WorldWideScience

Sample records for systems avaliacao probabilistica

  1. Probabilistic evaluation of the Brazilian interconnected power systems; Avaliacao probabilistica do desempenho do sistema interligado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, A C.G.; Mello, J C.O.; Romero, S P; Oliveira, G C [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontoura Filho, R N [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the main features of the NH{sub 2} model, developed for the probabilistic evaluation of the adequacy of large scale power systems. The system analysis is carried out through a full set of indicators, including reliability indices and probability distributions of selected variables, such as area interchanges, power flow in circuits, voltage in buses etc. These indicators are calculated in two stages: before and after the introduction of remedial actions. Also, the model yields the representation of system hourly load curve, with uncertainty around the load levels. The flexibility and performance of the NH2 model are illustrated in case studies with a 1400-bus, configuration of the Brazilian system. (author) 12 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Probabilistic modeling of wind energy sources integrated in a conventional power system; Modelagem probabilistica de fontes eolicas de energia integradas em sistema de potencia convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalence, G W.H.

    1990-06-15

    This work describes a model capable of including non-conventional energy sources into a stochastic energy production model for conventional power sources. A wind energy system is initially considered as statistically independent of the hourly demand. The correlation between two wind systems is then considered by means of a joint wind speed distribution. The joint wind system is thereafter submitted to the stochastic energy production model considering independence between demand and wind speed. Finally the correlation wind systems and the hourly demand is studied. (author). 29 figs, 31 tabs

  3. Evaluation of operation strategies of hybrid systems; Avaliacao de estrategias de operacao de sistemas hibridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Luciano; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos]. E-mail: lucianoh@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This article evaluates the operation strategies of photovoltaic-eolic-diesel hybrid systems used for the rural area applied to two cases studies placed at the Cardoso Island, SP. The operation strategies evaluation is performed by simulation using data collected at the Cardoso Island such as electric power consumption profile and the solar and wind potential. With those data, simulation have been done considering different operation strategies and different levels of renewable energies penetration in the total energy produced by the system, in order to obtain system operation results such as Diesel oil consumption and depth of average discharge of the battery banks. From the simulation results an economic analysis have been done by using elements data from the cost of life average cycle (LAC) for determining which strategy is the most adequate for operation the electric power supply hybrid system.

  4. Computed radiography systems performance evaluation;Avaliacao de desempenho de sistemas de radiografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice C.; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    The performance of a computed radiography system was evaluated, according to the AAPM Report No. 93. Evaluation tests proposed by the publication were performed, and the following nonconformities were found: imaging p/ate (lP) dark noise, which compromises the clinical image acquired using the IP; exposure indicator uncalibrated, which can cause underexposure to the IP; nonlinearity of the system response, which causes overexposure; resolution limit under the declared by the manufacturer and erasure thoroughness uncalibrated, impairing structures visualization; Moire pattern visualized at the grid response, and IP Throughput over the specified by the manufacturer. These non-conformities indicate that digital imaging systems' lack of calibration can cause an increase in dose in order that image prob/ems can be so/ved. (author)

  5. Computing system of staff evaluation; Sistema informatizado de avaliacao de pessoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Marcelo Garcez; Aguiar, Joao Eugenio Lopes [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Accidents with lost time: using a different concept to deal with safety, focusing directly on the behavior of the worker, leading the worker to a shaper perception of the risks and thus enabling a change of behavior towards a safer attitude. 'Sounds and Links' Project: the programmatic content was made through musical dynamics because music has the power to evoke feelings, stimulating the participants to live intra personal and interpersonal relationships in order to promote safe behaviors. The methodology used was: 'Andragogic (adult education) Model'; multi discipline language; Methodology of 'experiencing and living'; and Focus on the day-to-day situations of work and life. The project was applied to four groups with 60 people, consisting of employees from TRANSPETRO and its contractors, other group with 60 people, composed by leaders, and one group with all participants of the five groups for the general closing session. Expecting Results and consequence of the Project: to turn the concept of safety into a real value to the worker; to preserve the integrity and to value the life; pursuit a lasting and stable changing of behavior, with culture base on safety; and to support the management safety system and reduction of the accidents. (author)

  6. Probabilistic distributions of wind velocity for the evaluation of the wind power potential; Distribuicoes probabilisticas de velocidades do vento para avaliacao do potencial energetico eolico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramini, Elisa Zanuncio

    1986-10-01

    The theoretical model of wind speed distributions allow valuable information about the probability of events relative to the variable in study eliminating the necessity of a new experiment. The most used distributions has been the Weibull and the Rayleigh. These distributions are examined in the present investigation, as well as the exponential, gamma, chi square and lognormal distributions. Three years of hourly averages wind data recorded from a anemometer setting at the city of Ataliba Leonel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used. Using wind speed distribution the theoretical relative frequency was calculated from the distributions which have been examined. Results from the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test allow to conclude that the lognormal distribution fit better the wind speed data, followed by the gamma and Rayleigh distributions. Using the lognormal probability density function the yearly energy output from a wind generator installed in the side was calculated. 30 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  7. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge

    1995-07-01

    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  8. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  9. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  10. Gas geochemistry: a new technology to evaluate petroleum systems; Geoquimica de gases: uma nova tecnologia em avaliacao de sistemas petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Geoquimica]. E-mail: eugenioneto@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade hydrocarbon gas geochemistry has significantly evolved especially regarding to the widespread use of GC-C-IRMS (Gas chromatography-combustion-ion ratio monitoring system) techniques that allowed accurate measurements of {delta}{sup 13} C in the C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} fraction. Also, due to the improvement of the sampling procedures, sample collection - relatively small amounts of gas samples at low pressure - has become easier, sample transportation has become safer - the risk of accidents has been reduced - and analysis has become faster. The 'state-of-the-art' of the use of gas geochemistry to study processes within petroleum systems is discussed in this paper. The discussion is mainly focused on the identification of the hydrocarbon gas origin (biogenesis versus thermo genesis, mixing) and hydrocarbon gas generation (primary versus secondary cracking), including the inference of the relative thermal evolution and possible secondary alterations caused by biodegradation, secondary migration and eventually leakage from petroleum accumulations. Brief comments were also made about the new technologies involving noble gases and their potential use as tracers of processes in petroleum systems. Additionally, the origin of non-hydrocarbon gases in petroleum accumulations is succinctly discussed, as well as their possible economic impacts. The use of gas geochemistry techniques has brought a significant improvement in the understanding of petroleum systems under exploration in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Besides, on-going research projects suggest that there is a great potential for technological advances, e.g., adding the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydrocarbons to the interpretations, and also integrating the available results to the isotopic variations of noble gases. (author)

  11. Wind power in Mexico: simulation of a wind farm and application of probabilistic safety analysis; La energia del viento en Mexico: Simulacion de un parque eolico y aplicacion de analisis probabilistica de seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo Marquez, C.; Nelson Edestein, P.F.; Garcia Vazquez, M.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia.martin.del.campo@gmail.com; pnelson_007@yahoo.com; maiki27@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. In particular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100MW wind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysis are discussed with respect to evaluating the risks associated with events that can occur in wind parks, being especially useful for design and maintenance of the parks and the wind turbines themselves. In particular, an event tree was developed to analyze possible accident sequences that could occur when the wind speed is too great. Also, fault trees were developed for each mitigating system considered, in order to determine the relative importance of the wind generator components to the failure sequences, in order to evaluate the yield of suggested improvements and the optimization of maintenance programs. [Spanish] Se presentan los aspectos mas importantes referentes a la energia eolica en Mexico, su potencial de aprovechamiento y los proyectos planeados. Se comparan sus costos de generacion electrica con los de otras fuentes de energia. Se presentan los resultados de la simulacion con el programa WindPro, de un parque eolico de 100 MW localizado en el Istmo de Tehuantepec. Asimismo, se analizan algunos de los impactos ambientales relacionados con la instalacion de paquetes eolicos en la zona mencionada. Finalmente, se discuten las ventajas que pueden aportar los analisis probabilisticas de seguridad para evaluar los riesgos asociados a eventos que pueden ocurrir en los parques eolicos, sino de los resultados de este analisis de utilidad para el diseno y mantenimiento de los parques y de los propios aerogeneradores. Especificamente se desarrollo un arbol de eventos con el

  12. A tiered approach for probabilistic ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites; Un approccio multilivello per l'analisi probabilistica di rischio ecologico di siti contaminati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolezzi, M. [Fisia Italimpianti SpA, Genova (Italy); Nicolella, C. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipartimento di ingegneria chimica, chimica industriale e scienza dei materiali; Tarazona, J.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Laboratorio de toxicologia

    2005-09-15

    This paper presents a tiered methodology for probabilistic ecological risk assessment. The proposed approach starts from deterministic comparison (ratio) of single exposure concentration and threshold or safe level calculated from a dose-response relationship, goes through comparison of probabilistic distributions that describe exposure values and toxicological responses of organisms to the chemical of concern, and finally determines the so called distribution-based quotients (DBQs). In order to illustrate the proposed approach, soil concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4- TCB) measured in an industrial contaminated site were used for site-specific probabilistic ecological risks assessment. By using probabilistic distributions, the risk, which exceeds a level of concern for soil organisms with the deterministic approach, is associated to the presence of hot spots reaching concentrations able to affect acutely more than 50% of the soil species, while the large majority of the area presents 1,2,4- TCB concentrations below those reported as toxic. [Italian] Scopo del presente studio e fornire una procedura per l'analisi di rischio ecologico di siti contaminati basata su livelli successivi di approfondimento. L'approccio proposto, partendo dal semplice rapporto deterministico tra un livello di esposizione ed un valore di effetto che consenta la salvaguardia del maggior numero di specie dell'ecosistema considerato, procede attraverso il confronto tra le distribuzioni statistiche dei valori di esposizione e di sensitivita delle specie, per determinare infine la distribuzione probabilistica del quoziente di rischio. Ai fini di illustrare la metodologia proposta, le concentrazioni di 1,2,4-triclorobenzene determinate nel suolo di un sito industriale contaminato sono state utilizzate per condurre l'analisi di rischio per le specie terrestri. L'utilizzo delle distribuzioni probabilistiche ha permesso di associare il rischio, inizialmente

  13. Monitoring of standalone photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification areas; Avaliacao de desempenho e identificacao de falhas em sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Oliveira-Filho, D.; Diniz, A. s. A. C.

    2004-07-01

    The sustainability of standalone photovoltaic systems passes through an accompaniment of the systems installed in the field. To subsidize this accompaniment it had been developed procedures for monitoring a similar system in laboratory. The standalone photovoltaic system monitored is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. The system was simulated and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitored results. The assembly procedure of the facility consisted of the implantation of the sensors, installation of acquisition boards and development of the monitoring program. The results presented here will allow the development of a program of preventive maintenance of the systems installed by CEMIG. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail: alinecx90@gmail.com, E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: francissamello@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  15. Dynamic system for the evaluation of CIM monitoring and control techniques; Sistema dinamico para avaliacao de tecnicas de monitoracao e controle da CIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Monica de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Ecossistemas]. E-mail: mpena@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Baptista, Walmar; Brito, Rosane Fernandes de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais, Equipamentos e Corrosao]. E-mails: walmar@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; rosanef@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Silva, Edilson Domingos da; Nascimento, Juliana Rangel do [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: edilson@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; julianarn@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Coutinho, Claudia M.L.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Celular e Molecular

    2002-03-01

    In general, the two main problems associated to the water injection system for secondary petroleum recovery are the corrosion control and the decrease in solid injection in the reservoir. Corrosion problems in injection water systems may have abiotic as well as biotic causes, and the occurrence of reservoir plugs can result from the injection of particles (suspended solids as well as corrosion products), bacteria and fouling formation. Due to the need to implement a methodology for the evaluation of abiotic and biotic corrosive processes, monitoring techniques and MIC control in a dynamic system, an apparatus was built that simulates the characteristics of a water injection system. The apparatus allows monitoring and control of the parameters that, when varied, may influence the performance of the quality of the injected water. The dynamic system was designed to simulate as precisely as possible the conditions that allow the SRB and heterotrophic bacteria to create fouling in a water injection system. This article discusses the dynamic system, analytical methods and some preliminary results. (author)

  16. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: galhardo@ufpa.br, E-mail: jtpinho@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  17. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  18. Analysis of an in-line diesel production system through event driven simulation; Avaliacao do esquema de producao em linha de diesel atraves da simulacao por eventos discretos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Gilsa P.; Naegeli, Guilherme S.T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Nilza M.Q. [PETROBRAS S.A., Mataripe, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves (RLAM); Netto, Joaquim D.A. [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The interactions between refining processes (such as distillation, hydrotreatment, etc.) and typical transfer and storage operations (mixtures, decantation, storage, etc.) provide a high complexity to the refineries production systems of petroleum derivatives. These production systems are characterized by many aspects, such as: blending rules, feed composition, petroleum campaigns, storage tanks limitations, continuous and batch processes interactions, etc. Besides these operational aspects, the equipment and systems' reliability has strong influence on the level of production goals achievement and petroleum derivatives quality specification. Looking for a higher economic efficiency and in order to provide refineries with orientation about resources optimization for their petroleum derivatives' production systems, the development of a methodology capable of being applied since the design phase to identify systems limitations and improvement opportunities, considering all the raised aspects, is a very important task. With this objective, this article presents the main points of an evaluation that was conducted during the conceptual design for a diesel in-line blending production system proposed by a Brazilian refinery, detailing the main steps of the methodology that was developed through this analysis, based on discrete event simulation. (author)

  19. Performance evaluation of an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels; Avaliacao de desempenho de um sistema de posicionamento automatico para paineis fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alceu Ferreira; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], Emails: alceu@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    The need of using electric energy in localities not attended by the utilities has motivated the development of this research, whose main approach was photovoltaic systems and the search for better performance of these systems with the solar panels positioning toward the sun. This work presents the performance evaluation of an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels taking in account the increase in generation of electric energy and its costs of implantation. It was designed a simplified electromechanical device, which is able to support and to move a photovoltaic panel along the day and along the year, keeping its surface aimed to the sun rays, without using sensors and with optimization of movements, due the adjustment of panel's inclination take place only once a day. The obtained results indicated that the proposal is viable, showing a compatible cost compared to the increase in the generation of electricity. (author)

  20. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  1. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail: triveno@ufmt.br; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  2. Stresses and residual stresses optical measurements systems evaluation; Avaliacao de sistemas opticos de medicao de tensoes e tensoes residuais em dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto Filho, Flavio Tito; Goncalves Junior, Armando Albertazzi [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia e Automatizacao (LABMETRO)

    2004-07-01

    There is always a constant concern about the pipelines' integrity. An important control parameter is the level of total mechanical stresses acting over the pipeline. However, the loading and residual stresses acting on a pipeline are not measured in the field as much as necessary. Technical difficulties and the high cost of the nowadays techniques and the hostile measurement conditions are the main reason for that. An alternative method has been developed at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) since 1992. A new optical measurement device is used to measure strains, mechanical stresses and residual stresses acting over the structure. A metrological and functional evaluation of this system is the main focus of this paper. (author)

  3. Combined heat and power generation: encouraged insertion plan systemic appraisal; Cogeracao no setor eletrico: avaliacao sistemica de um plano de insercao incentivada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Claudio P; Sauer, Ildo L [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    2004-07-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for self-production of combined heat and power - CHP generation - in the expansion of the Brazilian electric power supply system. The potential was determined by simulating operation of CHP plants in industries which had previously used oil derivates to supply process heat, as well as of plants for service sectors, which had consumed electricity for air conditioning. The final part of the thesis describes the policy incentives which should be implemented so that CHP can make a significant contribution at the national level, permitting better use of natural resources and leverage the penetration of natural gas in the energy market, with favorable impacts on national development. (author)

  4. Geographic information systems as a tool for environmental evaluation of hydropower potential; Sistemas de informacoes geograficas como ferramenta para avaliacao ambiental de potenciais hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Correa, Fabio; Malta, Joao [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Flauzino, Barbara Karoline [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The hydropower plants are responsible for much of the energy generated in the country, there is also a large hydro potential in Brazilian rivers. This form of power generation is considered renewable and fits into the concept of sustainable development, however, social and environmental impacts from the implementation of hydropower projects are known and widely discussed, especially when it comes to large plants. In this context, study the environmental analysis of potential hydropower was incorporated at various stages of the studies implementation, in order to, identify environmental factors and that will restrict or impede construction, to obtain the best option for the environment, evaluate the role and of social and environmental impacts, contribute to improving the design and functionality of the enterprises in order to reduce overall costs, minimize conflicts and assist in preserving the environment. To fulfill these functions to a satisfactory and reliable level, it the study has increasingly used the techniques, tools and applications of Geographic Information Systems in the process of environmental assessment, since they provide procurement, integration, visualization and data analysis of natural resources, its uses and protection, offering greater security and speed in decision making. This paper presents some applications of GIS in environmental assessment processes, developed mainly in the steps of estimating hydropower potential, hydropower inventory, basic design and environmental licensing. (author)

  5. NEPHRUS: model of intelligent multilayers expert system for evaluation of the renal system based on scintigraphic images analysis; NEPRUS: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose W.E. da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Boasquevisque, Edson M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1997-10-01

    This work develops a prototype for the system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to scintigraphic image analysis of the urinary system. Criteria used by medical experts for analysis images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and/or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a multi resolution diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given to the programs user interface design. Human Factor Engineering techniques were considered so as to ally friendliness and robustness. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for the qualitative image analysis and the knowledge model constructed shows the feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that use `inherent` abilities of each technique in the resolution of diagnosis image analysis problems. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Nephrus: expert system model in intelligent multilayers for evaluation of urinary system based on scintigraphic image analysis; Nephrus: modelo de sistema especialista em multicamadas inteligentes para avaliacao do sistema urinario baseado na analise de imagens cintilograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes [Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1999-11-01

    Renal function can be measured noninvasively with radionuclides in a extremely safe way compared to other diagnosis techniques. Nevertheless, due to the fact that radioactive materials are used in this procedure, it is necessary to maximize its benefits, therefore all efforts are justifiable in the development of data analysis support tools for this diagnosis modality. The objective of this work is to develop a prototype for a system model based on Artificial Intelligence devices able to perform functions related to cintilographic image analysis of the urinary system. Rules used by medical experts in the analysis of images obtained with {sup 99m} Tc+DTPA and /or {sup 99m} Tc+DMSA were modeled and a Neural Network diagnosis technique was implemented. Special attention was given for designing programs user-interface. Human Factor Engineering techniques were taking in account allowing friendliness and robustness. The image segmentation adopts a model based on Ideal ROIs, which represent the normal anatomic concept for urinary system organs. Results obtained using Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show the feasibility of Artificial Neural Networks for qualitative image analysis and knowledge model constructed show feasibility of Artificial Intelligence implementation that uses inherent abilities of each technique in the medical diagnosis image analysis. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Probabilistic risk analysis of casing drilling operation for an onshore Brazilian well; Analise probabilistica de risco de uma operacao de casing drilling para um poco terrestre no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacinto, Carlos M.C.; Petersen, Flavia C.; Placido, Joao C.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli A.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the present paper, one presents an approach to hazard identification and risks quantification concerning the use of retrievable BHA, of a casing drilling system, in 12 1/4 phase of an onshore well. The adopted approach can be subdivided as: execution of a hazard and operability study; prioritization of critical deviance; modeling of critical deviance by mean of event sequence diagram, fault tree and Bayesian network; modeling and simulation of a dynamic decision tree and experts' opinion analysis. As results, one has obtained: the time distribution to achieve the different ends modeled in the decision tree, i.e., sidetrack, or operation canceling, or success; the probabilities to achieve each modeled end and all recommendation to improve the success probability. The approach proved to be efficient in order that it presents significant results to support the decisions involving the casing drilling operations. (author)

  8. Strategy to study the probabilistic distribution of uranium resources in northeastern Mexico; Estrategia para estudiar la distribucion probabilistica de recursos uraniferos en el noreste de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, D.; Rodriguez S, J. de J.; Mendoza C, S. del P. [Servicio Geologico Mexicano, Blvd. Felipe Angeles Km 93.50-4, Col. Venta Prieta, 42083 Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo (Mexico); Balcazar, M.; Pena G, P.; Zarazua, G.; Lopez M, A., E-mail: davidsanchez@sgm.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares and Servicio Geologico Mexicano (ININ-SGM) agreement proposes the probabilistic determination of uranium deposits of the roll-fonts type, located in the Burgos Basin. Of the publications on the uranium deposits in this basin in the Texas State and the similarity of the stratigraphy with that corresponding to northeastern Mexico give solidity to the proposal. The proposal is to use a Geographical Information System as storage and processing platform for geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical and radiometric data. The collection of information from the SGM on radioactive minerals in Mexico and the modern isotope multi-analysis infrastructure of the ININ allow this study to be successfully addressed. The sensitivity of these equipment s is a few parts per trillion, for the isotopes of uranium, thorium and radio; portable field analysis equipment is available for radon isotope. An area has been identified within the Burgos Basin called La Coma, where the studies conducted allowed establishing a conceptual model of the hydro-geochemical environments that define oxidation, transition and reduction zones of the uranium ore, susceptible to being migrated by an underground flow, until precipitating it in sandstone receptors of the mineral. The first assessments of uranium and thorium in groundwater have been made using known standards. (Author)

  9. Methodology for evaluation of the stability of electric systems of offshore oil platforms in interconnected operations; Metodologia para a avaliacao dos sistemas eletricos das plataformas de petroleo offshore em operacao interligada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Dalmo Junior; Mendes, Pedro Paulo de Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The electric system of the platforms usually operates in an isolated way, requesting therefore a redundancy in the generating units so that a can have a reliable and uninterrupted system of their loads. A way to improve the quality in operation in terms of safety, reliability and economy can be the connection of the platforms of petroleum that are close, since it is viable. The objective of this work is to show the methodology for the stability study of the electric system in interlinked operation in way to detail the data of the equipment that are necessary, as: One line Diagram; Transmission lines; Transformers; Power system compensator; Generating; Speed regulators; Voltage regulators; Turbines and other. Another focus of the work is to show some control models and regulation of the electric system to maintain it stable and to show models for the interconnection of two or more platforms. (author)

  10. Evaluation of energy efficiency of climatization system in dairy cattle free-stall; Avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de sistemas de climatizacao em galpoes tipo 'free-stall' para confinamento de bovinos leiteiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perissinoto, Mauricio [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural. Setor de Construcoes Rurais], Email: mperissi@esalqusp.br; Moura, Daniella Jorge de; Lima, Karla Andrea Oliveira de; Mendes, Angelica Signor [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Matarazzo, Soraia Vanessa

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this research was the evaluation of the economical efficiency, in relation to water and energy expenses, of two different evaporative cooling systems, misting and sprinkler, associated with forced ventilation. The study was carried out in a commercial dairy cattle farm located in a small city of Sao Paulo State. The experimental period was twenty-eight consecutive days of November 2003. For the economical analysis of each system of climatization the cost with electrical energy and water expended in each system was considered and also the feeding consumption. The sprinkling cooling system presented a greater consumption of water and energy than the misting system. Even those treatments promoting similar feed intake (the difference was 3.0 kg DM.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}), the sprinkling system associated to forced ventilation led to an increase (18.0 liters.animal{sup -1}.month{sup -1}) of 3% in milk production. As consequence, it was observed an increase of 5,8% in total month profit in relation to misting system. (author)

  11. Application of support vector machines in the evaluation of reliability generation and transmission systems; Aplicacao de maquinas de vetores suporte na avaliacao da confiabilidade de sistemas de geracao e transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Wellington Damascena; Resende, Leonidas Chaves de [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del-Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil); Manso, Luiz Antonio da Fonseca; Silva, Armando Martins Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the reliability indices for composite generation and transmission systems based on Support Vector Machines (SVM). The importance of SVMs is its high generalization ability. The SVMs are used to classify data into two distinct classes. These can be named positive and negative. Thus, the basic idea is to classify the system states into success or failure. For this, a pre-classification of states is achieved by performing the proposed SVM-based neural network, where the sampled states during the beginning of the non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) are considered as input data for training and validation sets. By adopting this procedure, a large number of states are classified by a simple evaluation of the network, providing significant reductions in computational costs. The proposed methodology is applied to the IEEE Reliability Test System and to the IEEE Modified Reliability Test System. (author)

  12. Balanced evaluation of energy systems: development of an integration model between use and energy generation; Avaliacao balanceada de sistemas energeticos: desenvolvimento de um modelo de integracao entre uso e geracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Karin Regina de Castro [Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: kmarins@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The present theme treats of urban and environment planning through an integrated approach. Developed as master of science dissertation, the project included the development of a balanced evaluation of energy systems, having in mind the efficient, potentialize initiatives of both sides. In the system of 'Energy use' strategies for energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings from urban, architecture solutions were included. In {sup e}nergy generation{sup ,} urban centralized systems and distributed generation systems were included. Electricity, environmental heating and refrigeration were considered, excepting peaks in the daily consumption. The model involve quantitative evaluation modules and graphical interfaces, giving support to development of project and decision making processes, demonstrating the advantages of the integrated approach.

  13. Reliability assessment of permanent downhole monitoring systems (PDG/TPT) in Marlim Field; Avaliacao da confiabilidade de sistemas de monitoramento permanente de fundo de pocos (PDG/TPT) no Campo de Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frota, Helder Mamede; Destro, Wagner [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work is related to the reliability engineering, specifically, to the analysis of data lifetime and to the failure modeling of Permanent Downhole Gauge monitoring systems (PDG/TPT) in Marlim field, Campos Basin. These systems are composed of pressure and temperature sensors installed in oil wells and connected, by umbilicals, to their production platforms. The raising of the main failure causes in these systems, in 12-year operation, served as the basis to describe their driving parameters, foreseeing their behavior for the following years, considering the reliability theory of systems. It was obtained the pattern of the operations and extracted the wanted information: types and failure modeling, systems survival time and the Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). This methodology permits the comparison among the components performance from several manufacturers. The results can be used in economical analysis, in oil field management, in maintenance prediction and in reliability studies. The area of failure modeling in association with these systems lifetime is the focus of this study. (author)

  14. The implementation and evaluation of physical protection system of the IEA-R1 reactor; Implementacao e avaliacao do sistema de protecao fisica do reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, Antonio Carlos Alves

    2016-11-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant on March 2011 and the recent attacks in Paris on November 2015 are examples of events that justify the efforts of the International Agency of Energy Atomic - IAEA to improve security at nuclear facility. The Brazilian government has been collaborating with this project and investing resources to improve the Physical Protection System - PPS of the nuclear research reactor system, technically is associated with the elements of detection, delay and response. The PPS is an integrated system of people, equipment and procedures used to protect nuclear facilities and radioactive sources against threat, theft or sabotage. The PPS works to avoid, to mitigate or to minimize the consequences caused by these actions. This study evaluates the PPS of the reactor, identifying the vulnerabilities and suggesting ways to improve the system effectiveness. The analyses were based on the methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories´ security experts in Albuquerque - USA, allowing the system evaluation through hypothetical and probabilistic analyzes; identifying threats, determining the targets and analyzing the possible adversaries paths. From the methodology adopted was obtained the value around 40% for PE indicator, which shows the need to improve the system to minimizing the vulnerabilities. (author)

  15. Development of a control system for evaluation of renewable power plants in the water pumping; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de controle para avaliacao de fontes de energias renovaveis no bombeamento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presenco, Jose Fernando [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-graduacao em Agronomia; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2010-07-01

    The use of alternative energy systems in the current days is an urgent necessity due to the problems that the planet is facing as the heating and loss of ozone layer. The scarcity of conventional energy is another problem that must be solved for the future of humanity. It must be considered that the people are inhabiting places moved away not always with available energy. The application of technologies as automation and control can help us to solve this problem. Therefore, this work aimed at apply an equipment of industrial usage, the Programmable Logical Controller, PLC, in alternative energies systems, as eolic generation and photovoltaic generation used for water pumping, aiming the automatic control and the efficiency in the places where it has simultaneous availability of these sources, based in criterion of priority that previously established itself between them. It was made a hydraulic and energetic evaluation of the energy system, eolic and photovoltaic, used in the automatic control system of pumping, in the place of accomplishment of the experiment, according to previously established physical conditions. The results have shown that the control system using the PLC is practicable and has trustworthiness. The program developed can be adapted for the use with several power plants in a specific application place. The photovoltaic system of pumping, using a polycrystalline of 70 Watts connected to a pump Shurflo 8000, showed to be efficient with significant flows in almost all the months. The eolic system of pumping, using an eolic generator of 400 Watts assembled in place of experiment, did not demonstrate energetic capacity for use in this specific type of application. (author)

  16. Suggestion for a hybrid neuro genetic system as an alternative for the assessment of electric power consumption curves; Sugestao de um sistema hibrido neuro-genetico como alternativa a avaliacao de curvas de consumo de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselli, Yvo Marcelo Chiaradia; Torres, Germano Lambert [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: ymcm@unifei.edu.br; germano@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Increase the electrical distribution network quality it's a permanent interesting of energy companies. Therefore, quality services with acceptable values must be offers. In direct form this involves to manage efficiently all distribution system. Nowadays, this supervision is carried out with Geographic Information System (GIS) tools associate with calculation of demands transformers, result of correlation curve kWh versus KV A. Simple linear regression is used to estimate this curve, which make the process not too accuracy. To estimate consumers loads, the traditional methodology consider only end consumption, refusing the characteristic of different kinds of consumers: residential, commercial, industrial, rural and others. This paper present a model based hybridism between Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA), that can identify on load curve acquired any point of distribution system, the portions of consumption relatives to each one of main consumers sectors in that point. Besides, is suggested to the same application an ANN type Multi-Layer Perceptron, with the purpose to compare the showing results and to verify the advantages of hybridism use. The Hybrid System proposed use GA to the ANN training, in other words, the determination of best values to the ANN synaptic weights. Definite the work methodology, the practical valuation of the model starts, and the results presented by hybrid system are compared with those generates by ANN training by the conventional method well-know Back propagation Error (BP). The practical application propose that load curve acquired been analyze in any point of distribution system. Knowing this curve, the system should identify instant consumption quantities, relative to each one of main consumers sectors: industrial, commercial and residential. Subsequently are consider oscillations about these curves, in way to approach the real situation. The initial result indicated a best performance of conventional

  17. The use of dynamic computation systems in the evaluation of the damages caused by oil spill; O uso de sistemas computacionais dinamicos na avaliacao dos danos causados por derrames de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Luiz H.C.; Laurino, Luiz S.; Muelbert, Jose H. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Estuarine areas are zones of great environmental risk characterized as great sensitivity to oil and oil products spills. Traditionally, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are used to evaluate these possible impacts. However, for some groups of organisms, like plankton, the spatial limitations of GIS become inadequate because their distributions exhibits temporal variability and are associated with dynamic environmental factors. Having this in mind, the development of a specific tool is necessary to supply this need. For the development of this tool, data of fish larvae and eggs (ichthyoplankton) from the Lagoa dos Patos Estuary (RS) were chosen as an initial group for the development of a Plankton Diagnostic System (SIDIPLA). These groups have an accentuated sensitivity to oil spills. This impact could directly affect the environment quality and indirectly the local fishing resource. SIDIPLA is elaborated from data reports covering every estuarine area and graphs are generated containing abundance of the species of fish larvae and eggs from the geographical position, season, temperature and salinity; selected by the user from an Internet page (http://corvina.lei.furg.br/sidipla). Several simulations demonstrated the strength of the system and its easy use. Furthermore this tool can be implemented in different places of the Brazilian coast and different groups of organisms. (author)

  18. Evaluation of alternatives for reducing the consumption of natural gas fuel at city-gates of Brazilian transport systems; Avaliacao das alternativas de reducao do consumo de gas natural combustivel nos pontos de entrega dos sistemas de transporte brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir B [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R; Seidl, Peter R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Goncalves, Raquel G [UNISUAM - Centro Universitario Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to identify actions that can be implemented to increase the energy efficiency of processes involved in the value chain of natural gas, specifically in the process of heating in existing city-gates of transporting natural gas Brazilians plants. The goal is increase supply of gas in Brazil. The main function of city-gates is to deliver the natural gas in contract terms (flow, pressure, temperature and quality). The main issue related to the consumption of natural gas fuel in city-gates is related to the operation (set-up and control) of natural gas combustion, in other words, depends on how the heating system is adjusted dynamically to burn, efficiently, the exact amount of gas required by this system, depending on temperature, pressure, temperature, quality and flow of natural gas at the 'city-gates'. The main objective of this work is to present a study on alternatives at design, set-up and control of natural gas city-gates (transport) in Brazil, aiming to increase the energy efficiency of this facility, and thus contributing to the growth in supply of natural gas available to the market. (author)

  19. Evaluation of alternatives for reducing the consumption of natural gas fuel at city-gates of Brazilian transport systems; Avaliacao das alternativas de reducao do consumo de gas natural combustivel nos pontos de entrega dos sistemas de transporte brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Almir B. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Augusto, Cristiane R.; Seidl, Peter R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Goncalves, Raquel G. [UNISUAM - Centro Universitario Augusto Motta, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to identify actions that can be implemented to increase the energy efficiency of processes involved in the value chain of natural gas, specifically in the process of heating in existing city-gates of transporting natural gas Brazilians plants. The goal is increase supply of gas in Brazil. The main function of city-gates is to deliver the natural gas in contract terms (flow, pressure, temperature and quality). The main issue related to the consumption of natural gas fuel in city-gates is related to the operation (set-up and control) of natural gas combustion, in other words, depends on how the heating system is adjusted dynamically to burn, efficiently, the exact amount of gas required by this system, depending on temperature, pressure, temperature, quality and flow of natural gas at the 'city-gates'. The main objective of this work is to present a study on alternatives at design, set-up and control of natural gas city-gates (transport) in Brazil, aiming to increase the energy efficiency of this facility, and thus contributing to the growth in supply of natural gas available to the market. (author)

