of patients with and without a posterior lateral meniscus tear. T2 cartilage mapping on MRI provides opportunity to exhibit biochemical and structural changes related with cartilage extracellular matrix without using invasive diagnostic methods.

  17. Interplay between toxin transport and flotillin localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pust, Sascha; Dyve, Anne Berit; Torgersen, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    The flotillin proteins are localized in lipid domains at the plasma membrane as well as in intracellular compartments. In the present study, we examined the importance of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 for the uptake and transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx) and the plant toxin ricin and we...... for flotillin-1 or -2. However, the Golgi-dependent sulfation of both toxins was significantly reduced in flotillin knockdown cells. Interestingly, when the transport of ricin to the ER was investigated, we obtained an increased mannosylation of ricin in flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 knockdown cells. The toxicity...... of both toxins was twofold increased in flotillin-depleted cells. Since BFA (Brefeldin A) inhibits the toxicity even in flotillin knockdown cells, the retrograde toxin transport is apparently still Golgi-dependent. Thus, flotillin proteins regulate and facilitate the retrograde transport of Stx and ricin....

  18. Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-angstrom resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits

  19. Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David FitzGerald

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function.

  20. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  1. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of Proximal Tibiofibular Cartilage by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Kim, Sun Yong (Dept. of Radiology, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea)); Min, Byoung-Hyun; Yoon, Seung-Hyun (Cartilage Regeneration Center, Ajou Univ. Medical Center, Suwon (Korea))

    2009-11-15

    Background: The proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) can be considered the fourth compartment of the knee joint. However, there have been no studies of the T2 values (T2 relaxation time) of PTFJ cartilage. Purpose: To assess the T2 values of PTFJ cartilage at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to show the clinical utility of T2 values of PTFJ cartilage for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA). Material and Methods: 118 patients who had knee MR imaging and knee radiography were enrolled. MRI was performed using a 3T MRI scanner, and T2 maps were calculated from a sagittal multi-echo acquisition. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were positioned within PTFJ cartilage and medial femoral condyle (MFC) cartilage. The average T2 value and standard deviation (SD) of each ROI were recorded. Using PTFJ cartilage as a standard reference, the T2 index ((MFC/PTFJ)x100) and T2SD index ((MFCSD/PTFJSD)x100) were calculated. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean and SD of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage. Correlation analyses were performed among the parameters age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) score, means and SDs of ROIs within PTFJ and MFC cartilage, T2 index, and T2SD index. Results: PTFJ cartilage had a significantly shorter T2 value than did MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). ROIs within PTFJ cartilage showed significantly smaller SDs than did those within MFC cartilage (P<0.0001). The average T2 value and SD of MFC and the T2SD index showed a positive correlation to the KL score (P<0.05). The correlation coefficients for the average T2 value, SD, and T2SD index of MFC were R=0.203, 0.254, and 0.268, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between T2 values of PTFJ cartilage and KL score (P=0.643). Conclusion: PTFJ cartilage showed shorter and more homogeneous T2 values with a small SD than did MFC cartilage, regardless of the degree of OA at femorotibial compartments. PTFJ cartilage may be a useful internal standard reference to diagnose OA and would be

  2. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Department of Neurology, Erlangen (Germany); Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Institute of Radiology, Linz (Austria); Schmid, A. [University of Erlangen-Nurenberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  3. Cortical T2 signal shortening in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is not due to iron deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, M.J.; Neundoerfer, B.; Fellner, C.; Fellner, F.A.; Schmid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Signal shortening of the motor cortex in T2-weighted MR images is a frequent finding in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The cause of signal shortening in ALS is unknown, although iron deposits have been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we acquired T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) MR images in addition to T2-weighted turbo spin-echo in 69 patients with ALS. Signal shortening in T2-weighted images was found in 31 patients. In T2*-weighted GRE images, only three patients had signal shortening. One patient with additional bifrontal haemorrhage had frontal but no motor cortex signal shortening. Iron deposits do not cause cortical signal shortening in patients with ALS predominantly. Other factors are presumably more important in the generation of cortical T2 shortening in ALS. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-11-07

    Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.)). Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  5. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  6. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  7. Effects of hydrogen peroxide and ultrasound on biomass reduction and toxin release in the cyanobacterium, microcystis aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.; Meng, D.; Faassen, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to increase, and the toxins they produce threaten human health and impair ecosystem services. The reduction of the nutrient load of surface waters is the preferred way to prevent these blooms; however, this is not always feasible. Quick curative measures are

  8. T2 Relaxation Time Mapping of the Cartilage Cap of Osteochondromas

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon; Laor, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition tim...

  9. The development of form two mathematics i-Think module (Mi-T2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Foo Jing; Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Nizam Lee; Tien, Lee Tien

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to develop a training module i-THINK Mathematics Form Two (Mi-T2) to increase the higher-order thinking skills of students. The Mi-T2 training module was built based on the Sidek Module Development Model (2001). Constructivist learning theory, cognitive learning theory, i-THINK map and higher order thinking skills were the building blocks of the module development. In this study, researcher determined the validity and reliability of Mi-T2 module. The design being used in this study was descriptive study. To determine the needs of Mi-T2 module, questionnaires and literature review were used to collect data. When the need of the module was determined, the module was built and a pilot study was conducted to test the reliability of the Mi-T2 module. The pilot study was conducted at a secondary school in North Kinta, Perak. A Form Two class was selected to be the sample study through clustered random sampling. The pilot study was conducted for two months and one topic had been studied. The Mi-T2 module was evaluated by five expert panels to determine the content validity of the module. The instruments being used in the study were questionnaires about the necessity of the Mi-T2 module for guidance, questionnaires about the validity of the module and questionnaires concerning the reliability of the module. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the validity and reliability coefficients of the Mi-T2 module. The content validity of Mi-T2 module was determined by Cohen's Kappa's (1968) agreement coefficient and the reliability of Mi-T2 module was determined by Cronbach Alpha's value scale. The content validity of Mi-T2 module was 0.89 and the Cronbach Alpha's value of Mi-T2 module was 0.911.

  10. Iridium-192 curietherapy for T1 and T2 epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of mouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, J.J.; Grimard, L.; Raynal, M.; Haddad, E.; Piedbois, P.; Martin, M.; Marinello, G.; Nair, R.C.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Pierquin, B.

    1990-01-01

    From 1970 to 1986, 117 patients with T1 (47) or T2 (70) epidermoid carcinomas of the floor of the mouth (SCC) were treated by iridium-192 implantation (192 Ir). The dose was prescribed according to the Paris System and varied over those years. Follow-up information was available on 116 patients. There were 46 T1N0, 47 T2N0, and 23 T2N1-3. Neck management varied for the 93 N0 patients consisting of surveillance (24 T1, 17 T2) or elective neck dissection (22 T1:all pN-, 30 T2: 20 pN-, 10 pN+). Cause specific survival rates were 94% for T1N0, 61.5% for T2N0, and 28% for T2N1-3 at 5 years. Primary local control was 93.5%, 74.5%, and 65%, respectively, and 98%, 79%, and 65% after salvage. Patients with gingival extension or a tumor size over 3 cm (T2b) had a local control of 50% (9/18) and 58% (15/26), respectively. Nodal control was 93.5% for Stage I, 85% for Stage II, and 48% for T2N1-3 patients. There was no difference in nodal control with regard to treatment policy for Stage I-II patients. There were few complications including three deaths: two from surgery and one from 192 Ir. Nodal status, tumor size defined as T1, T2a (less than or equal to 3 cm), T2b (greater than 3 cm), and gingival extension were the only independent prognostic factors. The management of T1N0 and T2N0 SCC by 192 Ir to a dose of 65 or 70 Gy, using the Paris System, is recommended for lesions 3 cm or less and without gingival extension

  11. T2 Mapping of Articular Cartilage of Glenohumeral Joint with Routine MRI Correlation—Initial Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlin, Zeev V.; Clement, Jason J.; Patola, Wayne B.; Fenton, David M.; Gillies, Jean H.; Vos, Patrick M.; Jacobson, Jon A.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of articular cartilage currently relies primarily on the identification of morphological alterations of the articular cartilage. Unlike anatomic imaging, T2 mapping is sensitive to changes in the chemical composition and structure of the cartilage. Clinical evaluation of T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance T2 mapping of the glenohumeral joint in routine clinica...

  12. A short comparison between mT2 and mCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna, Mario

    2008-01-01

    We compare m T2 with m CT ; both are kinematic variables designed to find relationships between masses of pair-produced new states with symmetric decay chains. We find that for massless visible particles m CT equals m T2 in a particular limit. We identify advantages and disadvantages to the use of each variable. Tovey's paper on m CT also introduced a powerful concept of extracting mass information from an analysis at intermediate stages of a symmetric decay chain. We suggest that m T2 is a better tool for performing this analysis than m CT due to m T2 's better properties under initial state radiation.

  13. T2* mapping of hip joint cartilage in various histological grades of degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittersohl, B; Miese, F R; Hosalkar, H S; Herten, M; Antoch, G; Krauspe, R; Zilkens, C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate T2* values in various histological severities of osteoarthritis (OA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T2* mapping including a three-dimensional (3D) double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence for morphological cartilage assessment and a 3D multiecho data image combination (MEDIC) sequence for T2* mapping were conducted in 21 human femoral head specimens with varying severities of OA. Subsequently, histological assessment was undertaken in all specimens to correlate the observations of T2* mapping with histological analyses. According to the Mankin score, four grades of histological changes were determined: grade 0 (Mankin scores of 0-4), grade I (scores of 5-8), grade II (scores of 9-10), and grade III (scores of 11-14). For reliability assessment, cartilage T2* measurements were repeated after 4 weeks in 10 randomly selected femoral head specimens. T2* values decreased significantly with increasing cartilage degeneration (total P-values fair correlation between T2* values and Mankin score (correlation coefficient = -0.362) that was statistically significant (P-value advantages of the T2* mapping technique with no need for contrast medium, high image resolution and ability to perform 3D biochemically sensitive imaging, T2* mapping may be a strong addition to the currently evolving era of cartilage biochemical imaging. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. T2-weighted imaging of the heart—A pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhur, Anirudh; Anca, Nicoleta; Mikami, Yoko; Merchant, Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Spin-Echo techniques in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have been used for decades, primarily to image cardiac anatomy. More recently, T2-weighted (T2W) imaging has seen an increased role in CMR protocols, especially in tissue characterization in acute myocardial processes. This article will review current methodologies of cardiac T2W acquisition and their limitations, as well as approach to both semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses. The appearance and utility of T2W imaging in a myriad of pathologic myocardial processes such as acute myocardial infarction, acute viral myocarditis, reversible stress-related cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac sarcoidosis, will also be discussed

  15. Performance of T2 Maps in the Detection of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aritrick; Devaraj, Ajit; Mathew, Melvy; Szasz, Teodora; Antic, Tatjana; Karczmar, Gregory S; Oto, Aytekin

    2018-05-03

    This study compares the performance of T2 maps in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in comparison to T2-weighted (T2W) magnetic resonance images. The prospective study was institutional review board approved. Consenting patients (n = 45) with histologic confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with or without endorectal coil. Two radiologists, working independently, marked regions of interests (ROIs) on PCa lesions separately on T2W images and T2 maps. Each ROI was assigned a score of 1-5 based on the confidence in accurately detecting cancer, with 5 being the highest confidence. Subsequently, the histologically confirmed PCa lesions (n = 112) on whole-mount sections were matched with ROIs to calculate sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and radiologist confidence score. Quantitative T2 values of PCa and benign tissue ROIs were measured. Sensitivity and confidence score for PCa detection were similar for T2W images (51%, 4.5 ± 0.8) and T2 maps (52%, 4.5 ± 0.6). However, PPV was significantly higher (P = .001) for T2 maps (88%) compared to T2W (72%) images. The use of endorectal coils nominally improved sensitivity (T2W: 55 vs 47%, T2 map: 54% vs 48%) compared to the use of no endorectal coils, but not the PPV and the confidence score. Quantitative T2 values for PCa (105 ± 28 milliseconds) were significantly (P = 9.3 × 10 -14 ) lower than benign peripheral zone tissue (211 ± 71 milliseconds), with moderate significant correlation with Gleason score (ρ = -0.284). Our study shows that review of T2 maps by radiologists has similar sensitivity but higher PPV compared to T2W images. Additional quantitative information obtained from T2 maps is helpful in differentiating cancer from normal prostate tissue and determining its aggressiveness. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. UTE-T2* mapping detects sub-clinical meniscus injury after anterior cruciate ligament tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A.; Qian, Y.; Golla, S.; Chu, C.R.

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Meniscus tear is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative assessment of meniscus degeneration, prior to surface break-down, is important to identification of early disease potentially amenable to therapeutic interventions. This work examines the diagnostic potential of ultrashort echo time-enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to detect human meniscus degeneration in vitro and in vivo in subjects at risk of developing OA. Design UTE-T2* maps of 16 human cadaver menisci were compared to histological evaluations of meniscal structural integrity and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment by a musculoskeletal radiologist. In vivo UTE-T2* maps were compared in 10 asymptomatic subjects and 25 ACL-injured patients with and without concomitant meniscal tear. Results In vitro, UTE-T2* values tended to be lower in histologically and clinically normal meniscus tissue and higher in torn or degenerate tissue. UTE-T2* map heterogeneity reflected collagen disorganization. In vivo, asymptomatic meniscus UTE-T2* values were repeatable within 9% (root-mean-square average coefficient of variation). Posteromedial meniscus UTE-T2* values in ACL-injured subjects with clinically diagnosed medial meniscus tear (n = 10) were 87% higher than asymptomatics (n = 10, P meniscus degeneration. Further study is needed to determine whether elevated subsurface meniscus UTE-T2* values predict progression of meniscal degeneration and development of OA. PMID:22306000

  17. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles

  18. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Paola G; Ramírez, David; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Caballero, Julio; Kaas, Quentin; González, Wendy

    2017-12-22

    Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  19. Computational Studies of Snake Venom Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola G. Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most snake venom toxins are proteins, and participate to envenomation through a diverse array of bioactivities, such as bleeding, inflammation, and pain, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic or neurotoxic effects. The venom of a single snake species contains hundreds of toxins, and the venoms of the 725 species of venomous snakes represent a large pool of potentially bioactive proteins. Despite considerable discovery efforts, most of the snake venom toxins are still uncharacterized. Modern bioinformatics tools have been recently developed to mine snake venoms, helping focus experimental research on the most potentially interesting toxins. Some computational techniques predict toxin molecular targets, and the binding mode to these targets. This review gives an overview of current knowledge on the ~2200 sequences, and more than 400 three-dimensional structures of snake toxins deposited in public repositories, as well as of molecular modeling studies of the interaction between these toxins and their molecular targets. We also describe how modern bioinformatics have been used to study the snake venom protein phospholipase A2, the small basic myotoxin Crotamine, and the three-finger peptide Mambalgin.

  20. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinastepe, Neslihan; Küçük, Burcu Bal; Oral, Koray

    2015-10-01

    Botulinum toxin, the most potent biological toxin, has been shown to be effective for a variety of disorders in several medical conditions, when used both therapeutically and cosmetically. In recent years, there has been a rising trend in the use of this pharmacological agent to control bruxing activity, despite its reported adverse effects. The aim of this review was to provide a brief overview to clarify the underlying essential ideas for the use of botulinum toxin in bruxism based on available scientific papers. An electronic literature search was performed to identify publications related to botulinum toxin and its use for bruxism in PubMed. Hand searching of relevant articles was also made to identify additional studies. Of the eleven identified studies, only two were randomized controlled trials, compared with the effectiveness of botulinum toxins on the reduction in the frequency of bruxism events and myofascial pain after injection. The authors of these studies concluded that botulinum toxin could be used as an effective treatment for reducing nocturnal bruxism and myofascial pain in patients with bruxism. Evidence-based research was limited on this topic. More randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm that botulinum toxin is safe and reliable for routine clinical use in bruxism.

  1. Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-04-01

    'Engineering Toxins for 21st Century Therapies' (9-10 September 2010) was part of the Royal Society International Seminar series held at the Kavli International Centre, UK. Participants were assembled from a range of disciplines (academic, industry, regulatory, public health) to discuss the future potential of toxin-based therapies. The meeting explored how the current structural and mechanistic knowledge of toxins could be used to engineer future toxin-based therapies. To date, significant progress has been made in the design of novel recombinant biologics based on domains of natural toxins, engineered to exhibit advantageous properties. The meeting concluded, firstly that future product development vitally required the appropriate combination of creativity and innovation that can come from the academic, biotechnology and pharma sectors. Second, that continued investigation into understanding the basic science of the toxins and their targets was essential in order to develop new opportunities for the existing products and to create new products with enhanced properties. Finally, it was concluded that the clinical potential for development of novel biologics based on toxin domains was evident. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  2. Role of Botulinum Toxin in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Mascarenhas, Sonia S; Hashmi, Aqeel; Prokop, Larry J; John, Vineeth; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Singh, Balwinder

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this review was to consolidate the evidence concerning the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxinA) in depression. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus through May 5, 2014, for studies evaluating the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in depression. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled mean difference in primary depression score, and pooled odds ratio for response and remission rate with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran Q test and χ statistic. Of the 639 articles that were initially retrieved, 5 studies enrolling 194 subjects (age 49±9.6 y) were included in the systematic review, and 3 randomized controlled trials enrolling 134 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in mean primary depression scores among patients who received botulinum toxin A compared with placebo (-9.80; 95% CI, -12.90 to -6.69) with modest heterogeneity between the studies (Cochran Q test, χ=70). Response and remission rates were 8.3 and 4.6 times higher, respectively, among patients receiving botulinum toxin A compared with placebo, with no heterogeneity between the studies. The 2 studies excluded from the meta-analysis also found a significant decrease in primary depression scores in patients after receiving botulinum toxin A. A few subjects had minor side effects, which were similar between the groups receiving botulinum toxin and those receiving placebo. This study suggests that botulinum toxin A can produce significant improvement in depressive symptoms and is a safe adjunctive treatment for patients receiving pharmacotherapy for depression. Future trials are needed to evaluate the antidepressant effect per se of botulinum toxin A and to further elucidate the underlying antidepressant mechanism of botulinum toxin A.

