WorldWideScience

Sample records for systems state-of-the-art review

  1. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  2. u-Healthcare system: state-of-the-art review and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Farid; Tabish, Rohan

    2013-06-01

    With the increase of an ageing population and chronic diseases, society becomes more health conscious and patients become "health consumers" looking for better health management. People's perception is shifting towards patient-centered, rather than the classical, hospital-centered health services which has been propelling the evolution of telemedicine research from the classic e-Health to m-Health and now is to ubiquitous healthcare (u-Health). It is expected that mobile & ubiquitous Telemedicine, integrated with Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), have a great potential in fostering the provision of next-generation u-Health. Despite the recent efforts and achievements, current u-Health proposed solutions still suffer from shortcomings hampering their adoption today. This paper presents a comprehensive review of up-to-date requirements in hardware, communication, and computing for next-generation u-Health systems. It compares new technological and technical trends and discusses how they address expected u-Health requirements. A thorough survey on various worldwide recent system implementations is presented in an attempt to identify shortcomings in state-of-the art solutions. In particular, challenges in WBAN and ubiquitous computing were emphasized. The purpose of this survey is not only to help beginners with a holistic approach toward understanding u-Health systems but also present to researchers new technological trends and design challenges they have to cope with, while designing such systems.

  3. Building Applications, Opportunities and Challenges of Active Shading Systems: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joud Al Dakheel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Active shading systems in buildings have emerged as a high performing shading solution that selectively and optimally controls daylight and heat gains. Active shading systems are increasingly used in buildings, due to their ability to mainly improve the building environment, reduce energy consumption and in some cases generate energy. They may be categorized into three classes: smart glazing, kinetic shading and integrated renewable energy shading. This paper reviews the current status of the different types in terms of design principle and working mechanism of the systems, performance, control strategies and building applications. Challenges, limitations and future opportunities of the systems are then discussed. The review highlights that despite its high initial cost, the electrochromic (EC glazing is the most applied smart glazing due to the extensive use of glass in buildings under all climatic conditions. In terms of external shadings, the rotating shading type is the predominantly used one in buildings due to its low initial cost. Algae façades and folding shading systems are still emerging types, with high initial and maintenance costs and requiring specialist installers. The algae façade systems and PV integrated shading systems are a promising solution due to their dual benefits of providing shading and generating electricity. Active shading systems were found to save 12 to 50% of the building cooling electricity consumption.

  4. A state-of-the-art review of interoperability amongst heterogeneous software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata Jaramillo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are sets of interacting elements aimed at supporting entrepreneurial or business activities; they cannot thus coexist in an isolated way but require their data to be shared so as to increase their productivity. Such systems’ interoperability is normally accomplished through mark-up standards, query languages and web services. The literature contains work related to software system interoperability; however, it presents some difficulties, such as the need for using the same platforms and different programming languages, the use of read only languages and the deficiencies in the formalism used for achieving it. This paper presents a critical review of the advances made regarding heterogeneous software systems’ interoperability.

  5. State-of-the-art review of computational fluid dynamics modeling for fluid-solids systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyczkowski, R. W.; Bouillard, J. X.; Ding, J.; Chang, S. L.; Burge, S. W.

    1994-05-01

    As the result of 15 years of research (50 staff years of effort) Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), through its involvement in fluidized-bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamics, and a variety of environmental programs, has produced extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software and models to predict the multiphase hydrodynamic and reactive behavior of fluid-solids motions and interactions in complex fluidized-bed reactors (FBR's) and slurry systems. This has resulted in the FLUFIX, IRF, and SLUFIX computer programs. These programs are based on fluid-solids hydrodynamic models and can predict information important to the designer of atmospheric or pressurized bubbling and circulating FBR, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and slurry units to guarantee optimum efficiency with minimum release of pollutants into the environment. This latter issue will become of paramount importance with the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1995. Solids motion is also the key to understanding erosion processes. Erosion rates in FBR's and pneumatic and slurry components are computed by ANL's EROSION code to predict the potential metal wastage of FBR walls, intervals, feed distributors, and cyclones. Only the FLUFIX and IRF codes will be reviewed in the paper together with highlights of the validations because of length limitations. It is envisioned that one day, these codes with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale, and biomass as energy sources; to retain energy security; and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

  6. Non-EEG seizure detection systems and potential SUDEP prevention: State of the art: Review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vel, Anouk; Cuppens, Kris; Bonroy, Bert; Milosevic, Milica; Jansen, Katrien; Van Huffel, Sabine; Vanrumste, Bart; Cras, Patrick; Lagae, Lieven; Ceulemans, Berten

    2016-10-01

    Detection of, and alarming for epileptic seizures is increasingly demanded and researched. Our previous review article provided an overview of non-invasive, non-EEG (electro-encephalography) body signals that can be measured, along with corresponding methods, state of the art research, and commercially available systems. Three years later, many more studies and devices have emerged. Moreover, the boom of smart phones and tablets created a new market for seizure detection applications. We performed a thorough literature review and had contact with manufacturers of commercially available devices. This review article gives an updated overview of body signals and methods for seizure detection, international research and (commercially) available systems and applications. Reported results of non-EEG based detection devices vary between 2.2% and 100% sensitivity and between 0 and 3.23 false detections per hour compared to the gold standard video-EEG, for seizures ranging from generalized to convulsive or non-convulsive focal seizures with or without loss of consciousness. It is particularly interesting to include monitoring of autonomic dysfunction, as this may be an important pathophysiological mechanism of SUDEP (sudden unexpected death in epilepsy), and of movement, as many seizures have a motor component. Comparison of research results is difficult as studies focus on different seizure types, timing (night versus day) and patients (adult versus pediatric patients). Nevertheless, we are convinced that the most effective seizure detection systems are multimodal, combining for example detection methods for movement and heart rate, and that devices should especially take into account the user's seizure types and personal preferences. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla; Youssef Iraqi; Andrew Jones

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included th...

  8. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Dynamic Responses and Vibration Control of the Transmission Tower-Line System: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  10. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers.

  11. Balance Improvement Effects of Biofeedback Systems with State-of-the-Art Wearable Sensors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Zong-Hao Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems. Balance and gait disorders have been the second leading cause of falls. Inertial motion sensors and force sensors have been widely used to monitor both static and dynamic balance performance. Based on the detected performance, instant visual, auditory, electrotactile and vibrotactile biofeedback could be provided to augment the somatosensory input and enhance balance control. This review aims to synthesize the research examining the effect of biofeedback systems, with wearable inertial motion sensors and force sensors, on balance performance. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trials were included in this review. All studies were evaluated based on the methodological quality. Sample characteristics, device design and study characteristics were summarized. Most previous studies suggested that biofeedback devices were effective in enhancing static and dynamic balance in healthy young and older adults, and patients with balance and gait disorders. Attention should be paid to the choice of appropriate types of sensors and biofeedback for different intended purposes. Maximizing the computing capacity of the micro-processer, while minimizing the size of the electronic components, appears to be the future direction of optimizing the devices. Wearable balance-improving devices have their potential of serving as balance aids in daily life, which can be used indoors and outdoors.

  12. Volterra-series-based nonlinear system modeling and its engineering applications: A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. M.; Peng, Z. K.; Zhang, W. M.; Meng, G.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear problems have drawn great interest and extensive attention from engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other scientists because most real systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. To model and analyze nonlinear systems, many mathematical theories and methods have been developed, including Volterra series. In this paper, the basic definition of the Volterra series is recapitulated, together with some frequency domain concepts which are derived from the Volterra series, including the general frequency response function (GFRF), the nonlinear output frequency response function (NOFRF), output frequency response function (OFRF) and associated frequency response function (AFRF). The relationship between the Volterra series and other nonlinear system models and nonlinear problem solving methods are discussed, including the Taylor series, Wiener series, NARMAX model, Hammerstein model, Wiener model, Wiener-Hammerstein model, harmonic balance method, perturbation method and Adomian decomposition. The challenging problems and their state of arts in the series convergence study and the kernel identification study are comprehensively introduced. In addition, a detailed review is then given on the applications of Volterra series in mechanical engineering, aeroelasticity problem, control engineering, electronic and electrical engineering.

  13. Review of the State-of-the-Art in Power Electronics Suitable for 10-KW Military Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the technological opportunities of integrating power electronics-based inverters into a TEP system, primarily in the 10-kW size range. The proposed enhancement offers potential advantages in weight reduction, improved efficiency, better performance in a wider range of generator operating conditions, greater versatility and adaptability, and adequate reliability. In order to obtain strong assurance of the availability of inverters that meet required performance and reliability levels, a market survey was performed. The survey obtained positive responses from several manufacturers in the motor drive and distributed generation industries. This study also includes technology reviews and assessments relating to circuit topologies, reliability issues, vulnerability to pulses of electromagnetic energy, potential improvements in semiconductor materials, and potential performance improvement through cryogenics.

  14. A State-of-the-Art Review on the Integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM and Geographic Information System (GIS has been identified as a promising but challenging topic to transform information towards the generation of knowledge and intelligence. Achievement of integrating these two concepts and enabling technologies will have a significant impact on solving problems in the civil, building and infrastructure sectors. However, since GIS and BIM were originally developed for different purposes, numerous challenges are being encountered for the integration. To better understand these two different domains, this paper reviews the development and dissimilarities of GIS and BIM, the existing integration methods, and investigates their potential in various applications. This study shows that the integration methods are developed for various reasons and aim to solve different problems. The parameters influencing the choice can be summarized and named as “EEEF” criteria: effectiveness, extensibility, effort, and flexibility. Compared with other methods, semantic web technologies provide a promising and generalized integration solution. However, the biggest challenges of this method are the large efforts required at early stage and the isolated development of ontologies within one particular domain. The isolation problem also applies to other methods. Therefore, openness is the key of the success of BIM and GIS integration.

  15. Supplier selection problem: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh R. Ware

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the global competitiveness and growing market environment, “Actual competition is not between firms against firm, than supplier against supplier”. Globally in the fastest market development world gets closer and closer. Consumers prefer fast delivery, economical product, excellent service and high quality product with desired service level. For successful management of this supply chain, supplier considered as the base source for all processes. Therefore, an efficient supplier selection and evaluation process needs to be incorporate. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive state-of-the-art literature review and critique of the studies related to various aspects of supplier selection problem over the past two decades. Research papers appearing in the reputed and leading international journals from 1991 to 2011 are gathered and analyzed. Primary focus is given on more than 200 published and unpublished works. It has been referred extensively to carry out state-of-the-art review for supplier selection problem. Finally, paper provides future perspective based on current research trends available in the published literature.

  16. Stratification issues in the primary system. Review of available validation experiments and State-of-the-Art in modelling capabilities (StratRev)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westin, J.; Henriksson, M. (Vattenfall Research and Development AB (Sweden)); Paettikangas, T. (VTT (Finland)); Toppila, T.; Raemae, T. (Fortum Nuclear Services Ltd (Finland)); Kudinov, P. (KTH Nuclear Power Safety (Sweden)); Anglart, H. (KTH Nuclear Reactor Technology (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    The objective of the present report is to review available validation experiments and State-of-the-Art in modelling of stratification and mixing in the primary system of Light Water Reactors. A topical workshop was arranged in AElvkarleby in June 2008 within the framework of BWR-OG, and the presentations from various utilities showed that stratification issues are not unusual and can cause costly stops in the production. It is desirable to take actions in order to reduce the probability for stratification to occur, and to develop well-validated and accepted tools and procedures for analyzing upcoming stratification events. A research plan covering the main questions is outlined, and a few suggestions regarding more limited research activities are given. Since many of the stratification events results in thermal loads that are localized in time and space, CFD is a suitable tool. However, the often very large and complex geometry posses a great challenge to CFD, and it is important to perform a step-by-step increase in complexity with intermediate validation versus relevant experimental data. The ultimate goal is to establish Best Practice Guidelines that can be followed both by utilities and authorities in case of an event including stratification and thermal loads. An extension of the existing Best Practice Guidelines for CFD in nuclear safety applications developed by OECD/NEA is thus suggested as a relevant target for a continuation project. (au)

  17. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.

  18. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  19. State of the Art of Dental Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Pamato, Saulo; Vargas, Marcos; Fahl, Newton

    2017-11-20

    The large dependence on a dental substrate type to bond strength has leveraged the research on materials and techniques that perform different clinical behavior, promoting a stable bonding over time. Bonding to tooth structure has different clinical behaviors and is dependent on several factors. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the state of the art of adhesive systems since Buonocore's experiments to current days. An electronic search was conducted on PubMed databases and supplemented with a manual study of relevant references. The choice of the ideal adhesive system remains under discussion, housing a range of studies that highlight its potential characteristics, suggesting techniques that enable improvement to boost clinical outcomes. It is important to know all different types of adhesive systems, as well as their indications and limitations. An attentive consideration of several factors is crucial to achieve clinical success on the restorative procedures. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  1. State-of-the-art review of geothermal reservoir modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinder, G.F.

    1979-03-01

    The state-of-the-art in geothermal reservoir modelling is summarized and evaluated. Only those models which have been developed exclusively for geothermal simulation are considered. Attention is focused primarily on the two and three dimensional distributed parameter models. The general porous flow theory is formulated. For each model, the governing equations, method of approximation, treatment of the convection term, treatment of the nonlinear coefficients, solution of the resulting algebraic equations, and representation of the well-bore are presented. Example problems that have been treated are discussed briefly. (MHR)

  2. Generators for Wind Energy Conversion Systems: State of the Art and Coming Attractions

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Amirat*; M. E. H. Benbouzid; B. Bensaker; R. Wamkeue

    2007-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) have become a focal point in the research of renewable energy sources. This paper provides then a comparative study of past and present generator technologies used in WECS. This study is based on an exhaustive review of the state of the art and on an effective comparison of the performances of the four main topologies that are permanent magnet generators, synchronous generators, induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators. The different gener...

  3. Organizational Grapevines: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Susan A.

    Noting that the informal communication network or grapevine plays an important role in organizational functioning, this paper reviews research focusing on organizational grapevines from the communication, organizational psychology, and management literature. Among the issues discussed in the review are (1) the speed and accuracy of the grapevine,…

  4. A Review of Hydrazine Sensors: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    Several types of sensors have been developed over the past few years that quantify the vapor concentrations of the hydrazines. These sensor s are able to detect concentrations as low as 10 parts per billion (ppb) up to several parts per million (ppm). The scope of this review wi ll be focused on those sensors that are most current in the marketpla ce as either leak detectors or personnel monitors. Some technical information on the theory of operations of each hydrazine detector will a lso be included. The review will highlight current operations that utilize hydrazine sensors including the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), the United States Air Force (USAF) at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), USAF F-16 facilities. The orientation of the review will be towards giving users usable practical information on hydrazine sensors.

  5. Breastfeeding and postpartum depression: state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Dias, Cláudia C; Brandão, Sónia; Canário, Catarina; Nunes-Costa, Rui

    2013-01-01

    To review the literature on the association between breastfeeding and postpartum depression. A review of literature found on MEDLINE/PubMed database. The literature consistently shows that breastfeeding provides a wide range of benefits for both the child and the mother. The psychological benefits for the mother are still in need of further research. Some studies point out that pregnancy depression is one of the factors that may contribute to breastfeeding failure. Others studies also suggest an association between breastfeeding and postpartum depression; the direction of this association is still unclear. Breastfeeding can promote hormonal processes that protect mothers against postpartum depression by attenuating cortisol response to stress. It can also reduce the risk of postpartum depression, by helping the regulation of sleep and wake patterns for mother and child, improving mother's self-efficacy and her emotional involvement with the child, reducing the child's temperamental difficulties, and promoting a better interaction between mother and child. Studies demonstrate that breastfeeding can protect mothers from postpartum depression, and are starting to clarify which biological and psychological processes may explain this protection. However, there are still equivocal results in the literature that may be explained by the methodological limitations presented by some studies. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Buckling of Carbon Nanotubes: A State of the Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear mechanical response of carbon nanotubes, referred to as their “buckling" behavior, is a major topic in the nanotube research community. Buckling means a deformation process in which a large strain beyond a threshold causes an abrupt change in the strain energy vs. deformation profile. Thus far, much effort has been devoted to analysis of the buckling of nanotubes under various loading conditions: compression, bending, torsion, and their certain combinations. Such extensive studies have been motivated by (i) the structural resilience of nanotubes against buckling and (ii) the substantial influence of buckling on their physical properties. In this contribution, I review the dramatic progress in nanotube buckling research during the past few years. PMID:28817032

  7. State-of-the-art: dental photocuring--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueggeberg, Frederick A

    2011-01-01

    Light curing in dentistry has truly revolutionized the practice of this art and science. With the exception bonding to tooth structure, there is perhaps no single advancement that has promoted the ease, efficiency, productivity, and success of performing dentistry. Like most every major advancements in this profession, the technology underlying the successful application of light curing in dentistry did not arise from within the profession, but instead was the result of innovative adaptations in applying new advances to clinical treatment. One cannot appreciate the current status of dental photocuring without first appreciating the history and innovations of the science and industry underlying the advances from which it developed. This review will place the current status of the art within the context of its historical progression, enabling a better appreciation for the benefits and remaining issues that photocuring has brought us. Lastly, the manuscript will present thoughts for future considerations in the field, offering suggestions as to how current advances in light-generating science might yet be adapted for dental use. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  9. State-of-the-Art-Review of Collapsible Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. AL-Rawas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Collapsible soils are encountered in arid and semi-arid regions. Such soils cause potential construction problems due to their collapse upon wetting. The collapse phenomenon is primarily related to the open structure of the soil. Several soil collapse classifications based on parameters such as moisture content, dry density, Atterberg limits and clay content have been proposed in the literature as indicators of the soil collapse potential. Direct measurement of the magnitude of collapse, using laboratory and/or field tests, is essential once a soil showed indications of collapse potential. Treatment methods such as soil replacement, compaction control and chemical stabilization showed significant reduction in the settlement of collapsible soils. The design of foundations on collapsible soils depends on the depth of the soil, magnitude of collapse and economics of the design. Strip foundations are commonly used when collapsing soil extends to a shallow depth while piles and drilled piers are recommended in cases where the soil extends to several meters. This paper provides a comprehensive review of collapsible soils. These include the different types of collapsible soils, mechanisms of collapse, identification and classification methods, laboratory and field testing, treatment methods and guidelines for foundation design.

  10. Acoustic emission in orthopaedics: A state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Richard A

    2016-12-08

    Acoustic emission (AE) is the phenomenon of sonic and ultrasonic wave generation by materials as they undergo deformation and fracture processes. AE monitoring is widely used throughout civil and mechanical engineering as a highly sensitive and non-destructive technique for structural health monitoring. Advances in computational power and digital data storage have generated much further interest in the possible applications of AE technology. Of particular interest has been its application within the field of Orthopaedic surgery. This paper examines the current literature surrounding the use of AE technology within Orthopaedics and provides a comprehensive overview of its current applications within Orthopaedic surgery. The use of AE technology in Orthopaedics is wide ranging and is discussed under the themes of: the study of the biomechanical properties of bone and fracture mechanics, research into failure mechanisms associated with cemented implants, prosthetic design, diagnostic value of AE and clinical application. AE technology is of great benefit as an Orthopaedic research tool where AE counts can be used to provide a surrogate marker for damage accumulation and flaws can be monitored as they develop. More recently there has been increased interest in the possible clinical applications of AE technology and an appreciation of the potential benefits for the diagnosis and treatment of Orthopaedic pathology. Despite the challenges involved when adopting AE techniques in vivo the potential of AE technology within Orthopaedics is significant. Already widely used in the research setting, clinical application has shown enormous potential and is a rapidly expanding area of contemporary research. This analysis will review and summarise the current literature relating to the use of AE technology within Orthopaedic surgery. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive support ventilation: State of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jaime; Miguelena, Dayra; Mulett, Hernando; Godoy, Javier; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is one of the most commonly applied interventions in intensive care units. Despite its life-saving role, it can be a risky procedure for the patient if not applied appropriately. To decrease risks, new ventilator modes continue to be developed in an attempt to improve patient outcomes. Advances in ventilator modes include closed-loop systems that facilitate ventilator manipulation of variables based on measured respiratory parameters. Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a positive pressure mode of mechanical ventilation that is closed-loop controlled, and automatically adjust based on the patient's requirements. In order to deliver safe and appropriate patient care, clinicians need to achieve a thorough understanding of this mode, including its effects on underlying respiratory mechanics. This article will discuss ASV while emphasizing appropriate ventilator settings, their advantages and disadvantages, their particular effects on oxygenation and ventilation, and the monitoring priorities for clinicians.

  12. Generators for Wind Energy Conversion Systems: State of the Art and Coming Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirat*

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS have become a focal point in the research of renewable energy sources. This paper provides then a comparative study of past and present generator technologies used in WECS. This study is based on an exhaustive review of the state of the art and on an effective comparison of the performances of the four main topologies that are permanent magnet generators, synchronous generators, induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators. The different generator-WECS schemes are compared on the basis of topology, cost, efficiency, power consumption and control complexity. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  13. Global Software Development: A Review of the State-Of-The-Art (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    to address the challenges. It is equally important to provide period review of the published literature on GSD challenges, benefits, and proposed solution to inform practitioners and researchers about the state-of-the-art in this area. Objectives: This research has been motivated by the need of providing...... a state-of-the-art review of the GSD research literature published in the main venue of Global Software Engineering in order to identify the main research trends and gaps that needs to be filled by future research. We were also interested placing the findings of our review with respect to a practice...

  14. State-of-the-art tasks and achievements of paralinguistic speech analysis systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karpov, A.A; Kaya, H; Salah, A.A

    2016-01-01

    We present analytical survey of state-of-the-art actual tasks in the area of computational paralinguistics, as well as the recent achievements of automatic systems for paralinguistic analysis of conversational speech...

  15. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  16. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2A. Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blümel, Ernst; Haghighat, Fariborz; Li, Yuguo

    at researchers in the field and gives an overview of how these elements work together with available performance data. It is hoped, that this report will be helpful for researchers in their search for new solutions to the problem of designing and constructing sustainable buildings.......This report resumes and presents the activity done in Subtask A of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 “Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings” concerning the state of the art review of Responsive Building Elements. It is based on the contributions from the participating countries....... The publication is an internal Annex report. With a focus on innovative building elements that dynamically respond to changes in climate and user demands, the report describes materials, components and systems that have been tested in laboratories and buildings around the world. This report is aimed...

  17. State of the Art Review on Theoretical Tribology of Fluid Power Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerimagic, Remzija; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years an increasing focus on efficiency and reliability in fluid power displacement machines has provided an incentive to study loss and wear mechanisms. One example is the hydrostatic fluid power transmission systems for wind and wave energy applications. The loss and wear...... mechanisms are mainly attributed to the tribological interfaces in fluid power machines. Consequently, optimization of efficiency and reliability of fluid power machines imply considerations of tribological interface design. The majority of the work done by researchers and engineers on the study of loss...... and wear mechanisms in the lubricating gaps in fluid power machines is confined to simulation models, as experimental treatments of these mechanisms are very difficult. The aim of this paper is a state of the art review on the theoretical work for the design and optimization of fluid power displacement...

  18. Wind turbines and seismic hazard: a state-of-the-art review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Thöns, Sebastian; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2016-01-01

    , India, Southern Europe and East Asia) highlight the necessity for thorough consideration of the seismic implications on these energy harnessing systems. Along these lines, this state-of-the-art paper presents a comparative survey of the published research relevant to the seismic analysis, design......Wind energy is a rapidly growing field of renewable energy, and as such, intensive scientific and societal interest has been already attracted. Research on wind turbine structures has been mostly focused on the structural analysis, design and/or assessment of wind turbines mainly against normal...... and assessment of wind turbines. Based on numerical simulation, either deterministic or probabilistic approaches are reviewed, because they have been adopted to investigate the sensitivity of wind turbines’ structural capacity and reliability in earthquake-induced loading. The relevance of seismic hazard...

  19. State-of-the-Art for Small Satellite Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Khary I.

    2016-01-01

    SmallSats are a low cost access to space with an increasing need for propulsion systems. NASA, and other organizations, will be using SmallSats that require propulsion systems to: a) Conduct high quality near and far reaching on-orbit research and b) Perform technology demonstrations. Increasing call for high reliability and high performing for SmallSat components. Many SmallSat propulsion technologies are currently under development: a) Systems at various levels of maturity and b) Wide variety of systems for many mission applications.

  20. Intermodality in urban management systems: State of the art

    OpenAIRE

    BHOURI, N; SCEMAMA, G

    2002-01-01

    This paper tries to draw a synthesis on the consideration of intermodality in the existing management systems, which take into account the private vehicle (PV) and the public transport (pt) in urban areas. It proposes an analysis according to a time scale: from the strategic level (delay time) of the planning systems to the operational level (real time), through the tactical level.

  1. Multistandard Radio Systems: State of the Art and Research Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Berger, Michael Stübert; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    Integration of various wireless standards and building one consistent and compatible broadband system is a trend in wireless communication nowadays. This work focuses on multistandard networks enabling the cooperation between LTE and WiMAX systems. It presents the general vision on multistandard ...

  2. Advanced public transportation systems : the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This report documents one of the early initiatives of UMTA's Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communi...

  3. Wind Farm Protection Systems: State of the Art and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kawady, Tamer A.; Mansour, Naema M.; Taalab, Abdel-Maksoud I.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter emphasized the basic outline of the common configuration of protective relays that are usually utilized with modern wind energy conversion systems. Electrical faults occurring into the different zones of wind farms were described. Accordingly, different problems arise with the simple and non-integrated protection schemes that are usually

  4. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active...... mounted with a reduction gear. This paper presents state-of-the art within; hydraulic yaw system design and control of yaw systems in general. Primary focus on the advantages and disadvantages of using a hydraulic system for controlling the yaw of a wind turbine with a soft yaw concept....

  5. A Review of the State of the Art of Machine Learning on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Price, SN

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art of machine learning applied to the Semantic Web. It looks at the Semantic Web and its languages, including RDF and OWL, from a machine learning perspective. Trends in the Semantic Web are mentioned throughout and the relationship with Web Services is examined. Applications are discussed with recent examples and pointers to data sets. Finally, the emerging field of Semantic Web Mining is introduced. This paper reviews the current state of the ...

  6. Technologies and Techniques for Early Warning Systems to Monitor and Evaluate Drinking Water Quality: A State-of-the-Art Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hasan, Jafrul; Goldbloom-Helzner, David; Ichida, Audrey; Rouse, Tina; Gibson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist attacks have heightened concern about intentional threats to the U.S. water system, whether from physical destruction, computer interference, or chemical, microbial, or radioactive contamination...

  7. State-of-the-Art Methods for Brain Tissue Segmentation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora, Lingraj; Agrawal, Sanjay; Panda, Rutuparna; Abraham, Ajith

    2017-01-01

    Brain tissue segmentation is one of the most sought after research areas in medical image processing. It provides detailed quantitative brain analysis for accurate disease diagnosis, detection, and classification of abnormalities. It plays an essential role in discriminating healthy tissues from lesion tissues. Therefore, accurate disease diagnosis and treatment planning depend merely on the performance of the segmentation method used. In this review, we have studied the recent advances in brain tissue segmentation methods and their state-of-the-art in neuroscience research. The review also highlights the major challenges faced during tissue segmentation of the brain. An effective comparison is made among state-of-the-art brain tissue segmentation methods. Moreover, a study of some of the validation measures to evaluate different segmentation methods is also discussed. The brain tissue segmentation, content in terms of methodologies, and experiments presented in this review are encouraging enough to attract researchers working in this field.

  8. Integrating Socio-Cultural Contexts and Location-based Systems for Ubiquitous Language Learning in Museums: A State of the Art Review of 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-You; Liu, Gi-Zen; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Context-dependent learning systems are now becoming more common in museums, as most students are equipped with mobile devices. As there has been little research into context-aware mobile applications in museums, the present study aims to investigate ubiquitous language learning in socio-cultural contexts, as well as recent trends in using…

  9. Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Acoustic Feedback Cancellation Systems for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Meng; Jensen, Søren Holdt; Jensen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluates four state-of-the-art acoustic feedback cancellation systems in hearing aids in terms of the cancellation performance, sound quality degradation, and computational complexity. The authors compared a traditional full-band system to a system with a prediction error method...

  10. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  11. Biomarkers in community-acquired pneumonia: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Seligman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP exhibits mortality rates, between 20% and 50% in severe cases. Biomarkers are useful tools for searching for antibiotic therapy modifications and for CAP diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up treatment. This non-systematic state-of-the-art review presents the biological and clinical features of biomarkers in CAP patients, including procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, copeptin, pro-ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, cortisol and D-dimers.

  12. Building Information Modelling in UK Construction Projects: A State of the Art Review

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadou, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present a state-of-the-art review of the scope and practical implications of the Building Information Modelling (BIM) platform in the UK construction practice. Theoretical developments suggest that BIM is an integration of both product and process innovation, not just a disparate set of software tools. BIM provides effective collaboration, visual representation and data management, which enable the smooth flow of information throughout the project’s lifecycle. The most freq...

  13. A timely review of state-of-the-art chronopharmaceuticals synchronized with biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewlall, Seshni; Pillay, Viness; Danckwerts, Michael P; Choonara, Yahya E; Ndesendo, Valence M K; du Toit, Lisa C

    2010-12-01

    Extensive research into circadian rhythms and their influence on biological systems has given rise to the science of chronobiology and subsequently chronotherapy, the science of delivering drugs in synchrony with biological rhythms. The field of chronotherapeutics paves the way for advances and complexities in current drug delivery technology. The ultimate goal of current chronopharmaceutical research strives to design ideal chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems that respond to such therapeutic needs. Considering the fact that physiological events such as heart rate, blood pressure, plasma concentration of hormones, plasma proteins and enzymes display constancy over time, drug delivery systems with constant release profiles have thus been favored. However, due to circadian rhythms, the conventional paradigm of constant drug delivery may not be what is needed. Instead, precisely timed drug delivery systems are required in order to correlate drug delivery with circadian rhythms to provide maximum therapeutic efficacy for chronotherapeutic diseases when most needed. The aim of this review paper is to outline the concepts in designing chronopharmaceuticals from a clinical viewpoint of major chronotherapeutic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, cardiovascular disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer as well as relatively minor niche areas of interest such as in glaucoma, diabetes, immunity, pain, gastric ulcers, epilepsy and even HIV/AIDS that would require chronotherapy. In addition this review paper attempts to concisely assimilate and explicate the role of circadian rhythms in these various disease states and provide a focused overview of the current state-of-the-art in designing strategies for chronopharmaceutical formulations employed for treating chronotherapeutic diseases.

  14. CEN standards for solar thermal systems - State of the art and expectted impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, B.G.C. van der; Pauschinger, Th.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1994, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee TC 312 has been active in producing European Standards for thermal solar energy systems and components. In this paper, an overview of the present State of the Art of the draft standards is presented. These standards

  15. State of the art for the biosorption process--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Witek-Krowiak, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In recent years, biosorption process has become an economic and eco-friendly alternative treatment technology in the water and wastewater industry. In this light, a number of biosorbents were developed and are successfully employed for treating various pollutants including metals, dyes, phenols, fluoride, and pharmaceuticals in solutions (aqueous/oil). However, still there are few technical barriers in the biosorption process that impede its commercialization and thus to overcome these problems there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. This resulted in large numbers of publications and patents each year. This review reports the state of the art in biosorption research. In this review, we provide a compendium of know-how in laboratory methodology, mathematical modeling of equilibrium and kinetics, identification of the biosorption mechanism. Various mathematical models of biosorption were discussed: the process in packed-bed column arrangement, as well as by suspended biomass. Particular attention was paid to patents in biosorption and pilot-scale systems. In addition, we provided future aspects in biosorption research.

  16. The state-of-the-art report for flow and pressure measurement techniques in the piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Jeong Han; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2002-12-01

    The sodium is widely used as one of the coolants in the liquid metal reactor system since it has important safety features such as a long thermal response time, a large margin to coolant boiling, and operating in near atmospheric pressure, etc. The state-of-the-art on the flow and pressure measurement techniques in the piping system worldwide is investigated and reviewed to utilize it as a basis for developing a new technique applying for the high temperature sodium flow environment.

  17. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  18. Simulation of safety: a review of the state of the art in road safety simulation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William; Sobhani, Amir; Lenné, Michael G; Sarvi, Majid

    2014-05-01

    Recent decades have seen considerable growth in computer capabilities, data collection technology and communication mediums. This growth has had considerable impact on our ability to replicate driver behaviour and understand the processes involved in failures in the traffic system. From time to time it is necessary to assess the level of development as a basis of determining how far we have come. This paper sets out to assess the state of the art in the use of computer models to simulate and assess the level of safety in existing and future traffic systems. It reviews developments in the area of road safety simulation models. In particular, it reviews computer models of driver and vehicle behaviour within a road context. It focuses on stochastic numerical models of traffic behaviour and how reliable these are in estimating levels of safety on the traffic network. Models of this type are commonly used in the assessment of traffic systems for capacity, delay and general performance. Adding safety to this assessment regime may allow more comprehensive assessment of future traffic systems. To date the models have focused primarily on vehicular traffic that is, cars and heavy vehicles. It has been shown that these models have potential in measuring the level of conflict on parts of the network and the measure of conflict correlated well with crash statistics. Interest in the prediction of crashes and crash severity is growing and new models are focusing on the continuum of general traffic conditions, conflict, severe conflict, crash and severe crashes. The paper also explores the general data types used to develop, calibrate and validate these models. Recent technological development in in-vehicle data collection, driver simulators and machine learning offers considerable potential for improving the behavioural base, rigour and application of road safety simulation models. The paper closes with some indication of areas of future development. Copyright © 2014. Published

  19. Self-cleaning glazing products: A state-of-the-art review and future research pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Midtdal, Krister; Jelle, Bjørn Petter

    2013-01-01

    Self-cleaning technology is used in a variety of products today, with glazing products being the foremost area of application. However, there are several self-cleaning technologies in use and their self-cleaning efficiency may be unclear. This study aims to give a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the self-cleaning glazing products available on the market today and investigate methods for measuring the self-cleaning effect. Various future research pathways and opportunities for the sel...

  20. Self-Cleaning Glazing Products: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Midtdal, Krister

    2012-01-01

    Self-cleaning technology is used in a variety of products today, with glazing products being the foremost area of application. However, there are several self-cleaning technologies in use and their self-cleaning efficiency may be unclear. This study aims to give a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the self-cleaning glazing products available on the market today and investigate methods for measuring the self-cleaning effect. Various future research pathways and opportunities for the sel...

  1. Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing) and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Margaret M; Jones, Reo; Tocchini, Kirsten

    2017-07-28

    Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing) in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus) and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: "Shinrin-yoku" AND/OR "forest bathing" AND/OR "nature therapy", 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into "physiological," "psychological," "sensory metrics" and "frameworks" sub-groups. Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day "stress-state" and "technostress.".

  2. Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing and Nature Therapy: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. Hansen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout. Methods: A thorough review was conducted to identify research published with an initial open date range and then narrowing the collection to include papers published from 2007 to 2017. Electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus and snowball references were used to cull papers that evaluated the use of Shinrin-Yoku for various populations in diverse settings. Results: From the 127 papers initially culled using the Boolean phrases: “Shinrin-yoku” AND/OR “forest bathing” AND/OR “nature therapy”, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this summary review and then divided into “physiological,” “psychological,” “sensory metrics” and “frameworks” sub-groups. Conclusions: Human health benefits associated with the immersion in nature continue to be currently researched. Longitudinal research, conducted worldwide, is needed to produce new evidence of the relationships associated with Shinrin-Yoku and clinical therapeutic effects. Nature therapy as a health-promotion method and potential universal health model is implicated for the reduction of reported modern-day “stress-state” and “technostress.”.

  3. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this article the state of the art research for online fault location on cross-bonded transmission level cables is presented. The article is focused on the difficulties in using the algorithms developed for OHL-systems and distribution cables directly on cross-bonded transmission cables....... Impedance based methods, methods based on solving the line differential equations, methods based on traveling wave methods and methods based on artificial intelligence networks are presented and discussed....

  4. State of the art review and future directions in oil spill modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L

    2017-02-15

    A review of the state of the art in oil spill modeling, focused on the period from 2000 to present is provided. The review begins with an overview of the current structure of spill models and some lessons learned from model development and application and then provides guiding principles that govern the development of the current generation of spill models. A review of the basic structure of spill models, and new developments in specific transport and fate processes; including surface and subsurface transport, spreading, evaporation, dissolution, entrainment and oil droplet size distributions, emulsification, degradation, and sediment oil interaction are presented. The paper concludes with thoughts on future directions in the field with a primary focus on advancements in handling interactions between Lagrangian elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of wireless sensor technologies and applications in agriculture and food industry: state of the art and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  6. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Lunadei, Loredana; Barreiro, Pilar; Robla, Jose Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks) and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed. PMID:22408551

  7. A Review of Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications in Agriculture and Food Industry: State of the Art and Current Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Robla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to review the technical and scientific state of the art of wireless sensor technologies and standards for wireless communications in the Agri-Food sector. These technologies are very promising in several fields such as environmental monitoring, precision agriculture, cold chain control or traceability. The paper focuses on WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, presenting the different systems available, recent developments and examples of applications, including ZigBee based WSN and passive, semi-passive and active RFID. Future trends of wireless communications in agriculture and food industry are also discussed.

  8. State of the art review of semi active control for magnetorheological dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes causes severe damage to badly designed structures or buildings to fail or collapse, and also have caused some damage to well-designed structures to malfunction due to the damage or failure of the equipment housed in the structure or building. The use magnetorheological dampers to mitigate the effect of external excitation is increased to resolve this. This article is a state of the art review of nonlinear analytical models to understand the efficacy of semi-active control theory for magnetorheological dampers. A nonlinear semi active control law is desired to be designed which atleast guarantees analytical closed loop stability in order to mitigate the effect of perturbations and drive the desired output to equilibrium.

  9. Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedzicha Jadwiga A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the natural history of this prevalent and devastating condition. This review provides a concise, state of the art summary on prevention and management of exacerbations. Considerable new data underpins evidence in support of many preventative interventions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological, that are now available. Challenges remain in developing new approaches, and delivering those that already exist to the right patient at the right time. Management of an exacerbation remains stepwise according to clinical severity, but there is now additional focus on addressing comorbidities and taking the opportunity at acute events to optimise preventative strategies for the future. Ultimately, exacerbations are heterogeneous events in a heterogeneous disease, and an individualised approach is paramount.

  10. State-of-the-art review of some artificial intelligence applications in pile foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical engineering deals with materials (e.g. soil and rock that, by their very nature, exhibit varied and uncertain behavior due to the imprecise physical processes associated with the formation of these materials. Modeling the behavior of such materials in geotechnical engineering applications is complex and sometimes beyond the ability of most traditional forms of physically-based engineering methods. Artificial intelligence (AI is becoming more popular and particularly amenable to modeling the complex behavior of most geotechnical engineering applications because it has demonstrated superior predictive ability compared to traditional methods. This paper provides state-of-the-art review of some selected AI techniques and their applications in pile foundations, and presents the salient features associated with the modeling development of these AI techniques. The paper also discusses the strength and limitations of the selected AI techniques compared to other available modeling approaches.

  11. Automatic liquid handling for life science: a critical review of the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanwei; Yuan, Liang; Zheng, Yuan F; Chen, Weidong

    2012-06-01

    Liquid handling plays a pivotal role in life science laboratories. In experiments such as gene sequencing, protein crystallization, antibody testing, and drug screening, liquid biosamples frequently must be transferred between containers of varying sizes and/or dispensed onto substrates of varying types. The sample volumes are usually small, at the micro- or nanoliter level, and the number of transferred samples can be huge when investigating large-scope combinatorial conditions. Under these conditions, liquid handling by hand is tedious, time-consuming, and impractical. Consequently, there is a strong demand for automated liquid-handling methods such as sensor-integrated robotic systems. In this article, we survey the current state of the art in automatic liquid handling, including technologies developed by both industry and research institutions. We focus on methods for dealing with small volumes at high throughput and point out challenges for future advancements.

  12. Ammonia Removal from Wastewaters: A Review of the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FACILITIES, *WASTE WATER, *MUNITIONS INDUSTRY , *WASTE TREATMENT, *WASTES( INDUSTRIAL ), REMOVAL, COST EFFECTIVENESS, STATE OF THE ART...TOXICITY, AMMONIA, REVERSE OSMOSIS, OXIDATION, LAND USE, CHLORINATION, REGULATIONS, ION EXCHANGE, ALGAE , NITRATES.

  13. A State-of-the-Art Review: Personalization of Tinnitus Sound Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searchfield, Grant D; Durai, Mithila; Linford, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are several established, and an increasing number of putative, therapies using sound to treat tinnitus. There appear to be few guidelines for sound therapy selection and application. Aim: To review current approaches to personalizing sound therapy for tinnitus. Methods: A "state-of-the-art" review (Grant and Booth, 2009) was undertaken to answer the question: how do current sound-based therapies for tinnitus adjust for tinnitus heterogeneity? Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase and PubMed were searched for the 10-year period 2006-2016. The search strategy used the following key words: "tinnitus" AND "sound" AND "therapy" AND "guidelines" OR "personalized" OR "customized" OR "individual" OR "questionnaire" OR "selection." The results of the review were cataloged and organized into themes. Results: In total 165 articles were reviewed in full, 83 contained sufficient details to contribute to answering the study question. The key themes identified were hearing compensation, pitched-match therapy, maskability, reaction to sound and psychosocial factors. Although many therapies mentioned customization, few could be classified as being personalized. Several psychoacoustic and questionnaire-based methods for assisting treatment selection were identified. Conclusions: Assessment methods are available to assist clinicians to personalize sound-therapy and empower patients to be active in therapy decision-making. Most current therapies are modified using only one characteristic of the individual and/or their tinnitus.

  14. Direct contact membrane distillation for textile wastewater treatment: a state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlow, Heloisa; Machado, Ricardo Antonio Francisco; Marangoni, Cintia

    2017-11-01

    To meet surging water demands, water reuse is being sought as an alternative to traditional water resources. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) has been increasingly studied in the past decade for its potential as an emerging cost effective wastewater treatment process and subsequent water reuse. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the current progress in the application of DCMD for textile wastewater treatment based on the available state of the art. There are already published review papers about the membrane distillation process, but the difference in the present work is that it focuses on the textile area, which consumes a lot of water and generates large amounts of wastewater, and still needs innovations in the sector. A review focused on the textile sector draws the attention of professionals to the problem and, consequently, to a solution. Current issues such as the influences of feed solution, membrane characteristics and membrane fouling and new insights are discussed. The main performance operating conditions and their effects on the separation process are given. Likewise, challenges associated with the influence of different dyes on the DCMD results are explained. This review also highlights the future research directions for DCMD to achieve successful implementation in the textile industry.

  15. State-of-the-art review of the applications of nanotechnology in pavement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis, Jr.

    The use of nanotechnology in pavement materials is one main area that shows great promise and has the potential to change commonly used materials. This will develop more effective solutions to achieve the desired performance. The overall objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review of nano-science-based principles to improve the performance and, ultimately, the life cycle of transportation construction materials. This work will be organized into two different parts. The first part will consist of six sections: applications of nanotechnology in concrete pavements, applications of nanotechnology in asphalt pavement, application of nanotechnology in general soils, cost-benefit analysis, challenges, and trends to the future. In addition, a current practice review was performed from a literature review that included a questionnaire of the knowledge and opinion about nanotechnology, which included students, general contractors, teachers, engineers, and architects. The second part will deal with the advancement of the application of nanotechnology in pavement materials for different developed countries. Because nanotechnology is relatively a young field in pavement materials, limited research has been conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia. A comparison of the advancement of nano-science-based principles, as applied to the performance and life cycle of transportation materials, for the three continents will be carried out in a summarized manner.

  16. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  17. State-of-the-art research: optimal investment in market-based electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Einar; Skjeret, Frode

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this state-of-the-art research paper is to surveying the literature on investment in market based electric power systems as a background for identifying and discussing some important issues in the optimal design and operation of such systems. A fundamental distinction has to be made between investment in the competitive part of the power system (generation and trading) on the one hand and the natural monopoly part (network infrastructure) on the other. The paper starts with a listing and discussion on market characteristics and properties of electric power and goes on to discussing performance criteria and potential sources of market failure for optimal electric power investment. After the literature survey there is a discussion of conditions under which optimal investment may occur. (author). 78 refs., figs

  18. Sludge treatment wetlands: a review on the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Llorens, Esther; García, Joan

    2010-05-01

    Sludge management has become a key issue in wastewater treatment, representing some 20-60% of the operational costs of conventional wastewater treatment plants. The high water content of the sludge results in large daily flow rates to be handled and treated. Thus, the search for methods to improve sludge volume reduction continues to be of major interest. The technology known as sludge treatment wetlands has been used for sludge dewatering since the late 1980s. Major advantages include its low energy requirements, reduced operating and maintenance costs, and a reasonable integration in the environment. However, the number of plants in operation is still low in comparison with conventional technologies. This study represents a review of the state of the art of sludge treatment wetlands. The main characteristics and operational aspects of the technology are described, including a summary of the main results reported in the literature. Finally, the efficiency of sludge treatment wetlands versus conventional treatments is compared. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, Purushothaman

    2016-01-01

    Myoelectric signals (MES) have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy.