  20. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  1. Recovery of the external anticorrosion protection systems of onshore pipelines - evaluation methods and practical results; Recuperacao de sistemas de protecao anticorrosiva externa de dutos terrestres - metodos de avaliacao e resultados praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castinheiras, Wilson; Koebsch, Andre; Silva, Flavio A. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The rehabilitation of an old pipeline means to increase its lifetime, making it safety to operate in the necessaries conditions to transport the product. The pipe steel wall evaluation, related to it thickness reduction, due to, basically, internal and external corrosion, is fundamental to guide its rehabilitation. The techniques used to this evaluation are 'pig' and specials field survey. These last surveys are realized over the soil surface (digs is not necessary to access the pipeline or the pipeline operation is not necessary to stop) and objective to verify the pipeline coating and Cathodic Protection System conditions. Due to the actual authors experience, this paper will only treat of the Rehabilitation of the External Anti corrosive Protection System (coating and cathodic protection) of onshore pipelines. This paper present the techniques current attenuation, ON-OFF pipe-to-soil potential close interval survey and DCVG and same practical results obtained with the application of these techniques on the Sergipe/Bahia gas pipeline. (author)

  2. Evaluation of mercury contamination in sediments from Santos - Sao Vicente Estuarine system, in period of 1996 -2000; Avaliacao da contaminacao por mercurio dos sedimentos do Estuario Santos - Sao Vicente, no periodo de 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortellani, Marcos Antonio

    2003-07-01

    The distribution of mercury contamination in the Santos - Sao Vicente Estuarine System was observed through the analysis of seventy seven surface sediments samples collected in two series. In different periods and points, since the Channel of Piacaguera, the head of the system, , through the estuarine arms of Santos and Sao Vicente as far as the Bay of Santos, about 30 Km downstream, and in different mangrove areas, including industrial and harbor influence zones. The obtained values ranged from 0.03 to 1.19 {mu}g g {sup -1} About 90% of the samples of the first series collected among 1997-1998 and 50% of the second series collected among 1999-2000 presented levels of Hg > 0,13 {mu}g g {sup -1} ,limit considered by the Canadian legislation and adopted by CETESB, below which doesn't happen adverse effect in the biological community. And about 35% of samples of the first series and 11 % of the second series presented concentrations of Hg > 0.698 {mu}g g {sup -1} probable level of occurrence of adverse effect in the biological community. These results indicate an increase of the mercury levels caused by the industrial, port and urban activities. The mercury concentration in sediments was determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, coupling with a flow injection system by a cold vapor generation, using a manual injection valve (FIA-CVAAS). The estimate of the uncertainties associated to this procedure was calculated. The following elements were also determined: Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr and Co in 46 samples of the second series, by atomic absorption spectrometry. In order to verify possible relationship among all the investigated elements in the samples sediments, was carried out a statistical study, using the SPSS-8.0 software. Pearson correlation and Principal Component's analysis were used for with the objective to identify of major relationship for additional exploration of the general behavior of the data. (author)

  3. Calculation of the uncertainty of H{sub P} (10) evaluation for a thermoluminescent dosimetry system; Calculo da incerteza da avaliacao do H{sub P} (10) para um sistema de dosimetria termoluminescente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.S.; Silva, E.R.; Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: max.das.ferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full interpretation of dose assessment only can be performed when the uncertainty of the measurement is known. The aim of this study is to calculate the uncertainty of the TL dosimetry system of the LDF/IRD for evaluation of H{sub P} (10) for photons. It has been done by experimental measurements, extraction of information from documents and calculation of uncertainties based on ISO GUM. Energy and angular dependence is the most important source to the combined u{sub c}(y) and expanded (U) uncertainty. For 10 mSv, it was obtained u{sub c}(y) = 1,99 mSv and U = 3,98 mSv for 95% of coverage interval. (author)

  4. Construction and evaluation of a system for removal CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas; Confeccao e avaliacao de um sistema de remocao do CO{sub 2} contido no biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Neitzke, Guilherme; Magalhaes, Edney A; Afonso, Adriano D. de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/CCET), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The biogas is an alternative fuel produced by the biomass anaerobic digestion (organics wastes) and is composed by methane and carbon dioxide. The shift the composition of biogas is very important because increases its viability of use as bio fuel. The remotion of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to result in an increasing the concentration of methane (CH{sub 4}) in biogas composition and became the lower heating value higher. One decreasing the concentration of acid hydro sulphide (H{sub 2}S) reduce the corrosion produced during the use of biogas in thermal systems for the secondary energy production. This work aimed to develop a physical and chemical mechanism for remotion of CO{sub 2} from biogas. The device has made, was a absorption column stuffed, with 250 cm of high and 30 cm of diameter, using pipe of PVC rigid of 20 mm of diameter as stuff and water as solvent. It has been done test with inside pressure and gas flow in the column between 300 and 500 kPa and 190 and 670 cm{sup 3}/s. The original biogas has a concentration the 33%% of CO{sub 2}. With the utilization of the column's absorption was obtained reduction in CO{sub 2} concentration of 15%, which showed an increasing of 57% in the lower heating value of biogas per unit of mass. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the biogas potential using in the equipment utilized in milk production systems; Avaliacao do potencial do emprego do biogas nos equipamentos utilizados em sistemas de producao de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardoim, Paulo Cesar; Goncalves, Adriano Dicesar M.A. [Lavras Univ. Federal, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia

    2000-07-01

    The technology of the anaerobic digestion has been checked as one of the most efficient in the treatment of the dejection of bovine, however, the employment of the biogas as source of energy for the operation of the equipment still finds limitations of technological order. The present work evaluated, the great potential of the treatment anaerobic of the residues of bovine destined the production of milk as source energy renewably , inside of a concept of maintainable development and production rationalization without aggression to the Middle-Atmosphere. It also verified that technology is adapted as conservation strategy and efficient energy use. The employment of the anaerobic digestion in the treatment of the dejection is possible and desirable, once it contributes to preservation of the environment, it makes possible the modern confinement systems and it reduces the production cost. The residues of milk cows produced, can be used as resources of supplies, so much of energy as of fertilizer. In a confinement of 100 cows, a biodigester can produce a volume of 118 m{sup 3} of biogas. Volume this enough one to work a generating group of 15 kVa and this to assist with electric energy the demand of the milk installation and bomb of water. The total demand of biogas can working with these equipment is esteemed in 85,3m{sup 3} of biogas, what can be supplied with rest by the biodigester. (author)

  6. Evaluation of demand for water and electricity for papaya micro sprinkler irrigation system in Paraiba state, Brazil; Avaliacao das demandas de agua e energia eletrica para mamao irrigado por microaspersao no estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Riuzuani Michelle Bezerra Pedrosa; Dantas Neto, Jose; Farias, Soahd Arruda Rached Farias; Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Vieira de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais. Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: riuzuani@yahoo.com.br, zedantas@deag.ufcg.edu.br, soahd_rached@hotmail.com, cazevedo@deag.ufcg.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to conduct an assessment on the demands for water and electricity for fruit irrigated by micro sprinkler irrigation in agricultural planning. We obtained the demands of gross water and electricity for papaya in 15 municipalities spread over the Rio Paraiba-PB, which was used by micro irrigation system with 90% application efficiency. The city of Joao Pessoa is the place to lower water consumption, requiring 32.9% of the amount required for papaya in Exile, which had the highest annual and daily evapotranspiration, combined with the lowest annual rainfall likely at a 75 % probability. The municipalities were chosen because they had a greater variance in terms of climate, in order to examine various irrigation demands. In Exile is a necessary volume of water-to 8.006,9 m{sup 3}.ha{sup -1}.year{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya while in Joao Pessoa need to 2.712,89 m{sup 3}.ha-1.year{sup -1}. The consumption of electricity in the city of Desterro is higher among the cities studied, necessitating 2.009,0 kW.ha{sup -1}.ano{sup -1} to produce one hectare of papaya, while in Joao Pessoa we only need 876,54 kW.ha {sup -1}.ano{sup -1} (author)

  7. Construction and evaluation of a system for removal CO{sub 2} contained in the biogas; Confeccao e avaliacao de um sistema de remocao do CO{sub 2} contido no biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Neitzke, Guilherme; Magalhaes, Edney A.; Afonso, Adriano D. de Lima [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE/CCET), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica], Emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, guilherme_neitzke@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The biogas is an alternative fuel produced by the biomass anaerobic digestion (organics wastes) and is composed by methane and carbon dioxide. The shift the composition of biogas is very important because increases its viability of use as bio fuel. The remotion of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to result in an increasing the concentration of methane (CH{sub 4}) in biogas composition and became the lower heating value higher. One decreasing the concentration of acid hydro sulphide (H{sub 2}S) reduce the corrosion produced during the use of biogas in thermal systems for the secondary energy production. This work aimed to develop a physical and chemical mechanism for remotion of CO{sub 2} from biogas. The device has made, was a absorption column stuffed, with 250 cm of high and 30 cm of diameter, using pipe of PVC rigid of 20 mm of diameter as stuff and water as solvent. It has been done test with inside pressure and gas flow in the column between 300 and 500 kPa and 190 and 670 cm{sup 3}/s. The original biogas has a concentration the 33%% of CO{sub 2}. With the utilization of the column's absorption was obtained reduction in CO{sub 2} concentration of 15%, which showed an increasing of 57% in the lower heating value of biogas per unit of mass. (author)

  8. Probabilistic methodology for determining the optimum number of stand-by transformers in distribution substations; Metodologia probabilistica para determinacao do numero otimo de transformadores reservas em subestacoes de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Joao Guilherme de C.; Silva, Armando M. Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia], Emails: costa@unifei.edu.br, armando@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    A new probabilistic methodology for determining the optimum number of stand-by transformers in distribution substations is presented. The calculus has three steps: reliability evaluation of a transformer system with a stand-by stock; calculus of investment and operation costs for different composition alternatives of stock; identification of the number of stand-by transformers, which minimizes the total cost. Concerning the the step 1, the operative states of the system are represented by a Markov process, where it is possible to calculate indicators as probability, frequency and average duration of failure, as well as to estimate average values of no-supplied energy and costs. The proposed methodology is applied to a 72 kV transformer system and the obtained results are discussed in details.

  9. Incidents in nuclear research reactor examined by deterministic probability and probabilistic safety analysis; Incidentes em reatores nucleares de pesquisa examinados por analise de probabilidade deterministica e analise probabilistica de seguranca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the potential risks submitted by the incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, were used, the Incident Report System for Research Reactor and Research Reactor Data Base. For this type of assessment was used the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), within a confidence level of 90% and the Deterministic Probability Analysis (DPA). To obtain the results of calculations of probabilities for PSA, were used the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC - 636. The development of the calculations of probabilities for PSA was used the program Scilab version 5.1.1, free access, executable on Windows and Linux platforms. A specific program to get the results of probability was developed within the main program Scilab 5.1.1., for two distributions Fischer and Chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90%. Using the Sordi equations and Origin 6.0 program, were obtained the maximum admissible doses related to satisfy the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, and were also obtained these maximum doses graphically (figure 1) resulting from the calculations of probabilities x maximum admissible doses. It was found that the reliability of the results of probability is related to the operational experience (reactor x year and fractions) and that the larger it is, greater the confidence in the outcome. Finally, a suggested list of future work to complement this paper was gathered. (author)

  10. System precision assessment ExacTrac 6D® BrainLab of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP; Avaliacao da precisao do sistema Exactrac 6D® BrainLab do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maistro, Carlos E.B., E-mail: carloseduardo.bravinmaistro@gmail.com [Programa de Residencia Multiprofissional em Fisica Medica, Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nakandakari, Marcos V.N.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Sales, Camila P. de; Rodrigues, Laura N. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Radiologia. Servico de Radioterapia. Hospital das Clinicas

    2015-08-15

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the precision of ExacTrac 6D® Brainlab system, installed at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, in frameless radiosurgery treatments. Four sets of tests were performed for different purposes in order to assess the following parameters: the accuracy of location through infrared system; evaluation of the reproducibility of fusion algorithm; evaluation of the X-ray system; and the end-to-end test with the goal of assess the overall accuracy of the system. It was found that the infrared system showed a maximum deviation of 0.5 mm in terms of positioning and the X-ray system showed a precision of 0.15 mm and 0.6°. The reproducibility of fusion algorithms provided a maximum deviation in position which was less than 0.5 mm and 0.5° and the quantitative analysis of the results for end-to-end test showed an overall accuracy of the system better than 0.8 mm. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system self-etching in dentin irradiated with Er:YAG laser; Avaliacao da resistencia a tracao de um sistema adesivo self-etching em dentina irradiada com Er:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Andrea Malluf Dabul de

    2000-07-01

    Since Buonocore (1955), several researchers have been seeking for the best adhesive system and treatment for the enamel and dentin surfaces. The use of the acid has been presented as one of the best techniques of dentin conditioning , because this promotes the removal of the 'smear layer and exhibition of dentinal structure, for a best penetration and micro- retention of the adhesive system. However, some conditioning methods have been appearing in the literature, for the substitution or interaction with the acid substances, as the laser. The objective of this work is to evaluate the tensile bond strength of the adhesive system self-etching' associated to a composed resin, in dentin surfaces conditioned with the Er:YAG laser. For this study, freshly extracted human teeth were used and in each one the dentinal surfaces , which were treated with three sandpapers of different granulations (120,400,600), to obtain a standard of the smear layer, before the irradiation of the laser and of the restoring procedure. After these procedures the specimens were storage in distilled water at 37 deg C for 24 hours. Soon after, they were submitted to the tensile strength test .After analyzing the results, we can concluded that the use of the Er:YAG laser can substitute the drill without the need of conditioning, when using the adhesive system 'self-etching' in the dentinal surfaces because there was a decline in the strength of adhesion in the groups conditioned with the laser. (author)

  12. Erosion and sediment deposition evaluation on slopes under different tillage systems in the Cerrado region using the {sup 137}Cs fallout technique; Analise da distribuicao do fallout do {sup 137}Cs na avaliacao da erosao e deposicao de sedimentos em sistemas de manejo de solo sob Cerrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Robson Clayton Jacques

    2010-07-01

    In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural areas causes several problems on natural resources. With the increasing occupation of the Cerrado region by agriculture, a series of environmental problems like deforestation, soil erosion and soil compaction are appearing and causing radical transformations in the natural landscape due to removing almost all native vegetation. The conventional tillage system (CTS) is considered an inadequate form of soil management for its frequently irremediable consequences of soil compaction and soil erosion, and the no till system (NTS) makes the maintenance of the soil conditions possible, letting them close to the natural environment, thus reducing rates of soil erosion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of riparian forests in the retention of sediments originated for three different tillage systems, through the fallout {sup 137}CS redistribution technique, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and some physical and chemical parameters that indicate the structural conditions of the soils of Goiatuba and Jandaia-GO. In the three areas, soil profiles were collected in three layers of 20 cm (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) at distinct points located along linear transects in the direction of the maximum slope until the riparian forest. In the riparian forest of each area, trenches were opened and soil was sampled to evaluate the activity of {sup 137}Cs and the physical and chemical parameters of soil. Detection of the activity of {sup 137}Cs was made with a gamma ray detector model (GEM-20180P, EG and ORTEC) connected to a multichannel analyzer. The comparison of averages was made using the Tukey test at 5% level of significance. The. results indicated that, the three soil tillage systems presented high rates of soil erosion and deposition of sediments and the riparian forest of the areas under CTS, NTS and pasture, located downstream received great amounts of sediments, and that only the riparian forest of CTS was

  13. Performance evaluation of the QC-6PLUS quality control system in terms of photons and electrons absorbed doses to water; Avaliacao do desempenho do sistema de controle da qualidade QC-6Plus em termos de dose absorvida na agua para fotons e eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Flavia Cristina da Silva

    2004-06-15

    The quality of the treatment in radiotherapy depends on the necessary knowledge of the liberated dose in the tumor and of several other physical parameters and dosimetric that characterize the profile of the radiation field. Worrying about the reliability of some commercial equipment that aim at determining the main parameters of a radiation field in a practical way for daily checks in an institution with radiotherapy service, in this work a study of the performance of the quality assurance system, QC6-Plus manufactured by PTW-Freiburg for daily checks, was developed, in order to assure the use of this equipment with larger reliability level in the routine of quality assurance of the hospitals as well as to make possible its use in the Program of Regulatory Inspections of the Services of Radiotherapy of the Country accomplished by IRD/CNEN. The found results indicate that the system QC6-Plus is perfectly adapted and practical for relative measures of daily and weekly control of the main parameters of clinical beans in agreement with reference values recommended in TECDOC 1151. However for measurements of absolute dose it should not be used because, for beams of electrons the system does not present the necessary characteristics to execute this measure type in agreement with the reference protocol, TRS 398, and for photons of energy 15 MV presented a deviation in relation to the conventional method of absolute dosimetry of 7,7%, that it is a lot above the expected in agreement with TRS 398. (author)

  14. Evaluation of a system of refrigeration with absorption cycle using the direct burning of natural gas for tropical fruits storage; Avaliacao de um sistema de refrigeracao com ciclo de absorcao utilizando a queima direta de gas natural para armazenamento de frutas tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomeu, Lair S.; Torres, Ednildo A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Lab. de Energia e Gas; Silva, Gabriel F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Martins, Ronaldo M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Materiais. CQDM; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia do Gas Natural. Rede GasEnergia

    2004-07-01

    This work has the purpose to analyze an alternative method in the conservation of tropical fruits in chamber cooled through the technology of use of the natural gas as energy source. The study it was carried through in chiller of absorption, Robur model, of 5TR, which meets in the campus of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS/LEG). The energy analysis had as objective to study the process involving the cycle and its components. Of the analysis of first law was gotten a power of refrigeration of 8,8 kW and a COP=0,32 and the analysis of second law {beta}=0,29. The exergetic analysis had for intention to evaluate the amount and the quality of the energy in the system. The heat generator was the component that presented the biggest irreversibility, whose relation with the total irreversibility was about 70%. In the absorber the lesser exergetic efficiency was verified. Project is supported by the GasEnergia/PETROBRAS. (author)

  15. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from two estuarine systems: Santos/Sao Vicente and Cananeia, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de sedimentos dos estuarios de Santos/Sao Vicente e Cananeia, estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo Paulo de

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated some toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb and some other major and trace elements in surface sediment samples, from two different systems under different degrees of anthropogenic actions: the estuarine system of Santos/Sao Vicente and the southern part of the Cananeia estuary, both on the Sao Paulo state coast. Sediment samples were collected in 16 stations in the Santos/Sao Vicente estuary and 13 stations in the Cananeia estuary, during summer and winter of 2005 and 2006, in both estuaries. Three analytical techniques were used: NAA, AAS and ICP OES. NAA was used for the quantification of major element concentration levels (Ca, Fe and Na), trace elements (As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, and Zn and rare earths elements La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb). ICP OES was used for determination of the concentration levels of Al, Ba, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Cr, Sn, Sr, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Tl, Ti, V and Zn. AAS for Cd and Pb quantification through graphite furnace (GF AAS) and Hg through cold vapor generation (CV AAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference material analyses for the three analytical techniques used. Detection and quantification limits were calculated for each element evaluated. Seasonal variations (summer and winter), spatial and temporal (2005 e 2006) variations of metals and trace elements were also evaluated. In the Santos estuary, in general, metal and trace element concentrations , organic matter content and % of pelitic fraction found in the Santos channel (area 1) were higher than those of the Santos Bay (area 2) and Sao Vicente channel (area 3). Area 1 suffers high impact from industrial activities from the Cubatao region and Santos port. The sediments from station 14 (area 3, Sao Vicente channel), showed the same behavior of those from area 1, suffering influence from the industrial pole and located in a mangrove area. In comparison with TEL and PEL

  16. Magnetomotive colon elastography: preliminary assessment; Elastografia magnetomotriz da regiao do colon: avaliacao preliminar em phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, A. Colello, E-mail: alexandrecolellobruno@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Grillo, F.W.; Sampaio, D.R.T.; Carneiro, A.A.O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras

    2015-08-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide and early diagnosis reduces morbidity. The standard preventive exams methods are uncomfortable for the patient, invasive, and /or are ionizing. Here, we evaluate the potential of magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) as a new, minimally invasive CRC screening technique. We developed a hybrid transducer (comprised of an ultrasound probe and a magnetic coil system) to construct relative elastography maps in a paraffin phantom with isoechoic inclusions. The electromagnetic component of our system manipulated ferromagnetic fluid located inside of our synthetic colon, and the captured ultrasound images were used to produce relative elastography maps. The MMUS images reveal by otherwise invisible structures based on differences in stiffness. Ultrasound elastography (relative) images by MMUs technique complements usual preventive CRC exams, is minimally invasive, has relative low cost when compared with others image methods. Also is fast diagnose and more comfortable for patient which prevents withdrawal of the screening. (author)

  17. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  18. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation; Persistencia hiperplastica do vitreo primitivo: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: biamjacob@hotmail.com

    2003-06-01

    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a fruit solar dryer; Avaliacao de um secador solar de frutas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthier, L.J.; Bittencourt, J.; Queiroz, M.R.

    2000-07-01

    A study of the Nanica banana drying was carried out in a solar dryer with six trays operating with direct exposure of the product to the solar radiation and internal convection. The solar drying was performed College of Agricultural Engineering of the UNICAMP, Campinas, S.Paulo state, Brazil. The study aimed a 20 to 25 per cent final humidity of the dry product, result obtained in the different trays during a maximum drying period of 147 hours (6 days), in a batch system. During the drying period, the average temperature of the environment air at daylight was of 26 degree Celsius with a maximum of 32 degree Celsius, and 18 degrees Celsius during nocturnal period, with a minimum of 12,6 degree Celsius. In the inward of the dryer reached average values near to 50 degree Celsius, measured at noon. The 29,540 kg initial net weight of peeled banana was reduced to yield of 10,815 kg after the drying process, obtaining an income of 36,61 percent of the total production. With the values of the product weight loss, the curves of the drying in each tray had been built, observing that, in the upper trays reached the desired humidity in a lesser period.

  20. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail: carlosjanio@uol.com.br, E-mail: eliane-costabrasi@hotmail.com, E-mail: cnunes@demar.eel.usp.br, E-mail: elisarocha@alunos.eel.usp.br, E-mail: coelho@demar.eel.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  1. Model of global evaluation for energetic resources; Modelo de avaliacao global de recursos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: ricardo_fujii@pea.usp.br; daeta@pea.usp.br; lcgalvao@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The traditional energy planning usually takes into account the technical economical costs, considered alongside environmental and a few political restraints; however, there is a lack of methods to evenly assess environmental, economical, social and political costs. This work tries to change such scenario by elaborating a model to characterize an energy resource in all four dimensions - environmental, political, social and economical - in an integrated view. The model aims at two objectives: provide a method to assess the global cost of the energy resource and estimate its potential considering the limitations provided by these dimensions. To minimize the complexity of the integration process, the model strongly recommends the use of the Full Cost Accounting - FCA - method to assess the costs and benefits from any given resource. The FCA allows considering quantitative and qualitative costs, reducing the need of quantitative data, which are limited in some cases. The model has been applied in the characterization of the region of Aracatuba, located in the west part of the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The results showed that the potential of renewable sources are promising, especially when the global costs are considered. Some resources, in spite of being economically attractive, don't provide an acceptable global cost. It became clear that the model is a valuable tool when the conventional tools fail to address many issues, especially the need of an integrated view on the planning process; the results from this model can be applied in a portfolio selection method to evaluate the best options for a power system expansion. It has to be noticed that the usefulness of this model can be increased when adopted with a method to analyze demand side management measures, thus offering a complete set of possible choices of energy options for the decision maker. (author)

  2. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  3. Evaluation of harmonic distortions using small scale computers; Avaliacao de distorcoes harmonicas utilizando-se computadores de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoareli, Junior, Dionizio

    1991-12-01

    The emergence more and more constant of non-linear loads in the power systems, with the consequent distortion in the voltage wave forms and of current, turns necessary complementary analyses in the planning of the systems, in way the if understands and to minimize the effects caused by the harmonic distortions. Among the methods used in this analysis are the computational programs that determine the flow of harmonic current and the voltages distorted in the buses. The objective of this work is the optimization of a program developed for large computers, turning possible its utilization in microcomputers. Besides, several models of components and two electric systems have its answers to the presence of multiple frequencies of the fundamental (harmonic frequency) evaluated and the results of the simulations will be presented. It also accomplishes simulations that make possible the visualization of the distortions in the voltage wave forms of the buses. Finally, the work offers a global and qualitative vision of this phenomenon that has been reason increasing preoccupation for mainly among the responsible for the quality of the supplied energy.

  4. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails: firmino@ufc.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  5. Evaluation of sulphonated polycarbonate membranes for fuel cells; Avaliacao de membranas de policarbonato sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Isabela M.M.; Gomes, Ana C.; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: isabelamuglia@gmail.com; Paranhos, Caio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Fuel cells based on ion conducting polymer membranes offer an alternative for the conventional energetic matrices. Among many advantages of this system, we can mention the reduction on the emission of pollutants, high efficiency and simplicity. This work presents the modification of polycarbonate by sulfonation reaction using acetyl sulfate, in order to increase the conductor ionic character of the membranes used as electrolytes for hydrogen fuel cells. The sulfonated polycarbonate membranes were obtained by casting and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water vapor transmission, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and viscosimetry. (author)

  6. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessa, Patricia Silva

    2001-10-01

    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  7. Comparative exergoeconomic analysis of prime movers of cogeneration plants; Avaliacao exergoeconomica comparativa de acionadores primarios de plantas de cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: donatelli@lttc.com.ufrj.br; Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail: lsrv@cepel.br; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: manuel@serv.com.ufrj.br

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we apply exergoeconomic principles to perform a comparative analysis of the use of internal combustion engines or gas turbines as prime movers of cogeneration plants. A preliminary comparison of these movers can be obtained by analysing them individually, considering the complete utilization of the generated products rated on a common exergetic basis. However, when these movers are integrated in a cogeneration plant, it is necessary to perform a global system analysis, which will consider the coupling between generation capacity and demand, under the design conditions. The design of a cogeneration plant should, ideally, consider all the aspects that affect its performance. In this paper we take into account several aspects which are not normally collectively considered in similar analyses encountered in the literature. Specifically, the comparative procedure considers the electrical tariff on an hourly basis, the electrical and thermal load profiles, the influence of the environmental conditions on the performance of the prime movers, sizing and operation mode options to meet plant loads, part-load efficiency, different criteria for cost partitioning, and, finally, the effect of size on plant cost. Once the operating conditions of the cogeneration plant are defined, the procedure attributes costs to all the fluxes, allowing for the identification of the ranges of capacity where each mover is economically advantageous. We apply the procedure to the energetic supply analysis of a typical process of Brazilian shopping centers. (author)

  8. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  9. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa

    2006-04-15

    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  10. Evaluation of integrity of radiation sources of nuclear gauges; Avaliacao da integridade de fontes radioativas de medidores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torohate, Wiclif Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear equipment meters are mainly used in the industry in quality control and process control. The principle of operation consists in a shielded radioactive source together with a radiation detector such that the radiation interacts with the material to be analyzed before reaching the detector, providing real time data. Can be as their fixed and mobile mobility, the unique properties of ionizing radiation are used in three basic modes, transmission, backscatter or dispersion or induced (reactive). With the advancement and technological modernization in the world, the demand for nuclear gauges becomes increasingly larger. Currently in Brazil there are about 465 process control plants and 21 portable systems and Mozambique about 45 facilities using nuclear gauges. This font registration is done through a process called source inventory that allows also to know the category of the source, the danger or risk to human health that the source offers. The handling of this equipment requires personnel, certified, skilled and well trained in radiation protection area in accordance with the requirements of the various CNEN Rules. Due to the presence of radioactive source and because these devices are used by workers risk because there external radiation. In this context, we made the smear test in two fixed meters from the IRD industry laboratory, which determines the integrity of the source package, mandatory item in periodic integrity testing of the radiation source of this type of device. A set of procedures is made for its implementation as an evaluation of the radiological risk by radiological survey. It was intended to contribute to the learning handling and safe use of these meters. (author)

  11. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-07-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control

  12. Evaluation of mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Ti-Mo-Fe-Sn alloys system; Avaliacao de propriedades mecanicas de ligas nanocristalinas do sistema Ti-Mo-Fe-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.O.A; Vidilli, A.L.; Afonso, C.R.M., E-mail: andre.vidilli@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V, widely used in biomaterials, exhibits elastic modulus (E) of approximately 110GPa, which is significantly higher than the one of human bone (E = 10 to 30 GPa). In this project, a process of rapid solidification was utilized in 4 different alloys of Ti-Mo-Fe-Sn, in order to produce ultrafine nanocrystalline eutectic alloys, which present high strength (1800-2500 MPa), low elastic modulus (50-110 GPa) and good corrosion resistance. The alloys Ti{sub 62}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}, Ti{sub 56}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 63}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 60}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 9} show Vickers microhardness de, respectively, 745 (1mm), 733 (1mm), 609 (1mm) e 651(1mm) HV. The characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X- ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated the presence of a β-Ti (bcc) matrix and the intermetallic TiFe and Ti{sub 3}Sn phases, and the microstructure were formed by dendrites, and eutectic constituents, which were present in the compositions Ti{sub 62}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}, Ti{sub 56}Fe{sub 30}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 63}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 6}, Ti{sub 60}Fe{sub 23}Mo{sub 8}Sn{sub 9}. (author)

  13. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails: arleilucas@gmail.com, vander@lacee.ufjf.br, wesley.peres@yahoo.com.br; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email: prada@ele.puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  15. Development of test objects for image quality evaluation of digital mammography; Desenvolvimento de objetos de teste para avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vitor Nascimento de Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Mammography is the image exam called 'gold standard' for early detection of breast cancer. 111 Brazil, more than eight million mammograms are carried out per year. With the advancement of technology, the digital systems CR and DR for this diagnostic modality have been increasingly implemented, replacing the conventional screen-film system, which brought environmental problems, like the disposal of chemical waste, and is also responsible for the rejection of radiographic films with processing artifacts. Digital systems, besides not experiencing the problem of environmental pollution, are still capable of image processing, allowing a much lower rejection rate when compared to the conventional system. Moreover, the determination of an accurate diagnosis is highly dependent on the image quality of the examination. To ensure the reliability of the images produced by these systems, it is necessary to evaluate them on a regular basis. Unfortunately, there is no regulation in Brazil about the Quality Assurance of these systems. The aim of this study was to develop a set of test objects that allow the evaluation of some parameters of image quality of these systems, such as field image uniformity, the linearity between the air Kerma incident on detector and the mean pixel value (MPV) of the image, the spatial resolution of the system through the modulation transfer function (MTF) and also to suggest an object to be applied in the evaluation of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). In order to test the objects. 10 mammography centers were evaluated, seven with CR systems and three with the DR systems. To evaluate the linearity, besides the test objects high sensitivity dosimeters were necessary to be used, namely LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL dosimeters. The use of these dosimeters was recommended in order to minimize the time required to perform the tests and to decrease the number of exposures needed. For evaluation of digital images in DICOM

  16. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email: spacca@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm

  17. Selection and ordering of contingencies for evaluation of voltage safety conditions; Selecao e ordenacao de contingencias para avaliacao das condicoes de seguranca de tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Ricardo Drumond de

    2002-10-01

    Although the use of compensation of reactive power allows a higher loading in the electric system, it leads it to work closer to voltage collapse situations. Therefore it's necessary to assess the behavior of the system regarding to this phenomena in the occurrence of the contingencies. In this work some existing methods are studied to check the capacity of ranking the contingencies that might affect the system, and how these methods rank them by severity and select those which are more damaging. The methods are studied having as the main focus the real-time operation. This work proposes a method which is able to rank and select a list of probable contingencies, having as a basis, nodal indexes of voltage security conditions assessment. These indexes are based on MV A margin to the maximum loading, indicate the region of operation on V x P,Q curve, and the relative importance among buses. The sensitivity index which indicates the reduction of the power margin before a contingency, is studied in detail. Besides the nodal analysis, it is proposed a form of a systemic analysis which is able to rank and select the contingencies according to their influence upon all electrical system. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  19. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  20. Assessment of conditions of service to maximum demand in decennial horizon; Avaliacao das condicoes de atendimento a demanda maxima em horizonte decenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Flavio Borsato; Nasser, Ivana Costa [Wise Systems, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Danielle Bueno de; Machado, Renato Simoes; Morozowski Filho, Marciano [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Planning the future hydro capacity in Brazil includes considering power reinforcements in the peak hours due to the increasing numbers of run-of-river plants. It means that the Brazilian's reservoir profile has been changing over the years from five years regularization to monthly regularization. This article presents a deterministic methodology to evaluate the capacity reserve of the Brazilian power system. It is based on the 'capacity reserve margin' calculation done by a monthly comparison between peak availability and maximum peak load. This methodology was applied to the Decennial Energy Expansion Plan 2019 (PDE 2019) and its final results are shown here through Peak Balances considering different operation conditions and the whole inflows historical records. Additionally, it is presented a suggestion about the evolution of peak evaluation criteria to be applied to the Brazilian power system on its expansion planning. (author)

  1. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  2. Method for evaluating the applicability and application rate wastes in soil; Metodo para avaliacao da aplicabilidade e taxa de aplicacao de residuos em solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Monica Moreira [Partime (Brazil); Seabra, Paulo Negrais [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1991-01-01

    Land treatment of refinery solid wastes has been practiced in the last few years by some PETROBRAS refineries. The biodegradation process is dynamic and complex, and incorrect monitoring may destroy the potential of the soil. Due to great differences both in terms of soils and of residues, each case must be monitored individually. We therefore developed a monitoring method for land farming systems based on the impact of the waste on indigenous soil microbial populations. The method is extremely simple, requiring only a gas chromatograph to evaluate the CO{sub 2} evolution, and can detect possible causes for low efficiency biodegradation processes. Conditions should then be altered, to ensure adequate functioning of the system.The method also allows for determination of the applicability of candidate wastes and of acceptable waste application rates in soil. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Evaluation of parametric and nonparametric models to predict water flow; Avaliacao entre modelos parametricos e nao parametricos para previsao de vazoes afluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, T.C.; Cruz Junior, G.; Vinhal, C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails: thyago@eeec.ufg.br, gcruz@eeec.ufg.br, vinhal@eeec.ufg.br

    2009-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to carry out the seasonal stream flow forecasting using database of average monthly inflows of one Brazilian hydroelectric plant located at Grande, Tocantins, Paranaiba, Sao Francisco and Iguacu river's. The model is based on the Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the non-parametric model. The performance of this model was compared with a periodic autoregressive model, the parametric model. The results show that the forecasting errors of the non-parametric model considered are significantly lower than the parametric model. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of drilling fluids in annular flow conditions; Avaliacao do comportamento reologico de fluidos de perfuracao no escoamento anular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena; Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Oliveira, Antonio Augusto Junqueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1988-12-31

    The rheological behavior of drilling fluids during annular flow in a physical simulator well (Surface Hydraulic System - SHS)was investigated. Measurement of volumetric flow and pressure drop the 10-meter simulator well was used to assess applicability of the Bingham, power Law, Casson, and Herschell-Bulkley models to the annular flow of water and oil-based fluids under different temperatures. Additionally, under different pre-set deformation ranges, SHS-observed behavior was compared with behavior observed using the traditional Fann VG 35 A viscometer. (author) 8 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  6. Evaluation of operational management in the oil terminals using human factor indicator; Avaliacao da gestao operacional em terminais com o uso do indicador de fator humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, George L.D. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). LATEC. Mestrado Profissional em Sistemas de Gestao

    2005-07-01

    This research has as objective to analyze the continuous improvement in a management system at TRANSPETRO in Madre de Deus Terminal (BA), environment and occupational health, particularly in the reduction of the accident levels. We consider relevant in this research the effective implementation of the human factor that includes the boarding of the work system relating them it three points: individual activities, organizational processes of work and activities, emphasizing the management of these resources and the communication between them. The case study it was make in a company of logistic of fuels. The methodology was lead through bibliographical research and applied closed questionnaire (adaptation's baseline API 770 - Manager's Guide to Reducing Human Errors Improving - Improving in the Process Industries) in 2003 and 2005 with the manager, coordinators, supervisors, operators and others technician. Were analyzed results of the company in management security and occupational health, such as: pointers of the tax of frequency of accidents with and without removal, volume of leaked product and results of internal and external audits. We conclude that the importance of the human factor in the Safety Management that propitiated significant progress in the organization during the development of the research. (author)

  7. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  8. Economic evaluation of pipeline construction and capacity expansion projects; Avaliacao economica dos projetos de construcao e expansao de um gasoduto de transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Leandro Bastos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, two investment projects that are characteristic of the recent phase of the Brazilian natural gas industry were economically valued, taking into account the government going Thermoelectric Priority Program or PPT: economical design of a gas pipeline, to be built and operated by a Proprietary Carrier, where the interest variable is the transport tariff that will remunerate the investment and pipeline expansion through compressor stations, sponsored by the only shipper in the system, as it aims at selling gas to a thermoelectric plant, where the interest variable is the net present value of the project. In both cases, some sensitive analyses of the interest variable to variables that carry greater uncertainty are presented. Results show that pipeline expansion is viable. (author)

  9. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1989-12-31

    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: epoliveira@aluno.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  11. Metrological evaluation of petroleum, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol flow computers; Avaliacao metrologica de computadores de vazao de petroleo, seus derivados, gas natural e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, A.F.; Callegario, E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)], Emails: afo@puc-rio.br, callegario@puc-rio.br; Ferreira, A.; Pinheiro, J.A.; Oliveira, T.B.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: andref@petrobras.com.br, jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents results of petroleum flow computers, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol, used on fiscal measurements, appropriation and custodial transfer system. It is intended that the used proceed give subsides for the model approval and verify initially the flow computers, besides the periodic verification of installed flow computers. The test procedures are focused at the algorithm deviations, at the A/D (analog - digital) and D/D (digital-digital)conversion deviations, simulating static pressure transmitters, pressure differential, temperature, specific mass, BSW (Basic Sediment and Waste), and at the pulse counting deviations of the flow computer. The presented methodology is based on specific document for certification and initial verification of flow computers for the WELMEC (European Cooperation in Legal Metrology), and improved to attend the measurement requirements in Brazil. The test show various no conformities among the performance of tested flow computers compared with allowed values by the developed procedure.