  3. Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Fibroids with High Signal Intensity on T2-Weighted MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Suyon; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Mu Sook; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic fibroids with high signal intensity (SI) on magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). A total of 537 cases, consisting of 14 patients with high SI fibroids on T2WI (T2 high group), were retrospectively included and compared with 28 randomly selected patients with low SI fibroids on T2WI (control group). High SI of a predominant fibroid on T2WI was defined as having the same or higher SI than the myometrium. Patient ages ranged from 28 to 52 years (mean, 38.1 years). All patients underwent MRI before and after UAE. Predominant fibroid and uterine volumes were calculated with MR images. Symptom status in terms of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea was scored on a scale of 0-10, with 0 being no symptoms and 10 being the baseline, or initial symptoms. Of the patients in the T2 high group, 13 out of 14 (92.9%) patients demonstrated complete necrosis of the predominant fibroids. The mean volume reduction rates of the predominant fibroids in the T2 high group was 61.7% at three months after UAE, which was significantly higher than the volume reduction rates of 42.1% noted in the control group (p < 0.05). Changes in symptom scores for menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea after UAE (baseline score minus follow-up score) were 4.9 and 7.5 in T2 high group and they were 5.0 and 7.7 in control group, suggesting a significant resolution of symptoms (p < 0.01) in both groups but no significant difference between the two groups. UAE is effective for uttering fibroids showing high SI on T2WI. The mean volume reduction rate of the predominant fibroids three months after UAE was greater in the T2 high group than in the control group.

  4. Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Fibroids with High Signal Intensity on T2-Weighted MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Suyon; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Myung Su; Lee, Mu Sook; Park, Sung Il; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Lee, Kwang Hun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic fibroids with high signal intensity (SI) on magnetic resonance (MR) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). A total of 537 cases, consisting of 14 patients with high SI fibroids on T2WI (T2 high group), were retrospectively included and compared with 28 randomly selected patients with low SI fibroids on T2WI (control group). High SI of a predominant fibroid on T2WI was defined as having the same or higher SI than the myometrium. Patient ages ranged from 28 to 52 years (mean, 38.1 years). All patients underwent MRI before and after UAE. Predominant fibroid and uterine volumes were calculated with MR images. Symptom status in terms of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea was scored on a scale of 0-10, with 0 being no symptoms and 10 being the baseline, or initial symptoms. Of the patients in the T2 high group, 13 out of 14 (92.9%) patients demonstrated complete necrosis of the predominant fibroids. The mean volume reduction rates of the predominant fibroids in the T2 high group was 61.7% at three months after UAE, which was significantly higher than the volume reduction rates of 42.1% noted in the control group (p < 0.05). Changes in symptom scores for menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea after UAE (baseline score minus follow-up score) were 4.9 and 7.5 in T2 high group and they were 5.0 and 7.7 in control group, suggesting a significant resolution of symptoms (p < 0.01) in both groups but no significant difference between the two groups. UAE is effective for uttering fibroids showing high SI on T2WI. The mean volume reduction rate of the predominant fibroids three months after UAE was greater in the T2 high group than in the control group.

  5. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States); Daedzinski, Bernard J. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States); Kim, Dong Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component.

  6. T2 relaxation time mapping of the cartilage cap of osteochondromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Horn, Paul; Laor, Tal; Daedzinski, Bernard J.; Kim, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the cartilage cap of osteochondromas using T2 maps and to compare these values to those of normal patellar cartilage, from age and gender matched controls. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and request for informed consent was waived. Eleven children (ages 5-17 years) with osteochondromas underwent MR imaging, which included T2-weighted fat suppressed and T2 relaxation time mapping (echo time = 9-99/repetition time = 1500 msec) sequences. Lesion origins were femur (n = 5), tibia (n = 3), fibula (n = 2), and scapula (n = 1). Signal intensity of the cartilage cap, thickness, mean T2 relaxation times, and T2 spatial variation (mean T2 relaxation times as a function of distance) were evaluated. Findings were compared to those of patellar cartilage from a group of age and gender matched subjects. The cartilage caps showed a fluid-like high T2 signal, with mean thickness of 4.8 mm. The mean value of mean T2 relaxation times of the osteochondromas was 264.0 ± 80.4 msec (range, 151.0-366.0 msec). Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer than the values from patellar cartilage (39.0 msec) (p < 0.0001). These findings were observed with T2 spatial variation plots across the entire distance of the cartilage cap, with the most pronounced difference in the middle section of the cartilage. Longer T2 relaxation times of the cartilage caps of osteochondromas should be considered as normal, and likely to reflect an increased water content, different microstructure and component

  7. Evaluation of median nerve T2 signal changes in patients with surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Yavuz; Karagöz, Yeşim; Yaman, Mehmet; Atçı, İbrahim Burak; Emre, Ufuk; Kılıçkesmez, Nuri Özgür; Çelik, Suat Erol

    2016-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of median nerve T2 evaluation and its relation with Boston Questionnaire (BQ) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in pre-operative and post-operative carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-three CTS patients and 24 healthy volunteers underwent NCSs, median nerve T2 evaluation and self-administered BQ. Pre-operative and 1st year post-operative median nerve T2 values and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were compared both within pre-operative and post-operative CTS groups, and with healthy volunteers. The relationship between MRI findings and BQ and NCSs was analyzed. The ROC curve analysis was used for determining the accuracy. The comparison of pre-operative and post-operative T2 values and CSAs revealed statistically significant improvements in the post-operative patient group (pT2 values at all levels and BQ values, and positive and negative correlations were also found regarding T2 values and NCS findings in CTS patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for defined cut-off levels of median nerve T2 values in hands with severe CTS yielded excellent accuracy at all levels. However, this accuracy could not be demonstrated in hands with mild CTS. This study is the first to analyze T2 values in both pre-operative and post-operative CTS patients. The presence of increased T2 values in CTS patients compared to controls and excellent accuracy in hands with severe CTS indicates T2 signal changes related to CTS pathophysiology and possible utilization of T2 signal evaluation in hands with severe CTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. T(2) relaxation time of hyaline cartilage in presence of different gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Edzard; Settles, Marcus; Diederichs, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The transverse relaxation time, T(2), of native cartilage is used to quantify cartilage degradation. T(2) is frequently measured after contrast administration, assuming that the impact of gadolinium-based contrast agents on cartilage T(2) is negligible. To verify this assumption the depth-dependent variation of T(2) in the presence of gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoteridol was investigated. Furthermore, the r(2)/r(1) relaxivity ratios were quantified in different cartilage layers to demonstrate differences between T(2) and T(1) relaxation effects. Transverse high-spatial-resolution T(1)- and T(2)-maps were simultaneously acquired on a 1.5 T MR scanner before and after contrast administration in nine bovine patellae using a turbo-mixed sequence. The r(2)/r(1) ratios were calculated for each contrast agent in cartilage. Profiles of T(1), T(2) and r(2)/r(1) across cartilage thickness were generated in the absence and presence of contrast agent. The mean values in different cartilage layers were compared for global variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test and pairwise using the Mann-Whitney U-test. T(2) of unenhanced cartilage was 98 +/- 5 ms at 1 mm and 65 +/- 4 ms at 3 mm depth. Eleven hours after contrast administration significant differences (p cartilage thickness were close to 1.0 (range 0.9-1.3). At 1.5 T, T(2) decreased significantly in the presence of contrast agents, more pronounced in superficial than in deep cartilage. The change in T(2) relaxation rate was similar to the change in T(1). Cartilage T(2) measurements after contrast administration will lead to systematic errors in the quantification of cartilage degradation. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Measurements of hadron yields from the T2K replica target in the NA61/SHINE experiment for neutrino flux prediction in T2K

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086777

    T2K is an accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan. The main goal of the T2K experiment is a search for CP violation in the lepton sector by measuring electron (anti)neutrino appearance in a muon (anti)neutrino beam. Initial (anti)neutrino flux is produced in decays of hadrons which originate from the interactions and the re-interactions of a $30\\:$GeV proton beam with a $90\\:$cm long graphite target. Knowledge of the T2K neutrino flux is limited due to large hadron production uncertainties. A series of hadron production measurements were done to solve this problem, in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN. Measurements were performed with a proton beam and two target types: a thin graphite target and a replica of the T2K target. Work presented in this thesis concentrates on the T2K replica target data taken in 2010 and the development of the analysis and calibration software. The aim of these measurements is to fully constrain production of $\\pi^+$, $\\pi^-$, $K^+$, $K^-$ and $p$ coming from t...

  10. Association of plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin rs4684677 polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Rong; Han, Jing; Tian, Sai; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Jie; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims People with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risks of cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin rs4684677 polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in T2DM patients. Results In addition to elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), T2DM patients with MCI had decreased plasma ghre...

  11. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne Rl; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-10-05

    Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Toxin production in Dinophysis and the fate of these toxins in marine mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a considerable threat to food safety and to the economy of shellfish fishers and farmers in many parts of the world. Thousands of DSP intoxications have been reported, and bivalve harvesting can sometimes be closed down several months in a row. The toxins....... acuta. I grew the two species in laboratory cultures at different irradiances (7-130 μmol photons m-2 s-1) and with different food availability. The results showed that irradiance had no effects on toxin profiles, and only limited effects of the cellular toxin contents. Rather, toxin production rates...... are primarily produced by the marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp., known to occur in most parts of the world. Dinophysis can, along with other planktonic organisms, be consumed by filter-feeding bivalves, and thus the toxins can accumulate. Dinophysis can produce the three toxin groups, okadaic...

  13. Conditional Toxin Splicing Using a Split Intein System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Spencer C; O'Sullivan, Connor; Howard, Perry L

    2017-01-01

    Protein toxin splicing mediated by split inteins can be used as a strategy for conditional cell ablation. The approach requires artificial fragmentation of a potent protein toxin and tethering each toxin fragment to a split intein fragment. The toxin-intein fragments are, in turn, fused to dimerization domains, such that addition of a dimerizing agent reconstitutes the split intein. These chimeric toxin-intein fusions remain nontoxic until the dimerizer is added, resulting in activation of intein splicing and ligation of toxin fragments to form an active toxin. Considerations for the engineering and implementation of conditional toxin splicing (CTS) systems include: choice of toxin split site, split site (extein) chemistry, and temperature sensitivity. The following method outlines design criteria and implementation notes for CTS using a previously engineered system for splicing a toxin called sarcin, as well as for developing alternative CTS systems.

  14. Clinical study of T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers. Key points for laryngeal preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Takashi; Koike, Shuji; Inamura, Hiroo; Aoyagi, Masaru; Namura, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    Between 1989 and 2003, we treated 129 patients with T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers. The purpose of this study was to estimate the management of T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers, referring to the relationship with the T classification, subtype, treatment, prognosis and laryngeal preservation. The treatment plan for T1 and T2 laryngeal cancers is fundamentally radiotherapy. To raise the laryngeal preservation rate, concurrent chemoradiotherapy by FAR therapy, carboplatin (CBDCA), docetaxel (DOC) and laser treatment was performed for the T2 cases. The 5-year survival rates of the T1 and T2 cases were 94.7% and 94.8%, respectively. The 5-year laryngeal preservation rates of the T1 and T2 cases were 97.1% and 72.3%, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of the glottic cancer and supraglottic cancer cases were 96.7% and 87.0% and the 5-year laryngeal preservation rates of these cases were 97.1% and 57.2%, respectively. Particularly in T2 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, the laryngeal preservation rate is not improved even with concurrent chemoradiotherapy by CBDCA and FAR therapy. To improve the laryngeal preservation rate in T2 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, it is necessary to consider concurrent chemoradiotherapy by DOC or hyperfractionation. (author)

  15. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among palestinians with T2DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad; Davidovitch, Nadav; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Palestinians. METHODS: 1308 diagnosed T2DM attending four main Primary Health Care Clinics on the Southern West Bank of Palestine examined by a Mobile Diabetes Clinic team. All diabetes...

  16. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nketiah, G.; Elschot, M.; Kim, E.; Teruel, J.R.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Bathen, T.F.; Selnaes, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

  17. Significant changes of T2 value in the peripheral zone and seminal vesicles after ejaculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Takeshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tochigi (Japan); Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Urology, Saitama (Japan); Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tochigi (Japan); Shukuya, Toshiro; Nozaki, Miwako [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Urology, Saitama (Japan)

    2018-03-15

    To analyse the quantitative changes of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ejaculation. Ten healthy young males were enrolled for T2-weighted and T2 mapping MRI before and after two consecutive ejaculations. T2 values of the peripheral zone (PZ) and the central gland (CG) at the midgland of the prostate were compared before and after ejaculation, respectively. T2 values of the PZ at the apex and base were also compared before and after, respectively. Pre- and post-ejaculation SV volumes were compared. The Wilcoxon's signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment was used for comparison. After ejaculation, T2 values of the PZ significantly decreased (mean, 119±20 vs. 105±21, p=0.002) while those of the CG did not significantly change at the midgland. At the apex, T2 values of the PZ also decreased significantly (mean, 114±9 vs. 94±7, p=0.002). On the other hand, T2 values of the PZ did not change at the base. SV volumes were significantly reduced after ejaculation (mean, 11.1±7.7mL vs. 7.2±6.7mL, p=0.002). Ejaculation decreases T2 values of the PZ at the midgland and apex, and reduces SV volumes. Abstinence periods should be considered in evaluating the prostate and SV on MRI. (orig.)

  18. TNFα Post-Translationally Targets ZnT2 to Accumulate Zinc in Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Stephen R; Kelleher, Shannon L

    2015-10-01

    Mammary epithelial cells undergo widespread lysosomal-mediated cell death (LCD) during early mammary gland involution. Recently, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a cytokine released during early involution, redistributes the zinc (Zn) transporter ZnT2 to accumulate Zn in lysosomes and activate LCD and involution. The objective of this study is to determine how TNFα retargets ZnT2 to lysosomes. We tested the hypothesis that TNFα signaling dephosphorylates ZnT2 to uncover a highly conserved dileucine motif (L294L) in the C-terminus of ZnT2, allowing adaptor protein complex-3 (AP-3) to bind and traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. Confocal micrographs showed that TNFα redistributed wild-type (WT) ZnT2 from late endosomes (Pearson's coefficient = 0.202 ± 0.05 and 0.097 ± 0.03; Plysosomes (0.292 ± 0.03 and 0.649 ± 0.03; Plysosomal Zn (Plysosomes, increase lysosomal Zn, or activate LCD. Moreover, TNFα increased (Plysosomes and activate LCD. Our findings suggest that women with variation in the C-terminus of ZnT2 may be at risk for inadequate involution and breast disease due the inability to traffic ZnT2 to lysosomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of cerebral white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis using multicomponent T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovicova, Eva; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Kantorova, Ema; Hnilicova, Petra; Dobrota, Dusan

    2016-05-01

    A standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation of white matter (WM) areas with visible or expected pathology does not explain satisfactorily the relation between pathology and clinical outcome. Therefore, we focused on multicomponent T2 mapping of WM with the intention to characterize the WM, including normal-appearing white matter that has normal and prolonged T2 and lesions, including degenerated tissue. Twenty-nine patients with clinically diagnosed MS and 27 healthy controls underwent MRI examination. T2 mapping of the WM across the two whole MRI slices was carried out. The relative abundance of biologically relevant T2 regions was correlated with age and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The relative abundance of the T2 values of water trapped in myelin increased with age in both healthy subjects (p T2 assigned to intra- and extracellular water decreased with age in both groups (p T2 above 110 ms were not related to age, but strongly increased with EDSS (p T2 mapping of the WM can be a useful parameter for monitoring the progression of MS in patients.

  20. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  1. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  2. Revisiting T2KK and T2KO physics potential and ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} beam ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Kaoru [Theory Center, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sokendai, Department of Accelerator Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon [KIAS, School of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Okamura, Naotoshi [International University of Health and Welfare, Department of Radiological Sciences, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Takaesu, Yoshitaro [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We revisit the sensitivity study of the Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Korea (T2KK) and Tokai-to-Kamioka-and-Oki (T2KO) proposals where a water Cerenkov detector with the 100 kton fiducial volume is placed in Korea (L = 1000 km) and Oki island (L = 653 km) in Japan, respectively, in addition to the Super-Kamiokande for determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and leptonic CP phase (δ{sub CP}). We systematically study the running ratio of the ν{sub μ} and anti ν{sub μ} focusing beams with dedicated background estimation for the ν{sub e} appearance and ν{sub μ} disappearance signals, especially improving treatment of the neutral-current π{sup 0} backgrounds. Using a ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} beam ratio between 3:2 and 2.5:2.5 (in units of 10{sup 21}POT with the proton energy of 40 GeV), the mass-hierarchy determination with the median sensitivity of 3-5 σ by the T2KK and 1-4 σ by the T2KO experiment are expected when sin{sup 2}θ{sub 23} = 0.5, depending on the mass-hierarchy pattern and CP phase. These sensitivities are enhanced (reduced) by 30-40% in Δχ{sup 2} when sin{sup 2}θ{sub 23} = 0.6 (0.4). The CP phase is measured with the uncertainty of 20 {sup circle} -50 {sup circle} by the T2KK and T2KO using the ν{sub μ}- anti ν{sub μ} focusing beam ratio between 3.5:1.5 and 1.5:3.5. These findings indicate that inclusion of the anti ν{sub μ} focusing beam improves the sensitivities of the T2KK and T2KO experiments to both the mass-hierarchy determination and the leptonic CP phase measurement simultaneously with the preferred beam ratio being between 3:2-2.5:2.5 (x 10{sup 21}POT). (orig.)