  20. Myoelectric control of prosthetic hands: state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethanjali P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purushothaman Geethanjali School of Electrical Engineering Department of Control and Automation VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Myoelectric signals (MES have been used in various applications, in particular, for identification of user intention to potentially control assistive devices for amputees, orthotic devices, and exoskeleton in order to augment capability of the user. MES are also used to estimate force and, hence, torque to actuate the assistive device. The application of MES is not limited to assistive devices, and they also find potential applications in teleoperation of robots, haptic devices, virtual reality, and so on. The myoelectric control-based prosthetic hand aids to restore activities of daily living of amputees in order to improve the self-esteem of the user. All myoelectric control-based prosthetic hands may not have similar operations and exhibit variation in sensing input, deciphering the signals, and actuating prosthetic hand. Researchers are focusing on improving the functionality of prosthetic hand in order to suit the user requirement with the different operating features. The myoelectric control differs in operation to accommodate various external factors. This article reviews the state of the art of myoelectric prosthetic hand, giving description of each control strategy. Keywords: EMG, assistive device, amputee, myoelectric control, electric powered, body ­powered, bioelectric signal control

  1. Children's and young people's participation within child welfare and child protection services: a state-of-the-art review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bijleveld, Ganna G.; Dedding, Christine W. M.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    This state-of-the-art literature review, based on a literature search of multiple scientific bibliographic databases, aims to shed light on what is known about barriers and factors facilitating child participation within the child protection and child welfare services from both children's and social

  2. Demagnetization fault diagnosis in permanent magnet synchronous motors: A review of the state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi, S.S., E-mail: anchepoli@gmail.com [University of Technology Belfort Montbeliard (UTBM), Laboratory of IRTES-SET, Belfort (France); Engineering Department, Amol University of Special Modern Technology, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Djerdir, A. [University of Technology Belfort Montbeliard (UTBM), Laboratory of IRTES-SET, Belfort (France); Amirat, Y.Ait. [Laboratory of Femto-ST, University of Franche-Comte (France); Khaburi, D.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    There are a lot of research activities on developing techniques to detect permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization faults (DF). These faults decrease the performance, the reliability and the efficiency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive systems. In this work, we draw a broad perspective on the status of these studies. The advantages, disadvantages of each method, a deeper view investigated and a comprehensive list of references are reported. - Highlights: • A review of state of the art on demagnetization fault diagnosis was studied deeply. • Critical points in fault diagnosis are discussed aiming to safety and cost management. • Critical comparison on all existent demagnetization diagnosis methods was done. • It is proved that DE and UL have the same signature frequencies as partial demagnetization. • MCSA have some limitations in frequency component under uniform demagnetization.

  3. State-of-the-Art: Research Theoretical Framework of Information Systems Implementation Research in the Health Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetteh, Godwin Kofi

    2014-01-01

    This study is about the state-of-the-art of reference theories and theoretical framework of information systems implementation research in the health industry in the Sub-Saharan countries from a process perspective. A process – variance framework, Poole et al, (2000), Markus & Robey, (1988......, CINAHL, Science Direct and Emerald, we identified 41 published research articles that met our inclusion criteria. The articles were mapped unto the process-variance framework. A significant finding in this critical review is that, the state-of-the-art of a large proportion of the studies was underpinned...

  4. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  5. Cyber-Physical System Security of a Power Grid: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Che Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the smart grid development, more and more technologies are developed and deployed on the power grid to enhance the system reliability. A primary purpose of the smart grid is to significantly increase the capability of computer-based remote control and automation. As a result, the level of connectivity has become much higher, and cyber security also becomes a potential threat to the cyber-physical systems (CPSs. In this paper, a survey of the state-of-the-art is conducted on the cyber security of the power grid concerning issues of: (1 the structure of CPSs in a smart grid; (2 cyber vulnerability assessment; (3 cyber protection systems; and (4 testbeds of a CPS. At Washington State University (WSU, the Smart City Testbed (SCT has been developed to provide a platform to test, analyze and validate defense mechanisms against potential cyber intrusions. A test case is provided in this paper to demonstrate how a testbed helps the study of cyber security and the anomaly detection system (ADS for substations.

  6. Assessment of the State-of-the-Art of System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Reveley, Mary S.; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Leone, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Since its initiation, the System-wide Safety Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project has been focused on developing multidisciplinary tools and techniques that are verified and validated to ensure prevention of loss of property and life in NextGen and enable proactive risk management through predictive methods. To this end, four technical challenges have been listed to help realize the goals of SSAT, namely (i) assurance of flight critical systems, (ii) discovery of precursors to safety incidents, (iii) assuring safe human-systems integration, and (iv) prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. The objective of this report is to provide an extensive survey of SSAT-related research accomplishments by researchers within and outside NASA to get an understanding of what the state-of-the-art is for technologies enabling each of the four technical challenges. We hope that this report will serve as a good resource for anyone interested in gaining an understanding of the SSAT technical challenges, and also be useful in the future for project planning and resource allocation for related research.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Survey of Indoor Positioning and Navigation Systems and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sakpere

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research and use of positioning and navigation technologies outdoors has seen a steady and exponential growth. Based on this success, there have been attempts to implement these technologies indoors, leading to numerous studies. Most of the algorithms, techniques and technologies used have been implemented outdoors. However, how they fare indoors is different altogether. Thus, several technologies have been proposed and implemented to improve positioning and navigation indoors. Among them are Infrared (IR, Ultrasound, Audible Sound, Magnetic, Optical and Vision, Radio Frequency (RF, Visible Light, Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR/Inertial Navigation System (INS and Hybrid. The RF technologies include Bluetooth, Ultra-wideband (UWB, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID and Near Field Communication (NFC. In addition, positioning techniques applied in indoor positioning systems include the signal properties and positioning algorithms. The prevalent signal properties are Angle of Arrival (AOA, Time of Arrival (TOA, Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA and Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI, while the positioning algorithms are Triangulation, Trilateration, Proximity and Scene Analysis/ Fingerprinting. This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of indoor positioning and navigation systems and technologies, and their use in various scenarios. It analyses distinct positioning technology metrics such as accuracy, complexity, cost, privacy, scalability and usability. This paper has profound implications for future studies of positioning and navigation.

  8. Flyash Based Geopolymer Concrete – A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    cement which in turn cut the CO2 emissions. Many researchers have worked on the development of geopolymer cement and concrete for the past ten years. The time has come for the review of progress made in the field of development of geopolymer concrete. Consequently 102 papers pertaining to the ingredients and technology of geopolymer concrete have been reviewed in this state of the art paper.

  9. An analysis of the state-of-the-art for the safety depressurization system design of YGN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Yung; Ahn, Jang Sun; Park, Chun Tae; Choi, Soon Hoh; Sul, Yung Sil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this technical state-of-the-art report is to review and analyze the Safety Depressurization System Design for YGN 3 and 4 Power Plants. The SDS was added to the YGN 3 and 4 NSSS design during the design processing to mitigate the beyond design basis event of the TLOFW in response to the KINS solicitation. The SDS provides a manual means of rapidly depressuring the RCS for the highly event of a TLOFW to both S/G. As a result of this study, it is identified that the SDS backfitting for YGN 3 and 4 is appropriate. And, it is judged that the licensing problems such as the system flowrates test and verification, the globe valves position indicator problem, IOSDS and are sufficiently resolved and is satisfied. 12 figs., 10 tabs., 22 refs. (Author).

  10. STATE-OF-THE-ART TASKS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF PARALINGUISTIC SPEECH ANALYSIS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karpov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analytical survey of state-of-the-art actual tasks in the area of computational paralinguistics, as well as the recent achievements of automatic systems for paralinguistic analysis of conversational speech. Paralinguistics studies non-verbal aspects of human communication and speech such as: natural emotions, accents, psycho-physiological states, pronunciation features, speaker’s voice parameters, etc. We describe architecture of a baseline computer system for acoustical paralinguistic analysis, its main components and useful speech processing methods. We present some information on an International contest called Computational Paralinguistics Challenge (ComParE, which is held each year since 2009 in the framework of the International conference INTERSPEECH organized by the International Speech Communication Association. We present sub-challenges (tasks that were proposed at the ComParE Challenges in 2009-2016, and analyze winning computer systems for each sub-challenge and obtained results. The last completed ComParE-2015 Challenge was organized in September 2015 in Germany and proposed 3 sub-challenges: 1 Degree of Nativeness (DN sub-challenge, determination of nativeness degree of speakers based on acoustics; 2 Parkinson's Condition (PC sub-challenge, recognition of a degree of Parkinson’s condition based on speech analysis; 3 Eating Condition (EC sub-challenge, determination of the eating condition state during speaking or a dialogue, and classification of consumed food type (one of seven classes of food by the speaker. In the last sub-challenge (EC, the winner was a joint Turkish-Russian team consisting of the authors of the given paper. We have developed the most efficient computer-based system for detection and classification of the corresponding (EC acoustical paralinguistic events. The paper deals with the architecture of this system, its main modules and methods, as well as the description of used training and evaluation

  11. Trace elements in speleothems. A short review of the state of the art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheyden Sophie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A state of the art of the research on trace elements of speleothems is given. First studies focussed on problems such as the colour of speleothems and the aragonite problem. Insitu studies and studies oriented towards a better understanding of vadose hydrology brought new insights in the controls on trace elemental composition of speleothems. Recent studies deal with microscale analyses and annual and intra-annual chemistry changes. Further in-situ studies should be performed to further differentiate influences, such as climate, soil/weathering and local hydrology in order to better constrain possible transfer functions between the surface and a speleothem.

  12. Biomass gasification with CHP production: A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the state of the art of biomass gasification and the future of using biomass in Serbia and it presents researches within the project “The Development of a CHP Plant with Biomass Gasification”. The concept of downdraft demonstration unit coupled with gas engine is adopted. Downdraft fixed-bed gasification is generally favored for CHP, owing to the simple and reliable gasifiers and low content of tar and dust in produced gas. The composition and quantity of gas and the amount of air are defined by modeling biomass residues gasification process. The gas (290-400m3/h for 0.5- 0.7MW biomass input obtained by gasification at 800oC with air at atmospheric pressure contains 14% H2, 27% CO, 9% CO2, 2% CH4, and 48% N2, and its net heating value is 4.8-6 MJ/Nm3. The expected gasifier efficiency is up to 80%. The review of the work on biomass gasification has shown that the development of technology has reached the mature stage. There are CHP plants with biomass gasification operating as demonstration plants and several gasification demonstration units are successfully oriented to biofuel production. No attempt has been made here to address the economic feasibility of the system. Economics will be the part of a later work as firmer data are acquired.

  13. Global and Mexican analytical review of the state of the art on Ecosystem and Environmental services: A geographical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perevochtchikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The term Ecosystem Services (ES was introduced in the Rio Declaration in 1992, within a strong international movement for sustainable natural resource management. Back then, the innovative principle concerned the environmental functions that maintain life support systems. To illustrate this further, pollination, oxygen production, temperature regulation, water storage, filtering and distribution, among others, were listed and previously taken for granted until human action contested them. The first compensation schemes for Environmental Services were proposed in 1997 as one of the tools of the new environmental policy directed towards the principles of sustainable development. Since then, the topic of ES has received remarkable global response, which is reflected by the implementation of payment programs and by the development of research in many countries worldwide. This paper analyses the state of the art of the research carried out so far on ES and Environmental Services from the global and the Mexican perspectives. It is based upon the review of 1,781 scientific papers published in international peer reviewed journals between 1992 and 2012. Furthermore, the present study provides a sound geographical overview of the main ES topics studied and of the relative emission of papers per region, country or state. Results are finally presented and discussed in the light of their deficits and of the challenges ahead.

  14. A Review of Smart Energy Projects & Smart Energy State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, Dave; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    on expert knowledge. Smart Energy is a cross-sectoral approach that makes use of synergies between the various energy sectors when identifying suitable and cost-effective renewable energy solutions. The three main energy sectors involved are electricity, thermal and gas. Different sub-sectors form parts......The aim of this study was to investigate the research projects in Smart Energy over the past 10 years in Denmark, the Nordic region and the EU in order to find gaps and to inform the Smart Energy Network’s recommendations. The study also investigated the Smart Energy state-of-the-art research based...... of these sectors, for example electric vehicles in the electricity sector, and district heating in the thermal sector. In this study a database of Danish projects was made that labelled each project with their Smart Energy focus and other metadata such as funding body, and type of project. The database...

  15. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  16. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  17. The state of the art of flood forecasting - Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Salamon, P.; Bogner, K.; Burek, P.; de Roo, A.

    2010-09-01

    Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Because of the specific characteristics of each catchment, varying data availability and end-user demands, the design of the best flood forecasting system may differ from catchment to catchment. However, despite the differences in concept and data needs, there is one underlying issue that spans across all systems. There has been an growing awareness and acceptance that uncertainty is a fundamental issue of flood forecasting and needs to be dealt with at the different spatial and temporal scales as well as the different stages of the flood generating processes. Today, operational flood forecasting centres change increasingly from single deterministic forecasts to probabilistic forecasts with various representations of the different contributions of uncertainty. The move towards these so-called Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) in flood forecasting represents the state of the art in forecasting science, following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting (Buizza et al., 2005) and paralleling the move towards ensemble forecasting in other related disciplines such as climate change predictions. The use of HEPS has been internationally fostered by initiatives such as "The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment" (HEPEX), created with the aim to investigate how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term prediction of hydrological processes. The advantages of quantifying the different contributions of uncertainty as well as the overall uncertainty to obtain reliable and useful flood forecasts also for extreme events

  18. Review of the state of the art and future prospects of the ground-based GNSS meteorology in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Guerova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system, which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60–70 % of atmospheric warming. In Europe, the application of GNSS in meteorology started roughly two decades ago, and today it is a well-established field in both research and operation. This review covers the state of the art in GNSS meteorology in Europe. The advances in GNSS processing for derivation of tropospheric products, application of GNSS tropospheric products in operational weather prediction and application of GNSS tropospheric products for climate monitoring are discussed. The GNSS processing techniques and tropospheric products are reviewed. A summary of the use of the products for validation and impact studies with operational numerical weather prediction (NWP models as well as very short weather prediction (nowcasting case studies is given. Climate research with GNSSs is an emerging field of research, but the studies so far have been limited to comparison with climate models and derivation of trends. More than 15 years of GNSS meteorology in Europe has already achieved outstanding cooperation between the atmospheric and geodetic communities. It is now feasible to develop next-generation GNSS tropospheric products and applications that can enhance the quality of weather forecasts and climate monitoring. This work is carried out within COST Action ES1206 advanced global navigation satellite systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC, http://gnss4swec.knmi.nl.

  19. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor - System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm Broadwell U-series processor System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total dose are presented, along with first-look exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  20. Preliminary Radiation Testing of a State-of-the-Art Commercial 14nm CMOS Processor/System-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Carl M., Jr.; Duncan, Adam; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Kay, Matt; Bruner, Pat; Krzesniak, Mike; Dong, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Hardness assurance test results of Intel state-of-the-art 14nm “Broadwell” U-series processor / System-on-a-Chip (SoC) for total ionizing dose (TID) are presented, along with exploratory results from trials at a medical proton facility. Test method builds upon previous efforts [1] by utilizing commercial laptop motherboards and software stress applications as opposed to more traditional automated test equipment (ATE).

  1. Transactive Energy A Review of State of The Art and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    . This paper provides a bibliographical review on the researches and implementation of the transactive energy concepts and transactive control techniques in power systems. The ideas of transactive control are introduced mainly according to the transactive energy framework proposed by the GridWise Architecture...

  2. A state-of-the-art review of built environment information modelling (BeIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tah J.H.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements that constitute the built environment are vast and so are the independent systems developed to model its various aspects. Many of these systems have been developed under various assumptions and approaches to execute functions that are distinct, complementary or sometimes similar. Furthermore, these systems are ever increasing in number and often assume similar nomenclatures and acronyms, thereby exacerbating the challenges of understanding their peculiar functions, definitions and differences. The current societal demand to improve sustainability per­formance through collaboration as well as whole-system and through-life thinking is driving the need to integrate independent systems associated with different aspects and scales of the built environment to deliver smart solutions and services that improve the well-being of citizens. The contemporary object-oriented digitization of real-world elements appears to provide a leeway for amalgamating the modelling systems of various domains in the built environment which we termed as built environment information modelling (BeIM. These domains include architecture, engineering, construction as well as urban planning and design. Applications such as building information modelling, geographic information systems and 3D city modelling systems are now being integrated for city modelling purposes. The various works directed at integrating these systems are examined, revealing that current research efforts on integration fall into three categories: (1 data/file conversion systems, (2 semantic mapping systems and (3 the hybrid of both. The review outcome suggests that good knowledge of these domains and how their respective systems operate is vital to pursuing holistic systems integration in the built environment.

  3. Information fusion in aquaculture: a state-of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Gul HASSAN,Murtaza HASAN,Daoliang LI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient fish feeding is currently one of biggest challenges in aquaculture to enhance the production of fish quality and quantity. In this review, an information fusion approach was used to integrate multi-sensor and computer vision techniques to make fish feeding more efficient and accurate. Information fusion is a well-known technology that has been used in different fields of artificial intelligence, robotics, image processing, computer vision, sensors and wireless sensor networks. Information fusion in aquaculture is a growing field of research that is used to enhance the performance of an industrialized ecosystem. This review study surveys different fish feeding systems using multi-sensor data fusion, computer vision technology, and different food intake models. In addition, different fish behavior monitoring techniques are discussed, and the parameters of water, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature etc., necessary for the fish feeding process, are examined. Moreover, the different waste management and fish disease diagnosis techniques using different technologies, expert systems and modeling are also reviewed.

  4. Integrated generation- transmission expansion planning: a review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio D. Saldarriaga-Zuluaga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade a great number of research works have approached the power systems planning problem by coordinating in a single optimization problem the generation expansion planning (GEP and the transmission expansion planning (TEP. GEP is usually carried out disregarding network constraints and under an energetic perspective. On the other hand, TEP aims to find network reinforcements that meet the expected demand in an economical and reliable way. The integration of these problems has been approached using different methods, models, and objective functions. This paper presents an exhaustive review of the integrated GEP-TEP problem from different points of view such as modeling, solving methods, reliability considerations, among others. There are review papers in the specialized literature that characterize the GEP and TEP problem independently. However, there are no reviews regarding the integrated GEP-TEP problem. So, it is needed to characterize aspects of the power systems integrated planning problem with the aim to provide consulting tools for researchers in this field.

  5. Microbial electrolysis cells for waste biorefinery: A state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-09-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) is an emerging technology for energy and resource recovery during waste treatment. MECs can theoretically convert any biodegradable waste into H2, biofuels, and other value added products, but the system efficacy can vary significantly when using different substrates or are operated in different conditions. To understand the application niches of MECs in integrative waste biorefineries, this review provides a critical analysis of MEC system performance reported to date in terms of H2 production rate, H2 yield, and energy efficiency under a variety of substrates, applied voltages and other crucial factors. It further discusses the mutual benefits between MECs and dark fermentation and argues such integration can be a viable approach for efficient H2 production from renewable biomass. Other marketable products and system integrations that can be applied to MECs are also summarized, and the challenges and prospects of the technology are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Head injury predictors in sports trauma--a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fábio A O; de Sousa, Ricardo J Alves

    2015-08-01

    Head injuries occur in a great variety of sports. Many of these have been associated with neurological injuries, affecting the central nervous system. Some examples are motorsports, cycling, skiing, horse riding, mountaineering and most contact sports such as football, ice and field hockey, soccer, lacrosse, etc. The outcome of head impacts in these sports can be very severe. The worst-case scenarios of permanent disability or even death are possibilities. Over recent decades, many In recent decades, a great number of head injury criteria and respective thresholds have been proposed. However, the available information is much dispersed and a consensus has still not been achieved regarding the best injury criteria or even their thresholds. This review paper gives a thorough overview of the work carried out by the scientific community in the field of impact biomechanics about head injuries sustained during sports activity. The main goal is to review the head injury criteria, as well as their thresholds. Several are reviewed, from the predictors based on kinematics to the ones based on human tissue thresholds. In this work, we start to briefly introduce the head injuries and their mechanisms commonly seen as a result of head trauma in sports. Then, we present and summarize the head injury criteria and their respective thresholds. © IMechE 2015.

  7. Adaptive Transcutaneous Power Transfer to Implantable Devices: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara N. Bocan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless energy transfer is a broad research area that has recently become applicable to implantable medical devices. Wireless powering of and communication with implanted devices is possible through wireless transcutaneous energy transfer. However, designing wireless transcutaneous systems is complicated due to the variability of the environment. The focus of this review is on strategies to sense and adapt to environmental variations in wireless transcutaneous systems. Adaptive systems provide the ability to maintain performance in the face of both unpredictability (variation from expected parameters and variability (changes over time. Current strategies in adaptive (or tunable systems include sensing relevant metrics to evaluate the function of the system in its environment and adjusting control parameters according to sensed values through the use of tunable components. Some challenges of applying adaptive designs to implantable devices are challenges common to all implantable devices, including size and power reduction on the implant, efficiency of power transfer and safety related to energy absorption in tissue. Challenges specifically associated with adaptation include choosing relevant and accessible parameters to sense and adjust, minimizing the tuning time and complexity of control, utilizing feedback from the implanted device and coordinating adaptation at the transmitter and receiver.

  8. Salt reduction and hypertension in China: a concise state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Huiyan; Hong, Siting

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and its cardiovascular complications such as stroke and heart failure are a serious public health problem around the world. A growing number of studies confirm that salt plays an important role in the development of HTN. Increasing intake of salt leads to abnormal transport of sodium ions at the cellular level with activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Studies have shown that salt restriction can reduce blood pressure (BP) in patients with HTN, especially salt-sensitive HTN. Public health interventions to reduce salt intake, with the goal of decreasing adverse outcomes have been launched in numerous countries. In this review we will summarize the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors, the relationship between salt and HTN, the effect of salt restriction on HTN and the current situation of prevention and treatment of HTN by salt reduction in China. PMID:26090330

  9. Application of fluorescence in robotic general surgery: review of the literature and state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Alessandra; Priora, Fabio; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Ravazzoni, Ferruccio; Quarati, Raoul; Spinoglio, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    The initial use of the indocyanine green fluorescence imaging system was for sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. Since then, application of this method has received wide acceptance in various fields of surgical oncology, and it has become a valid diagnostic tool for guiding cancer treatment. It has also been employed in numerous conventional surgical procedures with much success and benefit to the patient. The advent of minimally invasive surgery brought with it a new use for fluorescence in helping to improve the safety of these procedures, particularly for single-site procedures. In 2010, a near-infrared camera was integrated into the da Vinci Si System, creating a combination of technical and minimally invasive advantages that have been embraced by several experienced surgeons. The use of fluorescence, although useful, is considered challenging. Only a few studies are currently available on the use of fluorescence in robotic general surgery, whereas many articles have focused on its application in open and laparoscopic surgery. Many of these reports describe promising and satisfactory results, although with some shortcomings. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of the use of fluorescence in general surgery and particularly its role in robotic surgery. We also review potential uses in the future.

  10. Novel Filing Systems Applicable to an Automated Office: A State-of-the-Art Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restorick, F. Mark

    1986-01-01

    Examines novel computer filing systems which have particular application to office information storage and retrieval requirements. A variety of filing systems and their major characteristics are reviewed, ranging from network-based file servers to digital image storage and retrieval systems. Desirable characteristics of a modern electronic office…

  11. VIKOR Technique: A Systematic Review of the State of the Art Literature on Methodologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mardani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of the VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje (VIKOR method in several application areas such as sustainability and renewable energy. This study reviewed a total of 176 papers, published in 2004 to 2015, from 83 high-ranking journals; most of which were related to Operational Research, Management Sciences, decision making, sustainability and renewable energy and were extracted from the “Web of Science and Scopus” databases. Papers were classified into 15 main application areas. Furthermore, papers were categorized based on the nationalities of authors, dates of publications, techniques and methods, type of studies, the names of the journals and studies purposes. The results of this study indicated that more papers on VIKOR technique were published in 2013 than in any other year. In addition, 13 papers were published about sustainability and renewable energy fields. Furthermore, VIKOR and fuzzy VIKOR methods, had the first rank in use. Additionally, the Journal of Expert Systems with Applications was the most significant journal in this study, with 27 publications on the topic. Finally, Taiwan had the first rank from 22 nationalities which used VIKOR technique.

  12. Design of hardware efficient FIR filter: A review of the state-of-the-art approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing (DSP is one of the most powerful technologies which will shape the science, engineering and technology of the twenty-first century. Since 1970, revolutionary changes took place in the broad area of DSP which has made it an essential tool in many engineering applications. Digital filter is considered to be one of the most important components of almost every DSP sub-systems and therefore a number of extensive works had been carried out by researchers on the design of such filter. In order to meet the stringent requirements of filter specification, order of the designed filter is generally assumed to be very large and this leads to high power and area consumption during their implementation. As a matter of fact, design of hardware efficient digital filter has drawn enormous attention which needs to be addressed by various useful means. One popular approach has been to encode the tap coefficients of such filter in the form of sum of signed powers-of-two and thus the operation of multiplication is substituted by simple addition and shifting. This paper presents a detailed review of the basic design approaches applicable for the synthesis of hardware efficient finite duration impulse response (FIR filter. Both the traditional and heuristic search algorithms have been incorporated and properly arranged in this review.

  13. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 2B. Integrated Building Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aa, Ad; Andresen, Inger; Asada, Hideo

    The purpose of this report is to give examples of integrated building concepts and related available performance data and information. The report does not aspire to give a complete overview of all possible integrated building concepts and processes. The buildings included in the report have been...... an overview of 23 case study buildings from 9 countries with integrated building concepts. The overview provides descriptions of the buildings and their contexts, a description of the integrated energy systems, and the overall performance of the building with respect to energy, indoor environment and costs......, where available. Also, barriers towards implementation and lessons learnt from the projects are summarized. The last section gives a summary of barriers and opportunities for wide scale realization of integrated building concepts that can be deducted from the examples given in the review....

  14. Neurosurgery and brain shift: review of the state of the art and main contributions of robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Correa-Arana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review about neurosurgery, robotic assistants in this type of procedure, and the approach to the problem of brain tissue displacement, including techniques for obtaining medical images. It is especially focused on the phenomenon of brain displacement, commonly known as brain shift, which causes a loss of reference between the preoperative images and the volumes to be treated during image-guided surgery. Hypothetically, with brain shift prediction and correction for the neuronavigation system, minimal invasion trajectories could be planned and shortened. This would reduce damage to functional tissues and possibly lower the morbidity and mortality in delicate and demanding medical procedures such as the removal of a brain tumor. This paper also mentions other issues associated with neurosurgery and shows the way robotized systems have helped solve these problems. Finally, it highlights the future perspectives of neurosurgery, a branch of medicine that seeks to treat the ailments of the main organ of the human body from the perspective of many disciplines.

  15. Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Beecham, Simon; Pathirana, Assela; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Madsen, Henrik; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

    2013-04-01

    Under the umbrella of the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, the International Working Group on Urban Rainfall (IGUR) has reviewed existing methodologies for the analysis of long-term historical and future trends in urban rainfall extremes and their effects on urban drainage systems, due to anthropogenic climate change. Current practises have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend/impact results. The review considers the following aspects: Analysis of long-term historical trends due to anthropogenic climate change: influence of data limitation, instrumental or environmental changes, interannual variations and longer term climate oscillations on trend testing results. Analysis of long-term future trends due to anthropogenic climate change: by complementing empirical historical data with the results from physically-based climate models, dynamic downscaling to the urban scale by means of Limited Area Models (LAMs) including explicitly small-scale cloud processes; validation of RCM/GCM results for local conditions accounting for natural variability, limited length of the available time series, difference in spatial scales, and influence of climate oscillations; statistical downscaling methods combined with bias correction; uncertainties associated with the climate forcing scenarios, the climate models, the initial states and the statistical downscaling step; uncertainties in the impact models (e.g. runoff peak flows, flood or surcharge frequencies, and CSO frequencies and volumes), including the impacts of more extreme conditions than considered during impact model calibration and validation. Implications for urban drainage infrastructure design and management: upgrading of the urban drainage system as part of a program of routine and scheduled replacement and renewal of aging infrastructure; how to account for the uncertainties; flexible and sustainable solutions

  16. A State-of-the-Art Review of the Sensor Location, Flow Observability, Estimation, and Prediction Problems in Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-the-art review of flow observability, estimation, and prediction problems in traffic networks is performed. Since mathematical optimization provides a general framework for all of them, an integrated approach is used to perform the analysis of these problems and consider them as different optimization problems whose data, variables, constraints, and objective functions are the main elements that characterize the problems proposed by different authors. For example, counted, scanned or “a priori” data are the most common data sources; conservation laws, flow nonnegativity, link capacity, flow definition, observation, flow propagation, and specific model requirements form the most common constraints; and least squares, likelihood, possible relative error, mean absolute relative error, and so forth constitute the bases for the objective functions or metrics. The high number of possible combinations of these elements justifies the existence of a wide collection of methods for analyzing static and dynamic situations.

  17. A review of electrostatic monitoring technology: The state of the art and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenhua; Hou, Junxing; Atkin, Jason

    2017-10-01

    Electrostatic monitoring technology is a useful tool for monitoring and detecting component faults and degradation, which is necessary for system health management. It encompasses three key research areas: sensor technology; signal detection, processing and feature extraction; and verification experimentation. It has received considerable recent attention for condition monitoring due to its ability to provide warning information and non-obstructive measurements on-line. A number of papers in recent years have covered specific aspects of the technology, including sensor design optimization, sensor characteristic analysis, signal de-noising and practical applications of the technology. This paper provides a review of the recent research and of the development of electrostatic monitoring technology, with a primary emphasis on its application for the aero-engine gas path. The paper also presents a summary of some of the current applications of electrostatic monitoring technology in other industries, before concluding with a brief discussion of the current research situation and possible future challenges and research gaps in this field. The aim of this paper is to promote further research into this promising technology by increasing awareness of both the potential benefits of the technology and the current research gaps.

  18. Work Samples and Visually Impaired Persons: A State-of-the-Art Review and Resource Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; And Others

    This manual reviews the use of work samples in the vocational assessment of blind and visually impaired persons and suggests improvements in their use. The information in the manual was gathered through a literature review, a national survey of vocational evaluators in rehabilitation facilities and schools for the blind, and ideas developed by the…

  19. State-of-the-art review on fracture analysis of concrete structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a critical review of literature on fracture analysis of concrete structural components. Review includes various fracture models, tension softening models, methodologies for crack growth analysis and remaining life prediction. The widely used fracture models which are based on fictitious crack approach ...

  20. State-of-the-art review of liquid loading in gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE; Barbosa, J.R. Jr. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2013-08-01

    the field; some unloading solutions (e.g. velocity strings) rely on the existing natural energy of the system, while others (e.g. downhole pumps) provide extra energy to bring the water to surface, so reducing the liquid loading problem. As each of the remedial options have their own technical characteristics, their applicability varies depending on the characteristics and the status of the well. Although a number of established techniques are used to alleviate the effects of liquid loading, the industry still lacks reliable predictive models to help select the best remedial option for a particular loading occurrence. In this paper, an up-to-date critical review of current methods to forecast the onset of liquid loading and model the subsequent wellbore performance is presented. The review also includes recent attempts to understand the dynamic interactions between reservoir and wellbore during liquid loading.

  1. Assessment of the State-Of-The-Art of Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-11-01

    The reservoir features of importance in the operation of enhanced geothermal systems are described first (Section 2). The report then reviews existing reservoir simulators developed for application to HDR reservoirs (Section 3), hydrothermal systems (Section 4), and nuclear waste isolation (Section 5), highlighting capabilities relevant to the evaluation and assessment of EGS. The report focuses on simulators that include some representation of flow in fractures, only mentioning other simulators, such as general-purpose programs or groundwater models (Section 6). Following these detailed descriptions, the report summarizes and comments on the simulators (Section 7), and recommends a course of action for further development (Section 8). The references are included in Section 9. Appendix A contains contractual information, including a description of the original and revised scope of work for this study. Appendix B presents comments on the draft report from DOE reviewer(s) and the replies of the authors to those comments. [DJE-2005

  2. New and emerging contraceptives: a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes, M Valeria Bahamondes Human Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas and National Institute of Hormones and Women's Health, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background: The first hormonal contraceptive was introduced onto the market in several countries 50 years ago; however, the portfolio of contraceptive methods remains restricted with regards to their steroid composition, their cost, and their ability to satisfy the requirements of millions of women/couples in accordance with their different reproductive intentions, behaviors, cultures, and settings. Methods: A literature review was conducted using Medline, Embase, and Current Contents databases, up to September 1, 2013 to identify publications reporting new contraceptives in development using combinations of the search terms: contraception, contraceptives, oral contraceptives, patch, vaginal ring, implants, intrauterine contraceptives, and emergency contraception (EC. Also, several experts in the field were also consulted to document ongoing projects on contraception development. Additionally, the Clinicaltrial.gov website was searched for ongoing studies on existing contraceptive methods and new and emerging female contraceptives developed over the past 5 years. Information was also obtained from the pharmaceutical industry. Results: Early sexual debut and late menopause means that women may require contraception for up to 30 years. Although oral, injectable, vaginal, transdermal, subdermal, and intrauterine contraceptives are already available, new contraceptives have been developed in an attempt to reduce side effects and avoid early discontinuation, and to fulfill women's different requirements. Research efforts are focused on replacing ethinyl-estradiol with natural estradiol to reduce thrombotic events. In addition, new, less androgenic progestins are being introduced and selective progesterone receptor

  3. Data Privacy in Cloud-assisted Healthcare Systems: State of the Art and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Anam; Abbas, Haider

    2016-06-01

    The widespread deployment and utility of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN's) in healthcare systems required new technologies like Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, that are able to deal with the storage and processing limitations of WBAN's. This amalgamation of WBAN-based healthcare systems to cloud-based healthcare systems gave rise to serious privacy concerns to the sensitive healthcare data. Hence, there is a need for the proactive identification and effective mitigation mechanisms for these patient's data privacy concerns that pose continuous threats to the integrity and stability of the healthcare environment. For this purpose, a systematic literature review has been conducted that presents a clear picture of the privacy concerns of patient's data in cloud-assisted healthcare systems and analyzed the mechanisms that are recently proposed by the research community. The methodology used for conducting the review was based on Kitchenham guidelines. Results from the review show that most of the patient's data privacy techniques do not fully address the privacy concerns and therefore require more efforts. The summary presented in this paper would help in setting research directions for the techniques and mechanisms that are needed to address the patient's data privacy concerns in a balanced and light-weight manner by considering all the aspects and limitations of the cloud-assisted healthcare systems.

  4. State-of-the-art review on fracture analysis of concrete structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a critical review of literature on fracture analysis of concrete structural components. .... are represented through a stress–strain softening law. Hillerborg et al (1976) introduced ... model is the heterogeneity of the material can be modelled/represented by assigning different strength and/or stiffness values ...

  5. A State-of-the-Art Review: Personalization of Tinnitus Sound Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant D. Searchfield

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several established, and an increasing number of putative, therapies using sound to treat tinnitus. There appear to be few guidelines for sound therapy selection and application.Aim: To review current approaches to personalizing sound therapy for tinnitus.Methods: A “state-of-the-art” review (Grant and Booth, 2009 was undertaken to answer the question: how do current sound-based therapies for tinnitus adjust for tinnitus heterogeneity? Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase and PubMed were searched for the 10-year period 2006–2016. The search strategy used the following key words: “tinnitus” AND “sound” AND “therapy” AND “guidelines” OR “personalized” OR “customized” OR “individual” OR “questionnaire” OR “selection.” The results of the review were cataloged and organized into themes.Results: In total 165 articles were reviewed in full, 83 contained sufficient details to contribute to answering the study question. The key themes identified were hearing compensation, pitched-match therapy, maskability, reaction to sound and psychosocial factors. Although many therapies mentioned customization, few could be classified as being personalized. Several psychoacoustic and questionnaire-based methods for assisting treatment selection were identified.Conclusions: Assessment methods are available to assist clinicians to personalize sound-therapy and empower patients to be active in therapy decision-making. Most current therapies are modified using only one characteristic of the individual and/or their tinnitus.

  6. A State-of-the-Art Review: Personalization of Tinnitus Sound Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searchfield, Grant D.; Durai, Mithila; Linford, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are several established, and an increasing number of putative, therapies using sound to treat tinnitus. There appear to be few guidelines for sound therapy selection and application. Aim: To review current approaches to personalizing sound therapy for tinnitus. Methods: A “state-of-the-art” review (Grant and Booth, 2009) was undertaken to answer the question: how do current sound-based therapies for tinnitus adjust for tinnitus heterogeneity? Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase and PubMed were searched for the 10-year period 2006–2016. The search strategy used the following key words: “tinnitus” AND “sound” AND “therapy” AND “guidelines” OR “personalized” OR “customized” OR “individual” OR “questionnaire” OR “selection.” The results of the review were cataloged and organized into themes. Results: In total 165 articles were reviewed in full, 83 contained sufficient details to contribute to answering the study question. The key themes identified were hearing compensation, pitched-match therapy, maskability, reaction to sound and psychosocial factors. Although many therapies mentioned customization, few could be classified as being personalized. Several psychoacoustic and questionnaire-based methods for assisting treatment selection were identified. Conclusions: Assessment methods are available to assist clinicians to personalize sound-therapy and empower patients to be active in therapy decision-making. Most current therapies are modified using only one characteristic of the individual and/or their tinnitus. PMID:28970812

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Rainfall Extremes and Urban Drainage: a State-of-the-Art Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    to anthropogenic climate change. Current practices have several limitations and pitfalls, which are important to be considered by trend or climate change impact modellers and users of trend or impact results. The review (Willems et al., 2012) considers the following aspects: analysis of long-term historical trends...

  8. Abrasive finishing and polishing in restorative dentistry: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Steven R

    2007-04-01

    Effective finishing and polishing of dental restorations not only result in optimal aesthetics but also provide for acceptable oral health of soft tissues and marginal integrity of the restorative interface. This review of abrasive technology in dentistry provides an overview of basic principles of abrasive science and considers some research concerning clinically relevant questions. The article also discusses some recent innovations in finishing and polishing devices. This review brings forward some newly published, outcome-based information concerning the relevance and importance of an effective knowledge of finishing and polishing techniques and materials. The overall aim is to provide an enhanced awareness and broader knowledge of the principles and tools available to produce optimal surface finishing and integrity in dental restoratives.

  9. Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Antennas and Propagation: A Review of State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios K. Goudos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of evolutionary algorithms (EAs with applications to antenna and propagation problems is presented. EAs have emerged as viable candidates for global optimization problems and have been attracting the attention of the research community interested in solving real-world engineering problems, as evidenced by the fact that very large number of antenna design problems have been addressed in the literature in recent years by using EAs. In this paper, our primary focus is on Genetic Algorithms (GAs, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, and Differential Evolution (DE, though we also briefly review other recently introduced nature-inspired algorithms. An overview of case examples optimized by each family of algorithms is included in the paper.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current state of the art and novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, M; Lapa, A Tamires; Reis, F; Rittner, L; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease affecting 0.1% of the general population. Neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus have been more frequently recognized and reported in recent years, occurring in up to 75% of patients during the disease course. Magnetic resonance imaging is known to be a useful tool for the detection of structural brain abnormalities in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients because of the excellent soft-tissue contrast observed with MRI and the ability to acquire multiplanar images. In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to evaluate the presence of atrophy and white matter lesions, several different magnetic resonance imaging techniques have been used to identify microstructural or functional abnormalities. This review will highlight different magnetic resonance imaging techniques, including the advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods used to determine central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  11. Work zone safety analysis and modeling: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Xie, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Work zone safety is one of the top priorities for transportation agencies. In recent years, a considerable volume of research has sought to determine work zone crash characteristics and causal factors. Unlike other non-work zone-related safety studies (on both crash frequency and severity), there has not yet been a comprehensive review and assessment of methodological approaches for work zone safety. To address this deficit, this article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the existing extensive research efforts focused on work zone crash-related analysis and modeling, in the hopes of providing researchers and practitioners with a complete overview. Relevant literature published in the last 5 decades was retrieved from the National Work Zone Crash Information Clearinghouse and the Transport Research International Documentation database and other public digital libraries and search engines. Both peer-reviewed publications and research reports were obtained. Each study was carefully reviewed, and those that focused on either work zone crash data analysis or work zone safety modeling were identified. The most relevant studies are specifically examined and discussed in the article. The identified studies were carefully synthesized to understand the state of knowledge on work zone safety. Agreement and inconsistency regarding the characteristics of the work zone crashes discussed in the descriptive studies were summarized. Progress and issues about the current practices on work zone crash frequency and severity modeling are also explored and discussed. The challenges facing work zone safety research are then presented. The synthesis of the literature suggests that the presence of a work zone is likely to increase the crash rate. Crashes are not uniformly distributed within work zones and rear-end crashes are the most prevalent type of crashes in work zones. There was no across-the-board agreement among numerous papers reviewed on the relationship between work zone

  12. State-of-the-Art Review of 3D Bioprinting for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    3D bioprinting is a group of rapidly growing techniques that allows building engineered tissue constructs with complex and hierarchical structures, mechanical and biological heterogeneity. It enables implementation of various bioinks through different printing mechanisms and precise deposition of cell and/or biomolecule laden biomaterials in predefined locations. This review briefly summarizes applicable bioink materials and various bioprinting techniques, and presents the recent advances in bioprinting of cardiovascular tissues, with focusing on vascularized constructs, myocardium and heart valve conduits. Current challenges and further perspectives are also discussed to help guide the bioink and bioprinter development, improve bioprinting strategies and direct future organ bioprinting and translational applications.

  13. Dentistry and the myasthenia gravis patient: a review of the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pavan M; Singh, Gurjap; Patil, Seema P

    2012-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic neuromuscular disease characterized by muscular weakness and fatigability. Dental management of patients diagnosed with MG presents a challenge to the oral health care provider. The purpose of this article was to review the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical signs and symptoms associated with MG, highlighting the role of the oral health care provider in the process of diagnosis and management of the oral and dental complications that might be associated with the disease, while avoiding myasthenic crisis. A discussion of the recent approaches to treatment of the disease and current research on MG is presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesive Bond Quality: State of the Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    34 Chemical Engineer- McGraw-Hill, 1968. ing World. 21, No. 3 (1986), pp. 42-44. 2. Cotter, J. L., and M. G. D. Hockney . 11. Hagemaier, D. J. "Bonded Joints...Chang, Francis H., Paul L. Flynn, David 87. Alers, G., P. L. Flynn, and J. J. Buckley. E. Gordon, and Jerry R. Bell. "Princi- "Ultrasonic Techniques...No. 2, August 1984, pp. 128. Cotter, J. L., and M. G. D. Hockney . 525-531. "Metal Joining with Adhesives." Inter- national Metallurgical Reviews

  15. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  16. External Integration on Agri-Food Supply Chain: A review to the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Ruiz Moreno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Integration (SCI has been broadly taken into account due to its strategic importance; however, there are a few agri food supply chain studies. The purpose of this paper is to review the SCI focused on the external integration mechanisms impact on agri food supply chain performance. The results shows that external integration mechanisms most used have been information sharing and joint decision making, while efficiency has been frequently used as a performance indicators. The review identifies the need to assess several external integration mechanisms simultaneously on Supply Chain performance emphasizes on the importance to research in joint decision making mechanism, such as Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI and Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR. For performance measurement, it is needed to include at least one indicator for each category (Efficiency, Flexibility, Responsiveness and Food Quality of the Agri Food Supply Chain performance framework described, whereas for measuring Agri Food logistics performance is required further research on modes (process management and means (resources logistics.

  17. State-of-the-Art Review on Diabetes Care in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disoteo, Olga; Grimaldi, Franco; Papini, Enrico; Attanasio, Roberto; Tonutti, Laura; Pellegrini, Maria Antonietta; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Borretta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a significant health problem in Italy as in other western countries. To review available epidemiological data and the legislative framework for diabetes care in Italy. Review of Italian Health Ministry's official documents and analysis of epidemiological data published by Italian Scientific Societies. Diabetes affects more than 5% of the Italian population. The expenditures for the care of people with diabetes are about €10 billion ($US 11 billion) a year and are increasing over time. Italian law regulates the clinical care of people with diabetes and creates a clinical framework involving medical organizations, prevention programs, personnel training, and legal protection. The National Health Program is structured in essential levels of assistance that can be defined differently in the various regions. In 2013, the "National Diabetes Plan," defining priority areas for intervention, was approved and represents the main regulatory tool for the management of diabetes within the Italian National Health Service. In Italy, the status of diabetes care is being monitored using the data from 2 permanent observatories: the ARNO Observatory Diabetes and the Associazione Medici Diabetologi Annals. A comprehensive approach to diabetes is offered to all citizens, consonant with the constitutionally guaranteed right to health. However, this important effort translates into a relevant financial burden for the National Health Service. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  19. Energy comparison between CO2 cascade systems and state of the art R404A systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Pachai, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    The focus on the global warming and the political determination to phase out the use of the HFC was clearly stated by minister for the environment Svend Auken at the IIR meeting in Aarhus September 1996 when he said: ¿It is therefore my sincere hope that in ten years time, not a single fridge...... fluid for both medium and low temperature applications. In 2002 two of these cascade systems with CO2 and R404A were installed. The displays cabinets and cooling/freezing rooms are cooled directly by CO2 in the low temperature part of the cascade plant, while the high temperature part of the cascade...