  12. Control loop performance evaluation and diagnostic in the oil refining process; Avaliacao de desempenho e diagnostico das malhas de controle no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Regina Lucia de A.; Pavanelli, Paula E. [Chemtech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Miranda, Filipe Costa Pinto dos R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP)

    2008-07-01

    Management Assets has been a theme treated with growing priority and importance by Processes Industry. Control loops are important assets to guarantee the security and operational stability of processes when they present a good performance. Usually there are a large number of control loops in processes units and their initial investment and maintenance costs are expensive. Human evaluation of control loops, in a non-systematic way, does not identify all the problems that can degrade regulatory control performance, and this the main reason to use systematic monitoring and evaluation techniques and software tools necessary to keep loops efficient. This work describes the continuous activity of monitoring and evaluation of the control systems of a petroleum refinery. Depending on some performance indexes, the loops are prioritized and some actions are taken (valve maintenance or tuning adjustment) to improve control loop performance and to avoid the reduction of product quality, raw material and utilities waste and even unit shutdown. (author)

  13. The use of MATLAB-SIMULINK for evaluation of thermal building behavior; O uso do MATLAB-SIMULINK para avaliacao do comportamento termico de ambientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Nathan; Oliveira, Gustavo H.C.; Araujo, Humberto X. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos]|[Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas]. E-mail: nmendes@ccet.pucpr.br; oliv@ ccet.pucpr.br; araujo@ ccet.pucpr.br

    2000-07-01

    We describe a mathematical model applied to both building thermal analysis and control systems design. We use a lumped approach to model the room air temperature and a multi-layer model for the building envelope. The capacitance model allows to study the transient analysis of room air temperature when it is submitted to sinusoidal variation of external air temperature, representing a case study for the city of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. To evaluate the building performance with thermal parameters, we use MATLAB/SIMULINK. In the results section, we show the influences of thermal capacitance on the building air temperature and energy consumption and the advantages of using MATLAB/SIMULINK in building thermal and energy analysis as well. (author)

  14. Development of a irradiator for brachytherapy: preliminary evaluation of accuracy and repeatability; Desenvolvimento de um irradiador para braquiterapia: avaliacao preliminar de precisao e repetibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damaso, Renato S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: damaso@nuclear.ufmg.br; campos@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    Brachytherapy is a technique of treatment for cancer which that provides the placement of sources near the tumor region, reducing the exposure of healthy regions. We are developing a project of a irradiator that move several discrete gamma sources assembled on the extremity of flexible shafts. The irradiator has the capacity to achieve the individual placement of the sources automatically, reducing the radiation exposure of the clinical body. The equipment is constituted by a mechanic body which produces the displacement of the shafts, a shielding cylinder repository of sources and electronic system of monitoring and control. The present work illustrates the use of the equipment to simulate the placement of sources foreseen in clinical treatment for cancer by intracavitary or interstitial brachytherapy. Precision and repeatability of placement will be discussed. (author)

  15. Microstructural evaluation of a varistor block utilized in high voltage surge arresters; Avaliacao microestrutural de um bloco varistor utilizado em para-raios de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M., E-mail: jma_ime@yahoo.com.b [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assuncao, F.C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Varistor is a semiconductor ceramic device characterized to have a high non-linear electrical resistance, it is used as active element of surge arresters with purpose of protecting of electro-electronics systems. Its properties are directly dependents of chemical composition and microstructural characteristics, such as grain size, porosity, twins and phases distribution. This work has the objective to characterize microstructurally a commercial varistor block of ZnO used in high voltage surge arrest and from this characterization to infer aspects about of its electrical macroscopic performance. DRX and SEM-EDS were used for microstructural analysis. The microstructural evaluation allows pointing the critical points of microstructure and, suggest relevant aspects to the improvement of commercial varistor microstructure, optimizing the electrothermal behavior of the device. (author)

  16. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1990-12-31

    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail: georgia.santos@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.cavalcanti@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: adrianac@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mauricio.oliveira@saude.mg.gov.b [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail: marcio.alves@saude.mg.gov.b, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  18. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  19. Evaluation of mobility potential of {sup 90}Sr in Brazilian soils; Avaliacao do potencial de mobilidade do {sup 90}Sr em solos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez

    2007-07-01

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of {sup 90}Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with {sup 90}Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT{sub corn}: 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT{sub radish}: 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT {sub cabbage}: 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great {sup 90}Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and

  20. Evaluation of technological alternative for low emission gasoline in PETROBRAS; Avaliacao de alternativas tecnologicas para gasolina de baixa emissao na PETROPBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, William Richard [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Catalisadores de FCC - TFCC

    2004-07-01

    More than 30% of the total NO and CO emitted to the atmosphere and up to 20% of the CO{sub 2} are produced by automobiles. New smart fuel injection systems and the three-way catalytic converter in the automobile tail pipes have dramatically reduced NO and CO emissions, but have also required a profound change in gasoline specifications, particularly in the case of sulfur content. In Brazil, the refining of Campos basin heavy crude oils with a high concentration of nitrogen and the gasoline production strongly dependent of the FCC process, have introduced additional challenges. In this work, classic solutions such as FCC feed hydrotreatment, cracked naphta post-treatment, and the use of FCC gasoline sulfur reduction catalyst additives applied to the PETROBRAS scenario will be discussed. Changes to the FCC process to produce future fuels with lower aromaticity and lower emissions in new HCCI motors, which have hybrid characteristics between Diesel and Otto power-trains will also be discussed. (author)

  1. Experimental dosimetric evaluation of inhomogeneity effects caused by thoracic vertebrae; Avaliacao dosimetrica experimental de efeitos de inomogeneidade causados por vertebras toracicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Andre L.S.; Thompson, Larissa; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Radioterapia Sao Francisco, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Tratamento em Radioterapia, Betim, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The presence of tissue inhomogeneities alters the absorbed dose distribution, which magnitude depends on the physical properties of these tissues and the quality of the radiation. Incorrect assessment of dose distribution may affect local tumor control or increase the normal tissue complication probabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the thoracic vertebrae inhomogeneous effects on the dose absorbed by the surrounding soft tissue. The values predicted by the treatment planning system (TPS) were compared to the experimental measurements with EBT-2 radiochromic films positioned on a simulator consisting of only water and inserted axially into a thoracic phantom made of synthetic bone and water. There was a significant change in the dose distribution pattern, increased absorbed dose at the bone-soft tissue interface and high point doses adjacent to the bone compared to the results obtained for the films in homogeneous medium and TPS. The experimental measurements in the water agreed with the TPS within 1.0% with respect to the modal dose whereas the biggest difference found for the medium containing the vertebrae was of 4.6%, however, both values are within the experimental uncertainty. (author)

  2. Appreciation of environmental risks analysis methodologies in the offshore well drilling activities; Analise de metodologias na avaliacao de riscos ambientais relacionados as atividades de perfuracao de pocos maritimos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampolli, Daniella M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the projects of products and processes are supposed to integrate environmental risks criteria, in addition to their inherent operation impacts. Industrial activities, in general, generate risks to the environment, and, in case of incidents occurrence, many of the possible consequences can be translated into serious impacts. The Risk Analysis is destined to act as a decision tool in the environmental area, and therefore, the use of one of these during the project phase of an enterprise becomes important, aiming the guarantee of the system reliability. The present article has the purpose of analyzing methodologies that are being employed for the environmental risk analysis, as well as usual procedures applied in the oil industry, specially for the offshore wells drilling, evaluating and discussing their peculiarities and possible improvement. It was intended to obtain a general overview of risk analysis methodologies, with the objective of verifying the existence of some characteristics that would positively contribute for the knowledge of the inherent risks in the activities of petroleum installations, where this kind of learning is something extremely technically necessary and legally mandatory. (author)

  3. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  4. Development of a pilot molecular distillation unit; Desenvolvimento de unidade de destilacao molecular nacional e aplicacao na avaliacao de petroleos extrapesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Erica Roberta Lovo da; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Batistella, Cesar Benedito [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmem [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the importance and the need in studies with heavy and extra heavy petroleums and their residues, it was designed and built up by the oil research group of LOPCA/LDPS/FEQ/UNICAMP, in partnership with the Laboratory of Valuation Processes of CENPES / PETROBRAS, a pilot plant of falling film molecular distiller (national prototype), where some specific operational facilities were introduced. This project resulted in a suitable system for distillation of products of high molecular weight and thermally sensitive, without degradation of them. This work aims the achievement of distillate fractions of atmospheric residue 400 deg C+, using the new molecular distillation equipment. The experiments were carried out according to factorial design to assess the significant process variables in the molecular distillation prototype. The results showed that the evaporator temperature has high influence on the process and the feed flow rate has minimum influence, as it is desired. Additionally, the equipment showed easy handing operation, high operational stability and results varying around 1%. (author)

  5. Electric energy deficit marginal cost: historic, evaluation and proposition of a new method; Custo marginal do deficit de energia eletrica: historico, avaliacao e proposta de uma nova metodologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Paulo Gerson Cayres

    2009-05-15

    The optimization model actually used to the energy operation planning of the National Interconnected System - NIS has as objective function the minimization of expected total cost operation. To achieve this goal the model provides optimal allocation of hydrothermal resources during the study horizon, employing aggregated subsystems. The deficit marginal cost is a parameter which is explicitly informed to the model, and does a part in the operation total cost calculation being a predominant factor in the service conditions evaluation of national electric energy market, affecting the energy costs and the risk of deficit on NIS. In this work is realized an integral study about the electric energy deficit marginal cost, starting with a historical review, followed by a actualization of your actual value and a propose of a new method for the calculation of deficit marginal cost value. The studies shows the impact of the values found over service conditions to the electric energy market in the energy operation planning, focusing on some usual indicators adopted in studies of the electrical sector. (author)

  6. Evaluation of biodegradation of bionanocomposites of PHB/PP-g-MA/vermiculite; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de bionanocompositos de PHB/PP-g-MA/vermiculita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, P.J.P. de; Alves, T.S.; Barbosa, R., E-mail: tsaeng3@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia dos Materiais; Andrade, D. de L.A.C.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos- Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we evaluated the process of biodegradation of PHB bionanocomposites/PP-g-MA/clay. Films were prepared with compositions of 5% PP-g-MA and 3% clay (BIO5); and 2.5% PP-g-MA and 3% clay (BIO2.5). The biodegradation test was conducted according to ASTM G 160-03 for a period of 86 days. The evaluation of biodegradation was performed by optical microscopy (MO), loss of mass, FTIR and XRD. The bionanocomposites presented change of coloration and appearance of fissures. As for loss in mass in the system presented loss of BIO2,5 22.5% and 25.9% BIO5, for 86 days of simulated soil exposure. We also observed by FTIR sharp reduction in intensity of the band corresponding to the C = O groups, indicating that the microbial attack promoted cleavage of the ester group links. By XRD, reduction in the intensity of the peaks and enlargements of the same with increasing exposure time, proving the biodegradation behavior of bionanocomposites. (author)

  7. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  8. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1996-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  9. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  10. Occupational exposure prevention program to oil and gas industry; Antecipacao, reconhecimento, avaliacao e controle dos riscos ambientais em uma planta de petroleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Palierini, Renato Martins [TWA Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals have 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work under 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, pipeline operation, pipeline launching, engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 1.200 peoples are subjected to occupational exposure, which may be present in the industrial process or in the products transported in our pipelines, e.g. industrial noise, sulfidric gas, toluene, xylene and benzene (recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour). Our PPRA (acronym in Portuguese for Occupational Exposure Prevention Program) involves the workforce and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the procurement of equipment for detection of these agents not only in the air but also diluted in liquids and the introduction of state-of the- art technologies for a better process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted on the effective involvement of the managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts on the use the Risk Analysis Methods tailored for Occupational Hygiene. Furthermore, these information will be used in a info system called SD-2000 that will gather and compare Health, Hygiene e Human Resources data in order to support the professional in the management and decision making process. (author)

  11. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: miltonlavor@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-04-15

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  12. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-07-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  13. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of dota-lanreotide radiolabelled with gallium-67; Avaliacao in vivo e in vitro do dota-lanreotideo radiomarcado com galio-67

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldegheri, Eliane Bernardes

    2005-07-01

    and {sup 67}Ga activity of 222 MBq (6mCi). DOTALAN-{sup 67}Ga was stable for 144 hours (94,95 {+-} 0.63%) at room temperature, and when incubated in human plasma the stability lasted for 24 hours (96.75 {+-} 1.06%). The biological distribution showed a predominant excretion of the radiopharmaceutical by the kidney system and accumulation in the organs in healthy animals. The long residence time of DOTALAN-{sup 67}Ga in the tissues of animals, rich in somatostatin receptors, is related to the internalisation of the ligands and subsequently entrance in the tumoral cell HT-29. (author)

  14. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  15. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de

    2010-07-01

    irradiated area. The optical microscope verified the early development of lesions in the 5 days group. After 10 days of irradiation it was already possible to see evidences of epidermal healing under the crust formed by the lesion. At 15 days after irradiation the tissue beneath the lesion had reconstructed epidermis. It was also observed the characteristics of tissue healing. It was also seen a significant polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. After 25 days at the higher doses the lesions remained, which did not occur at the lower dose, where the irradiated area of the animals were already completely healed. After 100 days of irradiation at 40Gy dose the wound was healed with the emergence of a well defined healed tissue. At the 60Gy dose, the lesion persisted in some animals, and in those that healing occurred the epidermis was a hypertrophied (acanthosis). It was visualized a tissue with their morphological aspect completely mis characterized, where it's possible to view a necrotic tissue. The results of the scanning electron microscopy analysis corroborate with the in optical microscopy findings, where it's possible to visualize the distortion of collagen fibers at the higher dosages. The results indicate that the used doses induced an important skin inflammatory process, activating the immune system. This fact leads to an increase in the expression of TGF beta1, one of the responsible for the increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) by various cell types, mainly fibroblasts in injured tissues. Besides the increased expression of ECM, the TGF beta1 also promotes the inhibition of the degradation processes of the same. The intense expression of cytokines in irradiated skin can trigger the fibrosis process; consequently, affect the homeostasis of this organ due to the accumulation of ECM. (author)

  16. Properties of altered soils by alkaline solution: contribution in the performance evaluation of repositories; Propriedades de solos alterados por solucao alcalina: contribuicao na avaliacao de desempenho de repositorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline Alves de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    The radioactive wastes from nuclear technology applications must be properly disposed in a repository, during the necessary time to ensure the human and the environment protection. The surface systems are largely considered for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, but generally require the use of engineering barriers to control the radionuclides release. An important engineering barrier is the backfill which is situated between the package and structural material, and has the functions of reducing the water infiltration and to promote the retardation of the radionuclide migration, among others. Therefore, the material to be used as backfill such as clays, cement, soils, rocks, must has good sorption, permeability and mechanical properties. The selection of the material will depend also largely on the material availability and installation design. The concrete is also used in the construction of repository, and its interaction with water induces its degradation, resulting in a high pH solution. This solution interacts with the backfilling materials promoting mineralogical alterations that results in significant changes in their key properties and performance as safety component of the repository. In this work, five Brazilian soils of Minas Gerais state, selected according to their generic characteristics along with information from Sistema Brasileiro de Classificacao de Solos (SiBCS) were investigated concerning their potential use as backfilling material in a superficial repository by the determination of retention capacity for cesium and iodine. Sorption-related parameters, used in the performance assessment of the soils, were obtained from experimental data fitting to different sorption isotherms models. The soil that showed the best sorption of Cs, was a clay soil that presented distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of 90.5 mL.g{sup -1} and maximum sorption capacity (Q{sub max}) of 18.372 mg.g{sup -1}. Regarding the iodine, the sorption was

  17. Sacroiliitis: imaging evaluation; Sacroiliite: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Clinicas da Imagem e Multimagem, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: cmontandon@terra.com.br

    2007-01-15

    Sacroiliitis is a non-infectious inflammatory process involving the sacroiliac joint, and is a diagnostic criterion for seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Imaging methods are of great value for confirming the diagnosis of this condition. The present study is a review of cases included in didactic files and in the literature to illustrate the anatomy, techniques, and main imaging findings in x-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for determining the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, also approaching main differential diagnoses. (author)

  18. Evaluation of methane fugitive emissions in systems of natural gas transportation. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline case; Avaliacao das emissoes fugitivas de metano em sistemas de transporte de gas natural. O caso do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Daniele Mesquita Bordalo da; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: danielembc@poli.ufrj.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Sarno, Ruy Alberto Campos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ruy@tbg.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper verifies the total annual of fugitive emissions of methane from the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, presently the largest pipeline in operation in Brazil, beside to estimate the financial loss associated to those emissions.

  19. Evaluation of technological properties of alumina refractory systems-zirconia and zirconia-silica-alumina; Avaliacao das propriedades tecnologicas de refratarios dos sistemas alumina-zirconia e alumina-zirconia-silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, A.R.O.; Carvalho, T.U.S.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A., E-mail: adriano@unifesspa.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Para (UFSSPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Alumina-zirconia refractories are noted for being products of excellent cost-effective, however, zirconia may limit its use due to decreasing resistance to thermal shock. This study aims to evaluate these refractories with the addition of microsilica, which can greatly improve their properties. Were used the following starting materials: calcined alumina, zirconia (stabilized and monoclinic) in amounts of 2%, 4% and 6% by weight, plus microsilica (5%w.). The powders were milled together with binder and lubricant for conformation bodies by uniaxial pressing. The samples were dried, calcined and sintered at 1400 °C/2h were characterized using the methods of Archimedes, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis using energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), and mechanical flexural strength tests at room temperature. Formulations with the presence of microsilica showed satisfactory results and optimized properties. (author)

  20. Use of radiological evaluation system from the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria in the analysis of recent radiation accidents; Utilizacao do sistema de avaliacao radiologica do Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria na analise de acidentes radiologicos recentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodolfo Julio da

    2013-07-01

    The response to an emergency situation involving ionizing radiation requires the joint participation of professionals from various kind of knowledge, belonging to public and private organizations (in the local, state and federal levels). The theme radiation tends to be an additional challenging factor - considering that it's, usually, remembered for its macabre and ominous aspect, in spite of the benefits provided by it - which makes the implementation of actions to protect the public, emergency professionals, the environment and property, very difficult. To this, we can add the complicating factor that, in most cases, the technician (holder of basic or advanced on the subject) is far !Tom the place where this action unfolds. The accident/incident takes the form of a radioactive source (sometimes orphaned, one that gone astray or even stolen) that is found by a person unaware of the risks to which they are being exposed or, let not forget about it, the non-observance of safety standards in industries and workplaces, by their own operators. Thus, before integrating emergency response plans with conventional plans specific to the prompt response to radiological emergencies, it is necessary that some measures had been anticipated and that some actions had, already, been planned - with the intention of mitigate health, psychological and economical damage, in ali of kind. To do this, since in the course of the second decade of the second millennium, and since you own a portable personal computer (Note or Netbook), or even with a mobile device (cellular) with a bit more resources, both of them previously updated, a responder (or even a qualified technician that is next to that fact) may already guide, at least, about a safety distances !Tom the source. Since he had knowledge about some characteristics of the source (its individual data), he can plan ahead about the possible serious situation that unfolds itself and emergency responders will find, when it get to the site. With the situation assessments done, the formal emergency team triggered will can prepare itself (with personnel and technical-materials facilities) to resolve the incident in the shortest time and with the least possible risks. (author)

  1. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  2. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  3. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  4. Development of a methodology for the evaluation of energy efficiency of central irrigation pivots; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para a avaliacao da eficiencia energetica de pivos centrais de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Aureo Cezar de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-Pet), PE (Brazil); Guimaraes Junior, Sebastiao Camargo; Camacho, Jose Roberto; Salerno, Carlos Henrique [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (NERFAE/UFU), MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica. Nucleo de Eletricidade Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2006-07-01

    It will be presented in this work a methodology for the evaluation of the energy efficiency of irrigation center systems by central pivot. Integrating water efficiency application with the energy associated to the sprinklers, adduction pipeline, pivot arm and pump systems, the proposed indexes make possible to evaluate the energy income of each component of the irrigation system, contributing for the increase of the global efficiency of the irrigated agriculture. (author)

  5. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  6. The marginal cost of operation: a parameter for evaluating and regulating of the generation work program; O custo marginal de operacao: um parametro para a avaliacao e ajuste do programa de obras de geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, W M; Mendes, L N.F.; Almeida Gattass, E de [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The Brazilian Generator System is predominantly hydroelectric, with some reservoirs having a pluri annual regularization, providing a large storage capacity of potential power for the system. This water storage allows the reduction of the alertly effect from the natural flow over the hydraulic resources for electric power production. Due to this structural characteristic, the main operation problem of the system refers to a strategical determination of storage energy utilization and, consequently, the thermal generation level. This paper examines the theoretical concepts referring to the survey of this operation strategies and analyses the factors for improving. These concepts are also extended for the interconnected electric subsystems case, mainly the interchange effect over the operation strategies of each subsystem. Finally, the natural flow sample influence over the marginal cost is analysed, comparing the obtained values with the historical sample and synthetical series of affluence. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs.

  7. Automatic alignment device for focal spot measurements in the center of the field for mammography; Sistema automatico de alinhamento para avaliacao do ponto focal no centro do campo de equipamentos mamograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Marcelo A.C.; Watanabe, Alex O.; Oliveira Junior, Paulo D.; Schiabel, Homero [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: mvieira@sc.usp.br

    2010-03-15

    Some quality control procedures used for mammography, such as focal spot evaluation, requires previous alignment of the measurement equipment with the X-ray central beam. However, alignment procedures are, in general, the most difficult task and the one that needs more time to be performed. Moreover, the operator sometimes is exposed to radiation during this procedure. This work presents an automatic alignment system for mammographic equipment that allows locating the central ray of the radiation beam and, immediately, aligns with it by dislocating itself automatically along the field. The system consists on a bidirectional moving device, connected to a CCD sensor for digital radiographic image acquisition. A computational analysis of a radiographic image, acquired at any position on the field, is performed in order to determine its positioning under the X-ray beam. Finally, a mechanical system for two moving directions, electronically controlled by a microcontroller under USB communication, makes the system to align automatically with the radiation beam central ray. The alignment process is fully automatic, fast and accurate, with no operator exposure to radiation, which allows a considerable time saving for quality control procedures achievement for mammography. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) in dose calculation for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction; Avaliacao do Algoritmo Analitico Anisotropico (AAA) no calculo de dose para campos com fluencia nao uniforme considerando correcao de heterogeneidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornatto, P.; Funchal, M.; Bruning, F.; Toledo, H.; Lyra, J.; Fernandes, T.; Toledo, F.; Marciao, C., E-mail: pricila_bornatto@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Erasto Gaertner (LPCC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the calculation of dose distribution AAA (Varian Medical Systems) for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction. Five different phantoms were used with different density materials. These phantoms were scanned in the CT BrightSpeed (©GE Healthcare) upon the array of detectors MAPCHECK2 TM (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and irradiated in a linear accelerator 600 CD (Varian Medical Systems) 6MV and rate dose 400MU/min with isocentric setup. The fluences used were exported from IMRT plans, calculated by ECLIPSE™ planning system (Varian Medical Systems), and a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field to assess the heterogeneity correction for uniform fluence. The measured dose distribution was compared to the calculated by Gamma analysis with approval criteria of 3% / 3 mm and 10% threshold. The evaluation was performed using the software SNCPatient (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and considering absolute dose normalized at maximum. The phantoms best performers were those with low density materials, with an average of 99.2% approval. Already phantoms with plates of higher density material presented various fluences below 95% of the points approved. The average value reached 94.3%. It was observed a dependency between fluency and approved percentage points, whereas for the same fluency, 100% of the points have been approved in all phantoms. The approval criteria for IMRT plans recommended in most centers is 3% / 3mm with at least 95% of points approved, it can be concluded that, under these conditions, the IMRT plans with heterogeneity correction can be performed , however the quality control must be careful because the difficulty of the system to accurately predict the dose distribution in certain situations. (author)

  9. Evaluation of work routines in PET/CT service with and individual tool in real time; Avaliacao das rotinas de trabalho em servico de PET/CT com ferramenta de monitoracao individual em tempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Maryana N.; Oliveira, Fernanda R. de; Fischer, Andreia C.F.S.; Bacelar, Alexandre [Servico de Fisica Medica e Radioprotecao, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This study used a direct monitoring system (RemoteDose) that presents the individual dose and dose rate measurements, plotted instantly, as a tool to evaluate work routines of Individuals Occupationally Exposed (IOE) of a PET/CT Service. With this evaluation was possible to identify the critical tasks performed by each work team (Pharmaceutical/Nursing/Radiology Technician team) for subsequent optimization of patient care processes. It was also possible to assess whether these tasks are properly distributed among this teams. The RemoteDose system proved to be able to assist the optimization of radiation protection of a PET/CT Service, proving to be an important ally of the Radiation Protection Supervisor in this process, since it allows the display of real-time monitoring. (author)

  10. Model for qualitative evaluation of risk in ducts through the fuzzy logic in conformity with the methodology of IBR; Modelo para avaliacao qualitativa do risco em oleodutos atraves da logica fuzzy segundo a metodologia da IBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, Koje Daniel Vasconcelos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Jose Felicio da; Silva, Joao Bosco de Aquino [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPb), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work considers a system for qualitative evaluation of the terrestrial risk in pipelines, based in the methodology of the Inspection Based on Risk and the Fuzzy Logic. For this one developed a matrix of risk associated with the oil transport and its derivatives, that define the type of tracking and the regularity of inspection with Pig Instrumented in function of the level of risk found in the stretch in study. This matrix of risk considers the probabilities and the consequences associates to the damage for corrosion. The evaluation of the considered system was based on the consistency of the found levels of risk, in relation to that it would be found in the practical one. The gotten results had demonstrated that the use of the methodology of the IBR and the Fuzzy Logic can be used jointly as one sufficiently efficient alternative technique in the evaluation of risk in corroded pipe-lines. (author)

  11. Evaluation of gains of energy efficiency in illumination with the use of proposed rulemaking labeling for buildings; Avaliacao dos ganhos em eficiencia energetica em iluminacao com o uso da proposta de regulamentacao de etiquetagem para edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Guilherme Augusto Marques; Saidel, Marco Antonio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Emails: guilherme.araujo2@poli.usp.br, saidel@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This article aims to examine the gains in energy efficiency through the classification levels, assigned to the installation of lighting systems with the use of the proposed regulations for voluntary labeling of the level of energy efficiency in commercial buildings, and public services. Were produced three different simulations: the first, considering a survey of data in an existing building which is hosting an administrative part of the public power, composed of 275 dependences. The second and third simulations deal with the application in a lighting project in the same enterprise, in two different luminaries (composed of optical systems with and without fins, respectively). From these activities that guide the direct application of the methodology for preparation of projects have been established comparisons between the results and made comments on the rates of illuminance, the levels of efficiency and the use of luminaries. (author)

  12. Study of the heterogeneity effects of lung in the evaluation of absorbed dose in radiotherapy; Estudo dos efeitos da heterogeneidade de pulmao na avaliacao da dose absorvida em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho

    2006-02-15

    The main objective of radiotherapy is to deliver the highest possible dose to the tumour, in order to destroy it, reducing as much as possible the doses to healthy tissues adjacent to the target volume. Therefore, it is necessary to do a planning of the treatment. The more complex is the treatment, the more difficult the planning will be, demanding computation sophisticated methods in its execution, in order to consider the heterogeneities present in the human body. Additionally, with the appearing of new radiotherapeutic techniques, that used irradiation fields of small area, for instance, the intensity modulated radiotherapy, the difficulties for the execution of a reliable treatment planning, became still larger. In this work it was studied the influence of the lung heterogeneity in the planning of the curves of percentage depth dose, PDP, obtained with the Eclipse{sup R} planning system for different sizes of irradiation fields, using the correction algorithms for heterogeneities available in the planning system: modified Batho, general Batho and equivalent tissue-air ratio. A thorax phantom, manufactured in acrylic, containing a region made of cork to simulate the lung tissue, was used. The PDP curves generated by the planning system were compared to those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and with the use of thermoluminescent, TL, dosimetry. It was verified that the algorithms used by the Eclipse{sup R} system for the correction of heterogeneity effects are not able to generate correct results for PDP curves in the case of small fields, occurring differences of up to 100%, when the 1x1 cm{sup 2} treatment field is considered. These differences can cause a considerable subdosage in the lung tissue, reducing the possibility of the patient cure. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of a tubular digester in the reduction of organic load of biogas from swine wastes; Avaliacao da eficiencia de um biodigestor tubular na reducao da carga organica de biogas a partir de dejetos de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, MG (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br; Moreno Palacio, Soraya [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil); Szymanski, Nayara [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil). Curso de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the anaerobic biological treatment systems in the reduction and stabilization of biodegradable organic matter of swine waste. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. The residues analysis was performed by means of sampling at the entrance and way out of the digester. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, DBO{sub 5}, DQO, total solids, total volatile solids, total fixed solids, total nitrogen e ammonia, potassium, total phosphate, average of biogas production. The results suggested that the anaerobic biological treatment system was efficient for reducing and stabilizing the organic matter resulted from the swine wastes. Expressive reductions of DBO, DQO, ST and SVT of 76, 77, 43 and 59% respectively, were obtained for the effluent originated by the digester. The average daily production of biogas during the analyzed period was 31, 5 m{sup 3}. (author)