  3. The usefulness of T2-weighted MR urography and contrast enhanced MR urography in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy: comparisonal study with antegrade pyelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Jin, Kong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Young Kon; Oh, Gyung Jae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted magnetic resonance urography (MRU) for the depiction of obstruction and evaluation of the causes of obstructive uropathy with that of antegrade pyelography. Twenty-five patients with obstructive uropathy who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade pyelography( AGP) were included in the study. We performed MR urography, comprising half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) T2- weighted imaging and 3-D fast imaging with steady state precession (3-D FISP) T1-weighted imaging after gadolinium enhancement and compared the quality of the images of both the HASTE and 3-D FISP MRU technique in terms of their depiction of the dilated pelvocalyceal system, and the level, type, and causes of obstruction. In terms of anatomical depiction of the pelvocalyceal system (p=0.002) and the causes of obstruction (p=0.003). T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP was significantly better than T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence. Regarding level of obstruction, T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP showed an accuracy of 76% (19/25) and 84% (21/25), respectively. In terms of type of obstruction, the accuracy of T2-weighted MRU and T1-weighted CEMRU was 72% (18/25) and 88% (22/25), respectively. T2-weighted MRU and Ta-weighted CEMRU provided both anatomical information and that relating to impaired renal function. The two modelities played a complementary role and their use could decrease the unnecessary use of invasive diagnostic examination for the evaluation of obstructive uropathy

  4. RETRACTED: Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiqiang; Jiang, Zongpei; Zhou, Tian-Biao

    2015-12-01

    This article has been included in a multiple retraction: Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10.1177/1470320314566019 This article has been retracted at the request of the Editors and the Publisher. After conducting a thorough investigation, SAGE found that the submitting authors of a number of papers published in the Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ( JRAAS) (listed below) had supplied fabricated contact details for their nominated reviewers. The Editors accepted these papers based on the reports supplied by the individuals using these fake reviewer email accounts. After concluding that the peer review process was therefore seriously compromised, SAGE and the journal Editors have decided to retract all affected articles. Online First articles (these articles will not be published in an issue) Wenzhuang Tang, Tian-Biao Zhou, and Zongpei Jiang Association of the angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with risk of diabetes mellitus developing into diabetic nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563426, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563426 Tian-Biao Zhou, Hong-Yan Li, Zong-Pei Jiang, Jia-Fan Zhou, Miao-Fang Huang, and Zhi-Yang Zhou Role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in radiation nephropathy Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314563424, first published on December 18, 2014 doi: 10.1177/1470320314563424 Weiqiang Zhong, Zongpei Jiang, and Tian-Biao Zhou Association between the ACE I/D gene polymorphism and T2DN susceptibility: The risk of T2DM developing into T2DN in the Asian population Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 1470320314566019, first published on January 26, 2015 doi: 10

  5. Mono-Exponential Fitting in T2-Relaxometry: Relevance of Offset and First Echo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Milford

    Full Text Available T2 relaxometry has become an important tool in quantitative MRI. Little focus has been put on the effect of the refocusing flip angle upon the offset parameter, which was introduced to account for a signal floor due to noise or to long T2 components. The aim of this study was to show that B1 imperfections contribute significantly to the offset. We further introduce a simple method to reduce the systematic error in T2 by discarding the first echo and using the offset fitting approach.Signal curves of T2 relaxometry were simulated based on extended phase graph theory and evaluated for 4 different methods (inclusion and exclusion of the first echo, while fitting with and without the offset. We further performed T2 relaxometry in a phantom at 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging scanner and used the same methods for post-processing as in the extended phase graph simulated data. Single spin echo sequences were used to determine the correct T2 time.The simulation data showed that the systematic error in T2 and the offset depends on the refocusing pulse, the echo spacing and the echo train length. The systematic error could be reduced by discarding the first echo. Further reduction of the systematic T2 error was reached by using the offset as fitting parameter. The phantom experiments confirmed these findings.The fitted offset parameter in T2 relaxometry is influenced by imperfect refocusing pulses. Using the offset as a fitting parameter and discarding the first echo is a fast and easy method to minimize the error in T2, particularly for low to intermediate echo train length.

  6. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  7. Biochemical T2* MR quantification of ankle arthrosis in pes cavovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Fabian G; Klammer, Georg; Benneker, Lorin M; Werlen, Stefan; Mamisch, Tallal C; Weber, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Pes cavovarus affects the ankle biomechanics and may lead to ankle arthrosis. Quantitative T2 STAR (T2*) magnetic resonance (MR) mapping allows high resolution of thin cartilage layers and quantitative grading of cartilage degeneration. Detection of ankle arthrosis using T2* mapping in cavovarus feet was evaluated. Eleven cavovarus patients with symptomatic ankle arthrosis (13 feet, mean age 55.6 years, group 1), 10 cavovarus patients with no or asymptomatic, mild ankle arthrosis (12 feet, mean age 41.8 years, group 2), and 11 controls without foot deformity (18 feet, mean age 29.8 years, group 3) had quantitative T2* MR mapping. Additional assessment included plain radiographs and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score (groups 1 and 2 only). Mean global T2* relaxation time was significantly different between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.001) and groups 1 and 3 (p = 0.017), but there was no significance for decreased global T2* values in group 2 compared to group 3 (p = 0.345). Compared to the medial compartment T2* values of the lateral compartment were significantly (p = 0.025) higher within group 1. T2* values in the medial ankle joint compartment of group 2 were significantly lower than those of group 1 (p = 0.019). Ankle arthrosis on plain radiographs and the AOFAS score correlated significantly with T2* values in the medial compartment of group 1 (p = 0.04 and 0.039, respectively). Biochemical, quantitative T2* MR mapping is likely effective to evaluate ankle arthrosis in cavovarus feet but further studies are required. © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. T2 Magnetic Resonance Assay: Overview of Available Data and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis M. Zacharioudakis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a common healthcare-associated infection with a high mortality rate that can exceed 60% in cases of septic shock. Blood culture performance is far from ideal, due to the long time to positivity and suppression by antifungal agents. The T2 Magnetic Resonance (T2MR assay is an FDA-approved qualitative molecular diagnostic method that can detect and speciate the 5 most common Candida spp.; namely, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei, in approximately 5 h. In a multicenter clinical trial that included both a prospective and a contrived arm to represent the full range of clinically relevant concentrations of Candida spp., T2MR demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 91.1% and 98.1%, respectively. The utility of T2MR in candidemia depends on the prevalence of disease in each clinical setting. In intensive care units and other high-prevalence settings, the incorporation of T2MR in diagnostic algorithms is very appealing. T2MR is expected to allow timely initiation of antifungal therapy and help with anti-fungal stewardship. In low-prevalence settings, the positive predictive value of T2MR might not be enough to justify initiation of antifungal treatment in itself. The performance of T2MR has not been studied in cases of deep-seated candidiasis. Despite some promising evidence in published clinical trials, further studies are needed to determine the performance of T2MR in invasive candidiasis without candidemia. Overall, experience with T2MR in everyday clinical practice is evolving but, in the right setting, this technology is expected to provide “actionable information” for the management of patients evaluated for candidemia.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by axial T2* mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Leitao; Liu, Yuan; Ding, Yi; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Ning; Lai, Qi; Zeng, Xianjun; Wan, Zongmiao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the clinical value and demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2* mapping-based grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease (DDD) using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting.Fifty patients with low back pain and 20 healthy volunteers (control) underwent standard MRI protocols including axial T2* mapping. All the intervertebral discs (IVDs) were classified morphologically. Lumbar IVDs were graded using Pfirrmann score (I to IV). The T2* values of the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and nucleus pulposus (NP) of each lumbar IVD were measured. The differences between groups were analyzed regarding specific T2* pattern at different regions of interest.The T2* values of the NP and posterior AF in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P T2* value of the anterior AF was not significantly different between the patients and the controls (P > .05). The mean T2*values of the lumbar IVD in the patient group were significantly lower, especially the posterior AF, followed by the NP, and finally, the anterior AF. In the anterior AF, comparison of grade I with grade III and grade I with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). Similarly, in the NP, comparison of grade I with grade III, grade I with grade IV, grade II with grade III, and grade II with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P T2 values decreased linearly with increasing degeneration based on the Pfirrmann scoring system (ρ T2* value can signify early degenerative IVD diseases. Hence, T2* mapping can be used as a diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of IVD degeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by axial T2∗ mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Leitao; Liu, Yuan; Ding, Yi; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Ning; Lai, Qi; Zeng, Xianjun; Wan, Zongmiao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To quantitatively evaluate the clinical value and demonstrate the potential benefits of biochemical axial T2∗ mapping-based grading of early stages of degenerative disc disease (DDD) using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a clinical setting. Fifty patients with low back pain and 20 healthy volunteers (control) underwent standard MRI protocols including axial T2∗ mapping. All the intervertebral discs (IVDs) were classified morphologically. Lumbar IVDs were graded using Pfirrmann score (I to IV). The T2∗ values of the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), posterior AF, and nucleus pulposus (NP) of each lumbar IVD were measured. The differences between groups were analyzed regarding specific T2∗ pattern at different regions of interest. The T2∗ values of the NP and posterior AF in the patient group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P T2∗ value of the anterior AF was not significantly different between the patients and the controls (P > .05). The mean T2∗values of the lumbar IVD in the patient group were significantly lower, especially the posterior AF, followed by the NP, and finally, the anterior AF. In the anterior AF, comparison of grade I with grade III and grade I with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). Similarly, in the NP, comparison of grade I with grade III, grade I with grade IV, grade II with grade III, and grade II with grade IV showed statistically significant differences (P T2∗ values decreased linearly with increasing degeneration based on the Pfirrmann scoring system (ρ T2∗ value can signify early degenerative IVD diseases. Hence, T2∗ mapping can be used as a diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of IVD degeneration. PMID:29390547

  11. Isotropic three-dimensional T2 mapping of knee cartilage: Development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotti, Roberto; Omoumi, Patrick; Bonanno, Gabriele; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; van Heeswijk, Ruud B

    2018-02-01

    1) To implement a higher-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping technique that uses sequential T 2 -prepared segmented gradient-recalled echo (Iso3DGRE) images for knee cartilage evaluation, and 2) to validate it both in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Iso3DGRE sequence with an isotropic 0.6 mm spatial resolution was developed on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the pulse sequence parameters. A phantom study was performed to validate the T 2 estimation accuracy. The repeatability of the sequence was assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 7). T 2 values were compared with those from a clinical standard 2D multislice multiecho (MSME) T 2 mapping sequence in knees of healthy volunteers (n = 13) and in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA, n = 5). The numerical simulations resulted in 100 excitations per segment and an optimal radiofrequency (RF) excitation angle of 15°. The phantom study demonstrated a good correlation of the technique with the reference standard (slope 0.9 ± 0.05, intercept 0.2 ± 1.7 msec, R 2 ≥ 0.99). Repeated measurements of cartilage T 2 values in healthy volunteers showed a coefficient of variation of 5.6%. Both Iso3DGRE and MSME techniques found significantly higher cartilage T 2 values (P < 0.03) in OA patients. Iso3DGRE precision was equal to that of the MSME T 2 mapping in healthy volunteers, and significantly higher in OA (P = 0.01). This study successfully demonstrated that high-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping for knee cartilage characterization is feasible, accurate, repeatable, and precise. The technique allows for multiplanar reformatting and thus T 2 quantification in any plane of interest. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:362-371. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis - 2015. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  13. Toxins and antimicrobial peptides: interactions with membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-08-01

    The innate immunity to pathogenic invasion of organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms relies upon cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the first line of defense. In addition to these natural peptide antibiotics, similar cationic peptides, such as the bee venom toxin melittin, act as nonspecific toxins. Molecular details of AMP and peptide toxin action are not known, but the universal function of these peptides to disrupt cell membranes of pathogenic bacteria (AMPs) or a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes (melittin) is widely accepted. Here, we have utilized spectroscopic techniques to elucidate peptide-membrane interactions of alpha-helical human and mouse AMPs of the cathelicidin family as well as the peptide toxin melittin. The activity of these natural peptides and their engineered analogs was studied on eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane mimics consisting of resistant pathogens.

  14. Bacterial toxins as pathogen weapons against phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana edo Vale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favour microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signalling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.

  15. How Parkinsonian Toxins Dysregulate the Autophagy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben K. Dagda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, Parkinsonian toxins (6-hydroxydopamine, MPP+, paraquat, and rotenone have been widely employed as in vivo and in vitro chemical models of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Alterations in mitochondrial homeostasis, protein quality control pathways, and more recently, autophagy/mitophagy have been implicated in neurotoxin models of PD. Here, we highlight the molecular mechanisms by which different PD toxins dysregulate autophagy/mitophagy and how alterations of these pathways play beneficial or detrimental roles in dopamine neurons. The convergent and divergent effects of PD toxins on mitochondrial function and autophagy/mitophagy are also discussed in this review. Furthermore, we propose new diagnostic tools and discuss how pharmacological modulators of autophagy/mitophagy can be developed as disease-modifying treatments for PD. Finally, we discuss the critical need to identify endogenous and synthetic forms of PD toxins and develop efficient health preventive programs to mitigate the risk of developing PD.

  16. Botulinum toxin type a for chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Avi

    2010-03-01

    Chronic migraine (CM) is the leading cause of chronic daily headache, a common and debilitating headache syndrome. The management of CM patients is challenging, with only limited benefit from available oral preventive medications. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has been used extensively to treat disorders associated with increased muscle tone. More recent scientific data support an analgesic effect of the toxin. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of BoNT make it an appealing candidate for migraine prevention. Results from older clinical trials on the efficacy of the toxin in CM were inconclusive. However, recent trials using more stringent inclusion criteria have shown positive results, supporting the use of the toxin in some patients with this disorder. This review summarizes the scientific data on the analgesic properties of BoNT, as well as the clinical data on the efficacy of the toxin in treating CM.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Shiga toxin to Shigellosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  18. Updates on tetanus toxin: a fundamental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ahaduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium tetani is an anaerobic bacterium that produces second most poisonous protein toxins than any other bacteria. Tetanus in animals is sporadic in nature but difficult to combat even by using antibiotics and antiserum. It is crucial to understand the fundamental mechanisms and signals that control toxin production for advance research and medicinal uses. This review was intended for better understanding the basic patho-physiology of tetanus and neurotoxins (TeNT among the audience of related field.

  19. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2{sup *} of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues; T1-, T2- und T2{sup *}-Relaxationswerte von Aepfeln, Birnen, Zitrusfruechten und Kartoffeln im Vergleich zu menschlichen Geweben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2{sup *} relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2{sup *}: 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2{sup *}: 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2{sup *}: 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2{sup *}: 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2{sup *} values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  20. Botulinum toxin therapy for limb dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, D M; Aminoff, M J; Olney, R K

    1992-03-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in 17 patients with limb dystonias (10 with occupational cramps, three with idiopathic dystonia unrelated to activity, and two each with post-stroke and parkinsonian dystonia) in a placebo-controlled, blinded study. We identified affected muscles clinically and by recording the EMG from implanted wire electrodes at rest and during performance of tasks that precipitated abnormal postures. There were three injections given with graded doses of toxin (average doses, 5 to 10, 10 to 20, and 20 to 40 units per muscle) and one with placebo, in random order. Subjective improvement occurred after 53% of injections of botulinum toxin, and this was substantial in 24%. Only one patient (7%) improved after placebo injection. Subjective improvement occurred in 82% of patients with at least one dose of toxin, lasting for 1 to 4 months. Response rates were similar between clinical groups. Objective evaluation failed to demonstrate significant improvement following treatment with toxin compared with placebo. The major side effect was transient focal weakness after 53% of injections of toxin.

  1. Botulinum toxin for the treatment of strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Noonan, Carmel P

    2017-03-02

    The use of botulinum toxin as an investigative and treatment modality for strabismus is well reported in the medical literature. However, it is unclear how effective it is in comparison to other treatment options for strabismus. The primary objective was to examine the efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy in the treatment of strabismus compared with alternative conservative or surgical treatment options. This review sought to ascertain those types of strabismus that particularly benefit from the use of botulinum toxin as a treatment option (such as small angle strabismus or strabismus with binocular potential, i.e. the potential to use both eyes together as a pair). The secondary objectives were to investigate the dose effect and complication rates associated with botulinum toxin. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 July 2016. We handsearched the British and Irish Orthoptic Journal, Australian Orthoptic Journal, proceedings of the European Strabismological Association (ESA), International Strabismological Association (ISA) and International Orthoptic Association (IOA) (www.liv.ac.uk/orthoptics/research/search.htm) and American Academy of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus meetings (AAPOS). We contacted researchers who are active in this field for information about further

  2. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, E [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pharmakologisches Inst.

    1976-01-01

    /sup 125/I-labelled tetanus toxin and /sup 125/I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin.

  3. Affinity chromatography of tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, and botulinum A toxin on synaptosomes, and differentiation of their acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermann, E.

    1976-01-01

    125 I-labelled tetanus toxin and 125 I-labelled botulinum A neurotoxin are known to be specifically bound to brain synaptosomes. In order to discriminate between active toxin and inactive admixtures present in the starting material or arising during iodination, synaptosome columns were prepared using bromacetylcellulose and/or kieselgur (Celite) as carriers. Both types of columns adsorb the toxins from low ionic strength medium and release them if the pH and ionic strength are raised. Botulinum toxin was eluted with lower ionic strength than tetanus toxin, and could be freed from nontoxic admixtures. Analysis by affinity chromatography disclosed partially toxoided tetanus toxin in both labelled and unlabelled toxin samples. High concentrations of formaldehyde (0.5%) destroyed both toxicity and affinity to the synaptosomes of tetanus toxin. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (0.05%) yielded a derivative of low toxicity which was still, however less firmly, bound to synaptosomes. Tetanus and botulinum toxin differ by their acceptors. Whereas unlabelled botulinum toxin is unable to compete with labelled tetanus toxin, unlabelled tetanus toxin slightly competes with botulinum toxin. Both labelled toxins display anomalous binding behaviour in that they cannot be displaced completely even with a large excess of unlabelled toxin. (orig.) [de

  4. Effect of in vivo injection of cholera and pertussis toxin on glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Han, X; Petersen, L N

    1997-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CTX) and pertussis toxin (PTX) were examined for their ability to inhibit glucose transport in perfused skeletal muscle. Twenty-five hours after an intravenous injection of CTX, basal transport was decreased approximately 30%, and insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport...... in GLUT-1 protein content was found. In contrast, GLUT-4 mRNA was unchanged, but transcripts for GLUT-1 were increased > or = 150% in all three muscles from CTX-treated rats. The findings suggest that CTX via increased cAMP impairs basal as well as insulin- and contraction-stimulated muscle glucose...

  5. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who......) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959–31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of T2...... had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962–31 March 1964...

