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Sample records for systemic mk-801 administration

  1. Systemic dizocilpine (MK-801 facilitates performance in opposition to response bias

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    Lauwereyns Johan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research has established that dopamine signals are crucial in orienting behavior to reward. Less is known, however, about the psychopharmacology of task performance under small-reward conditions as compared to large-reward conditions. The current study examined the effects of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801 on reaction time (RT in a nose-poke task with rats completing an asymmetric reward schedule. In all trials, the rats were required to poke their nose in either the left or the right peripheral hole immediately adjacent to the centre hole when the corresponding light was illuminated. Depending on the stimulus-reward mapping, however, one position was associated with a large reward, while the alternative position was associated with a small reward. Correct performance was required in every trial; if the rat did not make a correct response within 20 s, the trial was aborted, and the same stimulus was presented again on the next trial. In this way, the rat was forced to perform the same visuo-spatial discrimination task under different reward conditions. Reaction times (ms were faster for large-reward trials than for small-reward trials, replicating previous findings. At a dosage of MK-801 (0.04 mg/kg, there was no significant influence of on RT in large-reward trials. In contrast, the same dosage of MK-801 in small-reward trials produced a decrease in RT as compared to the control condition, implying an improvement of performance. Below 0.04 mg/kg of MK-801, a steady decrease of RT in small-trials was seen as a function of dosage. Above 0.04 mg/kg of MK-801, the majority of rats failed to perform the task at all, whereas the rats that did manage to perform the criterion of 80 correct trials in a session showed no difference in RT between large- and small-reward trials. These data indicate that the systemic administration of a relatively small dosage of MK-801 facilitates

  2. Differential actions of dizocilpine (MK-801) on the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine systems: role of neuronal activity.

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    Mathé, J M; Nomikos, G G; Blakeman, K H; Svensson, T H

    1999-01-01

    The significance of impulse activity in the dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area for the dopamine release evoked by systemic administration of the psychotomimetic drug dizocilpine (MK-801) was investigated. Dual probe microdialysis was utilized in freely moving rats implanted with one probe in the ventral tegmental area and a second ipsilateral probe in either the nucleus accumbens or the medial prefrontal cortex. Dialysates were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for dopamine. The ventral tegmental area was perfused with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or vehicle (perfusion solution). A total of 2 h after the onset of tetrodotoxin perfusion of the ventral tegmental area, MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously. Tetrodotoxin perfusion of the ventral tegmental area significantly reduced dialysate levels of dopamine both in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex to approximately 30% of baseline. When given alone, MK-801 caused a significant, i.e. 50%, increase in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, and an even larger increase in the medial prefrontal cortex, i.e. 150%. Tetrodotoxin perfusion of the ventral tegmental area completely blocked the systemic MK-801 induced increase in extracellular concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. However, the MK-801-evoked increase in dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex was not significantly affected. Thus, the present results allow the conclusion that basal dopamine output in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine nerve terminal regions is predominantly dependent on nerve impulses generated in the ventral tegmental area. Moreover, also the MK-801 evoked dopamine release in the mesolimbic projection is almost entirely dependent on the impulse activity of the dopamine neurons, in agreement with our previous results. However, the MK-801 evoked dopamine release in the mesocortical projection

  3. Combined administration of MK-801 and cycloheximide produces a delayed potentiation of fear discrimination memory extinction.

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    Kochli, Daniel E; Campbell, Tiffany L; Hollingsworth, Ethan W; Lab, Rain S; Postle, Abagail F; Perry, Megan M; Mordzinski, Victoria M; Quinn, Jennifer J

    2018-04-01

    Mixed evidence exists regarding the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in memory reconsolidation. We provide no evidence that NMDA receptors are involved with memory reconsolidation, but instead demonstrate that prereactivation systemic MK-801 injection, combined with postreactivation intrabasolateral amygdala (BLA) cycloheximide infusion, produces a delayed potentiation of extinction learning. These data suggest that an interaction between NMDA antagonism and protein synthesis inhibition may enhance extinction by exerting effects outside of the intended reconsolidation manipulation window. The present work demonstrates a novel pharmacological enhancement of extinction, and underscores the importance of employing proper control procedures in reconsolidation research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Acute Administration of MK-801 in an Animal Model of Psychosis in Rats Interferes with Cognitively Demanding Forms of Behavioral Flexibility on a Rotating Arena