  14. Rectal dose assessment in patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer; Avaliacao da dose no reto em pacientes submetidas a braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose para o tratamento do cancer do colo uterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jetro Pereira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Rosa, Luiz Antonio Ribeiro da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: lrosa@ird.gov.br; Batista, Delano Valdivino Santos; Bardella, Lucia Helena [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unit of Medical Physics; Carvalho, Arnaldo Rangel [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry

    2009-03-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at developing a thermoluminescent dosimetric system capable of assessing the doses delivered to the rectum of patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer. Materials and methods: LiF:Mg,Ti,Na powder was the thermoluminescent material utilized for evaluating the rectal dose. The powder was divided into small portions (34 mg) which were accommodated in a capillary tube. This tube was placed into a rectal probe that was introduced into the patient's rectum. Results: The doses delivered to the rectum of six patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer evaluated by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters presented a good agreement with the planned values based on two orthogonal (anteroposterior and lateral) radiographic images of the patients. Conclusion: The thermoluminescent dosimetric system developed in the present study is simple and easy to be utilized as compared to other rectal dosimetry methods. The system has shown to be effective in the evaluation of rectal doses in patients submitted to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervix cancer. (author)

  15. Assessing the safety aspects for use of multilayer pipes in gas distribution of domestic installation; Avaliacao dos aspectos de seguranca para utilizacao de tubos multicamada em instalacoes de distribuicao de gas em residencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Carlos do Amaral Coutinho [Bratfisch - Engenharia em Gas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Emmeti, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Collela, Ricardo [FGS Brasil Industria e Comercio Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The gas distribution networks average flow at the Brazilian market is low and the operating pressure is less than 2.0 kgf/cm{sup 2}. These values are lower if compared to other countries and due this, gas distribution companies, major builders and developers have started a movement to find alternatives to reduce their installation costs, and they have identified in other countries the multilayer system. Because of the great interest of the consumer market for this alternative, and since there is no standards in Brazil that could regulate it, a technical committee was established under the ABNT in order to prepare a standard draft meeting the local market particularities as well this technology requirements. Then it was initiated a quest looking for the knowledge of the 'state of the art' of this technology in various locations around the world, especially Europe, Asia and Oceania, which shows that, with few exceptions, the knowledge of this alternative is still on the beginning, and even in countries where this system is a pioneer some doubts exist with respect to their usage limit. The multilayer system materials were already used at hot and cold water networks for more than twelve years, but only after that it was made an adaptation for building installations of gas distribution networks. Due the need to search and establish safety criteria both with respect to the product as its installation shape, did the necessary motivation to perform a more detailed study of this new technology, meeting the needs of this market. The intention is to present to the consumer market a series of comparative data definitions and techniques to identify this as a modern, updated, economic, efficient and safe alternative option for gas distribution networks. (author)

  16. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  17. Development of a model for strategic evaluation of the global performance of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission; Desenvolvimento de um modelo para avaliacao estrategica do desempenho global da Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2003-07-01

    A conscious, effective course of action, now essential to several areas and organizations, has become a must in the public administration. In this sense, modem managerial practices may contribute significantly for governmental organism to take up an attitude shifted to results in the society, without losing its eminently public function. In order to measure the social impact of the activities of the State as a whole, institutions must use mechanisms that allow self-evaluations of their performance, so as to verify the return obtained as a result of their efforts. However, most institutions do not have structured tools for such evaluation. The present study proposes to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear a model to measure its global performance, offering a proposed architecture for the measurement system in accordance with the results of the planning process of the Institution. The methodology presented also comprises the definition of cause-and-effect critical models between the strategic objectives of the organization and its respective factors critic ai for success, as well as related performance indicators. This work also includes the breakdown of the measurement system for the macro processes of the organization, optimizing resource sharing and the flow of information, avoiding redundant efforts and bringing forth further advantages aiming at creating a organizational 'unit'. Within this context, the developed model may offer substantial help for the improvement of the maturity of the organization in goal-oriented management, considering that the proposed global performance measurement follows a planned structure, with a systemic approach of the organization, allowing that the process be carried out in a way that is transparent and objective. (author)

  18. Evaluation of standard and use tendency of image diagnosis exams in Brazil with emphasis in pediatric computerized tomography; Avaliacao do padrao e tendencia de uso de exames de diagnostico por imagem no Brasil com enfase em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovales, Ana Cristina Murta

    2016-07-01

    There is little information on developing countries about the use of diagnostic imaging procedures and the doses associated with radiological examinations. This study assessed the pattern and trend of diagnostic imaging usage in outpatients of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) by modality and examined body part. Emphasis was given to computed tomography (CT) scans for which the analysis was extended to the private health care sector and included the evaluation of age at examination distribution, and dose estimation for children and young adults. Information on the use of diagnostic imaging procedures among SUS outpatients was obtained from the Outpatient Information System (SIA) of the Department of Information Technology of SUS (DATASUS). Data on the use of CT in the private health care sector were extracted from the Radiological Information Systems (RIS) of 25 private radiology services in 8 Brazilian cities. Effective doses and absorbed doses on organs of interest were estimated individually for 4,497 patients younger than 20 years of age using CT scan technical parameters and Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport. Between 2002 and 2012 it was observed that conventional radiology was the most frequent modality of diagnostic imaging in SUS outpatients, but more sophisticated modalities, such as CT and magnetic resonance imaging, had the highest growth rates over the study period. The most frequent CT scan in SUS outpatients between 2001 and 2011 was the head/neck exam, but abdomen/pelvis examinations were the ones that grew the most. Patients up to 20 years of age made approximately 13% and 9% of the CT examinations between 2008 and 2014 in the public and private health care systems, respectively. About one-third of the private-sector patients had more than one CT scan in this period. There was great variation in doses, even for the same type of procedure in patients of the same age group. The highest mean effective dose was 13.5 mSv estimated

  19. Evaluation of rheological properties of cement slurries doped with fiber of glass wool; Avaliacao das propriedades reologicas e mecanicas de pastas de cimento aditivadas com fibra de la de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Luanna Carla Matias; Barros, Marcus Vinicius Cavalcanti; Martinelli, Antonio E.; Freitas, Julio Cezar Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (LABCIM/UFRN), RN (Brazil). Lab. de Cimentos; Lima, Cicero S.; Barroso, Carlos Andre Marques; Oliveira, Theogenes S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Bezerra, Ulisses Targino [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Paraiba (LABEME/IFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Ensaio de Materiais e Estruturas

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the results of cement slurry systems using silica-based glass wool fiber as admixture after grinding during 90 s, 180 s, 300 s and 600 s. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fiber depicted the changes in the material as a result of milling. Slurries were formulated with specific mass 15.6 ppg using 2% (BWOC) of the wool fibers. Rheological and mechanical tests were performed. Increasing in milling time improved both the rheological properties and compressive strength of the slurries. Preliminary tests obtained with the fibers revealed the potential application of the material in cement slurries for oil wells. (author)

  20. Environmental analysis of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell on the subject of life cycle assessment; Analise ambiental da celula a combustivel de membrana trocadora de protons sob o enfoque da avaliacao do ciclo de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukurozaki, Sandra Harumi

    2006-07-01

    The energy is the fuel of growth and an essential requirement for the socioeconomic development. However, the current production model is based on fossil fuels, considered as threat to man and nature. As for, the relating to the human activities and their effects on the environment, they are handled by the implementation of a more rigid model of environmental control and the mobilization of the society in favor of technologies with less energy impact. In view of this scenario, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell - PEMFC has been recognized as a key for the vital need of a clean and efficient energy. Considering the conventional power generation system, their advantages during usage configure its application as an ideal option for several utilities, especially in the mobile sector. Even though, the focus on several environmental evaluations in energy systems is referred back to the initial stage of it use, the employment relating to production of the system and to final destination should be considered, since these also present impacts. In the case of PEMFC, their previous and subsequent phases of use are issues related to the platinum catalysts, which indicates an environmental importance that cannot be overlooked. In this sense, the Life Cycle Assessment has been used to understand and to question the risks and opportunities that are associated to certain product, starting from a systemic concept of their relationships with the environment. It is precisely in this context that the present research intends to present its major contribution, starting from an exploratory study towards the its objectives to provide an environmental analysis of such technology linked to post stage of powder-use of the membrane electrode assembly - MEA, concerning the platinum catalysts, on the subject of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA. To attain such aim, the relationships between energy, environment and development are presented and discussed, as well as, the Fuel Cell technology and

  1. Accountability and non-proliferation nuclear regime: a review of the mutual surveillance Brazilian-Argentine model for nuclear safeguards; Accountability e regime de nao proliferacao nuclear: uma avaliacao do modelo de vigilancia mutua brasileiro-argentina de salvaguardas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Roberto Salles

    2014-08-01

    The regimes of accountability, the organizations of global governance and institutional arrangements of global governance of nuclear non-proliferation and of Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards are the subject of research. The starting point is the importance of the institutional model of global governance for the effective control of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. In this context, the research investigates how to structure the current arrangements of the international nuclear non-proliferation and what is the performance of model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine of Nuclear Safeguards in relation to accountability regimes of global governance. For that, was searched the current literature of three theoretical dimensions: accountability, global governance and global governance organizations. In relation to the research method was used the case study and the treatment technique of data the analysis of content. The results allowed: to establish an evaluation model based on accountability mechanisms; to assess how behaves the model Mutual Vigilance Brazilian-Argentine Nuclear Safeguards front of the proposed accountability regime; and to measure the degree to which regional arrangements that work with systems of global governance can strengthen these international systems. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the actual model of transformers with Variable Tap in voltage stability studies; Avaliacao do modelo atual de transformadores com tap variavel em estudos de estabilidade de tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.A. [Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A. (ELETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: carlosaparecido@eletrobras.com; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: prada@ele.puc-rio.br; Costa, V.M. da [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: vander@lacee.ufjf.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper addresses the impacts of the world-wide used model of load tap changer transformers - LTCs in voltage stability analysis. Two fundamental questions will be examined: the voltage stability margin and the effect of voltage control actions in the abnormal operation region. It may be easily observed that, in a 2-bus system, the point of collapse and the equivalent impedance which represents the load, will or will not vary, according to the direction of the flow, when the tap is changed. Intuitively, however, it was imagined that this dependence with the flow direction would not occur in a real transformer. It was confirmed through laboratory tests, so it can be concluded that the LCT model, used all over the world, is not adequate to be used in voltage stability analysis. By using the usual model, it is also shown that there are signs that incorrect information regarding voltage control actions can be provided to the operators if the system is operating in the abnormal region. (author)

  3. Evaluation of capital investment in thermoelectric generation projects in the Brazilian electric sector using the real options theory; Avaliacao de investimento de capital em projetos de geracao termoeletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro usando teoria das opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alessandro de Lima

    2000-04-01

    In the Brazilian Electric System about 92% of the generated electricity is of hydraulic origin. Today the system is operating practically in the limit of your capacity. Solutions of short time to make possible the expansion of the offer of electricity generation go by the installation of cycle combining thermal using natural gas as fuel. In this dissertation, it was used the real options theory to evaluate generation assets in the Brazilian electricity sector. In Brazil, central operator dispatches a flexible thermal when the electricity spot price is larger than the operation costs. The operation decision is like an European call, where underlying asset is the electricity and the strike price is the operation cost. The value of the capacity is the sum of all decisions to operate the thermal unit, in the remaining life of unit. It was used Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming to evaluate this model. The problem is divided in two parts. In the first part, the base case is fixed and evaluated and the expected NPV and project risk are calculated in function of contract level. In the second part, many sensibilities are done in relation to base case. At the end, the value of flexibility is calculated for each contract level. (author)

  4. Evaluation of operational and energetic performances of combine harvesters in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) crop; Avaliacao dos desempenhos operacional e energetico de colhedoras na cultura de soja (Clycine max (L) Merril)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazetto, Flavio Rielli [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study consisted of evaluating three soybean combine harvesters, the first one with 7.62 m width header, 176.4 kW engine power and 7,200 L grain tank size, the second one with 7.01 m width header, 161.7 kW engine power and 6,700 L grain tank size and the third one with 6.71 m width header, 165.4 kW engine power and 6,000 L grain tank size with its respective mechanisms actuators, to identify the most efficient system in rationalization energy demand and operational performance. The combine harvest test was done at Igreja Velha farm, Tibagi/Parana State and the data analysis were done at FCA-UNESP, Campus de Botucatu/SP (Sao Paulo State University - Botucatu). The fuel consumption evaluation was made through the use of fluxometer in normal combine operation conditions and for the operational performance was determined all the running machine times. The combine with wider grain header, higher grain tank capacity, bigger engine power, rotary separator in the separation system and self-leveling sieves showed greater operational performance and less fuel consumption than the others combines tested. (author)

  5. Model for energy planning of degraded river basins based on hydrological evaluation of hydroelectric reservoirs in operation; Modelo de planejamento energetico de bacias hidrograficas degradadas baseado na avaliacao hidrica de reservatorios hidreletricos em operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Aloisio Caetano; Ottoni, Arthur Benedicto; Nogueira Neto, Claudio; Silva, Denis de Souza

    2008-07-01

    The human occupation of the hydrographic basin, made in the past without plans, generated alteration of the hydrology characteristics, presenting as direct consequence modifications of its hydric availabilities. Or either, the floods in the rainy periods and the droughts in the ones of dryness currently tend to be more frequent and with bigger intensity. These conditions have affected the operation as well as the planning of the hydroelectric reservoirs, that have generated energy in conditions of different hydric availabilities (worse) of those foreseeing at the time of the project. These situations result in uncertainties and energy losses for the investor as well as in the system. Under such premises, the present article analyzes the energy-economic influences of the deterioration of the hydric regimen of some on exploitations in operation to the system, located in basins degrades in the South, Southeastern and Northeast regions; enhancing the importance of the studies of hydric economy of these units of management (degraded basins) as subsidy of taking of decision for gradual recovery of its hydric availabilities; taking in account the energy optimization of the hydroelectric reservoirs in located operation as well as the minimization of inherent the financial losses to the uncertainties of its hydric resources. (author)

  6. Energetic evaluation of low potential biomass gasifier coupled with a burner of the produced gas for generation of heat; Avaliacao energetica de um gaseificador de biomassa de baixa potencia, associado a um combustor do gas produzido, para geracao de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Samuel [Universidade de Brasilia (FAV/UNB), DF (Brazil). Fac. de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria], email: samuelmartin@unb.nr; Silva, Jadir Nogueira [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Machado, Cassio Silva; Zanatta, Fabio Luis; Galvarro, Svetlana F.S. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the search of alternatives for sustainable socio-economic development, this study had the objective of evaluating the energetic performance of a concurrent flow biomass gasifier associated with a burner for the gas produced which was of low potential for air heating using a renewable energy source (substituting non-renewable). In this system 4 tests were performed using eucalyptus chips (tests 1 and 2) and logs (tests 3 and 4) as fuel, for the two fan motor frequencies of 60 and 50 hertz. Temperature in the combustion chamber was monitored, along with fuel consumption and other variables. In the tests, the average exhaust air temperature was maintained between 92.7 and 100.4 deg C, and the reduction in the motor frequency from 60 to 50 Hz caused an increase in the duration of the tests. The system presented the best energetic performance when utilizing a frequency of 60 Hz for both fuel types. However, the results of energy efficiency varied very little when comparing tests performed at the same fan frequency. Thus, the gasification process was little affected by variation in the physical characteristics of the tested fuels, and it was recommended that the equipment operate with a frequency of 60 Hz. (author)

  7. Evaluation of polymer efficiency on the inhibition of calcium carbonate scale in synthetic brines; Avaliacao da acao de polimeros sobre a inibicao de incrustacoes de carbonato de calcio em salmouras sinteticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Juliana M.; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Loureiro, Tatiana S.; Lucas, Elizabete F.; Spinelli, Luciana S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: julianamatos@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The inorganic scale results in serious problems for oil production. This scale results from the incompatibility between the chemical compositions of formation water and injection, and the changes of thermodynamic system. These deposits consist mainly of calcium carbonate and barium sulfate. In order to prevent the formation of these deposits, the petroleum industry has made use of chemicals that act as scale inhibitors. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two types of polymeric inhibitors prevent the formation of calcium carbonate from brines of different compositions with high concentrations of calcium. The inhibitors were tested at varying concentrations and at fixed conditions of temperature, pH, pressure and time. The estimated effectiveness of each inhibitor was measured by complexometric titration. The inhibitor carboxylic acid-based (poly (maleic acid)) was more efficient at relatively low concentrations, which is important both economically and environmentally. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the effect of accelerated aging on mechanical properties Of PA6 / organophilic clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao do efeito do envelhecimento acelerado nas propriedades mecanicas de nanocompositos de PA6/argila organofilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, T.C.; Paz, R.A.; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: rene@cct.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The effect of aging on mechanical properties of nanocomposites PA6/clay been reported, aiming mostly to minimize the effects of synthetic plastic waste discarded in the environment. The use of clays in nanocomposites generally accelerate the degradation of these materials. We used a regional bentonite clay, polyamide 6, Polyform - B300 and quaternary ammonium salt - Cetremide (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The hybrid (polymer-clay) were obtained in a co-rotates twin screw extruder and the specimens tensile and impact through injection FLUIDMEC. The FTIR and XRD tests confirmed the presence of molecules of salt in the modified bentonite and its organophilization. The XRD of the obtained hybrids indicated that the organoclay peak disappeared when incorporated into polyamide 6, showing that all systems apparently had exfoliated structure and / or partially exfoliated. The nanocomposites showed improved mechanical properties when compared to the tensile properties of pure polyamide, and the different aging conditions influenced degradation of the materials studied. (author)

  9. Impact evaluation of the accident with release of a PWR coolant. Case study: Angra 3; Avaliacao do impacto de acidente com liberacao do refrigerante de reator PWR. Estudo de caso: Angra 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego; Soares, Abner Duarte; Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.b, E-mail: asoares@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    It was postulated in the cooling system, a LOCA where was lost 431 m{sup 3} of coolant. The inventory was 1.87 x 10{sup 10} Bq/m{sup 3} of tritium, 2.22 x 10{sup 7} Bp/m{sup 3} of cobalt and 3.48 x 10{sup 8} Bq/m{sup 3} of cesium and was launched near tue Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil. By applying the model in the proposed scenery (Angra 1 and 2 functioning and Angra 3 with variation of water taking and discharge with a progressive reduction after the accident), the dilution of specific activity of the radionuclides reached inferior values after 22 hours, to the reference values. After 54 hours, the levels of radionuclides, in the indirect influence are already below the minimum values of activity detected by the laboratory of environmental monitoring of the CNAAA

  10. Evaluation of oil and grease removal by adsorptive polymeric resins in semi-industrial scale: influence of temperature; Avaliacao da remocao de oleos e graxas por resinas polimericas adsorventes em escala semi-industrial: influencia da temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luis F.S. de; Silva, Carla M.F. da; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of polymeric resins packed in a fixed bed eluted in semi-industrial scale for oil and greases removal disposed in synthetic oily water in different temperature conditions. For this work, columns packed with vinyl and acryl polymer-base were tested and their efficiency of oil removal was evaluated by fluorimetry technique in two different temperatures: 25 and 60 deg C, in a flow rate condition of 200 mL/min. The experimental results were very good: the removal efficiencies were above 98% in both cases. At 60 deg C, the system keep the efficiency for a longer time: no significant loss in the efficiency was observed after eluting 1,000 times of the column bed volume at 25 deg C and 2,000, at 60 deg C. This result characterizes a great potential of application in the industry. (author)

  11. Evaluation of natural clay Brasgel as adsorbent in removal of lead in synthetic waste water; Avaliacao da argila Brasgel natural como adsorvente na remocao de chumbo de efluentes sinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, W.S.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Mota, M.F.; Patricio, A.C.L.; Silva, M.M., E-mail: wsl_20@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The smectite clays have high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. Due to its chemical and physical characteristics, they can be effectively used as adsorbent of pollutants (such as metal ions). The initial objective of this study was to characterize the clay Brasgel through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Spectrometry by Energy Dispersive (EDX) and nitrogen adsorption (BET method), seeking its use in removing lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from synthetic effluents. System was used in finite bath to assess the potential removal of lead (Pb{sup 2+}), following a 2{sup 2} factorial experimental design with three center point experiments, taking as input variables: pH and initial concentrations of lead (Pb{sup 2+}). The clay has Brasgel clay in its composition that characterize it as a smectite clay. By having a large surface area, this clay showed great potential on the adsorption of metal ions. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the modified nanoclay effect on the vulcanization of SBR through rheometric curve and DSC;Avaliacao do efeito de nanoargila modificada na vulcanizacao de SBR atraves da curva reometrica e DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, Maria Madalena C.; Brito, Karin J.S., E-mail: mmcforte@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PPGEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Gheller Junior, Jordao [SENAI, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros

    2009-07-01

    Rubber nanocomposites with nanoclays organically modified by quaternary ammonium salts may have the curing features modified significantly, since the salts may act on the rubber cure system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influences of an organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) on the curing reaction of an SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) with sulfur. The SBR/OMMT nanocomposites were prepared by co-coagulating SBR latex and Cloisite{sup R} 20A aqueous suspension at different nanoclay concentrations. The OMMT effect on the sulfur curing reaction was evaluated by the rheometric curve using a rheometer type RPA (Rubber Process Analyzer) and the heat of vulcanization (DELTAH{sub v}) using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The evaluation of the clay nanolayers dispersion in the SBR matrix was accomplished by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. (author)

  13. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  14. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  15. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  16. Strategic environmental assessment applied to the oil and gas planning in Brazil: a proposal; O uso da avaliacao ambiental estrategica no planejamento da oferta de blocos para exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil: uma proposta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Izabella Monica Vieira

    2008-01-15

    This thesis discusses the opportunity to apply strategic environmental assessment (SEA) to the oil and gas planning procedures in Brazil, considering the call for bids' process that has been adopted by the Federal Government since 1999. The thesis presents a literature review on the concepts and principles of environmental assessment, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment, considering its origins and practice. It also provides an appraisal of the international practice on SEA application to the oil and gas sector planning, as well as and a comparative analysis of the planning system as practiced in Brazil. Based on the international and the national SEA experience, and considering the requirements to address the environmental feasibility of oil and gas offshore activities, a proposal is presented on the framework for the use of the SEA as part of the oil and gas planning process in Brazil, together with the procedural requirements to be met. (author)

  17. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-07-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  18. In vitro assessment of the composition and microhardness of hard tissues of oral cavity submitted to gamma irradiation; Avaliacao in vitro da composicao e microdureza dos tecidos duros da cavidade bucal submetidos a irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Wilber Edison Bernaola

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Radiotherapy is extremely important for the treatment of malignant lesions of the head and neck region, however, exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to systemic or local complications during and after radiation treatment. Among these immediate local complications are the oral cavity xerostomia and the consequent oral mucositis. Regarding late complications produced by radiation, tooth decay of radiation and osteoradionecrosis are included, which are considered dose-dependent lesions, with high incidence in recent decades and difficult to manage, although these appear after completion of treatment and under the influence of local factors. The methodology proposed in this study consists in evaluating the effect of gamma radiation after irradiation of the samples, using the dose used in patients suffering with head and neck cancer. The samples were obtained from human enamel and root dentin; and swine mandibular bone, which were previously polished, and then submitted to the analysis of the initial surface microhardness of all groups. Subsequently, the samples were irradiated in a dose rate of 4 Gy per day, completing a total dose of 72 Gy. Finally, the samples were submitted to surface microhardness analysis after irradiation, which presented statistically significant results from the Student t, ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests referred to the difference of the mean of the initial and final values of each study group with a significant value of p = 0.00 (<0.05). Regarding the morphological analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the deleterious effect of gamma irradiation was evidenced as structural cracks, breaks and superficial fractures of the analyzed tissues and the biochemical analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR - FTIR) showed degradation of inorganic components and denaturation of organic compounds; whereby, the effect of gamma irradiation on the hard tissues of the oral

  19. Development of methodologies for internal exposure assessment due to the radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}FDG; Desenvolvimento de metodologias para avaliacao da exposicao ocupational interna devido ao radiofarmaco {sup 18}FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Isabelle Viviane Batista de

    2013-07-01

    The production of {sup 18}F has increased in the last decade. It is produced basically for the synthesis of {sup 18}F- fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG), the main radiopharmaceutical used in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scans. The growth in the frequency of these tests resulted in rise of the number of occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) to the radionuclide {sup 18}F as {sup 18}FDG, increasing thereby the probability of its accidental incorporation. This study aimed to implement optimized techniques for assessing internal exposures of individuals occupationally exposed through both in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods during production and handling of {sup 18}FDG at the Divisao de Producao de Radiofarmacos (DIPRA), Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN). The in vivo monitoring was conducted at the Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna, Divisao de Laboratorios Tecnico-Cientificos (DILAB). For this bioassay method, measurements were done with a 3x3' NaI(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to Genie 2000 software. The calibration of the system was performed with a brain phantom containing a standard liquid source of {sup 22}Na to simulate a contaminated individual. The calibration of the HPGe coaxial detector for in vitro monitoring was performed at the Laboratorio de Medidas de Atividade de Radionuclideos (DIPRA/CRCN-NE/CNEN) with a standard source of {sup 22}Na. Base on the calibration factors, it was possible to determine the minimum detectable activities (MDA) for the systems by using direct measurements and simulation of uncontaminated urine. Then, through the biokinetic models published by ICRP 106 and edited by the AIDE software (version 6.0), it was possible to estimate the minimum detectable effective dose (MDED), which evaluates the detection sensitivity of the techniques developed. The MDED was estimated for in vivo and in vitro measurements performed 2.4 hours after the occurrence of incorporation by ingestion, since

  20. Qualification and application of nuclear reactor accident analysis code with the capability of internal assessment of uncertainty; Qualificacao e aplicacao de codigo de acidentes de reatores nucleares com capacidade interna de avaliacao de incerteza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Ronaldo Celem

    2001-10-15

    This thesis presents an independent qualification of the CIAU code ('Code with the capability of - Internal Assessment of Uncertainty') which is part of the internal uncertainty evaluation process with a thermal hydraulic system code on a realistic basis. This is done by combining the uncertainty methodology UMAE ('Uncertainty Methodology based on Accuracy Extrapolation') with the RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. This allows associating uncertainty band estimates with the results obtained by the realistic calculation of the code, meeting licensing requirements of safety analysis. The independent qualification is supported by simulations with RELAP5/Mod3.2 related to accident condition tests of LOBI experimental facility and to an event which has occurred in Angra 1 nuclear power plant, by comparison with measured results and by establishing uncertainty bands on safety parameter calculated time trends. These bands have indeed enveloped the measured trends. Results from this independent qualification of CIAU have allowed to ascertain the adequate application of a systematic realistic code procedure to analyse accidents with uncertainties incorporated in the results, although there is an evident need of extending the uncertainty data base. It has been verified that use of the code with this internal assessment of uncertainty is feasible in the design and license stages of a NPP. (author)

  1. 'High throughput': new technique to evaluation of biocides for biofouling control in oil fields; 'High throughput': nova tecnologia para avaliacao da eficacia de biocidas no controle de biofilme na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Bei [DOW, IL(United States); Yang, Jeff [DOW, Shangai (China); Bertheas, Ute [DOW, Horgen (Switzerland); Takahashi, Debora F. [DOW, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The wide metabolism diversifications and versatile surviving mechanisms lead to the broad existence of microorganisms in oil fields. Water flooding in secondary production can encourage microbial growth and biofilm build-up. Microbial contamination in oil field can cause many problems including microbiologically induced corrosion, oil and gas souring, deposition of iron sulfide, degradation of polymer additives, and plugging oil and gas pipelines and water purification systems. In general, biocides are needed both topside and down hole to control problematic microorganisms. In this study, a high throughput test method was developed that enables a more realistic determination of biocides efficacy against anaerobic microorganisms commonly found in oil field environments. Using this method, a thorough comparison of several commonly used biocides products in oil field for their efficacy against oil field anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria isolates was executed. This study showed that for each individual application, it is important to screen biocides and their combinations against microorganisms cultured from the field. Since biocides vary in their mode of action, this study also demonstrated the critical importance of utilizing the high throughput method for determining the best and most customized solution for each application. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the conditions and practices of radiological protection technicians in radiology, according to Ordinance 453; Avaliacao das condicoes e das praticas de protecao radiologica dos tecnicos em radiologia, segundo a portaria 453

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da

    2013-10-01

    Professionals in radiology suffer whole body exposure to low doses for long periods . The system of radiological protection should keep exposures below recommended thresholds, thus avoiding the stochastic effects that can be triggered with any dose level value, and there is not a threshold for induction of the same. Therefore it is important to use personal dosimeter for monitoring doses and protective equipment. The increase in procedures using ionizing radiation in recent years has been noted with concern, since many companies are not complying with the standards of protection. This is because some procedures may be performed without the need of surgery, which presents a greater risk to the patient. Furthermore, Brazilians are being exposed to radiation without necessity. The reasons range from radiological equipment miscalibrated to poorly trained staff. Thus we evaluate the conditions and practices of radiation protection technicians in radiology according to Ordinance 453 in Goiania, GO, Brazil. Through a descriptive survey with a quantitative approach, we used the technique of gathering information based on a questionnaire. From this survey, we identified the procedures used by radiation protection professionals and concluded that there are failures in the procedures for protecting patients and accompanying and in the training of the professionals. (author)

  3. Assessment of ionizing radiation as a risk factor for breast cancer incidence in Goiania; Avaliacao da radiacao ionizante como fator de risco para a incidencia de cancer de mama em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Leonardo Bastos

    2016-11-01

    This research aims to evaluate whether exposure to ionizing radiation to which women are subjected can be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in Goiania. The defined study area is the central region of Goiania, or the Sanitary Districts of Campinas-Centro and Sul, in which are the seven major accident sources of contamination with Cesium 137, and also, as shown by previous study, the majority of new cases of breast cancer (60,43 %). We used the geographical division of the city in census tracts and health districts. The data collection was divided in two stages: the first, for the survey of radiometric measurements, and the second, for identifying the addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The radiometric survey occurred between 2010 and 2014, in which was used an environmental gamma radiation mobile measuring system. This system was composed by a high-sensitivity detector coupled to a Global Positioning System (GPS) and a microcomputer. The assembly was installed on a motor vehicle so that the height of the detector is found at one meter from the ground, and programmed to obtain a measurement of the doses absorbed in the air rate each second. The data collected were: doses absorbed in the air rate, geographical coordinates, altitude, date and time of acquisition. From Mobisys software, files were generated and from ArcGIS 10.0 platform, geospatial assessment survey through the elaboration of thematic maps and geospatial analysis statistics. The annual averages of effective doses and collective effective doses were estimated from the rate of doses absorbed in air collected by the system and the resident population in the census tracts. The second stage begun from the data collection at the Registry of Goiania's Population Based Cancer (RCBPGO), in which were identified addresses of women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2001 and 2010. Part of the data was geographically referenced and using census data were estimated and compared the

  4. Simulation and evaluation of mammography quality from an X-ray equipment of a instrument calibration laboratory; Simulacao e avaliacao das qualidades da mamografia do equipamento de raios-x de um laboratorio de calibracao de instrumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natalia F. da; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Instrument Calibration Laboratory (ICL) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil has developed some work in order to establish a primary standard system for low energy X-ray employing a ionization chamber of free air. For this, one of the most important steps is the determination of factors of correction of its answer. Simulation is a frequently used tool for this because some correction factors can not be determined experimentally. For the correct simulation of these correction factors is necessary some input parameters such as geometry, the material composition of the dosimeter, the experimental arrangement and the radiation source are specified correctly. For the ionization chamber available on the LCI, the geometry, the material components and the experimental arrangement can be obtained easily. On the other hand, spectrum of radiation energy source, which must be inserted into the computer code has not been obtained. Thus, this study aims to determine this radiation spectrum, thus enabling the characterization of the new primary standard for low power X-radiation of ICL.