  6. T2* relaxometry of fetal brain at 1.5 Tesla using a motion tolerant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylechko, Serge; Malamateniou, Christina; Nunes, Rita G; Fox, Matthew; Allsop, Joanna; Rutherford, Mary; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine T2* values for the fetal brain in utero and to compare them with previously reported values in preterm and term neonates. Knowledge of T2* may be useful for assessing brain development, brain abnormalities, and for optimizing functional imaging studies. Maternal respiration and unpredictable fetal motion mean that conventional multishot acquisition techniques used in adult T2* relaxometry studies are not practical. Single shot multiecho echo planar imaging was used as a rapid method for measuring fetal T2* by effectively freezing intra-slice motion. T2* determined from a sample of 24 subjects correlated negatively with gestational age with mean values of 220 ms (±45) for frontal white matter, 159 ms (±32) for thalamic gray matter, and 236 ms (±45) for occipital white matter. Fetal T2* values are higher than those previously reported for preterm neonates and decline with a consistent trend across gestational age. The data suggest that longer than usual echo times or direct T2* measurement should be considered when performing fetal fMRI to reach optimal BOLD sensitivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Intensity of prolactinoma on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: towards another gender difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutz, Julie [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Radiology, Liege (Belgium); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liege, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Liege (Belgium); Vroonen, Laurent; Petrossians, Patrick; Rostomyan, Liliya; Beckers, Albert [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Endocrinology, Liege (Belgium); Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital Besancon, Department of Radiology, Besancon (France); Thiry, Albert [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Pathology, Liege (Belgium); Tshibanda, Luaba [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Radiology, Liege (Belgium); Bonneville, Jean-Francois [University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Radiology, Liege (Belgium); University Hospital Sart-Tilman, Department of Endocrinology, Liege (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Clinical presentations of prolactinomas are quite different between genders. In comparison with women's prolactinoma, those in men showed predominance of large tumors with high prolactin (PRL) levels. This preponderance could be attributed to a greater proliferative potential of the tumors. Differences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at diagnosis have not been yet clearly evaluated. We conduct a retrospective study comparing MRI signal intensity (SI) on T2-weighted images (T2-WI) between 41 men and 41 women to investigate whether or not men prolactinoma present specific features. In addition to the size of the adenoma and PRL levels (P < 0001), prolactinomas in men also exhibit differences from those in women in signal on T2-WI on MRI (P < 0001). Women's prolactinomas are mostly of high SI on T2-WI while men's prolactinomas exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of SI on T2-WI. Prolactinomas presenting with low SI on T2-WI are almost exclusively encountered in men. Presence of T2-WI hypointensities in pituitary adenoma can be predictive of a different subtype of prolactinoma almost encountered in men and possibly translate the presence of spherical amyloid deposits, in agreement with the literature. (orig.)

  8. Intensity of prolactinoma on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: towards another gender difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutz, Julie; Vroonen, Laurent; Petrossians, Patrick; Rostomyan, Liliya; Beckers, Albert; Cattin, Francoise; Thiry, Albert; Tshibanda, Luaba; Bonneville, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    Clinical presentations of prolactinomas are quite different between genders. In comparison with women's prolactinoma, those in men showed predominance of large tumors with high prolactin (PRL) levels. This preponderance could be attributed to a greater proliferative potential of the tumors. Differences in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at diagnosis have not been yet clearly evaluated. We conduct a retrospective study comparing MRI signal intensity (SI) on T2-weighted images (T2-WI) between 41 men and 41 women to investigate whether or not men prolactinoma present specific features. In addition to the size of the adenoma and PRL levels (P < 0001), prolactinomas in men also exhibit differences from those in women in signal on T2-WI on MRI (P < 0001). Women's prolactinomas are mostly of high SI on T2-WI while men's prolactinomas exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of SI on T2-WI. Prolactinomas presenting with low SI on T2-WI are almost exclusively encountered in men. Presence of T2-WI hypointensities in pituitary adenoma can be predictive of a different subtype of prolactinoma almost encountered in men and possibly translate the presence of spherical amyloid deposits, in agreement with the literature. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic T2-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate ( 2 , since T 2 increases linearly in fat during heating. T 2 -mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T 2 . Calibration of T 2 -based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T 2 and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T 2 temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/°C was observed. Dynamic T 2 -mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  10. Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellner, Franz A. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria) and Zentrales Radiologie Institut, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Linz, Krankenhausstr. 9, 4020 Linz (Austria)]. E-mail: franz.fellner@akh.linz.at; Fellner, Claudia [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria); Aichner, Franz T. [Abteilung fuer Neurologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner-Jauregg, Linz (Austria); Moelzer, Guenther [Institut fuer Radiologie, Landes-Nervenklinik Wagner Jauregg, Linz (Austria)

    2005-11-01

    We examined six patients with isolated venous thrombosis (n = 2), or venous thrombosis combined with sinus thrombosis (n = 4) (CVT). The clinical symptoms were non-specific (acute cephalea, paresis, epileptic seizure, progressive speech disorder). All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), maximum gradient field strength 30 mT/m, minimal gradient rise time 450 {mu}s, according to the following protocol: Transverse T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), before and after administration of contrast medium, T2*-weighted conventional gradient-echo (GRE), T2*-weighted spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE EPI), both without and with diffusion weighting as well as two-dimensional (2D) venous time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. The venous thromboses were best detectable in the T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence in all patients. In two patients, the CVT was discernible only in this sequence. The sinus thrombosis was well discernible only in the T2*-weighted GRE sequence in only one case; in the remaining cases it was detectable only with difficulty. For these cases, other sequences such as SE, diffusion-weighted, or 2D-TOF-MRA sequence were superior. The T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence was superior to the T2*-weighted SE EPI sequence in all patients. To sum up, it can be concluded, that T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequences are possibly the best method of detection of acute cortical vein thromboses. Therefore, it seems to be of benefit to integrate a T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence into the MR-protocol for the diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis.

  11. Importance of T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI for diagnosis of cortical vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellner, Franz A.; Fellner, Claudia; Aichner, Franz T.; Moelzer, Guenther

    2005-01-01

    We examined six patients with isolated venous thrombosis (n = 2), or venous thrombosis combined with sinus thrombosis (n = 4) (CVT). The clinical symptoms were non-specific (acute cephalea, paresis, epileptic seizure, progressive speech disorder). All examinations were performed on a 1.5 T system (Magnetom Symphony, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), maximum gradient field strength 30 mT/m, minimal gradient rise time 450 μs, according to the following protocol: Transverse T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), before and after administration of contrast medium, T2*-weighted conventional gradient-echo (GRE), T2*-weighted spin-echo echo planar imaging (SE EPI), both without and with diffusion weighting as well as two-dimensional (2D) venous time-of-flight (TOF) MRA. The venous thromboses were best detectable in the T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence in all patients. In two patients, the CVT was discernible only in this sequence. The sinus thrombosis was well discernible only in the T2*-weighted GRE sequence in only one case; in the remaining cases it was detectable only with difficulty. For these cases, other sequences such as SE, diffusion-weighted, or 2D-TOF-MRA sequence were superior. The T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence was superior to the T2*-weighted SE EPI sequence in all patients. To sum up, it can be concluded, that T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequences are possibly the best method of detection of acute cortical vein thromboses. Therefore, it seems to be of benefit to integrate a T2*-weighted conventional GRE sequence into the MR-protocol for the diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis

  12. T2' imaging of native kidneys and renal allografts. A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, C.; Blondin, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Miese, F.R.; Rybacki, K.; Walther, C.; Holstein, A.; Lanzman, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of T2' mapping in native kidneys and renal allografts. Materials and Methods: Following approval of the local ethics committee, 24 renal allograft recipients and 10 control subjects (healthy volunteers) were included in this study. Multi-echo T2 and T2 * imaging was performed on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Allograft recipients were assigned to two groups: group (a), 8 patients with good (glomerular filtration rate of more than 40 ml/min) allograft function and no evidence of transplant rejection, transplant renal artery stenosis or ureteral obstruction; group (b), 16 patients with deterioration of renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 40 ml/min or less). Two different imaging protocols were tested. Results: The mean T2' relaxation parameters were 108.33 msec ± 13.34, 100.00 msec ± 18.89 and 124.57 msec ± 6.51 for groups (a), (b) and for control subjects, respectively. The reduction of T2' values in patient group (b) was not statistically significant. However, significant correlations could be demonstrated between T2' values and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of renal allograft function. The reproducibility was tested and the coefficients of variation of T2' values in the cortex of transplanted kidneys were 11.1 % within subjects and 11.3 % between subjects. Conclusion: Our results indicate that T2' imaging is a promising non-enhanced technique, which seems to reveal information on transplant function. Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of T2' mapping for monitoring renal allograft recipients. (orig.)

  13. Quantitative T2-Mapping and T2⁎-Mapping Evaluation of Changes in Cartilage Matrix after Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture and the Correlation between the Results of Both Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hongyue; Qiao, Yang; Hu, Yiwen; Xie, Yuxue; Lu, Rong; Yan, Xu; Chen, Shuang

    2018-01-01

    To quantitatively assess changes in cartilage matrix after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture using T2- and T2 ⁎ -mapping and analyze the correlation between the results of both methods. Twenty-three patients and 23 healthy controls were enrolled and underwent quantitative MRI examination. The knee cartilage was segmented into six compartments, including lateral femur (LF), lateral tibia (LT), medial femur (MF), medial tibia (MT), trochlea (Tr), and patella (Pa). T2 and T2 ⁎ values were measured in full-thickness as well as superficial and deep layers of each cartilage compartment. Differences of T2 and T2 ⁎ values between patients and controls were compared using unpaired Student's t -test, and the correlation between their reciprocals was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. ACL-ruptured patients showed higher T2 and T2 ⁎ values in full-thickness and superficial layers of medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint. Meanwhile, patients exhibited higher T2 ⁎ values in deep layers of lateral tibiofemoral joint. The elevated percentages of T2 and T2 ⁎ value in superficial LT were most significant (20.738%, 17.525%). The reciprocal of T2 ⁎ value was correlated with that of T2 value ( r = 0.886, P T2 ⁎ -mapping might be more sensitive in detecting deep layer of cartilage than T2-mapping.

  14. 3D T2-weighted imaging to shorten multiparametric prostate MRI protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanec, Stephan H; Lazar, Mathias; Wengert, Georg J; Bickel, Hubert; Spick, Claudio; Susani, Martin; Shariat, Shahrokh; Clauser, Paola; Baltzer, Pascal A T

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether 3D acquisitions provide equivalent image quality, lesion delineation quality and PI-RADS v2 performance compared to 2D acquisitions in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate at 3 T. This IRB-approved, prospective study included 150 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7 years, 35-84 years; mean PSA 7.2 ng/ml, 0.4-31.1 ng/ml). Two uroradiologists (R1, R2) independently rated image quality and lesion delineation quality using a five-point ordinal scale and assigned a PI-RADS score for 2D and 3D T2-weighted image data sets. Data were compared using visual grading characteristics (VGC) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC)/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Image quality was similarly good to excellent for 2D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.81; R2, 4.7 ± 0.83) and 3D T2w (mean score R1, 4.3 ± 0.82; R2, 4.7 ± 0.69), p = 0.269. Lesion delineation was rated good to excellent for 2D (mean score R1, 4.16 ± 0.81; R2, 4.19 ± 0.92) and 3D T2w (R1, 4.19 ± 0.94; R2, 4.27 ± 0.94) without significant differences (p = 0.785). ROC analysis showed an equivalent performance for 2D (AUC 0.580-0.623) and 3D (AUC 0.576-0.629) T2w (p > 0.05, respectively). Three-dimensional acquisitions demonstrated equivalent image and lesion delineation quality, and PI-RADS v2 performance, compared to 2D in T2-weighted imaging of the prostate. Three-dimensional T2-weighted imaging could be used to considerably shorten prostate MRI protocols in clinical practice. • 3D shows equivalent image quality and lesion delineation compared to 2D T2w. • 3D T2w and 2D T2w image acquisition demonstrated comparable diagnostic performance. • Using a single 3D T2w acquisition may shorten the protocol by 40%. • Combined with short DCE, multiparametric protocols of 10 min are feasible.

  15. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi

    2001-01-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  16. Evaluation of dysthyroid optic neuropathy using T2-relaxation time of extraocular muscle as parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Toshine; Inoue, Toyoko; Inoue, Yoichi [Olympia Eye Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The T2 value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in evaluating the activity of dysthyroid ophthlamopathy. We applied this method in evaluating dysthyroid optic neuropathy in 15 affected eyes of 15 patients. Another group of 40 eyes of 20 patients of dysthyroid opthalmopathy without hypertrophy of extraocular muscles served as control. The T2 value in dysthyroid optic neuropathy significantly decreased following treatment with corticosteroid but the value was still higher than that in control eyes. The findings show that the T2 value of MRI is useful in evaluating the therapeutic effect of dysthyroid optic neuropathy. (author)

  17. Quantitative T2* assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesper, Tobias; Miese, Falk R.; Hosalkar, Harish S.; Behringer, Michael; Zilkens, Christoph; Antoch, Gerald; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2 ** relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2 ** mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2 ** after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2 ** values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2 * assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2 * mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2 * values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2 * after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2 * values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2 * values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2 * values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2 * values in the medial tibial plateau may be related

  18. Quantitative T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage after running a marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesper, Tobias [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk R. [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Hosalkar, Harish S. [Center of Hip Preservation and Children' s Orthopaedics, San Diego, CA (United States); Behringer, Michael [German Sport University, Cologne (Germany); Zilkens, Christoph [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Antoch, Gerald [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Düsseldorf (Germany); Krauspe, Rüdiger [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd, E-mail: bbittersohl@partners.org [University Düsseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This is the first descriptive report on the effects of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup **} relaxation assessment of articular cartilage. • This study on marathon runners who underwent MRI within 48 hours prior to and following the running event as well as after a period of convalescence of approximately four weeks confirms the feasibility of T2{sup **} mapping of knee joint cartilage under the consideration of repetitive joint loading prior to MRI as we noted only small differences in the T2{sup **} after running a marathon. • Despite the small study group (nn = 10) and the presence of morphologically normal appearing cartilage, we noted lower cartilage T2{sup **} values in the medial tibial plateau that may be related to functional demand or early signs of cartilage degeneration. - Abstract: Objective: To study the effect of repetitive joint loading on the T2{sup *} assessment of knee joint cartilage. Materials and methods: T2{sup *} mapping was performed in 10 non-professional marathon runners (mean age: 28.7 ± 3.97 years) with no morphologically evident cartilage damage within 48 h prior to and following the marathon and after a period of approximately four weeks. Bulk and zonal T2{sup *} values at the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartment and the patellofemoral compartment were assessed by means of region of interest analysis. Pre- and post-marathon values were compared. Results: There was a small increase in the T2{sup *} after running the marathon (30.47 ± 5.16 ms versus 29.84 ± 4.97 ms, P < 0.05) while the T2{sup *} values before the marathon and those after the period of convalescence were similar (29.84 ± 4.97 ms versus 29.81 ± 5.17 ms, P = 0.855). Regional analyses revealed lower T2{sup *} values in the medial tibial plateau (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that repetitive joint loading has a transient influence on the T2{sup *} values. However, this effect is small and probably not clinically relevant. The low T2

  19. Direct and rapid effects of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Maria; Giacco, Antonia; Di Munno, Celia; Goglia, Fernando

    2017-12-15

    A growing number of researchers are focusing their attention on the possibility that thyroid hormone metabolites, particularly 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2), may actively regulate energy metabolism at the cellular, rather than the nuclear, level. Due to their biochemical features, mitochondria have been the focus of research on the thermogenic effects of thyroid hormones. Indeed, mitochondrial activities have been shown to be regulated both directly and indirectly by T2-specific pathways. Herein, we describe the effects of T2 on energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High signals in the uterine cervix on T2-weighted MRI sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graef, De M.; Karam, R.; Daclin, P.Y.; Rouanet, J.P.; Juhan, V.; Maubon, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this pictorial review was to illustrate the normal cervix appearance on T2-weighted images, and give a review of common or less common disorders of the uterine cervix that appear as high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted sequences. Numerous aetiologies dominated by cervical cancer are reviewed and discussed. This gamut is obviously incomplete; however, radiologists who perform MR women's imaging should perform T2-weighted sequences in the sagittal plane regardless of the indication for pelvic MR. Those sequences will diagnose some previously unknown cervical cancers as well as many other unknown cervical or uterine lesions. (orig.)

  1. Genotype-Specific Regulation of Oral Innate Immunity by T2R38 Taste Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sucheol; Coldwell, Susan; Drury, Jeanie L.; Arroyo, Fabiola; Phi, Tran; Saadat, Sanaz; Kwong, Danny; Chung, Whasun Oh

    2015-01-01

    The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to regulate mucosal innate immune responses in the upper airway epithelium. Furthermore, SNPs in T2R38 influence the sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and are associated with caries risk/protection. However, no study has been reported on the role of T2R38 in the innate immune responses to oral bacteria. We hypothesize that T2R38 regulates oral innate immunity and that this regulation is genotype-specific. Primary gingival epithelial cells carrying three common genotypes, PAV/PAV (PROP super-taster), AVI/PAV (intermediate) and AVI/AVI (non-taster) were stimulated with cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis or non-pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. QRT-PCR analyzed T2R38 mRNA, and T2R38-specific siRNA and ELISA were utilized to evaluate induction of hBD-2 (antimicrobial peptide), IL-1α and IL-8 in various donor-lines. Experiments were set up in duplicate and repeated three times. T2R38 mRNA induction in response to S. mutans was highest in PAV/PAV (4.3-fold above the unstimulated controls; p<0.05), while lowest in AVI/AVI (1.2-fold). In PAV/PAV, hBD-2 secretion in response to S. mutans was decreased by 77% when T2R38 was silenced. IL-1α secretion was higher in PAV/PAV compared to AVI/PAV or AVI/AVI with S. mutans stimulation, but it was reduced by half when T2R38 was silenced (p<0.05). In response to P. gingivalis, AVI/AVI showed 4.4-fold increase (p<0.05) in T2R38 expression, whereas the levels in PAV/PAV and AVI/PAV remained close to that of the controls. Secretion levels of IL-1α and IL-8 decreased in AVI/AVI in response to P. gingivalis when T2R38 was silenced (p<0.05), while the changes were not significant in PAV/PAV. Our data suggest that the regulation of gingival innate immunity by T2R38 is genotype-dependent and that the ability to induce a high level of hBD-2 by PAV/PAV carriers may be a reason for protection against caries in this group. PMID

  2. Botulinum toxin in parkinsonism: The when, how, and which for botulinum toxin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a review of the use of injections of botulinum toxin in the management of selected symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Sialorrhea is defined as inability to control oral secretions, resulting in excessive saliva in the oropharynx. There is a high level of evidence for the treatment of sialorrhea in parkinsonism with injections of different forms of botulinum toxin type A as well as botulinum toxin type B. Tremor can be improved by the use of botulinum toxin injections but improved tremor control often leads to concomitant motor weakness, limiting its use. Levodopa induced dyskinesias are difficult to treat with botulinum toxin injections because of their variable frequency and direction. Apraxia of eyelid opening, a sign more commonly seen in progressive supranuclear palsy and other tauopathies, often improves after botulinum toxin injections. Recent data suggest that regardless of the underlying mechanism, pain in parkinsonism can be alleviated by botulinum toxin injections. Finally, freezing of gait, camptocormia and Pisa syndrome in parkinsonism almost invariably fail to respond to botulinum toxin injections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Single toxin dose-response models revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidenko, Eugene, E-mail: eugened@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH03756 (United States); Glaholt, SP, E-mail: sglaholt@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN47405 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755 (United States); Kyker-Snowman, E, E-mail: ek2002@wildcats.unh.edu [Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH03824 (United States); Shaw, JR, E-mail: joeshaw@indiana.edu [Indiana University, School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Bloomington, IN47405 (United States); Chen, CY, E-mail: Celia.Y.Chen@dartmouth.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to offer a rigorous analysis of the sigmoid shape single toxin dose-response relationship. The toxin efficacy function is introduced and four special points, including maximum toxin efficacy and inflection points, on the dose-response curve are defined. The special points define three phases of the toxin effect on mortality: (1) toxin concentrations smaller than the first inflection point or (2) larger then the second inflection point imply low mortality rate, and (3) concentrations between the first and the second inflection points imply high mortality rate. Probabilistic interpretation and mathematical analysis for each of the four models, Hill, logit, probit, and Weibull is provided. Two general model extensions are introduced: (1) the multi-target hit model that accounts for the existence of several vital receptors affected by the toxin, and (2) model with a nonzero mortality at zero concentration to account for natural mortality. Special attention is given to statistical estimation in the framework of the generalized linear model with the binomial dependent variable as the mortality count in each experiment, contrary to the widespread nonlinear regression treating the mortality rate as continuous variable. The models are illustrated using standard EPA Daphnia acute (48 h) toxicity tests with mortality as a function of NiCl or CuSO{sub 4} toxin. - Highlights: • The paper offers a rigorous study of a sigmoid dose-response relationship. • The concentration with highest mortality rate is rigorously defined. • A table with four special points for five morality curves is presented. • Two new sigmoid dose-response models have been introduced. • The generalized linear model is advocated for estimation of sigmoid dose-response relationship.