  20. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  1. State-of-the-art robotic devices for ankle rehabilitation: Mechanism and control review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Jamwal, Prashant K; Ghayesh, Mergen H

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing research interest in exploring use of robotic devices for the physical therapy of patients suffering from stroke and spinal cord injuries. Rehabilitation of patients suffering from ankle joint dysfunctions such as drop foot is vital and therefore has called for the development of newer robotic devices. Several robotic orthoses and parallel ankle robots have been developed during the last two decades to augment the conventional ankle physical therapy of patients. A comprehensive review of these robotic ankle rehabilitation devices is presented in this article. Recent developments in the mechanism design, actuation and control are discussed. The study encompasses robotic devices for treadmill and over-ground training as well as platform-based parallel ankle robots. Control strategies for these robotic devices are deliberated in detail with an emphasis on the assist-as-needed training strategies. Experimental evaluations of the mechanism designs and various control strategies of these robotic ankle rehabilitation devices are also presented.

  2. A State-of-the-Art Review on Fatigue Life Assessment of Steel Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is among the most critical forms of damage potentially occurring in steel bridges, while accurate assessment or prediction of the fatigue damage status as well as the remaining fatigue life of steel bridges is still a challenging and unsolved issue. There have been numerous investigations on the fatigue damage evaluation and life prediction of steel bridges by use of deterministic or probabilistic methods. The purpose of this review is devoted to presenting a summary on the development history and current status of fatigue condition assessment of steel bridges, containing basic aspects of fatigue, classical fatigue analysis methods, data-driven fatigue life assessment, and reliability-based fatigue condition assessment.

  3. Practical use of opioids in cats: a state-of-the-art, evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolami, Elisa; Love, Emma J

    2015-04-01

    Recent recognition of the need to improve pain management in cats has led to the investigation of the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of opioid analgesic drugs in this species. The results of these studies may be difficult to interpret because the effect of these drugs varies with dose, route of administration and the method used to assess them. As equipotency of different opioids is not known, it is hard to compare their effects. Animals do not verbalise the pain they feel and, in cats, it may be more difficult to recognise signs of pain in comparison with other species such as dogs. This article reviews the use of opioid analgesics in cats. It must be remembered that not all drugs are licensed for use in cats, and that marketing authorisations vary between different countries. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  4. Impact properties of geopolymeric concrete: a state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi; Xie, Jianhe; Zhang, Bingxue; Yuan, Bing; Wang, Chonghao

    2018-01-01

    The application of geopolymer instead of cement in construction engineering provides an effective way to achieve sustainable development. A large number of studies have shown that geopolymeric concrete (GC) has excellent static performance. However, there are relatively few studies on the dynamic performance of GC which is of dominate importance in cases such as explosion, earthquake and other impact loads. This paper presents a brief review of recent research on the impact properties of GC, in order to facilitate the research development in this field. The effects of strain rate, fiber type, alkali type, elevated temperature, water environment and flow state on the impact resistance performance of GC were analysed. Research findings revealed that GC exhibited better impact properties than ordinary Portland concrete (OPC).

  5. Research collaboration and team science a state-of-the-art review and agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Bozeman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Today in most scientific and technical fields more than 90% of research studies and publications are collaborative, often resulting in high-impact research and development of commercial applications, as reflected in patents. Nowadays in many areas of science, collaboration is not a preference but, literally, a work prerequisite. The purpose of this book is to review and critique the burgeoning scholarship on research collaboration. The authors seek to identify gaps in theory and research and identify the ways in which existing research can be used to improve public policy for collaboration and to improve project-level management of collaborations using Scientific and Technical Human Capital (STHC) theory as a framework. Broadly speaking, STHC is the sum of scientific and technical and social knowledge, skills and resources embodied in a particular individual. It is both human capital endowments, such as formal education and training and social relations and network ties that bind scientists and the users of ...

  6. Biomechanical properties of breast tissue, a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramião, Nilza G; Martins, Pedro S; Rynkevic, Rita; Fernandes, António A; Barroso, Maria; Santos, Diana C

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on the tests used to determine the mechanical properties of women breast tissues (fat, glandular and tumour tissue) as well as the different values of these properties. The knowledge of the mechanical properties of breast tissue is important for cancer detection, study and planning of surgical procedures such as surgical breast reconstruction using pre-surgical methods and improving the interpretation of clinical tests. Based on the data collected from the analysed studies, some important conclusions were achieved: (1) the Young's modulus of breast tissues is highly dependent on the tissue preload compression level, and (2) the results of these studies clearly indicate a wide variation in moduli not only among different types of tissue but also within each type of tissue. These differences were most evident in normal fat and fibroglandular tissues.

  7. Telerehabilitation: Review of the State-of-the-Art and Areas of Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Alessandro; Amenta, Francesco; Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Nittari, Giulio; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh

    2017-07-21

    Telemedicine applications have been increasing due to the development of new computer science technologies and of more advanced telemedical devices. Various types of telerehabilitation treatments and their relative intensities and duration have been reported. The objective of this review is to provide a detailed overview of the rehabilitation techniques for remote sites (telerehabilitation) and their fields of application, with analysis of the benefits and the drawbacks related to use. We discuss future applications of telerehabilitation techniques with an emphasis on the development of high-tech devices, and on which new tools and applications can be used in the future. We retrieved relevant information and data on telerehabilitation from books, articles and online materials using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "telerehabilitation," "telemedicine," and "rehabilitation," as well as "disabling pathologies." Telerehabilitation can be considered as a branch of telemedicine. Although this field is considerably new, its use has rapidly grown in developed countries. In general, telerehabilitation reduces the costs of both health care providers and patients compared with traditional inpatient or person-to-person rehabilitation. Furthermore, patients who live in remote places, where traditional rehabilitation services may not be easily accessible, can benefit from this technology. However, certain disadvantages of telerehabilitation, including skepticism on the part of patients due to remote interaction with their physicians or rehabilitators, should not be underestimated. This review evaluated different application fields of telerehabilitation, highlighting its benefits and drawbacks. This study may be a starting point for improving approaches and devices for telerehabilitation. In this context, patients' feedback may be important to adapt rehabilitation techniques and approaches to their needs, which would subsequently help to improve the quality of rehabilitation

  8. Dense ceramic membranes: A review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years the concepts of oxygen permeation through mixed valency ceramic membranes possess special interest. In this context, a classification and brief review of the major membrane ceramic materials will be presented. The focus will be on dense ceramic membranes as elements for advanced application. A discussion will be proposed for mixed conductor ceramics as perovskite ABO3 compounds. Dense membranes on perovskite base are the object of the present review and some details about processing and characterization of double (A- and B-site substituted La1-x Sr(BaxCo0.8Fe0.2O3-d perovskites will be presented.

    El concepto de permeación de oxígeno a través de membranas cerámicas de valencia mixta, ha venido adquiriendo especial relevancia a lo largo de los últimos años. En este contexto se hace se efectúa una clasificación y breve revisión de los materiales cerámicos más relevantes utilizados como membranas. En particular se orienta la descripción hacia las membranas cerámicas densas para aplicaciones avanzadas. Se propone un análisis de los conductores cerámicos mixtos, como los compuestos de tipo perovskita ABO3. Se realiza una revisión de los materiales de este tipo existentes, así como se describen algunos aspectos sobre el procesamiento y caracterización de las perovskitas tipo La1-x Sr(BaxCo0.8Fe0.2O3-d doblemente sustituidas (lugares A- y B-.

  9. Clathrate Sequestration: State-of-the-Art Review and New Technical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Nago

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on reviewing the currently available solutions for natural gas production from methane hydrate deposits using CO2 sequestration. Methane hydrates are ice-like materials, which form at low temperature and high pressure and are located in permafrost areas and oceanic environments. They represent a huge hydrocarbon resource, which could supply the entire world for centuries. Fossil-fuel-based energy is still a major source of carbon dioxide emissions which contribute greatly to the issue of global warming and climate change. Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide appears as the safest and most stable way to reduce such emissions for it involves the trapping of CO2 into hydrocarbon reservoirs and aquifers. Indeed, CO2 can also be sequestered as hydrates while helping dissociate the in situ methane hydrates. The studies presented here investigate the molecular exchange between CO2 and CH4 that occurs when methane hydrates are exposed to CO2, thus generating the release of natural gas and the trapping of carbon dioxide as gas clathrate. These projects include laboratory studies on the synthesis, thermodynamics, phase equilibrium, kinetics, cage occupancy, and the methane recovery potential of the mixed CO2–CH4 hydrate. An experimental and numerical evaluation of the effect of porous media on the gas exchange is described. Finally, a few field studies on the potential of this new gas hydrate recovery technique are presented.

  10. Current state of the art of regional hyperthermia treatment planning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H P; Wust, P; Stauffer, P R; Bardati, F; van Rhoon, G C; Crezee, J

    2015-09-17

    Locoregional hyperthermia, i.e. increasing the tumor temperature to 40-45 °C using an external heating device, is a very effective radio and chemosensitizer, which significantly improves clinical outcome. There is a clear thermal dose-effect relation, but the pursued optimal thermal dose of 43 °C for 1 h can often not be realized due to treatment limiting hot spots in normal tissue. Modern heating devices have a large number of independent antennas, which provides flexible power steering to optimize tumor heating and minimize hot spots, but manual selection of optimal settings is difficult. Treatment planning is a very valuable tool to improve locoregional heating. This paper reviews the developments in treatment planning software for tissue segmentation, electromagnetic field calculations, thermal modeling and optimization techniques. Over the last decade, simulation tools have become more advanced. On-line use has become possible by implementing algorithms on the graphical processing unit, which allows real-time computations. The number of applications using treatment planning is increasing rapidly and moving on from retrospective analyses towards assisting prospective clinical treatment strategies. Some clinically relevant applications will be discussed.

  11. Durability of polymer matrix composites for automotive structural applications: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corum, J.M.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Sun, C.T.; Talreja, R.; Weitsman, Y.J.

    1995-07-01

    A key unanswered question that must be addressed before polymeric composites will be widely used in automotive structural components is their known durability. Major durability issues are the effects that cyclic loadings, creep, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts have on dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness throughout the required life of a composite component. This report reviews the current state of understanding in each of these areas. It also discusses the limited information that exists on one of the prime candidate materials for automotive structural applications--an isocyanurate reinforced with a continuous strand, swirl mat. Because of the key role that nondestructive evaluations must play in understanding damage development and progression, a chapter is included on ultrasonic techniques. A final chapter then gives conclusions and recommendations for research needed to resolve the various durability issues. These recommendations will help provide a sound basis for program planning for the Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the Automotive Composites Consortium of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.

  12. State of the Art Review: Depression, Stress, Anxiety, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Beth E; Edmondson, Donald; Kronish, Ian M

    2015-11-01

    The notion that psychological states can influence physical health is hardly new, and perhaps nowhere has the mind-body connection been better studied than in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recently, large prospective epidemiologic studies and smaller basic science studies have firmly established a connection between CVD and several psychological conditions, including depression, chronic psychological stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety. In addition, numerous clinical trials have been conducted to attempt to prevent or lessen the impact of these conditions on cardiovascular health. In this article, we review studies connecting depression, stress/PTSD, and anxiety to CVD, focusing on findings from the last 5 years. For each mental health condition, we first examine the epidemiologic evidence establishing a link with CVD. We then describe studies of potential underlying mechanisms and finally discuss treatment trials and directions for future research. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension Ltd 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employees(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Remediation of textile effluents by membrane based treatment techniques: a state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Jhilly; Sikder, Jaya; Chakraborty, Sudip; Curcio, Stefano; Drioli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The textile industries hold an important position in the global industrial arena because of their undeniable contributions to basic human needs satisfaction and to the world economy. These industries are however major consumers of water, dyes and other toxic chemicals. The effluents generated from each processing step comprise substantial quantities of unutilized resources. The effluents if discharged without prior treatment become potential sources of pollution due to their several deleterious effects on the environment. The treatment of heterogeneous textile effluents therefore demands the application of environmentally benign technology with appreciable quality water reclamation potential. These features can be observed in various innovative membrane based techniques. The present review paper thus elucidates the contributions of membrane technology towards textile effluent treatment and unexhausted raw materials recovery. The reuse possibilities of water recovered through membrane based techniques, such as ultrafiltration and nanofiltration in primary dye houses or auxiliary rinse vats have also been explored. Advantages and bottlenecks, such as membrane fouling associated with each of these techniques have also been highlighted. Additionally, several pragmatic models simulating transport mechanism across membranes have been documented. Finally, various accounts dealing with techno-economic evaluation of these membrane based textile wastewater treatment processes have been provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  15. State of the art and review on the treatment technologies of water reverse osmosis concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, A; Urtiaga, A M; Ibáñez, R; Ortiz, I

    2012-02-01

    The growing demand for fresh water is partially satisfied by desalination plants that increasingly use membrane technologies and among them reverse osmosis to produce purified water. Operating with water recoveries from 35% to 85% RO plants generate huge volumes of concentrates containing all the retained compounds that are commonly discharged to water bodies and constitute a potentially serious threat to marine ecosystems; therefore there is an urgent need for environmentally friendly management options of RO brines. This paper gives an overview on the potential treatments to overcome the environmental problems associated to the direct discharge of RO concentrates. The treatment options have been classified according to the source of RO concentrates and the maturity of the technologies. For the sake of clarity three different sources of RO concentrates are differentiated i) desalination plants, ii) tertiary processes in WWTP, and iii) mining industries. Starting with traditional treatments such as evaporation and crystallization other technologies that have emerged in last years to reduce the volume of the concentrate before disposal and with the objective of achieving zero liquid discharge and recovery of valuable compounds from these effluents are also reviewed. Most of these emerging technologies have been developed at laboratory or pilot plant scale (see Table 1). With regard to RO concentrates from WWTP, the manuscript addresses recent studies that are mainly focused on reducing the organic pollutant load through the application of innovative advanced oxidation technologies. Finally, works that report the treatment of RO concentrates from industrial sources are analyzed as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. State of the Art Systematic Review of Bone Disease in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Golden, Neville H.; Katzman, Debra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a known consequence of anorexia nervosa (AN) and is particularly concerning during adolescence, a critical time for bone accrual. A comprehensive synthesis of available data regarding impaired bone health, its determinants, and associated management strategies in AN is currently lacking. This systematic review aims to synthesize information from key physiologic and prospective studies and trials, and provide a thorough understanding of impaired bone health in AN and its management. Method Search terms included “anorexia nervosa” AND “bone density” for the period 1995–2015, limited to articles in English. Papers were screened manually based on journal impact factor, sample size, age of participants, and inclusion of a control group. When necessary, we included seminal papers published before 1995. Results AN leads to low BMD, impaired bone quality and increased fracture risk. Important determinants are low lean mass, hypogonadism, IGF-1 deficiency, and alterations in other hormones that impact bone health. Weight gain and menses restoration are critical for improving bone outcomes in AN. Physiologic estrogen replacement as the transdermal patch was shown to increase bone accrual in one study in adolescent females with AN; however, residual deficits persist. Bisphosphonates are potentially useful in adults with AN. Discussion To date, evidence suggests that the safest and most effective strategy to improve bone health in AN is normalization of weight with restoration of menses. Pharmacotherapies that show promise include physiologic estradiol replacement (as the transdermal estradiol patch), and in adults, bisphosphonates. Further studies are necessary to determine the best strategies to normalize BMD in AN. PMID:26311400

  17. Evidence-Based Carotid Interventions for Stroke Prevention: State-of-the-art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dylan R.; Ayabe, Kengo; Inoue, Takashi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Bulbulia, Richard; Halliday, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is responsible for between 10–20% of all ischaemic strokes. Interventions, such as carotid end-arterectomy and carotid stenting, effectively reduce the risk of stroke in selected individuals. This review describes the history of carotid interventions, and summarises reliable evidence on the safety and efficacy of these interventions gained from large randomised clinical trials. Early trials comparing carotid endarterectomy to medical therapy alone in symptomatic patients, and asymptomatic patients, demonstrated that endarterectomy halved the risk of stroke and perioperative death in these two unique populations. The absolute risk reduction was smaller in the asymptomatic carotid trials, consistent with their lower absolute stroke risk. More recent trials in symptomatic patients, suggest that carotid stenting has similar long term durability to carotid endarterectomy, but possibly has higher procedural hazards dominated by non-disabling strokes. The Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2, along with individual patient data meta-analysis of all asymptomatic trials, will provide reliable evidence for the choice of intervention in asymptomatic patients in whom a decision has been made for carotid revascularisation. Given improvements in effective cardiovascular medical therapy, in particular lipid-lowering medications, there is renewed uncertainty as to whether carotid interventions still provide meaningful net reductions in stroke risk in asymptomatic populations. Four large trials in Europe and the US are currently underway, and are expected to report longterm results in the next decade. It is essential that surgeons, interventionalists, and physicians continue to randomise large numbers of patients from around the world to clarify current uncertainty around the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis. PMID:28260723

  18. H. pylori infection and gastric cancer: state of the art (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Vincenza; Sansonno, Domenico; Lauletta, Gianfranco; Russi, Sabino; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Dammacco, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading types of cancer worldwide, particularly in East Asian populations. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been established as a major risk factor for GC. Although more than 50% of the world population is infected with this bacterium, less than 2% develop GC. Therefore, further risk factors (such as host genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle, as well as environmental and epigenetic factors) may also play a role in its occurrence. The correlation between HP infection and GC represents a typical model of a multi‑step process, characterized by some pre-neoplastic lesions with a high risk of progression (atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). In addition, HP also plays an oncogenic role in the development of mucosa‑associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, that accounts for approximately 3% of all gastric tumors. Hyperplastic polyps often arise in patients with atrophic gastric mucosa and HP‑associated gastritis (25% of cases); however, their malignant transformation is rare (<3% of cases). A number of trials have demonstrated the possibility of cancer prevention through HP screening and eradication, particularly in high‑risk populations, whereas it may not be cost‑effective in areas of low risk. In this review, we discuss i) the complex pathogenetic mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis in which HP is involved; ii) the main approaches to the diagnosis, prevention, surveillance and treatment of pre-malignant lesions associated with HP infection; iii) the most effective way to detect GC in its earlier stages; and iv) the most important contribution to reducing the burden of GC.

  19. Catathrenia (Nocturnal Groaning): A Social Media Survey and State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose; Camacho, Macario; Chhetri, Dinesh K; Guilleminault, Christian; Zaghi, Soroush

    2017-04-15

    Catathrenia is an underrecognized nocturnal vocalization phenomenon that can be a source of perplexity to patients, bed partners, and medical providers. Catathrenia is distinct from both sleep talking (a parasomnia with loud talking during sleep) and snoring (noise due to vibration of upper airway soft tissues related to variations in airway resistance). The objective of this review is to provide an evidence-based resource to help the practitioner reliably evaluate and manage patients with this condition. Data were gathered from: (1) PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar; and (2) catathrenia social media groups (Yahoo and Facebook). Data collected were (1) 15 case reports and 17 case series describing 191 patients with catathrenia; (2) questionnaires from 47 catathrenia subjects; (3) 5 audio files. Catathrenia is a noise produced during sleep (distinct from snoring) with identifiable harmonics, a computable main frequency, and high-decibel intensity that involves active adduction and vibration of the vocal cords during expiration. The quality of groaning in catathrenia is monotone, and often presents with a morose or sexual connotation, causing a significant social problem for patients. Although there is no association with risk of physical harm, catathrenia does present a significant disturbance to the bed partner and has been associated with subjective impairments to sleep quality, including unrefreshing sleep and fatigue. Polysomnography can be useful if performed properly to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate for comorbid sleep disturbances, such as obstructive sleep apnea or parasomnia. Directions for further research could involve consideration of deep breathing exercises, yoga, meditation, or myofunctional therapy to help abate symptoms.

  20. Salt reduction in China: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Hua, Yechu; Yang, Ying; Liu, Xiaojuan; Fan, Jingruo; Zhang, An; Xiang, Jingling; Li, Mingjing; Yan, Lijing L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the latest evidence on salt reduction initiatives in China in order to identify the contextual cost-effective interventions, as well as the barriers encountered during China's long march to reach its population salt reduction goal. Population-based salt reduction has been considered as one of the most cost-effective strategies in the world for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. China, along with its sustained economic growth, faces increasing burdens from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. With policy support and cross-sector collaboration, various salt reduction initiatives have been adopted in China in order to reduce such dietary risk, especially since the beginning of this millennium. This study conducted structured literature reviews in both English and Chinese databases and synthesized the latest evidence on the association of salt intake and health, as well as salt intake among Chinese and population-based salt reduction strategies in China and around the world. Dietary salt restriction has been found to contribute to the reduction of blood pressure among both the normotensives and hypertensives bringing associated reduced disease burdens and great public health benefits. With gender, ethnic, and regional variations, salt intake levels in the population in China are well above the recommended threshold and physiological need. Admittedly, excessive salt intake precipitates the high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease among the Chinese. Considering that the majority of the dietary salt is added during cooking in China, salt substitutes, salt restriction tools, and health education are the most common salt reduction initiatives with varying levels of effectiveness and acceptability among the Chinese population. Overwhelming evidence is in support of a well-coordinated nationwide salt restriction initiative as a key public health strategy for the prevention and control of

  1. Orbital implants: State-of-the-art review with emphasis on biomaterials and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Potestio, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    In the treatment of severe oculo-orbital traumas, intraocular malignancies or other life-threatening conditions it is sometimes necessary to surgically remove the patient's diseased eye. Following the removal of the eye, an orbital implant is inserted into the anophthalmic socket in order to provide satisfactory volume replacement and restore the aesthetic appearance of a normal eye. Over the last decades, the implant design and the criteria of materials selection evolved from simple non-porous polymeric sphere to devices with more complex shape and functionalities for ensuring better clinical outcomes in the long-term. Polymeric and ceramic porous implants have gained prominence since their highly interconnected porous architecture allows them to act as a passive framework for fibrovascular in-growth offering reduced complication rates and the possibility of pegging to enhance the motility of the artificial eye. However, there are still drawbacks to these materials. Some critical aspects of today's orbital implants include the risk of migration and extrusion, postoperative infections and low motility transmitted to the aesthetic ocular prosthesis. Hence, the development of novel biomaterials with enhanced functionalities (e.g. angiogenesis, antibacterial effect, in situ mouldability) which enable an improved outcome of eye replacement is more than ever desirable and represents one of the most challenging topics of research in the field of ocular implants. This review summarizes the evolution of orbital implants and provides an overview of the most recent advances in the field as well as some critical remarks for materials design, selection, characterization and translation to clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following...... gasification platforms are included in the assessment: The Harboøre up draft gasifier with gas engine, the Güssing FICFB gasifier with gas engine or PDU, the LT-CFB gasifier with steam cycle and nutrient recycling and finally the TwoStage down draft gasifier with gas engine, micro gas turbine (MGT), SOFC, SOFC...

  3. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...... in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following...

  4. Meta-heuristics in cellular manufacturing: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamal Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meta-heuristic approaches are general algorithmic framework, often nature-inspired and designed to solve NP-complete optimization problems in cellular manufacturing systems and has been a growing research area for the past two decades. This paper discusses various meta-heuristic techniques such as evolutionary approach, Ant colony optimization, simulated annealing, Tabu search and other recent approaches, and their applications to the vicinity of group technology/cell formation (GT/CF problem in cellular manufacturing. The nobility of this paper is to incorporate various prevailing issues, open problems of meta-heuristic approaches, its usage, comparison, hybridization and its scope of future research in the aforesaid area.

  5. State-of-the-Art Review on Relevance of Genetic Algorithm to Internet Web Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Agbele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People use search engines to find information they desire with the aim that their information needs will be met. Information retrieval (IR is a field that is concerned primarily with the searching and retrieving of information in the documents and also searching the search engine, online databases, and Internet. Genetic algorithms (GAs are robust, efficient, and optimizated methods in a wide area of search problems motivated by Darwin’s principles of natural selection and survival of the fittest. This paper describes information retrieval systems (IRS components. This paper looks at how GAs can be applied in the field of IR and specifically the relevance of genetic algorithms to internet web search. Finally, from the proposals surveyed it turns out that GA is applied to diverse problem fields of internet web search.

  6. Resilience theory incorporated into urban wastewater systems management. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, P; Butler, D; Comas, J; Darch, G; Sweetapple, C; Thornton, A; Corominas, Ll

    2017-05-15

    Government bodies, utilities, practitioners, and researchers have growing interest in the incorporation of resilience into wastewater management. Since resilience is a multidisciplinary term, it is important to review what has been achieved in the wastewater sector, and describe the future research directions for the forthcoming years. This work presents a critical review of studies that deal with resilience in the wastewater treatment sector, with a special focus on understanding how they addressed the key elements for assessing resilience, such as stressors, system properties, metrics and interventions to increase resilience. The results showed that only 17 peer-reviewed papers and 6 relevant reports, a small subset of the work in wastewater research, directly addressed resilience. The lack of consensus in the definition of resilience, and the elements of a resilience assessment, is hindering the implementation of resilience in wastewater management. To date, no framework for resilience assessment is complete, comprehensive or directly applicable to practitioners; current examples are lacking key elements (e.g. a comprehensive study of stressors, properties and metrics, examples of cases study, ability to benchmark interventions or connectivity with broader frameworks). Furthermore, resilience is seen as an additional cost or extra effort, instead of a means to overcome project uncertainty that could unlock new opportunities for investment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Salt reduction in China: a state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Shuai Shao,1,2 Yechu Hua,3 Ying Yang,4 Xiaojuan Liu,5 Jingruo Fan,6 An Zhang,7 Jingling Xiang,8 Mingjing Li,9 Lijing L Yan1,2 1Global Health Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, China; 2Duke Global Health Institute, 3School of Economics, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4Department of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China; 6Department of Accounting, School of Business and Management, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong; 7Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 8School of Business, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 9Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Objective: This study aimed to reveal the latest evidence on salt reduction initiatives in China in order to identify the contextual cost-effective interventions, as well as the barriers encountered during China’s long march to reach its population salt reduction goal.Background: Population-based salt reduction has been considered as one of the most cost-effective strategies in the world for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. China, along with its sustained economic growth, faces increasing burdens from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and kidney diseases. With policy support and cross-sector collaboration, various salt reduction initiatives have been adopted in China in order to reduce such dietary risk, especially since the beginning of this millennium. Methods: This study conducted structured literature reviews in both English and Chinese databases and synthesized the latest evidence on the association of salt intake and health, as well as salt intake among Chinese and population-based salt reduction strategies in China and around the world. Findings: Dietary salt

  8. State of the Art and Future Trends in Grid Codes Applicable to Isolated Electrical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Merino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated electrical systems lack electrical interconnection to other networks and are usually placed in geographically isolated areas—mainly islands or locations in developing countries. Until recently, only diesel generators were able to assure a safe and reliable supply in exchange for very high costs for fuel transportation and system operation. Transmission system operators (TSOs are increasingly seeking to replace traditional energy models based on large groups of conventional generation units with mixed solutions where diesel groups are held as backup generation and important advantages are provided by renewable energy sources. The grid codes determine the technical requirements to be fulfilled by the generators connected in any electrical network, but regulations applied to isolated grids are more demanding. In technical literature it is rather easy to find and compare grid codes for interconnected electrical systems. However, the existing literature is incomplete and sparse regarding isolated grids. This paper aims to review the current state of isolated systems and grid codes applicable to them, specifying points of comparison and defining the guidelines to be followed by the upcoming regulations.

  9. State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. A review and comparison of fault detection and diagnosis methods for squirrel-cage induction motors: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqi; Bazzi, Ali M

    2017-09-01

    Preventing induction motors (IMs) from failure and shutdown is important to maintain functionality of many critical loads in industry and commerce. This paper provides a comprehensive review of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods targeting all the four major types of faults in IMs. Popular FDD methods published up to 2010 are briefly introduced, while the focus of the review is laid on the state-of-the-art FDD techniques after 2010, i.e. in 2011-2015 and some in 2016. Different FDD methods are introduced and classified into four categories depending on their application domains, instead of on fault types like in many other reviews, to better reveal hidden connections and similarities of different FDD methods. Detailed comparisons of the reviewed papers after 2010 are given in tables for fast referring. Finally, a dedicated discussion session is provided, which presents recent developments, trends and remaining difficulties regarding to FDD of IMs, to inspire novel research ideas and new research possibilities. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  12. Health systems' "surge capacity": state of the art and priorities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Samantha K; Rudge, James W; Coker, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of high-impact natural hazard events, together with the increased recognition of pandemic risks, have intensified interest in health systems' ability to prepare for, and cope with, "surges" (sudden large-scale escalations) in treatment needs. In this article, we identify key concepts and components associated with this emerging research theme. We consider the requirements for a standardized conceptual framework for future research capable of informing policy to reduce the morbidity and mortality impacts of such incidents. Here our objective is to appraise the consistency and utility of existing conceptualizations of health systems' surge capacity and their components, with a view to standardizing concepts and measurements to enable future research to generate a cumulative knowledge base for policy and practice. A systematic review of the literature on concepts of health systems' surge capacity, with a narrative summary of key concepts relevant to public health. The academic literature on surge capacity demonstrates considerable variation in its conceptualization, terms, definitions, and applications. This, together with an absence of detailed and comparable data, has hampered efforts to develop standardized conceptual models, measurements, and metrics. Some degree of consensus is evident for the components of surge capacity, but more work is needed to integrate them. The overwhelming concentration in the United States complicates the generalizability of existing approaches and findings. The concept of surge capacity is a useful addition to the study of health systems' disaster and/or pandemic planning, mitigation, and response, and it has far-reaching policy implications. Even though research in this area has grown quickly, it has yet to fulfill its potential to generate knowledge to inform policy. Work is needed to generate robust conceptual and analytical frameworks, along with innovations in data collection and methodological

  13. QUINCE System; State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    elaborate scheme to establish "grammatical categories" so as to explain "degrees of grammaticalness " (i.e., why "of of the of" is less grammatical...presumably, be reflected in superior degrees of grammaticalness (i.e., smaller, lower-order categories). These further restrictions correspond in part to

  14. Regional power systems planning: a state of the art assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to define regional power systems planning problems, the tools available and their shortcomings, and to document all of the above in a concise readable form. The approach consisted of a survey and literature search. The survey determined the tools being used by utilities, the tools they had rejected, and the tools they planned to try out. The literature search was conducted for the purpose of documenting the tools available, and performing a comparative analysis of these tools. The project included a mix of utility, university, and consulting organizations. Several organizations were consulted in the selection of the participants. A non-profit organization, The University of Oklahoma, was selected to manage the project. The results were reviewed in a series of four one day meetings by known authorities in each field. This report consists of the results of this project. Perhaps its major finding is that several aspects of the regional planning problem are not well defined, the roles of the various participants in regional planning is not clear, and certainly research is needed for the development of new methodology.

  15. State-of-The-Art of Modeling Methodologies and Optimization Operations in Integrated Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-08-01

    Rapid advances in low carbon technologies and smart energy communities are reshaping future patterns. Uncertainty in energy productions and demand sides are paving the way towards decentralization management. Current energy infrastructures could not meet with supply and consumption challenges, along with emerging environment and economic requirements. Integrated Energy System(IES) whereby electric power, natural gas, heating couples with each other demonstrates that such a significant technique would gradually become one of main comprehensive and optimal energy solutions with high flexibility, friendly renewables absorption and improving efficiency. In these global energy trends, we summarize this literature review. Firstly the accurate definition and characteristics of IES have been presented. Energy subsystem and coupling elements modeling issues are analyzed. It is pointed out that decomposed and integrated analysis methods are the key algorithms for IES optimization operations problems, followed by exploring the IES market mechanisms. Finally several future research tendencies of IES, such as dynamic modeling, peer-to-peer trading, couple market design, sare under discussion.

  16. Where's the Psychology? A Commentary on "Unique Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models: A Comprehensive Review of the Current State-of-the-Art"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author asks the analogous question, "where's the psychology?" Not because the authors of the focus article "Unique Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models: A Comprehensive Review of the Current State-of-the-Art" have not provided a solid review of the technical aspects of Diagnostic…

  17. What is the evidence that poster presentations are effective in promoting knowledge transfer? A state of the art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dragan; Rowe, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    Poster presentations are a common form of presenting health information at conferences and in the community. Anecdotal evidence within the discipline indicates that health information framed in a poster presentation may be an effective method of knowledge transfer. A state of the art review of the literature was performed to determine the effectiveness of poster presentations on knowledge transfer. Electronic searches of various electronic databases were performed for studies published until 2012. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided empirical data on the effectiveness of poster presentations on changes in participant knowledge, attitude or behaviour. A total of 51 studies were identified through the database searches, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. No study evaluated the effectiveness of posters in comparison with other educational interventions. Most studies utilised a before/after methodology, with the common conclusion that posters elicit greatest effectiveness in knowledge transfer when integrated with other educational modalities. The poster presentation is a commonly used format for communicating information within the academic and public health fields. Evidence from well-designed studies comparing posters to other educational modalities is required to establish an evidence base on the effectiveness of utilising posters in achieving knowledge transfer. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  18. Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S.; Shooman, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of microalgae via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): A state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Quang-Vu; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising route for biofuels production from microalgae at moderate temperatures (400-600°C) in an inert atmosphere. Depending on the operating conditions, pyrolysis can produce biochar and/or bio-oil. In practice, knowledge for thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of microalgae during pyrolysis is essential for pyrolyzer design and pyrolysis optimization. Recently, the pyrolysis kinetics of microalgae has become a crucial topic and received increasing interest from researchers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been employed as a proven technique for studying microalgae pyrolysis in a kinetic control regime. In addition, a number of kinetic models have been applied to process the TGA data for kinetic evaluation and parameters estimation. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the art review on recent research activities in pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of various microalgae. Common kinetic models predicting the thermal degradation of microalgae are examined and their pros and cons are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Review of State-of-the-Art Separator Materials for Advanced Lithium-Based Batteries for Future Aerospace Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladwin, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    As NASA embarks on a renewed human presence in space, safe, human-rated, electrical energy storage and power generation technologies, which will be capable of demonstrating reliable performance in a variety of unique mission environments, will be required. To address the future performance and safety requirements for the energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA Constellation Program elements and other future aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued with an emphasis on addressing performance technology gaps between state-of-the-art capabilities and critical future mission requirements. The material attributes and related performance of a lithium-ion cell's internal separator component are critical for achieving overall optimal performance, safety and reliability. This review provides an overview of the general types, material properties and the performance and safety characteristics of current separator materials employed in lithium-ion batteries, such as those materials that are being assessed and developed for future aerospace missions.

  1. Biotransformation of carbon dioxide in bioelectrochemical systems: State of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Srikanth, Sandipam; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Zacharia, Renju; Strik, David PBTB; Pant, Deepak

    2017-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization/recycling for the production of chemicals and gaseous/liquid energy-carriers is a way to moderate the rising CO2 in the atmosphere. One of the possible solutions for the CO2 sequestration is the electrochemical reduction of this stable molecule to useful fuel/products. Nevertheless, the surface chemistry of CO2 reduction is a challenge due to the presence of large energy barriers, requiring noticeable catalysis. The recent approach of microbial electrocatalysis of CO2 reduction has promising prospects to reduce the carbon level sustainably, taking full advantage of CO2-derived chemical commodities. We review the currently investigated bioelectrochemical approaches that could possibly be implemented to enable the handling of CO2 emissions. This review covers the most recent advances in the bioelectrochemical approaches of CO2 transformations in terms of biocatalysts development and process design. Furthermore, the extensive research on carbon fixation and conversion to different value added chemicals is reviewed. The review concludes by detailing the key challenges and future prospects that could enable economically feasible microbial electrosynthesis technology.

  2. Coating Systems for Magnesium-Based Biomaterials — State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, J.; Staiger, M. P.

    Magnesium and its alloys have the potential to be used for biodegradable orthopedic implants. However, the corrosion rate in physiological conditions is too high for most applications. For this reason, surface modification to slow the corrosion rate is of great interest. Such modifications must remain biologically compatible as well as protective in corrosive environments. What follows is a brief review of recent research in inorganic coatings and surface modifications to create coatings for magnesium-based biomaterials.

  3. Interventional robotic systems: Applications and technology state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEARY, KEVIN; MELZER, ANDREAS; WATSON, VANCE; KRONREIF, GERNOT; STOIANOVICI, DAN

    2011-01-01

    Many different robotic systems have been developed for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on robotic systems for image-guided interventions such as biopsy of suspicious lesions, interstitial tumor treatment, or needle placement for spinal blocks and neurolysis. Medical robotics is a young and evolving field and the ultimate role of these systems has yet to be determined. This paper presents four interventional robotics systems designed to work with MRI, CT, fluoroscopy, and ultrasound imaging devices. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials. The systems include the AcuBot for active needle insertion under CT or fluoroscopy, the B-Rob systems for needle placement using CT or ultrasound, the INNOMOTION for MRI and CT interventions, and the MRBot for MRI procedures. Following these descriptions, the technology issues of image compatibility, registration, patient movement and respiration, force feedback, and control mode are briefly discussed. It is our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions, but more research and clinical trials are needed. The possibility of performing new clinical procedures that the human cannot achieve remains an ultimate goal for medical robotics. Engineers and physicians should work together to create and validate these systems for the benefits of patients everywhere. PMID:16754193

  4. Review of the state-of-the-art of exhaust particulate filter technology in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Bin; Zhan, Reggie; Lin, He; Huang, Zhen

    2015-05-01

    The increasingly stringent emission regulations, such as US 2010, Tier 2 Bin 5 and beyond, off-road Tier 4 final, and Euro V/5 for particulate matter (PM) reduction applications, will mandate the use of the diesel particulate filters (DPFs) technology, which is proven to be the only way that can effectively control the particulate emissions. This paper covers a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art DPF technologies, including the advanced filter substrate materials, the novel catalyst formulations, the highly sophisticated regeneration control strategies, the DPF uncontrolled regenerations and their control methodologies, the DPF soot loading prediction, and the soot sensor for the PM on-board diagnostics (OBD) legislations. Furthermore, the progress of the highly optimized hybrid approaches, which involves the integration of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) + (DPF, NOx reduction catalyst), the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on DPF, as well as DPF in the high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) loop systems, is well discussed. Besides, the impacts of the quality of fuel and lubricant on the DPF performance and the maintenance and retrofit of DPF are fully elaborated. Meanwhile, the high efficiency gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is being required to effectively reduce the PM and particulate number (PN) emissions from the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to comply with the future increasingly stricter emissions regulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-dimensional systems from introduction to state of the art

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah; Tadeo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A solution permitting the stabilization of 2-dimensional (2-D) continuous-time saturated system under state feedback control is presented in this book. The problems of delay and saturation are treated at the same time. The authors obtain novel results on continuous 2-D systems using the unidirectional Lyapunov function. The control synthesis and the saturation and delay conditions are presented as linear matrix inequalities. Illustrative examples are worked through to show the effectiveness of the approach and many comparisons are made with existing results. The second half of the book moves on to consider robust stabilization and filtering of 2-D systems with particular consideration being given to 2-D fuzzy systems. Solutions for the filter-design problems are demonstrated by computer simulation. The text builds up to the development of state feedback control for 2-D Takagi–Sugeno systems with stochastic perturbation. Conservatism is reduced by using slack matrices and the coupling between the Lyapunov ma...

  6. User profile modeling for building recommendation systems: a theoretical study and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTH, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this tutorial is to describe and synthesize the concepts and techniques used in the design of recommendation systems that can deal with user profiles. The development of such recommendation systems requires solutions of two sub problems: (i the creation and maintenance of user profile, and; (ii the appropriate use of user profiles. This work is a theoretical tutorial on this subject. This is a useful text for people who are interested in the theoretical foundations of modeling user profile and recommendation systems. This text presents illustrative diagrams that summarize the main components used in the modeling of user profiles

  7. Current State of the Art for Existing Critical Systems in Urban Seismic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Atanasiu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is structured in three main parts. In the first part, there is a classification of the critical systems existing in the urban background, which are part of an extremely urging informational infrastructure in case of a seismic event. The critical systems are identified as those systems whose malfunction may lead to disasters affecting the human being and the environment as well. The second part focuses on the underground pipe networks, presenting at the same time, their classification into three categories of great importance in case of an earthquake, and last but not least, the final part contains the presentation of an analysis methodology of seismic behavior of the underground pipe networks, considered as part of the existing critical systems, in case of a seismic event in an urban area.

  8. Lifetime Prognostics of Hybrid Backup Power System: State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises the n...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  9. A State-of-the-Art Survey of the Development of Taxiway Guidance and Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Services CAA U.S. Civil Aeronautics Administration, now Federal Aviation Administration DABS Discrete Address Beacon System FAA Federal Aviation...different, as illustrated by Figure 2. In those days airports were usually floodlighted , and this lighting plus the landing lights on the aircraft...address beacon system (ADSEL/DABS) components of secondary surveillance radar (SSR). b. Advanced techniques of interrogation and processing of transponder

  10. State of the Art and Development Trends of the Digital Radiography Systems for Cargo Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Udod, Viktor Anatolievich; J, .; Osipov, Sergey Pavlovich; Chakhlov, Sergey Vladimirovich; Temnik, Anatoly Konstantinovich

    2016-01-01

    Increasing requirements for technical parameters of inspection digital radiography systems are caused by increasing incidences of terrorism, drug trafficking and explosives via variety of transport. These requirements have determined research for new technical solutions that enable to ensure the safety of passengers and cargos in real-time. The main efforts in the analyzed method of testing are aimed at the creation of new and modernization of operated now systems of digital radiography as a ...

  11. Passive Core Cooling Systems for Next Generation NPPs: Characteristics and State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Andrey; Soshkina, Alexandra [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Among nuclear power generation plants, light water reactors are mainly used at present, and are anticipated to be predominant in the future. To improve the light water reactors the development of the LWRs for the next generation is carried out at various organizations. For example, in the USA the Westinghouse AP-1000 is based on proven technology but with an emphasis on passive safety features. The reactor passive core cooling systems include the core makeup tanks system, passive residual heat removal heat exchanger and in-containment refuelling water storage tank. In Russia has been developed the so-called NPP-2006 project of a VVER-1200 nuclear power plant with a V-392M reactor unit. To provide the safety, protection passive systems which do not depend upon human errors are widely used in this project. Among these are hydro-tanks of the second stage and passive heat removal system. In the presented paper an overview of passive core cooling systems for next generation NPPs is given. (authors)

  12. National innovation system of Russia: state of the art and prospects of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya K. Makhortova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to characterize the national innovative system of Russia to identify its main features opportunities threats strengths and weaknesses the causes for the lag in innovation to formulate development priorities as well as the key principles for improving the national innovation system of Russia. Methods in this work were applied scientific methods of cognition generalization of the logical method analysis method of economic analysis method of expert estimations. Results SWOT analysis is compiled for the national innovation system of Russia its characteristic features and peculiarities are determined. The necessity of optimization and improvement of construction principles of the national innovation system of Russia is proved. Recommendations are given. Scientific novelty new recommendations for state innovation management are given and the existing ones are improved. In addition the proposed list of principles is grouped by significance. Practical value the possibility to optimize measures of the state innovation management in Russia to accelerate its exit from unsustainable status in this field and to strengthen the growth of innovative development.

  13. The state of the art on innovative monitoring system in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Tae; Kim, Taeheon; Kim, Hee Ju; Kim, Byungchul

    2016-04-01

    Damage to infrastructure is a real concern at present, caused primarily by worldwide climate anomalies, global warming, and natural disasters. Korea has begun research to develop a high precision patch/implant system using new IT techniques since 2011 and technologies which must be developed for this research are those which measure and evaluate the soundness and safety of structures based on the measurements of an attached sensor. During the research period since 2011, optical fiber sensor patches and wireless sensor capsule implants along with various sensor technologies, stress sensing and structural condition evaluation algorithm have been developed effectively for network hardware technologies as prototype version. Similarly high precision image processing for automatic crack extraction have been developed along with radiation sensor application technologies, combined management/control technologies for developed systems, and practical technologies for building and large scale structure. Through the results, it is expected that we acquire higher sensor system performance with a measurement scope (for precision, etc.) goal at least 200% better than conventional sensor systems.