  5. Dosimetric evaluation of spectrophotometric response of alanine gel solution for gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations; Avaliacao dosimetrica da resposta espectrofotometrica da solucao gel de alanina para radiacao gama, de fotons, de eletrons e de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo

    2009-07-01

    Alanine Gel Dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on Alanine system developed by Costa. The DL-Alanine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2}) is an amino acid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to analyse the main dosimetric characteristics this new gel material for future application to measure dose distribution. The performance of Alanine gel solution was evaluated to gamma, photons, electrons and thermal neutrons radiations using the spectrophotometry technique. According to the obtained results for the different studied radiation types, the reproducibility intra-batches and inter-batches is better than 4% and 5%, respectively. The dose response presents a linear behavior in the studied dose range. The response dependence as a function of dose rate and incident energy is better 2% and 3%, respectively. The lower detectable dose is 0.1 Gy. The obtained results indicate that the Alanine gel dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as an alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area, using MRI technique for tridimensional dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  6. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon black for polymer exchange membrane fuel cell applications; Preparacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao de eletrocatalisadores suportados em carbono funcionalizado para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcelo do

    2008-12-18

    The fuel cell technology associated with the growing exigency of low environmental impact energy became prosperous in the world energy scenery. The fuel cell is basically a device that converts directly the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical and thermal energy with a continuous operation by the constant feed of a fuel. Especially, the carbon black Vulcan XC72 is usually employed as an electro catalyst support, and some factors as an accessible and high surface area in order to get maximum particles dispersion, pore size, adequate pore distribution and the presence of functional groups in the carbon black surface are considered fundamental characteristics for an innovative materials development. However, the Vulcan XC72 still reveals insufficient conditions for these purposes. This study consists in the preparation and in the physical chemical characterization of functionalized carbon black by hydrogen peroxide and by polymeric chains with proton conduction properties, and its posterior utilization as electro catalyst support for PEMFC and DMFC application. After the carbon functionalization, an improvement in the carbon black dispersion in water media was observed, a beneficial effect for electro catalyst preparation. It was also observed, that the functional groups and the polymeric chains worked as stabilizers in the particle growing, producing much more homogeneous electrocatalysts, exhibiting smaller average particle size. Especially, in the case of polymeric chains functionalization, a decrease in the ohmic drop was observed for this system, attributed to an improvement in the proton transference. (author)

  7. Development of methodology for evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I incorporated activities during lactation; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao da atividade de {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 131}I em lactantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Dantas, A.L.A.; Mesquita, S.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Oliveira, S.M.V., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: silvia@ird.gov.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2012-07-01

    Internal contamination of babies may occur for milk ingestion or inhalation of mothers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with possible incorporation or mothers submitted to medical exposures during lactation. Radionuclide concentrations in the mother's milk may cause organ absorbed doses in the babies proportionally to the breast volumes. Milk analysis allow to determine activities ingested by the babies by determining the peak of mother's milk considering the decrease of the activity rate and the milk activities drunk at different time intervals. The work had the aim to develop simulators and methodology to evaluate {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I in lactation, in the following steps: to prepare standard solution of contaminated milk separately with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I; to build four breast simulators (600 g and 800 g) and respective calibration for two geometries (breast and whole-body) in the Whole-Body Counter Unit in Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The results demonstrated the system efficiency to determine {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I activities in breasts during the lactation period. The methodology for positioning in the 'breast geometry' seemed to be more efficient than the 'whole-body geometry' for different breast volumes. The experiment allows achieving better evaluation of internal dosimetry of mothers and their young children. (author)

  8. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  9. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing {sup 131}I; Avaliacao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em servicos de medicina nuclear atraves da analise de aerossois contendo {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao, E-mail: carneiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ),Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paula, Gustavo Affonso de [Escola SESC de Ensino Medio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of {sup 131}I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of {sup 131}I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam {sup 131}I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m{sup 3}. This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10{sup 3} Bq of {sup 131}I / m{sup 3} corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10{sup -4} mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of {sup 131}I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures.

  10. Use of the 3DVH Software as a complementary method of IMRT pretreatment evaluation; Utilizacao do Software 3DVH como metodo complementar de avaliacao de pre-tratamento de IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Jesse G.P.; Bruning, Fabio F.; Funchal, Melissa; Toledo, Hugo V.; Bornatto, Pricila; Fernandes, Tatiane C.O., E-mail: jesse_lyra@hotmail.com [Hospital Erasto Gaertner / Liga Paranaense de Combate ao Cancer (LPCC), Departamento de Radioterapia, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this study is to compare the method of treatment planning evaluation for IMRT using the gamma index to the method of the 3DVH Software. The 3DVH Software was used with the MapCheck2 detector 2D array under a 6MV x-ray beam of linear accelerator equipped with 120 leafs MLC. Nine treatment plans of prostate patients chose randomly and fully anonimatize were performed in the Eclipse planning system, using the AAA calculation algorithm in IMRT sliding window technique. These plans were approved and treated according to the gamma analysis criteria of the institution. The comparisons were made in absolute dose and normalized at maximum dose for each field and then with the 3DVH Software the Dmax, Dmean, D15%, D25%, D35% and D50% parameters for the bladder and rectum, Dmean for the bulb, Dmax for the femur and D95% for the PTV were evaluated. In the planar analysis by field, the plans studied had a minimum of 97.5% approval. The PTV-related differences have relative variation from 1.3 to 2.2%, that is, greater coverage than expected for this structure. For the organs at risk, the relative differences observed were between -5.3 to 25.8%, which could result in a non-approved plan if these variations are close to the clinical tolerances of the OAR. The results show that even a plan compatible with greater than or equal to 95% of the points, the gamma analysis does not give enough information if this plan can or cannot be approved for treatment and that there is a need for more detailed verification of the plan which considers not only the planar evaluation, but also the evaluation of the DVH measured, and the 3DVH Software proved be adequate for this analysis. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the contamination risk by {sup 241}AM from lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump; Avaliacao da contaminacao provocada por para-raios radioativos de americio-241 descartados em lixoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive lightning rods were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the licenses for using radioactive sources in these products were lifted by the national nuclear authority. Since then, radioactive devices have been replaced by Franklin type one and collected as radioactive waste. However, only 23 percent of the estimated total number of installed rods was delivered to Brazilian Nuclear Commission (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN). This situation is of concern as there is a possibility of the rods being discarded as domestic waste, considering that in Brazil, 63.6 percent of the municipal solid waste is disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump, according to Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE) in 2000. In addition, americium, the most common employed radionuclide, is classified as a high toxicity element, when ingested or inhaled. In the present study, it was performed migration experiments of Am-241 by lysimeter system in order to evaluate the risk of contamination caused by radioactive lightning rods disposed as a common solid waste. Sources removed from lightning rods were placed inside lysimeters filled with organic waste, collected at the restaurant of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the generated leachate was periodically analyzed to determine its characteristics such as pH, redox potential, solid content and concentration of the radioactive material. Microbial growth was also evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. The equivalent dose to members of the public has been calculated considering the ingestion of drinking water, the most probable mode of exposure. The final result was about 145 times below the effective dose limit of 1 mSv.year-1 for members of the public, established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), demonstrating that the risk caused by lightning rods disposed at uncontrolled garbage dump is low. (author)

  12. Strategic environmental evaluation of natural gas - SEA/NG: a management tool for development of a environmental conservation policy; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica para o gas natural - AAE/GN: instrumento de gestao do desenvolvimento para uma politica de conservacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito; Turdera, Mirko Valenzuela; Silva, Paulo Souza; Benedetti Filho, Edemar; Santiago, Etenaldo Felipe; Costa, Fabio Edir dos Santos [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Analise e Monitoramento Ambiental do Gas Natural (GASLAB); Moretti, Edvaldo; Oliveira, Jorge Eremites de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Freitas Filho, Jose Daniel de; Vieira, Maria Helena Pereira [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Soares, Afranio Jose Soriano [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Henrique de; Comunello, Eder [EMBRAPA, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Agropecuaria do Oeste (CPAO); Freire, Luiz G.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The methodology for a Strategic Environmental Evaluation of Natural Gas - SEA/NG incorporates within the analysis of the project the socio-cultural, economic, energetic and environmental implications of the transformations, due to the adoption of natural gas, in the area of influence of gas pipelines and gas-powered thermo-electric plants. It was based on the case study of a gas pipeline planned to reach the city of Dourados from Campo Grande, capital of the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso do Sul, which implied the construction of a thermoelectric plant in Dourados. The SEA/NG: 1. Defines the best alternative track for gas pipelines; 2. Proposes location alternatives for gas-powered thermo-electric plants; 3. Evaluates the cumulative and synergic effects of human activities in the socio-environmental aspects; 4. Studies the dynamics of regional development; 4. Supports urban planning decisions in cities housing gas-powered thermo-electric plants; 5. Proposes a System of Analysis and Environmental Monitoring for Natural Gas. Qualitative-quantitative matrixes were used to evaluate the cumulative and synergic effects of the adoption of natural gas within the regional energy matrix, determine the best alternative track for the gas pipeline proposed from Campo Grande to Dourados, and to identify the best location for a gas-powered thermo-electric plant. The matrixes integrated the areas of geology, hydrology, ecology and socio-economics issues both in the phases of construction and operation of the pipeline. Diagrams and interactive conceptual models were also used to synthesize the principal components involved in the choice of the best gas pipeline alternative track. This project received financial grants from PETROBRAS, MSGAS, TBG and FINEP. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the environmental licensing process for small hydroelectric power plants in Minas Gerais state, Brazil; Avaliacao do processo de licenciamento ambiental para pequenas centrais hidreletricas no estado de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, Adriana Coli

    2004-07-01

    The present situation of the environmental licensing process have been slow and complicated, in relation to the current conception of the sustainable environmental development in the country. The enterprises and impacting activities are being discussed and analysed through a great number of environmental laws and specific laws to each enterprise. These laws along with the inexperience of the enterprises and of the many institutions involved in the process are an obstacle to the development. This document presents the legal and institutional aspects of the environmental licensing for the implementation of small hydroelectric power plants. Laws and doctrine related to the topic were researched and concluded for Minas Gerais State with the help of a survey with the enterprises and institutions involved in the process to find out the difficulties that influence the delay of the analysis of the SHPP. The results show that the main barriers are the non-application of the CONAMA resolution 279/2001 to the SHPP, undetermined inspection criteria, excess of environmental programs, technical incapacity, lack of financial resources, non-integration of the institutional organs, the building of SHPP in permanent preservation area, project interfering in the fish fauna, studies an environmental impact with then reports and public audiences. Finally, concludes that the difficulties are based on the non-integration of the institutions and also, being recent, on the inexperience of the actors involved. Therefore, the study suggests on increase of the technical body in the institutions and training of their analysts; hiring of specialized consultancy, implantation of an environmental integrated system, social communication program in the planning phase, fulfillment of the CONAMA resolution 279/2001; integration of public ministry representatives in the licensing organs; application of planning and zoning, deadlines and legal imposition of these deadlines in order to supply the

  14. Evaluation of multielements in human serum of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) using SRTXRF; Avaliacao multielementar em soro humano de individuos portadores de leucemia mieloide cronica (LMC) usando SRTXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, Catarine Canellas Gondim

    2005-04-15

    In this work, trace elements were analyzed in serum of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) affects the myeloid cells in the blood and affects 1 to 2 people per 100,000 and accounts for 7-20% cases of leukemia. Sixty patients with CML and sixty healthy volunteers (control group) were studied. Blood was collected into vacutainers without additives. Directly after collection, each blood sample was centrifuged at 3000 rev/min for 10 min in order to separate blood cells and suspended particles from blood serum. Sera were transferred into polyethylene tubes and stored in a freezer at 253 K. A 500 {sup m}u{sup L} serum quantity was spiked with Ga (50 {sup m}u{sup L} ) as internal standard. 10 {sup m}u{sup L} aliquots were pipetted on Perspex sample carrier. After deposition, the samples were left to dry under an infrared lamp. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using a polychromatic beam. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for calibration system. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Starting from the ANOVA test was observed that the elements P, S, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Rb presented real significant differences ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups (healthy subjects and CML patients) and Sex (males and females). (author)

  15. Marginal microleakage in vitro study of occlusal fissures sealing prepared and etched or not with Er: YAG laser; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em selamentos oclusais preparados e condicionados ou nao pelo laser de Er:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Fernanda de Almeida

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of marginal microleakage in occlusal sealing by invasive techniques, after preparation with Er:YAG laser followed or not by Er:YAG laser etching and compared to the conventional technique. Thirty human premolars were divided into three groups: A (control group) - cavities were prepared with high speed and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group B - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J /cm{sup 2}) and etched with 37% orthophosphoric acid; group C - cavities were prepared with Er:YAG laser (350 mJ, 4 Hz and 112 J/cm{sup 2}), and etched with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ, 4 Hz and 25 m/cm{sup 2}). All cavities were treated with the same adhesive system and restored with flow composite according to manufacturer instructions. Teeth were submitted to thermal cycling procedures and immersed in 50% Silver Nitrate Solutions for 8 hours in total darkness. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in the bucco-lingual direction, in slices of 1 mm thick. Each slice was immersed into photo developing solution under 16 hours of fluorescent light. Slices were photographed and microleakage was scored from 0 to 7 J by three standard examiners. Results showed statistically significant differences for group C (Er:YAG laser preparation and etching). We concluded that Er:YAG laser can be used for cavity preparation of occlusal sealing, like the conventional high speed method. However, this laser, used as enamel etching agent, could not promote an adequate surface for adhesive procedures. (author)

  16. Study radiolabeling of urea-based PSMA inhibitor with 68-Galliu: Comparative evaluation of automated and not automated methods; Estudo de radiomarcacao com Galio-68 do inibidor de PSMA baseado em ureia: avaliacao comparativa de metodo automatizado e nao automatizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Lais Fernanda

    2016-07-01

    The methods for clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer include rectal examination and the dosage of the prostatic specific antigen (PSA). However, the PSA level is elevated in about 20 to 30% of cases related to benign pathologies, resulting in false positives and leading patients to unnecessary biopsies. The prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), in contrast, is over expressed in prostate cancer and founded at low levels in healthy organs. As a result, it stimulated the development of small molecule inhibitors of PSMA, which carry imaging agents to the tumor and are not affected by their microvasculature. Recent studies suggest that the HBED-CC chelator intrinsically contributes to the binding of the PSMA inhibitor peptide based on urea (Glu-urea-Lys) to the pharmacophore group. This work describes the optimization of radiolabeling conditions of PSMA-HBED-CC with {sup 68}Ga, using automated system (synthesis module) and no automated method, seeking to establish an appropriate condition to prepare this new radiopharmaceutical, with emphasis on the labeling yield and radiochemical purity of the product. It also aimed to evaluate the stability of the radiolabeled peptide in transport conditions and study the biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in healthy mice. The study of radiolabeling parameters enabled to define a non-automated method which resulted in high radiochemical purity (> 95 %) without the need for purification of the labeled peptide. The automated method has been adapted, using a module of synthesis and software already available at IPEN, and also resulted in high synthetic yield (≥ 90%) specially when compared with those described in the literature, with the associated benefit of greater control of the production process in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices. The study of radiolabeling parameters afforded the PSMA-HBED-CC-{sup 68}Ga with higher specific activity than observed in published clinical studies (≥ 140,0 GBq

  17. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the workers involved in the {sup 123}I production at the IEN/CNEN-RJ; Avaliacao da exposicao ocupacional dos trabalhadores envolvidos na producao de {sup 123}I no IEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisco de

    2005-07-01

    {sup 123}I is a gamma emitter used for diagnosis in Nuclear Medicine. Since 1998 it is produced in the Institute of Nuclear Energy (IEN) and supplied to the Clinics and Hospitals located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The annual production is in the approximately of 0,74 TBq (20 Ci), which represents a risk of external and internal exposure to the workers involved in this activity. A survey of external doses in the period of 1994 to 2004 was carried out based on the individual registries available in the CONEXO Data Base operated by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). It was verified an increase of the external exposure associated to the production curve. However, the individual doses are all bellow the annual limits established by the regulatory board. On the other hand, the variation of doses among individuals involved in the same tasks suggests the possibility of optimization of procedures. Regarding internal exposure it was calculated a decision factor above 1mSv for the practice, which justifies the need for internal monitoring. An evaluation of the process based on the results of in vivo thyroid monitoring in the period of 2000 to 2004 was carried out to identify the steps which represent higher risk of internal exposure. The available data indicate that the laboratory of quality control is the critical step in terms of internal contamination. This conclusion can be justified by the high volatility of iodine which is manipulated in the form of a liquid open source during this step. With the aim of optimizing monitoring procedures for the control of occupationally exposed workers in the production of {sup 123}I, in vivo and in vitro bioassay methods were developed to identify and quantify internal contamination by such radionuclide, using the detection systems available at the Bioassay Laboratory and at the In Vivo Measurements Laboratory. The techniques developed present sensitivity compatible with the derived registry level associated

  18. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  19. Performance evaluation of small scale internal combustion engine with mixtures for diesel oil-palm oil; Avaliacao do desempenho do motor de combustao interna de pequeno porte com misturas oleo diesel - oleo de dende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seye, Omar; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Emails: Seye62omar@yahoo.com, rcsouza@internext.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This work aims at the performance evaluation of the Cummins 4B -3.9, an internal combustion engine of maximum power 75 hp (56.6 kW) for small scale power generation, burning different mixtures of diesel fuel and palm oil. The palm oil in nature is mixed manually, what unfortunately will influence the engine performance as it hinders the combustion. The test protocol will include the biodiesel, later on. The emissions were assessed for several proportions of mixture diesel/palm oil covering the strip from 0 to 20% and the results were compared to the engine performance when it operates with diesel only. The motor is coupled to a dynamometer, whose operation consists of the acceleration and deceleration of water in order to simulate the effect of a load being applied to the motor. The system is controlled by the software LT commander that allows the start up and the shutdown of the engine from the screen of the computer that also monitors the following parameters as speed of rotation of the motor (RPM), applied torque (N-m), potency (hp), temperature of the lubricating oil, temperature of the water in the entrance and exit of the motor, and temperature of the environment (deg C), pressures of the lubricating oil and of opening of the injector (mBar). While a flow meter coupled to the piping measures the consumption of fuel, the gas analyzer ECHO Line 6000 it monitors the concentration and temperature of carbon monoxide (CO) (ppm), nitric oxide (NO) (ppm), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), (ppm), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) (ppm) and Oxygen (O{sub 2}) (%) in the exhaust gases. This equipment also determines the combustion parameters as excess of air and the efficiency. The technical results present the efficiency variation, the pressure of the fuel, monoxide carbon, NOx emissions, Oxygen content in the exhaust gases, for the different mixture proportions. Furthermore, the results of economic viability show generation cost values of US$ 135,66/MWh for the motor operating

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos traco em amostras de sedimento do reservatorio Guarapiranga, Sao Paulo, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-07-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  1. Assessment of the bacteria reduction in the infected root canal irradiated with diode laser; Avaliacao da reducao bacteriana em conduto radicular infectado e irradiado com laser de diodo. Estudo in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radaelli, Claudia Amaral Rabello de Mello

    2002-07-01

    High success rates are achieved in conventional endodontic treatment of vital pulp teeth. However, in cases of non-vital pulp, a decrease in the rate of success occurs due to difficulties in achieving a complete disinfection of the root canals system. Some bacteria, such as Enterococcus faecalis, are frequently found in cases of endodontic treatment failure due to their high resistance to the conventional endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a high power diode laser irradiation in bacterial reduction of contaminated canals associated with dressing compose by calcium hydroxide paste propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. Eighty-two root canals were infected in vitro with Enterococcus faecalis in a concentration of 1x10{sup 8} CFU/ml. Specimens were high intensity irradiated with a diode laser model Opus 10, at a wavelength of 830 nm. Two different parameters were employed in continuous mode: 3 W and 2,5 W with a 360 {mu}m optical fiber at an angle of approximately 5 degrees respect to the dentine surface during 5 seconds, in 4 applications, with 20 seconds intervals among them. After these proceedings specimens were vortexed in peptone water and dilutions performed. Aliquots of the dilution were plated on m-Enterococcus agar, incubated, and the Colonies Forming Units (CFU) of ali groups was counted. The results showed a significant reduction of bacteria on ali groups after laser irradiation. A high reduction rate was achieved: 98.5% immediately after the laser irradiation; 48 hours after, the reduction was of 96,73% and, finally, a 100% reduction was achieved through the combination of laser irradiation and a long lasting dressing of calcium hydroxide paste, propylene glycol and camphorated paramonochlorophenol. High rates of bacteria reduction were achieved using the parameter of 3 W in continuous mode with the power of 2,9473 KW/cm{sup 2}. The temperature was monitored with a K-pipe thermocouple placed at

  2. Dyes removal of textile wastewater onto surfactant modified zeolite from coal ash and evaluation of the toxic effects; Remocao de corantes de efluente textil por zeolita de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante e avaliacao dos efeitos toxicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Patricia Cunico

    2015-07-01

    Zeolites synthesized from fly and bottom ashes and modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) were used as adsorbent to remove dyes - Solophenyl Navy (SN) and Solophenyl Turquoise (ST) and their hydrolysed forms Solophenyl Navy Hydrolysed (SNH) and Solophenyl Turquoise Hydrolysed (STH), from simulated textile wastewater. The HDTMA-modified fly zeolite (ZMF) and HDTMA-modified bottom zeolite (ZMB) were characterized by different techniques, as X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, etc. The ZMF and ZMB presented negative charge probably due to the formation of a partial bilayer of HDTMA on exchangeable active sites on the external surface of unmodified zeolite. Initial dye concentration, contact time and equilibrium adsorption were evaluated. The adsorption kinetic for SN, ST, SNH and STH onto the zeolites followed the pseudo second-order model. The equilibrium time was 20 min for SN and ST and 30 min for SNH and STH, respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were applied to describe the adsorption isotherms. Adsorption of the dyes were best described by the Langmuir model, with exception to SN/ZPM, SNH/ZPM and SNH/ZLM systems that followed Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 3,64; 3,57; 2,91 e 4,93 for SN, ST, SNH e STH by ZLM, respectively and 0,235; 0,492; 1,26 e 1,86 by ZPM, in this order. The best performance for hydrolyzed dyes has been attributed to reduction of the size of dyes molecules during the hydrolysis process. Acute toxicity of the dyes to a different organism were evaluated by different test-organisms. Waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia showed EC50 value of 1,25; 54,5; 0,78 and 2,56 mgL{sup -1} for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. The plant Lemna minor showed EC50 values of 18,9; 69,4; 10,9 and 70,9 mgL{sup -1} for SN, ST, SNH and STH, respectively. Midges larvae of Chironomus tepperi showed EC50 values of 119 and 440 mgL{sup -1} for SN and ST, respectively. Regarding

  3. Technical evaluation of thermodynamics processes; Avaliacao tecnica dos processos termodinamicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petracco, Fulvio Celso

    1986-05-01

    An evaluation of thermodynamic processes, energy losses the origin of energy losses on thermodynamic process, where are the points or sources of those losses and variation of process when compared in relation of thermodynamic performance are discussed. The concept of energy losses and its origin, energy and work capacity, performance rates and examples of thermodynamic efficiency are also debated 3 figs.

  4. Radiologic evaluation of facial injury; Avaliacao radiologica dos traumatismos faciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Volpato, Richard [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: richard_volpato@uol.com.br; Nascimento, Lia Paula [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-03-01

    A detailed radiological investigation of the maxillofacial injuries is essential to achieve good treatment results. The images should identify every lesion and guide the treatment, thus improving esthetic and functional results. With the aim of simplifying the diagnostic task, the face may be seen as a five regions structure that may suffer a regional fracture or combined fractures involving the adjacent regions. These regions represent areas of focus for pre surgical planning and are as follows: nasal, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular. In order to understand the injury mechanisms and their consequences it is useful to know the supporting buttresses, which are divided in five sagittal planes, three horizontal planes and two coronal planes. We reviewed the cases of patients with facial trauma treated at Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A review of the relevant issues concerning radiological investigation of these injuries is presented. This study allowed standardization and ordering of the radiological investigation in patients with facial trauma. (author)

  5. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings; Tendao calcaneo: avaliacao por imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: crismontandon@hotmail.com; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica

    2003-12-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  6. Seismic evaluation of nuclear installations; Avaliacao sismica de instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    Some considerations regarding extreme external events, natural or man-induce, such as earthquakes, floods, air crashes, etc, shall be done for nuclear facilities to minimizing the potential impact of the installation on the public and the environment. In this paper the main aspects of the seismic evaluation of nuclear facilities (except the nuclear power reactors) will be presented based on different codes and standards. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. An assessment of ninth round; Nona: uma avaliacao da rodada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, Eduardo; Andrade, Leila; Fontana, Raphaela [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Accomplished on November, 27{sup th}, 2007, 271 exploratory blocks were offered in Round 9, distributed within 14 sectors, totalling an area of 73 thousand km{sup 2}. The following basins were included: Campos, Espirito Santo, Para- Maranhao, Parnaiba, Pernambuco-Paraiba, Potiguar, Santos, Reconcavo and Rio do Peixe. From the original lot of 67 companies qualified (31 Brazilian and 36 of foreign origin), 42 offered bids individually or in partnerships. 117 blocks were allocated to 24 winning operator companies. Other 12 enterprises won acreage as non-operator participants of joint bids. A record of R$ 2,1 billion were offered as signature bonuses along with 169.436 units of the so called minimum exploratory programs. These units may be converted to an estimated R$ 1,4 billion. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the results obtained in Round 9, analyzing collected data through three different perspectives of aggregate results: bidding companies, offered areas and exploratory models. (author)

  8. Heuristicas para avaliacao de interfaces de portais universitarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelogi, A.P.S.; van Amstel, Frederick; Barsottini, C.G.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Heuristic Evaluation method seems to be efficient to diagnose interface usability problems. The propose at this study is to determine whether specific heuristics for university portals are appropriate and contribute to a more specific evaluation of interface usability of the portal of the

  9. Energetic evaluation: public schools sector; Avaliacao energetica: setor escolas publicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Ribeiro, Mariane Correa; Martins, Fernando Henrique Dias; Silva, Valeria R. Borges da [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente

    2010-07-01

    Energy consumption evaluation at schools is very important for school management. However, there is a great difference among consumption rates, and a simplified analysis would lead to wrong evaluation. It is not possible to analyze schools that have different number of students or different sizes, unless these variables are applied. This article proposes a methodology in order to develop a sector analysis taking into account operation features. A case study is presented to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  10. Avaliacao de projeto de promocao da saude para adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovino Oliveira Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar programa de promoção de atividade física e de escolhas alimentares entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 911 adolescentes de 13 a 18 anos de idade, de escolas públicas de Goiânia, GO, em 2010. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: intervenção (escolas participantes do Projeto Viver Saudável e controle. Foram considerados como atividade física: deslocamento, aulas de educação física na escola, atividade física fora da escola e no lazer. Foram definidos como ativos aqueles que acumularam 300 ou mais minutos por semana. Quanto às escolhas alimentares, foi classificado como adequado o consumo de alimentos protetores em cinco ou mais dias da semana. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas com teste de Qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos adolescentes foi identificada como inativos ou insuficientemente ativos, com 65,7% no grupo intervenção e 65,2% no grupo controle, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos e com prevalência maior entre o sexo feminino. Pouco mais da metade dos adolescentes consumiam alimentos protetores da saúde em cinco ou mais dias da semana, sendo 56,6% e 50,4%, respectivamente, nos grupos intervenção e controle (p = 0,373. CONCLUSÕES: A ausência de diferenças quanto a escolhas alimentares e prática de atividade física entre os grupos intervenção e controle indica que o projeto Viver Saudável precisa ser reavaliado visando melhorar a efetividade no cumprimento dos seus objetivos.

  11. Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals and rare ground elements in samples of sediments of the Billings and Guarapiranga systems reservoirs; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais e elementos terras raras em amostras de sedimentos dos reservatorios dos sistemas Billings e Guarapiranga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Larissa de Souza

    2017-11-01

    The excessive urbanization process of the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region resulted in the loss of the natural characteristics of its water courses causing serious changes in flow and quality regimes. The objective of this study was evaluate the concentration of toxic metals, semi metals As, Sb and Se, and rare earth elements present in surface sediment samples collected at the Billings, Guarapiranga and Rio Grande Reservoirs. The Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn elements were analyzed using Optical Emission Spectrometry With Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP OES). Some major, trace and rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were analyzed by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. The total Hg concentration was determined by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique (CVAAS). The validation of the methodologies was performed by means of the certified reference material analyses. To assess the sources of anthropogenic contamination, the enrichment factor (EF) and the geoaccumulation index (IGeo) were calculated. The results obtained for both techniques were compared with TEL and PEL oriented values established by CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) and adopted by CETESB (Environmental Company of the Sao Paulo State). All sampling points showed concentration values for toxic metals >TEL and 2 points at Billings Reservoir (BILL02030 and 02100), values > PEL for As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, probably due to the entrance of the Pinheiros River waters and drainage basins of the Cocaia and Borore streams. The calculated EF and IGeo values indicated possible anthropogenic contamination for Sb and Se for the elements determined by ICP OES and As, Cr, Sb and Zn, obtained by INAA. The Billings reservoir presented, in general, the highest concentrations for the analyzed elements, indicating a poor quality of its sediments. This study confirms the need of a frequent monitoring of the sediment quality in the studied reservoirs as an indispensable procedure for periodic evaluation of the basin quality, considering its importance in the water supply for the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo. (author)

  12. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  13. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', 'Weekly image portal' and 'Weekly medical review of patients', were highlighted as the most present and effective in routine radiotherapy procedure. These results have great relevance for this type of methodology, since their practical application, together with its potential risk identification and classification, confirm their feasibility of use in routine services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, as well as in other locations, seeking to meet national and international recommendations for safety and radiation protection. (author)

  14. Evaluation of conventional x-ray diagnostic equipment and radiological protection systems of hospitals and clinics installed in Recife city, Brazil; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de raios-X diagnostico convencionais e dos sistemas de protecao radiologica de clinicas e hospitais da cidade de Recife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Robson Silva

    1999-05-15

    Diagnostic radiology is the main contributor to the man-made exposure of general population. Since Quality Assurance (QA) programs ensure high quality diagnostic images with the lowest possible radiation dose to the patient, it has been recommended that all introduce QA programs for their radiological facilities. Consequently it is important to check the adequacy of equipment operating parameters in diagnostic radiography facilities, to ensure that a high quality of service is delivered. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the operating conditions of diagnostic units installed in Recife, Pernambuco. The study included 31 X-ray units from both public and private diagnostic services. The following parameters were evaluated: coincidence between the luminous and radiation fields; alignment of the radiation beam; agreement between the real and preset values of kVp and exposure time; filtration; half value lower (HVL); luminance of the view box; uniformity of the luminance; illuminance of the environment. The results showed that 20% of the equipment surveyed exhibited discrepancies between the luminous and radiation fields greater than 2% of the source to skin distance. The test of kilovoltage showed that 48% of the units do not fulfill the acceptability criteria, presenting discrepancies higher than {+-} 10% between the measured and preset values. The results of the accuracy of the timer indicated that 81% of the equipment surveyed present a discrepancy greater than {+-} 10% between the time selected in the control panel and actual exposure time.The test of the filtration shown that, in 20% of the equipment, this was inferior to 2,5 mm Al. The test of the luminance of view box shown that 96% of the equipment, shown a luminance lower of 2.000 cd/m{sup 2}. Related to the test of the uniformity of the luminance, 81 % of the equipment shown a variation of the uniformity higher then 10%. The test of the iluminancy of the environment shown that 61 % of the equipment presented on iluminancy level out of the gap between 50 and 100 lux. The results of this survey showed that a high percentage of the equipment surveyed demonstrated inadequate operating conditions, reinforcing the need to implement quality control protocols in conventional x-ray units located in Recife. (author)

  15. In vitro evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations with composite resin in bovine teeth. Laser irradiation influences and the adhesive system in the dentin pre-treatment; Avaliacao in vitro da microinfiltracao marginal em restauracoes de classe V com resina composta em dentes bovinos. Influencia da irradiacao laser e sistema adesivo no pre-tratamento dentinario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Wendell Lima de

    2003-07-01

    Microleakage is one of the most important reasons to restorations failure, it is the responsible for marginal colors changing, new caries, hipersensibility and pulpar diseases. Several techniques and materials have been studied to eliminate or, at least, to decrease microleakage. The cavities preparation with Er:YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive are some of these techniques and materials. This research has the objective to compare, in vitro, microleakage in class V cavities, prepared with high rotation (conventional treatment), Er:YAG laser (Enamel-400 mj/2 Hz/128,38 J/Cm{sup 2}, Dentin 250 mJ/ 2 Hz/ 80,24 J/Cm{sup 2}) and the treatment made at dentin with autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) using Er:YAG laser (with water or not water) or not using Er:YAG laser. It was used 48 bovines teeth with cavities prepared in vestibular face and gingival wall on cement enamel junction and oclusal wall on enamel. The materials used were autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) and composite resin Z250. Teeth were divided into four groups of twelve samples each one, according to dentin treatment. Group 1 - Conventional cavity and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 2- Cavity prepared with Er: YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 3 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er:YAG laser associated to water and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 4 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er: YAG laser without water and associated to autoconditioning adhesive. Teeth were restored and stocked at 37 deg C, thermocycled and placed into a 50% silver nitrate solution. Right after, teeth were sliced and evaluated on a stereo microscopic magnifying glass in order to see microleakage degree trying to follow a score from 0 to 3. The findings were submitted to Fisher, Anderson-Darling tests and to the not parametric Sen and Puri test. The results indicated that in gingival edge, the Group 2 showed less microleakage than others ones; in the oclusal edges there were not statistic differences among all the groups. (author)

  16. Life-cycle optimization model for distributed generation in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Amir

    O setor da construcao e responsavel por uma grande parte do consumo de energia e emissoes na Uniao Europeia. A Geracao Distribuida (GD) de energia, nomeadamente atraves de sistemas de cogeracao e tecnologias solares, representa um papel importante no futuro energetico deste setor. A otimizacao do funcionamento dos sistemas de cogeracao e uma tarefa complexa, devido as diversas variaveis em jogo, designadamente: os diferentes tipos de necessidades energeticas (eletricidade, aquecimento e arrefecimento), os precos dinamicos dos combustiveis (gas natural) e da eletricidade, e os custos fixos e variaveis dos diferentes sistemas de GD. Tal torna-se mais complexo considerando a natureza flutuante das tecnologias solares termicas e fotovoltaicas. Ao mesmo tempo, a liberalizacao do mercado da eletricidade permite exportar para a rede, a electricidade gerada localmente. Adicionalmente, a operacao estrategica de um sistema de GD deve atender aos quadros politicos nacionais, se tiver como objetivo beneficiar de tais regimes. Alem disso, considerando os elevados impactes ambientais do setor da construcao, qualquer avaliacao energetica de edificios rigorosa deve tambem integrar aspetos ambientais, utilizando uma abordagem de Ciclo de Vida (CV). Uma avaliacao de Ciclo de Vida (ACV) completa de um sistema de GD deve incluir as fases relativas a operacao e construcao do sistema, bem como os impactes associados a producao dos combustiveis. Foram analisadas as emissoes da producao de GN, as quais variam de acordo com a origem, tipo (convencional ou nao-convencional), e estado (na forma de GN Liquefeito (GNL) ou gas). Do mesmo modo, o impacte dos sistemas solares e afetado pela meteorologia e radiacao solar, de acordo com a sua localizacao geografica. Sendo assim, uma avaliacao adequada dos sistemas de GD exige um modelo de ACV adequado a localizacao geografica (Portugal), integrando tambem a producao de combustivel (GN), tendo em conta as suas diferentes fontes de abastecimento. O

  17. Establishment and prioritization of relevant factors to the safety of fuel cycle facilities non reactor through dynamics archetypes evaluation; Estabelecimento e priorizacao de fatores relevantes para a seguranca de instalacoes do ciclo do combustivel exceto o reator atraves da avaliacao da dinamica de arquetipos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2012-07-01

    The present work aims to establish and prioritize factors that are important to the safety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in order to model, analyze and design safety as a physical system, employing systemic models in an innovative way. This work takes into consideration the fact that models that use adaptations of methodologies for nuclear reactors will not properly work due to the specificities of fuel cycle facilities. Based on the fundamentals of the theory of systems, the four levels of system thinking, and the relationship of eight socio technical factors, a mental model has been developed for safety management in the nuclear fuel cycle context. From this conceptual model, safety archetypes were constructed in order to identify and highlight the processes of change and decision making that allow the system to migrate to a state of loss of safety. After that, stock and flow diagrams were created so that their behavior could be assessed by the system's dynamics. The results from the analysis using the model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the variables (socio technical factors) indicated, as expected, that the system's dynamics proved to be an appropriate and efficient tool for modeling fuel cycle safety as an emergent property. (author)

  18. Implementation of computational model for the evaluation of electromagnetic susceptibility of the cables for communication and control of high voltage substations; Implementacao de modelo computacional para a avaliacao da suscetibilidade eletromagnetica dos cabos de comunicacao e controle de subestacoes de alta tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartin, Antonio C.P. [Companhia de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Bauru, SP (Brazil); Dotto, Fabio R.L.; Sant' Anna, Cezar J.; Thomazella, Rogerio [Fundacao para o Desenvolvimento de Bauru, SP (Brazil); Ulson, Jose A.C.; Aguiar, Paulo R. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work show the implementation of a electromagnetic model for supervision cable, protection, communication and high voltage substations control that was investigated in literature and adapted. The model was implemented by using a computational tool in order to obtain the electromagnetic behavior of various cables used in CTEEP substation, subject to several sources of electromagnetic interference in this inhospitable environment, such as lightning strikes, outbreaks of maneuvers switching and the corona effect. The results obtained in computer simulations were compared with results of laboratory tests carried out on a lot of cables that represent those systems that are present in substations 440 kV. This study characterized the electromagnetic interference, ranked them, identified possible susceptible points in the substation, which contributed to the development of a technical procedure that minimizes unwanted effects caused in communication systems and substation control. This developed procedure also assured the maximum reliability and availability in the operation of the electrical power system to the company.