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    Jan eSvoboda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often manifest deficits in behavioral flexibility. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists such as MK-801 induce schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including cognitive functions. Despite work exploring flexibility has been done employing behavioral paradigms with simple stimuli, much less is known about what kinds of flexibility are affected in an MK-801 model of schizophrenia-like behavior in the spatial domain. We used a rotating arena-based apparatus (Carousel requiring rats to avoid an unmarked sector defined in either the reference frame of the rotating arena (arena frame task, AF or the stationary room (room frame task, RF. We investigated behavioral flexibility in four conditions involving different cognitive loads. Each condition encompassed an initial (five sessions and a test phase (five sessions in which some aspects of the task were changed to test flexibility in which rats were given saline, 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 thirty minutes prior to a session. In the first condition, rats acquired avoidance in RF with clockwise rotation of the arena while in the test phase the arena rotated counterclockwise. In the second condition, rats initially acquired avoidance in RF with the sector on the north and then it was reversed to south (spatial reversal. In the third and fourth conditions, rats initially performed an AF (RF, respectively task, followed by an RF (AF, respectively task, testing the ability of cognitive set-shifting. We found no effect of MK-801 either on simple motor adjustment after reversal of arena rotation or on spatial reversal within the RF. In contrast, administration of MK-801 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg interfered with set-shifting in both conditions. Furthermore, we observed MK-801 0.1 mg/kg elevated locomotion in all cases. These data suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors by acute system administration of MK-801 preferentially affects set-shifting in the cognitive domain rather

  5. Different MK-801 administration schedules induce mild to severe learning impairments in an operant conditioning task: role of buspirone and risperidone in ameliorating these cognitive deficits.

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    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano

    2013-11-15

    Blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) by the noncompetitive NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801 produces behavioral abnormalities and alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. Due to the critical role of the PFC in operant conditioning task learning, we evaluated the effects of acute, repeated postnatal injections of MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) on learning performance. We injected Long-Evans rats i.p. with MK-801 (0.1mg/kg) using three different administration schedules: injection 40 min before beginning the task (during) (n=12); injection twice daily for six consecutive days prior to beginning the experimental procedures (prior) (n=12); or twice daily subcutaneous injections from postnatal day 7 to 11 (postnatal) (n=12). Next, we orally administered risperidone (serotonin receptor 2A and dopamine receptor 2 antagonist, 1mg/kg) or buspirone (serotonin receptor 1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg) to animals treated with the MK-801 schedule described above. The postnatal and prior administration schedules produced severe learning deficits, whereas injection of MK-801 just before training sessions had only mild effects on acquisition of an operant conditioning. Risperidone was able to reverse the detrimental effect of MK-801 in the animals that were treated with MK-801 during and prior training sessions. In contrast, buspirone was only effective at mitigating the cognitive deficits induced by MK-801 when administered during the training procedures. The data demonstrates that NMDA antagonism disrupts basic mechanisms of learning in a simple PFC-mediated operant conditioning task, and that buspirone and risperidone failed to attenuate the learning deficits when NMDA neurotransmission was blocked in the early stages of the postnatal period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the MK 801 and (-) nicotine intracerebral administration on Glu and Gaba extracellular concentration in the pedunculopontine nucleus from rats

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    Blanco Lezcano, Lisette; Lorigados Pedre, Lourdes del Carmen; Gonzalez Fraguela, Maria Elena and others