  14. State of the Art and Development Trends of the Digital Radiography Systems for Cargo Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, V.; Van, J.; Osipov, S.; Chakhlov, S.; Temnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing requirements for technical parameters of inspection digital radiography systems are caused by increasing incidences of terrorism, drug trafficking and explosives via variety of transport. These requirements have determined research for new technical solutions that enable to ensure the safety of passengers and cargos in real-time. The main efforts in the analyzed method of testing are aimed at the creation of new and modernization of operated now systems of digital radiography as a whole and their main components and elements in particular. The number of these main components and elements includes sources of X-ray recording systems and transformation of radiometric information as well as algorithms and software that implements these algorithms for processing, visualization and results interpretation of inspection. Recent developments of X-ray units and betatrons used for inspection of small- and large-sized objects that are made from different materials are deserve special attention. The most effective X-ray detectors are a line and a radiometric detector matrix based on various scintillators. The most promising methods among the algorithms of material identification of testing objects are dual-energy methods. The article describes various models of digital radiography systems applied in Russia and abroad to inspection of baggage, containers, vehicles and large trucks.

  15. Auditory information systems in military aircraft: Current configurations versus the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, T. J.; Folds, D. J.; Leiker, L. A.

    1984-06-01

    The complete ensembles of auditory signals in selected USAF aircraft (the F-4D, F-15, two models of the F-16, the C-5, and the C-141) are described and evaluated. Human factors research related to the design of speech and non-speech and non-speech auditory signals is reviewed and the fundamentals of speech synthesis technology are described. Major findings are: that auditory signals are not well standardized among the aircraft, even between those with similar combat roles that a relatively large number of non-speech auditory signals are used, which may make it difficult for the aircrew to recall the meanings of all the signals; that some non-speech signals are sufficiently similar that they may be confused, particularly in high workload and stressful conditions; and that the criticality of the warnings is not reliably indicated by any characteristic of the signals. Five problem areas requiring further research are discussed: reduction of signal loudness, annoyance, and disruption of other functions; enhancement of the distinctiveness and masking resistance of non-speech signals; effects of concurrent warning signals on aircrew performance in critical operational contexts; additional uses of auditory information in order to relieve visual workload; the need for guidelines for deciding which information should be provided aurally, which should be speech versus non-speech, and for designing speech messages; and optimization of synthesized speech for cockpit applications, including its attention-getting capability, distinctiveness, intelligibility, and ease of comprehension.

  16. A state-of-the-art hotspot recognition system for full chip verification with lithographic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark C.; Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Youngkeun; Park, Joung Il; Paek, Seung weon; Kim, Kee-sup

    2011-04-01

    In today's semiconductor industry, prior to wafer fabrication, it has become a desirable practice to scan layout designs for lithography-induced defects using advanced process window simulations in conjunction with corresponding manufacturing checks. This methodology has been proven to provide the highest level of accuracy when correlating systematic defects found on the wafer with those identified through simulation. To date, when directly applying this methodology at the full chip level, there has been unfavorable expenses incurred that are associated with simulation which are currently overshadowing its primary benefit of accuracy - namely, long runtimes and the requirement for an abundance of cpus. Considering the aforementioned, the industry has begun to lean towards a more practical application for hotspot identification that revolves around topological pattern recognition in an attempt to sidestep the simulation runtime. This solution can be much less costly when weighing against the negative runtime overhead of simulation. The apparent benefits of pattern matching are, however, counterbalanced with a fundamental concern regarding detection accuracy; topological pattern identification can only detect polygonal configurations, or some derivative of a configuration, which have been previously identified. It is evident that both systems have their strengths and their weaknesses, and that one system's strength is the other's weakness, and vice-versa. A novel hotspot detection methodology that utilizes pattern matching combined with lithographic simulation will be introduced. This system will attempt to minimize the negative aspects of both pattern matching and simulation. The proposed methodology has a high potential to decrease the amount of processing time spent during simulation, to relax the high cpu count requirement, and to maximize pattern matching accuracy by incorporating a multi-staged pattern matching flow prior to performing simulation on a reduced

  17. State of the art and future challenges for Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    Current frontier accelerators explore regimes of increasing power and stored energy, with beam energies spanning more than three orders of magnitude from the GeV to theTeV scale. In many cases the high beam power has to cohabit with superconducting equipment in the form of magnets or RF cavities requiring careful control of losses and of halos to mitigate quenches. Despite their large diversity in physics goals and operation modes, all facilities depend on their Machine Protection Systems (MPS) for safe and efficient running. This presentation will aim to give an overview of current MPS and on how the MPS act on or control the beams. Lessons from the LHC and other accelerators show that ever tighter monitoring of accelerator equipment and of beam parameters is required in the future. Such new monitoring systems must not only be very accurate but also be extremely reliable to minimize false alarms. Novel MPS ideas and concepts for linear colliders, high intensity hadron accelerators and to other high power acc...

  18. Different systems and approaches to treat municipal solid waste. A state-of the art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, A.; Euler, H.; Klopotek, F.; Kellner, C. [TBW GmbH, Sustainable Techno-logies Building and Business Consultants, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion is still a fairly new technology in the area of utilisation of organic residues, in particular as far as treatment of household wastes and integration of agricultural production is concerned. In the last few years, a number of different processes and concepts, with a variety of different intentions, have been developed and established on the European market, in particular in Germany. Actual categories and parameters, used to analyse, structure and compare available treatment systems, are not yet fully satisfying. The presentation will consist of the following elements: 1. Factors influencing the market of the technology in the recent past. 2. Brief comparison of features of anaerobic solid waste digestion with land filling, composting and incineration. 3. Brief comparison between some European and Non-European countries, concerning municipal solid waste digestion. 4. Main topics in the actual German Anaerobic Municipal Solid Waste Treatment (AMSWT) debate. 5. Comparison of some existing AMSWT systems and concepts. 6. Presentation of a comprehensive structure, covering the main technical elements of any of the different technologies available. 7. Outlook. (au)

  19. Fuels from solar energy: photosynthetic systems--state of the art and potential for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    Research on the mass culturing of microalgae has been carried out over the past 30 years in many parts of the world. Today there are numerous potential applications for algal mass cultures including protein production, wastewater treatment, water renovation, closed life-support systems, production of commercial chemicals, aquaculture, and bioconversion of energy. Photosynthetic yields over 30 gr dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ have been attained on occasion in many locations for short periods and yields between 15 to 25 gr dry wt m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ for longer periods are now common. This apparent upper limit in productivity is not coincidental. Under outdoor conditions peak yields are possible only under conditions of light limitation. Photosynthetic algae absorb light energy and convert it to stored chemical energy under rigid adherence to the laws of thermodynamics. By examining the basic physics of photosynthesis, it is possible to clearly demonstrate that under conditions of full sunlight in the most ideal locations maximum yields of 30 to 40 gr m/sup -2/ day/sup -1/ can be expected. For long-term operation of large-scale outdoor cultures, many bioengineering factors are involved and realistic yields considerably less than the maximum potential can be anticipated. Manipulation of the two independent variables, flow rate and depth, is the key to maximizing yields for varying outdoor sunlight intensities. Future applications for algal mass cultures will probably be restricted to small well-managed systems for solving specific environmental problems in individual communities and not on the grand scale envisaged in the past.

  20. Quantum entanglement of helium-like systems with varying-Z: compact state-of-the-art CI wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosa, S.; Esquivel, R. O.; Plastino, A. R.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we have performed state-of-the-art configuration-interaction (CI) calculations to determine the linear and von Neumann entanglement entropies for the helium-like systems with varying nuclear charge Z in the range 1≤slant Z≤slant 10. The focus of the work resides on determining accurate entanglement values for 2-electron systems with the lowest computational cost through compact CI-wave functions. Our entanglement results for the helium atom fully agree with the results obtained with higher quality wave functions of the Kinoshita type (Dehesa [5]). We find that the correlation energy is linearly related to the entanglement measures associated with the linear and von Neumann entropies of the single-particle reduced density matrizes, which sheds new light on the physical implications of entanglement in helium-like systems. Moreover, we report CI-wave-function-based benchmark results for the entanglement values for all members of the helium isoelectronic series with an accuracy similar to that of Kinoshita-type wave functions. Finally, we give parametric expressions of the linear and von Neumann entanglement measures for two-electron systems as Z varies from 1 to 10.

  1. Model Based Mission Assurance in a Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Framework: State-of-the-Art Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    This report explores the current state of the art of Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) in projects that have shifted towards Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). Its goal is to provide insight into how NASA's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) should respond to this shift. In MBSE, systems engineering information is organized and represented in models: rigorous computer-based representations, which collectively make many activities easier to perform, less error prone, and scalable. S&MA practices must shift accordingly. The "Objective Structure Hierarchies" recently developed by OSMA provide the framework for understanding this shift. Although the objectives themselves will remain constant, S&MA practices (activities, processes, tools) to achieve them are subject to change. This report presents insights derived from literature studies and interviews. The literature studies gleaned assurance implications from reports of space-related applications of MBSE. The interviews with knowledgeable S&MA and MBSE personnel discovered concerns and ideas for how assurance may adapt. Preliminary findings and observations are presented on the state of practice of S&MA with respect to MBSE, how it is already changing, and how it is likely to change further. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to foster the evolution of S&MA to best fit with MBSE.

  2. Primary system fission product release and transport: A state-of-the-art report to the committee on the safety of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the status of research activities associated with fission product behavior (release and transport) under severe accident conditions within the primary systems of water-moderated and water-cooled nuclear reactors. For each of the areas of fission product release and fission product transport, the report summarizes relevant information on important phenomena, major experiments performed, relevant computer models and codes, comparisons of computer code calculations with experimental results, and general conclusions on the overall state of the art. Finally, the report provides an assessment of the overall importance and knowledge of primary system release and transport phenomena and presents major conclusions on the state of the art.

  3. A review of the state of the art in Machine Learning on the Semantic Web: Technical Report CSTR-05-003

    OpenAIRE

    Price, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art of machine learning applied to the Semantic Web. It looks at the Semantic Web and its languages, including RDF and OWL, from a machine learning perspective. Trends in the Semantic Web are mentioned throughout and the relationship with Web Services is examined. Applications are discussed with recent examples and pointers to data sets. Finally, the emerging field of Semantic Web Mining is introduced. This paper reviews the current state of the ...

  4. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R; Kopans, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    This topical review on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is provided with the intent of describing the state of the art in terms of technology, results from recent clinical studies, advanced applications, and ongoing efforts to develop multimodality imaging systems that include DBT. Particular emphasis is placed on clinical studies. The observations of increase in cancer detection rates, particularly for invasive cancers, and the reduction in false-positive rates with DBT in prospective trials indicate its benefit for breast cancer screening. Retrospective multireader multicase studies show either noninferiority or superiority of DBT compared with mammography. Methods to curtail radiation dose are of importance. (©) RSNA, 2015.

  5. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Vijayaraghavan, Gopal R.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    This topical review on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is provided with the intent of describing the state of the art in terms of technology, results from recent clinical studies, advanced applications, and ongoing efforts to develop multimodality imaging systems that include DBT. Particular emphasis is placed on clinical studies. The observations of increase in cancer detection rates, particularly for invasive cancers, and the reduction in false-positive rates with DBT in prospective trials indicate its benefit for breast cancer screening. Retrospective multireader multicase studies show either noninferiority or superiority of DBT compared with mammography. Methods to curtail radiation dose are of importance. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26599926

  6. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  7. Evaluation of biospheric components in Earth system models using modern and palaeo-observations: the state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A. M.; Dalmonech, D.; Friend, A. D.; Aires, F.; Archibald, A. T.; Bartlein, P.; Bopp, L.; Chappellaz, J.; Cox, P.; Edwards, N. R.; Feulner, G.; Friedlingstein, P.; Harrison, S. P.; Hopcroft, P. O.; Jones, C. D.; Kolassa, J.; Levine, J. G.; Prentice, I. C.; Pyle, J.; Vázquez Riveiros, N.; Wolff, E. W.; Zaehle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) are increasing in complexity by incorporating more processes than their predecessors, making them potentially important tools for studying the evolution of climate and associated biogeochemical cycles. However, their coupled behaviour has only recently been examined in any detail, and has yielded a very wide range of outcomes. For example, coupled climate-carbon cycle models that represent land-use change simulate total land carbon stores at 2100 that vary by as much as 600 Pg C, given the same emissions scenario. This large uncertainty is associated with differences in how key processes are simulated in different models, and illustrates the necessity of determining which models are most realistic using rigorous methods of model evaluation. Here we assess the state-of-the-art in evaluation of ESMs, with a particular emphasis on the simulation of the carbon cycle and associated biospheric processes. We examine some of the new advances and remaining uncertainties relating to (i) modern and palaeodata and (ii) metrics for evaluation. We note that the practice of averaging results from many models is unreliable and no substitute for proper evaluation of individual models. We discuss a range of strategies, such as the inclusion of pre-calibration, combined process- and system-level evaluation, and the use of emergent constraints, that can contribute to the development of more robust evaluation schemes. An increasingly data-rich environment offers more opportunities for model evaluation, but also presents a challenge. Improved knowledge of data uncertainties is still necessary to move the field of ESM evaluation away from a "beauty contest" towards the development of useful constraints on model outcomes.

  8. A multivendor phantom study comparing the image quality produced from three state-of-the-art SPECT-CT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tyler; Celler, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Ongoing advancements in single photon emission computed tomography with on-board X-ray computed tomography (SPECT-CT) hardware and software raise important questions regarding the relative performances of various cameras and their respective image-processing software. This phantom-based study compares images produced from three state-of-the-art cameras using four image quality measurements. A thorax phantom modeling the spine, lungs, a healthy heart, and three tumors (cylindrical bottles) was scanned using the following SPECT-CT systems: Philips' Precedence (PP), GE's Infinia-Hawkeye (GH), and Siemens' Symbia-T6 (SS). For each scan, Tc-99m solutions were injected into the heart, three bottles, and thorax to yield activity concentration ratios of roughly 6:1 for both heart:thorax and tumor:thorax. The data were reconstructed using the most advanced software available on the cameras, namely, Evolution for Bone and Evolution for Cardiac (EVB and EVC, respectively), Astonish (AST), and Flash3D (FLA) for GH, PP, and SS, respectively. In addition, all sets of data were reconstructed using our in-house software. The mean values of activity error, uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast error were used as figures of merit (FOM). No significant differences were observed for all FOM between all in-house reconstructions using PP, GH, and SS acquisition data. The mean activity error for the AST reconstruction (-24.0±1.6%) was significantly closer to the truth relative to EVB (-38.0±1.6%), EVC (-34.5±2.3%), and FLA (-33.8±1.6%). No significant differences were found between EVC and FLA for all FOM. In this phantom-based study, Philips' AST provided the most quantitatively accurate and highest contrast images, whereas Siemens' FLA and GE's EVC provided relatively higher signal-to-noise ratios and more uniform images.

  9. Review of Current State of the Art and Key Design Issues With Potential Solutions for Liquid Hydrogen Cryogenic Storage Tank Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Arnold, Steven M.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2006-01-01

    Due to its high specific energy content, liquid hydrogen (LH2) is emerging as an alternative fuel for future aircraft. As a result, there is a need for hydrogen tank storage systems, for these aircraft applications, that are expected to provide sufficient capacity for flight durations ranging from a few minutes to several days. It is understood that the development of a large, lightweight, reusable cryogenic liquid storage tank is crucial to meet the goals of and supply power to hydrogen-fueled aircraft, especially for long flight durations. This report provides an annotated review (including the results of an extensive literature review) of the current state of the art of cryogenic tank materials, structural designs, and insulation systems along with the identification of key challenges with the intent of developing a lightweight and long-term storage system for LH2. The broad classes of insulation systems reviewed include foams (including advanced aerogels) and multilayer insulation (MLI) systems with vacuum. The MLI systems show promise for long-term applications. Structural configurations evaluated include single- and double-wall constructions, including sandwich construction. Potential wall material candidates are monolithic metals as well as polymer matrix composites and discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. For short-duration flight applications, simple tank designs may suffice. Alternatively, for longer duration flight applications, a double-wall construction with a vacuum-based insulation system appears to be the most optimum design. The current trends in liner material development are reviewed in the case that a liner is required to minimize or eliminate the loss of hydrogen fuel through permeation.

  10. Review and the state of the art: Sol-gel and melt quenched bioactive glasses for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Kumar, Vishal; Homa, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development is currently the most active research area in the field of biomedical engineering. The bioglasses possess immense potential for being the ideal biomaterials due to their high adaptiveness to the biological environment as well as tunable properties. Bioglasses like 45S5 has shown great clinical success over the past 10 years. The bioglasses like 45S5 were prepared using melt-quenching techniques but recently porous bioactive glasses have been derived through sol-gel process. The synthesis route exhibits marked effect on the specific surface area, as well as degradability of the material. This article is an attempt to provide state of the art of the sol-gel and melt quenched bioactive bioglasses for tissue regeneration. Fabrication routes for bioglasses suitable for bone tissue engineering are highlighted and the effect of these fabrication techniques on the porosity, pore-volume, mechanical properties, cytocompatibilty and especially apatite layer formation on the surface of bioglasses is analyzed in detail. Drug delivery capability of bioglasses is addressed shortly along with the bioactivity of mesoporous glasses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1248-1275, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. State of the art in microfabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    In this review paper the state of the art in microfabrication is presented. The focus is on trends in integrated circuit fabrication by mainstream industrial players. The article starts with Moore’s Law, describing its inception as well as the evolution of Moore’s metric of the number of components

  12. Portal Venous Interventions: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, David C; Gaba, Ron C; Weber, Charles N; Clark, Timothy W I; Saad, Wael E

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, there have been numerous advances in the management of liver cancer, cirrhosis, and diabetes mellitus. Although these diseases are wide ranging in their clinical manifestations, each can potentially be treated by exploiting the blood flow dynamics within the portal venous system, and in some cases, adding cellular therapies. To aid in the management of these disease states, minimally invasive transcatheter portal venous interventions have been developed to improve the safety of major hepatic resection, to reduce the untoward effects of sequelae from end-stage liver disease, and to minimize the requirement of exogenously administered insulin for patients with diabetes mellitus. This state of the art review therefore provides an overview of the most recent data and strategies for utilization of preoperative portal vein embolization, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, balloon retrograde transvenous obliteration, and islet cell transplantation. © RSNA, 2016.

  13. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  14. Towards Optimal Power Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Real-Time: A Review on Methods, Challenges, and State-Of-The-Art Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of increasing alerts about limited energy sources and environment degradation, it has become essential to search for alternatives to thermal engine-based vehicles which are a major source of air pollution and fossil fuel depletion. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, encompassing multiple energy sources, are a short-term solution that meets the performance requirements and contributes to fuel saving and emission reduction aims. Power management methods such as regulating efficient energy flow to the vehicle propulsion, are core technologies of HEVs. Intelligent power management methods, capable of acquiring optimal power handling, accommodating system inaccuracies, and suiting real-time applications can significantly improve the powertrain efficiency at different operating conditions. Rule-based methods are simply structured and easily implementable in real-time; however, a limited optimality in power handling decisions can be achieved. Optimization-based methods are more capable of achieving this optimality at the price of augmented computational load. In the last few years, these optimization-based methods have been under development to suit real-time application using more predictive, recognitive, and artificial intelligence tools. This paper presents a review-based discussion about these new trends in real-time optimal power management methods. More focus is given to the adaptation tools used to boost methods optimality in real-time. The contribution of this work can be identified in two points: First, to provide researchers and scholars with an overview of different power management methods. Second, to point out the state-of-the-art trends in real-time optimal methods and to highlight promising approaches for future development.

  15. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform in Structural Health Monitoring: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development and application of HHT in the field of SHM in the last two decades. The challenges and future trends in the development of HHT based techniques for the SHM of civil engineering structures are also put forward. It also reviews the basic principle of the HHT method, which contains the extraction of the intrinsic mode function (IMF, mechanism of the EMD, and the features of HT; shows the application of HHT in the system identification, which contains the introduction of theoretical method, the identification of modal parameters, and the system identification on real structures; and discusses the structural damage detection using HHT based approaches, which includes the detection of common damage events, sudden damage events, and cracks and flaws.

  16. DEMATEL Technique: A Systematic Review of the State-of-the-Art Literature on Methodologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Li Si

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL is considered as an effective method for the identification of cause-effect chain components of a complex system. It deals with evaluating interdependent relationships among factors and finding the critical ones through a visual structural model. Over the recent decade, a large number of studies have been done on the application of DEMATEL and many different variants have been put forward in the literature. The objective of this study is to review systematically the methodologies and applications of the DEMATEL technique. We reviewed a total of 346 papers published from 2006 to 2016 in the international journals. According to the approaches used, these publications are grouped into five categories: classical DEMATEL, fuzzy DEMATEL, grey DEMATEL, analytical network process- (ANP- DEMATEL, and other DEMATEL. All papers with respect to each category are summarized and analyzed, pointing out their implementing procedures, real applications, and crucial findings. This systematic and comprehensive review holds valuable insights for researchers and practitioners into using the DEMATEL in terms of indicating current research trends and potential directions for further research.

  17. State of the Art analysis for the 'SolcelleInverter' project. Optimised design and control of inverter for photovoltaic systems: the AC-module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baekhoej Kjaer, S.

    2002-02-01

    The 'SolcelleInverter' project starts with this state-of-the-art analysis of 27 different inverter topologies for use in photovoltaic applications. The main concern is the present status for inverters for single solar modules. Technologies for larger clusters of modules are also investigated. The possibility of combining a small decentralised and a big centralised unit is as well investigated. A series of topologies are discovered and this paper will present them. That includes solutions with and without transformers, systems for one or multiple modules, commercial solutions and solutions found in scientific papers and patents. (au)

  18. Greenhouse mechanization: State of the art and future perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art and future perspective of greenhouse mechanization. Driving forces for mechanization are identified. Dutch greenhouse crop production is used as an example. Analysis of a generic crop production process combined with a review of the state of the art in

  19. A State of the Art Review- Methods to Evaluate Electrical Performance of Composite Cross-arms and Composite-based Pylons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    performance need to be studied. This paper sums up experience and key advances on testing methods to evaluate electrical performance of composite cross-arms and composite-based pylons. Based on state of the art review, several feasible testing methods that can be used to verify the feasibility of the novel......A novel uni-body composite pylon has been proposed for 400 kV transmission lines with advantages of compacted size, friendly looking and cost competitiveness. As its configuration is quite different from the traditional lattice pylon, its electrical performance needs in-depth investigation...... and evaluation, for which electrical testing methods are essential. However, as research on composite-based pylons is still in initial stage, leaving international standards and theoretical analysis on this topic very limited, effective testing methods to evaluate the fully composite pylon’s electrical...

  20. Collagen cross-linking: when and how? A review of the state of the art of the technique and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1990s corneal crosslinking (CXL) has been proposed as a new possibility to stop progression of keratoconus or secondary corneal ectasia, with the promising aim to prevent progressive visual loss due to the evolution of the pathology and to delay or avoid invasive surgical procedures such as corneal transplantation. The possibility of strengthening corneal tissue by means of a photochemical reaction of corneal collagen by the combined action of Riboflavin and ultraviolet A irradiation (UVA), radically modified the conservative management of progressive corneal ectasia. This is a review of the state of the art of CXL, reporting basic and clinical evidence. The paper describes basic principles, advantages and limits of different CXL techniques and possible future evolution of the procedure.

  1. Management strategies on the industrialization road of state-of-the-art technologies for e-waste recycling: the case study of electrostatic separation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-02-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) management is pressing as global production has increased significantly in the past few years and is rising continuously at a fast rate. Many countries are facing hazardous e-waste mountains, most of which are disposed of by backyard recyclers, creating serious threats to public health and ecosystems. Industrialization of state-of-the-art recycling technologies is imperative to enhance the comprehensive utilization of resources and to protect the environment. This article aims to provide an overview of management strategies solving the crucial problems during the process of industrialization. A typical case study of electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards was discussed in terms of parameters optimization, materials flow control, noise assessment, risk assessment, economic evaluation and social benefits analysis. The comprehensive view provided by the review could be helpful to the progress of the e-waste recycling industry.

  2. Pharmacological management of neurobehavioral disorders following traumatic brain injury--a state-of-the-art review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chew, Effie; Zafonte, Ross D

    2009-01-01

    ..." (and the symptoms according to which this review is arranged). Additional searches were conducted with the specific symptoms as search terms, crossed with the therapeutic agents or drug classes discussed...

  3. State of the Art on the Evidence Base in Cardiac Regenerative Therapy: Overview of 41 Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Peruzzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To provide a comprehensive appraisal of the evidence from secondary research on cardiac regenerative therapy. Study Design and Setting. Overview of systematic reviews of controlled clinical trials concerning stem cell administration or mobilization in patients with cardiovascular disease. Results. After a systematic database search, we short-listed 41 reviews (660 patients. Twenty-two (54% reviews focused on acute myocardial infarction (AMI, 19 (46% on chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD or heart failure (HF, 29 (71% on bone marrow-derived stem-cells (BMSC, and 36 (88% to randomized trials only. Substantial variability among reviews was found for validity (AMSTAR score: median 9 [minimum 3]; 1st quartile 9; 3rd quartile 10; maximum 11, effect estimates (change in ejection fraction from baseline to follow-up: 3.47% [0.02%; 2.90%; 4.22%; 6.11%], and citations (Web of Science yearly citations: 4.1 [0; 2.2; 6.5; 68.9]. No significant association was found between these three features. However, reviews focusing on BMSC therapy had higher validity scores (P=0.008 and showed more pronounced effect estimates (P=0.002. Higher citations were associated with journal impact factor (P=0.007, corresponding author from North America/Europe (P=0.022, and inclusion of nonrandomized trials (P=0.046. Conclusions. Substantial heterogeneity is apparent among these reviews in terms of quality and effect estimates.

  4. Onboard Inert Gas Generation System/Onboard Oxygen Gas Generation System (OBIGGS/OBOGS) Study. Part 2; Gas Separation Technology--State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas L.; Eklund, Thor I.; Haack, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    This purpose of this contract study task was to investigate the State of the Art in Gas Separation Technologies utilized for separating air into both nitrogen and oxygen gases for potential applications on commercial aircraft. The intended applications included: nitrogen gas for fuel tank inerting, cargo compartment fire protection, and emergency oxygen for passenger and crew use in the event of loss of cabin pressure. The approach was to investigate three principle methods of gas separation: Hollow Fiber Membrane (HFM), Ceramic Membrane (CM), and liquefaction: Total Atmospheric Liquefaction of Oxygen and Nitrogen (TALON). Additional data on the performance of molecular sieve pressure swing adsorption (PSA) systems was also collected and discussed. Performance comparisons of these technologies are contained in the body of the report.

  5. Unique Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models: A Comprehensive Review of the Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Andre A.; Templin, Jonathan L.

    2008-01-01

    "Diagnostic classification models" (DCM) are frequently promoted by psychometricians as important modelling alternatives for analyzing response data in situations where multivariate classifications of respondents are made on the basis of multiple postulated latent skills. In this review paper, a definitional boundary of the space of DCM…

  6. Promoting Daily Physical Activity by Means of Mobile Gaming: A Review of the State of the Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; van Weering, Marit; van Dijk, H.W.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review mobile games and gaming applications that claim to improve physical activity behavior in daily life. Search Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the ACM Digital Library and performed a manual search of relevant journals and reference lists. Studies that reported on

  7. Taxonomic classification of planning decisions in health care: a review of the state of the art in OR/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.H.; Kortbeek, Nikky; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.

    We provide a structured overview of the typical decisions to be made in resource capacity planning and control in health care, and a review of relevant OR/MS articles for each planning decision. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, to position the planning decisions, a taxonomy is

  8. State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases are perfo......This report presents a short overview on the state-of-the-art of wave tank testing of wave energy converters (WEC). Here for, it focuses mainly on the Phase 1 and 2 development phases of wave energy converters, as these are done in the wave tank (WEC), while the other development phases...... are performed in non-controllable open sea conditions....

  9. Multimission Modular Spacecraft Ground Support Software System (MMS/GSSS) state-of-the-art computer systems/ compatibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The compatibility of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) Ground Support Software System (GSSS), currently operational on a ModComp IV/35, with the VAX 11/780 system is discussed. The compatibility is examined in various key areas of the GSSS through the results of in depth testing performed on the VAX 11/780 and ModComp IV/35 systems. The compatibility of the GSSS with the ModComp CLASSIC is presented based upon projections from ModComp supplied literature.

  10. The state of the art in non‐pharmacological interventions for developmental stuttering. Part 1: a systematic review of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maxine; Blank, Lindsay; Cantrell, Anna; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Enderby, Pam; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The growing range of available treatment options for people who stutter presents a challenge for clinicians, service managers and commissioners, who need to have access to the best available treatment evidence to guide them in providing the most appropriate interventions. While a number of reviews of interventions for specific populations or a specific type of intervention have been carried out, a broad‐based systematic review across all forms of intervention for adults and children was needed to provide evidence to underpin future guidelines, inform the implementation of effective treatments and identify future research priorities. Aims To identify and synthesize the published research evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the broad range of non‐pharmacological interventions for the management of developmental stuttering. Methods & Procedures A systematic review of the literature reporting interventions for developmental stuttering was carried out between August 2013 and April 2014. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for the identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, citation searching and hand searching of key journals. Appraisal of study quality was performed using a tool based on established criteria for considering risk of bias. Due to heterogeneity in intervention content and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was completed. Main Contribution The review included all available types of intervention and found that most may be of benefit to at least some people who stutter. There was evidence, however, of considerable individual variation in response to these interventions. The review indicated that effects could be maintained following all types of interventions (although this was weakest with regard to feedback and technology interventions). Conclusions This review highlights a need for

  11. Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Thorax in Pleural Diseases: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Fernanda Miraldi Clemente; de Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves; Souza, Arthur Soares; de Souza, Luciana Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Zanetti, Gláucia; Marchiori, Edson

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review was to present the main aspects of pleural diseases seen with conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. This modality is considered to be the gold standard for the evaluation of the pleural interface, characterization of complex pleural effusion, and identification of exudate and hemorrhage, as well as in the analysis of superior sulcus tumors, as it enables more accurate staging. The indication for MRI of the thorax in the identification of these conditions is increasing in comparison to computerized tomography, and it can also be used to support the diagnosis of pulmonary illnesses. This literature review describes the morphological and functional aspects of the main benign and malignant pleural diseases assessed with MRI, including mesothelioma, metastasis, lymphoma, fibroma, lipoma, endometriosis, asbestos-related pleural disease, empyema, textiloma, and splenosis.

  12. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW OF THE REAL-TIME COMPUTER-AIDED STUDY OF THE WRITING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M.

    2008-01-01

    Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article reviews literature on that approach to studying the writing process. The article begins with defining the realtime computer-aided study of the writing pro...

  13. Promoting Daily Physical Activity by Means of Mobile Gaming: A Review of the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Monique; Dekker-van Weering, Marit; van Dijk, Hylke; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    To review mobile games and gaming applications that claim to improve physical activity behavior in daily life. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the ACM Digital Library and performed a manual search of relevant journals and reference lists. Studies that reported on a mobile game that requires players to perform physical activity in daily life and where the game has specific goals, rules, and feedback mechanisms were included. This excludes non-mobile exergames. Theoretical foundations, game characteristics, and evaluation methodologies were assessed. In total, 797 articles were identified through the search, of which 11 articles were included. The reviewed studies show that there is limited theoretical foundation for the game development, and most studies used goal setting as a motivation strategy to engage people in playing the game. There was a large variety in game characteristics found, although the majority of the studies used metaphors or avatars to visualize activity, whereas feedback was mostly provided in relation to the goal. Rewards and competition were the most commonly incorporated game elements. The evaluations were focused on feasibility, and clinical evidence is lacking with only two randomized controlled studies found. This review provides a first overview of mobile gaming applications to promote daily life physical activity and shows this as a new research area with demonstration of its acceptability and feasibility among the users. Clinical effectiveness and the added value of gaming in changing daily activity behavior have by far not yet been established.

  14. MODELS AND METHODS OF LINEAR OPTIMIZATION WITH UNCERTAINTY: A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE STATE OF THE ART

    OpenAIRE

    Malca Arroyo, Edith; Vergara Moreno, Edmundo; Gutiérrez Segura, Flabio; Asmat Uceda, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In the modeling of many problems on linear optimization is not possible to consider the classic deterministic model because the set of parameters is not fully known due to the significant variation of the data along time or because there is no uniformity on the values. These kind of problems are known as problems with uncertainty and there are different approaches about modeling and methods of solution to resolve them. In this paper we make a review of such approaches focusing basically in st...

  15. Literature Review of Cloud Based E-learning Adoption by Students: State of the Art and Direction for Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Kayali, Mohammad; Safie, Nurhizam; Mukhtar, Muriati

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing is a new paradigm shift in information technology. Most of the studies in the cloud are business related while the studies in cloud based e-learning are few. The field is still in its infancy and researchers have used several adoption theories to discover the dimensions of this field. The purpose of this paper is to review and integrate the literature to understand the current situation of the cloud based e-learning adoption. A total of 312 articles were extracted from Science direct, emerald, and IEEE. Screening processes were applied to select only the articles that are related to the cloud based e-learning. A total of 231 removed because they are related to business organization. Next, a total of 63 articles were removed because they are technical articles. A total of 18 articles were included in this paper. A frequency analysis was conducted on the paper to identify the most frequent factors, theories, statistical software, respondents, and countries of the studies. The findings showed that usefulness and ease of use are the most frequent factors. TAM is the most prevalent adoption theories in the literature. The mean of the respondents in the reviewed studies is 377 and Malaysia is the most researched countries in terms of cloud based e-learning. Studies of cloud based e-learning are few and more empirical studies are needed.

  16. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 12. Aircraft Flight Test Data Processing. A Review of the State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    data proces- sing system, to include both hardware and software. 9 The effects of the capabilities and limitations of available mathematical tech...other cycle. This latter scheme increases the number of parameters which can be recorded in a comutation cycle. At the present time, on-board...from each other. Nach sensor makeas a wmasurement of target range and than a mathematical process is used to extract target position.* Such systems

  17. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW OF THE REAL-TIME COMPUTER-AIDED STUDY OF THE WRITING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad M. Abdel Latif

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Writing researchers have developed various methods for investigating the writing process since the 1970s. The early 1980s saw the occurrence of the real-time computer-aided study of the writing process that relies on the protocols generated by recording the computer screen activities as writers compose using the word processor. This article reviews literature on that approach to studying the writing process. The article begins with defining the realtime computer-aided study of the writing process, tracing its historical development, and explaining the advantages it offers, then it gives a brief description of the software that has been used in the computer-aided writing process research and discusses the ways of analyzing the logged data, and it ends with overviewing the computer-aided writing process research.

  18. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-03-22

    The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  19. Towards a Modelling Framework for Designing Active Check Valves - a Review of state-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Niels Christian; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Plöckinger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    plunger and seat impact, which introduces a concern about the severity of long-term fatigue and wear. A modelling framework of ACVs with the desired capabilities is multidisciplinary involving analysis of mechanics, fluid dynamics, contact mechanics and material science. Therefore, a state......This paper proposes a design methodology for designing the mechanical topology in hydraulic active check valves (ACVs). These valves may have optimised flow geometries to obtain fast switching and high flow rates. Furthermore, ACVs comprise large pressure differentials and high deceleration during......-of-the-art focusing on the significant contributions of these disciplines has been conducted. The literature review is focusing on lifetime models and wear concerned with valve seat inserts in different fatigue cycle regimes. No studies with direct application have been found, making this work an infant step towards...

  20. A Review of the State-of-the-Art on Combining Multiple NDT Techniques in Terms of Precise Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Khaira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present industrial scenario demands optimum quality, feasible processing time and enhanced machine availability to cope-up with continuously increasing customer expectations. To achieve this target, it is mandatory to ensure the optimum performance and higher availability of machinery. Therefore, the present work begins with, review of the research work of different researchers, which includes the applied combinations from year 2000-2016 proceed with discussion on the parameters being checked before making combination of NDT and finally, covers the maintenance performance parameters for quantifying improvement in performance after combining NDT. The result indicates that very few researches uses combination of NDT’s, in areas like aeronautical, compressors etc., and most of the works done in composites to be tested without using any decision making technique.  The researchers and practitioners can use the outcome of this work as a guideline for combining multiple NDT technique to achieve precise fault prediction and forecasting of upcoming failures.

  1. Utilization of Stone Waste in the Development of Value Added Products: A State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Lakhani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of stone waste, in the form of mineral admixture as a pozzolanic and non-pozzolanic material for mortar and concrete has received considerable attention in recent years. This interest is part of the widely spread attention directed towards the utilisation of wastes and industrial by-products in order to minimise Portland cement (PC and sand consumption, the utilisationof which being environmentally damaging. Another reason is that mortar and concrete, which contain pozzolanic as well as non-pozzolanic materials, exhibit considerable enhancement in durability properties. This paper reviews work carried out on the use of stone waste as a partial non-pozzolanic replacement for sand in mortar and concrete and in the containment of hazardous wastes. The literature demonstrates that different stone wastes is an effective inert filler which causes great improvement in the pore structure and hence the resistance of the concrete to the action of harmful solutions.

  2. The Use of Video Games as a Teaching Tool to Improve Teaching-Learning: State of the Art Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Paola Roncancio-Ortiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this new era of the 21st century when societies are constantly changing, education is the cornerstone to provide the people not only with the basic knowledge and tools, but also with the required skills for facing the challenges in a globalized world. Thus, video games have evolved from distractive activities, to more valuable tools. These tools can play a leading role in education-related processes, for example, supporting teaching tasks. The aim of this article is to present a state of art review on several particular experiences in which video games have been incorporated into teaching and learning activities. As a result, video games can be used as didactic mechanisms that help students, among other things, to solve learning problems, to improve motor and cognitive skills, and to foster creativity.

  3. Automation of Food Questionnaires in Medical Studies: a state-of-the-art review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir, Zoe; Arregui, María; Madueño, Francisco; Corella, Dolores; Coltell, Óscar

    2012-10-01

    Applications for automating the most commonly used dietary surveys in nutritional research, Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) and 24 h Dietary Recalls (24HDRs), are reviewed in this paper. A comprehensive search of electronic databases was carried out and findings were classified by a group of experts in nutrition and computer science into: (i) Computerized Questionnaires and Web-based Questionnaires; (ii) FFQs and 24HDRs and combinations of both; and (iii) interviewer-administered or self-administered questionnaires. A discussion on the classification made and the works reported is included. Finally, works that apply innovative technologies are outlined and the future trends for automating questionnaires in nutrition are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety, tolerability, and risks associated with first- and second-generation antipsychotics: a state-of-the-art clinical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, Marco; Murru, Andrea; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Undurraga, Juan; Veronese, Nicola; Fornaro, Michele; Stubbs, Brendon; Monaco, Francesco; Vieta, Eduard; Seeman, Mary V; Correll, Christoph U; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in 1952, first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) have revolutionized psychiatric care in terms of facilitating discharge from hospital and enabling large numbers of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) to be treated in the community. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) ushered in a progressive shift from the paternalistic management of SMI symptoms to a patient-centered approach, which emphasized targets important to patients – psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and recovery. These drugs are no longer limited to specific Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) categories. Evidence indicates that SGAs show an improved safety and tolerability profile compared with FGAs. The incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects is lower, and there is less impairment of cognitive function and treatment-related negative symptoms. However, treatment with SGAs has been associated with a wide range of untoward effects, among which treatment-emergent weight gain and metabolic abnormalities are of notable concern. The present clinical review aims to summarize the safety and tolerability profile of selected FGAs and SGAs and to link treatment-related adverse effects to the pharmacodynamic profile of each drug. Evidence, predominantly derived from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical trials of the drugs amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, CPZ, haloperidol, loxapine, and perphenazine, is summarized. In addition, the safety and tolerability profiles of antipsychotics are discussed in the context of the “behavioral toxicity” conceptual framework, which considers the longitudinal course and the clinical and therapeutic consequences of treatment-emergent side effects. In SMI, SGAs with safer metabolic profiles should ideally be prescribed

  5. Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems: State-of-the Art Survey on Evaluation and Aggregation Judgment Measures Applied to Performance Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kuznetsov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the experience gained in the application of multi-criteria decision making and uncertainty treatment methods to a comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and related nuclear fuel cycles. These judgment measures provide a means for comprehensive evaluation according to different conflicting criteria, such as costs, benefits and risks, which are inevitably associated with the deployment of advanced technologies. Major findings and recommendations elaborated in international and national projects and studies are reviewed and discussed. A careful analysis is performed for multi-criteria comparative assessment of nuclear energy systems and nuclear fuel cycles on the basis of various evaluation and screening results. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the lessons learned, to share the identified solutions, and indicate promising future directions.

  6. Biomass polygeneration - technology state-of-the-art, systems and policy instruments; Bioenergikombinat - tekniktrender, system och styrmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina; Stripple, Haakan

    2007-09-15

    The development status of biofuel technologies and pellets has been reviewed, with focus on the possibilities for polygeneration with combined heat and power (CHP). Policy instruments important for the development of polygeneration plants have been analysed and interviews with potential stakeholders have been carried out. Fermentation of biomass for ethanol production, gasification and conversion to synthesis gas, biodiesel production from vegetable and animal oils, as well as anaerobic digestion for biogas production are examples of common biofuel technologies. Some of these are commercially available whereas others require further development. Substantial research and development is also spent to develop new technologies for biofuel production. Biofuel production can often benefit from integration with CHP resulting in increased efficiency and energy balances. The potentials for integration vary between different biofuels, but the most common options are integration with respect to the raw material, heat demand, waste heat and waste products. The integration potential for pellets is mainly associated with the raw material and the heat demand for drying of the raw material. Integration of biofuel and/or pellets production with CHP might increase the potential for power production since a new heat customer is provided the whole year around. The heat demand for some biofuels and for pellets can be covered by district heating, whereas some biofuels require steam. Policy instruments can strongly influence the development of biofuels and thereby has a potential to affect the incentives for investments in polygeneration. From a climate point of view, it can be argued that biomass is better used for emission reductions in other sectors where higher reduction of greenhouse gases can be achieved to a lower cost. However, there are other driving forces that motivate increased use of biofuels, such as security of supply, need of revised agriculture policy and reduction of

  7. A review of state-of-the-art stereology for better quantitative 3D morphology in cardiac research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Mayhew, Terry M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of stereological methods in biomedical research is to obtain quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) features of tissues, cells, or organelles from two-dimensional physical or optical sections. With immunogold labeling, stereology can even be used for the quantitative analysis of the distribution of molecules within tissues and cells. Nowadays, a large number of design-based stereological methods offer an efficient quantitative approach to intriguing questions in cardiac research, such as "Is there a significant loss of cardiomyocytes during progression from ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure?" or "Does a specific treatment reduce the degree of fibrosis in the heart?" Nevertheless, the use of stereological methods in cardiac research is rare. The present review article demonstrates how some of the potential pitfalls in quantitative microscopy may be avoided. To this end, we outline the concepts of design-based stereology and illustrate their practical applications to a wide range of biological questions in cardiac research. We hope that the present article will stimulate researchers in cardiac research to incorporate design-based stereology into their study designs, thus promoting an unbiased quantitative 3D microscopy.

  8. 3D bioprinting of skin: a state-of-the-art review on modelling, materials, and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, S; Lu, W F; Fuh, J Y H

    2016-09-08

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, having a complex multi-layered structure and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments, and internal organs. It serves as the first line of defence to any external stimuli, hence it is the most vulnerable to injury and warrants the need for rapid and reliable regeneration methods. Tissue engineered skin substitutes help overcome the limitations of traditional skin treatment methods, in terms of technology, time, and cost. While there is commendable progress in the treating of superficial wounds and injuries with skin substitutes, treatment of full-thickness injuries, especially with third or fourth degree burns, still looks murkier. Engineering multi-layer skin architecture, conforming to the native skin structure is a tougher goal to achieve with the current tissue engineering methods, if not impossible, restoring all the functions of the native skin. The testing of drugs and cosmetics is another area, where engineered skins are very much needed, with bans being imposed on product testing on animals. Given this greater need, 3D bioprinting is a promising technology that can achieve rapid and reliable production of biomimetic cellular skin substitutes, satisfying both clinical and industrial needs. This paper reviews all aspects related to the 3D bioprinting of skin, right from imaging the injury site, 3D model creation, biomaterials that are used and their suitability, types of cells and their functions, actual bioprinting technologies, along with the challenges and future prospects.