  19. The influence of the reactive energy in the electric power sector planning and the need of consolidation of the hourly period for evaluation of the power factor of the loads; A influencia da energia eletrica reativa no planejamento do setor eletrico e a necessidade de consolidacao do periodo horario para avaliacao do fator de potencia das cargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira

    1993-07-01

    Among expectations of optimization of electric power systems and the national electric rating laws, there is the important factors of consumption and transmission of reactive energy which concerns the objectives of electric sector. Related to it, the DNAEE, ELETROBRAS and the concessionaires have been developing studies in order to optimize the electric system performance, and consequently the investments of concessionaires and consumers, reducing costs imposed to society due to the form of consumption and/or compensation of reactive loads. This work shows the evolution and consolidation of tariff studies and electric performance of the system, indicating the ways which attend the expectations os all segments of the society through a small adaptation of present regulations an rules related to reactive energy, making possible the system growing in supply by the minimum cost. The main objective of this work is to reinforce the real necessity of to remain intact all the new regulation of power factor, that has been consolidated by the DNAEE's document number 085/92 and your revaluation document number 613/93, including the interval of hourly integration for reactive energy at the determinate date and show the damages for the society caused by the postponement of this condition, that has been considerate in the document number 613/93, from April 1994 until April 1996, however keeping in 1994 the introduction of the new power factor reference of 0.92. (author)

  20. The influence of the reactive energy in the electric power sector planning and the need of consolidation of the hourly period for evaluation of the power factor of the loads; A influencia da energia eletrica reativa no planejamento do setor eletrico e a necessidade de consolidacao do periodo horario para avaliacao do fator de potencia das cargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira

    1993-07-01

    Among expectations of optimization of electric power systems and the national electric rating laws, there is the important factors of consumption and transmission of reactive energy which concerns the objectives of electric sector. Related to it, the DNAEE, ELETROBRAS and the concessionaires have been developing studies in order to optimize the electric system performance, and consequently the investments of concessionaires and consumers, reducing costs imposed to society due to the form of consumption and/or compensation of reactive loads. This work shows the evolution and consolidation of tariff studies and electric performance of the system, indicating the ways which attend the expectations os all segments of the society through a small adaptation of present regulations an rules related to reactive energy, making possible the system growing in supply by the minimum cost. The main objective of this work is to reinforce the real necessity of to remain intact all the new regulation of power factor, that has been consolidated by the DNAEE's document number 085/92 and your revaluation document number 613/93, including the interval of hourly integration for reactive energy at the determinate date and show the damages for the society caused by the postponement of this condition, that has been considerate in the document number 613/93, from April 1994 until April 1996, however keeping in 1994 the introduction of the new power factor reference of 0.92. (author)

  1. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  2. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  3. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  4. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  5. Heavy and viscous oil evaluation in a deep water environment: an integrated evaluation process; Avaliacao de oleo pesado e viscoso em aguas profundas: um processo integrado de avaliacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Wesley S.; Armacanqui, Gina [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    There are many challenges related to heavy and viscous oil reserves evaluation. When this includes a deep-water offshore environment the challenges, including safety issues, increase in complexity. In this paper we share some experiences obtained during the preparation and execution of heavy oil evaluation activities. The process uses the petrophysical and fluid characterization preliminary results obtained during the logging phase as well as prior information from correlation field/wells in order to design the appropriate ESP configuration and location in the DST string as well as the sampler location which should allow monophasic sampling. During the operation a real time interpretation is performed validating the data obtained and sensitizing parameters such as pump frequency, bubble point pressure, GOR and viscosities, allowing the diagnostic of the operation and consequent appropriated flow conditions in order to provide a optimum picture supporting decisions regarding sampling time and other specific evaluation objectives. The examples presented illustrate the methodology proposed of integrated evaluation applied to heavy oil and its benefits. (author)

  6. Methodological proposal for identification and evaluation of environmental aspects and impacts of nuclear facilities of IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil: a case study applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center; Proposta metodologica para a identificacao e avaliacao de aspectos e impactos ambientais em instalacoes nucleares do IPEN: estudo de caso aplicado ao Centro do Combustivel Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    2013-07-01

    This work presents an application of Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to the process of identification of environmental aspects and impacts as a part of implementation and maintenance of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in accordance with the NBR ISO 14001 standard. Also, it can contribute, as a complement, to the evaluation and improvement of safety of the installation focused. The study was applied to the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), situated at the Campus of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The CCN facility has the objective of promoting scientific research and of producing nuclear fuel elements for the IEA-R1 Research Reactor. To identify the environmental aspects of the facility activities, products, and services, a systematic data collection was carried out by means of personal interviews, documents, reports and operation data records consulting. Furthermore, the processes and their interactions, failure modes, besides their causes and effects to the environment, were identified. As a result of a careful evaluation of these causes it was possible to identify and to classify the major potential environmental impacts, in order to set up and put in practice an Environmental Management System for the installation under study. The results have demonstrated the validity of the FMEA application to nuclear facility processes, identifying environmental aspects and impacts, whose controls are critical to achieve compliance with the environmental requirements of the Integrated Management System of IPEN. It was demonstrated that the methodology used in this work is a powerful management tool for resolving issues related to the conformity with applicable regulatory and legal requirements of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) and the Brazilian Institute of Environment (IBAMA). (author)

  7. Comparative study of the action of two different types of bleaching agents activated by two different types of irradiation fonts: xenon plasma arc lamp and 960 nm diode laser; Avaliacao da cor e estudo comparativo da acao de dois tipos diferentes de agentes clareadores ativados pelo laser de diodo e lampada xenonio plasmatica, na superficie do esmalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walverde, Debora Ayala

    2001-07-01

    This in vitro study compares two different types of tooth bleaching agents stimulated with two different irradiation fonts. These fonts accelerate the action of the bleaching agents upon the enamel surface by heating up the materials. We used the xenon plasma arc lamp and a 960 nm fiber-coupled diode laser to irradiate the two materials containing 35% of hydrogen peroxide (Opus White and Opalescence extra). The color of the teeth was measured with a spectrophotometer using the CIELAB color system that gives the numeric values of L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *}. (author)

  8. Evaluation of local tensions through finite elements applied to a large diameter pipe subjected to vacuum condition of a petroleum refinery; Avaliacao das tensoes locais atraves de elementos finitos aplicada a uma tubulacao de grande diametro sujeita a condicao de vacuo de uma dada refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Julio C. Goes; Balbi, Diego J. G. [Promom Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an evaluation of the results obtained in the study of local stress in wall of large diameter pipe. The case study consists of to analyze a pipeline system with 66 inch, which is responsible for transporting oil, oven to the Tower of vacuum distillation unit in a petroleum refining. The absence of internal pressure leads to a critical with respect to the collapse of the walls of the tube in long sections, without the presence of additional elements increase the rigidity of the geometry. The ASME Section VIII Division 1 advocates the use of additional plates, called stiffeners, which aim to curb the efforts from this condition. Thus, it is necessary structural assessment of critical portions of the system in implementing this solution. Therefore, complementary approaches have been proposed, passing by ASME B31.3, Section VIII Division 1, moreover, a computer simulation of stresses through the finite element method, which the results were analyzed according to criteria of tensions presents in ASME Code Section VIII Division 2. (author)

  9. Impact evaluation of the liquid effluent disposal of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in fluvial waters and sediments, RJ, Brazil; Avaliacao do impacto do descarte de efluentes liquidos da Refinaria Duque de Caxias (REDUC) sobre aguas e sedimentos fluviais, RJ, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidone, Edison Dausacker; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Carla Maria; Camaz, Fernando Ribeiro; Jorge, Fabricio Goncalves [PETROBRAS/REDUC, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias; Carvalho, Maria de Fatima B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to assess the contribution of the liquid effluents of the Duque de Caxias Refinery (REDUC) in the water and sediment contamination in the estuarine Iguacu-Sarapui system, a tributary of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since 2002 is being conducted a quarterly monitoring of some parameters in water, river sediments and treated liquid effluent, such as: pH, suspended solids, total sedimented solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, oil and grease (O and G), phenols, sulfide, ammonia, metals and metalloids (V, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn, Hg, As, Se , Co, Fe, Mn), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coprostanol and cholesterol (indicators of domestic wastes). The obtained results show that the effluents meet the legal standards and the treated liquid effluents from REDUC in the estuarine system have little or no impact on river water quality. The higher levels of contaminants detected in water and sediments samples are directly related to untreated domestic sewage from urban areas. (author)

  10. Wetting evaluation of silver based braze alloys onto zirconia metalized with reactive elements for application in oil well drill bots; Avaliacao do molhamento de ligas de adicao a base de prata sobre zirconia polida e metalizada com elementos ativos para aplicacao em brocas de perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.C.; Silva, J.M.; Santos, P.R.F.; Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], Email: jocabuzo@gmail.com; Pimenta, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    Drill bits with hard ceramic inserts are often used on drilling operations. The cutting and crushing action of rocks will produce failures in the tricone bits, which are related to wear; total or partial rupture of the drill bit body or even the inserts; thermal shock and corrosion. The research of better drill bits with ceramic inserts thermally more stable and mechanically stronger, will lead to an increase of their lifetime, and so reducing costs of substitution and maintenance. In the present work, some silver based braze alloys were melted onto zirconia YSZ substrates metallized or not with active metals. inside a furnace with vacuum of 10{sup -5} mbar to evaluate the wetting behavior. The system with AgCuTi and the non metallized YSZ ceramic, showed low contact angles and stable interfaces, which may be appropriate for brazing metal/ceramic parts. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Iodine-131 dispersion after accident in Nuclear Angra Power Plant using the model of aquatic dispersion, SisBahia; Avaliacao da dispersao de iodo-131 apos um acidente na usina de Angra utilizando o modelo de dispersao aquatica, SisBahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques, E-mail: aguiargm@gmail.com, E-mail: aalvim@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Simoes Filho, Francisco Fernando Lamego, E-mail: flamego@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    It was inserted, in the cooling system of the nucleus, a LOCA, where 431 m{sup 3} of coolant was lost. Such an inventory contained 3,04 x 10{sup 10} Bq / m{sup 3} and iodine was released near the beach Itaorna, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and Angra 2 in operation and 3 in with varying capture and discharge with the discharge gradually reduced after the accident), the dilution of the specific activity of radionuclides reached lower values after 22 hours, the reference levels for seawater {sup 131}I (7,40 x 10{sup 2} Bq / m{sup 3}). After 54 hours, levels of the radionuclide, in the area of indirect influence, are already below minimum activity values detected by the laboratory for environmental monitoring of the CNAAA (5,0 x 10{sup 1} Bq / m{sup 3}.

  12. Assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, Tocantis, Brazil; Avaliacao dos metais ambientalmente disponiveis em amostras de sedimento de pontos de captacao de agua para abastecimento publico de Palmas, TO, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruna Rafaela

    2012-07-01

    The sediments are an important compartment used as a tool for assessment of aquatic ecosystems quality, for indicating the presence of contaminants released continuously into the environment as a result of human activities. Among chemical substances discharged to surface water, there are metals that in undesirable amounts, can be toxic to biota. Due to the importance of sediment and of shortage of data of water quality of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system, the present study conducted an assessment of environmentally available metals in sediment samples from water for public supply of the city of Palmas, in Tocantins, Brazil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Se were analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS), Ag, Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, V and Zn were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) and Hg by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). Two partial solubilization processes were performed for a comparative study, one with HCl 0,1 M and agitation at room temperature, considered a milder method for metal extraction from anthropogenic origin, and another with HNO{sub 3} 8 M and microwave heating, considered as an alternative to more complex methods of total digestion, since it provides a good evaluation of the total concentration of the elements. The sediment quality evaluation was realized by comparing the concentration values of the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the quality guidelines (TEL and PEL) adopted by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME), to thereby contribute to the environmental quality of the water of the Araguaia-Tocantins river system. (author)

  13. Toxicological evaluation of natural rubber films from vulcanized latex by the conventional process and the alternative process with ionizing radiation; Avaliacao toxicologica de filmes de borracha natural obtidos do latex vulcanizado pelo processo convencional e pelo processo alternativo com radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Vania Elisabeth

    1997-07-01

    The industrial vulcanization of natural rubber latex (NRL) is made all over the world by conventional process using sulphur and heat but it can be made by an alternative process using ionizing radiation. In this research the NRL was tested by 13 physical, chemical and mechanical assays which showed its good quality. It was done a preliminary study of the toxicological properties of 4 natural rubber films obtained by casting process of NRL: one non vulcanized, other vulcanized by the conventional process and two vulcanized by the alternative process. In the alternative process the films were obtained by irradiation of NRL by gamma rays from the {sup 60} Co source at 250 kGy in the absence of sensitizer and irradiated NRL at 12 kGy in the presence of 4ph r of n-butyl acrylate / 0.2 phr of KOH. These vulcanization doses were determined from broken tensile strength. In the conventional process, sulphur vulcanized NRL was made using a classical composition. Another film was made with non vulcanized NRL. The preliminary evaluation of the toxicological properties was made from in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo systemic toxicity assays. The LBN films vulcanized by the alternative process have less cytotoxicity than the NRL film vulcanized by the conventional process. The sensitized vulcanized films by gamma rays and non vulcanized films showed similar cytotoxicity while the vulcanized films without sensitizer showed a slight lower cytotoxicity. The non vulcanized NRL film and the NRL films vulcanized by the alternative process did not show toxic effects in the 72 hours period of the systemic toxicity assay. However the NRL film vulcanized with sulphur induced effects like allaying and motor in coordination on the animals treated with an oil extract at the fourth hour and recovering after that. The alternative process promoted lower toxic effects than conventional process because there was no toxic substances present. (author)

  14. Evaluation of aluminum oxide dosimeters using OSL technique in dosimetry of clinical photon beams on volumetric modulated arc treatment; Avaliacao de dosimetros de oxido de aluminio pela tecnica OSL na dosimetria de campos de fotons clinicos utilizados no tratamento radioterapico em arco modulado volumetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villani, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Treatment using Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiation Therapy is the most modern modality of conformational radiotherapy so that, with the overlapping of several fields, the dose distributions provide a perfect conformation to the tumor, reducing the probability of complications in adjacent normal tissues. In this sense, many efforts are being invested to improve dose distribution compliance as well as the integration of imaging techniques for tumor screening and correction of inter and intrafraction variations. To this end, an intensive monitoring of the quality of the processes and a quality assurance program are fundamental for patient safety and compliance with current legislation; besides the use of different dosimetry methodologies for intercomparison and validation of the results. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the performance of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) OSL dosimeters manufactured by Landauer Inc. with those produced by Rexon™ in the dosimetry of high energy photon clinical bundles used in Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy - (VMAT) using different simulating objects. The dosimeters were characterized for gamma radiation of the {sup 60}Co and for clinical photon beams of 6 MV typical of treatments by VMAT under conditions of electronic equilibrium and maximum dose respectively. Performance tests of the TL and OSL readers used and repeatability of the samples were evaluated. After all tests, the dosimeters were irradiated in the simulation of different radiotherapy treatments by VMAT and their responses compared to the planning system. All types of dosimeters presented satisfactory results in verifying the doses of this type of planning simulation. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C dosimeters presented compatible results and validated by the other dosimeters and ionization chamber. Regarding the best technique, the OSL InLight commercial system presents greater practicality and versatility for use and application in the clinical routine

  15. Assessment of environmental impact of ultraviolet radiation or electron beam cured print inks on plastic packaging materials; Avaliacao do impacto ambiental gerado por tintas graficas curadas por radiacao ultravioleta ou feixe de eletrons em materiais para embalagens plasticas convencionais ou biodegradaveis pos-consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves

    2014-07-01

    The high level of pollution generated by the inadequate disposal of polymeric materials has motivated the search for environmentally friendly systems and techniques such as the application of biodegradable polymers and the replacement of the solvent-based paint systems by those with high solids content, based water or cured by radiation, practically free of volatile organic compounds. However, the cured polymer coatings are neither soluble nor molten, increasing the complexity of the reprocessing, recycling and degradation. Thus, this work aimed to develop print inks modified with pro-degrading agents, cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, for printing or decoration in plastic packaging products of short lifetime, which are biodegradable or not. Six coatings (varnish and inks in five colors: yellow, blue, white, black and red), three pro-degrading agents (cobalt stearate, cerium stearate and manganese stearate), five polymeric substrates (Ecobras®, low density polyethylene and its respective modifications with pro-degrading agents). The coatings were applied to the substrates and cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, resulting in 180 samples. These materials were then exposed to accelerated aging chamber, type 'QUV', and composting in natural environment. In order to assess the effects of the polymer coatings on the degradation process of the specimens, only the yellow and black samples were exposed to a controlled composting environment via respirometry, reducing to 16 the number of samples. The organic compound generated by the biodegradation process was analyzed by the ecotoxicity tests. It was observed that the coating layer acted as a barrier that inhibits degradation of the plastic when exposed to weathering. The addition of pro-degrading agents promoted acceleration in the degradation process, promoting the migration of the metal ion to the medium without affecting the final quality of the organic compost. (author)

  16. Evaluation of thermal power plant with biomass (pell of rice briquets): real case - 'Experimental farm of the Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas'; Avaliacao de planta termica com biomassa (briquete de casca de arroz): caso real 'Fazenda experimental do Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Rogerio Olavo; Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Cavalcante, Italo Ricardo Lopes [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP/ULBRA), Palmas, TO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The panorama established in the current scenery signals that the sources of energy renewed they should assume growing paper in the world energy head office, forced by the perspective of reduction of the reservations of fossil fuels and, more and more, for environmental subjects. Among the countless sources you renewed of energy, the biomass is shown as an alternative one quite promising, among the energy of the win and solar. In this context the use of alternative sources of energy, in particular the biomass (residues of cane of sugar and of wood, besides the peel of rice), they appear as an opportunity of private importance to collaborate in the offer of energy of the inter linked system of Brazil, in the form of decentralized generation and close to the consumption points, through equipment and national fuel (example process residues); advantages these that, formed an alliance thoroughly with the environmental benefits known, they do with that the biomass is a strategic option for the country, that only depends on politics adapted for its situation. On the other hand, areas still exist in Brazil, specifically in the North area, that they do not belong to the interlinked system, with generation exclusively based on oil diesel, what corresponds to an important the bottom net in our energy head office. Brazil, besides importer of gross petroleum to refine, it is forced to import oil pure diesel to guarantee the offer of this fuel. In the last ten years the import of oil pure diesel increased ten times data of ANP approximately (www.anp.gov.br). Besides this subject of the import of the diesel and of the emissions current west of its use, such as: oxides of sulfur, material powder and gases of effect stove, among other, the generation in the Isolated Systems with motors diesel (largely old and inefficient) it is based on the subsidies of the Bill Consumption of Fuel (CCC), that pays an additional of US$ 100 for MWh generated in this alternative system. The

  17. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  18. Evaluation of microleakage occurred in class V restoration prepared with Er:YAG laser and also with high speed, restored using composite; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao em cavidades classe V preparada com laser de Er:YAG ou alta rotacao, jateadas ou nao com bicarbonato de sodio e restauradas com resina composta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Angelo Maercio Finochio

    2002-07-01

    The microleakage is one of the great problems found in restoring dentistry. In spite of adhesive system evolution, several materials have been studied intending to minimize or to eliminate the microleakage occurred between the tooth and restorative material. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal microleakage in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or high speed and restored with composite resin. One of the groups received the sodium bicarbonate jet while the other group have not received. Twenty teeth third extracted molars were sectioned in the sense medial-distal being obtained forty samples that were divided in four groups: Group I (G1): prepared with Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), E= 350 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 112,5 J/cm{sup 2}. Preparing occlusion margin slice with 250 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 80,3 J/cm{sup 2}. The prepared total area was irradiated with E=80 mJ/p, F=2 Hz and fluency of 25,75 J/cm{sup 2}. Every prepared area was finally submitted to sodium bicarbonate jet. Group 2 (G2): it was employed the same parameters used on group 1, except the sodium carbonate jet application. Group 3 (G3): the cavities' prepare were executed with high speed rotation using diamond cylindrical point. The slice confection has been made with the same point with 45 degrees inclined, utilizing also the sodium carbonate jet in all prepared area. Group 4 (G4): it was executed similarly prepared to group 3, without the sodium bicarbonate jet. In all the groups the cavities were washed with water spray and drought with air jet. Dentin and enamel surfaces have been conditioned with phosphoric acid at 35%. All the samples of all groups were restored using the single bond system adhesive and composite resin Z250, kept at 37 deg C in stove during 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in silver nitrate solution at 50% for 24 hours while kept in darkness. The specimens were soaked in photo developing solution and exposed to fluorescent light for

  19. Evaluation of microleakage occurred in class V restoration prepared with Er:YAG laser and also with high speed, restored using composite; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao em cavidades classe V preparada com laser de Er:YAG ou alta rotacao, jateadas ou nao com bicarbonato de sodio e restauradas com resina composta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Angelo Maercio Finochio

    2002-07-01

    The microleakage is one of the great problems found in restoring dentistry. In spite of adhesive system evolution, several materials have been studied intending to minimize or to eliminate the microleakage occurred between the tooth and restorative material. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal microleakage in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or high speed and restored with composite resin. One of the groups received the sodium bicarbonate jet while the other group have not received. Twenty teeth third extracted molars were sectioned in the sense medial-distal being obtained forty samples that were divided in four groups: Group I (G1): prepared with Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), E= 350 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 112,5 J/cm{sup 2}. Preparing occlusion margin slice with 250 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 80,3 J/cm{sup 2}. The prepared total area was irradiated with E=80 mJ/p, F=2 Hz and fluency of 25,75 J/cm{sup 2}. Every prepared area was finally submitted to sodium bicarbonate jet. Group 2 (G2): it was employed the same parameters used on group 1, except the sodium carbonate jet application. Group 3 (G3): the cavities' prepare were executed with high speed rotation using diamond cylindrical point. The slice confection has been made with the same point with 45 degrees inclined, utilizing also the sodium carbonate jet in all prepared area. Group 4 (G4): it was executed similarly prepared to group 3, without the sodium bicarbonate jet. In all the groups the cavities were washed with water spray and drought with air jet. Dentin and enamel surfaces have been conditioned with phosphoric acid at 35%. All the samples of all groups were restored using the single bond system adhesive and composite resin Z250, kept at 37 deg C in stove during 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in silver nitrate solution at 50% for 24 hours while kept in darkness. The specimens were soaked in photo developing solution and exposed to fluorescent

  20. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil; Avaliacao da incidencia e mortalidade por cancer na populacao residente em regiao com anomalia geologica na ocorrencia de uranio: estudo de caso: Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Leticia Rodrigues

    2009-04-15

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  1. Laser and caries diagnosis: the state of the art and evaluation in vitro of the differences of the fluorescence between sound, carious and demineralized enamel; Laser e diagnostico de caries: estado da arte e avaliacao in vitro das diferencas de fluorescencia entre esmalte sadio, cariado e desmineralizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Maria Angelica Lopes Chaves

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for establishing dental caries diagnosis that make use of Laser light as source of illumination, establishing the 'state of the art'. Experimental observation of the differences among fluorescence of sound, demineralized and carious enamel by visible luminescent spectroscopy was also done. Six human teeth, extracted for clinical reasons were studied, and the results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized ones. The differences are more evident relative to sond enamel and carious enamel, the same occurring between demineralized and carious enamel. The review of the literature aimed to make comparative considerations between QLF, LF and DELF; their effectiveness relative to traditional methods such as visual, visual with probe, radiography. It was verified that DELF was more sensitive, but could not discriminate between different degrees of mineral loss. QLF, compared to DIAGNOdent has the same sensitivity, but it is better for scientific purposes. The experimental part of the present study used on argon ion Laser to illuminated the teeth and signs of emission of fluorescence were captured by a PMT and then analyzed by a computer system with EG and G software. The results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized. The differences are more evident in relation to sound and carious enamel, the same occurs between demineralized and carious enamel. (author)

  2. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  3. Surface morphological changes on the human dental enamel and cement after the Er:YAG laser irradiation at different incidence angles; Avaliacao morfologica das superficies do esmalte e do cimento dental apos a irradiacao do laser de Er:YAG em diferentes angulacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannous, Jose Trancoso

    2001-07-01

    This is a morphological analysis study through SEM of the differences of the laser tissue interaction as a function of the laser beam irradiation angle, under different parameters of energy. Fourteen freshly extracted molars stored in a 0,9% sodium chloride solution were divided in seven pairs and were irradiated with 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mJ per pulse, respectively. Each sample received three enamel irradiations and three cement irradiations, either in the punctual or in the contact mode, one near to the other, with respectively 30, 45 and 90 inclinations degrees of dental surface-laser-beam incidence. Four Er:YAG pulses (2,94 {mu}m, 7-20 Hz, 0,1-1 J energy/pulse - Opus 20 - Opus Dent) with water cooling system (0,4 ml/s) were applied. After the laser irradiation the specimens were analysed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results were analysed by SEM micrographs showing a great difference on the laser tissue interaction characteristics as a function of the irradiation angle of the laser beam. All the observations led to conclude that, considering the laser parameters used, the incidence angle variation is a very important parameter regarding the desired morphological effects. This represents an extremely relevant detail on the technical description of the Er:YAG laser irradiation protocols on dental tissues. (author)

  4. Assessment of the advanced oxidation process , photo-fenton, on the degradation of polyaromatics hydrocarbons contained on the aqueous part of oil in superficial sea water; Avaliacao do processo oxidativo avancado, foto-fenton, na degradacao dos hidrocarbonetos poliaromaticos contidos na fracao soluvel do petroleo em agua superficial salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita C.R. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Paim, Ana Paula Silveira [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Rocha, Otidene R.S. da; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The pollution for oil has been one of the main ambient problems of the last decades. It exists an increasing interest in the study of the destination and forms of disappearance of the constituent hydrocarbons of the oil aiming at the development of more efficient methods of removal of the same ones of the environment. With objective to evaluate the process photo-fenton, in the treatment of the contaminated saline superficial water with polyaromatics hydrocarbons (HPAs) contained in the crude oil, mounted an experiment using reactor of black light, the hydrogen peroxide as oxidant agent. After the degradation the samples had been submitted to the analysis in the GC-MS, and for the 31 specters it was observed that the best ones resulted had been gotten when mmol of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in 8 was used h of exposition to the irradiation and with pH of the equal system the 4. In the specter of this assay the characteristic peaks of the HPAs disappear completely or appear in a lowly intensities, proving that it had rupture of aromatical rings consequently and the degradation of the same ones or that its concentrations meet below of the limit of detention of the equipment. Soon, with the gotten results it can be concluded that the POAs, in special the process photo-fenton, is presented as a viable alternative in the contaminated saline superficial water treatment with the HPAs contained in the rude oil. (author)

  5. Laser and caries diagnosis: the state of the art and evaluation in vitro of the differences of the fluorescence between sound, carious and demineralized enamel; Laser e diagnostico de caries: estado da arte e avaliacao in vitro das diferencas de fluorescencia entre esmalte sadio, cariado e desmineralizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Maria Angelica Lopes Chaves

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for establishing dental caries diagnosis that make use of Laser light as source of illumination, establishing the 'state of the art'. Experimental observation of the differences among fluorescence of sound, demineralized and carious enamel by visible luminescent spectroscopy was also done. Six human teeth, extracted for clinical reasons were studied, and the results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized ones. The differences are more evident relative to sond enamel and carious enamel, the same occurring between demineralized and carious enamel. The review of the literature aimed to make comparative considerations between QLF, LF and DELF; their effectiveness relative to traditional methods such as visual, visual with probe, radiography. It was verified that DELF was more sensitive, but could not discriminate between different degrees of mineral loss. QLF, compared to DIAGNOdent has the same sensitivity, but it is better for scientific purposes. The experimental part of the present study used on argon ion Laser to illuminated the teeth and signs of emission of fluorescence were captured by a PMT and then analyzed by a computer system with EG and G software. The results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized. The differences are more evident in relation to sound and carious enamel, the same occurs between demineralized and carious enamel. (author)

  6. Synthesis of zeolites coal ash in surfactant modified in application and removal of orange 8 acid solution: study in batch, fixed bed column and evaluation ecotoxicological; Sintese de zeolitas de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante e aplicacao na remocao de acido laranja 8 de solucao aquosa: estudo em leito movel, coluna de leito fixo e avaliacao ecotoxicologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2015-09-01

    In this study, synthesized zeolitic material from coal ash and modified cationic surfactant was used for removing the acid dye Orange 8 (AL8) by adsorption process using moving bed and fixed-bed column. The raw material and adsorbents were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. The adsorption of AL8 was performed by moving bed in order to optimize the results when they are launched in a fixed bed. The effects of adsorption on zeolite AL8 were compared: (1) Effect of counterions Br{sup -} and Cl{sup -} surfactant used in the modification of the zeolite; (2) effect of type of coal ash used as raw material in the synthesis of zeolites (fly and bottom). The following adsorbents were used in the study: fly and bottom zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ZLMS-Br-Br and ZPMS-Br) and fly zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (ZLMS-Cl). The pseudo-second-order kinetic described the adsorption of the dye on all adsorbents. The equilibrium time was reached 40, 60 and 120 min for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed by the equations of the models of linear and nonlinear isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevivh (DR) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using the error functions.The DR model was adjusted better to the experimental data for the system AL8 / ZLMS-Br, the Freundlich model for AL8 / ZLMS-Cl and Langmuir for AL8 / ZPMS. According to the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 4.67, 1.48 and 1.38 mg g{sup -1} for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, in order. In studies employing fixed bed columns, the effects of inlet concentration (20- 30 mg L{sup -1}), flow rate (4.0 -5.3 mL min{sup -1}) and the bed height (5, 5 - 6.5 cm) above the breakthrough curves characteristics in the adsorption system were determined. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson models were

  7. Bioavailability of radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb present in the brazilian phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da biodisponibilidade dos radionuclideos {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra e {sup 210}Pb presentes nos fertilizantes fosfatados e no fosfogesso de procedencia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Ana Carolina