  4. Assessment of the electronic structure and properties of trichothecene toxins using density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appell, Michael, E-mail: michael.appell@ars.usda.gov [Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens and Mycology Research USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Bosma, Wayne B., E-mail: bosma@bumail.bradley.edu [Mund-Lagowski Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Bradley University 1501 W. Bradley Ave., Peoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Quantum-based properties of type A and B trichothecenes are related to toxicity. • Deoxynivalenol and nivalenol exhibit complex hydrogen bonding schemes. • QSAR models explain trichothecene toxicity and immunochemical detection. • False-positive detection is associated with spatial autocorrelation indices. - Abstract: A comprehensive quantum chemical study was carried out on 35 type A and B trichothecenes and biosynthetic precursors, including selected derivatives of deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin. Quantum chemical properties, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis, and molecular parameters were calculated on structures geometry optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level. Type B trichothecenes possessed significantly larger electrophilicity index compared to the type A trichothecenes studied. Certain hydroxyl groups of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 toxin exhibited considerable rotation during molecular dynamics simulations (5 ps) at the B3LYP/6-31G** level in implicit aqueous solvent. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed to evaluate toxicity and detection using genetic algorithm, principal component, and multilinear analyses. The models suggest electronegativity and several 2-dimensional topological descriptors contain important information related to trichothecene cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, immunochemical detection, and cross-reactivity.

  5. Assessment of the electronic structure and properties of trichothecene toxins using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appell, Michael; Bosma, Wayne B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantum-based properties of type A and B trichothecenes are related to toxicity. • Deoxynivalenol and nivalenol exhibit complex hydrogen bonding schemes. • QSAR models explain trichothecene toxicity and immunochemical detection. • False-positive detection is associated with spatial autocorrelation indices. - Abstract: A comprehensive quantum chemical study was carried out on 35 type A and B trichothecenes and biosynthetic precursors, including selected derivatives of deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin. Quantum chemical properties, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis, and molecular parameters were calculated on structures geometry optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level. Type B trichothecenes possessed significantly larger electrophilicity index compared to the type A trichothecenes studied. Certain hydroxyl groups of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 toxin exhibited considerable rotation during molecular dynamics simulations (5 ps) at the B3LYP/6-31G** level in implicit aqueous solvent. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed to evaluate toxicity and detection using genetic algorithm, principal component, and multilinear analyses. The models suggest electronegativity and several 2-dimensional topological descriptors contain important information related to trichothecene cytotoxicity, phytotoxicity, immunochemical detection, and cross-reactivity

  6. Ecological baseline survey of the Takoradi T2 expansion and a once ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    The Environmental Assessment Regulations (LI 1652) of Ghana mandates all bodies undertaking ... foregoing, the socioeconomic significance of the T2 expansion project to .... Magnitude ('size' or „amount‟ of an impact, determined on a.

  7. Ecological baseline survey of the Takoradi T2 expansion and a once ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Environmental Assessment Regulations (LI 1652) of Ghana mandates all ... near Takoradi to determine the existing flora and fauna and the potential impacts of ... Despite the foregoing, the socioeconomic significance of the T2 expansion ...

  8. Myocardial T1 and T2 mapping: Techniques and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Pan Ki; Hong, Yoo Jin; Im, Dong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is widely used in various medical fields related to cardiovascular diseases. Rapid technological innovations in magnetic resonance imaging in recent times have resulted in the development of new techniques for CMR imaging. T1 and T2 image mapping sequences enable the direct quantification of T1, T2, and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) values of the myocardium, leading to the progressive integration of these sequences into routine CMR settings. Currently, T1, T2, and ECV values are being recognized as not only robust biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but also predictive factors for treatment monitoring and prognosis. In this study, we have reviewed various T1 and T2 mapping sequence techniques and their clinical applications.

  9. Occipital seizures and subcortical T2 hypointensity in the setting of hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna L. Putta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Hyperglycemia should be considered in the etiology of differential diagnosis of patients with visual abnormalities suspicious for seizures, especially when the MRI shows focal subcortical T2 hypointensity with or without leptomeningeal enhancement.

  10. Registration of T-2 mycotoxin with total internal reflection ellipsometry and QCM impedance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabok, A V; Tsargorodskaya, A; Holloway, A; Starodub, N F; Gojster, O

    2007-01-15

    A sensitive optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) in conjunction with immune assay approach was exploited for the registration of T-2 mycotoxin in a wide range of concentrations from 100 microg/ml down to 0.15 ng/ml. Association constants of 1.4x10(6) and 1.9x10(7)mol(-1)s for poly- and monoclonal T-2 antibodies, respectively, were evaluated from TIRE kinetic measurements. According to TIRE data fitting, binding of T-2 molecules to antibodies (at saturation) has resulted in the increase in adsorbed layer thickness of 4-5 nm. The QCM impedance measurements data showed anomalously large mass increase and film softening, most likely, due to the binding of large T-2 aggregates to antibodies.

  11. Raman Lidar Calibration for the DMSP SSM/T-2 Microwave Water Vapor Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wessel, J

    2000-01-01

    Campaigns were conducted at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, investigating Raman lidar as a method to improve calibration of the DMSP SSM/T-2 microwave water vapor profiling instrument...

  12. [Alfred Ritscher. Reval an der schwelle zur neuzeit. T. 2] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Ritscher, Alfred. Reval an der schwelle zur neuzeit. T. 2: Vom tode Wolters von Plettenberg bis zum Untergang des Deutschen Ordens in Livland (1535-1561). Bonn: Kulturstiftung der deutshen Vertriebenen 2001. (Historische Forschungen).

  13. Nitric Acid and Water Extraction by T2EHDGA in n -Dodecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Emily L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Chemistry Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Holfeltz, Vanessa E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR; Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Nash, Kenneth L. [Chemistry Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA

    2017-11-10

    Liquid-liquid distribution behavior of nitric acid (HNO3) and water by a diglycolamide ligand, N,N,N',N'-tetra-2-ethylhexyldiglycolamide (T2EHDGA) into n-dodecane diluent was investigated. Spectroscopic FTIR and NMR characterization of the organic extraction solutions indicate T2EHDGA carbonyl coordinates HNO3 and progressively aggregates at high acid conditions. Water extraction increases in the presence of HNO3. The experimentally observed distribution of HNO3 was modeled using the computer program, SXLSQI. The results indicated that the formation of two organic phase species—HNO3·T2EHDGA and (HNO3)2·T2EHDGA—satisfactory describes the acid transport behavior. Temperature dependent solvent extraction studies allowed for determination of thermodynamic extraction constants and ΔH and ΔS parameters for the corresponding extractive processes.

  14. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  15. Bacterial and fungal keratitis in Upper Egypt: In vitro screening of enzymes, toxins and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Gharamah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work was conducted to study the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates from keratitis cases in Upper Egypt to produce enzymes, toxins, and to test the isolated fungal species sensitivity to some therapeutic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen patients clinically diagnosed to have microbial keratitis were investigated. From these cases, 37 bacterial isolates and 25 fungal isolates were screened for their ability to produce extra-cellular enzymes in solid media. In addition, the ability of fungal isolates to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to 4 antifungal agents were tested. Results: Protease, lipase, hemolysins, urease, phosphatase, and catalase were detected respectively in 48.65%, 37.84%, 59.46%, 43.24%, 67.57%, and 100% out of 37 bacterial isolates tested. Out of 25 fungal isolates tested during the present study, 80% were positive for protease, 84% for lipase and urease, 28% for blood hemolysis, and 100% for phosphatase and catalase enzymes. Thirteen fungal isolates were able to produce detectable amounts of 7 mycotoxins in culture medium (aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2, sterigmatocystin, fumagillin, diacetoxyscirpenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and trichodermin. Among the antifungal agents tested in this study, terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. Conclusion: In conclusion, the ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and toxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues, which, in turn, lead to vision loss.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Patellofemoral Chondromalacia: Is There a Role for T2 Mapping?

    OpenAIRE

    van Eck, Carola F.; Kingston, R. Scott; Crues, John V.; Kharrazi, F. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patellofemoral pain is common, and treatment is guided by the presence and grade of chondromalacia. Purpose: To evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity in detecting and grading chondral abnormalities of the patella between proton density fat suppression (PDFS) and T2 mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A total of 25 patients who underwent MRI of the knee with both a PDFS sequence and T2 mapping and subse...

  17. Thomson scattering in the EXTRAP-T2 reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welander, A.

    1996-11-01

    A Thomson scattering system has been installed on the EXTRAP-T2 RFP experiment. The system measures the electron density and temperature in three radial points using three spectral channels. A description of the system, the calibration techniques and examples of data obtained are given. The error bars for the electron temperature measurements are estimated to be < 10% for typical T2-plasmas. 4 refs

  18. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Menstrual variation of breast volume and T2 relaxation times in cyclical mastalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Zainab; Brooks, Jonathan; Percy, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Hormonal activity causes breast volume to change during the menstrual cycle. One possible cause of this volume change is thought to be due to water retention or oedema within the tissues. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study the variation in breast volume and 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure T 2 relaxation times which are known to increase with increasing tissue water content. We hypothesised that an increase in breast volume will elevate T 2 relaxation due to the presence of an increased water content within the breast. T 2 Relaxation time and volume were studied in fifteen control subjects and in a cohort of eight patients with cyclical mastalgia in order to determine whether changes in breast volume and T 2 relaxation times differed in controls and patients during menses, ovulation and premenses. Method: Breast volume was determined by the Cavalieri method in combination with point counting techniques on MR images and T 2 relaxation times of the water and fat in a voxel of breast tissue were obtained using 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). Results: Statistical analysis (ANOVA) demonstrated highly significant differences in breast volume between the three stages of the cycle (p 2 of fat or water did not depend on stage of cycle. T-tests demonstrated no significant differences in T 2 of water or fat between patient and control groups. The average T 2 relaxation time of water was lowest in the patient and control groups during ovulation and highest in the patient group during premenses. Conclusion: We have performed the first combined volumetric and spectroscopic study of women with cyclical mastalgia and demonstrated that the global changes in volumes and T 2 were not significantly different from normal menstrual variations

  20. T2 relaxation time in MR imaging of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, J.R.; McKay, A.; Mueller, N.L.

    1990-01-01

    To measure the T2 relaxation times of normal and abnormal lung parenchyma and to evaluate the influence of field strength and lung inflation on T2. Five healthy volunteers and five patients with diffuse lung disease were imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T. Excised normal pig lung was imaged at 0.15 and 1.5 T and analyzed in a spectrometer at 2.0 T. Single-echo (Hahn) pulse sequences (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 msec) were compared with multiecho trains (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill [CPMG] at 0.15 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 20-40-60... 240 msec) and 2.0 T (TR, 2,000 msec; TE, 1, 2, 3,..., 10msec). T2 relaxation times calculated from single-echo sequences showed considerable variation between 0.15 and 2.0 T. T2 also changed with lung inflation. However, the T2 measurements on CPMG sequences did not change significantly (P > .05) with field strength and were only minimally affected by lung inflation. The mean ± SD T2 values for normal lung were 99 ± 8 and for abnormal lung were 84 ± 17. Lung parenchyma T2 measurements obtained with the use of conventional single-echo pulse sequences are variable and inaccurate because of inflation and field strength dependent magnetic susceptibility effects that lead to rapid nonrecoverable dephasing. The results indicate that multiecho sequences with appropriately short echo spacings yield more reproducible determinations of T2, which are independent of field strength and less dependent on lung inflation

  1. Serum metabonomics of NAFLD plus T2DM based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Chunlong; Liu, Liyan; Guo, Fuchuan; Li, Songtao; Huang, Lina; Sun, Changhao; Feng, Rennan

    2016-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a main liver disease around the world, is closely associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. The objective of this study is to identify distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. We used a biomarker-discovery population to find distinct metabolites of NAFLD patients with or without T2DM. Then, a validation population was applied to test the model of the biomarker-discovery population. All the individuals received anthropometric and common biochemical measurements. The metabolic data were analyzed by multivariable statistical analyses using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 7, 7, 2 metabolites in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) mode, which were identified between groups from both the biomarker-discovery and validation population. The NAFLD group showed higher concentrations of oleamide, l-phenylalanine, l-proline, bilirubin, l-palmitoylcarnitine, and PC (20:5) and a lower concentration of Lyso-PAF C-18 than those of control. Compared with the control group, the NAFLD+T2DM group displayed higher oleamide, l-leucine, LysoPC (14:0), bilirubin, tetradecenoylcarnitine, linoleyl carnitine, and tetradecadiencarnitine in serum. Tetradecenoylcarnitine and tetradecadiencarnitine were more elevated in patients with NAFLD+T2DM than in the NAFLD group. Serum metabonomic analyses displayed great metabolic changes in patients with NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Our study is beneficial in providing a further view into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM, which might be useful for the prevention and therapy of NAFLD and NAFLD plus T2DM. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. T2 relaxation times of irradiated vertebral bone marrow in patients with seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A; Maris, T; Vlahos, L

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to demonstrate the effects of localized radiotherapy on lumbar vertebral bone marrow with the use of quantitative MRI with measurements of T2 relaxation times. Ten patients with early stage testicular seminoma with a history of radiation therapy to a "dog-leg" field including the lumbar vertebrae underwent MR imaging of their lumbar spine using a 0.5 Tesla magnet. Five healthy subjects and two nonirradiated patients were imaged as well. The intervals from the beginning of radiotherapy to MRI examination varied from 1.5 to 52 months, and the radiation dose ranged from 3000-4200 cGy. The T2 relaxation times of the lumbar vertebral bone marrow and subcutaneous fat were calculated for each subject. Postirradiation bone marrow in irradiated seminoma patients exhibited significantly longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow in controls (71.1 vs. 63.6 ms, p = 0.047, t-test). The differences between the T2 relaxation times of bone marrow and subcutaneous fat for each subject allowed for even better differentiation between irradiated patients and controls (10.4 vs. 0.4 ms, p = 0.0004, t-test). Postirradiation bone marrow had significantly longer T2 relaxation times than subcutaneous fat in irradiated patients (N = 10, 71.1 vs. 60.7 ms, p = 0.00009, t-test), while nonirradiated bone marrow had T2 relaxation times not statistically different from subcutaneous fat in nonirradiated subjects (N = 7, 63.6 vs. 63.2 ms). Measurements of T2 relaxation times of bone marrow enabled us to differentiate between irradiated seminoma patients and controls. Postirradiation bone marrow undergoes late radiation effects resulting in longer T2 relaxation times than nonirradiated bone marrow and subcutaneous fat.

  3. T2 relaxometry of the infrapatellar fat pad after arthroscopic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital do Coracao (HCor), Teleimagem, and Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hosseini, Ali; Li, Guoan [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Orthopedics, Boston, MA (United States); Gill, Thomas J. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Sports Medicine Center, Department of Orthopedics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To investigate the T2 relaxation values of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) after arthroscopic surgery. This study was approved by the institutional review board; all individuals signed informed consent. We performed MRI in 16 knees from 8 subjects. Prior to imaging, each subject had unilateral arthroscopic knee surgery and an asymptomatic non-operated contralateral knee. We used a 10-echo multiple-TE fast-spin echo pulse sequence for creation of T2 relaxation time maps. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently placed regions of interest in the IFP, suprapatellar subcutaneous and deep intermuscular adipose tissue. Qualitative assessments were performed to assess fibrotic changes affecting patellar retinaculum and IFP. Statistical analyses of T2 values determined differences between groups, correlation with time after surgery, and cut-off values to differentiate groups. The average time between arthroscopy and imaging was 3.5 ± 0.4 years. IFP of knees with prior surgery had significantly shorter mean T2 values (133 ± 14 ms) compared with control knees (147 ± 8 ms, P = 0.03). There was no significant difference between operated and control knees regarding T2 values of suprapatellar subcutaneous (P = 0.3) or deep intermuscular adipose tissue (P = 0.2). There was no correlation between IFP T2 values and time after surgery (P > 0.2). IFP T2 values ≤ 139 ms had 75 % sensitivity and 88 % specificity in identifying prior arthroscopy. Shortening of T2 relaxation values is present in IFP chronically after arthroscopic surgery and may be an indicator of adipose tissue fibrosis. (orig.)

  4. Temperature dependence of 1H NMR relaxation time, T2, for intact and neoplastic plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewa, Czesław J.; Lewa, Maria

    Temperature dependences of the spin-spin proton relaxation time, T2, have been shown for normal and tumorous tissues collected from kalus culture Nicotiana tabacum and from the plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. For neoplastic plant tissues, time T2 was increased compared to that for intact plants, a finding similar to that for animal and human tissues. The temperature dependences obtained were compared to analogous relations observed with animal tissues.