  9. State of the art on oocyte cryopreservation in female cancer patients: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, Claudia; Scaruffi, Paola; Lambertini, Matteo; Remorgida, Valentino; Del Mastro, Lucia; Anserini, Paola

    2017-06-01

    During the last decades, important advances in therapeutic options have led to increased survival rates in cancer patients; however, cancer treatments are associated with several potential adverse effects including infertility in those diagnosed during their reproductive years. A proper discussion about fertility preservation options before the use of therapies with potential gonadotoxicity (i.e. oncofertility counseling) is standard of care and should be offered to all patients of childbearing age. Temporary ovarian suppression with LH-RH analogs, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservation in female cancer patients. Oocyte cryopreservation should be preferred to embryo cryopreservation when this latter is prohibited by law, avoided for ethical or religious issues and in single women refusing sperm donation. Despite the increasing use of this strategy, data are still lacking about the efficacy and safety of the procedure in female cancer patients, with most of the evidence on this regard deriving from infertile non-oncologic women. This article aims at critically review the available evidence about the success of oocyte cryopreservation in female cancer patients with the final goal to further improve the oncofertility counseling of these women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State-of-the-art review revealing a roadmap for public building water and energy efficiency retrofit projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bertone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Governments occupy a significant proportion of building stock and their associated annual water and energy costs can be substantive. Research has shown that significant reductions in energy and water consumption as well as carbon emissions can be achieved through retrofitting public buildings. However, in most countries the current retrofitting rate is very low due to a number of barriers, including a lack of supportive legislation, regulations, guidelines, industry capacity and financial mechanisms. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the barriers as well as the best international practices covering numerous aspects of public building retrofits. Among others, the most important barriers identified were a lack of consideration of the water-energy nexus, and the limited availability of effective financing mechanisms. With a particular focus on the Australian context, a strategic roadmap, as well as a number of recommendations, such as the use of revolving loan fund financing and energy performance procurement, have been developed that aim to foster a greater rate of implementation of energy and water retrofit projects for public buildings. Achievement of such an aim will not only reduce ongoing operational costs of public buildings, but also lower their environmental impact and generate new employment opportunities.

  11. A state-of-the-art review and feasibility analysis of high altitude wind power in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Lunney, E.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Foley, A.

    2017-01-01

    In many countries wind energy has become an indispensable part of the electricity generation mix. The opportunity for ground based wind turbine systems are becoming more and more constrained due to limitations on turbine hub heights, blade lengths and location restrictions linked to environmental and permitting issues including special areas of conservation and social acceptance due to the visual and noise impacts. In the last decade there have been numerous proposals to harness high altitude...

  12. Demagnetization fault diagnosis in permanent magnet synchronous motors: A review of the state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S. S.; Djerdir, A.; Amirat, Y. Ait.; Khaburi, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    There are a lot of research activities on developing techniques to detect permanent magnet (PM) demagnetization faults (DF). These faults decrease the performance, the reliability and the efficiency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive systems. In this work, we draw a broad perspective on the status of these studies. The advantages, disadvantages of each method, a deeper view investigated and a comprehensive list of references are reported.

  13. Safety, tolerability, and risks associated with first- and second-generation antipsychotics: a state-of-the-art clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmi M

    2017-06-01

    -generation antipsychotics (SGAs ushered in a progressive shift from the paternalistic management of SMI symptoms to a patient-centered approach, which emphasized targets important to patients – psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and recovery. These drugs are no longer limited to specific Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM categories. Evidence indicates that SGAs show an improved safety and tolerability profile compared with FGAs. The incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects is lower, and there is less impairment of cognitive function and treatment-related negative symptoms. However, treatment with SGAs has been associated with a wide range of untoward effects, among which treatment-emergent weight gain and metabolic abnormalities are of notable concern. The present clinical review aims to summarize the safety and tolerability profile of selected FGAs and SGAs and to link treatment-related adverse effects to the pharmacodynamic profile of each drug. Evidence, predominantly derived from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical trials of the drugs amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, CPZ, haloperidol, loxapine, and perphenazine, is summarized. In addition, the safety and tolerability profiles of antipsychotics are discussed in the context of the “behavioral toxicity” conceptual framework, which considers the longitudinal course and the clinical and therapeutic consequences of treatment-emergent side effects. In SMI, SGAs with safer metabolic profiles should ideally be prescribed first. However, alongside with safety, efficacy should also be considered on a patient-tailored basis. Keywords: antipsychotics, side effects, tolerability, safety, psychosis, psychiatry

  14. Thermomechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid-Graphene Composites: A State-of-the-Art Review for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S

    2017-07-04

    Due to its biodegradable and bioabsorbable characteristics polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted considerable attention for numerous biomedical applications. Moreover, a number of tissue engineering problems for function restoration of impaired tissues have been addressed by using PLA and its copolymers due to their biocompatibility and distinctive mechanical properties. Recent studies on various stereocomplex formation between enantiomeric PLA, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) indicated that stereocomplexation enhances the mechanical properties as well as the thermal- and hydrolysis-resistance of PLA polymers. On the other hand, biomedical application of graphene is a relatively new front with significant potential. Many recent reports have indicated that understanding of graphene-cell (or tissue, organ) interactions; particularly the cellular uptake mechanisms are still challenging. Therefore, use of graphene or graphene oxide properly embedded in suitable PLA matrices can positively impact and accelerate the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of stem cells, conceivably minimizing concerns over cytotoxicity of graphene. As such, PLA-graphene composites hold great promise in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and in other biomedical fields. However, since PLA is classified as a hard bio-polyester prone to hydrolysis, understanding and engineering of thermo-mechanical properties of PLA-graphene composites are very crucial for such cutting-edge applications. Hence, this review aims to present an overview of current advances in the preparation and applications of PLA-graphene composites and their properties with focus on various biomedical uses such as scaffolds, drug delivery, cancer therapy, and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field.

  15. Thermomechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid-Graphene Composites: A State-of-the-Art Review for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Due to its biodegradable and bioabsorbable characteristics polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted considerable attention for numerous biomedical applications. Moreover, a number of tissue engineering problems for function restoration of impaired tissues have been addressed by using PLA and its copolymers due to their biocompatibility and distinctive mechanical properties. Recent studies on various stereocomplex formation between enantiomeric PLA, poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) indicated that stereocomplexation enhances the mechanical properties as well as the thermal- and hydrolysis-resistance of PLA polymers. On the other hand, biomedical application of graphene is a relatively new front with significant potential. Many recent reports have indicated that understanding of graphene-cell (or tissue, organ) interactions; particularly the cellular uptake mechanisms are still challenging. Therefore, use of graphene or graphene oxide properly embedded in suitable PLA matrices can positively impact and accelerate the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of stem cells, conceivably minimizing concerns over cytotoxicity of graphene. As such, PLA-graphene composites hold great promise in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and in other biomedical fields. However, since PLA is classified as a hard bio-polyester prone to hydrolysis, understanding and engineering of thermo-mechanical properties of PLA-graphene composites are very crucial for such cutting-edge applications. Hence, this review aims to present an overview of current advances in the preparation and applications of PLA-graphene composites and their properties with focus on various biomedical uses such as scaffolds, drug delivery, cancer therapy, and biological imaging, together with a brief discussion on the challenges and perspectives for future research in this field. PMID:28773109

  16. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N.; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-01-01

    initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry. PMID:28327500

  17. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Allan R; Aleksanderek, Izabela; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Tarmohamed, Zenovia; Tetreault, Lindsay; Smith, Nathaniel; Cadotte, David W; Crawley, Adrian; Ginsberg, Howard; Mikulis, David J; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    ...) and the Wings for Life Foundation identified 5 state-of-the-art MRI techniques with potential to transform the field of spinal cord imaging by elucidating elements of the microstructure and function...

  18. The value of simulation-based learning in pre-licensure nurse education: A state-of-the-art review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Robyn P; Cooper, Simon J

    2017-11-01

    Simulation modalities are numerous in nursing education, with a need to reveal their range and impact. We reviewed current evidence for effectiveness of medium to high fidelity simulation as an education mode in pre-licensure/pre-registration nurse education. A state-of-the-art review and meta-analyses was conducted based on a systematic search of publications in English between 2010 and 2015. Of 72 included studies, 43 were quantitative primary studies (mainly quasi-experimental designs), 13 were qualitative studies and 16 were reviews of literature. Forty of 43 primary studies reported benefits to student learning, and student satisfaction was high. Simulation programs provided multi-modal ways of learning. A meta-analysis (8 studies, n = 652 participants) identified that simulation programs significantly improved clinical knowledge from baseline. The weighted mean increase was 5.0 points (CI: 3.25-6.82) on a knowledge measure. Other objectively rated measures (eg, trained observers with checklists) were few. Reported subjective measures such as confidence and satisfaction when used alone have a strong potential for results bias. Studies presented valid empirical evidence, but larger studies are required. Simulation programs in pre-licensure nursing curricula demonstrate innovation and excellence. The programs should be shared across the discipline to facilitate development of multimodal learning for both pre-licensure and postgraduate nurses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, Jeffrey G

    2005-01-01

    Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

  20. [Imaging of urothelial carcinomas of the upper tract: state of the art review for the yearly scientific report of the National French Association of Urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, P; Rouprêt, M; Renard-Penna, R; Lemaître, L; Colin, P

    2014-11-01

    To propose a state of the art regarding imaging techniques for the diagnosis and work-up of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (PubMed) until 2014 using different associations of the following keywords: urothelial carcinomas; upper urinary tract; ureter; renal pelvis; CT scan; MRI; ultrasound; urography. Imaging has a prominent role in the diagnosis, extension and follow-up assessment of upper tract urothelial cancers (UTUC). The couple ultrasound/intravenous urography made way for the multidetector computed tomography urography (MDCTU) and for the magnetic resonance imaging urography (MRU), which can also be combined in some cases. This review of the literature presents available techniques for the exploration of the upper urinary tract, the main protocols (in particular the interest of furosemide addition), details the interpretation techniques for searching UTUC on serial imaging, as well as the main differential diagnoses, and their accuracy. Finally, the role of imaging, according to patient's context is discussed. The combination or fusion of different modalities (CT, MR…) for the same objective is highlighted and presented as the likely evolution of UTUC imaging. MDCTU is nowadays the gold standard imaging modality for the diagnosis of UTUC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Quality Criteria for the Conception, Implementation and Evaluation of Interventions for Physical Activity Promotion: A State-Of-The-Art Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Sven; Rütten, Alfred

    2017-03-01

    The success of an intervention for physical activity promotion depends not only on the use of an evidence-based approach, but also on the quality of its implementation in practice. Based on current recommendations from scientists and public health institutions, this state-of-the-art review summarizes the quality criteria for the conception, implementation and evaluation of interventions.A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and Scopus. Additionally, guidelines from relevant public health institutions were identified via search engines and websites from governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Based on the analysis of selected documents, quality criteria were listed, grouped and categorized.24 documents, published between 2005 and 2015, provided quality criteria for interventions for physical activity promotion. From the selected documents, 18 quality criteria were defined (conception: 7, implementation: 7, evaluation: 4).This review provides evidence on the relevance of quality criteria within certain stages of an intervention. Future studies could compare the effect of quality criteria on the success of an intervention, or approach the topic from a health-economic perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. State of the Art in the Development and Properties of Protein-Based Films and Coatings and Their Applicability to Cellulose Based Products: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Beatrice Coltelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research towards the substitution of petrochemicals by sustainable components. Biopolymers such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids derive from a variety of crop sources and most promisingly from waste streams generated during their processing by the agro food industry. Among those, proteins of different types such as whey, casein, gelatin, wheat gluten, soy protein or zein present a potential beyond the food and feed industry for the application in packaging. The general protein hydrophilicity promotes a good compatibility to polar surfaces, such as paper, and a good barrier to apolar gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. The present review deals with the development of protein-based coatings and films. It includes relevant discussion for application in paper or board products, as well as an outlook on its future industrial potential. Proteins with suitable functionalities as food packaging materials are described as well as the different technologies for processing the coatings and the current state of the art about the coating formulations for selectively modulating barrier, mechanical, surface and end of life properties. Some insights onto regulations about packaging use, end of life and perspectives of such natural coating for decreasing the environmental impact of packages are given.

  3. A State of the Art Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahangiri, Tohid; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2015-01-01

    . The proposed new fully composite pylon has a novel cross-arm in the form of uni-body insulator in order to reduce the tower height. So far, there is no theoretical analysis and technical standards for fully composite pylons. In this paper, two major challenges facing in the design of a fully composite...... of EHV composite cross-arms and lightning protection methods are reviewed based on the state of the art review and subsequently some solutions are presented to overcome the two main challenges....

  4. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  5. Marketing Decision Making in the Electronic Era: The State-of-the-Art of Marketing Management Support Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Berend; Bruggen, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    textabstractMarketing managers are exposed to an ever-growing stream of information about the markets they are operating in and the performance of their products. In the Electronic Era the supply of data has exploded and marketing management support systems are needed to transform this data into actionable knowledge. This paper deals with the nature of marketing management support systems (MMSS) and the different types of MMSS that are available. Also a marketing management support recommende...

  6. State of the Art of the Development and Application of Anti-Seismic Systems in Europe and Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alessandro; Forni, Massimo

    2008-07-01

    There are already approximately 5,000 structures in the world, located in over 30 countries, that have been protected by seismic isolation (SI), energy dissipation (ED) and other modern seismic vibration passive control (SVPC) systems. The number of such applications is increasing everywhere more and more. It has been confirmed that, in each country, the extension of the use of the SVPC systems is conclusively influenced by earthquake experience, the availability of specific design rules and the features of those adopted. With regard to application, Japan has consolidated its worldwide leadership, with over 3,000 seismically isolated buildings, many others protected by ED systems and several isolated bridges & viaducts. Second is now the P. R. China, with 610 isolated buildings and 45 with dampers, in addition to numerous isolated bridges & viaducts. The Russian Federation is third for the number of isolated buildings, which are approximately 600. In the USA, due to the very penalizing design code in force for SI of buildings, there are at present only a few new applications of this kind (an overall number of approximately 200 was reported), although the US isolated buildings are mostly quite important, half being retrofits; on the contrary, the use of SI for bridges & viaducts and that of ED for buildings are more popular in the USA. At present (April 2008), Italy (which remains the worldwide leader as regards the application of the SVPC systems to cultural heritage and keeps a key role also as to the number and importance of bridges & viaducts protected by such systems) is at the fifth place, at least for the number of isolated buildings already open to activity: they are 51, besides others protected by other SVPC systems. There, thanks to the new national seismic code (enforced in May 2003), there has been a significant recent increase of building application and design of the SVPC systems. With regard to the use of such systems in other countries, Italy is now

  7. Evaluation of three state-of-the-art water-jet systems for cutting/removing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C. E.

    1982-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration project to evaluate the capability of three waterjet systems for cutting or removing concrete or both. The Corps of Engineers is interested in the potential of this technology for such applications as rapid cutting of bomb-damaged selection of airfield pavement and removing of deteriorated sections of concrete structures at Civil Works projects. Because water-jet systems are capable of transmitting, without mechanical constraint, all of the available horsepower of their power sources into the concrete cutting/removing operation, they may prove to be an extremely efficient means of conducting such operations. The low-pressure water jets were able to cut a 6-in. slot in the concrete for a distance of 1-1/2 ft. in a period of 24 minutes (a rate of 6.4 ft. per hour). The relatively high-pressure water jet cut at rates of 9.6 ft. per hour for shallow cuts (less than 5 in.) and 3 ft. per hour for deeper cuts (greater than 5 in.). In addition, one of the low-pressure systems was used to remove some surface concrete. The results of this evaluation indicate that, although these water-jet systems did not demonstrate a capability for efficiently cutting concrete airfield pavements, the technology has potential. The low-pressure system demonstrated a capability for removing surface concrete efficiently.

  8. A state-of-the-art report on software operation structure of the digital control computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Kee; Lee, Kyung Hoh; Joo, Jae Yoon; Jang, Yung Woo; Shin, Hyun Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    CANDU Nuclear Power Plants including Wolsong 1 and 2/3/4 are controlled by a real-time plant control computer system. This report was written to provide an overview on the station control computer software which belongs to one of the most advanced real-time computing application area, along with the Fuel Handling Machine design concepts. The combination of well designed control computer and Fuel Handling Machine allow changing fuel bundles while the plant is in operation. Design methodologies and software structure are discussed along with the interface between the two systems. 29 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs. (Author).

  9. Marketing Decision Making in the Electronic Era: The State-of-the-Art of Marketing Management Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractMarketing managers are exposed to an ever-growing stream of information about the markets they are operating in and the performance of their products. In the Electronic Era the supply of data has exploded and marketing management support systems are needed to transform this data into

  10. Brain tumor modeling using the CRISPR/Cas9 system: state of the art and view to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Dai, Jin-Xiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Jin, Wei-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Although brain tumors have been known tremendously over the past decade, there are still many problems to be solved. The etiology of brain tumors is not well understood and the treatment remains modest. There is in great need to develop a suitable brain tumor models that faithfully mirror the etiology of human brain neoplasm and subsequently get more efficient therapeutic approaches for these disorders. In this review, we described the current status of animal models of brain tumors and analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), a versatile genome editing technology for investigating the functions of target genes, and its application were also introduced in our present work. We firstly proposed that brain tumor modeling could be well established via CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. And CRISPR/Cas9-mediated brain tumor modeling was likely to be more suitable for figuring out the pathogenesis of brain tumors, as CRISPR/Cas9 platform was a simple and more efficient biological toolbox for implementing mutagenesis of oncogenes or tumor suppressors that were closely linked with brain tumors. PMID:26993776

  11. Brain tumor modeling using the CRISPR/Cas9 system: state of the art and view to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Dai, Jin-Xiang; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Jin, Wei-Lin

    2016-05-31

    Although brain tumors have been known tremendously over the past decade, there are still many problems to be solved. The etiology of brain tumors is not well understood and the treatment remains modest. There is in great need to develop a suitable brain tumor models that faithfully mirror the etiology of human brain neoplasm and subsequently get more efficient therapeutic approaches for these disorders. In this review, we described the current status of animal models of brain tumors and analyzed their advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, prokaryotic clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), a versatile genome editing technology for investigating the functions of target genes, and its application were also introduced in our present work. We firstly proposed that brain tumor modeling could be well established via CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. And CRISPR/Cas9-mediated brain tumor modeling was likely to be more suitable for figuring out the pathogenesis of brain tumors, as CRISPR/Cas9 platform was a simple and more efficient biological toolbox for implementing mutagenesis of oncogenes or tumor suppressors that were closely linked with brain tumors.

  12. Intelligent Self-Powered Sensors in the State-of-the-Art Control Systems of Mining Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulek, Dariusz; Stankiewicz, Krzysztof; Woszczyński, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Perspectives of development of control system dedicated for areas threatened by methane and/or coal dust explosion hazard are presented. Development of self-powered sensors, dedicated for operation in wireless network is one of the development directions. Such a solution will complement typical control systems and it can be used in the places, where there is no possibility of using the typical sensors, in close vicinity to the machine - due to lack of wired connection. General concept of the self-powered sensors with use of two methods of power supply - piezoelectric energy harvester and thermoelectric generator, is given. Perspective of using the methods of artificial intelligence in automatic configuration of sensors network is suggested.

  13. Computer-aided detection systems to improve lung cancer early diagnosis: state-of-the-art and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A.; Lopez Torres, E.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2017-05-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer, because its early diagnosis is not good enough. In fact, the detection of pulmonary nodule, potential lung cancers, in Computed Tomography scans is a very challenging and time-consuming task for radiologists. To support radiologists, researchers have developed Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for the automated detection of pulmonary nodules in chest Computed Tomography scans. Despite the high level of technological developments and the proved benefits on the overall detection performance, the usage of Computer-Aided Diagnosis in clinical practice is far from being a common procedure. In this paper we investigate the causes underlying this discrepancy and present a solution to tackle it: the M5L WEB- and Cloud-based on-demand Computer-Aided Diagnosis. In addition, we prove how the combination of traditional imaging processing techniques with state-of-art advanced classification algorithms allows to build a system whose performance could be much larger than any Computer-Aided Diagnosis developed so far. This outcome opens the possibility to use the CAD as clinical decision support for radiologists.

  14. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allan R.; Aleksanderek, Izabela; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Tarmohamed, Zenovia; Tetreault, Lindsay; Smith, Nathaniel; Cadotte, David W.; Crawley, Adrian; Ginsberg, Howard; Mikulis, David J.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent meeting of international imaging experts sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust (ISRT) and the Wings for Life Foundation identified 5 state-of-the-art MRI techniques with potential to transform the field of spinal cord imaging by elucidating elements of the microstructure and function: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer (MT), myelin water fraction (MWF), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI). However, the progress toward clinical translation of these techniques has not been established. Methods A systematic review of the English literature was conducted using MEDLINE, MEDLINE-in-Progress, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify all human studies that investigated utility, in terms of diagnosis, correlation with disability, and prediction of outcomes, of these promising techniques in pathologies affecting the spinal cord. Data regarding study design, subject characteristics, MRI methods, clinical measures of impairment, and analysis techniques were extracted and tabulated to identify trends and commonalities. The studies were assessed for risk of bias, and the overall quality of evidence was assessed for each specific finding using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Results A total of 6597 unique citations were identified in the database search, and after full-text review of 274 articles, a total of 104 relevant studies were identified for final inclusion (97% from the initial database search). Among these, 69 studies utilized DTI and 25 used MT, with both techniques showing an increased number of publications in recent years. The review also identified 1 MWF study, 11 MRS studies, and 8 fMRI studies. Most of the studies were exploratory in nature, lacking a priori hypotheses and showing a high (72%) or moderately high (20%) risk of bias, due to issues with study design, acquisition techniques, and analysis methods. The acquisitions for each

  15. Investigating the state-of-the-art in whole-body MR-based attenuation correction : an intra-individual, inter-system, inventory study on three clinical PET/MR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Thomas; Lassen, Martin L.; Boellaard, Ronald; Delso, Gaspar; Yaqub, Maqsood; Sattler, Bernhard; Quick, Harald H.

    We assess inter- and intra-subject variability of magnetic resonance (MR)-based attenuation maps (MR mu Maps) of human subjects for state-of-the-art positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging systems. Four healthy male subjects underwent repeated MR imaging with a Siemens Biograph mMR, Philips

  16. Analysis of respiratory sounds: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Sandra; Gass, Raymond; Brandt, Christian; Andrès, Emmanuel

    2008-05-16

    This paper describes state of the art, scientific publications and ongoing research related to the methods of analysis of respiratory sounds. Review of the current medical and technological literature using Pubmed and personal experience. The study includes a description of the various techniques that are being used to collect auscultation sounds, a physical description of known pathologic sounds for which automatic detection tools were developed. Modern tools are based on artificial intelligence and on technics such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms… The next step will consist in finding new markers so as to increase the efficiency of decision aid algorithms and tools.

  17. Validation of the angular measurements of a new inertial-measurement-unit based rehabilitation system: comparison with state-of-the-art gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardini, Alberto; Lullini, Giada; Giannini, Sandro; Berti, Lisa; Ortolani, Maurizio; Caravaggi, Paolo

    2014-09-11

    Several rehabilitation systems based on inertial measurement units (IMU) are entering the market for the control of exercises and to measure performance progression, particularly for recovery after lower limb orthopaedic treatments. IMU are easy to wear also by the patient alone, but the extent to which IMU's malpositioning in routine use can affect the accuracy of the measurements is not known. A new such system (Riablo™, CoRehab, Trento, Italy), using audio-visual biofeedback based on videogames, was assessed against state-of-the-art gait analysis as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the system to errors in the IMU's position and orientation was measured in 5 healthy subjects performing two hip joint motion exercises. Root mean square deviation was used to assess differences in the system's kinematic output between the erroneous and correct IMU position and orientation.In order to estimate the system's accuracy, thorax and knee joint motion of 17 healthy subjects were tracked during the execution of standard rehabilitation tasks and compared with the corresponding measurements obtained with an established gait protocol using stereophotogrammetry. A maximum mean error of 3.1 ± 1.8 deg and 1.9 ± 0.8 deg from the angle trajectory with correct IMU position was recorded respectively in the medio-lateral malposition and frontal-plane misalignment tests. Across the standard rehabilitation tasks, the mean distance between the IMU and gait analysis systems was on average smaller than 5°. These findings showed that the tested IMU based system has the necessary accuracy to be safely utilized in rehabilitation programs after orthopaedic treatments of the lower limb.

  18. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: State-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques are emerging with great potential to improve the diagnosis and management of various spinal pathologies, but the current body of evidence has only showed limited clinical utility to date. Among these imaging tools DTI is the most mature, but further work is necessary to standardize and validate its use before it will be adopted in the clinical realm. Large, well-designed studies with a priori hypotheses, standardized acquisition methods, detailed clinical data collection, and robust automated analysis techniques are needed to fully demonstrate the potential of these rapidly evolving techniques.

  19. Mechanical Ventilation: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tài; Brochard, Laurent J; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs. We also highlight recent data on patient-ventilator dyssynchrony, humidified high-flow oxygen through nasal cannula, extracorporeal life support, and the weaning phase. Finally, we discuss the future of mechanical ventilation, addressing avenues for improvement. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Founder and Recurrent Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Latin American Countries: State of the Art and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carlos Andrés; Torres, Diana

    2016-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological factors affect the probability of developing breast or ovarian cancer, but no predictor is as determinant as inheriting a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The concept of the founder effect explains the reduced genetic variability in some populations, according to the theory that new populations can be formed from a reduced number of individuals, so the new population would carry only a small fraction of the genetic variability of the original population. The main purpose of this review is to provide an update on the state of the art in founder mutations and some recurrent mutations that have recently been described in Latin America. A literature search was performed in the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, LILACS, and BIREME using the terms BRCA1, BRCA2, founder mutation, Latin American population, and Hispanic. Sixty-two papers were identified, of which 38 were considered relevant for this review. Each result is shown per country. In Latin America, clear founder effects have been reported in Mexico (BRCA1 del exons 9-12), Brazil (BRCA1 5382insC and BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu), and Colombia (BRCA1 3450del4, A1708E, and BRCA2 3034del4) and in Latinas residing in Southern California (BRCA1 185delAG, IVS5+1G>A, S955x, and R1443x). Of these, mutation BRCA1 3450del4 has also been reported in Brazil and Chile, whereas mutation BRCA2 3034del4 has been reported in Argentina and Peru. These data support the idea that although most Hispanic populations are the result of a mixture between Europeans, Africans, and Amerindians, the relative proportion of each genetic component varies throughout the Hispanic populations, making it necessary to identify the mutations characteristic of each population to generate mutation profiles adjusted to each one of them. In Latin American countries, and even among regions of the same country, there is great heterogeneity of ancestors. Therefore, Latinas should not be analyzed like other population groups without taking

  1. Use of a digital phantom developed by QIBA for harmonizing SUVs obtained from the state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadaki; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Iimori, Takashi; Miyagawa, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Tomoya; Owaki, Yoshiki; Yada, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Koichi; Tokorodani, Ryotaro; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Although quantitative analysis using standardized uptake value (SUV) becomes realistic in clinical single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging, reconstruction parameter settings can deliver different quantitative results among different SPECT/CT systems. This study aims to propose a use of the digital reference object (DRO), which is a National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) phantom-like object developed by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography technical committee, for the purpose of harmonizing SUVs in Tc-99m SPECT/CT imaging. The NEMA body phantom with determined Tc-99m concentration was scanned with the four state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems. SPECT data were reconstructed using different numbers of the product of subset and iteration numbers (SI) and the width of 3D Gaussian filter (3DGF). The mean (SUV mean ), maximal (SUV max ), and peak (SUV peak ) SUVs for six hot spheres (10, 13, 17, 22, 28, and 37 mm) were measured after converting SPECT count into SUV using Becquerel calibration factor. DRO smoothed by 3DGF with a FWHM of 17 mm (DRO 17 mm ) was generated, and the corresponding SUVs were measured. The reconstruction condition to yield the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) of SUV means for all the spheres between DRO 17 mm and actual phantom images was determined as the harmonized condition for each SPECT/CT scanner. Then, inter-scanner variability in all quantitative metrics was measured before (i.e., according to the manufacturers' recommendation or the policies of their own departments) and after harmonization. RMSE was lowest in the following reconstruction conditions: SI of 100 and 3DGF of 13 mm for Brightview XCT, SI of 160 and 3DGF of 3 pixels for Discovery NM/CT, SI of 60 and 3DGF of 2 pixels for Infinia, and SI of 140 and 3DGF of 15 mm for Symbia. In pre-harmonized conditions, coefficient of variations (COVs) among the SPECT

  2. Chiropractic. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, R. C., Ed.

    The review covers: (1) the discipline (description, scientific theories and principles, its practice, contributions to the health field, and history); (2) the profession (a doctor profile, patients, students, and the American Chiropractic Association); (3) chiropractic education (colleges, career opportunities, standard basic curriculum,…

  3. Imaging Acute Appendicitis: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gaitini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to present the state of the art in imaging tests for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Relevant publications regarding performance and advantages/disadvantages of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis in different clinical situations were reviewed. Articles were extracted from a computerized database (MEDLINE with the following activated limits: Humans, English, core clinical journals, and published in the last five years. Reference lists of relevant studies were checked manually to identify additional, related articles. Ultrasound (US examination should be the first imaging test performed, particularly among the pediatric and young adult populations, who represent the main targets for appendicitis, as well as in pregnant patients. A positive US examination for appendicitis or an alternative diagnosis of possible gastrointestinal or urological origin, or a negative US, either showing a normal appendix or presenting low clinical suspicion of appendicitis, should lead to a final diagnosis. A negative or indeterminate examination with a strong clinical suspicion of appendicitis should be followed by a computed tomography (CT scan or alternatively, a magnetic resonanace imaging (MRI scan in a pregnant patient. A second US examination in a patient with persistent symptoms, especially if the first one was performed by a less experienced imaging professional, is a valid alternative to a CT.

  4. Paediatric thoracoscopy: State of the art | Van Niekerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many advanced procedures, including lobectomy, repair of tracheo-oesophageal fistula, excision of mediastinal tumours and diaphragmatic hernia repairs, are being done routinely in paediatric surgery centres around the world. This article reviews the state of the art of thoracoscopic surgery in children. The author selected ...

  5. State of the art report on design for X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Andersen, Poul; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2009-01-01

    The present State of the Art report aims at defining and reviewing the curent state of the ship design process in the frame of a holistic approach, accounting for various objectives and constraints. The report addresses mainly the design of transportation carriers, though some covered aspects...

  6. Functionalized Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass: State of the Art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elena Ten; Wilfred Vermerris

    2013-01-01

    .... This review examines the state of the art regarding advances and challenges in synthesis and applications of specialty polymers and composites derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, ending with a brief assessment of genetic modification as a route to tailor crop plants for specific applications.

  7. Multi Agent Systems in Logistics: A Literature and State-of-the-art Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A. Lang (Niels); J.M. Moonen (Hans); F.J. Srour (Jordan); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBased on a literature survey, we aim to answer our main question: “How should we plan and execute logistics in supply chains that aim to meet today’s requirements, and how can we support such planning and execution using IT?” Today’s requirements in supply chains include

  8. State of the Art Exploration Systems for Linked Data: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Karwan Jacksi; Nazife Dimililer; Subhi R. M. Zeebaree

    2016-01-01

    The ever-increasing amount of data available on the web is the result of the simplicity of sharing data over the current Web. To retrieve relevant information efficiently from this huge dataspace, a sophisticated search technology, which is further complicated due to the various data formats used, is crucial. Semantic Web (SW) technology has a prominent role in search engines to alleviate this issue by providing a way to understand the contextual meaning of data so as to retrieve relevant, hi...

  9. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  10. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  11. Analysis of Respiratory Sounds: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reichert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This paper describes state of the art, scientific publications and ongoing research related to the methods of analysis of respiratory sounds. Methods and material Review of the current medical and technological literature using Pubmed and personal experience. Results The study includes a description of the various techniques that are being used to collect auscultation sounds, a physical description of known pathologic sounds for which automatic detection tools were developed. Modern tools are based on artificial intelligence and on technics such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, and genetic algorithms… Conclusion The next step will consist in finding new markers so as to increase the efficiency of decision aid algorithms and tools.

  12. State of the art for digital avionics and controls, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief summary of a comprehensive state of the art survey is presented. The survey includes five broadly applicable technology areas: flight path management, aircraft control systems, crew station & human factors, integration & interfacing technology, and fundamental technology. In addition the survey included military technologies which have a technology transfer potential to the five broadly applicable technology areas.

  13. Text Generation: The State of the Art and the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; And Others

    This report comprises two documents which describe the state of the art of computer generation of natural language text. Both were prepared by a panel of individuals who are active in research on text generation. The first document assesses the techniques now available for use in systems design, covering all of the technical methods by which…

  14. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  15. A study of the state of the art on the determination of the threshold values of the performance indicators for safety systems and initiating events of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.; Hwang, M. J.; Park, J. H.; Ha, J. J

    2004-02-01

    The threshold values of Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) Performance Indicators (PIs)' determining the safety class of initiating events and safety systems can not sufficiently reflect the operating experience and PSA results of domestic NPPs. Therefore, the state of arts on the PI study of domestic and foreign countries is analyzed in order to reflect the operating experience and PSA results of domestic NPPs in the determination of the threshold values of the PIs for safety systems and initiating events of domestic NPPs. We identified the state of arts of PIs through reviewing the objectives and types of WANO, IAEA, NRC, OECD/NEA and domestic PIs, and the technical issues of the threshold values of SECY 99-007 and NUREG-1753. We also, identified the current status of recently developed MSPI (Mitigating System Performance Index) and IIIEI (Integrated Industry Initiating Event Indicator). From this study of the state of the arts on the PIs, we expect that if the NRC's MSPI and a PI similar to NRC's IIIEI would be introduced into the KINS, it is not necessary to determine the threshold values of PIs applied to the safety systems and initiating events of entire domestic NPPs. Otherwise the threshold values of PIs applied to the individual NPP should be developed using PSA models of typical reactor types. For the active development and use of the risk informed PIs for the domestic NPPs, we expect that the system and component reliability analysis and initiating events analysis for the domestic NPPs, MSPI, IIIEI, and PSA requirements for the PIs be further studied.

  16. Leadership and Fairness: The State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Knippenberg, Daan; De Cremer, David; Knippenberg, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    textabstractResearch in leadership effectiveness has paid less to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and fairness, to assess the state of the art, and to identify a research agenda for future efforts in the field. The review shows that leader distributive, procedural, and especially interactional fairness...

  17. Leadership and Fairness: The state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    van Knippenberg, D.; De Cremer, D.; van Knippenberg, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Research in leadership effectiveness has paid less attention to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and fairness, to assess the state of the art, and to identify a research agenda for future efforts in the field. The review shows that leader distributive, procedural, and especially interactional fairness a...

  18. Nanoencapsulation, an efficient and promising approach to maximize wound healing efficacy of curcumin: A review of new trends and state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Thu, Hnin Ei; Ng, Shiow-Fern; Khan, Shahzeb; Katas, Haliza

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is a multifarious and vibrant process of replacing devitalized and damaged cellular structures, leading to restoration of the skin's barrier function, re-establishment of tissue integrity, and maintenance of the internal homeostasis. Curcumin (CUR) and its analogs have gained widespread recognition due to their remarkable anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and wound healing activities. However, their pharmaceutical significance is limited due to inherent hydrophobic nature, poor water solubility, low bioavailability, chemical instability, rapid metabolism and short half-life. Owing to their pharmaceutical limitations, newer strategies have been attempted in recent years aiming to mitigate problems related to the effective delivery of curcumanoids and to improve their wound healing potential. These advanced strategies include nanovesicles, polymeric micelles, conventional liposomes and hyalurosomes, nanocomposite hydrogels, electrospun nanofibers, nanohybrid scaffolds, nanoconjugates, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), nanoemulsion, nanodispersion, and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). The superior wound healing activities achieved after nanoencapsulation of the CUR are attributed to its target-specific delivery, longer retention at the target site, avoiding premature degradation of the encapsulated cargo and the therapeutic superiority of the advanced delivery systems over the conventional delivery. We have critically reviewed the literature and summarize the convincing evidence which explore the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of the advanced delivery systems in improving wound healing activities of the CUR and its analogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The state of the art in medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiklin, Harris

    2011-08-01

    This is a review of the state of the art in Medical Sociology. Three approaches are used. One is looking at the work of the pioneers. Another approach involves examining textbooks, books of reading, and handbooks. The third approach is reporting on the 50th anniversary of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. Special attention is given to the way medical sociologists examine issues in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Where is your state of the art?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Gaona, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Beyond the purposes of publishing, questioning and/or hypothesizing, every research has the noble aim to quench the constant human need of pushing farther away the boundaries of knowledge, may such frontier exist. The state of the art is the generic expression coined to limit the whereabouts of any particular knowledge. We use it just like a compass, it tells us how far we are, what has been done and where we should go. Take for instance quantum field theory, the state of the art in particle physics will tell you that everything that exists in this universe is made of bosons, quarks and leptons. What!?. Hold on, I was taught (and luckily maybe you weren't) that the fundamental particles were electrons, neutrons and protons, right?. Indeed, that is the state of the art but from almost one century ago. So, if I may ask... where is your state of the art? This is not about quantum physics; it is not even about hydrology; it is about everything. Today, everybody doing or not a PhD fiercely believes that their research is important, extremely unique, life changing (and help us God if we are wrong); but how can you be so sure that what you do, isn't already done?. We live in a modern world, cool environmental scientists now have tagged this era as the Anthropocene; globalization is everywhere and of course knowledge has not escaped to it. Not only knowledge is now global but is totally diversified, any crazy idea you can think of (or actually you can't) it is very likely that somebody already has his/hers hands on it. Nevertheless, this is a good thing, isn't it?. Well, that is the whole point. Every time I should write my research's state of the art, I always get overwhelmed because it actually is pretty difficult to establish, and later when I think I get it, it seems that I am solving issues that somebody already bothered to solve 30 years ago. Therefore, does it really have some purpose to be swimming in a huge pool of knowledge, not knowing where exactly I am? or

  1. Knowledge Management in Software Architecture: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Rik; de Boer, Remco C.

    Architectural knowledge has played a role in discussions on design, reuse, and evolution for over a decade. Over the past few years, the term has significantly increased in popularity and attempts are being made to properly define what constitutes ‘architectural knowledge’. In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art in architectural knowledge management. We describe four main views on architectural knowledge based on the results of a systematic literature review. Based on software architecture and knowledge management theory we define four main categories of architectural knowledge, and discuss four distinct philosophies on managing architectural knowledge, which have their origin in the aforementioned views. Whereas traditionally tools, methods, and methodologies for architecture knowledge management were confined to a single philosophy, a trend can be observed that state-of-the-art approaches take a more holistic stance and integrate different philosophies in a single architecture knowledge management approach.

  2. State-of-the-art in Heterogeneous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Brodtkorb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Node level heterogeneous architectures have become attractive during the last decade for several reasons: compared to traditional symmetric CPUs, they offer high peak performance and are energy and/or cost efficient. With the increase of fine-grained parallelism in high-performance computing, as well as the introduction of parallelism in workstations, there is an acute need for a good overview and understanding of these architectures. We give an overview of the state-of-the-art in heterogeneous computing, focusing on three commonly found architectures: the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, graphics processing units (GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. We present a review of hardware, available software tools, and an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the architectures, and give our view on the future of heterogeneous computing.

  3. Taxonomic classification of planning decisions in health care: a structured review of the state of the art in OR/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, P.J.H.; Kortbeek, Nikky; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Bakker, P.J.M

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of the typical decisions to be made in resource capacity planning and control in health care, and a structured review of relevant articles from the field of Operations Research and Management Sciences (OR/MS) for each planning decision. The contribution of this

  4. Electronic symptom reporting between patient and provider for improved health care service quality: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. part 1: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Monika Alise; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander; Schuster, Tibor; Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold

    2012-10-03

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on electronic symptom reporting has increased greatly. However, the field is very heterogeneous: the choices of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets seem to involve a broad range of foci. To move the field forward, it is necessary to build on work that has been done and direct further research to the areas holding most promise. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on electronic communication between patient and provider to improve health care service quality, presented in two parts. Part 2 investigates the methodological quality and effects of the RCTs, and demonstrates some promising benefits of electronic symptom reporting. To give a comprehensive overview of the most mature part of this emerging field regarding (1) patient groups, (2) health service innovations, and (3) research targets relevant to electronic symptom reporting. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles published from 1990 to November 2011. Inclusion criteria were RCTs of interventions where patients or parents reported health information electronically to the health care system for health care purposes and were given feedback. Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. The included articles were published from 2002, with 24 published during the last 5 years. The following five patient groups were represented: respiratory and lung diseases (12 studies), cancer (6), psychiatry (6), cardiovascular (3), and diabetes (1). In addition to these, 1 study had a mix of three groups. All included studies, except 1, focused on long-term conditions. We identified four categories of health service innovations: consultation support (7 studies), monitoring with clinician support (12), self-management with clinician support (9

  5. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  6. State of the Art in the Research of Formal Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna-M. Edgar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years research in formal verification of hardware and software has reached important progresses in the development of methodologies and tools to meet the increasing complexity of systems. The explicit role of Formal Verification is to find errors and to improve the reliability on the accuracy of system design, which implies a challenge for software engineering of this century. The purpose of this research is to perform a systematic review of the literature to establish the state of the art of research in formal verification during the last 10 years and to identify the approaches, methods, techniques and methodologies used, as well as the intensity of those research activities. During the process it was found that research in this field has doubled since 2005, and that the mean value of researches conducted year after year remains the same and that prevail the application in control and interaction systems. Additionally it was found that, the case study is the most used method and that empirical research is the most applied type.

  7. Analyst workbenches state of the art report

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, R

    1987-01-01

    Analyst Workbenches examines various aspects of analyst workbenches and the tasks and data that they should support. The major advances and state of the art in analyst workbenches are discussed. A comprehensive list of the available analyst workbenches, both the experimental and the commercial products, is provided. Comprised of three parts, this book begins by describing International Computers Ltd's approach to automating analysis and design. It then explains what business analysis really means, outlines the principal features of analyst workbenches, and considers the ways in which they can

  8. [Symposium: Pneumonia 2010 - state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, G; Schütte, H; Bals, R; Pletz, M; Rohde, G

    2011-04-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It ranks as the fourth leading cause of death in the Western industrialized countries. New insights in the epidemiology and pathogenesis, recent developments in diagnosis and risk-stratification, and current recommendations on prevention and therapy were presented at the symposium "Pneumonie 2010 - State of the Art", held in Kassel, Germany, on the 4. - 5. November 2010. This symposium was organized by the CAPNETZ STIFTUNG. More than 70 experts from medical research, academia, and industry participated. This report provides an overview of issues, insights, and conclusions that were discussed during the meeting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Identifying emerging trends for implementing learning technology in special education: a state-of-the-art review of selected articles published in 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gi-Zen; Wu, No-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2013-10-01

    As electronic learning (e-learning) becomes increasingly popular in education worldwide, learning technology (LT) has been applied in various learning environments and activities to promote meaningful, efficient, and effective learning. LT has also been adopted by researchers and teacher-practitioners in the field of special education, but as yet little review-based research has been published. This review research thus carefully examined the trends of LT implementations in special education, providing a comprehensive analysis of 26 studies published in indexed journals in the past five years (2008-2012). Two research questions were addressed: (a) What are the major research aims, methodologies, and outcomes in these studies of implementing LT in the field of special education? and (b) What types of LT are mainly used with special education students, and for what kinds of students? Major findings include that examining the learning effectiveness of LT using was the most common research purpose (75%); researchers primarily relied on experimental studies (46%, 12 studies), followed by interviews and questionnaires (19%, 5 studies). Moreover, the most common use of LT was computer-assisted technology (such as web-based mentoring, educational computer games, laptop computers) in special education; studies investigating the use of LT with mentally disabled students were more than those with physically disabled ones. It is expected that the findings of this work and their implications will serve as valuable references with regard to the use of LT with special education students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State-of-the-Art Review on Sustainable Design and Construction of Quieter Pavements—Part 1: Traffic Noise Measurement and Abatement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Ohiduzzaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution due to highway traffic has drawn the attention of transportation agencies worldwide. Noise pollution is an irritant to residents, especially in urban areas near roads with high traffic volume. In addition to its adverse effects on the quality of life, traffic noise can induce stress that could lead to sleep disturbance and anxiety. Traditionally, noise barrier walls have been used for highways to mitigate traffic noise. However, using barrier walls as a noise abatement measure has proven to be very expensive. In addition to the cost, noise barrier walls are not always effective because they must break the line of sight to work properly, which is not always possible in case of intersections or driveways. Therefore, researchers especially from Europe and USA have been very proactive to reduce the noise at source. A number of research studies show traffic noise can be reduced by using an alternative surface type or changing texture of the pavement while complying with other requirements of sustainability, i.e., safety, structural durability, construction and maintenance costs. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the research conducted on this subject. A review of the tire-pavement noise generation and amplification mechanism, various traffic noise measurement methods and correlation among these methods, in addition to the abatement techniques used by various agencies to reduce pavement noise, is also presented.

  11. Review Article: Multi-criteria decision making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, M. M.; Evers, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides a review of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) applications to flood risk management, seeking to highlight trends and identify research gaps. Totally, 128 peer-reviewed papers published from 1995 to June 2015 were systematically analysed and classified into the following application areas: (1) ranking of alternatives for flood mitigation, (2) reservoir flood control, (3) susceptibility, (4) hazard, (5) vulnerability, (6) risk, (7) coping capacity, and (8) emergency management. Additionally, the articles were categorized based on the publication year, MCDM method, whether they were or were not carried out in a participatory process, and if uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were performed. Results showed that the number of flood MCDM publications has exponentially grown during this period, with over 82 % of all papers published since 2009. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was the most popular technique, followed by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), and Simple Additive Weighting (SAW). Although there is greater interest on MCDM, uncertainty analysis remains an issue and is seldom applied in flood-related studies. In addition, participation of multiple stakeholders has been generally fragmented, focusing on particular stages of the decision-making process, especially on the definition of criteria weights. Based on the survey, some suggestions for further investigation are provided.