    2013-08-01

    Phosphogypsum, also called gypsum, by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry, can be used as soil conditioner since it provides improvements in the soil-plant system. However, this by-product concentrates radionuclides of the U and Th series, present in the phosphate rock used as raw material, which can impact the environment. In order to study the bioavailability of radionuclides, samples of phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers (monoammonium phosphate and triple superphosphate) were analyzed. The concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined by gamma spectrometry. The samples were leached with a mild EDTA solution and the radionuclides present in the final solution were determined by total alpha and beta counting on a gas flow proportional counter. The percentage of extraction varied from 1.6% to 1.7% for {sup 210}Pb, from 0.5% to 1.4% for {sup 226}Ra and from 0.1% to 1.0% for the {sup 228}Ra in phosphogypsum samples. The low percentage of extraction obtained for the radionuclides can be partly explained by the low solubility of phosphogypsum, which ranged from 7.7% to 16%. For the monoammonium phosphate samples the percentage of extraction were less than 26% for {sup 226}Ra, less than 10% for '2{sup 28}Ra and less than 10% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 77% of monoammonium phosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. For the triple superphosphate samples, the percentage of extraction was 2.3% for {sup 226}Ra, 1.2% for {sup 228}Ra and 11.3% for {sup 210}Pb. In spite of the high solubility of 66% of triple superphosphate in the EDTA solution, low concentrations of radionuclides were observed in the leached solution. (author)

  8. Assessment of micro, macro, toxic elements (Cd, Hg, Pb) and fatty acids profile in consumed fish commercially available in Cananeia and Cubatao, Sao Paulo State; Avaliacao de micro e macroelementos, elementos toxicos (Cd, Hg e Pb) e acidos graxos, em peixes disponiveis comercialmente para consumo em Cananeia e Cubatao, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curcho, Michel Rodrigues da Silva Morales

    2009-07-01

    Aside from their nutritional importance, fish are considered one of the most important bio indicators in aquatic systems for the estimation of pollution levels by toxic metals. This is so, since fish can bio accumulate these elements and they occupy different trophic levels and present different sizes and age. The purpose of the present study was to contribute with important data for the knowledge of nutritional and toxic constituents in muscles of the most consumed fish species from two coastal regions, Cananeia and Cubatao. Cananeia fish species analyzed were: Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Centropomus undecimalis (Robalo peba) and Mugil platanus (Tainha). From Cubatao, Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina), Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de moca), Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) and Mugil liza (Tainha). For this study, analytical methodologies were developed and validated, regarding precision and accuracy, by means of certified reference materials. Micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and some trace elements (As, Br, Co, Cr, Rb) in fish muscle were determined by means of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) was used for total Hg determination and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ET AAS) for Cd and Pb determinations. Proximate composition determinations according to AOAC methodologies and fatty acids profiles by gas chromatography were done in these muscle fish samples. Regarding fatty acids profile from the {omega}-6 family, Tainha species pool presented the highest values (8.9%) and Pescada species pool the lowest ones (4.4%) for Cananeia species. Fatty acids from the {omega}-3 family, Sardinha pool species presented the highest values (31.8%) for all species analyzed. Regarding micronutrients content great concentration variations between individual of the same species and between different species were observed. Discriminate analysis

  9. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cabbage and carrot minimally processed salad after radiation treatment intended to immunocompromised patients or with special diets; Avaliacao microbiologica, fisico-quimica e sensorial de salada de repolho com cenoura minimamente processada apos o tratamento por radiacao gama destinado a pacientes imunocomprometidos ou com dietas especiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    During and after the treatment of cancer, people with HIV or transplants, the food intake can offer a well-being to the patient, because the action of eating right helps people to feel strong. Healthy people have their immune system working properly and can tolerate small amounts of bacteria. However, immunocompromised persons may not be able to and however immunocompromised people cannot fight this small amount of microorganisms and require a diet with very low microbiological count to avoid contact with potentially harmful bacteria. This is called neutropenic diet. These patients are susceptible to food contamination, so that it's not advisable the ingestion of raw products. The vegetable irradiation with low doses has the purpose of reducing the microbial load. The aim of this study was to obtain data on microbiological, sensorial e physicochemical aspects in minimally processed 'Primavera' salad irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation designed to immunocompromised patients. It were used doses of 1.0kGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy irradiated in the Multipurpose Irradiator {sup 60}Co located in Radiation Technology Center. Microbiological analyzes were performed (n=25) using Petrifilm, sensory analysis using the sensory acceptance test (n=30) and triangular (n=15) and texture analysis (n=90) in the Food Microbiology Laboratory located at the Radiation Technology Center. The texture analysis was performed with the aid of a texturometer equipped with 5 kg load cell using a triangular cutting Warner-Bratzler Knife blade probe with the descent speed of 2mm/sec. All results were expressed in Newtons (N). The results showed that for microbiological analyzes the standards were followed according to the RDC 12/01 ANVISA. For the sensory test of acceptation no difference was found among the samples, however in the triangular test could be found slight differences between samples irradiated with 4.0kGy and control and there was significant

  10. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  11. Preparation and assessment of [{sup 99m}Tc]technetium aquacarbonyl complexes with 1,2-diaminoethane-N-substituted ligands for tumor detection; Preparo e avaliacao de complexos de [{sup 99m}Tc]tecnecio aquacarbonil com ligantes 1,2-diaminoetano-N-substituidos para deteccao de tumores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radin, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    Over least 15 years the complex [[{sup 99m}Tc](H{sub 2}0){sub 3}(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} has been used as an intermediary to obtain technetium radiopharmaceuticals for applications in cardiology, neurology and oncology. Two important characteristics of this molecule are: the facility for obtaining that compound from aqueous solutions and the easiness of substituting H{sub 2}O molecules by atoms of other ligand molecules. In this project we prepared new complexes [[{sup 99m}Tc](CMN{sup S001-3})(H{sub 2}O)(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}, where (CMNS001) = N-[(4-methoxy) benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, (CMNS003) = N,N'-bis-[(4-methoxy)benzyl]-1,2-diaminoethane, and assessed the uptake of these complexes in murine melanoma cancer cell B16F10 and breast cells MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231, and compared with [[{sup 99m}](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} uptake. In vitro uptake for both new technetium complex reached values close to 5%, for all cell lines, whereas the [[{sup 99m}Tc](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} uptake was close to 1 %. The assessment of subcellular distribution showed high accumulation of the new complex in the membrane fraction, for MDAMB-231, while for B16F10 accumulation occurred both in membrane and cytoplasm; the concentration of [[{sup 99m}Tc](MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} was mainly in the cytoplasm portion. Biodistribution study in mice allowed to observe the capture of up to 1.6% of the administered dose per gram of tumor tissue for the complex [[{sup 99m}Tc](CMNS001)(H{sub 2}O)(CO){sub 3}]{sup +}, whereas other organs such as heart, lung and muscle, showed uptake of about 5.6%, 6.4% and 2%, respectively. The complexes in this work showed a high rate of uptake in vitro, but was not reproduced in vivo model, which can be related to low concentration of the complexes inside the cells and reduced vascularity of tumor tissue, with lower intake of complex through the blood system. (author)

  12. Evaluation of seawater contamination with benzene, toluene and xylene in the Ubatuba north coast, SP region, and study of their removal by ionizing radiation; Avaliacao da contaminacao da agua do mar por benzeno, tolueno e xileno na regiao de Ubatuba, litoral norte (SP) e estudo da degradacao destes compostos por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Kelly Cristina Santana de

    2006-07-01

    A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and low water-soluble components such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of seawater by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, and their removal by the exposure to the ionizing radiation. The studied region was Ubatuba region, SP, between 23 deg 26'S and 23 deg 46'S of latitude and 45 deg 02'W and 45 deg 11'W of longitude, area of carry and output of petroleum, and samples were collected from November, 2003 to July, 2005. For BTX in seawater analysis, the Purge and Trap concentrator with FIDGC detector showed significantly higher sensibility than Head Space concentrator with MSGC detector. The minimal detected limits (MDL) obtained at FIDGC were of 0.50 {mu}g/L for benzene, 0.70 {mu}g/L for toluene, and 1.54 {mu}g/L for xylene, and the obtained experimental variability was 15%. While the concentrator type Headspace system with MS detector showed higher MLD, about of 9.30 mg/L for benzene, 8.50 mg/L for toluene, and 9.80 mg/L for xylene, and 10% of experimental variability. In the studied area the benzene concentration varied from 1.0 {mu}g/L to 2.0 {mu}g/L, the concentration of toluene varied from < 0.70 {mu}g/L to 3.24 {mu}g/L and the maximum value of xylene observed was of 2.92 {mu}g/L. The seawater samples contaminated with BTX standard and exposed to ionizing radiation using a source of {sup 60}Co, presented a removal from 10% to 40% of benzene at 20 kGy absorbed doses and concentration of 35.1 mg/L and 70.2 mg/L, respectively; from 20% to 60% of toluene removal with 15 kGy absorbed dose and from 20% to 80% of xylene with 15 kGy absorbed dose in similar concentrations. (author)

  13. Availability of metals Cd and Pb and metalloid As in the Ribeira do Iguape River hydrographic basin and its tributaries: an environmental contamination assessment'; Disponibilidade dos metais Cd e Pb e do metaloide As na bacia hidrografica do Rio Ribeira do Iguape e afluentes: uma avaliacao da contaminacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco Jose Viana de

    2012-07-01

    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) was under influence of lead mining activities, refined and processed in the mines of the region. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aimed to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and metalloid arsenic (As) in the water, sediment and biota (fish blood) in the aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The sampling collection occurred in 8 sites and fish samples were caught by fishing nets and blood sampling was done in the site. The determination of these elements was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace electro thermal heating (GF AAS). This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, regarding precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb in the sediment were compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), TEL (Threshold Effect Level) e PEL (Probable Effect Level) adopted by CETESB and CONAMA 454/2012 Resolution. The results for As, Cd and Pb in water samples were below the QL of the analytical technique used, indicating that these elements are in concentration levels that do not affect the water quality standard established by CONAMA 357/2005. On the other hand, the concentration values for these elements in fish blood and sediment samples showed a strong contamination tendency for Cd and Pb most of the sampling points assessed. The highest Cd concentration in fish blood was 24.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}, at site 2. For Pb, the highest concentration value was 118 {nu}g L

  14. Oil generation potential assessment and paleoenvironmental interpretation based on bio markers and stable carbon isotopes of the Pliensbachian - lower Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) of the Peniche region (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal); Avaliacao do potencial gerador de petroleo e interpretacao paleoambiental com base em biomarcadores e isotopos estaveis de carbono da secao Pliensbaquiano - Toarciano inferior (Jurassico Inferior) da regiao de Peniche (Bacia Lusitanica, Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Veiga de; Rodrigues, Rene; Duarte, Luis Vitor; Lemos, Valesca Brasil [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia]. E-mail: lcveiga@petrobras.com.br

    2006-05-15

    The Lusitanian Basin (Portugal) is located on the western margin of the Iberian Plate with maximum sedimentary thickness around 5 km. In spite of containing promising petroleum systems and more than a hundred wells, its hydrocarbon generation potential has not been fully evaluated yet. These sediments range from upper Triassic to upper Cretaceous, mainly from the Jurassic age. The Lower Jurassic is particularly well represented in the Lusitanian Basin, specifically in the Peniche region, where there are more than 450 m thick outcrops of carbonate rocks aged between Sinemurian and Toarcian. This study presents the evaluation of the hydrocarbon generation potential of the Pliensbachian . lower Toarcian of the Peniche section; which includes the Vale das Fontes Formation, Lemede Formation and Cabo Carvoeiro Formation (CC1 and CC2 members) based on 233 rock samples analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval pyrolysis and bio markers. Available data of oxygen and carbon stable isotopes were also used in the paleoenvironmental interpretation. Marls and limestones with the bituminous facies (Mlbf) of the Vale das Fontes Formation, present the highest TOC values, up to 14.95%, corresponding to the ibex (upper part), davoei and margaritatus ammonites zones and part of the NJ4a and NJ4b nanno fossils bio zones (Pliensbachian). In thermal immature sections (T max about 430 deg C), this member also shows high S{sub 2} values (10 to 50 mgHC/g rock) and Hydrogen index (HI: 200 to 555 mgHC/g TOC). The correlation between HI x OI shows that type II kerogen is predominant in the portion of the section where TOC values are higher. The good positive correlation between TOC values and the bio markers ratio P/nC17 and sterane (C{sub 27}/C{sub 29}) throughout the Mlbf Member suggests a gradual increase of anoxia and higher contribution of algae in relation to terrestrial organic matter. Usually {delta}{sup 18}O variations observed in the basins of the Iberian Peninsula have been

  15. Evaluation of the permeability and morphological alteration of the dental surface after apicoectomy, treatment and preparation with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers; Avaliacao da permeabilidade e da alteracao morfologica da superficie dentinaria apos apicectomia, tratamento e retropreparo com os lasers de Er:YAG e Nd:YAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Guerra de

    2001-07-01

    One of the objectives of endodontic treatment is to resolve pathological periapical processes caused by microbial contamination of the dental pulp. Correct execution of the necessary chemical preparation prior to surgery generally results in positive outcomes. However, a percentage of cases do not respond favorably and therefore require retreatment, a conservative therapeutic option. There are meanwhile a number of treatment failures which do not respond to these conservative measures and must therefore be subjected to paraendodontic surgical procedures. One of the principal problems of this therapeutic conduct is linked to the surface permeability of the dentin after apicoectomy and the lack of adequate marginal adaptation between the retrofilling material and the cavity walls. This permits the percolation of microorganisms and their metabolic by products from the system of root canals to the periapical region, thereby compromising the necessary tissue repair. The present work proposes the evaluation of the surface and marginal permeability of cut dentin after apicoectomy and treatment with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers with fiber optics and then retrofilled with intermediate restorative material (IRM). A total of 24 single rooted teeth whose canals were endodontically treated were divided into 3 experimental groups: group I, whose apices were sectioned with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut dental surface were irradiated with this laser via a 50/10 type fiber; in group II the apicoectomy was conducted with an Er:YAG laser and the resulting cavity and the cut surface were irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser; in group III, the samples were apicoectomized and the cavities were treated with a high speed bur (control group). Analysis of the infiltration of the dye methylene blue throughout the cut dental surface and the reconstruction demonstrated that the samples in the irradiated groups presented lower indices of infiltration than the control group. The

  16. Implementation of a computational system at the Center for Nuclear Technology Development, for systematization the application of the FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, for identification of dangerous and developed risks evaluation; Implementacao de um sistema computacional no Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear para sistemarizar a aplicacao da tecnica FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis - na identificacao de perigos e avaliacao de riscos desenvolvida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Danyel Pontelo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de, E-mail: dpc@cdtn.b, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The regulatory bodies request risks evaluations for nuclear and radioactive licensing purposes. In Brazil those evaluations are contained by the safety analysis reports requested by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and risk analysis studies requested by the environment organisms. A risk evaluation includes the identification of the risks and the accident sequence which can occur, and the estimation of the frequency and his undesirable effects on the industrial installations, the public, and the environment. The identification and the risk analysis are particularly important for the implementation of a health, environment and safety integrated management according to the regulation instruments ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001. The utilization of the risk identification techniques and the risk analysis is performed at the non nuclear industry, in a non standard form by the various sectors of an enterprise, diminishing the effectiveness of the recommended actions based on risk indexes. However, for the nuclear licensing, the CNEN request through their regulatory instruments and standard formats, that the risks, the failure mechanisms and detection be identified, which can allow the preventive and mitigate actions. This paper proposes the utilization of the FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) technique in the licensing process. It was implemented a software through the Excel program, using the Visual Basic for Applications program which allows the automation and the standardization of FMEA studies as well

  17. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  18. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  19. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  20. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  1. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares

    2011-10-26

    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  2. SPECT for smokers brain perfusion evaluation; SPECT para avaliacao da perfusao cerebral em fumantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliska, C.M.; Martins, E.F.; Barros, D.S.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Lourenco, C.; Goncalves, S.; Goncalves, M.B.; Miranda, M.M.B.G.; Neto, L.M.; Penque, E.; Antonucci, J.B. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases brain stroke risk, however,five to fifteen years after ceasing this habit, brain perfusion recovers normal pattern. We propose to compare brain perfusion patterns performing brain SPECT scans of smokers and non-smokers. Thirteen volunteers age range 20-30 years old) composed of six non-smokers and seven smokers were studied by brain scans (SPECT).We used ECD- {sup 99m} Tc radiolabelled as recommended by the manufacturer. All patients received 740 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical through intravenous injection, with their eyes opened and their ears unplugged, in a quiet room. We used a one head SPECT camera ( General Electric/ StarCam 4000 and Siemens/ E.Cam) with low-energy ultrahigh resolution collimator. Imaging begin 40 minutes after tracer injection. For reconstruction we used a Butterworth filter.The preliminary results showed brain perfusion deficit areas on five of the smokers while all non- smokers had normal brain perfusion scans. We believe that smoking increases the possibility of brain perfusion deficits. (author)

  3. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao

    2005-07-01

    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  4. Avaliacao da gestao ambiental dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Moraes, Adriana

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das injurias musculares traumaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Elisa Pompeu [Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Domingues, Romulo Cortes; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Centro Medico Barrashopping, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI)

    2001-12-01

    We evaluated 43 magnetic resonance scans of the leg or thigh of patients suffering from sports trauma. Strains were the most frequent lesions observed. These lesions presented iso- or hypointense signal on T1 and hyperintense signal on T2 images, and were classified according to the intensity of the injury of the fibers into grades 1, 2 and 3. The second most common lesions in these series were contusions that appeared iso- or hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 images. Fibrosis was also observed as low signal lesions on T1 and T2 images. (author)

  6. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Efe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  7. Evaluation of biological analysis program for iodine 131; Avaliacao do programa de bioanalise para Iodo-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaburo, J.C.; Todo, A.S.; Potiens Junior, A.; Oliveira, E.M.; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A program for the occupational control of internal contamination for the Radioisotopes Division workers of the IPEN-CNEN/SP has been performed by in vitro and in vivo bioassay techniques, every two weeks. From the assessment of the monitoring program, two groups of workers were identified in accordance with their activities and handling frequency {sup 131} I. The groups A and B are exposed five and three days respectively every week. In this program, urinalysis methods, thyroid and whole body measurements have been evaluated over the year. The sampling scheme, performed every two week, was altered for weekly, in order to minimize the interpretation errors and to get a better estimative of the intake. This study also provides and evaluation of the cost for the weekly urinalysis sampling method. (author) 6 refs., 1 fig.; e-mail: janetegc at net.ipen.br

  8. LUCRO, VALOR CONTABIL E DIVIDENDOS NA AVALIAcAO DO PATRIMÔNIO LIQUIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ohlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A contabilidade atribui uma importante função integrativa a demonstração das mutações do patrimônio liquido. A demonstração inclui os itens mais importantes do balanço o e da demonstração de resultado do exercício - o valor do patrimônio liquido e o lucro - e sua forma de apresentação exige que a alteração no valor do patrimônio liquido seja igual ao lucro menos os dividendos (líquidos das contribuições para aumento de capital. Referimo-nos a essa relação corno sendo a “relação de lucro limpo", pois, da forma como foi articulada, todas as alterações nos ativos e passivos que não estejam relacionadas com os dividendos devem passar pela demonstração de resultado do exercício. A teoria da contabilidade adota geralmente esse esquema sem relacioná-lo a perspectiva do usuário dos dados contábeis. Contudo, a idéia fundamental de que estoques (líquidos de valor são compatíveis com a criação c distribuição de valor levanta uma questão básica no contexto de avalia4ao do patrimônio liquido: e possível delinear urna teoria coesiva do valor de uma firma sustentada pela relação de lucro limpo, no intuito de se identificar um papel claro para cada uma das três variáveis, quais sejam: o lucro, o valor contábil do patrimônio liquido e os dividendos?

  9. Severe bronchiectasis in a dog: tomographic evaluation; Severa bronquiectasia em um cao: avaliacao tomografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Campos, Lidice Araujo; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Inamassu, Leticia Rocha; Charlier, Murilo Gomes de Soutello; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: viviam.babicsak@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Bronchiectasis is a bronchial dilatation caused by changes in the bronchial wall usually due to infectious processes. Computed tomography is an important imaging modality for the evaluation of this alteration due to its high sensitivity. In this study we describe the case report of a 6-year-old female mixed breed dog with severe and generalized bronchiectasis on computed tomography. Due to the severe extent of bronchiectasis, the method of measurement of the adjacent pulmonary artery and its relationship to the bronchus did not have to be performed. An indirect sign of bronchiectasis identified in the patient was the bronchial wall thickening, possibly due to the infiltration of inflammatory components, edema and even by peri-bronchial abscesses. (author)

  10. Marine terminal baseline criteria and assessment OCIMF; Avaliacao de terminais maritimos - criterio OCIMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fabio Lindoso; Garcia, Luciano Maldonado [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The development of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. corporate standards, specifically meant for the marine terminals segment and based on the 'Marine Terminal Baseline Criteria and Assessment Questionnaire', published by 'Oil Companies International Marine Forum' was accomplished by a Team of in-house staff with the assistance of international outsourced consultancy. This project resulted in the adjustment of the company's processes to international practices enabling consistent management and operating assessment of marine terminals. (author)

  11. Radiological evaluation of the cranio vertebral junction; Avaliacao radiologica da transicao cranio-vertebral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Silvia Marcal Benicio de; Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Cabeca e Pescoco]. E-mail: sbm@uol.com.br; Schettini, Marianna Cunha; Lima, Sergio Santos [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mourao, Maria Lucia; Mendonca, Renato Adam [Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Neuroradiologia

    2005-04-15

    The cranio vertebral junction (CVJ) comprises the occiput, atlas, their joints and ligaments. Besides conventional x-rays other imaging methods are need for the assessment of CVJ including high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provide specific parameters such as field of view, slice thickness and incremental movement of the patient. A dynamic study is also important to assess the stability of the cranio vertebral junction and the effect upon the bulbomedullary junction. The aim of this study is to review the techniques used in the evaluation of the CVJ, the semiological parameters, and the most frequent disorders affecting this region. We review the literature and present conventional x-ray, CT and MRI images from the didactic file of the Radiology service 'Med Imagem - Beneficiencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, of cases with normal anatomy and the main congenital and acquired disorders of the CVJ. In daily practice, CVJ disorders are diagnoses using CT and MRI scans of the head and cervical spine. It is essential to be familiar with these conditions in order to preform specific tests which will allow a detailed study of the CVJ, thus providing the basis for the treatment, whenever indicated. (author)

  12. Crystallinity evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate and polycaprolactone blends; Avaliacao da cristalinidade de blendas de polihidroxibutirato e policaprolactona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Maxwell P.; Rodrigues, Elton Jorge R.; Tavares, Maria Ines B., E-mail: maxdpc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2015-07-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, is a polymer obtained through bacterial or synthetic pathways. It has been used in the biomedical field as a matrix for drug delivery, medical implants and as scaffold material for tissue engineering. PHB has high structural organization, which makes it highly crystalline and brittle, making biodegradation difficult, reducing its employability. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties of PHB, blends with other polymers, biocompatible or not, are researched and produced. In this regard, blends of PHB and polycaprolactone, PCL, another biopolymer widely used in the biomedical industry, were obtained via solution casting and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Results have shown a dependence between PHB's crystallinity index and PCL quantity employed to obtain the blends.(author)

  13. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: annarocha@yahoo.com, E-mail: walmor.godoi@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: joao.tilly@derax.com.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-01

    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  14. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  15. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail: dneves@ird.gov.b, E-mail: lfcconti@ird.gov.b, E-mail: udilma@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  16. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA), Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao; Cristiano Soares de Moura; Danielle Souto de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA), visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medsc...

  17. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA, visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medscape e Micromedex(r. Verificou-se ainda a frequência de polifarmácia e associação desta com a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas. Os resultados mostraram frequência de 48,9% de interações medicamentosas, 74,9% delas de gravidade moderada ou maior, e 8,6% de prescrições em polifarmácia que, em teste qui-quadrado, mostrou associação positiva com ocorrência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (p < 0,001. As prescrições oriundas da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA apresentaram uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas, porém faz-se necessária a análise de outros fatores de risco para ocorrência destas nesse nível de atenção à saúde.

  18. Imperfect twinning - evaluation by imaging methods; Gemelidade imperfeita - avaliacao pelos metodos de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Arildo Correa; Julio, Hamilton [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Mazer, Sergio; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail: lineiurban@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    Conjoined twins are rare malformations and a challenge for both radiologists and pediatric surgeons. Antenatal evaluation is essential for the identification of anatomic fusions and other associated abnormalities, which will enable an adequate surgical planning and the assessment of fetal prognosis. The authors present the clinical and imaging findings of thoracopagus twins, joined by the anterior portion of the thorax, sharing the heart and the liver. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and confirmed with fetal magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  19. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation; Toxoplasmose cerebral na SIDA - avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Servico de Radiologia; Narchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-06-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  20. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: ce@cidbh.com.br; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia

    2005-10-15

    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  1. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  2. LNG businesses evaluation: strategic positioning; Avaliacao de negocios de GNL: posicionamento estrategico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toste, Ana Cristina Leitao Goncalves; Frozza, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Given the global development of the LNG industry and the changes it has suffered along the recent years, companies must evaluate how they should better position themselves towards this business, in order to optimize resources and maximize gains. The present work discusses three fictitious cases, in an effort to delineate and understand the several issues that impact a business decision in the LNG industry. In each case, business evaluation is performed taking into consideration project economics, as well as risk and strategy issues. (author)

  3. Algorithms evaluation for transformers differential protection; Avaliacao de algoritmos para protecao diferencial de transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, Luis Sergio

    1997-07-01

    The appliance of two algorithms is evaluated, one based in Fourier analysis and other based in a rectangular transform technique over Fourier analysis, to be used in digital logical circuits (digital protection relays) for the purpose of differential protection of power transformers (ANSI 87T). The first chapter has a brief introduction about electrical protection. The second chapter discusses the general problems of transform protection, the development of digital technology and, with more detail, the differential protection associated to this technology. In this chapter are presented the particular aspects of transformers differential protection concerning sensibility, inrush current situations and harmonic distortions caused by transformer core saturations and the differential protection algorithms and their applications in a specific relay design. In chapter three, a method to make possible testing the protection performance is developed. This work applies digital simulations using EMTP to generate current signal of transformer operation and fault conditions. Digital simulation using Matlab is used to simulate the protection. The EMTP generated field signals are sent to the relay under test, furnishing data of normal operation, internal and external faults. The relay logic simulator at Matlab will work this data and so, it will be possible to verify and evaluate the algorithm behavior and performance. Chapter 4 shows the protection operation over simulations of several of transformer operation and fault conditions. The last chapter presents a conclusion about the protection performance, discussions about all the methods applied in this work and suggestions for further studies. (author)

  4. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  5. Implementation and evaluation of a batch digester; Implementacao e avaliacao de um biodigestor de producao discontinua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte Neto, Ely Dias; Alvarenga, Leonardo Henrique; Costa, Lilian de Melo; Nascimento, Paulo Henrique; Silveira, Rafael Zanini; Leite, Leonardo Henrique de Melo [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UniBH), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: ely.neto@materdei.com.br, lh.alvarenga@uol.com.br, lilianmello16@yahoo.com.br, paulonascimento88@hotmail.com, rafaelzanini_15@yahoo.com.br, leonardo.leite@prof.unibh.br

    2010-07-01

    The human development is intrinsically linked to the types of energy that had access. The control of the fire was the first big step for mankind. The use of Natural gas begins in the twentieth century in America, but with exports to Russia with the largest reserves on the planet, natural gas took place in the coal fired power. Today natural gas has become the world more energy used in power plants and is the fastest growing energy use in the world. This article describes an experimental implementation of a digester showing the equivalence between the production of biogas and the amount of material used and the practice that seeks to provide a small producer of an energy source. The biomass, after passing through the digester and producing biogas, also produces bio fertilizer for fertilization of soils. (author)

  6. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quenia dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  7. CT in the evaluation of severe liver trauma; Tomografia computadorizada na avaliacao do trauma hepatico grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Marcel Autran C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clinicas; Souza Rocha, Manoel de; Machado, Manoel C.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Macedo Neto, Augusto Cesar de; Maciel, Rosangela Pereira; Simonetti, Celso

    1995-05-01

    Abdominal CT is a common examination in the evaluation of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and clinical suspicion for solid organ injury when reasons for immediate laparotomy are not present. A case of major blunt hepatic injury in a 22-year-old patient is reported. The authors present a brief review of the literature and discussion about the role of CT scan in the evaluation of hepatic trauma, surgical planning and postoperative follow-up. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Environmental impact evaluation from large energy projects; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental de grandes projetos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Alberto [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    This paper builds up theoretical framework and methodological approaches to assess environmental impacts from large energy projects. It aims towards the definition of concrete tools, and technical proceedings to allow identification and quantification (or weighing) of effects on the natural and social environment. The environmental impacts assessment, (EIA), studies are described as important instruments in planning and in the choice of alternative energy policies. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  9. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: clorigados@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia

    2012-07-01

    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  10. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Dose assessment in pediatric computerized tomography; Avaliacao de doses em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Luisa Maria Auredine Lima

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work was the evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric computed tomography scans, considering the high doses usually involved and the absence of any previous evaluation in Brazil. Dose values were determined for skull and abdomen examinations, for different age ranges, by using the radiographic techniques routinely used in the clinical centers investigated. Measurements were done using pencil shape ionization chambers inserted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantoms. These were compact phantoms of different diameters were specially designed and constructed for this work, which simulate different age ranges. Comparison of results with published values showed that doses were lower than the diagnostic reference levels established to adults exams by the European Commission. Nevertheless, doses in paediatric phantoms were higher than those obtained in adult phantoms. The paediatric dose values obtained in Hospitals A and B were lower than the reference level (DRL) adopted by SHIMPTON for different age ranges. In the range 0 - 0.5 year (neonatal), the values of DLP in Hospital B were 94 por cent superior to the DRL For the 10 years old children the values of CTDI{sub w} obtained were inferior in 89 por cent for skull and 83 por cent for abdomen examinations, compared to the values published by SHRIMPTON and WALL. Our measured CTDI{sub w} values were inferior to the values presented for SHRIMPTON and HUDA, for all the age ranges and types of examinations. It was observed that the normalized dose descriptors values in children in the neonatal range were always superior to the values of doses for the adult patient. In abdomen examinations, the difference was approximately 90% for the effective dose (E) and of 57%.for CTDI{sub w} . (author)

  12. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  13. System dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hun; Mun, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Hwan

    1999-02-01

    This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.

  14. Coupling component systems towards systems of systems

    OpenAIRE

    Autran , Frédéric; Auzelle , Jean-Philippe; Cattan , Denise; Garnier , Jean-Luc; Luzeaux , Dominique; Mayer , Frédérique; Peyrichon , Marc; Ruault , Jean-René

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Systems of systems (SoS) are a hot topic in our "fully connected global world". Our aim is not to provide another definition of what SoS are, but rather to focus on the adequacy of reusing standard system architecting techniques within this approach in order to improve performance, fault detection and safety issues in large-scale coupled systems that definitely qualify as SoS, whatever the definition is. A key issue will be to secure the availability of the services pr...

  15. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  16. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems'' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage. (orig.)

  17. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  18. JOSHUA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeck, H.C.

    1975-04-01

    A major computational system called JOSHUA has been under development at the Savannah River Laboratory since 1968. The JOSHUA System has two major parts: the Operating System and the Application System. The Operating System has been in production use since 1970 and provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. The Application System uses these facilities in solving problems in reactor physics and engineering. Features of the Application System are the two-dimensional lattice physics and three-dimensional transient reactor physics capabilities, which have been in use since 1971 and 1974, respectively. The capabilities of the JOSHUA System are summarized, and statistics on size, use, and development effort are provided. (U.S.)

  19. Systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  20. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....

  1. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  2. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  3. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  4. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  5. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  6. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.

    1990-01-01

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  7. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  8. Systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a view of systems integration, from an ergonomics/human factors perspective, emphasising the process of systems integration as is carried out by humans. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on. The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management. For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above.

  9. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  10. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  11. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  12. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  13. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  14. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  15. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  16. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  17. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  18. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  19. Systems integration (automation system). System integration (automation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K; Komori, T; Fukuma, Y; Oikawa, M [Nippon Steal Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    This paper introduces business activities on an automation systems integration (SI) started by a company in July,1988, and describes the SI concepts. The business activities include, with the CIM (unified production carried out on computers) and AMENITY (living environment) as the mainstays, a single responsibility construction ranging from consultation on structuring optimal systems for processing and assembling industries and intelligent buildings to system design, installation and after-sales services. With an SI standing on users {prime} position taken most importantly, the business starts from a planning and consultation under close coordination. On the conceptual basis of structuring optimal systems using the ompany {prime}s affluent know-hows and tools and adapting and applying with multi-vendors, open networks, centralized and distributed systems, the business is promoted with the accumulated technologies capable of realizing artificial intelligence and neural networks in its background, and supported with highly valuable business results in the past. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  1. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  2. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  3. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...... huge chunks of video data where no events/interactions of interest are occurring and hence let a user focus on manually annotation of only the interesting stuff....

  4. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  5. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  6. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  7. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  8. Kaonic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oset E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I make a short review of the situation of the kaonic systems, with novel information supporting the two Λ(1405 states from the K-d → nπΣ reaction. A review is made of the K¯$ar K$NN system with recent calculations converging to smaller bindings and larger widths. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width.

  9. The systems integration modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danker, W.J.; Williams, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system (SIMS), an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) and its interface with waste generators. It's use for evaluations in support of system-level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system-preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented. SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations

  10. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  11. Septic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  12. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  13. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  14. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  15. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range......, and it aims to illustrate and identify new modes of working in architecture, particularly with regards to brickwork and other complex systems of modular assemblies, whether physical or digital....