  5. Idaho National Laboratory Technology to Market (T2M) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Christopher Todd [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bush, Jason William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gentle, Jake Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Porter Jack [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, Kurt Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a tiered Technology to Market (T2M) curriculum for basic researchers to project leads to measure the effect of technology transfer skills on project success and impact. The plan will train five researchers in basic technology transfer principles where success will be measured by assessing improvements in T2M skills and knowledge after the training is complete, likely using before and after surveys.

  6. Diagnostic performance of dark-blood T2-weighted CMR for evaluation of acute myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Lath, Narayan; Babb, James; Axel, Leon; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We compared the image quality and diagnostic performance of 2 fat-suppression methods for black-blood T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), which are as follows: (a) short T1 inversion recovery (STIR; FSE-STIR) and (b) spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR; FSE-SPAIR), for detection of acute myocardial injury. Edema-sensitive T2-weighted FSE cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful in detecting acute myocardial injury but may experience reduced myocardial signal and signal dropout. The SPAIR pulse aims to eliminate artifacts associated with the STIR pulse. A total of 65 consecutive patients referred for CMR evaluation of myocardial structure and function underwent FSE-STIR and FSE-SPAIR, in addition to cine and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2-weighted FSE images were independently evaluated by 2 readers for image quality and artifacts (Likert scale of 1-5; best-worst) and presence of increased myocardial signal suggestive of edema. In addition, clinical CMR interpretation, incorporating all CMR sequences available, was recorded for comparison. Diagnostic performance of each T2-weighted sequence was measured using recent (T2, and wall motion. There was a statistically significant difference in sensitivity between the clinical interpretation and each of the T2-weighted sequences but not between each T2-weighted sequence. Although FSE-SPAIR demonstrated significantly improved image quality and decreased artifacts, isolated interpretations of each T2-weighted technique demonstrated high specificity but overall low sensitivity for the detection of myocardial injury, with no difference in accuracy between the techniques. However, real-world interpretation in combination with cine and LGE CMR methods significantly improves the overall sensitivity and diagnostic performance.

  7. Changes in the T2 value of cartilage after meniscus transplantation over 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Shin, Myung Jin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the changes in the mean T2 values of articular cartilage on serial follow-up images up to 1 year in patients who underwent lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Fifty-two patients who underwent lateral MAT surgery at our hospital were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after MAT using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included T2 mapping. T2 value changes according to the arthroscopic grading of chondromalacia were evaluated in the lateral and medial compartment. Lysholm scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively. The T2 values of cartilage were significantly increased 2 days after operation, and then gradually reduced to the baseline level after 1 year in both compartments. In morphologic assessment performed after 1 year, most areas (92.9 %) showed no interval change of chondromalacia grade. Lyshom knee scores increased significantly from the mean preoperative value of 62.5 (range, 23-95) to 89.7 (range, 64-100) at 1 year (p < 0.001). Mean T2 values of cartilage following MAT exhibited a return to baseline level after 1 year. T2 measurement can be a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of postoperative cartilage changes compared to conventional MRI. • T2 mapping provides objective data for longitudinal monitoring following surgery. • Increased cartilage T2 values post-MAT returned to baseline in one year. • Further studies are required to predict the chondroprotective effect of MAT.

  8. Parametric T2 and T2* mapping techniques to visualize intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with low back pain: initial results on the clinical use of 3.0 Tesla MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Goetz Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried; Goed, Sabine; Stelzeneder, David; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Bohndorf, Klaus; Mamisch, Tallal Charles

    2011-01-01

    To assess, compare and correlate quantitative T2 and T2* relaxation time measurements of intervertebral discs (IVDs) in patients suffering from low back pain, with respect to the IVD degeneration as assessed by the morphological Pfirrmann Score. Special focus was on the spatial variation of T2 and T2* between the annulus fibrosus (AF) and the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thirty patients (mean age: 38.1 ± 9.1 years; 20 female, 10 male) suffering from low back pain were included. Morphological (sagittal T1-FSE, sagittal and axial T2-FSE) and biochemical (sagittal T2- and T2* mapping) MRI was performed at 3 Tesla covering IVDs L1-L2 to L5-S1. All IVDs were morphologically classified using the Pfirrmann score. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on midsagittal T2 and T2* maps at five ROIs from anterior to posterior to obtain information on spatial variation between the AF and the NP. Statistical analysis-of-variance and Pearson correlation was performed. The spatial variation as an increase in T2 and T2* values from the AF to the NP was highest at Pfirmann grade I and declined at higher Pfirmann grades II-IV (p < 0.05). With increased IVD degeneration, T2 and T2* revealed a clear differences in the NP, whereas T2* was additionally able to depict changes in the posterior AF. Correlation between T2 and T2* showed a medium Pearson's correlation (0.210 to 0.356 [p < 0.001]). The clear differentiation of IVD degeneration and the possible quantification by means of T2 and fast T2* mapping may provide a new tool for follow-up therapy protocols in patients with low back pain. (orig.)

  9. Changes in the T2 value of cartilage after meniscus transplantation over 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Shin, Myung Jin

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the mean T2 values of articular cartilage on serial follow-up images up to 1 year in patients who underwent lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Fifty-two patients who underwent lateral MAT surgery at our hospital were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after MAT using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included T2 mapping. T2 value changes according to the arthroscopic grading of chondromalacia were evaluated in the lateral and medial compartment. Lysholm scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively. The T2 values of cartilage were significantly increased 2 days after operation, and then gradually reduced to the baseline level after 1 year in both compartments. In morphologic assessment performed after 1 year, most areas (92.9 %) showed no interval change of chondromalacia grade. Lyshom knee scores increased significantly from the mean preoperative value of 62.5 (range, 23-95) to 89.7 (range, 64-100) at 1 year (p < 0.001). Mean T2 values of cartilage following MAT exhibited a return to baseline level after 1 year. T2 measurement can be a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of postoperative cartilage changes compared to conventional MRI. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Patellofemoral Chondromalacia: Is There a Role for T2 Mapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Carola F; Kingston, R Scott; Crues, John V; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Patellofemoral pain is common, and treatment is guided by the presence and grade of chondromalacia. To evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity in detecting and grading chondral abnormalities of the patella between proton density fat suppression (PDFS) and T2 mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 25 patients who underwent MRI of the knee with both a PDFS sequence and T2 mapping and subsequently underwent arthroscopic knee surgery were included. The cartilage surface of the patella was graded on both MRI sequences by 2 independent, blinded radiologists. Cartilage was then graded during arthroscopic surgery by a sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon. Reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined for both MRI methods. The findings during arthroscopic surgery were considered the gold standard. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for both PDFS (98.5% and 89.4%, respectively) and T2 mapping (99.4% and 91.3%, respectively) MRI were excellent. For T2 mapping, the sensitivity (61%) and specificity (64%) were comparable, whereas for PDFS there was a lower sensitivity (37%) but higher specificity (81%) in identifying cartilage abnormalities. This resulted in a similar accuracy for PDFS (59%) and T2 mapping (62%). Both PDFS and T2 mapping MRI were reliable but only moderately accurate in predicting patellar chondromalacia found during knee arthroscopic surgery.

  11. Assessment of T2-Weighted Coronal Magnetic Resonance Images in the Investigation of Pituitary Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Aggunlu, Levent; Oner, Yusuf; Celik, Halil; Akpek, Sergin; Celikyay, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the most important diagnostic method in the investigation of the pituitary lesions. Our aim is to determine whether T2-weighted coronal images may be helpful in the evaluation of the pituitary gland with suspected pituitary adenomas. One hundred and sixty-seven patients were examined prospectively with T2-weighted coronal and T1-weighted coronal images enhanced with intravenous contrast material. The images were evaluated for the presence, the size, the location, and the ancillary signs including sellar floor erosion or ballooning, infindibulary deviation, convexity of the superior border of the gland, diffuse enlargement of the gland, and the invasion of the cavenous sinuses on both images. In forty-six (28%) patients lesions were revealed on both sequences. In twenty-one (12%) patients the lesions that were revealed on the T1-weighted images were not detected on the T2-weighted images. Positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy rates of T2-weighted coronal images on the detection of the presence of lesions were 100%, 17.4%, 68.7%, 100%, and 87.4%, respectively. Both T2-weighted coronal and T1-weighted coronal images enhanced with intravenous gadolinium-based contrast material are important in the diagnosis of pituitary adenomas. T2-weighted coronal images could be used as a screening tool for the primary evaluation of the pituitary gland

  12. T2 Mapping of the Sacroiliac Joints With 3-T MRI: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Guillaume; Bergère, Antonin; Rafei, Mazen El; Duhamel, Alain; Teixeira, Pedro; Cotten, Anne

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of T2 relaxation time measurements of the sacroiliac joints. The sacroiliac joints of 40 patients were imaged by 3-T MRI using an oblique axial multislice multiecho spin-echo T2-weighted sequence. Manual plotting and automatic subdivision of ROIs allowed us to obtain T2 values for up to 48 different areas per patient (posterior and anterior parts, sacral, intermediate, and iliac parts). Intraand interobserver reproducibility of T2 values were calculated after independent assessment by two musculoskeletal radiologists. A total of 1656 measurement sites could be analyzed. Mean (± SD) T2 values were 40.6 ± 6.7 ms and 41.2 ± 6.3 ms for observer 1 and 39.9 ± 6.6 ms for observer 2. The intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.70-0.74), and the interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68-0.72). Our study shows the feasibility of T2 relaxation time measurements at the sacroiliac joints.

  13. T2-weighted vs. intrathecal contrast-enhanced MR cisternography in the evaluation of CSF rhinorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecin, Gaye; Oner, A. Yusuf; Tokgoz, Nil; Ucar, Murat; Tali, Turgut; Aykol, Sukru

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic surgical approach is being more widely used in the treatment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. Accurate localization of CSF fistulas prior to surgery is essential in increasing the success of dural repair and in decreasing negative or recurrent explorations. Purpose: To evaluate and compare intrathecal contrast medium-enhanced magnetic resonance cisternography (CEMRC) with T2-weighted MR cisternography (T2MRC) in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with suspected CSF rhinorrhea underwent MR cisternography including intrathecally enhanced fat-suppressed T1WI in three orthogonal planes and T2WI in the coronal plane. Both set of images were reviewed by two blinded radiologists for the presence and location of CSF leakage. Imaging data were compared with surgical findings and/or beta-2 transferrin testing. Results: With surgery proven CSF leakage in 20 instances as reference, CEMRC detected 18 (90%), whereas T2MRC reported only 13 (65%) correctly. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in detecting CSF fistulas were 92%, 80%, 76%, and 93% for CEMRC, and 56%, 77%, 64%, and 71% for T2MRC, respectively. Conclusion: The minimally invasive CEMRC is an effective method with higher sensitivity and specificity than T2MRC in the evaluation of CSF fistulas

  14. Changes in the T2 value of cartilage after meniscus transplantation over 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Department of Radiology, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Min Hee; Chung, Hye Won; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the changes in the mean T2 values of articular cartilage on serial follow-up images up to 1 year in patients who underwent lateral meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT). Fifty-two patients who underwent lateral MAT surgery at our hospital were evaluated preoperatively and at 2 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after MAT using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that included T2 mapping. T2 value changes according to the arthroscopic grading of chondromalacia were evaluated in the lateral and medial compartment. Lysholm scores were obtained pre- and postoperatively. The T2 values of cartilage were significantly increased 2 days after operation, and then gradually reduced to the baseline level after 1 year in both compartments. In morphologic assessment performed after 1 year, most areas (92.9 %) showed no interval change of chondromalacia grade. Lyshom knee scores increased significantly from the mean preoperative value of 62.5 (range, 23-95) to 89.7 (range, 64-100) at 1 year (p < 0.001). Mean T2 values of cartilage following MAT exhibited a return to baseline level after 1 year. T2 measurement can be a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of postoperative cartilage changes compared to conventional MRI. (orig.)

  15. Overcoming chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells: role of the bitter taste receptor T2R10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Louisa; Giese, Nathalia; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Schirmacher, Peter; Felix, Klaus; Gaida, Matthias M

    2018-01-01

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins initially identified in the gustatory system as sensors for the taste of bitter. Recent evidence on expression of these receptors outside gustatory tissues suggested alternative functions, and there is growing interest of their potential role in cancer biology. In this study, we report for the first time, expression and functionality of the bitter receptor family member T2R10 in both human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and PDAC derived cell lines. Caffeine, a known ligand for T2R10, rendered the tumor cells more susceptible to two standard chemotherapeutics, Gemcitabine and 5-Fluoruracil. Knocking down T2R10 in the cell line BxPC-3 reduced the caffeine-induced effect. As possible underlying mechanism, we found that caffeine via triggering T2R10 inhibited Akt phosphorylation and subsequently downregulated expression of ABCG2, the so-called multi-drug resistance protein that participates in rendering cells resistant to a variety of chemotherapeutics. In conclusion, T2R10 is expressed in pancreatic cancer and it downmodulates the chemoresistance of the tumor cells.

  16. Method of T2 spectrum inversion with conjugate gradient algorithm from NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengju; Shi Shangming; Song Yanjie

    2010-01-01

    Based on the optimization techniques, the T 2 spectrum inversion method of conjugate gradient that is easy to realize non-negativity constraint of T2 spectrum is proposed. The method transforms the linear mixed-determined problem of T2 spectrum inversion into the typical optimization problem of searching the minimum of objective function by building up the objective function according to the basic idea of geophysics modeling. The optimization problem above is solved with the conjugate gradient algorithm that has quick convergence rate and quadratic termination. The method has been applied to the inversion of noise free echo train generated from artificial spectrum, artificial echo train with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)=25 and NMR experimental data of drilling core. The comparison between the inversion results of this paper and artificial spectrum or the result of software imported in NMR laboratory shows that the method can correctly invert T 2 spectrum from artificial NMR relaxation data even though SNR=25 and that inversion T 2 spectrum with good continuity and smoothness from core NMR experimental data accords perfectly with that of laboratory software imported, and moreover,the absolute error between the NMR porosity computed from T 2 spectrum and helium (He) porosity in laboratory is 0.65%. (authors)

  17. Decreased T2 signal in the thalami may be a sign of lysosomal storage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autti, Taina; Joensuu, Raimo; Aaberg, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Lysosomal disorders are rare and are caused by genetically transmitted lysosomal enzyme deficiencies. A decreased T2 signal in the thalamus has occasionally been reported. Because the finding of bilateral abnormal signal intensity of the thalamus on T2-weighted images has not been systematically reviewed, and its value as a diagnostic tool critically evaluated, we carried out a systematic review of the literature. Articles in English with 30 trios of keywords were collected from PubMed. Exclusion criteria were lack of conventional T2-weighted images in the protocol and not being a human study. Finally, 111 articles were included. The thalamus was considered affected only if mentioned in the text or in the figure legends. Some 117 patients with various lysosomal diseases and five patients with ceruloplasmin deficiency were reported to have a bilateral decrease in T2 signal intensity. At least one article reported a bilateral decrease in signal intensity of the thalami on T2-weighted images in association with GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis and with Krabbe's disease, aspartylglucosaminuria, mannosidosis, fucosidosis, and mucolipidosis IV. Furthermore, thalamic alteration was a consistent finding in several types of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) including CLN1 (infantile NCL), CLN2 (classic late infantile NCL), CLN3 (juvenile NCL), CLN5 (Finnish variant late infantile NCL), and CLN7 (Turkish variant late infantile NCL). A decrease in T2 signal intensity in the thalami seems to be a sign of lysosomal disease. (orig.)

  18. Does joint alignment affect the T2 values of cartilage in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Klaus M.; Shepard, Timothy; Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Babb, James S.; Regatte, Ravinder; Schweitzer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    To assess the relationship between T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and knee alignment in patients with clinical symptoms of medial osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty-four patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 62.5 ± 9.9 years) with clinical symptoms of medial knee OA, 12 with varus and 12 with valgus alignment of the femorotibial joint, were investigated on 3T MR using a 2D multi-echo spin echo (MESE) sequence for T2 mapping. Analysis of covariance, Spearman correlation coefficients, exact Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Overall the T2 values of cartilage in the medial compartment (median ± interquartile-range, 49.44 ± 6.58) were significantly higher (P = 0.0043) than those in the lateral compartment (47.15 ± 6.87). Patients with varus alignment (50.83 ± 6.30 ms) had significantly higher T2 values of cartilage (P < 0.0001) than patients with valgus alignment (46.20 ± 6.00 ms). No statistically significant association between the T2 values of cartilage (in either location) and the Kellgren Lawrence score was found in the varus or in the valgus group. T2 measurements were increased in medial knee OA patients with varus alignment, adding support to the theory of an association of OA and joint alignment. (orig.)

  19. For t 2 DNA vaccine prevents Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M-F; Song, P-P; Lin, T-M; Chiu, Y-T; Chen, Y-H

    2016-04-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) is the most prevalent allergenic biting insect in Taiwan, and 60% of the exposed subjects develop allergic reactions. Subjects with insect allergy frequently limit their outdoor activities to avoid the annoyingly intense itchy allergic reactions, leading to significant worsening of their quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only known therapy that provides long-term host immune tolerance to the allergen, but is time-consuming and cumbersome. This study tested whether the For t 2 DNA vaccine can prevent allergic symptoms in For t 2-sensitized mice. Two consecutive shots of For t 2 DNA vaccine were given to mice with a 7-day interval before sensitization with recombinant For t 2 proteins, using the two-step sensitization protocol reported previously. The For t 2 DNA vaccine at 50 μg prevented the production of For t 2-specific IgE (P allergy in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Does joint alignment affect the T2 values of cartilage in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Klaus M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Shepard, Timothy; Chang, Gregory; Wang, Ligong; Babb, James S.; Regatte, Ravinder [New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Schweitzer, Mark [Ottawa Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    To assess the relationship between T2 values of femorotibial cartilage and knee alignment in patients with clinical symptoms of medial osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty-four patients (mean age {+-} standard deviation, 62.5 {+-} 9.9 years) with clinical symptoms of medial knee OA, 12 with varus and 12 with valgus alignment of the femorotibial joint, were investigated on 3T MR using a 2D multi-echo spin echo (MESE) sequence for T2 mapping. Analysis of covariance, Spearman correlation coefficients, exact Mann-Whitney tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Overall the T2 values of cartilage in the medial compartment (median {+-} interquartile-range, 49.44 {+-} 6.58) were significantly higher (P = 0.0043) than those in the lateral compartment (47.15 {+-} 6.87). Patients with varus alignment (50.83 {+-} 6.30 ms) had significantly higher T2 values of cartilage (P < 0.0001) than patients with valgus alignment (46.20 {+-} 6.00 ms). No statistically significant association between the T2 values of cartilage (in either location) and the Kellgren Lawrence score was found in the varus or in the valgus group. T2 measurements were increased in medial knee OA patients with varus alignment, adding support to the theory of an association of OA and joint alignment. (orig.)