  12. Review of the state of the art of human biomonitoring for chemical substances and its application to human exposure assessment for food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Judy; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Polcher, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    , and for the implementation of a systematic Post Market Monitoring (PMM) approach for regulated chemical substances was evaluated. An inventory of HBM programmes provides detailed information about study design, analytical methods, reference values (RV) and biomarkers used. Environmental monitoring and associations between...... HBM values and food, as well as coverage of substances and remaining deficits are highlighted. The review of study results provides information on emerging chemicals, higher exposed and particularly vulnerable populations. Conclusions: HBM can bring added value for chemical risk assessment in food...... safety areas (namely exposure assessment), and for the implementation of a systematic PMM approach. But further work needs to be done to improve usability. Major deficits are the lack of HBM guidance values on a considerable number of substance groups, for which health based guidance values (HBGVs) have...

  13. Literature Review of the State of the Art for Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for a Series of Oil Quality Monitoring Sensors for Shipboard Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Leon Cheng Dr. Leon Cheng Section Head/Dockyard Laboratory (Atlantic) Approved for release by Original signed by Ron Kuwahara for Dr. Calvin A...Distributed Data Structure”, ASM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 480-525, 1996. [35] Cotterell, S., Vahid, F., Najjar, W., Hsieh

  14. Fusion Geographic Information System Data with State-of-the-art Atmospheric Systems: Application to Methane Source Mapping over the Marcellus Shale formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Barkley, Z.; Cervone, G.; Lauvaux, T.; Deng, A.; Sarmiento, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural gas production from multiple shale formations has increased significantly in the last decade. More particularly, a growing number of unconventional wells is the result of intense drilling in the Marcellus shale area. The Marcellus shale production represents a third of the production of natural gas in the entire US. This unprecedented increase could lead to additional fugitive methane (CH4) emissions at a level that remains highly uncertain. If natural gas is to replace less energy-efficient fossil fuels, the emissions during the production phase ought to be relatively small. However, the magnitude and the spatial distribution of CH4 emissions from unconventional wells in the Marcellus shale remains poorly documented. The novelty of this research consists in coupling various sources of information to map accurately the methane emissions, combining Geographical Information System (GIS) data, atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases, and atmospheric modeling tools. We first collected various GIS data to estimate CH4 emissions caused by the shale gas industry, such as wells, facilities, and pipelines, with the other major contributors such as wetlands, farming activities, and soils. We present our projection methods to generate model input in gridded format while preserving the distribution and magnitude of the emissions and assembling a diverse database. The projection tools for GIS data are generalized to the use of GIS data in atmospheric modeling systems. We then present the atmospheric concentrations simulated by the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, used to represent the transport and the dispersion of CH4 emissions. We compare the WRF model results to aircraft measurements collected during a 3-week campaign to identify missing sources in our initial inventory. We finally propose a new approach to identify the area at the surface that could potentially influence the aircraft measurements using spatial analysis of particle footprints. This

  15. Central sorting and recovery of MSW recyclable materials: A review of technological state-of-the-art, cases, practice and implications for materials recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Maul, Anja; Jansen, Michael; Pretz, Thomas; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Today's waste regulation in the EU comprises stringent material recovery targets and calls for comprehensive programs in order to achieve them. A similar movement is seen in the US where more and more states and communities commit to high diversion rates from landfills. The present paper reviews scientific literature, case studies and results from pilot projects, on the topic of central sorting of recyclable materials commonly found in waste from households. The study contributes, inter alia, with background understanding on the development of materials recovery, both in a historical and geographical perspective. Physical processing and sorting technology has reached a high level of maturity, and many quality issues linked to cross-contamination by commingling have been successfully addressed to date. New sorting plants tend to benefit from economies of scale, and innovations in automation and process control, which are targeted at curtailing process inefficiencies shown by operational practice. Technology developed for the sorting of commingled recyclables from separate collection is also being successfully used to upgrade residual MSW processing plants. The strongest motivation for central sorting of residual MSW is found for areas where source separation and separate collection is difficult, such as urban agglomerations, and can in such areas contribute to increasing recycling rates, either complementary to- or as a substitute for source separation of certain materials, such as plastics and metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. State of the Art Review: Emerging Therapies: The Use of Insulin Sensitizers in the Treatment of Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Catherine M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PCOS, a heterogeneous disorder characterized by cystic ovarian morphology, androgen excess, and/or irregular periods, emerges during or shortly after puberty. Peri- and post-pubertal obesity, insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia are highly prevalent co-morbidities of PCOS and promote an ongoing state of excess androgen. Given the relationship of insulin to androgen excess, reduction of insulin secretion and/or improvement of its action at target tissues offer the possibility of improving the physical stigmata of androgen excess by correction of the reproductive dysfunction and preventing metabolic derangements from becoming entrenched. While lifestyle changes that concentrate on behavioral, dietary and exercise regimens should be considered as first line therapy for weight reduction and normalization of insulin levels in adolescents with PCOS, several therapeutic options are available and in wide use, including oral contraceptives, metformin, thiazolidenediones and spironolactone. Overwhelmingly, the data on the safety and efficacy of these medications derive from the adult PCOS literature. Despite the paucity of randomized control trials to adequately evaluate these modalities in adolescents, their use, particularly that of metformin, has gained popularity in the pediatric endocrine community. In this article, we present an overview of the use of insulin sensitizing medications in PCOS and review both the adult and (where available adolescent literature, focusing specifically on the use of metformin in both mono- and combination therapy.

  17. Is biosorption suitable for decontamination of metal-bearing wastewaters? A critical review on the state-of-the-art of biosorption processes and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Balasubramanian, R

    2015-09-01

    For the past few decades, biosorption has been widely investigated for the removal of different contaminants in aqueous media. A number of biomasses of different genre have been identified to possess good biosorption capacity. Insights into biosorption mechanisms have been provided by various researchers in order to develop a fundamental scientific understanding of the biosorption process. However, biosorption has not been employed widely for its large-scale commercial applications. The key factors that affect the growth and evolution of biosorption as a practical technology for decontamination of wastewaters include, (1) lack of investigations on multi-component solutions and wastewaters with complex matrix effects, (2) incomplete understanding of physico-chemical characteristics of biomasses of different types, (3) lack of studies to improve the performance of biosorbents through surface functionalization, and (4) non-integration of biosorption in wastewater/water treatment plants. This critical review aims to identify and discuss the practical limitations of biosorption and provide future research directions to make biosorption a technologically viable process with emphasis on selection and modification of biomasses to suit desired treatment applications, identify appropriate operation modes for large-scale applications of biosorption, and perform techno-economic evaluation of overall biosorption processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. State of the Art Review: Emerging Therapies: The Use of Insulin Sensitizers in the Treatment of Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    PCOS, a heterogeneous disorder characterized by cystic ovarian morphology, androgen excess, and/or irregular periods, emerges during or shortly after puberty. Peri- and post-pubertal obesity, insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia are highly prevalent co-morbidities of PCOS and promote an ongoing state of excess androgen. Given the relationship of insulin to androgen excess, reduction of insulin secretion and/or improvement of its action at target tissues offer the possibility of improving the physical stigmata of androgen excess by correction of the reproductive dysfunction and preventing metabolic derangements from becoming entrenched. While lifestyle changes that concentrate on behavioral, dietary and exercise regimens should be considered as first line therapy for weight reduction and normalization of insulin levels in adolescents with PCOS, several therapeutic options are available and in wide use, including oral contraceptives, metformin, thiazolidenediones and spironolactone. Overwhelmingly, the data on the safety and efficacy of these medications derive from the adult PCOS literature. Despite the paucity of randomized control trials to adequately evaluate these modalities in adolescents, their use, particularly that of metformin, has gained popularity in the pediatric endocrine community. In this article, we present an overview of the use of insulin sensitizing medications in PCOS and review both the adult and (where available) adolescent literature, focusing specifically on the use of metformin in both mono- and combination therapy. PMID:21899727

  19. State of the Art Review: Emerging Therapies: The Use of Insulin Sensitizers in the Treatment of Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, David H; Pacaud, Danièle; Gordon, Catherine M; Misra, Madhusmita

    2011-08-26

    PCOS, a heterogeneous disorder characterized by cystic ovarian morphology, androgen excess, and/or irregular periods, emerges during or shortly after puberty. Peri- and post-pubertal obesity, insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia are highly prevalent co-morbidities of PCOS and promote an ongoing state of excess androgen. Given the relationship of insulin to androgen excess, reduction of insulin secretion and/or improvement of its action at target tissues offer the possibility of improving the physical stigmata of androgen excess by correction of the reproductive dysfunction and preventing metabolic derangements from becoming entrenched. While lifestyle changes that concentrate on behavioral, dietary and exercise regimens should be considered as first line therapy for weight reduction and normalization of insulin levels in adolescents with PCOS, several therapeutic options are available and in wide use, including oral contraceptives, metformin, thiazolidenediones and spironolactone. Overwhelmingly, the data on the safety and efficacy of these medications derive from the adult PCOS literature. Despite the paucity of randomized control trials to adequately evaluate these modalities in adolescents, their use, particularly that of metformin, has gained popularity in the pediatric endocrine community. In this article, we present an overview of the use of insulin sensitizing medications in PCOS and review both the adult and (where available) adolescent literature, focusing specifically on the use of metformin in both mono- and combination therapy.

  20. A State-of-the-Art Review of Enhanced Personal Protection Equipment Options (Analyse de Pointe des Options en Matiere D’equipement de Protection Individuelle Accrue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    M, entire system) Arm guards: 1.6 lbs (0.7 kg) each Cost: unknown Material: Dyneema (flexible soft armor) Coverage: Upper and Lower Limbs...Developer: Paraclete Weight: unknown Cost: $122.68 Material: Dyneema , Goldfles, and Twaron (soft armor) Coverage: shoulders Extent Used...Humansystems® Incorporated Enhanced PPE Options Page A-39 Other Protection Developer: Paraclete Weight: unknown Cost: $81.29 Material: Dyneema

  1. Detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminths in environmental samples: A review of current state-of-the-art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Singh, Gulshan; Stenström, Thor Axel; Reddy, Poovendhree

    2017-05-01

    It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture. Different methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of STHs eggs in environmental samples. However, there is a lack of a universally accepted technique which creates a challenge for comparative assessments of helminths egg concentrations both in different samples matrices as well as between locations. This review presents a comparison of reported methodologies for the detection of STHs eggs, an assessment of the relative performance of available detection methods and a discussion of new emerging techniques that could be applied for detection and quantification. It is based on a literature search using PubMed and Science Direct considering all geographical locations. Original research articles were selected based on their methodology and results sections. Methods reported in these articles were grouped into conventional, molecular and emerging techniques, the main steps in each method were then compared and discussed. The inclusion of a dissociation step aimed at detaching helminth eggs from particulate matter was found to improve the recovery of eggs. Additionally the selection and application of flotation solutions that take into account the relative densities of the eggs of different species of STHs also results in higher egg recovery. Generally the use of conventional methods was shown to be laborious and time consuming and prone to human error. The alternate use of nucleic acid

  2. Emergence of cooperation: State of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitschke, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    This review presents a review of prevalent results within research pertaining to emergent cooperation in biologically inspired artificial social systems. Results reviewed maintain particular reference to biologically inspired design principles, given that current mathematical and empirical tools

  3. State of the art in CFD pre- and postprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vembe, B. E.; Hansen, E. W. M.

    1994-06-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a generic name for a wide range of numerical techniques that are used for obtaining solutions to the governing equations of thermo-fluid dynamics with or without chemical reactions. The report presents to the state of the art in pre- and postprocessing for CFD codes, both commercial and in-house SINTEF-NTH codes. The objectives of advanced CFD systems are discussed and the techniques for pre- and postprocessing are reviewed. The user friendliness of CFD codes, in general, are highlighted. A common definition of a user friendly computer program is one that is easy to learn, efficient, easy to remember, and satisfactory to use. Most of today's commercial CFD codes could benefit from an enhanced interface. It is desirable to develop standard data formats for input and output of CFD codes and direct-manipulation user interfaces are desirable in CFD applications. Largest potential for improvements of CFD codes and for users is in geometry modeling and grid generation.

  4. State of the Art Review: Optical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    lenses, optical fibers , or planar lightguides to illuminate a two-dimensional mask that represents the matrix A. Light from the mask that has been... polybenzobisoxazole 7. Polyester and polyesteramids 8. Polyetherketone 9. Polyquinoxalines 10. Porphyrins and metal-porphyrin complexes 11. Metal complexes of

  5. Digital astrophotography the state of the art

    CERN Document Server

    Ratledge, David

    2005-01-01

    The CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) has revolutionised optical astronomy during the past 20 years, and specialised astronomical CCD cameras are now even more affordable, colour is standard, and they provide spectacular results. "Digital Astrophotography: The State of the Art", provides some examples of the best images, and gives readers hints and tips about how to get the best out of this extraordinary technology. Experts in CCD astronomy from North America and Europe have contributed to this book, illustrating their help and advice with many beautiful colour images - the book is in full colour throughout. Techniques range from using simple webcams to highly technical aspects such as supernovae patrolling. Computer processing, stacking and image-enhancement are detailed, along with many hints and tips from the experts.

  6. Interoperabilidad de sistemas de organización del conocimiento: el estado del arte Interoperability of knowledge organization systems: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Martínez Tamayo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La interoperabilidad entre distintos sistemas de organización del conocimiento (SOC ha cobrado gran importancia en los últimos tiempos, con el propósito de facilitar la búsqueda simultánea en varias bases de datos o bien fusionar distintas bases de datos en una sola. Las nuevas normas para el diseño y desarrollo de SOC, la estadounidense Z39.19:2005 y la británica BS 8723-4:2007, incluyen recomendaciones detalladas para la interoperabilidad. También se encuentra en preparación una nueva norma ISO 25964-1 sobre tesauros e interoperabilidad que se agregará a las anteriores. La tecnología disponible proporciona herramientas para este fin, como son los formatos y requisitos funcionales de autoridades y las herramientas de la Web Semántica RDF/OWL, SKOS Core y XML. Por otro lado, actualmente es muy difícil diseñar y desarrollar nuevos SOC debido a los problemas económicos, de modo que la interoperabilidad hace posible aprovechar los SOC existentes. En este trabajo se revisan los conceptos básicos, los modelos y métodos recomendados por las normas, así como numerosas experiencias de interoperabilidad entre SOC que han sido documentadas.The interoperability between knowledge organization systems (KOS has become very important in recent years, in order to facilitate simultaneous searches in several databases or to merge different databases into one. The new standards for KOS design and development, the American Z39.19:2005 and the British 8723-4:2007, include detailed recommendations for interoperability. Also, there is a new ISO standard in preparation, the 25964-1 about thesauri and interoperability, which will be added to the above mentioned ones. The available technology provides tools for interoperability, e.g. formats and functional requirements for subject authority, as well as those for Semantic Web RDF/OWL, SKOS Core and XML. On the other hand, presently it is very hard to design and develop new KOS due to economical problems

  7. Investigating the state-of-the-art in whole-body MR-based attenuation correction: an intra-individual, inter-system, inventory study on three clinical PET/MR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Thomas; Lassen, Martin L; Boellaard, Ronald; Delso, Gaspar; Yaqub, Maqsood; Sattler, Bernhard; Quick, Harald H

    2016-02-01

    We assess inter- and intra-subject variability of magnetic resonance (MR)-based attenuation maps (MRμMaps) of human subjects for state-of-the-art positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging systems. Four healthy male subjects underwent repeated MR imaging with a Siemens Biograph mMR, Philips Ingenuity TF and GE SIGNA PET/MR system using product-specific MR sequences and image processing algorithms for generating MRμMaps. Total lung volumes and mean attenuation values in nine thoracic reference regions were calculated. Linear regression was used for comparing lung volumes on MRμMaps. Intra- and inter-system variability was investigated using a mixed effects model. Intra-system variability was seen for the lung volume of some subjects, (p = 0.29). Mean attenuation values across subjects were significantly different (p PET/MR systems resulted in differences in attenuation correction factors, particularly in the thorax. These differences currently limit the quantitative use of PET/MR in multi-center imaging studies.

  8. Oscillatory Mechanisms of Stimulus Processing and Selection in the Visual and Auditory Systems: State-of-the-Art, Speculations and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Zoefel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All sensory systems need to continuously prioritize and select incoming stimuli in order to avoid overflow or interference, and provide a structure to the brain's input. However, the characteristics of this input differ across sensory systems; therefore, and as a direct consequence, each sensory system might have developed specialized strategies to cope with the continuous stream of incoming information. Neural oscillations are intimately connected with this selection process, as they can be used by the brain to rhythmically amplify or attenuate input and therefore represent an optimal tool for stimulus selection. In this paper, we focus on oscillatory processes for stimulus selection in the visual and auditory systems. We point out both commonalities and differences between the two systems and develop several hypotheses, inspired by recently published findings: (1 The rhythmic component in its input is crucial for the auditory, but not for the visual system. The alignment between oscillatory phase and rhythmic input (phase entrainment is therefore an integral part of stimulus selection in the auditory system whereas the visual system merely adjusts its phase to upcoming events, without the need for any rhythmic component. (2 When input is unpredictable, the visual system can maintain its oscillatory sampling, whereas the auditory system switches to a different, potentially internally oriented, “mode” of processing that might be characterized by alpha oscillations. (3 Visual alpha can be divided into a faster occipital alpha (10 Hz and a slower frontal alpha (7 Hz that critically depends on attention.

  9. Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Project: State of the Art on Expert Systems Applications in Design, Construction and Maintenance of Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    and author of this report was Dr. M. Arockiasamy, FAU , with assistance from Sunghoon Lee, Graduate Assistant. Ms. Barbara Steinberg, FAU , typed the...REFERENCES..........................R-1 vi LIST OF FIGURES Fig. 1.1 Component of expert system Fig. 1.2 Production system model Fia . 1.3 Blackboard model

  10. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal: 1977 technology status report. Appendix G. State-of-the-art review for simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, J.D.; Faucett, H.L.; Burnett, T.A.

    1977-12-01

    A state-of-the-art review of the processes currently being developed for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/) from flue gases, and which may be applicable to coal-fired flue gas, was executed. A list of 21 promising flue gas treatment processes was assembled using information available during the first half of 1977. A detailed technical assessment of 18 of these NO/sub x/-SO/sub x/ removal processes resulted from communications with the process developers. Each detailed technical evaluation contained a process description and simplified block flow diagram, the history and status of development, the published economics, the raw material and utility requirements, the technical and environmental considerations, and the favorable and adverse characteristics for the process. The NO/sub x/-SO/sub x/ removal processes were classified based on the type of NO/sub x/ removal employed. The most advanced types of FGT for NO/sub x/-SO/sub x/ removal are now dry selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet oxidation-absorption-reduction. However, all of the processes require further development on larger scale tests and with coal-fired flue gas. Also, the economics included in this report are subject to revision as the processes are examined at larger facilities in the future.

  11. Converging micro-nano-bio technologies towards integrated biomedical systems: state of the art and future perspectives under the EU-information & communication technologies program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymberis, A

    2008-01-01

    Research and development at the convergence of microelectronics, nano-materials, biochemistry, measurement technology and information technology is leading to a new class of biomedical systems and applications e.g. molecular imaging, point of care testing, gene therapy and bionics (including on and inside the body sensors and other miniaturised smart systems) which are expected to revolutionise the healthcare provision and quality of life. In particular they are expected to identify diseases at the earliest possible stage, intervene before symptomatic disease becomes apparent and monitor both the progress of the diseases and the effect of intervention and therapeutic procedures. The group of EC-funded projects on Micro-Nano-Bio Convergence Systems, "so-called" MNBS, is made by projects developing systems that use a vast array of technologies to integrate across traditional boundaries between the micro-nano-bio, and info worlds, enabling a wide range of applications from health care to food quality monitoring. It includes mainly two sub-groups, one dealing with systems for in vitro molecular diagnosis and biological/biochemical analysis and the other is dealing with systems for in vivo interaction with the human body. Current status of development and future challenges, technological and socioeconomic, are briefly presented in this paper as background introductory information to the mini-symposium on MNBS. Relevant examples of R&D within the group will be presented in the mini-symposium.

  12. State of the art of IT-based high precision patch/implant system technology development for building/large structure safety management in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Tae; Yu, Young-Jun; Lee, Bomi; Lee, Jin-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    Damage to infrastructure is a real concern at present, caused primarily by worldwide climate anomalies, global warming, and natural disasters. Korea has begun research to develop a high precision patch/implant system using new IT as a basis, as critical element in building/large structure safety management, to adjust to this situation. Technologies which must be developed for this research are those which measure and evaluate the soundness and safety of structures based on the measurements of an attached sensor. During the research period, optical fiber sensor patches and wireless sensor capsule implants along with various sensor technologies, stress sensing and structure condition evaluation technologies, high durability sensors and low-power compact smart structure sensors will be developed effectively for network hardware technologies. Similarly high precision image processing for automatic crack extraction will be developed along with radiation sensor application technologies, combined management/control technologies for development systems, and practical technologies for building/large structure development systems. Through the results, we hope to acquire higher sensor system performance with a measurement scope (for precision, etc.) goal at least 200% better than conventional sensor systems. The goal is to attain safety management planning and commercialization for automatic and high technology buildings/large structures. If such research is successfully developed, groundbreaking developments for maintenance related facilities is expected.

  13. Characterization and evaluation of ionizing and non-ionizing imaging systems used in state of the art image-guided radiation therapy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dennis Nichols

    With the growing incidence of cancer worldwide, the need for effective cancer treatment is paramount. Currently, radiation therapy exists as one of the few effective, non-invasive methods of reducing tumor size and has the capability for the elimination of localized tumors. Radiation therapy utilizes non-invasive external radiation to treat localized cancers but to be effective, physicians must be able to visualize and monitor the internal anatomy and target displacements. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy frequently utilizes planar and volumetric imaging during a course of radiation therapy to improve the precision and accuracy of the delivered treatment to the internal anatomy. Clinically, visualization of the internal anatomy allows physicians to refine the treatment to include as little healthy tissue as possible. This not only increases the effectiveness of treatment by damaging only the tumor but also increases the quality of life for the patient by decreasing the amount of healthy tissue damaged. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy is commonly used to treat tumors in areas of the body that are prone to movement, such as the lungs, liver, and prostate, as well as tumors located close to critical organs and tissues such as the tumors in the brain and spinal cord. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy can utilize both ionizing modalities, like x-ray based planar radiography and cone-beam CT, and nonionizing modalities like MRI, ultrasound and video-based optical scanning systems. Currently ionizing modalities are most commonly utilized for their ability to visualize and monitor internal anatomy but cause an increase to the total dose to the patient. Nonionizing imaging modalities allow frequent/continuous imaging without the increase in dose; however, they are just beginning to be clinically implemented in radiation oncology. With the growing prevalence and variety of Image-Guided Radiation Therapy imaging modalities the ability to evaluate the overall image quality, monitor

  14. Nano particle and defect detection: physical limit of state-of-the-art systems and novel measurement technique to improve upon this

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Zwet, E.J. van; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, (dark field) imaging based, particle detection systems rely on identifying a particle based on its irradiance. It can be shown that for a very smooth wafer with 0.1 nm surface roughness (rms) this approach results in a particle detection limit larger than 20 nm. By carefully studying

  15. Improving the detection of small lesions using a state-of-the-art time-of-flight PET/CT system and small-voxel reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; Koopman, Daniëlle; van Dalen, Jorn A.; Lagerweij, Martine C.M.; Arkies, Hester; de Boer, Jaep; Oostdijk, Ad H.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Jager, Pieter L.

    A major disadvantage of 18F-FDG PET involves poor detection of small lesions and lesions with low metabolism, caused by limited spatial resolution and relatively large image voxel size. As spatial resolution and sensitivity are better in new PET systems, it is expected that small-lesion detection

  16. Application of learning from examples methods for on-line dynamic security assessment of electric power systems - state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecas Lopes, J.A. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia] Hatziargyriou, Nikos D. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of the application of `learning from examples` techniques like pattern recognition, artificial neural networks and decision trees, when used for fast dynamic security assessment. Problems concerning the system security evaluation relatively to transient stability and voltage stability are addressed with more details and references to research works in this field are briefly described. (author) 44 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Visible-range hybrid femtosecond systems based on a XeF(C-A) amplifier: state of the art and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, S V; Aristov, A I; Grudtsyn, Ya V; Ivanov, N G; Koval' chuk, B M; Losev, B F; Mamaev, S B; Mesyats, Gennadii A; Mikheev, L D; Panchenko, Yu N; Polivin, A V; Stepanov, S G; Ratakhin, N A; Yalovoi, V I; Yastremskii, Arkadii G

    2013-03-31

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the hybrid (solid state/gas) visible-range femtosecond systems THL-100 (IHCE SB RAS) and THL-30 (P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute) based on a Ti : sapphire front end and a photochemical XeF(C-A) amplifier are reported. The front end generates 50-fs optical pulses with the second-harmonic (475 nm) energy of up to 5 mJ. The active medium of the amplifier is produced in a mixture XeF{sub 2} - N{sub 2} subjected to VUV radiation of xenon excited by an electron beam. The computer model is developed for calculating parameters of the XeF(C - A) amplifier, which is in a good agreement with experiments. In the THL-100 system with the 25-cm output aperture of the XeF(C-A) amplifier, a record visible-range femtosecond radiation peak power of 14 GW was obtained in a 50-fs pulse with the time contrast of above 10{sup 8}. The measured power of an amplified spontaneous emission of the XeF(C-A) amplifier in the angle of 0.2 mrad was 32 W. The result obtained testifies that the hybrid approach to the development of ultrahigh-power systems provides a high time contrast of radiation (greater than 10{sup 12} for the projected peak power of 100 TW). In the THL-30 system, prospects for shortening an amplified femtosecond pulse are studied and it is experimentally shown that by compensating a third-order dispersion in a hybrid system one can obtain pulses with duration of at least 27 fs with a recompression of amplified pulses in bulk glass. Also, a new phenomenon was observed of spectrum broadening and self-compression of negatively chirped femtosecond pulses in the visible range under a nonlinear interaction of wide-aperture beams with fused silica. This result opens prospects for development of the new methods of selfcompression for femtosecond pulses that are lacking physical limitations on pulse energy and realisation of self-compression of amplified pulses in the output window of the XeF(C-A) amplifier. (extreme light fields

  18. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmair, Michael; Bruno, Giovanni; Cattelan, Denis; Cobet, Christoph; de Martino, Antonello; Fleischer, Karsten; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Zorana; Esser, Norbert; Galliet, Melanie; Gajic, Rados; Hemzal, Dušan; Hingerl, Kurt; Humlicek, Josef; Ossikovski, Razvigor; Popovic, Zoran V.; Saxl, Ottilia

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamentals, applications, potential, limitations, and future perspectives of polarized light reflection techniques for the characterization of materials and related systems and devices at the nanoscale. These techniques include spectroscopic ellipsometry, polarimetry, and reflectance anisotropy. We give an overview of the various ellipsometry strategies for the measurement and analysis of nanometric films, metal nanoparticles and nanowires, semiconductor nanocrystals, and submicron periodic structures. We show that ellipsometry is capable of more than the determination of thickness and optical properties, and it can be exploited to gain information about process control, geometry factors, anisotropy, defects, and quantum confinement effects of nanostructures. PMID:21170135

  19. Evaluation of state-of-the-art imaging systems for in vivo monitoring of retinal structure in mice: current capabilities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

    2014-02-01

    Animal models of human diseases play an important role in studying and advancing our understanding of these conditions, allowing molecular level studies of pathogenesis as well as testing of new therapies. Recently several non-invasive imaging modalities including Fundus Camera, Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) have been successfully applied to monitor changes in the retinas of the living animals in experiments in which a single animal is followed over a portion of its lifespan. Here we evaluate the capabilities and limitations of these three imaging modalities for visualization of specific structures in the mouse eye. Example images acquired from different types of mice are presented. Future directions of development for these instruments and potential advantages of multi-modal imaging systems are discussed as well.

  20. [Evaluation of commercial resolution recovery techniques in four state-of-the-art single photon emission computed tomography systems using a digital phantom model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hideo; Motomura, Nobutoku; Fujino, Koichi; Natsume, Takahiro; Haramoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the fundamental performance of four leading advanced resolution recovery methods. To evaluate the performance of the resolution recovery algorithm, we carried out the computer simulation with the cone/sphere digital phantoms. These phantoms were used to investigate the basic properties of those algorithms. The software of four packages (advance) were also tested, specifically Astonish(TM) (AST), Evolution(TM) (EVL), Flash-3D(TM) (FL3), and 3D-OSEM (3DOS). The performance was evaluated in the collimator systems (LEHR) reconstruction conditions using the full width at half maxi am (FWHM), aspect ratio (ASR), and artifacts of conical part. In the "without BG," FWHM of the advance method indicated a true-FWHM with SI (subset×iteration)=20, 40. As SI increased, FWHM was composed with over estimate. Each advances of FWHM indicated only 5% of improvement as compared with reference FWHM in the "with BG." The ASR increased 20% to AST, FL3, and ASR of 3DOS remained in 10% in the outside. As for the reproducibility of the conical part, an artifact was caused by the FL3, EVL, and AST methods. This artifact did not occur in 3DOS. An SI needs more than 150 to obtain an accurate compensation effect. As for the advance method, the major compensation effect was not demonstrated very much as compared with the OS-EM. The EVL, FL3, and AST overestimated values due to a Gibb's oscillation in the artifacts of the conical part.

  1. Solar-assisted district heating systems, state-of-the-art and economic efficiency; Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermeversorgung Stand der Technik und Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M.N. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik; Kuebler, R. [Steinbeis Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik (STZ-IGS), Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After the successful testing of smaller solar-assisted district heat supply projects in the first half of the Nineties in Germany (e.g. Ravensburg, Koengen, Neckarsulm, Schwaebisch-Gmuend), the first large-scale plants with long term heat storage started to operate in Hamburg and Friedrichshafen. Thus a target has been reached that had seemed to be an illusion for a long time - the utilisation of solar energy generated in the summer for building heating in wintertime. In Hamburg (collector area = 3,000 square metres) and Friedrichshafen (collector area = 5,600 square metres when finished) buried hot-water storage tanks with a volume of 4,500 cubic metres and 12,000 cubic metres were built; bore-hole heat storage is being tested in a third demonstration project in Neckarsulm. The first part of this plant (collector area = 2,700 square metres, storage capacity approximately 20,000 cubic metres) was put in operation in October 1997. A fourth solar-assisted district heating system with a gravel/water heat storage (volume approximately 8,000 cubic metres) is currently under construction in Chemnitz and supposed to be completed in the second half of 1998. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach der erfolgreichen Erprobung von kleineren solarunterstuetzten Nahwaermeprojekten in der ersten Haelfte der neunziger Jahre in Deutschland (z.B. Ravensburg, Koengen, Neckarsulm, Schwaebisch-Gmuend) gingen Ende 1996 in Hamburg und Friedrichshafen die ersten solaren Grossanlagen mit Langzeit-Waermespeicher in Betrieb. Damit wurde ein Ziel erreicht, das ueber viele Jahre hinweg utopisch erschienen war - mit der Sonnenenergie aus dem Sommer im Winter die Gebaeude zu beheizen. Waehrend in Hamburg (Kollektorflaeche 3.000 m{sup 2}) und in Friedrichshafen (5.600 m{sup 2} im Endausbau) eingegrabene Heisswasser-Waermespeicher mit einem Volumen von 4.500 m{sup 3} bzw. 12.000 m{sup 3} realisiert wurden, wird in einem dritten Demonstrationsprojekt in Neckarsulm ein Erdsonden-Waermespeicher erprobt. Die erste

  2. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  3. Entrepreneurship Education: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Sánchez García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Job uncertainty and ambiguity is a reality in many current societies, therefore, the idea of self-employment has taken a more active role, not only out of necessity, but also because it brings innovation and development to societies. In view of this situation, the following question arises: how can we strengthen the entrepreneurial spirit of our students? This article has the objective to collect theoretical information of the state of the art on entrepreneurship education: what it has been, what it is, and what can it be, in order to present the current condition of the topic, both in the psychological and pedagogical field. To achieve this objective, information from 108 research sources, mainly from scientific articles and books was collected, concluding that, although generally, entrepreneurship education has significantly contributed to the creation of businesses, developing countries, specifically, those in Latin America, still require extra effort to fully implement entrepreneurship topic in the curriculums, particularly because of challenges such as political instability, technology and international competition.

  4. Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    uncertainty in wind power and to more efficiently operate power systems with large wind power penetrations. Moreover, in a market environment, the wind power contribution to the generation portofolio becomes important in determining the daily and hourly prices, as variations in the estimated wind power will influence the clearing prices for both energy and operating reserves. With the increasing penetration of wind power, WPF is quickly becoming an important topic for the electric power industry. System operators (SOs), generating companies (GENCOs), and regulators all support efforts to develop better, more reliable and accurate forecasting models. Wind farm owners and operators also benefit from better wind power prediction to support competitive participation in electricity markets against more stable and dispatchable energy sources. In general, WPF can be used for a number of purposes, such as: generation and transmission maintenance planning, determination of operating reserve requirements, unit commitment, economic dispatch, energy storage optimization (e.g., pumped hydro storage), and energy trading. The objective of this report is to review and analyze state-of-the-art WPF models and their application to power systems operations. We first give a detailed description of the methodologies underlying state-of-the-art WPF models. We then look at how WPF can be integrated into power system operations, with specific focus on the unit commitment problem.

  5. State-of-the-art techniques for inventory of Great Lakes aquatic habitats and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brock, R.H.; Bukata, R.P.; Dawson, J.J.; Horvath, F.J.; Busch, W.-Dieter N.; Sly, Peter G.

    1992-01-01

    This section of the Classification and Inventory of Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat report was prepared as a series of individually authored contributions that describe, in various levels of detail, state-of-the-art techniques that can be used alone or in combination to inventory aquatic habitats and resources in the Laurentian Great Lakes system. No attempt was made to review and evaluate techniques that are used routinely in limnological and fisheries surveys and inventories because it was felt that users of this document would be familiar with them.

  6. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X’avia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-17

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been revealed in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been hotspot for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for the disease of interest. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state-of-the-art of the technologies, and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, we will underscore some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research.

  7. State-of-the-art technologies for intrusion and obstacle detection for railroad operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This report provides an update on the state-of-the-art technologies with intrusion and obstacle detection capabilities for rail rights of way (ROW) and crossings. A workshop entitled Intruder and Obstacle Detection Systems (IODS) for Railroads Requir...

  8. Low-level laser therapy in the prevention and treatment of cancer therapy-induced mucositis: 2012 state of the art based on literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Nair, Raj G

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the promising state of the art low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for preventive and therapeutic usage in oral mucositis due to cancer therapy. Photomedicine using LLLT is very effective with intraoral and extraoral devices in the management of oral mucositis, based on several studies including randomized control studies. A systematic review identified 33 relevant articles that were subjected to meta-analysis based on which laser parameters in routine practice are being defined. Meta-analysis showed that LLLT reduced risk of oral mucositis with relative risk (RR) 2.45 [confidence interval (CI) 1.85-3.18], reduced duration, severity of oral mucositis and reduced number of days with oral mucositis (4.38 days, P = 0.0009). RR was similar between the red (630-670 nm) and infrared (780-830 nm) LLLT. Pain-relieving effect based on the Cohen scale was at 1.22 (CI 0.19-2.25). No adverse side effects of LLLT were reported; hence, we recommend red or infrared LLLT with diode output between 10-100 mW, dose of 2-3 J/cm2/cm2 for prophylaxis and 4 J/cm2 (maximum limit) for therapeutic effect, application on single spot rather than scanning motion. Lesions must be evaluated by a trained clinician and therapy should be repeated daily or every other day or a minimum of three times per week until resolution. There is moderate-to-strong evidence in favor of LLLT at optimal doses as a well tolerated, relatively inexpensive intervention for cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis. It is envisaged that LLLT will soon become part of routine oral supportive care in cancer.

  9. A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.

  10. Teratogen Screening: State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Due to the number of new substances coming into use every year and the increasing amounts of chemicals, which are introduced into the environment, there is a high demand for a rapid, reliable and cost-effective method for detection of developmental toxicity. To meet this challenge various in vitro techniques have been established additional to in vivo animal testing. This review introduces the techniques in existence at the moment. Requirements on an ideal in vitro teratogenicity test system ...

  11. State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD. Slide presentation at the SOT FDA Colloquium on State of the Art in the Cramer Classification Scheme and Threshold of Toxicological Concern in College Park, MD.

  12. Functionalized Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred Vermerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the realization that global sustainability depends on renewable sources of materials and energy, there has been an ever-increasing need to develop bio-based polymers that are able to replace petroleum-based polymers. Research in this field has shown strong potential in generating high-performance functionalized polymers from plant biomass. With the anticipated large-scale production of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulosic polysaccharides will be abundantly available renewable feedstocks for biopolymers and biocomposites with physico-chemical properties that match or exceed those of petroleum-based compounds. This review examines the state of the art regarding advances and challenges in synthesis and applications of specialty polymers and composites derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, ending with a brief assessment of genetic modification as a route to tailor crop plants for specific applications.

  13. Telemedicine in Urology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellimoottil, Chandy; Skolarus, Ted; Gettman, Matthew; Boxer, Richard; Kutikov, Alexander; Lee, Benjamin R; Shelton, Jeremy; Morgan, Todd

    2016-08-01

    Whereas telemedicine is recognized as one of the fastest-growing components of the healthcare system, the status of telemedicine use in urology is largely unknown. In this narrative review, we detail studies that investigate the use of televisits and teleconsultations for urologic conditions. Moreover, we discuss current regulatory and reimbursement policies. Finally, we discuss the significant barriers to widespread dissemination and implementation of telemedicine and reasons why the field of urology may be positioned to become a leader in the provision of telemedicine services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [State of the art diagnostic criteria of severe periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, X Y

    2017-02-09

    Periodontitis could be categorized as mild, moderate, and severe according to the severity of the disease. This categorizing system could also be used together with other classification systems. The present article introduced the status about the case definition of severe periodontitis, including the standard of case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the consensus report on the definition of periodontitis case for use in risk factor research by Europe workshop. A consensus on the state of the art definition of severe periodontitis for use in clinical work was gained base on the expertise of Chinese Society of Periodontology, Chinese Association of Stomatology. The background of this consensus and the significance of the criteria for the case definition were discussed.

  15. State-of-the-art Instruments for Detecting Extraterrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    In the coming decades, state-of-the-art spacecraft-based instruments that can detect key components associated with life as we know it on Earth will directly search for extinct or extant extraterrestrial life in our solar system. Advances in our analytical and detection capabilities, especially those based on microscale technologies, will be important in enhancing the abilities of these instruments. Remote sensing investigations of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets could provide evidence of photosynthetic-based life outside our solar system, although less advanced life will remain undetectable by these methods. Finding evidence of extraterrestrial life would have profound consequences both with respect to our understanding of chemical and biological evolution, and whether the biochemistry on Earth is unique in the universe.

  16. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  17. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. A.; Wooldridge, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The state-of-the-art (SOTA) of electric vehicles built since 1965 was reviewed to establish a base for the preliminary design of a power train for a SOTA electric vehicle. The performance of existing electric vehicles were evaluated to establish preliminary specifications for a power train design using state-of-the-art technology and commercially available components. Power train components were evaluated and selected using a computer simulation of the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle. Predicted range was determined for a number of motor and controller combinations in conjunction with the mechanical elements of power trains and a battery pack of sixteen lead-acid batteries - 471.7 kg at 0.093 MJ/Kg (1040 lbs. at 11.7 Whr/lb). On the basis of maximum range and overall system efficiency using the Schedule D cycle, an induction motor and 3 phase inverter/controller was selected as the optimum combination when used with a two-speed transaxle and steel belted radial tires. The predicted Schedule D range is 90.4 km (56.2 mi). Four near term improvements to the SOTA were identified, evaluated, and predicted to increase range approximately 7%.

  18. State of the Art III: Current Issues of Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyren, Karl

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes proceedings of the Library and Information Technology Association's third five-year assessment of the state of the art of library automation. Highlights include both descriptions of presentations and comments from conference participants. (JPF)

  19. Microgrid power electronic converters: state of the art and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jamil, M.; Hussain, B; Sharkh, S M; Abu-Sara, M.; Boltryk, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the state of the art of power electric converters used in microgrids. The paper focuses primarily on grid connected converters. Different topologies and control and modulation strategies for these specific converters are critically reviewed. Moreover, future challenges in respect of these converters are identified along with their potential solutions.

  20. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Coatings Through Dual-Cure Processes: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Malucelli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of the art related to the synthesis and characterization of hybrid organic-inorganic (O/I coatings obtained through the exploitation of dual-cure processes, which involve a photo-induced polymerization followed by a thermal treatment: this latter allows the occurrence of sol-gel reactions of suitable alkoxy precursors already embedded in the UV-curable system. After a brief introduction on hybrid organic-inorganic coatings, the first part of the review is focused on the design and feasibility issues provided by the dual-cure method, emphasizing the possibility of tuning the structure of the final hybrid network on the basis of the composition of the starting liquid mixture. Then, some recent examples of hybrid organic-inorganic networks are thoroughly described, showing their potential advances and the application fields to which they can be addressed.

  1. The backstroke swimming start: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2014-09-29

    As sprint swimming events can be decided by margins as small as .01 s, thus, an effective start is essential. This study reviews and discusses the 'state of the art' literature regarding backstroke start biomechanics from 23 documents. These included two swimming specific publications, eight peer-reviewed journal articles, three from the Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming Congress series, eight from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports Conference Proceedings, one from a Biomechanics Congress and one academic (PhD) thesis. The studies had diverse aims, including swimmers' proficiency levels and data collection settings. There was no single consensus for defining phase descriptions; and kinematics, kinetics and EMG approaches were implemented in laboratory settings. However, researchers face great challenges in improving methods of quantifying valid, reliable and accurate data between laboratory and competition conditions. For example, starting time was defined from the starting signal to distances as disparate as ∼5 m to 22.86 m in several studies. Due to recent rule changes, some of the research outcomes now refer to obsolete backstroke start techniques, and only a few studies considered the actual international rules. This literature review indicated that further research is required, in both laboratory and competition settings focusing on the combined influences of the current rules and block configuration on backstroke starting performances.

  2. Pediatric palliative care. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda

    2008-01-01

    Advances in medicine have significantly reduced child mortality worldwide; however those caring for children with life-threatening medical conditions are usually committed to employing curative and life-prolonging treatments until death is at hand. This type of intensive care and attention can expose children and their families to unnecessary suffering, particularly if inadequate attention is paid to the children's physical and emotional distress. This review presents healthcare providers with the basic concepts of pediatric palliative care (PPC) available to assist them in the care of the child with life-threatening medical conditions. It defines PPC and the principles guiding it; it reviews the reasons behind PPC emphasizing developmental and epidemiological aspects of childhood death; it discusses the needs of children with life-threatening conditions and the needs of their families; and it examines PPC services available, and the obstacles and challenges faced in providing PPC.

  3. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  4. Antiarrhythmic drugs 2013: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kapil; Zimetbaum, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are widely used, but are of modest efficacy and have important side effects. However, even with the advance of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia, antiarrhythmic drugs remain an important tool for treating arrhythmias. Antiarrhythmic drug development has remained slow despite much effort given our limited understanding of what role various ionic currents play in arrhythmogenesis and how they are modified by arrhythmias. This review will focus on promising new antiarrhythmic drugs undergoing clinical investigation or currently approved for clinical use, including amiodarone analogues, agents with novel ionic targets, and new drug combinations.

  5. Quasicrystals the state of the art

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vincenzo, D P

    1991-01-01

    This review volume provides the most up-to-date and authoritative description of research on icosahedral solids, which has advanced rapidly since the discovery of these unique materials in 1984. The present book, intended as a companion volume to the reprint volume on The Physics of Quasicrystals edited by P Steinhardt and S Ostlund, will be invaluable to graduate students and workers in the field as a comprehensive reference. Scientists in related fields can use it as a readable introduction to the important current problems in quasicrystals. The chapters have been written by many of the most

  6. Rare events: a state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1980-12-01

    The study of rare events has become increasingly important in the context of nuclear safety. Some philosophical considerations, such as the framework for the definition of a rare event, rare events and science, rare events and trans-science, and rare events and public perception, are discussed. The technical work of the Task Force on problems of Rare Events in the Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Plants (1976-1978), sponsored by OECD, is reviewed. Some recent technical considerations are discussed, and conclusions are drawn. The appendix contains an essay written by Anne E. Beachey, under the title: A Study of Rare Events - Problems and Promises.