  16. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  17. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  18. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  19. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  20. ARAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.F.; Wyman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable safety record of the nuclear industry as a whole, recent public concern over the potential impact of the industry's accelerated growth has prompted ERDA to expand its emergency response procedures. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, ARAC, is a computer communications system designed to enhance the existing emergency response capability of ERDA nuclear facilities. ARAC will add at least two new functions to this capability: centralized, real-time data acquisition and storage, and simulation of the long range atmospheric transport of hazardous materials. To perform these functions, ARAC employs four major sub-systems or facilities: the site facility, the central facility, the global weather center and the regional model. The system has been under development for the past two years at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California

  1. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  2. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  3. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  4. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  5. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  6. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  7. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  8. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  9. Quorum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattenhofer, Roger; Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2016-01-01

    What happens if a single server is no longer powerful enough to service all your customers? The obvious choice is to add more servers and to use the majority approach (e.g. Paxos, Chapter 2) to guarantee consistency. However, even if you buy one million servers, a client still has to access more ...... study the theory behind overlapping sets, known as quorum systems....

  10. System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  11. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  12. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  13. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  14. Urogenital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Zaspel, U.

    2007-01-01

    The book is focussed on the radiological diagnostics of diseases in the urogential system. The description of the specific diseases, the identification by modern imaging techniques, the interpretation of examinatory results and therapeutic options are systematically treated in 4 chapters: kidney and adrenal glands, urinary tract, male genitals, female genitals

  15. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  17. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  18. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  19. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality; Avaliacao da frequencia de polimorfismos nos genes XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) e XPD (Lys751Gln) relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma em individuos da populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  20. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, H.J.C.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Toledo, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented [pt

  1. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  2. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  3. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  4. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  5. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  6. Priority Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gössler , Gregor; Sifakis , Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Projet POP_ART; We present a framework for the incremental construction of deadlock-free systems meeting given safety properties. The framework borrows concepts and basic results from the controller synthesis paradigm by considering a step in the construction process as a controller synthesis problem. We show that priorities are expressive enough to represent restrictions induced by deadlock-free controllers preserving safety properties. We define a correspondence between such restrictions an...

  7. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A moving object such as a container on a conveyor belt is imaged by an optical system onto a charge coupled device array in which the lines of the array are arranged perpendicular to the direction of motion of the object. The speed of movement of the object is sensed to generate electrical signals which are processed to provide shift signals enabling the shifting of data row to row in the array in synchronism with the movement of the container. The electrical charge associated with a given point on the array is transferred from one line to the other until it appears at the last line of the array, from which it is read out in known manner in conjunction with all other electrical charges associated with the row of charge coupled devices in the last line of the array. Due to the integrating effect achieved, the aperture of the imaging system can be much smaller than otherwise would be required, and/or the level of light illumination can be reduced. The imaging system can be applied to X-ray inspection devices, aerial surveillance or scanning of moving documents in copying processes. (author)

  8. Braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  9. Protecting information in systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.

    2012-01-01

    Systems of systems are coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. The component systems of a system of systems often belong to different security domains, which are governed by different authorities (hereafter called parties). Furthermore, systems

  10. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  11. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  12. Videobasierte Systeme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  13. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  14. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  15. Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    stand.    CV CS x dAvvdVov dt d F   (18-1) Where  denotes density and vx is the velocity in the x-direction. The first term on the...by  but to avoid confusion with  from Eqs. 18-7 to 10, it is denoted k in this formula . Ru is the universal gas constant (8.314472 J/mol K), pe is...Russian Federation Used on Phobos spacecraft as main engines 74 1.03 NTO/ UDMH 13.73-19.61 316-325 Orbital Maneuvering System 1 Aerojet Shuttle

  16. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  17. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hui

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  18. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  19. hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bayón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revise the classical formulation of the problem depriving it of the concepts that are superfluous from the mathematical point of view. We observe that a number of power stations can be substituted by a single one that behaves equivalently to the entire set. Proceeding in this way, we obtain a variational formulation in its purest sense (without restrictions. This formulation allows us to employ the theory of calculus of variations to the highest degree. We then calculate the equivalent minimizer in the case where the cost functions are second-order polynomials. We prove that the equivalent minimizer is a second-order polynomial with piece-wise constant coefficients. Moreover, it belongs to the class C1. Finally, we present various examples prompted by real systems and perform the proposed algorithms using Mathematica.

  20. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  1. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  2. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  3. NJOY system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Jung Do

    1998-01-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is used to convert evaluated nuclear data in ENDF format into forms useful for applications. The NJOY code is a modular computer code designed to read evaluated data in ENDF format, transform the data in various ways, and output the results as libraries designed to be used in various applications. The modules are essentially independent programs, and they communicate with each other using input and output files, plus a very few common variables. The NJOY code can work with neutrons, photons, and charged particles. The evaluated nuclear data are reconstructed to pointwise cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. The pointwise data can be Doppler broadened to the temperatures requested by users. The data in unresolved energy range can be computed to effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections. The cross sections and scattering matrices for free or bound scatterers in the thermal energy range are able to be produced. The self-shielded multigroup cross sections, group-to-group scattering matrices, photon-production matrices, and charged-particle cross sections from pointwise data can be generated for various application codes

  4. Chem systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that world styrene demand, paced by a near doubling of combined requirements in East Asia and Oceania, could reach 19.3 million metric tons by 2000, an average growth rate of 3.7%/year. So concludes Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., in a study of world styrene markets through the end of the century. Pacific Rim styrene production and consumption throughout the 1990s are predicted to make up increasingly larger shares of world markets, while demand and production lag in the U.S. and western Europe. Demand and capacity in other parts of the world will grow in real terms, increasing combined market shares only slightly. Most of the increase will be driven by demand in East Asia and Oceania, where consumption by century's end is expected to increase 4.48 million metric tons from 2.25 million tons in 1991. Meantime, Japan's styrene demand in 2000 is projected at 2.64 million tons, a 500,000 ton increase from 1991 demand but a net market loss of 1.9%

  5. AIDS related thoracic lymphoma: evaluation by computed tomography; Linfoma toracico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia

    2000-02-01

    The authors reviewed five cases of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphoma to describe the thoracic findings on computed tomography. The patients were followed at Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro and Hospital da Lagoa, from November, 1989 to March 1998. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data from these patients were quiet variable and pulmonary nodules and masses, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and thoracic wall masses were observed. AIDS related lymphomas involving the chest are pleomorphic and most commonly extranodal. (author)

  6. Evaluation of process variables in obtaining of organo clays; Avaliacao das variaveis de processo na obtencao de argilas organofilicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.L.; Cardoso, M.A.F.; Ferreira, H.S.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencais e Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: danubialisboa@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The Paraiba state is the greater producing of bentonite in Brazil, for several industrial uses. In this production the Na{sup +} bentonite are distinguished, that when treated with ionic surfactants are used in based oil drilling fluids. The national production of organoclays for based oil drilling fluids is very poor, so this product is imported by PETROBRAS, from America. This present work has as objective the study of involved basic organofilization variable process such as: speed of agitation, temperature and time of cure preparation of organoclays, using bentonite clays Brasgel PA and Cloisite NA{sup +}, later treated with the ionic surfactant Praepagem WB. Organoclays had been characterized by X-ray and swell of Foster to determine the organoclays compatibility with the oil ways and to correlate the variable studied with the gotten results. (author)

  7. Experimental evaluation of the objective virtual mass coefficient; Avaliacao experimental do coeficiente de massa virtual apoiada em uma formulacao objetiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle

    1984-04-15

    This work is a continuation of many others studies that have been made in the field of two-phase flow, concerning the influence of the void fraction in a parameter known as 'induced mass' that appears in the constitutive equation of the inter-phase force called 'virtual mass force'. The determination of the influence of the void fraction in the induced mass is done using experiment involving a bubble flow in a vertical tube filled with water. Using the two-phase flow model together with some hypothesis concerning the bubble flow experience and the constitutive equation for the virtual mass force, we achieve through the analysis of the filming of the experiment our purpose in determining the influence of the void fraction on the induced mass. (author)

  8. Evaluation of personal protective devices used in diagnostic radiology; Avaliacao de dispositivos de protecao individual utilizados em radiologia diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador

    2006-07-01

    In this work protective devices of five manufacturers were evaluated according to the NBR/IEC 61331-1 and NBR/IEC 61331-3 standards. Three different methodologies (linear interpolation, Archer model and sum of exponentials) were applied for the determination of the attenuation equivalent, since the standard does not indicate how it must be determined. Moreover, the uncertainties associated to each method, and the influence of the number of measurements in the combined uncertainty were estimated. The evaluated manufacture characteristics were: accompanying document, design, materials, dimensions and label marking. For this evaluation a check list about the requirements of the NBR/IEC 61331-3 standard was elaborated. The results showed a great difference between nominal and measured attenuation equivalent values. The comparison of the results using the three methodologies showed small variations among the obtained values and among the associated uncertainties in the different methodologies. It was possible to observe that the number of measurements does not contribute significantly for the increase of the uncertainty in all three methodologies. The best methodology for the laboratory routine is the linear interpolation methodology, with five measurements for each air kerma rate value. The discrepancy between the results obtained in this work and the requirements of the applied standards show the need to adopt a compulsory certification process for protective devices, thus contributing for the increase of the radiation protection of the users. (author)

  9. Using radioactive tracers for the evaluation of industrial equipment; Utilizacao de tracadores radioativos na avaliacao de equipamentos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Luis Eduardo Barreira; Sa, Lidia Vasconcellos de; Sousa, Alvaro Serafim F. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the radioactive tracer technique, giving as example some cases of the possible utilization developed by the Nuclear Engineering Institute, RJ, BR (Argonaut reactor) and through charged particle (CV-28 cyclotron), and also his production and aspects of radiological safety.

  10. Evaluation of a quality control program in radiodiagnosis; Radiologia diagnostica e programa de garantia de qualidade: avaliacao critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Infantosi, A.F.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Lira, S.H. [Hospital Central da Policia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Supervisao de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes

    1996-12-31

    A quality assurance program, implemented at the Radiologic Service of the Hospital of the Military Police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is evaluated. The results show a reduction around of 70% in the number of rejected films and 75% in the costs. A return to the former conditions is reported as after the discontinuation of the program 2 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes isoladas do III par craniano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu [Sociedade Brasileira de Neuroradiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-05-15

    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  12. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  14. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures; Avaliacao dosimetrica em procedimentos de radiografia panoramica e teleradiografias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Georgge Gomes

    2004-07-01

    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  15. Evaluation of new polymers for enhanced oil recovery; Avaliacao de novos polimeros para recuperacao aumentada de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Ana M.S.; Chagas, Emanuel F.; Costa, Marta; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The main polymers used nowadays for enhanced oil recovery, partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides and xanthan gum, show some limitations, such as low tolerance to salt presence and biological degradation. Therefore, it is necessary the improvement of the polymeric properties. With this goal, a new class of polymers, named 'water-soluble polymers hydrophobically modified' or simply 'amphiphilic polymers', has been developed. In this work, it was obtained a water-soluble acrylamide polymer hydrophobically modified with N,N-dihexyl acrylamide, using the micellar copolymerization technique. After the structural and rheological characterization of the copolymer, its performance in porous medium was evaluated through core flood tests in Botucatu sandstone. In the presence of sodium chloride, the amphiphilic copolymer presented a great increase of viscosity, besides values of resistance factor and of residual resistance factor higher than for the commercial polyacrylamide. This behavior can favor the oil recovery, mainly in high salinity and permeability reservoirs, by improving the water flooding sweep efficiency. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.b, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  17. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jpmm0697@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  18. Evaluation of level of impregnation monomers in hydrotalcite; Avaliacao do grau de impregnacao de monomeros em hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Danieli M. do, E-mail: danielimcarmo@hotmail.com [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Machado, Jacson S.C.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.L.; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia - INT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Bluma G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the impregnation degree of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol monomers in hydrotalcite clays it was prepared dispersions with mixing ratio 1:100 (clay/monomer), using the Ultraturrax and Ultrasound. Subsequently the samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Swelling tests and Tyndall effect were used to illustrate the different dispersions. The results indicated a strong interaction between the hydrotalcite with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, favoring the formation of intercalated structures. (author)

  19. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1996-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: falletti@hotmail.co [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  1. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: neideaparecidamariano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  2. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em feijao carioquinha por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet.

  3. Evaluation of kerma rate in radioactive waste disposal; Avaliacao da taxa de kerma em deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Rodolfo O.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Santos, Joao R. dos, E-mail: oliveira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcarlos@ien.gov.br, E-mail: regis@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to assess the progression of kerma rate levels in the air due to the increase of collection, storing and storage of radioactive waste in the new building (after expansion) of the radioactive waste disposal (RWD) of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Brazil. This review is carried out every six months at IEN with thermoluminescent dosimeter lithium fluoride LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100H). Here are the average values of kerma rate for the period 2008- 2012. In this context, the methodology used for selection and choices of detectors used in dosimeters is presented. The detectors were chosen through homogeneity criteria of the pack, standardization factor and coefficient of variation (CV%). The monitoring points and the exposure time of the detectors are chosen considering various factors, including the rate of occupation and indoor and outdoor positions to RWD. These evaluations showed that the contribution of the new waste disposal in increasing kerma rate of IEN, has proved to be insignificant, that is, the presence of RWD does not contribute to increased environmental kerma rate in the region around this installation.

  4. Angra 3 - economic and financial evaluation of the enterprise; Angra 3 - avaliacao economico-financeira do empreendimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Ronaldo Barata de [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rbarata@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an updated economic-financial evaluation of Angra 3 Nuclear Power Plant project and estimates the lowest power tariff value at which power potentially made available may be commercialized and yet ensures the project a profitability level agreeable to the interests of economic agents and shareholders. According to the project evaluation practice, Angra 3 power generation was considered separately from ELETRONUCLEAR operating plants (Angra 1 and Angra 2), thus preventing result distortions bound to occur if the economic-financial variables of the new project were analyzed associated with financial commitments and commercialization conditions resulting from the project implementation process and the generated power commercialization conditions, respectively. For this evaluation different technical and economic scenarios were devised, and the theory of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) for Own Capital cost and that of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) were used in addition to the forecast of the Statement of Results and Free Cash flow of Shareholders throughout the power plant life, which is the estimate basis for the lowest power tariff value and the Internal Return Rate (IRR) of the project. (author)

  5. Decantation time of evaluation on bentonite clays fractionation; Avaliacao do tempo de decantacao no fracionamento de argilas bentonitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J; Menezes, R R; Neves, G A; Lira, H L; Santana, L N.L., [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    Bentonite clays present a great number of industrial uses, from petroleum to pharmaceutics and cosmetic industry. The bentonite clay present particles with very fine particles that is responsible by the vast application of these materials. However, commercial clays present wide particle size distribution and a significant content of impurities, particularly quartz, in the form of silt and fine silt. So, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the stirring and decantation time in the deagglomeration, purification and size separation of the bentonite clay particles from Paraiba. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. Based on the results it was observed the decantation time give the elimination of the agglomerates formed by submicrometric particles. The uses of decantation column give separation of the fraction below 200nm. (author)

  6. Unilateral pulmonary veins atresia: evaluation by computed tomography; Atresia unilateral das veias pulmonares: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifer, Diego Andre; Arsego, Felipe Veras, E-mail: felipesoarestorres@gmail.com [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), RS (Brazil). Serv. de Radiologia; Torres, Felipe Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Medicina

    2013-11-15

    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital condition. In addition to cardiac malformations or pulmonary hypertension, patients may present with recurrent pulmonary infections or hemoptysis in childhood or adolescence. The authors report a case where the typical findings of such condition were observed at computed tomography in an adult patient. (author)

  7. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: keylamcm@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.br, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: masantos@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  8. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation; Comprometimento pulmonar nas leucemias: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Souza, Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2004-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  9. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance in osteoporosis evaluation; Aplicacoes de ressonancia magnetica nuclear na avaliacao de osteoporose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Montrazi, Elton T.; Bonagamba, Tito J., E-mail: elton.montrazi@gmail.com, E-mail: tito@ifsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cesar, Reinaldo, E-mail: reinaldofisica@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    In this work, initially ceramic samples of known porosity were used. These ceramic samples were saturated with water. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal due to relaxation processes that the hydrogen nucleus water contained in the pores of this ceramic material was measured. Then these samples were subjected to a process of drying and measures successively. As the water contained in pores greater evaporates the intensity of signal decreases and shows the sign because of the smaller pores. The analysis of this drying process gives a qualitative assessment of the pore size of the material. In a second step, bones of animals of unknown porosity underwent the same methodology for evaluating osteoporosis. Also a sample of human vertebra in a unique manner, with the same purpose was measured. Combined with other techniques is a quantitative evaluation of the possible porosity.

  10. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  12. Cementing quality evaluation with ultrasonic logs in fiberglass casings; Avaliacao da qualidade do cimento em revestimentos de fibra de vidro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wellington; Lazaro, Andre F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The sonic and ultrasonic profiles are used as the main tools in assessing the cementing quality between formation and casing in oil wells. This assessment is important, because, if there is a failure in the primary cementing, both the structural integrity and zone isolation will be compromised. The sonic profiles are based on the acoustic energy attenuation in casing, cement and formation, while the ultrasonic profiles are based on the resonance of the wave pulse within the media where they travel (casings, cement and formation). The attenuation and resonance are due to the difference in the way the wave travel within these media. The acoustic impedance is the quantification of this difference, determining the refraction and reflection between the environments, and wave attenuation as well. In steel casings, this difference is meaningful, allowing the captured signals (reflected pulses) to be interpreted as good adhesion between cement and casing, or a lack of adhesion at some interval. In fiber glass casings, the impedance contrast between glass and cement is small and not detectable with the CBL/VDL sensors. The CBL/VDL tools provide an inefficient assessment of the quality of the cementing. The ultrasonic profile does not have this problem, theoretically. The goal of this work is to demonstrate and recommend the ultrasonic tool as the main instrument to assess the cementation quality in fiber glass casings. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  14. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: varotti@ufsj.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; others, and

    2014-05-15

    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  16. Routine for uncertainties evaluation: study case in mammography; Roteiro para avaliacao de incertezas: caso estudo em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, J.G.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guiherm@ird.gov.br; Almeida, C.E.V de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2005-03-15

    This paper gives a orientation in the identification of uncertainties in the measurement object and the influence magnitudes which directly affect the results of measurements. The entry magnitudes presented in this work applies exclusively for this study case, and their use depends of the professional for the choice of those entry magnitudes.

  17. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails: raplopes@uem.br, rpneto@uem.br

    2009-07-01

    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  18. Polyamide 6/nickel ferrite composites: morphological and structural evaluation; Compositos poliamida 6 /ferrita de niquel: avaliacao morfologica e estrutural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, P.C.F.; Santos, P.T.A.; Wanderley, A.S.D.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Araujo, E.M., E-mail: patricia.fernandes24@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of the load on the structure and morphology of polyamide composite 6/ferrita nickel. To obtain the composite, the polyamide 6 was previously vacuum dried at 80 ° C/48h to eliminate moisture, and then the load was incorporated as powders and as synthesized after calcination at 900°C in the mass concentration of 50%. Subsequently, the mixture was compressed using three tons to obtain the composites, which were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD results showed the characteristic peaks of polyamide 6 and ferrite. An increase in crystallinity was observed for the composite loaded calcined at 900° C. SEM results showed a good dispersion of nickel ferrite loading in the matrix, the presence of larger clusters and evenly distributed load for the composite calcined at 900 ° C. (author)

  19. An evaluation of the potential impacts of the 'gas aid'; Uma avaliacao dos impactos potenciais do 'auxilio gas'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biazotto, Ana Lidia; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    In May of 2001, the prices to the final consumer of GLP were set free in the whole country; this procedure had the intention, to continue process of deregulation in the fuel sector, in accord with the Oil Law. The release of the prices of sale and shipping subsidies elimination, along with the elimination of the crossed subsidy, required the adoption of a 'gas aid' social program, aimed to guarantee the low profit families necessities attendance that would pay the additional fuel costs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the gas aid program as its covering level and the economic and distributive efficiency. The study encloses the metropolitans regions investigated in the IBGE Family Budget Research of 1996. With base in the previously identification of the potential beneficiary of the program, and with them consumption profile, it was possible to evaluate the potential impact of the withdrawal of the subsidy in the hypothesis of the family be or not beneficiary of the program. Assuming that the targeting is perfect, it is compared the transference politics to the low profit families in relation to the previous politics of subsidize crossed. (author)

  20. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: slopes@ufv.br; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: juarez@ufv.br, jadir@ufv.br, samuel.martin@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  1. Intussusception in children: imaging evaluation and therapeutic approach; Intussuscepcao em criancas: avaliacao por metodos de imagem e abordagem terapeutica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Fabio Motta da; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da; Monteiro, Soraya Silveira; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: brunoradiol@hotmail.com; Oliveira, Galba Leite [Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2005-05-15

    Intussusception is a medical emergency that occur with higher frequency in children under 2 years of age. Diagnosis can be difficult as the classical triad of abdominal pain, jelly stools and palpable abdominal mass is seen in less than 50% of the patients. However, the diagnosis of intussusception can be established with variable degree of accuracy using plain abdominal x-ray films, ultrasound, computed tomography or barium (or air/saline) enema. Some of these imaging methods are also useful during treatment of this condition. The authors present a review of the literature and a pictorial essay of the imaging findings in patients with intussusception. In addition, a discussion on the current and controversial issues related to the treatment of intussusception is presented. (author)

  2. Evaluation of essential minerals in pumpkin seeds by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em sementes de abobora moranga por EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaro, Flavia Araujo; Zacari, Cristiane Z. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A.; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP(Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Pumpkin seeds, marketed in the Municipal Market of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using the Energy Dispersive of X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) seeking to evaluate the content of the main essential minerals present in these seeds, and their contribution to human nutrition.

  3. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Probabilistic model for primary distribution networks performance evaluation; Modelo probabilistico para avaliacao do desempenho de redes de distribuicao primaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Andre Luiz de Carvalho

    1997-07-01

    A method for performance evaluation of primary feeders with respect to voltage drop, loss and level of reliability to use, specially in studies of investment planning is focused. The probabilistic model is the chronological minimum length tree. The work consists of: analysis of model; proposition of modifications in model necessary to brazilian electrical sector reality, introducing parameter representing the load density; model adaptation to reliability studies, with evaluation of principal indicators in use in the country; development of software for microcomputer; the simulation of some cases with the software; based in the results, attainment of laws to facilitate the use of model. Eventually, the conclusions are made with considerations about possible applications of the method and research topics for further developments are settled. (author)

  5. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio

    2011-10-26

    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  6. Technological developments for environmental monitoring and assessment at PETROBRAS; O desenvolvimento de tecnologia de avaliacao e monitoramento ambiental na PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Pedro Penido D.; Veiga, Leticia Falcao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Heloisa V.

    2004-07-01

    Since 2000 PETROBRAS adopted strategies and actions to establish excellence in Environmental Management and Operational Safety - PEGASO, having invested around 6.1 billions of reais in the last four years to reduce emissions, residues, effluents, and to improve prevention and accident control in its units. In this context, PETROBRAS Research and Development Center has been expanding knowledge about the ecosystems where the company operates, providing essential information to evaluate viability and sustainability on its enterprises, as well as for environmental licensing. Reinforcing its corporative strategy, it was created in 2002 the Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Section, a group that counts nowadays with 48 professionals. This group develops technology and methodology for monitoring in social and environmental context for the petroleum industry, gas and energy, evaluating the impacts of PETROBRAS activities and products life cycle, contributing for reduction of negative effects and to improve the company's environmental management. The research areas are: land, coastal and marine ecosystems monitoring, atmospheric monitoring and air quality, environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology, social and economic evaluation and environmental damage valuation. Working partnerships with the scientific community established several contacts with Brazilian and international universities. Among these various projects related to activities in the Brazilian offshore we present some aspects of the project Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Monitoring. (author)

  7. Experimental evaluation of the objective virtual mass coefficient; Avaliacao experimental do coeficiente de massa virtual apoiada em uma formulacao objetiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle

    1984-04-15

    This work is a continuation of many others studies that have been made in the field of two-phase flow, concerning the influence of the void fraction in a parameter known as 'induced mass' that appears in the constitutive equation of the inter-phase force called 'virtual mass force'. The determination of the influence of the void fraction in the induced mass is done using experiment involving a bubble flow in a vertical tube filled with water. Using the two-phase flow model together with some hypothesis concerning the bubble flow experience and the constitutive equation for the virtual mass force, we achieve through the analysis of the filming of the experiment our purpose in determining the influence of the void fraction on the induced mass. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the numerical solution of polymer flooding; Avaliacao da solucao numerica da injecao de polimeros em reservatorios de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Vinicius Ligiero; Pires, Adolfo Puime; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel G. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods include injection of different fluids into reservoirs to improve oil displacement. The EOR methods may be classified into the following kinds: injection of chemical solutions, injection of solvents and thermal methods. The chemical fluids most commonly injected are polymers, surfactants, micellar solutions, etc. Displacement of oil by any of these fluids involves complex physico-chemical processes of interphase mass transfer, phase transitions and transport properties changes. These processes can be divided into two main categories: thermodynamical and hydrodynamical ones. They occur simultaneously during the displacement, and are coupled in the modern mathematical models of EOR. The model for one-dimensional displacement of oil by polymer solutions is analyzed in this paper. The Courant number is fixed, and we compare the results of different runs of a numerical simulator with the analytical solution of this problem. Each run corresponds to a different spatial discretization. (author)

  9. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  10. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  11. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo

    2008-07-01

    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  12. Comparative evaluation of online oil and gas monitor; Avaliacao de monitores de teor de oleo e graxa em linha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Jesus, Rafael Ferreira de; Santos, Lino Antonio Duarte dos; Lopes, Humberto Eustaquio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of water in oil emulsions, which are stabilised by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, the colloidal disperse components of crude oil. The water phase, separated during the production process, consists of a dilute oil in water emulsion, commonly called produced water.There are a wide variety of methods for determination of oil in produced water that are commercially based on a number of technique. On line continuously monitoring shall be particularly useful in providing information to assist in optimising the separation process and also to attend the environmental legislation for discharge the produced water. There are a wide variety of on line oil in water monitors that are commercially available based on a number of technique. In this paper, a comparative evaluation was made between some methods of on line oil in water detecting. These are light scattering and ultraviolet fluorescence technique. A brief description of the optical methods will be discussed and some of associated problems and limitation are pointed. The work was done in a specific experimental set up that allows the simultaneous pumping of crude oil and water through a calibrated restriction in a pipe has been used. A permanent pressure drop induced by the restriction leads to the dispersion of the oil droplets in the water phase. The monitors based on light scattering technique tested show good agreement between monitor reading and the oil dispersion used. Otherwise for ultraviolet fluorescence based monitors show a significant effect of the variation of oil type. (author)

  13. Laboratory evaluation of hot metal de siliconizing process in ladle; Avaliacao laboratorial do processo de dessiliciacao do gusa na panela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Sergio R.M.; Furtado, Henrique S.; Bentes, Miguel A.G.; Almeida, Pedro S. de [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1996-12-31

    The attractiveness of hot metal de siliconizing in ladle, relative to the process in blast furnace runner, is the previous knowledge of silicon content of hot metal, without the constraints of slag removing by skimmer met in torpedo car, and the better efficiency in low range silicon content, making easier the process controllability. Meanwhile, the main question about this technology is the extent of the resulfurization of hot metal that may occur due to process be performed after the desulfurization. This work simulates de de siliconizing process in ladle by experiments in induction furnace to compare the efficiencies of various de siliconizing agents available at CSN iron and steel making plant, and to evaluate the resulfurization intensity able to occur during the process, as well as, unexpected increasing of refractory wear. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Physico-chemical evaluation of radiation effects on apple juice; Avaliacao fisico-quimica do suco de maca irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.; Spoto, Maria H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Matraia, Clarice [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Gala and Fuji varieties apple`s juice were clarified with enzyme and irradiated aiming to extend the shelf-life without conservants and chemical additives. The juices were analysed for soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH and color. Results showed effect of storage periods in soluble solids, pH and color. The variety and storage period modified the titrable acidity. The pH was altered by irradiation dose and the storage period. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Assessment of overvoltage levels induced in rural distribution lines; Avaliacao dos niveis de sobretensoes induzidas em linhas de distribuicao rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomazella, Rogerio; Souza, Andre Nunes de; Silva, Ivan Nunes da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil); Dotto, Fabio R.L. [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Haga, Amaury; Biazon, Rodolfo B. [Companhia Luz e Forca Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents a reliable computational tool to assess and to estimate the levels of induced voltage in rural lines. In this context, the traditional tools are used, such as ATP (Alternative Transients Program), that combined with a developed software, allows to quantify and to evaluate the level of overvoltage in the rural lines. (author)

  16. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  17. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  18. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  19. System specifications for the NDS Dictionary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-09-01

    The NDS Dictionary System is a computerized system for maintaining and distributing the EXFOR dictionaries and for preparing internal versions of these dictionaries for use in the NDS EXFOR System and other NDS systems. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS Dictionary System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. This manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; this is the version of January 1979

  20. Quality management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-15

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  1. Quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  2. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the

  3. A security framework for systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.; Etalle, S.

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  4. A Security Framework for Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  5. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  6. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  7. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  8. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  9. Superspeed Maglev system Transrapid. System decription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L [Thyssen Henschel AG,, Maglev Transportation Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is a track-bound transportation system for passengern and priority freight transport. The transrapid trainsets are composed of self-sufficient vehicle section coupled together. The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is capable of revenue operation at speeds of 100 to 500 km/h. Besides the description of the system concept and system characteristics safety and availability are discussed. (HW)

  10. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  11. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  12. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-07-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received by the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made

  13. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attree, P M; Smith, P M

    1982-06-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received of the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; the first version was issued in July 1979. (author)

  14. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  15. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  16. Multiobjective Collaborative Optimization of Systems of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolf, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    ...; in other words an inefficient design of the system of systems. This thesis examines the simultaneous design of several ships using the sea base concept as an example application of a network of ships working together...

  17. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  18. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  19. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  20. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System) was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems...

  1. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  2. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  3. Triggering system innovation in agricultural innovation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, James A.; Williams, Tracy; Nicholas, Graeme; Foote, Jeff; Rijswijk, Kelly; Barnard, Tim; Beechener, Sam; Horita, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process for stimulating engagement among change agents to develop a shared understanding of systemic problems in the agricultural innovation system (AIS), challenge prevalent institutional logics and identify actions they might undertake to stimulate system innovation.

  4. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hamiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the

  5. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  6. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  7. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  8. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  9. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  10. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  11. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  12. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  13. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  14. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  15. EPICS based DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weixing; Chen Yongzhong; Zhou Weimin; Ye Kairong; Liu Dekang

    2002-01-01

    EPICS is the most popular developing platform to build control system and beam diagnostic system in modern physics experiment facilities. An EPICS based data acquisition system was built in Redhat 6.2 operation system. The system is successfully used in the beam position monitor mapping, it improves the mapping process a lot

  16. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A. A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  17. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  18. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  19. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroo, R.; Schwebke, H.; Heine, E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  20. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  2. Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Stewardship » Environmental Protection » Environmental Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the

  3. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.; Elansary, Ayman; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the 'outside in' with the focus on how the system

  4. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  5. Antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  6. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  7. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  8. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  9. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  10. The Trinity System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  11. Pneumatic transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, H.; Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.; Buchtela, K.

    1988-11-01

    A pneumatic transfer system for research reactors, including a sample changer system and to be used for neutron activation analysis, is described. The system can be obtained commercially from the Atominstitut. 2 figs. (qui)

  12. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  13. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.; Ansary, Ayman M. El; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the 'outside in' with the focus on how the system

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  15. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  16. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  17. System Software 7 Macintosh

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    System 7 is a single-user graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers and was part of the classic Mac OS line of operating systems. It was introduced on May 13, 1991, by Apple Computer. It succeeded System 6, and was the main Macintosh operating system until it was succeeded by Mac OS 8 in 1997. Features added with the System 7 release included virtual memory, personal file sharing, QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, and an improved user interface. This is the first real major evolution of the Macintosh system, bringing a significant improvement in the user interface, improved stability and many new features such as the ability to use multiple applications at the same time. "System 7" is the last operating system name of the Macintosh that contains the word "system". Macintosh operating systems were later called "Mac OS" (for Macintosh Operating System).

  18. Marketing reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  19. Marketing reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  20. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  1. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  2. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  3. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  4. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  5. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  6. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  7. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  8. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  9. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  10. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  11. System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, E.A.; Russell, K.D.; Stewart, H.D.; Van Siclen, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) related information in the day-to-day operation of plant systems has, in the past, been impracticable due to the size of the computers needed to run PRA codes. This paper discusses a microcomputer-based database system which can greatly enhance the capability of operators or regulators to incorporate PRA methodologies into their routine decision making. This system is called the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system. SARA was developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to facilitate the study of frequency and consequence analyses of accident sequences from a large number of light water reactors (LWRs) in this country. This information is being amassed by several studies sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). To meet the need of portability and accessibility, and to perform the variety of calculations necessary, it was felt that a microcomputer-based system would be most suitable

  12. Systems engineering for very large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  13. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  14. Systems analysis of a security alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.

    1975-01-01

    When the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory found that its security alarm system was causing more false alarms and maintenance costs than LLL felt was tolerable, a systems analysis was undertaken to determine what should be done about the situation. This report contains an analysis of security alarm systems in general and ends with a review of the existing Security Alarm Control Console (SACC) and recommendations for its improvement, growth and change. (U.S.)

  15. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  16. L-system fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Jibitesh

    2007-01-01

    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  17. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  18. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  19. Unmanned Aerial System, New System Manning Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunn, Bruce P

    2006-01-01

    .... System safety and effectiveness, training, contractor operations and working conditions were evaluated for current UASs, including Hunter, Shadow, Predator, Improved Gnat, and to a lesser degree...

  20. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.