  1. Crystal structure of Clostridium difficile toxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumbler, Nicole M.; Rutherford, Stacey A.; Zhang, Zhifen; Farrow, Melissa A.; Lisher, John P.; Farquhar, Erik; Giedroc, David P.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Melnyk, Roman A.; Lacy, D. Borden

    2016-01-11

    Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Disease is mediated by the actions of two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which cause the diarrhoea, as well as inflammation and necrosis within the colon. The toxins are large (308 and 270 kDa, respectively), homologous (47% amino acid identity) glucosyltransferases that target small GTPases within the host. The multidomain toxins enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and, upon exposure to the low pH of the endosome, insert into and deliver two enzymatic domains across the membrane. Eukaryotic inositol-hexakisphosphate (InsP6) binds an autoprocessing domain to activate a proteolysis event that releases the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain into the cytosol. Here, we report the crystal structure of a 1,832-amino-acid fragment of TcdA (TcdA1832), which reveals a requirement for zinc in the mechanism of toxin autoprocessing and an extended delivery domain that serves as a scaffold for the hydrophobic α-helices involved in pH-dependent pore formation. A surface loop of the delivery domain whose sequence is strictly conserved among all large clostridial toxins is shown to be functionally important, and is highlighted for future efforts in the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics.

  2. Array biosensor for detection of toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.; Taitt, Chris Rowe; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Shubin, Yura; Golden, Joel P.

    2003-01-01

    The array biosensor is capable of detecting multiple targets rapidly and simultaneously on the surface of a single waveguide. Sandwich and competitive fluoroimmunoassays have been developed to detect high and low molecular weight toxins, respectively, in complex samples. Recognition molecules (usually antibodies) were first immobilized in specific locations on the waveguide and the resultant patterned array was used to interrogate up to 12 different samples for the presence of multiple different analytes. Upon binding of a fluorescent analyte or fluorescent immunocomplex, the pattern of fluorescent spots was detected using a CCD camera. Automated image analysis was used to determine a mean fluorescence value for each assay spot and to subtract the local background signal. The location of the spot and its mean fluorescence value were used to determine the toxin identity and concentration. Toxins were measured in clinical fluids, environmental samples and foods, with minimal sample preparation. Results are shown for rapid analyses of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, ricin, cholera toxin, botulinum toxoids, trinitrotoluene, and the mycotoxin fumonisin. Toxins were detected at levels as low as 0.5 ng mL(-1).

  3. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Brian; Mann, Sumeer A.; King, Chris; Forster, Bruce B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  4. Integrity of articular cartilage on T2 mapping associated with meniscal signal change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Brian [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Mann, Sumeer A. [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta, Walter Mackenzie Health Sciences Center, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2B7 (Canada); King, Chris [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada); Forster, Bruce B., E-mail: bruce.forster@vch.ca [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, UBC Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between T2 relaxation values (T2 RVs) within the superficial zone of articular cartilage and different types of meniscal degeneration/tear. Materials and methods: A review of 310 consecutive knee MRIs which included an 8 echo T2 relaxation sequence, in patients referred for standard clinical indications, was performed independently and in blinded fashion by 2 observers. The posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci were each evaluated and divided into 4 subgroups: Normal (control), Grade I/II meniscal signal, Grade III meniscal signal-simple tear (Grade III-S), and Grade III meniscal signal-complex tear (Grade III-C). After exclusion criteria were applied, the medial meniscal group consisted of 65 controls and 133 patients, while the lateral meniscal group consisted of 143 controls and 55 patients. T2 RVs were measured by an observer blinded to the clinical history and MRI grading. Measurements were obtained over the superficial zone of femoral and tibial articular cartilage adjacent to the center of the posterior horn of each meniscus to ensure consistency between measurements. Analysis of covariance adjusting for age and gender was used to compare T2 RVs between patients and controls. Results: T2 RVs were significantly increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears compared to controls over the medial tibial plateau (MTP; p = 0.0001) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP; p = 0.0008). T2 RVs were not increased in patients with Grade III-C meniscal tears over the medial femoral condyle (MFC; p = 0.11) or lateral femoral condyle (LFC; p = 0.99). Grade I/II meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.15), LFC (p = 0.69), MTP (p = 0.42), or LTP (p = 0.50). Grade III-S meniscal signal was not associated with elevated T2 RVs over the MFC (p = 0.54), LFC (p = 0.43), MTP (p = 0.30), or LTP (p = 0.38). Conclusion: Grade III-C meniscal tears are associated with

  5. The pilot study of MR T2 mapping in the cartilage evaluation of knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lingling; Liang Biling; Shen Jun; Zhong Jinglian; Ye Ruixin; Deng Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of MR T 2 mapping in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage of knee joint. Methods: Knees of 20 healthy adults before and after jogging and 19 osteoarthritis patients were examined with sagittal 8-echo SE sequence. The T 2 value of cartilage was selected and calculated. The T 2 values in the superficial and deep cartilage of femoral and tibial joint before and after jogging were compared, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. The source images were sent to the workstation to get T 2 mappings. The T 2 value of cartilage between before and after jogging was compared with paired-samples t test. The T 2 value between superficial and deep cartilage before jogging was compared with independent-samples t test, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. Results: The T 2 values in the superficial and the deep tibial cartilage were (48.8±6.3) ms, (44.3±5.7) ms before jogging and (43.4±5.0) ms, (40.3±6.1) ms after jogging. The T 2 values were significantly different between before and after jogging (t=6.004 and t=5.037, P 2 values in the superficial and deep femoral cartilage were (52.1±5.7) ms, (47.7±5.3) ms before jogging and (47.2±4.5) ms, (43.6±4.1) ms after jogging. The T 2 values were significantly different between before and after jogging (t=6.169 and t=5.957, P 2 mapping showed those changes. The mean T 2 value in the tibial cartilage of osteoarthritis patients was (56.0±9.1) ms and was higher than that of healthy adults. There was a significent difference between osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults (t=-3.446, P 2 mapping can be used in the research of biomechanics and function of cartilage and has a prelimilary value in the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration. (authors)

  6. Mechanism of Shiga Toxin Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Gao, Haifei; Arumugam, Senthil

    2017-01-01

    between them. The precise mechanism by which this clustering occurs remains poorly defined. Here, we used vesicle and cell systems and computer simulations to show that line tension due to curvature, height, or compositional mismatch, and lipid or solvent depletion cannot drive the clustering of Shiga...... toxin molecules. By contrast, in coarse-grained computer simulations, a correlation was found between clustering and toxin nanoparticle-driven suppression of membrane fluctuations, and experimentally we observed that clustering required the toxin molecules to be tightly bound to the membrane surface...... molecules (several nanometers), and persist even beyond. This force is predicted to operate between manufactured nanoparticles providing they are sufficiently rigid and tightly bound to the plasma membrane, thereby suggesting a route for the targeting of nanoparticles to cells for biomedical applications....

  7. Update on botulinum toxin and dermal fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbos, Zachary J; Lipham, William J

    2010-09-01

    The art and science of facial rejuvenation is an ever-evolving field of medicine, as evidenced by the continual development of new surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities. Over the past 10 years, the use of botulinum toxin and dermal fillers for aesthetic purposes has risen sharply. Herein, we discuss properties of several commonly used injectable products and provide basic instruction for their use toward the goal of achieving facial rejuvenation. The demand for nonsurgical injection-based facial rejuvenation products has risen enormously in recent years. Used independently or concurrently, botulinum toxin and dermal filler agents offer an affordable, minimally invasive approach to facial rejuvenation. Botulinum toxin and dermal fillers can be used to diminish facial rhytides, restore facial volume, and sculpt facial contours, thereby achieving an aesthetically pleasing, youthful facial appearance.

  8. White matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. Methods: We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. Results: We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  9. MR fingerprinting for rapid quantification of myocardial T1 , T2 , and proton spin density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jesse I; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Yong; Ma, Dan; Lo, Wei-Ching; Griswold, Mark; Seiberlich, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    To introduce a two-dimensional MR fingerprinting (MRF) technique for quantification of T 1 , T 2 , and M 0 in myocardium. An electrocardiograph-triggered MRF method is introduced for mapping myocardial T 1 , T 2 , and M 0 during a single breath-hold in as short as four heartbeats. The pulse sequence uses variable flip angles, repetition times, inversion recovery times, and T 2 preparation dephasing times. A dictionary of possible signal evolutions is simulated for each scan that incorporates the subject's unique variations in heart rate. Aspects of the sequence design were explored in simulations, and the accuracy and precision of cardiac MRF were assessed in a phantom study. In vivo imaging was performed at 3 Tesla in 11 volunteers to generate native parametric maps. T 1 and T 2 measurements from the proposed cardiac MRF sequence correlated well with standard spin echo measurements in the phantom study (R 2  > 0.99). A Bland-Altman analysis revealed good agreement for myocardial T 1 measurements between MRF and MOLLI (bias 1 ms, 95% limits of agreement -72 to 72 ms) and T 2 measurements between MRF and T 2 -prepared balanced steady-state free precession (bias, -2.6 ms; 95% limits of agreement, -8.5 to 3.3 ms). MRF can provide quantitative single slice T 1 , T 2 , and M 0 maps in the heart within a single breath-hold. Magn Reson Med 77:1446-1458, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Evaluation of neonatal brain myelination using the T1- and T2-weighted MRI ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soun, Jennifer E; Liu, Michael Z; Cauley, Keith A; Grinband, Jack

    2017-09-01

    To validate the T1- and T2-weighted (T1w/T2w) MRI ratio technique in evaluating myelin in the neonatal brain. T1w and T2w MR images of 10 term neonates with normal-appearing brain parenchyma were obtained from a single 1.5 Tesla MRI and retrospectively analyzed. T1w/T2w ratio images were created with a postprocessing pipeline and qualitatively compared with standard clinical sequences (T1w, T2w, and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]). Quantitative assessment was also performed to assess the ratio technique in detecting areas of known myelination (e.g., posterior limb of the internal capsule) and very low myelination (e.g., optic radiations) using linear regression analysis and the Michelson Contrast equation, a measure of luminance contrast intensity. The ratio image provided qualitative improvements in the ability to visualize regional variation in myelin content of neonates. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the ratio intensity values and ADC values in the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the optic radiations (R 2  = 0.96 and P ratio images were 1.6 times higher than T1w, 2.6 times higher than T2w, and 1.8 times higher than ADC (all P ratio improved visualization of the corticospinal tract, one of the earliest myelinated pathways. The T1w/T2w ratio accentuates contrast between myelinated and less myelinated structures and may enhance our diagnostic ability to detect myelination patterns in the neonatal brain. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:690-696. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. White Matter Fiber-based Analysis of T1w/T2w Ratio Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwei; Budin, Francois; Noel, Jean; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Gilmore, John; Rasmussen, Jerod; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Styner, Martin

    2017-02-01

    To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis. We propose the use of a fiber-tract-based analysis of such T1w/T2w ratio data, as it allows us to separate fiber bundles that a common regional analysis imprecisely groups together, and to associate effects to specific tracts rather than large, broad regions. We developed an intuitive, open source tool to facilitate such fiber-based studies of T1w/T2w ratio maps. Via its Graphical User Interface (GUI) the tool is accessible to non-technical users. The framework uses calibrated T1w/T2w ratio maps and a prior fiber atlas as an input to generate profiles of T1w/T2w values. The resulting fiber profiles are used in a statistical analysis that performs along-tract functional statistical analysis. We applied this approach to a preliminary study of early brain development in neonates. We developed an open-source tool for the fiber based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps and tested it in a study of brain development.

  12. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  13. T2-weighted MRI-derived textural features reflect prostate cancer aggressiveness: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nketiah, Gabriel; Elschot, Mattijs; Kim, Eugene; Teruel, Jose R; Scheenen, Tom W; Bathen, Tone F; Selnæs, Kirsten M

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of T2-weighted (T2W) MRI-derived textural features relative to quantitative physiological parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in Gleason score (GS) 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers. 3T multiparametric-MRI was performed on 23 prostate cancer patients prior to prostatectomy. Textural features [angular second moment (ASM), contrast, correlation, entropy], apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and DCE pharmacokinetic parameters (K trans and V e ) were calculated from index tumours delineated on the T2W, DW, and DCE images, respectively. The association between the textural features and prostatectomy GS and the MRI-derived parameters, and the utility of the parameters in differentiating between GS 3+4 and 4+3 prostate cancers were assessed statistically. ASM and entropy correlated significantly (p textural features correlated insignificantly with K trans and V e . GS 4+3 cancers had significantly lower ASM and higher entropy than 3+4 cancers, but insignificant differences in median ADC, K trans , and V e . The combined texture-MRI parameters yielded higher classification accuracy (91%) than the individual parameter sets. T2W MRI-derived textural features could serve as potential diagnostic markers, sensitive to the pathological differences in prostate cancers. • T2W MRI-derived textural features correlate significantly with Gleason score and ADC. • T2W MRI-derived textural features differentiate Gleason score 3+4 from 4+3 cancers. • T2W image textural features could augment tumour characterization.

  14. T2* Mapping Provides Information That Is Statistically Comparable to an Arthroscopic Evaluation of Acetabular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Patrick; Nissi, Mikko J; Hughes, John; Mortazavi, Shabnam; Ellerman, Jutta

    2017-07-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to validate T2* mapping as an objective, noninvasive method for the prediction of acetabular cartilage damage. Methods This is the second step in the validation of T2*. In a previous study, we established a quantitative predictive model for identifying and grading acetabular cartilage damage. In this study, the model was applied to a second cohort of 27 consecutive hips to validate the model. A clinical 3.0-T imaging protocol with T2* mapping was used. Acetabular regions of interest (ROI) were identified on magnetic resonance and graded using the previously established model. Each ROI was then graded in a blinded fashion by arthroscopy. Accurate surgical location of ROIs was facilitated with a 2-dimensional map projection of the acetabulum. A total of 459 ROIs were studied. Results When T2* mapping and arthroscopic assessment were compared, 82% of ROIs were within 1 Beck group (of a total 6 possible) and 32% of ROIs were classified identically. Disease prediction based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.713 and a specificity of 0.804. Model stability evaluation required no significant changes to the predictive model produced in the initial study. Conclusions These results validate that T2* mapping provides statistically comparable information regarding acetabular cartilage when compared to arthroscopy. In contrast to arthroscopy, T2* mapping is quantitative, noninvasive, and can be used in follow-up. Unlike research quantitative magnetic resonance protocols, T2* takes little time and does not require a contrast agent. This may facilitate its use in the clinical sphere.

  15. Marine toxins and their toxicological significance: An overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    , Hemolysins-1 and hemolysin-2, saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, gonyautoxin, tetrodotoxin, ptychodiscus brevis toxin and theonellamide F. According to their mode of action, these toxins are classified into different categories such as cytotoxin, enterotoxin...

  16. Vth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ownby, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    .... Presentations on arthropod toxins included work on scorpion neurotoxins, K+ channel-blocking peptides, lice and wasp proteins, stinging insect venom allergens and Australian funnel-web spider toxins...

  17. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Takehara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins.

  18. Cellular Entry of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Masaya; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Seike, Soshi; Oda, Masataka; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Hisatsune, Junzo; Ochi, Sadayuki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2017-08-11

    Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death. This review focuses upon the recent advances in cellular internalization of clostridial binary toxins.

  19. Therapeutic Approaches of Botulinum Toxin in Gynecology

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Alexandru Moga; Oana Gabriela Dimienescu; Andreea Bălan; Ioan Scârneciu; Barna Barabaș; Liana Pleș

    2018-01-01

    Botulinum toxins (BoNTs) are produced by several anaerobic species of the genus Clostridium and, although they were originally considered lethal toxins, today they find their usefulness in the treatment of a wide range of pathologies in various medical specialties. Botulinum neurotoxin has been identified in seven different isoforms (BoNT-A, BoNT-B, BoNT-C, BoNT-D, BoNT-E, BoNT-F, and BoNT-G). Neurotoxigenic Clostridia can produce more than 40 different BoNT subtypes and, recently, a new BoNT...

  20. Quantitative evaluation of fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles using T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Atsuya; Ochiai, Shunsuke; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Obata, Takayuki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Wada, Yuichi; Okubo, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Although fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles has been reported to affect the outcomes of rotator cuff repairs, only a few studies have attempted to quantitatively evaluate this degeneration. T2 mapping is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging technique that potentially evaluates the concentration of fat in muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles by using T2 mapping, as well as to evaluate the reliability of T2 measurement. We obtained magnetic resonance images including T2 mapping from 184 shoulders (180 patients; 110 male patients [112 shoulders] and 70 female patients [72 shoulders]; mean age, 62 years [range, 16-84 years]). Eighty-three shoulders had no rotator cuff tear (group A), whereas 101 shoulders had tears, of which 62 were incomplete to medium (group B) and 39 were large to massive (group C). T2 values of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles were measured and compared among groups. Intraobserver and interobserver variabilities also were examined. The mean T2 values of the supraspinatus in groups A, B, and C were 36.3 ± 4.7 milliseconds, 44.2 ± 11.3 milliseconds, and 57.0 ± 18.8 milliseconds, respectively. The mean T2 values of the infraspinatus in groups A, B, and C were 36.1 ± 5.1 milliseconds, 40.0 ± 11.1 milliseconds, and 51.9 ± 18.2 milliseconds, respectively. The T2 value significantly increased with the extent of the tear in both muscles. Both intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were more than 0.99. T2 mapping can be a reliable tool to quantify fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative analysis of disc degeneration using axial T2 mapping in a percutaneous annular puncture model in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jee Won; Kim, Su Jin [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate T2 relaxation time change using axial T2 mapping in a rabbit degenerated disc model and determine the most correlated variable with histologic score among T2 relaxation time, disc height index, and Pfirrmann grade. Degenerated disc model was made in 4 lumbar discs of 11 rabbits (n = 44) by percutaneous annular puncture with various severities of an injury. Lumbar spine lateral radiograph, MR T2 sagittal scan and MR axial T2 mapping were obtained at baseline and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the injury in 7 rabbits and at baseline and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the injury in 4 rabbits. Generalized estimating equations were used for a longitudinal analysis of changes in T2 relaxation time in degenerated disc model. T2 relaxation time, disc height index and Pfirrmann grade were correlated with the histologic scoring of disc degeneration using Spearman's rho test. There was a significant difference in T2 relaxation time between uninjured and injured discs after annular puncture. Progressive decrease in T2 relaxation time was observed in injured discs throughout the study period. Lower T2 relaxation time was observed in the more severely injured discs. T2 relaxation time showed the strongest inverse correlation with the histologic score among the variables investigated (r = -0.811, p < 0.001). T2 relaxation time measured with axial T2 mapping in degenerated discs is a potential method to assess disc degeneration.