  7. The state of the art of visualization in mixed reality image guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten-Oertel, Marta; Jannin, Pierre; Collins, D Louis

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a review of the state of the art of visualization in mixed reality image guided surgery (IGS). We used the DVV (data, visualization processing, view) taxonomy to classify a large unbiased selection of publications in the field. The goal of this work was not only to give an overview of current visualization methods and techniques in IGS but more importantly to analyze the current trends and solutions used in the domain. In surveying the current landscape of mixed reality IGS systems, we identified a strong need to assess which of the many possible data sets should be visualized at particular surgical steps, to focus on novel visualization processing techniques and interface solutions, and to evaluate new systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Library Automation: A State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, John

    1979-01-01

    Presents a summary of the status of library automation in the late 1970s including the major problems facing libraries as they move to computer-based systems. The developments of the 1980s are also discussed. (Author/MBR)

  9. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    from the first-generation nuclear-powered submarines by gamma scanning / A. F. Usatyi. L. A. Serdyukova and B. S. Stepennov -- Oral session 3: Power plant surveillance. Upgraded neutron dosimetry procedure for VVER-440 surveillance specimens / V. Kochkin ... [et al.]. Neutron dosimetry on the full-core first generation VVER-440 aimed to reactor support structure load evaluation / P. Borodkin ... [et al.]. Ex-vessel neutron dosimetry programs for PWRs in Korea / C. S. Yoo. B. C. Kim and C. C. Kim. Comparison of irradiation conditions of VVER-1000 reactor pressure vessel and surveillance specimens for various core loadings / V. N. Bukanov ... [et al.]. Re-evaluation of dosimetry in the new surveillance program for the Loviisa 1 VVER-440 reactor / T. Serén -- Oral session 4: Benchmarks, intercomparisons and adjustment methods. Determination of the neutron parameter's uncertainties using the stochastic methods of uncertainty propagation and analysis / G. Grégoire ... [et al.].Covariance matrices for calculated neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G. Williams ... [et al.]. The role of dosimetry at the high flux reactor / S. C. van der Marek ... [et al.]. Calibration of a manganese bath relative to Cf-252 nu-bar / D. M. Gilliam, A. T. Yue and M. Scott Dewey. Major upgrade of the reactor dosimetry interpretation methodology used at the CEA: general principle / C. Destouches ... [et al.] -- Oral session 5: power plant surveillance. The role of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry in reactor vessel surveillance in South Korea / B.-C. Kim ... [et al.]. Spanish RPV surveillance programmes: lessons learned and current activities / A. Ballesteros and X. Jardí. Atucha I nuclear power plant extended dosimetry and assessment / H. Blaumann ... [et al.]. Monitoring of radiation load of pressure vessels of Russian VVER in compliance with license amendments / G. Borodkin ... [et al.] -- Poster session 2: Test reactors, accelerators and advanced systems; cross sections, nuclear

  10. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  11. Regenerative endodontics: A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex and apexification (for immature root apex, or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  12. Regenerative endodontics: a state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rashmi; Bansal, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Scientific advances in the creation of restorative biomaterials, in vitro cell culture technology, tissue grafting, tissue engineering, molecular biology and the human genome project provide the basis for the introduction of new technologies into dentistry. Non-vital infected teeth have long been treated with root canal therapy (for mature root apex) and apexification (for immature root apex), or doomed to extraction. Although successful, current treatments fail to re-establish healthy pulp tissue in these teeth. But, what if the non-vital tooth could be made vital once again? That is the hope offered by regenerative endodontics, an emerging field focused on replacing traumatized and diseased pulp with functional pulp tissue. Restoration of vitality of non-vital tooth is based on tissue engineering and revascularization procedures. The purpose of this article is to review these biological procedures and the hurdles that must be overcome to develop regenerative endodontic procedures.

  13. [Photoepilation: state-of-the-art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansel, R W

    2008-02-01

    The field of dermatological laser medicine consists of four main areas: therapy for blood vessels, therapy for pigmented lesions, ablation of tissue, and photoepilation. The first tests were carried out in 1993, and since 1996 there has been a growing demand for "permanent hair removal." This strong demand and the rapid development of devices call for extensive knowledge in terms of current technical innovation or affirmation of proven procedures. This article gives a general survey of the different systems that can be used for "permanent hair removal" [ruby laser, alexandrite laser, diode, Nd:YAG laser, so-called intense pulsed light (IPL) systems, and combined radio frequency/IPL systems], including their inherent advantages and disadvantages. Physical and biological aspects necessary for photoepilation are pointed out. Furthermore, we emphasize new methods concerning removal of depigmented and therapy-resistant hair, as well as the treatment of female patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Genetic advances in sarcomeric cardiomyopathies: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Carolyn Y; Charron, Philippe; Richard, Pascale; Girolami, Francesca; Van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Pinto, Yigal

    2015-04-01

    Genetic studies in the 1980s and 1990s led to landmark discoveries that sarcomere mutations cause both hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Sarcomere mutations also likely play a role in more complex phenotypes and overlap cardiomyopathies with features of hypertrophy, dilation, diastolic abnormalities, and non-compaction. Identification of the genetic cause of these important conditions provides unique opportunities to interrogate and characterize disease pathogenesis and pathophysiology, starting from the molecular level and expanding from there. With such insights, there is potential for clinical translation that may transform management of patients and families with inherited cardiomyopathies. If key pathways for disease development can be identified, they could potentially serve as targets for novel disease-modifying or disease-preventing therapies. By utilizing gene-based diagnostic testing, we can identify at-risk individuals prior to the onset of clinical disease, allowing for disease-modifying therapy to be initiated early in life, at a time that such treatment may be most successful. In this section, we review the current application of genetics in clinical management, focusing on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as a paradigm; discuss state-of-the-art genetic testing technology; review emerging knowledge of gene expression in sarcomeric cardiomyopathies; and discuss both the prospects, as well as the challenges, of bringing genetics to medicine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  15. Aquifer restoration: state of the art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knox, Robert C; Knox, R. C

    1986-01-01

    ... of chemicals or waste materials, improper underground injection of liquid wastes, and placement of septic tank systems in hydrologically and geologically unsuitable locations. Incidents of aquifer pollution from man's waste disposal activities have been discovered with increasing regularity. At the same time, demands for groundwater usage have been inc...

  16. A state of the art on penetration failure estimation under external vessel cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. T.; Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Cho, Y. R.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, S. B.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, K. Y

    2000-04-01

    A state of the art on penetration failure was reviewed and analyzed to establish the direction of the experimental program in the KNGR and to decide the test section design. The interaction between the corium and the reactor vessel and the corium behavior in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel were analyzed to investigate the penetration effect on severe accident progression, and the TMI-2 accident was investigated in the point of penetration failure. Theoretical model and experiment results on penetration failure under the severe accident were investigated and reviewed to establish the direction of the experimental program on the estimation of the penetration failure in the KNGR. These results were compared with the TMI-2 results. The existing test facilities on penetration failure were investigated and reviewed to decide the test section design. It can be said from the state of the art review that penetration in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel is a week point in the reactor vessel failure under the severe accident, but the reactor vessel may not be failed by penetration failure in condition with the coolant supply to the penetration. Since the penetration is different with reactor types and there is no study on estimation of the penetration welding, it is necessary to investigate failure or not of the penetration in condition with external vessel cooling to maintain the reactor vessel integrity in KNGR. In the present experimental program on the integrity estimation of the KNGR penetration, the aluminum oxide melt by thermite reaction and the test section with one penetration of the real size and real material were selected. The melt mass, the pressure of the system, and the vessel geometry were selected as an experimental parameter. (author)

  17. State-of-the-art Review : Vol. 1. State-of-the-art Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Haghighat, Fariborz; Heiselberg, Per

    Energy use for room heating, cooling and ventilation accounts for more than one third of the total, primary energy demand in the industrialised countries, and is in this way a major polluter of the environment. To successfully achieve the targets set out in the Kyoto protocols it is necessary...... envelope, including its walls, roofs and fenestration components (windows, daylighting, ventilation, etc.) and building equipment such as heating, ventilation, cooling equipment and lighting. Significant improvement have been made, and most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency...

  18. [Lung transplantation. State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Covarrubias, Lisardo; Salerno, Tomas A; Panos, Anthony L; Pham, Si M

    2007-01-01

    Lung transplantation is currently considered an established treatment for some advanced lung diseases. The beginning of experimental lung transplantation dates back to the 1940's when the Soviet Vladimir P. Demikhov performed the first lung transplants in animals. Two decades later, James Hardy performed the first lung transplant in humans. Unfortunately, the beginning of clinical lung transplantation was hampered by technical complications and the excessive toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. Improvement in the surgical technique along with the development of more effective and less toxic immunosuppressive drugs has led to a better outcome in lunt transplant recipients. Donor selection and management before organ procurement play a key role in the receptor's outcome. Due to the shortage of donors, some institutions are using more liberal selection criteria, reporting satisfactory outcomes. The approach of the lung and heart-lung transplant patient is multidisciplinary and includes the cardiothoracic transplant surgeon, pulmonologist, anesthesiologist, and intensivist, among others. Herein, we review some relevant historical aspects and recent advances in the management of lung transplant recipients, including indications and contraindications, evaluation of donors and recipients, surgical techniques and peripost-operative care.

  19. Pharmacogenomics: Current State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Carr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome project 10 years ago was met with great optimism for improving drug therapy through personalized medicine approaches, with the anticipation that an era of genotype-guided patient prescribing was imminent. To some extent this has come to pass and a number of key pharmacogenomics markers of inter-individual drug response, for both safety and efficacy, have been identified and subsequently been adopted in clinical practice as pre-treatment genetic tests. However, the universal application of genetics in treatment guidance is still a long way off. This review will highlight important pharmacogenomic discoveries which have been facilitated by the human genome project and other milestone projects such as the International HapMap and 1000 genomes, and by the continued development of genotyping and sequencing technologies, including rapid point of care pre-treatment genetic testing. However, there are still many challenges to implementation for the many other reported biomarkers which continue to languish within the discovery phase. As technology advances over the next 10 years, and the costs fall, the field will see larger genetic data sets, including affordable whole genome sequences, which will, it is hoped, improve patient outcomes through better diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

  20. State of the art of photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2010-01-01

    Our sun is the only sustainable energy source large enough to supply carbon-neutral energy to meet humanity's entire energy demand. However there is a large gap between Europe's solar energy use (less than 1% of the total) and the enormous, untapped potential of the sun. There could be several reasons listed why it is so-social, political, technological--but the fundamental reason is insufficient efficiency of sunlight-to-energy conversion devices manufactured from inexpensive materials thus preventing large scale uptake. Along with thermal and photoelectrochemical sunlight-to-energy conversion, photovoltaics--an approach of converting sunlight directly into electricity--is probably most mature for contributing to the increasing renewable energy use. This review details the general operating principles of the main types of photovoltaic devices, device efficiencies and the limitations of each technology with due consideration of the commercial requirements and uptake within the global renewable energy sector. There is also a section dedicated to emerging research, particularly within the European academic research base, focussing on overcoming some of the limitations associated with current photovoltaic technology.

  1. Treatment of bronchiolitis: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Dalt, Liviana; Bressan, Silvia; Martinolli, Francesco; Perilongo, Giorgio; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    Bronchiolitis is a leading cause of acute illness and hospitalization for infants and young children worldwide. It is usually a mild disease, but the few children developing severe symptoms need to be hospitalized and some will need ventilatory support. To date, the mainstay of therapy has been supportive care, i.e. assisted feeding and hydration, minimal handling, nasal suctioning and oxygen therapy. In recent years the delivery of oxygen has been improved by using a high-flow nasal cannula. At the same time, the discovery of nebulized hypertonic saline enables better airway cleaning with a benefit for respiratory function. The possible role of any pharmacological approach is still debated: many pharmacological therapies tried in the past, ranging from bronchodilators to corticosteroids, were found to offer no benefit in this disease. More recently, nebulized adrenaline demonstrated a short-term benefit. Prophylaxis and prevention, especially in children at high risk of severe infection, such as prematurely born infants and children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, have a fundamental role in dealing with this disease. In this review, we focus on current recommendations for the management and prevention of bronchiolitis, paying particular attention to the latest literature in search of answers to the questions that remain open. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital mammography: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Laura

    2002-01-01

    After completing this update on digital mammography, readers will: Understand some limitations of film-screen mammography. Know the potential advantages and disadvantages of digital mammography. Compare and contrast some different digital mammography systems. Describe how digital images are captured, processed, displayed and stored. Know how digital mammography affects radiation dose, exposure time and contrast resolution. Understand how digital images are transmitted. Be familiar with new techniques that build on digital mammography, such as 3-D mammography, digital subtraction mammography and computer-aided detection.

  3. Electrocardiogram transmission - The state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstenberg, A.; Huston, S. W.; Olsen, D. E.; Hahn, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    A comparative analysis of available clinical EKG telemetry systems was conducted. Although present day electrocardiogram diagnosis requires a high degree of measurement accuracy, there exists wide variations in the performance characteristics of the various telemeters marketed today necessitating careful consideration of specifications prior to procurement. The authors have endeavored to provide the physicians with a clear understanding, in terms of the effects on the electrocardiogram, of the factors he must evaluate in order to ensure high fidelity EKG reproduction. A tabulation of comparative parameter values for each unit obtained from manufacturers' specifications and substantiated by standardized performance tests conducted in our laboratory is presented.

  4. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings...

  5. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Axelsson, M.; Chabot, D.; Van der Meer, J.; Metcalfe, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of howit can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiologicalknowledge for conservation of marine fishes is the

  6. Cancer Proteomics: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Herrmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Now that the human genome has been determined, the field of proteomics is ramping up to tackle the vast protein networks that both control and are controlled by the information encoded by the genome. The study of proteomics should yield an unparalleled understanding of cancer as well as an invaluable new target for therapeutic intervention and markers for early detection. This rapidly expanding field attempts to track the protein interactions responsible for all cellular processes. By careful analysis of these systems, a detailed understanding of the molecular causes and consequences of cancer should emerge. A brief overview of some of the cutting edge technologies employed by this rapidly expanding field is given, along with specific examples of how these technologies are employed. Soon cellular protein networks will be understood at a level that will permit a totally new paradigm of diagnosis and will allow therapy tailored to individual patients and situations.

  7. Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation current state of the art and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots. Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific ...

  8. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: state of the art in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neill, C L; Chow, S; Cheung, S; Parrella, A; Pereira, N; Rosenwaks, Z

    2017-01-01

    Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART. The development of ICSI in 1992 has drastically decreased the impact of male factor, resulting in millions of pregnancies worldwide for couples who, without ICSI, would have had little chance of having their own biological child. This review focuses on the state of the art of ICSI regarding utility of bioassays that evaluate male factor infertility beyond the standard semen analysis and describes the current application and advances in regard to ICSI, particularly the genetic and epigenetic characteristics of spermatozoa and their impact on reproductive outcome. PMID:29158352

  9. Management of infected pancreatic necrosis: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rasslan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pancreatic necrosis occurs in 15% of acute pancreatitis. The presence of infection is the most important factor in the evolution of pancreatitis. The diagnosis of infection is still challenging. Mortality in infected necrosis is 20%; in the presence of organic dysfunction, mortality reaches 60%. In the last three decades, there has been a real revolution in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. However, the challenges persist and there are many unsolved questions: antibiotic treatment alone, tomography-guided percutaneous drainage, endoscopic drainage, video-assisted extraperitoneal debridement, extraperitoneal access, open necrosectomy? A step up approach has been proposed, beginning with less invasive procedures and reserving the operative intervention for patients in which the previous procedure did not solve the problem definitively. Indication and timing of the intervention should be determined by the clinical course. Ideally, the intervention should be done only after the fourth week of evolution, when it is observed a better delimitation of necrosis. Treatment should be individualized. There is no procedure that should be the first and best option for all patients. The objective of this work is to critically review the current state of the art of the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.

  10. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  11. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  12. State of the art concerning optimum location of capacitors and studying the exhaustive search approach for optimising a given solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Raúl Rivera Rodríguez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the state of the art of optimum capacitor location in distribution systems, provideing guidelines for planners engaged in optimising tension profiles and controlling reagents in distribution networks.Optimising a given solution by exhastive search is studied here; the dimensions of a given problem are determined by evaluating the different possibilities for resolving it and the solution algorithm's computational times and requierements are visualised. An example system (9 node, IEEE is used for illustrating the exhaustive search approach, where it was found that methods used in the literature regarding this topic do not always lead to the optimum solution.

  13. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  14. Uso de los sistemas de información documental en la educación superior: estado del arte Use of the Documental Information Systems in Higher Education: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Naranjo Vélez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que los Sistemas de Información Documental (SID cumplen un papel mediador en los procesos de enseñanza y de aprendizaje en la educación superior, se presenta el estado del arte que da cuenta de la necesidad de abordar este tema a partir de la relación entre la didáctica y la bibliotecología, para encontrar fuentes bibliográficas que permitan sustentar teóricamente una estrategia didáctica para enseñar a usar los SID a los profesores, y así estos los utilicen y puedan enseñar datos e información generando conocimiento, superando la memorización y repetición en los estudiantes. A partir de un enfoque hermenéutico que posibilita mostrar el avance y las tendencias del tema en diferentes países, se acude al proceso de búsqueda, recuperación, selección y evaluación de los documentos disponibles en bases de datos, bibliotecas, sitios Web, buscadores y repositorios, etc. Con los documentos seleccionados, se realiza el análisis, comprensión, interpretación y una posterior síntesis, que se presenta en este artículo, de manera concreta resaltando la metodología empleada y los resultados obtenidos; pues se comprueba que los SID con la connotación que se le da en este escrito, apenas comienzan a ser tratados como medios y espacio didáctico, ya que en gran parte al aludir al uso de la información, se centran en las Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación -TIC- con énfasis en Internet y los buscadores.Taking into account that the Documental Information Systems (DIS have a role of mediator in the teaching and learning processes in higher education, a state of the art that shows the need to talk about this topic is presented here starting from the relation between the didactics and the library science in order to find bibliographic sources that allow to theoretically support an strategy to teach professors how to use the DIS, so that they can effectively use them and teach data and information, generating

  15. State of the Art: Embedding Security in Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weimerskirch

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For new automotive applications and services, information technology (IT has gained central importance. IT-related costs in car manufacturing are already high and they will increase dramatically in the future. Yet whereas safety and reliability have become a relatively well-established field, the protection of vehicular IT systems against systematic manipulation or intrusion has only recently started to emerge. Nevertheless, IT security is already the base of some vehicular applications such as immobilizers or digital tachographs. To securely enable future automotive applications and business models, IT security will be one of the central technologies for the next generation of vehicles. After a state-of-the-art overview of IT security in vehicles, we give a short introduction into cryptographic terminology and functionality. This contribution will then identify the need for automotive IT security while presenting typical attacks, resulting security objectives, and characteristic constraints within the automotive area. We will introduce core security technologies and relevant security mechanisms followed by a detailed description of critical vehicular applications, business models, and components relying on IT security. We conclude our contribution with a detailed statement about challenges and opportunities for the automotive IT community for embedding IT security in vehicles.

  16. Additive manufacturing metrology: State of the art and needs assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, L.; Taheri, H.; Bond, L. J.; Barnard, D.; Gray, J.

    2016-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a technology that first emerged in 1987 with stereolithography (SL) of plastic materials from 3D Systems. It saw light use for rapid prototyping and very low volume production for a number of years. However, in the past few years AM of metallic materials has become a practical fabrication technology, use is rapidly increasing and is projected to continue with double digit growth in coming years. The promise and flexibility shown by AM has spurred efforts to begin standardization of this type of process. This paper provides an assessment of the state of the art for in-situ process monitoring of AM processes with an emphasis on the production of metallic components. It is seen that with the implementation of proper process control there is potential to create reliable and reproducible materials and geometries previously unachievable using metal removal based means of production. A reliable methodology for detection and control of microstructure and defects would be of great value in terms of enabling broader AM utilization.

  17. State of the art undersøgelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    1998-01-01

    Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem......Dette skrift omhandler nogle af de erfaringer der til dato er opnået i forbindelse med standby projektets udførelse. Hovedtemaet er en “State of the art undersøgelse” der omhandler standby-spændingsforsyninger, samt komponenter der kan anvendes til konstruktion af dem...

  18. Metallic powder-bed based 3D printing of cellular scaffolds for orthopaedic implants: A state-of-the-art review on manufacturing, topological design, mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X P; Tan, Y J; Chow, C S L; Tor, S B; Yeong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Metallic cellular scaffold is one of the best choices for orthopaedic implants as a replacement of human body parts, which could improve life quality and increase longevity for the people needed. Unlike conventional methods of making cellular scaffolds, three-dimensional (3D) printing or additive manufacturing opens up new possibilities to fabricate those customisable intricate designs with highly interconnected pores. In the past decade, metallic powder-bed based 3D printing methods emerged and the techniques are becoming increasingly mature recently, where selective laser melting (SLM) and selective electron beam melting (SEBM) are the two representatives. Due to the advantages of good dimensional accuracy, high build resolution, clean build environment, saving materials, high customisability, etc., SLM and SEBM show huge potential in direct customisable manufacturing of metallic cellular scaffolds for orthopaedic implants. Ti-6Al-4V to date is still considered to be the optimal materials for producing orthopaedic implants due to its best combination of biocompatibility, corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. This paper presents a state-of-the-art overview mainly on manufacturing, topological design, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of cellular Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds via SLM and SEBM methods. Current manufacturing limitations, topological shortcomings, uncertainty of biocompatible test were sufficiently discussed herein. Future perspectives and recommendations were given at the end. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoribbons: From fundamentals to state-of-the-art applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmurcukardes, M.; Peeters, F. M.; Senger, R. T.; Sahin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Atomically thin nanoribbons (NRs) have been at the forefront of materials science and nanoelectronics in recent years. State-of-the-art research on nanoscale materials has revealed that electronic, magnetic, phononic, and optical properties may differ dramatically when their one-dimensional forms are synthesized. The present article aims to review the recent advances in synthesis techniques and theoretical studies on NRs. The structure of the review is organized as follows: After a brief introduction to low dimensional materials, we review different experimental techniques for the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, theoretical investigations on width and edge-shape-dependent electronic and magnetic properties, functionalization effects, and quantum transport properties of GNRs are reviewed. We then devote time to the NRs of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family. First, various synthesis techniques, E-field-tunable electronic and magnetic properties, and edge-dependent thermoelectric performance of NRs of MoS2 and WS2 are discussed. Then, strongly anisotropic properties, growth-dependent morphology, and the weakly width-dependent bandgap of ReS2 NRs are summarized. Next we discuss TMDs having a T-phase morphology such as TiSe2 and stable single layer NRs of mono-chalcogenides. Strong edge-type dependence on characteristics of GaS NRs, width-dependent Seebeck coefficient of SnSe NRs, and experimental analysis on the stability of ZnSe NRs are reviewed. We then focus on the most recently emerging NRs belonging to the class of transition metal trichalcogenides which provide ultra-high electron mobility and highly anisotropic quasi-1D properties. In addition, width-, edge-shape-, and functionalization-dependent electronic and mechanical properties of blackphosphorus, a monoatomic anisotropic material, and studies on NRs of group IV elements (silicene, germanene, and stanene) are reviewed

  20. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.A.; Wooldridge, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare a preliminary design of a power train for a state-of-the-art 4-passenger electric vehicle capable of operating at highway speeds using conventional lead--acid batteries and to predict the expected performance with emphasis on maximizing range and overall system efficiency on the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle.

  1. EEG artifact removal-state-of-the-art and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urigüen, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an extensive review on the artifact removal algorithms used to remove the main sources of interference encountered in the electroencephalogram (EEG), specifically ocular, muscular and cardiac artifacts. We first introduce background knowledge on the characteristics of EEG activity, of the artifacts and of the EEG measurement model. Then, we present algorithms commonly employed in the literature and describe their key features. Lastly, principally on the basis of the results provided by various researchers, but also supported by our own experience, we compare the state-of-the-art methods in terms of reported performance, and provide guidelines on how to choose a suitable artifact removal algorithm for a given scenario. With this review we have concluded that, without prior knowledge of the recorded EEG signal or the contaminants, the safest approach is to correct the measured EEG using independent component analysis-to be precise, an algorithm based on second-order statistics such as second-order blind identification (SOBI). Other effective alternatives include extended information maximization (InfoMax) and an adaptive mixture of independent component analyzers (AMICA), based on higher order statistics. All of these algorithms have proved particularly effective with simulations and, more importantly, with data collected in controlled recording conditions. Moreover, whenever prior knowledge is available, then a constrained form of the chosen method should be used in order to incorporate such additional information. Finally, since which algorithm is the best performing is highly dependent on the type of the EEG signal, the artifacts and the signal to contaminant ratio, we believe that the optimal method for removing artifacts from the EEG consists in combining more than one algorithm to correct the signal using multiple processing stages, even though this is an option largely unexplored by researchers in the area.

  2. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of Service routing: state of the art report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Martin; Heijenk, Geert

    Quality of Service (QoS) routing is concerned with routing traffic such that the QoS requirements of the carried traffic are met. This report gives an overview of the different proposals for QoS-based routing. Moreover it provides a state of the art of QoS-based routing solutions in both the IETF

  4. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...

  5. Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning: The State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Rebecca; Adams, Anne; Gaved, Mark; Mor, Yishay; Thomas, Rhodri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the state of the art in augmented reality (AR) for mobile learning. Previous work in the field of mobile learning has included AR as a component of a wider toolkit but little has been done to discuss the phenomenon in detail or to examine in a balanced fashion its potential for learning, identifying both positive…

  6. PARA'04, State-of-the-art in scientific computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Wasniewski, Jerzy

    This meeting in the series, the PARA'04 Workshop with the title ``State of the Art in Scientific Computing'', was held in Lyngby, Denmark, June 20-23, 2004. The PARA'04 Workshop was organized by Jack Dongarra from the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Kaj Madsen...

  7. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  8. State-of-the-Art in Open Courseware Initiatives Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladoiu, Monica

    2011-01-01

    We survey here the state-of-the-art in open courseware initiatives worldwide. First, the MIT OpenCourseWare project is overviewed, as it has been the real starting point of the OCW movement. Usually, open courseware refers to a free and open digital publication of high quality university level educational materials that are organized as courses,…

  9. Three State-of-the-Art Methods for Condition Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelius, H.T.; Meiler, P.P.; Maas, H.L.M.M.; Bonnier, B.; Grevink, J.S.; Kuilenburg, R.F. van

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different state-of-the-art condition monitoring techniques: first principles, feature extraction, and neural networks. The focus of the paper is on the application of the techniques, not on the underlying theory. Each technique is described briefly and is

  10. State of the art rapport "verkeersstroommodellen". Deel III: het basisdiagram.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H.

    1977-01-01

    In the third part of the state of the art report "traffic flow models" the basic diagram is discussed. It is a representation of the relation which consists in balance between intensity, density and average speed. Balance is considered in such a way that the magnitudes are constant for some time. A

  11. State-of-the-art of fiber-reinforced polymers in additive manufacturing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have received a lot of attention in recent years for their use in multiple materials such as metals, ceramics, and polymers. The aim of this review article is to analyze the technology of fiber-reinforced polymers and its implementation with additive...... manufacturing. This article reviews recent developments, ideas, and state-of-the-art technologies in this field. Moreover, it gives an overview of the materials currently available for fiber-reinforced material technology....

  12. Dosage optimization in positron emission tomography: state-of-the-art methods and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Fokou, Eleni; Tsoumpas, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used nowadays for tumor staging and therapy response in the clinic. However, average PET radiation exposure has increased due to higher PET utilization. This study aims to review state-of-the-art PET tracer dosage optimization methods after accounting for the effects of human body attenuation and scan protocol parameters on the counting rate. In particular, the relationship between the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and the dosage (NECR-dosage ...

  13. The state of the art and new developments in voltage sag immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Caicedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of the art regarding electrical equipment’s immunity to voltage sags. It deals with immunity analysis and voltage sag generators. An alternative methodology for testing equipment regarding voltage sag is proposed, along with immunity assessment. A comprehensive bibliographic review was made, describing voltage sag immunity standards and selected research and industry publications. The proposed methodology for assessing immunity was based on the literature presented and the authors’ work.

  14. The study of urban systems by indicators. State of the art and implementation problems; Lo studio dei sistemi urbani attraverso indicatori. Stato dell'arte e problematiche operative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Ciello, R.; Napoleoni, S. [ENEA, Divisione Caratterizzazione dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to define the state of the art about the problem of the indicators and their capability in reading and foreseeing the urban complexity. Therefore, the theoretical elaborations and the suggestions developed in the report try to convert the different contributions in the Italian and international literature in a frame-work, focusing on those arguments which assume a key role in the study of the urban areas: (a) the problematic definition of the administrative, physics and functional boarders of the cities; (b) the selection of the indicators that describe the urban areas; (c) the description and quality of life and of environment quality in the cities; (d) the sustainability in urban areas. [Italian] Il lavoro si propone di delineare lo stato dell'arte sul problema degli indicatori e sulla loro capacita' di leggere e prevedere la complessita' urbana. Le elaborazioni teoriche e i suggerimenti metodologici sviluppati nel rapporto tentano dunque di tradurre in protocolli di lavoro i diversi contributi prodotti negli ultimi anni nella letteratura italiana e internazionale concentrando in particolare l'attenzione su quei temi che all'interno dello studio dei sistemi urbani assumono un ruolo chiave: (a) la problematica definizione dei confini amministrativi, fisici e funzionali delle citta'; (b) la selezione degli indicatori che descrivono con piu' efficacia il sistema urbano; (c) le dimensioni e la misura della qualita' della vita e dell'ambiente nelle citta'; (d) la sostenibilita' all'interno dei sistemi urbani.

  15. The State of the Art Ten Years After a State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2014-01-01

    A decade has passed since the first review of research on a ``flagship application" of music information retrieval (MIR): the problem of music genre recognition (MGR). During this time, about 500 works addressing MGR have been published, and at least 10 campaigns have been run to evaluate MGR sys......, the problems of validity in evaluation also affect research in music emotion recognition and autotagging. We conclude by discussing the implications of our work for MGR and MIR in the next ten years.......A decade has passed since the first review of research on a ``flagship application" of music information retrieval (MIR): the problem of music genre recognition (MGR). During this time, about 500 works addressing MGR have been published, and at least 10 campaigns have been run to evaluate MGR...

  16. Implementation and Use of State-of-the-Art, Cell-Based In Vitro Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    assay results in a systematic fashion and a timely manner. This microplate-based assay development strategy should result in the setting up of more robust and reliable test systems that ensure and increase the confidence in the statistical significance of the actual data generated. And, although assay miniaturisation is essential in order to achieve this, most, if not all, cell-based assays can be easily reformatted and adapted to be used in this format in a straightforward manner. This synopsis aims at summarising valuable, general observations made when implementing a diverse set of functional cellular in vitro assays at Bayer Pharma AG without claiming to deeply review all of the literature available in each and every detail. In addition, phenotypic assays (Moffat et al. 2014) or label-free detection methods (Minor 2008) are not discussed. Although this essay tries to cover the most relevant technological developments in the field, it nevertheless may express personal preferences and peculiarities of the author's approach to state-of-the-art cell-based assay development. For additional reviews covering the actual field, see Wunder et al. (2008) and Michelini et al. (2010).

  17. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries: State of the Art and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhoff, Julian; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Bresser, Dominic; Passerini, Stefano

    2015-07-08

    Lithium-ion batteries are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system and, thus, hold the promise to enable sustainable mobility in the future. However, their large-scale application is hindered by severe safety concerns when the cells are exposed to mechanical, thermal, or electrical abuse conditions. These safety issues are intrinsically related to their superior energy density, combined with the (present) utilization of highly volatile and flammable organic-solvent-based electrolytes. Herein, state-of-the-art electrolyte systems and potential alternatives are briefly surveyed, with a particular focus on their (inherent) safety characteristics. The challenges, which so far prevent the widespread replacement of organic carbonate-based electrolytes with LiPF6 as the conducting salt, are also reviewed herein. Starting from rather "facile" electrolyte modifications by (partially) replacing the organic solvent or lithium salt and/or the addition of functional electrolyte additives, conceptually new electrolyte systems, including ionic liquids, solvent-free, and/or gelled polymer-based electrolytes, as well as solid-state electrolytes, are also considered. Indeed, the opportunities for designing new electrolytes appear to be almost infinite, which certainly complicates strict classification of such systems and a fundamental understanding of their properties. Nevertheless, these innumerable opportunities also provide a great chance of developing highly functionalized, new electrolyte systems, which may overcome the afore-mentioned safety concerns, while also offering enhanced mechanical, thermal, physicochemical, and electrochemical performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Catalytic Reforming of Oxygenates: State of the Art and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Li, Xinyu; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-10-12

    This Review describes recent advances in the design, synthesis, reactivity, selectivity, structural, and electronic properties of the catalysts for reforming of a variety of oxygenates (e.g., from simple monoalcohols to higher polyols, then to sugars, phenols, and finally complicated mixtures like bio-oil). A comprehensive exploration of the structure-activity relationship in catalytic reforming of oxygenates is carried out, assisted by state-of-the-art characterization techniques and computational tools. Critical emphasis has been given on the mechanisms of these heterogeneous-catalyzed reactions and especially on the nature of the active catalytic sites and reaction pathways. Similarities and differences (reaction mechanisms, design and synthesis of catalysts, as well as catalytic systems) in the reforming process of these oxygenates will also be discussed. A critical overview is then provided regarding the challenges and opportunities for research in this area with a focus on the roles that systems of heterogeneous catalysis, reaction engineering, and materials science can play in the near future. This Review aims to present insights into the intrinsic mechanism involved in catalytic reforming and provides guidance to the development of novel catalysts and processes for the efficient utilization of oxygenates for energy and environmental purposes.

  19. [Flat-panel detector technology -State-of-the-art and future prospects-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    A flat-panel detector (FPD) is a long-awaited technology to implement the digital X-ray imaging technology into the radiological department. This paper describes the state-of-the-art technology and future prospects on the FPD technology. State-of-the-art technology was reviewed taking the CXDI series as an example. Several FPD-based systems have been introduced into the Japanese market since CXDI-11 opened it in November 1998. Accompanying CXDI-C2 for control, CXDI-22 for table position and CXDI-31 for portable, the CXDI series fulfills the requirement of the radiography room being a fully digitalized room. The FPD on the CXDI series is comprised of a scintillator (Gd(2)O(2)S:Tb(3+)) as a primary sensor in which the X-ray is captured and an amorphous silicon detector (LANMIT) as a secondary sensor in which the fluorescent light is detected. Since the scintillator is identical to that of the screen-film systems, it can be said as proven, durable and chemically stable and it is expected to produce the same image quality as the screen-film systems. CXDI-31, a portable FPD-based system, was developed targeting thinner dimensions, lightweight, durability and high spatial resolution. Thoroughly re-designing the mechanical structure and reducing the power consumption at the readout IC realized thinner dimensions. Introducing the portable note PC technologies successfully combined lightweight with durability. Improving the sensor process and re-designing the layout made the sensor high resolution without compromising the signal-to-noise ratio. Future prospects were overviewed in the aspect of technology and applications. Sensitivity, spatial resolution, frame rate and portability were described as the upcoming technology. Increasing gain and reducing noise will realize higher sensitivity, especially by adopting the PbI(2), HgI(2) or such photoconductor materials as the primary sensor. Pixelized amplifier will also achieve higher sensitivity. Layered sensor designed such

  20. Validation of High-Energy Nuclear Models : State-of-the-Art and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Leray, Sylvie; Boudard, Alain; Cugnon, Joseph; David, J.-C.; Ducret, J.-E.; Le Gentil, E.; Pietri, S.; Volant, Claude

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art regarding the predicting capabilities of some of the physics models available in MCNPX for Accelerator-Driven System design is discussed. The identified remaining deficiencies, which originate either from a lack of experimental data or from not well understood physics mechanisms, are stressed. To solve these problems, more constraining experiments are now needed to allow a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanisms. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Peer...

  1. The State of the Art in Integrating Machine Learning into Visual Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Endert, A.; Ribarsky, W.; Turkay, C.; Wong, B.L.W.; Nabney, I.T.; Diaz-Blanco, I.; Rossi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Visual analytics systems combine machine learning or other analytic techniques with interactive data visualization to promote sensemaking and analytical reasoning. It is through such techniques that people can make sense of large, complex data. While progress has been made, the tactful combination of machine learning and data visualization is still under-explored. This state-of-the-art report presents a summary of the progress that has been made by highlighting and synthesizing select researc...

  2. Validation of high-energy nuclear models: State-of-the-art and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leray, Sylvie [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: sleray@cea.fr; Boudard, Alain [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Cugnon, Joseph [Universite de Liege, allee du 6 aout 17, Bat.B5, B-4000 Liege 1, Belgique (Belgium); David, Jean-Christophe [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Ducret, Jean-Eric [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Le Gentil, Eric [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Pietri, Stephane [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Volant, Claude [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France)

    2006-06-23

    The state-of-the-art regarding the predicting capabilities of some of the physics models available in MCNPX for Accelerator-Driven System design is discussed. The identified remaining deficiencies, which originate either from a lack of experimental data or from not well understood physics mechanisms, are stressed. To solve these problems, more constraining experiments are now needed to allow a deeper understanding of the reaction mechanisms.

  3. CapDEM TD - Modeling and Simulation (Role and Tools) State of the Art Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electronic warfare (EW) and Information Operations Warfare (lOW): • Engineer warfare and countermines; . Nuclear , biological, and chemical (NBC); • Ground-to...DESCRIPTION REMARKS CLASSES Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES 2000). AWES simulates artillery, mortar fire, smoke, nuclear , biological...Simulation (Role and Tools) State of the Art Report 4. AUTEURS (Nom de familia , prenom et inltiales. lndiquer les grades milltaires, ex.: Bleau, Maj

  4. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  6. Technology Entrepreneurship – State of the Art and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to increase an understanding of technology entrepreneurship phenomenon by presenting state-of-the-art work by scholars. We aimed to map the technology entrepreneurship science using bibliometrics technique. We start with analysis of popularity of the field of technology entrepreneurship as a science. Then, we conduct research by years, journals and citations. Next, we analyze the main themes of technology entrepreneurship. Our findings suggest that there are only three fields of sciences that focus on the area of technology entrepreneurship. Finally we present 8 themes of researchers’ interest in the period 1986-2014 and the common trends in ‘technology entrepreneurship’ research.

  7. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard M.; Eriksen, Bo

    undertaken to address the problem. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art will be organized in four sections: (1) Theoretical and Practical Issues, (2) Fit, Contingency and Configuration, (3) Design and Performance, and (4) The Dynamics of Adaptation and Change. The book will be a broad...... theory, principles and concepts, and on the basis of this benchmark publication, the editors will encourage researchers and students to further develop the field. The recent development in organization design has been sporadic; hence this book will be an important step in creating better theoretical...

  8. State-of-the-art HDU's critical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Philip

    2012-09-01

    Phil Green, senior project engineer at independent building services company, Shepherd Engineering Services (SES), describes SES's creation a new 'state-of-the-art', 4.5 million sterling pounds, high dependency unit (HDU) at The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough. Completion of the 16-bed HDU, part of a wider South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust investment programme to remodel and enhance the hospital's facilities, follows last September's completion, also by SES, of the Endeavour Unit (HEJ - November 2011), a new oncology satellite building built as a key element of the Trust's 30 million sterling pounds expansion and redevelopment of its Radiotherapy Unit at the Middlesbrough hospital.

  9. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano; Cherubini, Andrea; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Iosa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems) and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented.

  10. Robot-assisted gait training for stroke patients: current state of the art and perspectives of robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano; Cherubini, Andrea; De Angelis, Domenico; Venturiero, Vincenzo; Coiro, Paola; Iosa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we give a brief outline of robot-mediated gait training for stroke patients, as an important emerging field in rehabilitation. Technological innovations are allowing rehabilitation to move toward more integrated processes, with improved efficiency and less long-term impairments. In particular, robot-mediated neurorehabilitation is a rapidly advancing field, which uses robotic systems to define new methods for treating neurological injuries, especially stroke. The use of robots in gait training can enhance rehabilitation, but it needs to be used according to well-defined neuroscientific principles. The field of robot-mediated neurorehabilitation brings challenges to both bioengineering and clinical practice. This article reviews the state of the art (including commercially available systems) and perspectives of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation for walking recovery. A critical revision, including the problems at stake regarding robotic clinical use, is also presented. PMID:28553117

  11. Floating macrophytes on the wastewater treatment: a state of the art review Macrófitas flotantes en el tratamiento de aguas residuales: una revisión del estado del arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatments with floating macrophytes have proven effective in the remediation of waters with nutrient content, organic matter and toxic substances such as arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper, lead, chromium, and mercury. Its importance lies in its ability to be used in rural communities due to their low consumption of conventional energy and practicality in the assembly and operation of treatment systems. Still, it has not been clarified thoroughly the processes taking place in the purification of wastewater with floating macrophytes. This article attempts to review the existing literature on floating macrophytes, thus identifying the general aspects, advantages and disadvantages of using these plants for treating wastewater. Similarly, identify the most important background since the beginning of this application. There will be described models and design criteria mostly employed, rigorously reviewing removal efficiencies of different species of floating macrophytes. Finally it will be addressed as discussed current perspectives and future challenges for the development of this technique.Los tratamientos de aguas residuales que involucran macrófitas flotantes han demostrado ser eficientes en la remediación de aguas con contenidos de nutrientes, materia orgánica y sustancias toxicas como arsénico, zinc, cadmio, cobre, plomo, cromo, y mercurio. Su importancia radica en su aptitud para ser empleados en núcleos rurales debido a su bajo consumo de energía convencional y la practicidad en el montaje y operación de los sistemas de tratamiento. Aun así, todavía no se han esclarecido rigurosamente los procesos que tienen lugar en la depuración de aguas residuales con macrófitas flotantes. El presente artículo pretende hacer un recorrido por la literatura existente sobre macrófitas flotantes, identificando los aspectos generales, ventajas y desventajas del uso de estas plantas para depurar aguas residuales. De igual manera

  12. State-of-the-art lentiviral vectors for research use: risk assessment and biosafety recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Katia; Gijsbers, Rik; Toelen, Jaan; Schambach, Axel; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Verheust, Céline; Debyser, Zeger; Herman, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) are competent gene transfer vehicles, as used for both research and gene therapy applications, because of their stable integration in non-dividing and dividing cells and long-term transgene expression. Along with our understanding that LV offer solutions for gene therapy, biosafety concerns have uncovered risks due to insertional mutagenesis, the generation of replication competent lentiviruses (RCL) and vector mobilization. Researchers therefore continue to devote significant efforts in designing LV with improved efficacy and biosafety features. The choice of a particular LV system for experimental studies is often driven by functional considerations, including increased productivity and/or transduction efficiency. The design of safer vectors has also directly benefited researchers allowing them to conduct experimental studies with lower risk. Currently, vectors combine improved safety features (that decrease the risk of recombination and vector mobilization) with increased transduction efficiency. Hence, risks associated with the inadvertent transduction of cells of the investigator gain greater importance in assessing the overall risk of these vectors and become an important biosafety concern. This review outlines the different strategies used to improve LV biosafety by comparing state-of-the-art and emerging LV production systems and highlighting biosafety issues that can arise during their contained use. The few existing national and international biosafety recommendations that specifically address the use of LV in research are discussed and recommendations for most common research activities using LV are proposed.

  13. State of the art and the dark side of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarò, Antonio

    2010-05-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder that involves the degeneration of motor neurons, muscle atrophy, and paralysis. In a few familiar forms of ALS, mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene have been held responsible for the degeneration of motor neurons. Nevertheless, after the discovery of the SOD1 mutations no consensus has emerged as to which cells, tissues and pathways are primarily implicated in the pathogenic events that lead to ALS. Ubiquitous overexpression of mutant SOD1 in transgenic animals recapitulates the pathological features of ALS. However, the toxicity of mutant SOD1 is not necessarily limited to the central nervous system. Views about ALS pathogenesis are now enriched by the recent discovery of mutations in a pair of DNA/RNA-binding proteins called TDP-43 and FUS/TLS as causes of familial and sporadic forms of ALS. Although the steps that lead to the pathological state are well defined, several fundamental issues are still controversial: are the motor neurons the first direct targets of ALS; and what is the contribution of non-neuronal cells, if any, to the pathogenesis of ALS? The state of the art of ALS pathogenesis and the open questions are discussed in this review.

  14. State-of-the-art characterization techniques for advanced lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Amine, Khalil

    2017-03-01

    To meet future needs for industries from personal devices to automobiles, state-of-the-art rechargeable lithium-ion batteries will require both improved durability and lowered costs. To enhance battery performance and lifetime, understanding electrode degradation mechanisms is of critical importance. Various advanced in situ and operando characterization tools developed during the past few years have proven indispensable for optimizing battery materials, understanding cell degradation mechanisms, and ultimately improving the overall battery performance. Here we review recent progress in the development and application of advanced characterization techniques such as in situ transmission electron microscopy for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Using three representative electrode systems—layered metal oxides, Li-rich layered oxides and Si-based or Sn-based alloys—we discuss how these tools help researchers understand the battery process and design better battery systems. We also summarize the application of the characterization techniques to lithium-sulfur and lithium-air batteries and highlight the importance of those techniques in the development of next-generation batteries.

  15. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Cells for Bone Regereneration: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue represents a hot topic in regenerative medicine because of the tissue source abundance, the relatively easy retrieval, and the inherent biological properties of mesenchymal stem cells residing in its stroma. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs are indeed multipotent somatic stem cells exhibiting growth kinetics and plasticity, proved to induce efficient tissue regeneration in several biomedical applications. A defined consensus for their isolation, classification, and characterization has been very recently achieved. In particular, bone tissue reconstruction and regeneration based on ASCs has emerged as a promising approach to restore structure and function of bone compromised by injury or disease. ASCs have been used in combination with osteoinductive biomaterial and/or osteogenic molecules, in either static or dynamic culture systems, to improve bone regeneration in several animal models. To date, few clinical trials on ASC-based bone reconstruction have been concluded and proved effective. The aim of this review is to dissect the state of the art on ASC use in bone regenerative applications in the attempt to provide a comprehensive coverage of the topics, from the basic laboratory to recent clinical applications.

  16. Nanophotonic integration in state-of-the-art CMOS foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Jason S; Khilo, Anatol; Holzwarth, Charles W; Popović, Milos A; Li, Hanqing; Sun, Jie; Bonifield, Thomas; Hollingsworth, Randy; Kärtner, Franz X; Smith, Henry I; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J

    2011-01-31

    We demonstrate a monolithic photonic integration platform that leverages the existing state-of-the-art CMOS foundry infrastructure. In our approach, proven XeF2 post-processing technology and compliance with electronic foundry process flows eliminate the need for specialized substrates or wafer bonding. This approach enables intimate integration of large numbers of nanophotonic devices alongside high-density, high-performance transistors at low initial and incremental cost. We demonstrate this platform by presenting grating-coupled, microring-resonator filter banks fabricated in an unmodified 28 nm bulk-CMOS process by sharing a mask set with standard electronic projects. The lithographic fidelity of this process enables the high-throughput fabrication of second-order, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter banks that achieve low insertion loss without post-fabrication trimming.

  17. Structural DNA nanotechnology: state of the art and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Nangreave, Jeanette; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2014-08-13

    Over the past three decades DNA has emerged as an exceptional molecular building block for nanoconstruction due to its predictable conformation and programmable intra- and intermolecular Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions. A variety of convenient design rules and reliable assembly methods have been developed to engineer DNA nanostructures of increasing complexity. The ability to create designer DNA architectures with accurate spatial control has allowed researchers to explore novel applications in many directions, such as directed material assembly, structural biology, biocatalysis, DNA computing, nanorobotics, disease diagnosis, and drug delivery. This Perspective discusses the state of the art in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology and presents some of the challenges and opportunities that exist in DNA-based molecular design and programming.

  18. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  19. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  20. Biomarkers, designs, and interpretations of resting-state fMRI in translational pharmacological research: A review of state-of-the-Art, challenges, and opportunities for studying brain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van Osch, Matthias J P; Duff, Eugene P; Carbonell, Felix; Nickerson, Lisa D; Becerra, Lino; Dahan, Albert; Evans, Alan C; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Wise, Richard; Zijdenbos, Alex P; van Gerven, Joop M

    2017-04-01

    A decade of research and development in resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) has opened new translational and clinical research frontiers. This review aims to bridge between technical and clinical researchers who seek reliable neuroimaging biomarkers for studying drug interactions with the brain. About 85 pharma-RSfMRI studies using BOLD signal (75% of all) or arterial spin labeling (ASL) were surveyed to investigate the acute effects of psychoactive drugs. Experimental designs and objectives include drug fingerprinting dose-response evaluation, biomarker validation and calibration, and translational studies. Common biomarkers in these studies include functional connectivity, graph metrics, cerebral blood flow and the amplitude and spectrum of BOLD fluctuations. Overall, RSfMRI-derived biomarkers seem to be sensitive to spatiotemporal dynamics of drug interactions with the brain. However, drugs cause both central and peripheral effects, thus exacerbate difficulties related to biological confounds, structured noise from motion and physiological confounds, as well as modeling and inference testing. Currently, these issues are not well explored, and heterogeneities in experimental design, data acquisition and preprocessing make comparative or meta-analysis of existing reports impossible. A unifying collaborative framework for data-sharing and data-mining is thus necessary for investigating the commonalities and differences in biomarker sensitivity and specificity, and establishing guidelines. Multimodal datasets including sham-placebo or active control sessions and repeated measurements of various psychometric, physiological, metabolic and neuroimaging phenotypes are essential for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling and interpretation of the findings. We provide a list of basic minimum and advanced options that can be considered in design and analyses of future pharma-RSfMRI studies. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2276-2325, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The

  1. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Draxl, C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Brownsword, R. (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Oxford (United Kingdom)); Kariniotakis, G. (ARMINES, Paris (France)); Denhard, M. (ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom))

    2011-01-15

    This Deliverable of ANEMOS.plus (Advanced Tools for the Management of Electricity Grids with Large-Scale Wind Generation) and SafeWind projects presents the state of the art in wind power forecasting. More than 380 references of journal and conference papers have been reviewed. (LN)

  2. A Learning Patterns Perspective on Student Learning in Higher Education: State of the Art and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, Jan D.; Donche, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the state of the art of research and theory development on student learning patterns in higher education and beyond. First, the learning patterns perspective and the theoretical framework are introduced. Second, research published since 2004 on student learning patterns is systematically identified and…

  3. State-of-the-art of transcatheter treatment of aortic valve stenosis and the overview of the InFlow project aiming at developing the first Polish TAVI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Mateusz; Milewski, Krzysztof; Buszman, Piotr; Michalak, Magdalena; Domaradzki, Wojciech; Gerber, Witold; Śliwka, Joanna; Nożyński, Jerzy; Sobota, Michał; Hirnle, Piotr; Białek-Brodocz, Marzena; Zembala, Michał; Pawlak, Mariusz; Płowiecki, Emil; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Mężyk, Arkadiusz; Bochenek, Andrzej; Buszman, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Initial experience of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) or replacement (TAVR) has ap-peared as a promising minimally invasive technology for patients disqualified from surgical treatment (SAVR). Safety and efficacy of TAVI has been analyzed and assessed through numerous registries and trials. Furthermore, results obtained from comparative TAVI vs. SAVR trials proved that both treat¬ments can be considered equal in terms of post-procedural mortality and morbidity in high-risk, as well as lower risk patients. However, there are still some issues that have to be addressed, such as higher chance of paravalvular leakage, vascular injuries, conduction disturbances, malpositioning and the yet unmet problem of insufficient biological valves durability. Recent technological developments along with the learning curve of operators prove a great potential for improvement of TAVI and a chance of surpassing SAVR in various groups of patients in the near future. In pursuit of finding new solutions, the CardValve Consortium consisting of leading scientific and research institutions in Poland has been created. Under the name of InFlow and financial support from the National Center for Research and Development, they have started a project with the aim to design, create and implement into clinical practice the first, Polish, low-profile TAVI valve system, utilizing not only biological but also artificial, polymeric-based prosthesis. This review focuses on current developments in TAVI technologies including the InFlow project.

  4. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb E. Kunze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on a perforated domain.

  6. Workstation allows engineers to design state-of-the-art plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopocy, D.M.; Stenzel, W.C.; Kalinik, J.B.; Tokarski, T.A. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)); Pace, S.E. (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    This article reviews the development of a workstation for computer-aided design and simulation of state-of-the-art power plants. The topics of the article include the project team, technology guideline modules, conceptual designs, workstation design, innovative software technologies, and typical guideline module. The advanced technologies being addressed by the project are appropriate for a wide range of fuels and power technologies. They include advanced pulverized coal-fired plants, combustion turbines, combined-cycle, and circulating fluidized-bed combustion plants.

  7. Risk analysis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies in animals: state-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; de Koeijer, Aline; Hagenaars, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    ). Nevertheless, the decline in the BSE epidemic in the UK and most European countries demonstrates that management has been, for the most part, sucessful. Literature pertaining to the three inter-related facets of risk analysis: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication of TSE's of animal origin...... was reviewed and used to describe the state-of-the-art of risk analysis for TSEs.......The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis of the last two decades has shown that proper interaction of risk assessment, risk management and risk communication is essential. Mathematical models and risk assessments have been used as a basis for BSE risk management options and much...

  8. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes...... is the limited knowledge base; international collaboration is needed to study the environmental physiology of a wider range of species. Multifactorial field and laboratory studies on biomarkers hold promise to relate ecophysiology directly to habitat quality and population status. The 'Fry paradigm' could have...

  9. Assessment of the State of the Art of Integrated Vehicle Health Management Technologies as Applicable to Damage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A survey of literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies assessed the state of the art in current integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) aircraft technologies. These are the technologies that are used for assessing vehicle health at the system and subsystem level. This study reports on how these technologies are employed by major military and commercial platforms for detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation. Over 200 papers from five conferences from the time period of 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. Over 30 of these IVHM technologies are then mapped into the 17 different adverse event damage conditions identified in a previous study. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IVHM Project.

  10. Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Estríngana, Pablo; Dunkerley, David; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    Shrublands and Soil Erosion. An State-of-the-Art Arid and semiarid regions occupy two-fifth of the continents (Reynolds et al., 2007). These regions are characterized by dry climatic conditions, recurrent droughts and a scant rainfall pattern with a marked seasonality and a high inter-annual variability which makes water to be a scant resource and vegetation to follow a high variability spatial distribution pattern (Breshears et al., 1998; Cecchi et al., 2006; Dunkerley, 2008). These conditions make these areas more sensitive to climate change (Rowell, 2005) and to land use change as a consequence of land abandonment (Poyatos et al., 2003; Delgado et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010), increasing the risk of desertification (Puigdefábregas and Mendizabal, 1998; Geeson et al., 2002), in such a way that 65-70% of arid and semiarid areas are vulnerable to this degradation process (UNEP, 1991). Soil Erosion and Land Degradation are closely related to the changes in the vegetation cover (Zhao et al., 2013). Although other factors such as rainfall intensity or slope (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) the plant cover is the main factor that controls the soil erosion, controlling the infiltration and runoff generation (Cerdà, 1998a; Kargar Chigani et al., 2012; Haregeweyn, 2013). Soil erosion show non-sustainable rates under these regions, such as under Mediterranean conditions (Cerdà et al., 2010) and on agriculture land (Cerdà et al; 2007; 2009) due to climatic conditions, to parent material and to the roughed terrain (Romero Díaz et al., 2010). The traditional impact of grazing, of extremely intense fires, of ploughing and the widespread use of herbicides on agriculture, the increase of the road and railway embankments and the agricultural land abandonment cause vegetation removal. Canopy cover partitions rainfall reducing the amount of water reaching the soil and the kinetic energy of rainfall drops, protecting the soil against the impact of rainfall drops. Vegetation

  11. Spatially explicit multimedia fate models for pollutants in Europe: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, A; Sarigiannis, D A; Vizcaino, P

    2010-08-15

    A review by Hollander et al. (in preparation), discusses the relative potentials, advantages and shortcomings of spatial and non spatial models of chemical fate, highlighting that spatially explicit models may be needed for specific purposes. The present paper reviews the state of the art in spatially explicit chemical fate and transport modeling in Europe. We summarize the three main approaches currently adopted in spatially explicit modeling, namely (1) multiple box models, (2) numerical solutions of simultaneous advection-dispersion equations (ADE) in air, soil and water, and (3) the development of meta-models. As all three approaches experience limitations, we describe in further detail geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling as an alternative approach allowing a simple, yet spatially explicit description of chemical fate. We review the input data needed, and the options available for their retrieval at the European scale. We also discuss the importance of, and limitations in model evaluation. We observe that the high uncertainty in chemical emissions and physico-chemical behavior in the environment make realistic simulations difficult to obtain. Therefore we envisage a shift in model use from process simulation to hypothesis testing, in which explaining the discrepancies between observed and computed chemical concentrations in the environment takes importance over prediction per se. This shift may take advantage of using simple models in GIS with residual uses of complex models for detailed studies. It also calls for tighter joint interpretation of models and spatially distributed monitoring datasets, and more refined spatial representation of environmental drivers such as landscape and climate variables, and better emission estimates. In summary, we conclude that the problem is not "how to compute" (i.e. emphasis on numerical methods, spatial/temporal discretization, quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis...) but "what to compute" (i

  12. Nanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reatul; Palazzo, Claudio; Evrard, Brigitte; Piel, Geraldine

    2016-04-10

    Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-the-art technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3-5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood-brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood-brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. User Authentication: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    control devices and control the users’ movement about a secure plant , operating with direct readers: magnetic stripe, bar code, tuned eddy-current...dirty, or have a cut on it; a user can be hoarse from speaking, or suffer from laryngitis. Perhaps his eyes are red and his hands are shaky, so

  14. Breastfeeding and postpartum depression: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Figueiredo

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: Studies demonstrate that breastfeeding can protect mothers from postpartum depression, and are starting to clarify which biological and psychological processes may explain this protection. However, there are still equivocal results in the literature that may be explained by the methodological limitations presented by some studies.

  15. State of the Art Review: Information Processing in Microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-06

    matrix conversions, operators, tensor treatment , integration and other functionalities. [0034] (★corresponding to Claim 19) In the...surface 1201, ViH is highest potential beyond which noise overshadows significant changes 1202. Similarly we have to determine range of probe

  16. Plastic heat exchangers: a state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Holtz, R E; Koopman, R N; Marciniak, T J; MacFarlane, D R

    1979-07-01

    Significant increases in energy utilization efficiency can be achieved through the recovery of low-temperature rejected heat. This energy conserving possibility provides incentive for the development of heat exchangers which could be employed in applications where conventional units cannot be used. Some unique anticorrosion and nonstick characteristics of plastics make this material very attractive for heat recovery where condensation, especially sulfuric acid, and fouling occur. Some of the unique characteristics of plastics led to the commercial success of DuPont's heat exchangers utilizing polytetrafluoroethylene (trade name Teflon) tubes. Attributes which were exploited in this application were the extreme chemical inertness of the material and its flexibility, which enabled utilization in odd-shaped spaces. The wide variety of polymeric materials available ensures chemical inertness for almost any application. Lower cost, compoundability with fillers to improve thermal/mechanical properties, and versatile fabrication methods are incentives for many uses. Also, since many plastics resist corrosion, they can be employed in lower temperature applications (< 436 K), where condensation can occur and metal units have been unable to function. It is clear that if application and design can be merged to produce a cost-effective alternate to present methods of handling low-temperature rejected heat, then there is significant incentive for plastic heat exchangers, to replace traditional metallic heat exchangers or to be used in services where metals are totally unsuited.

  17. State-of-the-art review of phase equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    High-pressure phase-equilibrium calculations using an equation of state are more sensitive to the mixing rules than to details in the effect of density or temperature on pressure. Attention must be given to the problem of how to extend equations of state to mixtures. One possible technique is provided by perturbation theory; another by superposition of chemical equilibria. At low or moderate pressures, vapor-phase corrections are often important. When specific intermolecular forces produce formation of molecular aggregates, strong deviations from ideal-gas behavior can be significant even at pressures well below 1 bar. When vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reduced using conventional expressions for the excess Gibbs energy, the resulting binary parameters tend to be partially correlated, it difficult, but no impossible, to calculate ternary liquid-liquid equilibria using binary parameters only. New models for calculating properties of liquid-phase mixtures mist allow for changes in free volume to give consideration to the effect of mixing on changes in rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. Liquid-phase volumetric effects are also important in describing the solubilities of gases in solvent mixtures. Therefore, future liquid-phase models should incorporate a liquid-phase equation of state, either of the van der Waals type or, perhaps, as given by the direct-correlation function theory of liquids.

  18. Syngas biomethanation: state-of-the-art review and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimalt Alemany, Antonio; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2018-01-01

    Significant research efforts are currently being made worldwide to develop more efficient biomethane production processes from a variety of waste streams. The biomethanation of biomass-derived syngas can contribute to increasing the potential of methane production as it opens the way for the conv...

  19. Floating Breakwaters: State-of-the-Art Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    waves, vertically weighted to trap long-period waves) (Fig. IbO ). The valve sheets are shown in 219 Horizontal Wave Trap Vertical Wave Trap Anchor...channels, the mooring line consisted of a solid strand of stainless steel music wire (0.01-inch diameter). For tests in the 9-foot channel, the line

  20. State-of-the-Art Review on Shotcrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    and 75 under the direction of Messrs. J. P. Sale and R. G. Ahlvin, Chief and Assistant Chief, re- spectively, of the Soils and Pavements...34Construction de Tunnels par la nouvelle Methode Autrichienne," Revue de 1*Industrie Minerale . Cahier U, 1972, pp 22-38. 13. Rabcewicz, L. v

  1. Primate theory of mind: a state of the art review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Såvel mennesket som andre primater have store hjerner med store hjernebarker. Det er blevet foreslået, at primaters store hjerner skyldes de komplekse sociale krav, der kommer af at skulle leve i store grupper. Inden for de sidste 40 år er der blevet lavet meget forskning inden for primaters soci...

  2. Dissecting Kawasaki disease: a state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, S M; van Stijn, D; Burgner, D; Levin, M; Kuipers, I M; Hutten, B A; Kuijpers, T W

    2017-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric vasculitis with coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as its main complication. The diagnosis is based on the presence of persistent fever and clinical features including exanthema, lymphadenopathy, conjunctival injection, and changes to the mucosae and extremities. Although the etiology remains unknown, the current consensus is that it is likely caused by an (infectious) trigger initiating an abnormal immune response in genetically predisposed children. Treatment consists of high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and is directed at preventing the development of CAA. Unfortunately, 10-20% of all patients fail to respond to IVIG and these children need additional anti-inflammatory treatment. Coronary artery lesions are diagnosed by echocardiography in the acute and subacute phases. Both absolute arterial diameters and z-scores, adjusted for height and weight, are used as criteria for CAA. Close monitoring of CAA is important as ischemic symptoms or myocardial infarction due to thrombosis or stenosis can occur. These complications are most likely to arise in the largest, so-called giant CAA. Apart from the presence of CAA, it is unclear whether KD causes an increased cardiovascular risk due to the vasculitis itself. Many aspects of KD remain unknown, although there is growing knowledge on the etiology, treatment, and development and classification of CAA. Since children with previous KD are entering adulthood, long-term follow-up is increasingly important. What is known: • Kawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric vasculitis with coronary artery damage as its main complication. • Although KD approaches its 50th birthday since its first description, many aspects of the disease remain poorly understood. What is new: • In recent years, multiple genetic candidate pathways involved in KD have been identified, with recently promising information about the ITPKC pathway. • As increasing numbers of KD patients are reaching adulthood, increasing information is available about the long-term consequences of coronary artery damage and broader cardiovascular risk.

  3. State of the Art in Large-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Tyson E.; Cosh, Michael Harold; Cuenca, Richard H.; Dorigo, Wouter; Draper, Clara S.; Hagimoto, Yutaka; Kerr, Yan H.; Larson, Kristine M.; Njoku, Eni Gerald; Small, Eric E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture is an essential climate variable influencing land atmosphere interactions, an essential hydrologic variable impacting rainfall runoff processes, an essential ecological variable regulating net ecosystem exchange, and an essential agricultural variable constraining food security. Large-scale soil moisture monitoring has advanced in recent years creating opportunities to transform scientific understanding of soil moisture and related processes. These advances are being driven by researchers from a broad range of disciplines, but this complicates collaboration and communication. For some applications, the science required to utilize large-scale soil moisture data is poorly developed. In this review, we describe the state of the art in large-scale soil moisture monitoring and identify some critical needs for research to optimize the use of increasingly available soil moisture data. We review representative examples of 1) emerging in situ and proximal sensing techniques, 2) dedicated soil moisture remote sensing missions, 3) soil moisture monitoring networks, and 4) applications of large-scale soil moisture measurements. Significant near-term progress seems possible in the use of large-scale soil moisture data for drought monitoring. Assimilation of soil moisture data for meteorological or hydrologic forecasting also shows promise, but significant challenges related to model structures and model errors remain. Little progress has been made yet in the use of large-scale soil moisture observations within the context of ecological or agricultural modeling. Opportunities abound to advance the science and practice of large-scale soil moisture monitoring for the sake of improved Earth system monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  4. The state-of-the-art of power electronics in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi, Hirofumi

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, power electronics has been developing by leaps and bounds without saturation to become the key technology essential to modern society and human life as well as to electrical engineering. This paper mainly focuses on the state-of-the-art of power electronics technology and its medium to high-power applications because the author cannot survey the whole spectrum of power electronics ranging from a 5 W switching regulator to a 2.8 GW high-voltage DC transmission system now ...

  5. Development of State of the Art Solid State Lasers for Altimetry and other LIDAR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes work performed and research accomplished through the end of 1997. During this time period, we have designed and fabricated two lasers for flight LIDAR applications to medium altitudes (Laser Vegetation Imaging System designs LVIS 1 and LVIS 2), designed one earth orbiting LIDAR transmitter (VCL-Alt), and continued work on a high rep-rate LIDAR laser (Raster Scanned Altimeter, RASCAL). Additionally, a 'White Paper' was prepared which evaluates the current state of the art of Nd:YAG lasers and projects efficiencies to the year 2004. This report is attached as Appendix 1 of this report.

  6. [The state of the art on nutrition, food safety and food security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Lorini, Chiara; Porchia, Barbara Rita; Capecchi, Leonardo; Malavolti, Marcella; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, public health is experiencing a phase of crisis. A contraction of services and a staff reallocation have affected in particular Food Hygiene services. We explored Pubmed and Google Ngram Viewer© to define the state of the art of research in food and nutritional field from a quantitative point of view and we focused on some areas of interest in terms of improvement of professional practice. The Italian contribution to food and nutritional research is still limited. Our findings seem to demonstrate the need of an alliance between the world of research and Public Health services, so as to develop a sustainable and effective health system.

  7. Survey State of the Art: Electrical Load Management Techniques and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-31

    AC#-A4 03 SURVEY STATE OF THE ART: ELECTRICAL LOAD NAH A N ENT 1/3TECHNIQUES FWD EQUIPMENT(U) ENV RO-NANAGERENT NO U MLM RESEARCH INC SPRINGFIELD... Distributors continued rex page TRADELINE " Load Control Systems 7~W7OtO/2OE.G.H end W7040H continued Time-of.Oa y Order Number Demand Limit Duty Cycle...Additional equipment, accessories, and parts available only through Authorized Honeywell Energy Management Distributors AVAILABLE ACCESSORIES W972B1000 Watt

  8. Discovery Mondays "State-of-the-art technologies for precision"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic plate drilled with high precision in CERN’s workshop. The diameter of each hole is only 0.02 millimetres, comparable to the diameter of a hair.Scientists have to be infinitely precise to study the infinitely small. Thus, even though the LHC is the world’s largest accelerator, it has to be aligned to within a tenth of a millimetre. The detectors weigh several thousand tonnes but are capable of detecting the tiniest vibration of the Earth. Join us at the next Discovery Monday to find out about CERN’s state-of-the-art tools for achieving the degrees of resolution required in the field of particle physics. Don’t miss this opportunity to discover the world of precision! The event will be conducted in FrenchCome along to the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 5 November from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/

  9. State-of-the-Art Beta Detection and Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Hamby

    2008-08-15

    The research funded by this NEER grant establishes the framework for a detailed understanding of the challenges in beta dosimetry, especially in the presence of a mixed radiation field. The work also stimulated the thinking of the research group which will lead to new concepts in digital signal processing to allow collection of detection signals and real-time analysis such that simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy can take place. The work described herein (with detail in the many publications that came out of this research) was conducted in a manner that provided dissertation and thesis topics for three students, one of whom was completely funded by this grant. The overall benefit of the work came in the form of a dramatic shift in signal processing that is normally conducted in analog pulse shape analysis. Analog signal processing was shown not to be feasible for this type of work; digital signal processing was a must. This, in turn, led the research team to a new understanding of pulse analysis, one in which expands the state-of-the-art in simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy with a single detector.

  10. State of the art in marketing hospital foodservice departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, C W; Shanklin, C W

    1985-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the state of the art relative to the utilization of marketing techniques within hospital foodservice departments throughout the United States and to determine whether any relationships existed between the degree of utilization of marketing techniques and selected demographic characteristics of the foodservice administrators and/or operations. A validated questionnaire was mailed to 600 randomly selected hospital foodservice administrators requesting information related to marketing in their facilities. Forty-five percent of the questionnaires were returned and analyzed for frequency of response and significant relationship between variables. Chi-square was used for nominal data and Spearman rho for ranked data. Approximately 73% of the foodservice administrators stated that marketing was extremely important in the success of a hospital foodservice department. Respondents (79%) further indicated that marketing had become more important in their departments in the past 2 years. Departmental records, professional journals, foodservice suppliers, observation, and surveys were the sources most often used to obtain marketing data, a responsibility generally assumed by the foodservice director (86.2%). Merchandising, public relations, and word-of-mouth reputation were regarded as the most important aspects of marketing. Increased sales, participation, good will, departmental recognition, and employee satisfaction were used most frequently to evaluate the success of implemented marketing techniques. Marketing audits as a means of evaluating the success of marketing were used to a limited extent by the respondents.

  11. Protons and more: state of the art in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Indrani S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of modern radiotherapy is to deliver a precise high dose of radiation which will result in reproductive death of the cells. Radiation should transverse within the tumour volume whilst minimising damage to surrounding normal tissue. Overall 40% of cancers which are cured will have received radiotherapy. Current state of the art treatment will incorporate cross-sectional imaging and multiple high energy X-ray beams in processes called intensity modulated radiotherapy and image guided radiotherapy. Brachytherapy enables very high radiation doses to be delivered by the direct passage of a radiation source through or within the tumour volume and similar results can be achieved using rotational stereotactic X-ray beam techniques. Protons have the characteristics of particle beams which deposit their energy in a finite fixed peak at depth in tissue with no dose beyond this point - the Bragg peak. This has advantages in certain sites such as the spine adjacent to the spinal cord and particularly in children when the overall volume of tissue receiving radiation can be minimised. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  12. STATE OF THE ART: INTEGRATING SERVICES FOR MEGA EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. B. Garay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state of the art of a simplified model for integration of services in mega events. The project context, which was financed by the National Research Council – CNPq, is divided into six major areas or functional groups: Urban Mobility, Tourism, Airports, Security, Energy and Telecommunications. The proposal is described in layers, as an infrastructure model of integration and services evaluation, describing its main layers and interaction processes. The proposal described in this paper is restricted to the telecommunication subproject, however, in the modeling of the scenario for the study case, it was necessary to considerate requirements and variables that are common to all subprojects. In the specification process of these requirements, we noticed important processes that interact with some sectors in the city of São Paulo, however, in the mean time, we noticed some failures regarding the integration and collaboration performed by administrators elements of stadiums as main focus in the mega event and part of our case study. Currently, the proposal is in its first version as open software for the evaluation of the services quality and the mega event infrastructure through the use of performance indicators.

  13. State-of-the-art report on piping fracture mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Olson, R.J.; Scott, P.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report is an in-depth summary of the state-of-the-art in nuclear piping fracture mechanics. It represents the culmination of 20 years of work done primarily in the US, but also attempts to include important aspects from other international efforts. Although the focus of this work was for the nuclear industry, the technology is also applicable in many cases to fossil plants, petrochemical/refinery plants, and the oil and gas industry. In compiling this detailed summary report, all of the equations and details of the analysis procedure or experimental results are not necessarily included. Rather, the report describes the important aspects and limitations, tells the reader where he can go for further information, and more importantly, describes the accuracy of the models. Nevertheless, the report still contains over 150 equations and over 400 references. The main sections of this report describe: (1) the evolution of piping fracture mechanics history relative to the developments of the nuclear industry, (2) technical developments in stress analyses, material property aspects, and fracture mechanics analyses, (3) unresolved issues and technically evolving areas, and (4) a summary of conclusions of major developments to date.

  14. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  15. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle. Volume 1 (of 2 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.A.; Wooldridge, G.A.

    1978-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to prepare a preliminary design of a power train for a state-of-the-art 4-passenger electric vehicle capable of operating at highway speeds using conventional lead-acid batteries and to predict the expected performance with emphasis on maximizing range and overall system efficiency on the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle.

  17. State-of-the-art MRI techniques in neuroradiology: principles, pitfalls, and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallon, Magalie [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, UMR CNRS 5220 - INSERM U1044, INSA de Lyon, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon-Saint-Etienne, Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint Etienne (France); Cuvinciuc, Victor; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Haller, Sven [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Neuroradiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Delattre, Benedicte; Toso-Patel, Seema; Becker, Minerva [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Merlini, Laura [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the most relevant state-of-the-art magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, which are clinically available to investigate brain diseases. MR acquisition techniques addressed include notably diffusion imaging (diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)) as well as perfusion imaging (dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), arterial spin labeling (ASL), and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)). The underlying models used to process these images are described, as well as the theoretic underpinnings of quantitative diffusion and perfusion MR imaging-based methods. The technical requirements and how they may help to understand, classify, or follow-up neurological pathologies are briefly summarized. Techniques, principles, advantages but also intrinsic limitations, typical artifacts, and alternative solutions developed to overcome them are discussed. In this article, we also review routinely available three-dimensional (3D) techniques in neuro MRI, including state-of-the-art and emerging angiography sequences, and briefly introduce more recently proposed 3D quantitative neuro-anatomy sequences, and new technology, such as multi-slice and multi-transmit imaging. (orig.)

  18. MRI sequences in head and neck radiology. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Henninger, Benjamin; Kremser, Christian; Jaschke, Werner [Medical Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-05-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head and neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head and neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head and neck MRI. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression techniques (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are important tools in the diagnostic workup of inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors including staging. Additional sequences (SSFP (CISS, FIESTA), SPACE, VISTA, 3D-FLAIR) are used for pathologies of the cranial nerves, labyrinth and evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease. Vessel and perfusion sequences (3D-TOF, TWIST/TRICKS angiography, DCE) are used in vascular contact syndromes, vascular malformations and analysis of microvascular parameters of tissue perfusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging (EPI-DWI, non-EPI-DWI, RESOLVE) is helpful in cholesteatoma imaging, estimation of malignancy, and evaluation of treatment response and posttreatment recurrence in head and neck cancer. Understanding of MRI sequences and close collaboration with referring physicians improves the diagnostic confidence of MRI in the daily routine and drives further research in this fascinating image modality.

  19. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume II. PV-T state-of-the-art survey and site/application pair selection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    As part of a project to develop feasibility assessments, design procedures, and reference designs for total energy systems that could use actively cooled concentrating photovoltaic collectors, a survey was conducted to provide an overview of available photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) technology. General issues associated with the design and installation of a PV-T system are identified. Electrical and thermal efficiencies for the line-focus Fresnel, the linear parabolic trough, and the point-focus Fresnel collectors are specified as a function of operating temperature, ambient temperature, and insolation. For current PV-T technologies, the line-focus Fresnel collector proved to have the highest thermal and electrical efficiencies, lowest array cost, and lowest land area requirement. But a separate feasibility analysis involving 11 site/application pairs showed that for most applications, the cost of the photovoltaic portion of a PV-T system is not recovered through the displacement of an electrical load, and use of a thermal-only system to displace the thermal load would be a more economical alternative. PV-T systems are not feasible for applications that have a small thermal load, a large steam requirement, or a high load return temperature. SAND82-7157/3 identifies the technical issues involved in designing a photovoltaic-thermal system and provides guidance for resolving such issues. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  20. Solar water detoxification: state of the art of the research in Spain; Detoxificacion solar de aguas residuales y desinfeccion: estado actual de la investigacion en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Martinez, M.; Cuesta Santianes, J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia Garcia, D.; Trevino Sanchez, A. C.; Berges Garcia, A.

    2010-07-01

    The CIEMAT's Foresight and Technology Watch Unit, whose technology watch management system is certified by Aenor as per standards UNE 16006:2006, has developed this study in order to review the state of the art of national research on solar water detoxification. to reach this goal, data bases of scientific publications, research projects and patents have been used. The technology watch information management solution VICUBO, developed by E-intelligent, was used as support tool for the afore-mentioned standard. (Author) 3 refs.

  1. Dosage optimization in positron emission tomography: state-of-the-art methods and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Fokou, Eleni; Tsoumpas, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is widely used nowadays for tumor staging and therapy response in the clinic. However, average PET radiation exposure has increased due to higher PET utilization. This study aims to review state-of-the-art PET tracer dosage optimization methods after accounting for the effects of human body attenuation and scan protocol parameters on the counting rate. In particular, the relationship between the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) and the dosage (NECR-dosage curve) for a range of clinical PET systems and body attenuation sizes will be systematically studied to prospectively estimate the minimum dosage required for sufficiently high NECR. The optimization criterion can be determined either as a function of the peak of the NECR-dosage curve or as a fixed NECR score when NECR uniformity across a patient population is important. In addition, the systematic NECR assessments within a controllable environment of realistic simulations and phantom experiments can lead to a NECR-dosage response model, capable of predicting the optimal dosage for every individual PET scan. Unlike conventional guidelines suggesting considerably large dosage levels for obese patients, NECR-based optimization recommends: i) moderate dosage to achieve 90% of peak NECR for obese patients, ii) considerable dosage reduction for slimmer patients such that uniform NECR is attained across the patient population, and iii) prolongation of scans for PET/MR protocols, where longer PET acquisitions are affordable due to lengthy MR sequences, with motion compensation becoming important then. Finally, the need for continuous adaptation of dosage optimization to emerging technologies will be discussed.

  2. Mazingira Centre: A state-of-the-art environmental research infrastructure in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Goopy, John; Mutuo, Paul; Korir, Daniel; Pelster, David; Wanyama, George

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs), performed in various terrestrial and marine ecosystems have led to a fundamental understanding of the Earth System during the last century. While there are numerous extant long-term measurements of GHGs across the globe, these are mainly located in developed countries of the northern hemisphere, leaving large regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) without a consolidated observational network. Moreover, in SSA also infrastructures capable of measuring GHGs following best scientific practice are lacking. The Mazingira Centre - a state-of-the-art environmental laboratory - hosted by the International Livestock Research Institute in Kenya has been established in 2013. The laboratory is equipped with state-of-the-art GHG measurement technology (gas chromatographs, animal respiration chambers, laser absorption spectrometers) and aims at providing fundamental environmental data (e.g. GHGs and auxiliary information) from the most common land-cover types in Eastern Africa and beyond. Thereby a special focus is given to mixed crop-livestock systems managed by smallholders. The first results from the activities of the Mazingira Centre show much lower GHG emissions from manure management and arable systems as commonly assumed using emission factor approaches (EFs). This highlights the need of direct, in-situ measurements from all land-cover types and agricultural systems in Eastern Africa. The Mazingira Centre is furthermore a core training facility for undergraduate and graduate students, technicians as well policy makers that report GHG emissions to the UNFCCC with reliable and accurate emissions factors.

  3. Biopesticides: state of the art and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, James N; Coats, Joel; Duke, Stephen O; Gross, Aaron D

    2014-12-03

    The use of biopesticides and related alternative management products is increasing. New tools, including semiochemicals and plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs), as well as botanical and microbially derived chemicals, are playing an increasing role in pest management, along with plant and animal genetics, biological control, cultural methods, and newer synthetics. The goal of this Perspective is to highlight promising new biopesticide research and development (R&D), based upon recently published work and that presented in the American Chemical Society (ACS) symposium "Biopesticides: State of the Art and Future Opportunities," as well as the authors' own perspectives. Although the focus is on biopesticides, included in this Perspective is progress with products exhibiting similar characteristics, namely those naturally occurring or derived from natural products. These are target specific, of low toxicity to nontarget organisms, reduced in persistence in the environment, and potentially usable in organic agriculture. Progress is being made, illustrated by the number of biopesticides and related products in the registration pipeline, yet major commercial opportunities exist for new bioherbicides and bionematicides, in part occasioned by the emergence of weeds resistant to glyphosate and the phase-out of methyl bromide. The emergence of entrepreneurial start-up companies, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fast track for biopesticides, and the availability of funding for registration-related R&D for biorational pesticides through the U.S. IR-4 program provide incentives for biopesticide development, but an expanded effort is warranted both in the United States and worldwide to support this relatively nascent industry.

  4. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the- Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the- Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and...Finally, a summary of the current state-of-the- art and future research recommendations will be discussed in Chapter 4. 1.1 Fiber-reinforced concrete

  5. Automated Headcount Systems. A State of the Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    assisted in in- stilling a merchandising approach to food service rather than a negative approach whereby we previously were working with the missed meal...those used on grocery tiems in the supermarket . Every borrower wi.l| have a registration card. The circulation control terminal (CCTI will read these

  6. Machine learning for medical diagnosis: history, state of the art and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, I

    2001-08-01

    The paper provides an overview of the development of intelligent data analysis in medicine from a machine learning perspective: a historical view, a state-of-the-art view, and a view on some future trends in this subfield of applied artificial intelligence. The paper is not intended to provide a comprehensive overview but rather describes some subareas and directions which from my personal point of view seem to be important for applying machine learning in medical diagnosis. In the historical overview, I emphasize the naive Bayesian classifier, neural networks and decision trees. I present a comparison of some state-of-the-art systems, representatives from each branch of machine learning, when applied to several medical diagnostic tasks. The future trends are illustrated by two case studies. The first describes a recently developed method for dealing with reliability of decisions of classifiers, which seems to be promising for intelligent data analysis in medicine. The second describes an approach to using machine learning in order to verify some unexplained phenomena from complementary medicine, which is not (yet) approved by the orthodox medical community but could in the future play an important role in overall medical diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Deep Learning for Brain MRI Segmentation: State of the Art and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Galimzianova, Alfiia; Hoogi, Assaf; Rubin, Daniel L; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of brain MRI is routine for many neurological diseases and conditions and relies on accurate segmentation of structures of interest. Deep learning-based segmentation approaches for brain MRI are gaining interest due to their self-learning and generalization ability over large amounts of data. As the deep learning architectures are becoming more mature, they gradually outperform previous state-of-the-art classical machine learning algorithms. This review aims to provide an overview of current deep learning-based segmentation approaches for quantitative brain MRI. First we review the current deep learning architectures used for segmentation of anatomical brain structures and brain lesions. Next, the performance, speed, and properties of deep learning approaches are summarized and discussed. Finally, we provide a critical assessment of the current state and identify likely future developments and trends.

  8. Bistatic SAR: State of the Art and Development Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Tao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bistatic SAR (BiSAR systems have attracted the interests from global researchers and become a hotspot in the international radar community due to the progress of radar technology and rapidly increased applications nowadays. Based on the BiSAR experiments and breakthrough of the key technology, the paper summarized the general progresses of BiSAR systems, especially in European radar community, from different aspects such as system design, processing idea and topology etc. Different bistatic image formation algorithms have been analyzed and reviewed. Finally, the development trend is discussed in the paper.

  9. Proceedings of B Factories, the state of the art in accelerators, detectors and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitlin, D. (ed.) (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The conference B Factories, The State of the Art in Accelerators, Detectors and Physics was held at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on April 6-10, 1992. The guiding principle of the conference was to bring together accelerator physicists and high energy experimentalists and theorists at the same time, with the goal of encouraging communication in defining and solving problems in a way which cut across narrow areas of specialization. Thus the conference was, in large measure, two distinct conferences, one involving accelerator specialists, the other theorists and experimentalists. There were initial and closing plenary sessions, and three separate tracks of parallel sessions, called Accelerator, Detector/Physics and Joint Interest sessions. This report contains the papers of this conference, the general topics of these cover: vacuum system, lattice design, beam-beam interactions, rf systems, feedback systems, measuring instrumentation, the interaction region, radiation background, particle detectors, particle tracking and identification, data acquisition, and computing system, and particle theory.

  10. Electric automation history and state of the art; Historia da automacao eletrica e estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, M.F. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Eletronica e Sistemas de Controle], E-mail: mendes@ieee.org; Jardini, J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PEA/EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas], E-mail: jardini@pea.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The article summarizes the history of electric systems automation, used in hydroelectric power plants, since the rise to the present day. Technologies are presented employed at various times, developments, the difference and the reasons for evolution. The emphasis is on today's modern systems technology, covering: communication, standardization, hardware, software, architecture, maintenance, operation and challenges. This work pretend to give subsidies for the design and implementation of automation systems electricity using state of the art. The scope are the new plants as well as those being modernized. Knowledge of history is important to investigate, to plan and evaluate the costs and benefits of automation systems for new electric plants and those that are undergoing processes technological upgrading.

  11. 14 CFR 1203.403 - State-of-the-art and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State-of-the-art and intelligence. 1203.403... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.403 State-of-the-art and intelligence. A logical... available from intelligence sources is known or is available to others. It is also important to consider...

  12. Technologies and Techniques for Early Warning Systems to Monitor and Evaluate Drinking Water Quality: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-25

    every three months, in the Budapest installation the mussels survived 10 months before needing to be replaced ( Jan de Maat, Delta Consult, personal...free chlorine ( Jan de Maat, Delta Consult, personal communication). As a result of the adaptations, the Budapest Waterworks have now successfully...J; Komenda, J; Kucera ,T; Giardi, MT; Mattoo, AK; Pilloton, R. (2002) A biosensor for the detection of triazine and phenylurea herbicides designed

  13. The self-consistent multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing. Motivations, state of the art and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, N.; Dupuis, M.; Hupin, G.; Berger, J.F. [DAM, CEA, Arpajon (France); Robin, C. [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The main objective of this paper is to review the state of the art of the multiparticle-multihole configuration mixing approach which was proposed and implemented using the Gogny interaction ∝ 10 years ago. Various theoretical aspects are re-analyzed when a Hamiltonian description is chosen: the link with exact many-body theories, the impact of truncations in the multiconfigurational space, the importance of defining single-particle orbitals which are consistent with the correlations introduced in the many-body wave function, the role of the self-consistency, and more practically the numerical convergence algorithm. Several applications done with the phenomenological effective Gogny interaction are discussed. Finally, future directions to extend and generalize the method are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  15. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  16. Origin, state of the art and some prospects of the diamond CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Spitsyn, B V; Alexenko, A E

    2000-01-01

    A short review on the diamond CVD origin, together with its state of the art and some prospects was given. New hybrid methods of the diamond CVD permit to gain 1.2 to 6 times of growth rate in comparison with ordinary diamond CVD's. Recent results on n-type diamond film synthesis through phosphorus doping in the course of the CVD process are briefly discussed. In comparison with high-pressure diamond synthesis, the CVD processes open new facets of the diamond as ultimate crystal for science and technology evolution. It was stressed that, mainly on the basis of new CVDs of diamond, the properties of natural diamond are not only reproduced, but can be surpassed. As examples, mechanical (fracture resistance), physical (thermal conductivity), and chemical (oxidation stability) properties are mentioned. Some present issues in the field are considered.

  17. State-of-the-art technologies of gallium oxide power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Kuramata, Akito; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao

    2017-08-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2 O3 ) has gained increased attention for power devices due to its superior material properties and the availability of economical device-quality native substrates. This review illustrates recent advances in Ga2 O3 device technologies, beginning with an overview of the social circumstances that motivate the development of new-generation switching devices. Following an introduction to the material properties of Ga2 O3 from the viewpoint of power electronics, growth technologies of Ga2 O3 bulk single crystals and epitaxial thin films are discussed. The fabrication and performance of state-of-the-art Ga2 O3 transistors and diodes are then described. We conclude by identifying the directions and challenges of Ga2 O3 power device development in the near future.

  18. Conservation physiology of marine fishes: state of the art and prospects for policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Axelsson, Michael; Chabot, Denis

    2016-01-01

    broad applications for conservation physiology research if it provides a universal mechanism to link physiological function with ecological performance and population dynamics of fishes, through effects of abiotic conditions on aerobic metabolic scope. The available data indicate, however......The state of the art of research on the environmental physiology of marine fishes is reviewed from the perspective of how it can contribute to conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources. A major constraint to application of physiological knowledge for conservation of marine fishes......; for example, with mechanistic models that define habitat suitability based upon potential for aerobic scope or outputs of a dynamic energy budget. One major challenge to upscaling from physiology of individuals to the level of species and communities is incorporating intraspecific variation, which could...

  19. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multilingual Sentiment Analysis: State of the Art and Independent Comparison of Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtipour, Kia; Poria, Soujanya; Hussain, Amir; Cambria, Erik; Hawalah, Ahmad Y A; Gelbukh, Alexander; Zhou, Qiang

    With the advent of Internet, people actively express their opinions about products, services, events, political parties, etc., in social media, blogs, and website comments. The amount of research work on sentiment analysis is growing explosively. However, the majority of research efforts are devoted to English-language data, while a great share of information is available in other languages. We present a state-of-the-art review on multilingual sentiment analysis. More importantly, we compare our own implementation of existing approaches on common data. Precision observed in our experiments is typically lower than the one reported by the original authors, which we attribute to the lack of detail in the original presentation of those approaches. Thus, we compare the existing works by what they really offer to the reader, including whether they allow for accurate implementation and for reliable reproduction of the reported results.