  2. Changes in Regional t2 Relaxation in Compressed Cartilage: a Microscopic MRI (µMRI) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadlaq, Hisham; Xia, Yang

    2004-10-01

    T2-anisotropy of articular cartilage in magnetic field has its origin on the proton dipolar interactions and the collagen matrix organization, which influences T2 with a dependency as (3s^2(θ)-1). Seven specimens from a beagle humeral head were compressed at 12% and 20% strain values in μMRI experiments. T2 mappings at two orientations (0r and 55r) before and during compression were conducted on a Bruker AMX 300 NMR. Under load, the 2D cartilage maps at the magic angle lost its usual homogenous appearance. T2 values were averaged at the superficial zone (SZ), the transitional zone (TZ), and the radial zone (RZ). At 0r and relative to uncompressed tissue, SZ T2 was significantly lower, and RZ T2 increased significantly at both strain rates (12% and 20%). At 55r and relative to uncompressed tissue, ``bulk'' T2 and RZ T2 were significantly lower at only 20% strain. However, SZ T2 and TZ T2 were significantly lower at both strain rates. In addition, relative to 12% strain, SZ T2 was significantly lower at 0r; and ``bulk'' T2 and TZ T2 were significantly lower at 55r. The results demonstrate the modifications in collagen fiber organization as the dipolar interaction is altered due to tissue compression.

  3. Primary hyperhidrosis: Implications on symptoms, daily life, health and alcohol consumption when treated with botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Boman, Jens; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-08-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 3% of the population and reduces quality of life in affected persons. Few studies have investigated the symptoms of anxiety, depression and hazardous alcohol consumption among those with hyperhidrosis and the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin. The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary hyperhidrosis on mental and physical health, and alcohol consumption. Our second aim was to study whether and how treatment with botulinum toxin changed these effects. One hundred and fourteen patients answered questionnaires regarding hyperhidrosis and symptoms, including hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS), visual analog scale (VAS) 10-point scale for hyperhidrosis symptoms, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and short-form health survey (SF-36) before treatment with botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after. The age of onset of hyperhidrosis was on average 13.4 years and 48% described heredity for hyperhidrosis. Significant improvements were noted in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis regarding mean HDSS, VAS 10-point scale, HADS, SF-36 and sweat-related health problems 2 weeks after treatment with botulinum toxin. Changes in mean AUDIT for all participants were not significant. Primary hyperhidrosis mainly impairs mental rather than physical aspects of life and also interferes with specific daily activities of the affected individuals. Despite this, our patients did not show signs of anxiety, depression or hazardous alcohol consumption. Treatment with botulinum toxin reduced sweat-related problems and led to significant improvements in HDSS, VAS, HADS and SF-36 in our patients. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Fast T2 gradient-spin-echo (T2-GraSE) mapping for myocardial edema quantification: first in vivo validation in a porcine model of ischemia/reperfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Fern?ndez-Jim?nez, Rodrigo; S?nchez-Gonz?lez, Javier; Aguero, Jaume; del Trigo, Mar?a; Gal?n-Arriola, Carlos; Fuster, Valentin; Ib??ez, Borja

    2015-01-01

    Background Several T2-mapping sequences have been recently proposed to quantify myocardial edema by providing T2 relaxation time values. However, no T2-mapping sequence has ever been validated against actual myocardial water content for edema detection. In addition, these T2-mapping sequences are either time-consuming or require specialized software for data acquisition and/or post-processing, factors impeding their routine clinical use. Our objective was to obtain in vivo validation of a seq...

  5. The human bitter taste receptor T2R38 is broadly tuned for bacterial compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Verbeurgt

    Full Text Available T2R38 has been shown to be a specific bacterial detector implicated in innate immune defense mechanism of human upper airway. Several clinical studies have demonstrated that this receptor is associated with the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. T2R38 was previously reported to bind to homoserine lactones (HSL, quorum sensing molecules specific of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and other gram negative species. Nevertheless, these bacteria are not the major pathogens found in CRS. Here we report on the identification of bacterial metabolites acting as new agonists of T2R38 based on a single cell calcium imaging study. Two quorum sensing molecules (Agr D1 thiolactone from Staphylococcus Aureus and CSP-1 from Streptococcus Pneumoniae and a list of 32 bacterial metabolites from pathogens frequently implicated in CRS were tested. First, we observed that HSL failed to activate T2R38 in our experimental system, but that the dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, used as a solvent for these lactones may, by itself, account for the agonistic effect previously described. Secondly, we showed that both Agr D1 thiolactone and CSP-1 are inactive but that at least 7 bacterial metabolites (acetone, 2-butanone, 2-pentanone, 2-methylpropanal, dimethyl disulfide, methylmercaptan, γ-butyrolactone are able to specifically trigger this receptor. T2R38 is thus much more broadly tuned for bacterial compounds than previously thought.

  6. T2 mapping of CT remodelling patterns in interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzan, Maria T.A. [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Pneumology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, Monika; Heussel, Claus Peter [Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Kreuter, Michael; Herth, Felix J. [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Pneumology, Center for Rare and Interstitial Lung Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Warth, Arne [Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Institute for Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); Pop, Carmen Monica [Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Pneumology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dinkel, Julien [Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate lung T2 mapping for quantitative characterization and differentiation of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation (RE) and honeycombing (HC) in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Twelve patients with stable UIP or NSIP underwent thin-section multislice CT and 1.5-T MRI of the lung. A total of 188 regions were classified at CT into normal (n = 29) and pathological areas, including GGO (n = 48), RE (n = 60) and HC (n = 51) predominant lesions. Entire lung T2 maps based on multi-echo single shot TSE sequence (TE: 20, 40, 79, 140, 179 ms) were generated from each subject with breath-holds at end-expiration and ECG-triggering. The median T2 relaxation of GGO was 67 ms (range 60-72 ms). RE predominant lesions had a median relaxation of 74 ms (range 69-79 ms), while for HC pattern this was 79 ms (range 74-89 ms). The median T2 relaxation for normal lung areas was 41 ms (ranged 38-49 ms), and showed significant difference to pathological areas (p < 0.001). A statistical difference was found between the T2 relaxation of GGO, RE and HC (p < 0.05). The proposed method provides quantitative information for pattern differentiation, potentially allowing for monitoring of progression and response to treatment, in interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  7. T2 map signal variation predicts symptomatic osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Haoti; Miller, David J. [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Electrical Engineering, University Park, PA (United States); Urish, Kenneth L. [Magee Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, The Bone and Joint Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work is to use quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify patients at risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) progression. We hypothesized that classification of signal variation on T2 maps might predict symptomatic OA progression. Patients were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort. Two groups were identified: a symptomatic OA progression group and a control group. At baseline, both groups were asymptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis [WOMAC] pain score total <10) with no radiographic evidence of OA (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] score ≤ 1). The OA progression group (n = 103) had a change in total WOMAC score greater than 10 by the 3-year follow-up. The control group (n = 79) remained asymptomatic, with a change in total WOMAC score less than 10 at the 3-year follow-up. A classifier was designed to predict OA progression in an independent population based on T2 map cartilage signal variation. The classifier was designed using a nearest neighbor classification based on a Gaussian Mixture Model log-likelihood fit of T2 map cartilage voxel intensities. The use of T2 map signal variation to predict symptomatic OA progression in asymptomatic individuals achieved a specificity of 89.3 %, a sensitivity of 77.2 %, and an overall accuracy rate of 84.2 %. T2 map signal variation can predict symptomatic knee OA progression in asymptomatic individuals, serving as a possible early OA imaging biomarker. (orig.)

  8. Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging in cerebral glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Shan; Chiang, Shih-Wei; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Hsu, Fei-Ting; Cho, Nai-Yu; Wang, Chao-Ying; Chou, Ming-Chung; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the feasibility of histogram analysis of the T2*-based permeability parameter volume transfer constant (K trans ) for glioma grading and to explore the diagnostic performance of the histogram analysis of K trans and blood plasma volume (v p ). We recruited 31 and 11 patients with high- and low-grade gliomas, respectively. The histogram parameters of K trans and v p , derived from the first-pass pharmacokinetic modeling based on the T2* dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2* DSC-PW-MRI) from the entire tumor volume, were evaluated for differentiating glioma grades. Histogram parameters of K trans and v p showed significant differences between high- and low-grade gliomas and exhibited significant correlations with tumor grades. The mean K trans derived from the T2* DSC-PW-MRI had the highest sensitivity and specificity for differentiating high-grade gliomas from low-grade gliomas compared with other histogram parameters of K trans and v p . Histogram analysis of T2*-based pharmacokinetic imaging is useful for cerebral glioma grading. The histogram parameters of the entire tumor K trans measurement can provide increased accuracy with additional information regarding microvascular permeability changes for identifying high-grade brain tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Water-selective excitation of short T2 species with binomial pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligianni, Xeni; Bär, Peter; Scheffler, Klaus; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bieri, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    For imaging of fibrous musculoskeletal components, ultra-short echo time methods are often combined with fat suppression. Due to the increased chemical shift, spectral excitation of water might become a favorable option at ultra-high fields. Thus, this study aims to compare and explore short binomial excitation schemes for spectrally selective imaging of fibrous tissue components with short transverse relaxation time (T2 ). Water selective 1-1-binomial excitation is compared with nonselective imaging using a sub-millisecond spoiled gradient echo technique for in vivo imaging of fibrous tissue at 3T and 7T. Simulations indicate a maximum signal loss from binomial excitation of approximately 30% in the limit of very short T2 (0.1 ms), as compared to nonselective imaging; decreasing rapidly with increasing field strength and increasing T2 , e.g., to 19% at 3T and 10% at 7T for T2 of 1 ms. In agreement with simulations, a binomial phase close to 90° yielded minimum signal loss: approximately 6% at 3T and close to 0% at 7T for menisci, and for ligaments 9% and 13%, respectively. Overall, for imaging of short-lived T2 components, short 1-1 binomial excitation schemes prove to offer marginal signal loss especially at ultra-high fields with overall improved scanning efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ- induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.

  11. Multi-center transferability of a breath-hold T2 technique for myocardial iron assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Godfrey CF

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac iron overload is the leading cause of death in thalassemia major and is usually assessed using myocardial T2* measurements. Recently a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR breath-hold T2 sequence has been developed as a possible alternative. This cardiac T2 technique has good interstudy reproducibility, but its transferability to different centres has not yet been investigated. Methods and Results The breath-hold black blood spin echo T2 sequence was installed and validated on 1.5T Siemens MR scanners at 4 different centres across the world. Using this sequence, 5–10 thalassemia patients from each centre were scanned twice locally within a week for local interstudy reproducibility (n = 34 and all were rescanned within one month at the standardization centre in London (intersite reproducibility. The local interstudy reproducibility (coefficient of variance and mean difference were 4.4% and -0.06 ms. The intersite reproducibility and mean difference between scanners were 5.2% and -0.07 ms. Conclusion The breath-hold myocardial T2 technique is transferable between Siemens scanners with good intersite and local interstudy reproducibility. This technique may have value in the diagnosis and management of patients with iron overload conditions such as thalassemia.

  12. T2 mapping of CT remodelling patterns in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzan, Maria T.A.; Eichinger, Monika; Heussel, Claus Peter; Kreuter, Michael; Herth, Felix J.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Warth, Arne; Pop, Carmen Monica; Dinkel, Julien

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate lung T2 mapping for quantitative characterization and differentiation of ground-glass opacity (GGO), reticulation (RE) and honeycombing (HC) in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Twelve patients with stable UIP or NSIP underwent thin-section multislice CT and 1.5-T MRI of the lung. A total of 188 regions were classified at CT into normal (n = 29) and pathological areas, including GGO (n = 48), RE (n = 60) and HC (n = 51) predominant lesions. Entire lung T2 maps based on multi-echo single shot TSE sequence (TE: 20, 40, 79, 140, 179 ms) were generated from each subject with breath-holds at end-expiration and ECG-triggering. The median T2 relaxation of GGO was 67 ms (range 60-72 ms). RE predominant lesions had a median relaxation of 74 ms (range 69-79 ms), while for HC pattern this was 79 ms (range 74-89 ms). The median T2 relaxation for normal lung areas was 41 ms (ranged 38-49 ms), and showed significant difference to pathological areas (p < 0.001). A statistical difference was found between the T2 relaxation of GGO, RE and HC (p < 0.05). The proposed method provides quantitative information for pattern differentiation, potentially allowing for monitoring of progression and response to treatment, in interstitial lung disease. (orig.)

  13. Discuss the value of T2 relaxation time in the research of femorotibial joint biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jinglian; Song Lingling; Liang Biling; Ye Ruixin; Yun Wenjuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of T 2 relaxation time in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage of knee joint. Methods: Knees of 20 healthy adults and 19 osteoarthritis patients were examined with sagittal 8-echo sequence. The T 2 value of cartilage was calculated. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper cartilage of femoral and tibial joint were compared, so did between the osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults. Results: The T 2 values in the superficial and the deeper tibital cartilage were (48.8±6.3) ms, (44.3±5.7) ms, respectively. The T 2 values in the superficial and deeper femoral cartilage were (52.1±5.7) ms, (47.7±5.3) ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between superficial and deeper femoral cartilage (t=3.148 and t=3.384, P 2 value in the tibial cartilage of osteoarthritis patients was (56.0±9.1) ms and was higher than that of healthy adults. There was a significant difference between osteoarthritis patients and healthy adults (t=-3.446, P 2 relaxation time can be used in the research of the biomechanics and function of cartilage and has a application value in clinical diagnosis. (authors)

  14. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). This new date..., that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121...

  15. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitschmann, Vladimír; Hon, Zdeněk

    2016-04-28

    Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots); it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  16. The Uremic Toxin Acrolein Promotes Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siyabeldin E. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a major complication of end stage renal disease. The anemia is mainly the result of impaired formation of erythrocytes due to lack of erythropoietin and iron deficiency. Compelling evidence, however, points to the contribution of accelerated erythrocyte death, which decreases the life span of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and by cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. Erythrocytes could be sensitized to cytosolic Ca2+ by ceramide. In end stage renal disease, eryptosis may possibly be stimulated by uremic toxins. The present study explored, whether the uremic toxin acrolein could trigger eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin-V-binding, hemolysis from hemoglobin release, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide from fluorescent antibodies. Results: A 48 h exposure to acrolein (30 - 50 µM did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i but significantly decreased forward scatter and increased annexin-V-binding. Acrolein further triggered slight, but significant hemolysis and increased ceramide formation in erythrocytes. Acrolein (50 µM induced annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Acrolein augmented the annexin-V-binding following treatment with Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 µM. Conclusion: Acrolein stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least in part due to stimulation of ceramide formation with subsequent sensitisation of the erythrocytes to cytosolic Ca2+.

  17. Distinction of salvaged and infarcted myocardium within the ischaemic area-at-risk with T2 mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Ugander, Martin; Hsu, Li-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    values from T2 maps and signal intensities on T2-weighted images were measured in the corresponding areas. RESULTS: At both imaging time points, the T2 of the salvaged myocardium was longer than of remote (66.0 ± 6.9 vs. 51.4 ± 3.5 ms, P ...AIM: Area-at-risk (AAR) measurements often rely on T2-weighted images, but subtle differences in T2 may be overlooked with this method. To determine the differences in oedema between salvaged and infarcted myocardium, we performed quantitative T2 mapping of the AAR. We also aimed to determine...... (14.7 ± 5.6 vs. 8.7 ± 5.1 ms, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: T2 relaxation parameters are different in the infarcted and salvaged myocardium, and both are significantly longer than remote. Furthermore, the magnitude of increase in T2 was less in the salvaged myocardium after longer reperfusion, indicating...

  18. Programming scheme based optimization of hybrid 4T-2R OxRAM NVSRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Swatilekha; Kingra, Sandeep Kaur; Suri, Manan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel single-cycle programming scheme for 4T-2R NVSRAM, exploiting pulse engineered input signals. OxRAM devices based on 3 nm thick bi-layer active switching oxide and 90 nm CMOS technology node were used for all simulations. The cell design is implemented for real-time non-volatility rather than last-bit, or power-down non-volatility. Detailed analysis of the proposed single-cycle, parallel RRAM device programming scheme is presented in comparison to the two-cycle sequential RRAM programming used for similar 4T-2R NVSRAM bit-cells. The proposed single-cycle programming scheme coupled with the 4T-2R architecture leads to several benefits such as- possibility of unconventional transistor sizing, 50% lower latency, 20% improvement in SNM and ∼20× reduced energy requirements, when compared against two-cycle programming approach.

  19. Signs of patellar chondromalacia on sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Monu, J.U.; Fisher, D.R.; Keene, J.S.; Graf, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    We incidentally noted distinctive high signal defects or fissures in the patellar articular cartilage on sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in 4 patients. At subsequent arthroscopy all 4 patients were found to have patellar chondromalacia. To determine the reliabilty of these signs, we retrospectively evaluated, in a blinded manner, sagittal T2-weighted MR images of the knee in 75 patients who were undergoing arthroscopic assessment of their patellar articular cartilage. We indentified high signal defects of fissures in the patellar cartilage of 5 patients. Patellar chondromalacia was noted at arthroscopy in all 5 patients. Arthroscopy demonstrated patellar chondromalacia in an additional 21 patients with normal MR images. We conclude that high signal defects or fissures on sagittal T2-weighted images are usefull signs of patellar chondromalacia. This single imaging sequence will, however, detect only a small number of the cartilage lesions that may be present. (orig.)

  20. Implementation of model predictive control for resistive wall mode stabilization on EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Frassinetti, L.

    2015-10-01

    A model predictive control (MPC) method for stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch is presented. The system identification technique is used to obtain a linearized empirical model of EXTRAP T2R. MPC employs the model for prediction and computes optimal control inputs that satisfy performance criterion. The use of a linearized form of the model allows for compact formulation of MPC, implemented on a millisecond timescale, that can be used for real-time control. The design allows the user to arbitrarily suppress any selected Fourier mode. The experimental results from EXTRAP T2R show that the designed and implemented MPC successfully stabilizes the RWM.