    2011-01-01

    Although the pharmacological manipulation of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems have been studied in animal models of Parkinson's Disease (PD), only some authors have done work on this topic at the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). The present work studied the changes in glutamate (Glu) and δ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) extracellular concentrations (EC) in the PPN from hemiparkinsonian rats by 6hydroxydopamine injection. The rats were locally perfused by MK-801 (10 μ mol/l) or (-) nicotine (10 mm) solutions by cerebral microdialysis. The biochemical studies were carried out through high performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. Mk-801 infusion induced a significant decrease of Glu (p< 0.01) and GABA (p< 0.01) EC in PPN. On the other hand (-) nicotine infusion induced a significant increase of Glu (p< 0.001) and GABA (p< 0.001) EC in PPN from hemiparkinsonian rats. The local blockade of NMDA receptors by MK-801 infusion facilitates the interaction between Glu and their metabotropic receptors that take part in presynaptic inhibition mechanisms and interfere with neurotransmitters release. Meanwhile, the nicotine infusion sums the effects of nicotinic receptor activation with the glutamatergic and gabaergic neurotransmission changes produced in the PPN in the parkinsonian condition. The cholinergic and glutamergic drug infusion in PPN impose a new adjustment to the neurotransmission at this level that is added to the neurochemical changes associated to dopaminergic denervation.

  7. Effects of MK-801 upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane

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    Kurumaji, A.; McCulloch, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg i.v.), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, upon local cerebral glucose utilization were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anaesthetised with halothane in nitrous oxide by means of the quantitative autoradiographic [14C]-2-deoxyglucose technique. In the conscious rats, MK-801 produced a heterogenous pattern of altered cerebral glucose utilization with significant increases being observed in 12 of the 28 regions of gray matter examined and significant decreases in 6 of the 28 regions. Pronounced increases in glucose use were observed after MK-801 in the olfactory areas and in a number of brain areas in the limbic system (e.g., hippocampus molecular layer, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, posterior cingulate cortex, and mammillary body). In the cerebral cortices, large reductions in glucose use were observed after administration of MK-801, whereas in the extrapyramidal and sensory-motor areas, glucose use remained unchanged after MK-801 administration in conscious rats. In the halothane-anaesthetised rats, the pattern of altered glucose use after MK-801 differed qualitatively and quantitatively from that observed in conscious rats. In anaesthetised rats, significant reductions in glucose use were noted after MK-801 in 10 of the 28 regions examined, with no area displaying significantly increased glucose use after administration of the drug. In halothane-anaesthetised rats, MK-801 failed to change the rates of glucose use in the olfactory areas, the hippocampus molecular layer, and the dentate gyrus

  8. Postnatal BDNF Expression Profiles in Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus of a Rat Schizophrenia Model Induced by MK-801 Administration

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    Chunmei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptors represents one of experimental animal models for schizophrenia. This study is to investigate the long-term brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression profiles in different regions and correlation with “schizophrenia-like” behaviors in the adolescence and adult of this rat model. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal days (PND 5 through 14. Open-field test was performed on PND 42, and PND 77 to examine the validity of the current model. BDNF protein levels in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC were analyzed on PND 15, PND 42, and PND 77. Results showed that neonatal challenge with MK-801 persistently elevated locomotor activity as well as BDNF expression; the alterations in BDNF expression varied at different developing stages and among brain regions. However, these findings provide neurochemical evidence that the blockade of NMDA receptors during brain development results in long-lasting alterations in BDNF expression and might contribute to neurobehavioral pathology of the present animal model for schizophrenia. Further study in the mechanisms and roles of the BDNF may lead to better understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  9. The investigation of neonatal MK-801 administration and physical environmental enrichment on emotional and cognitive functions in adult Balb/c mice.

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    Akillioglu, Kubra; Babar Melik, Emine; Melik, Enver; Kocahan, Sayad

    2012-09-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in brain maturation and developmental processes. It is known that growing up in an enriched environment has effects on emotional and cognitive performance. In our study, we evaluated the effects of physically enriched environment on the emotional and cognitive functions of the adult brain in the setting of previous NMDA receptor hypoactivity during the critical developmental period of the nervous system. In this study, NMDA receptor blockade was induced 5-10 days postnatally (PD5-10) using MK-801 in mice Balb/c (twice a day 0.25 mg/kg, for 5 days, intraperitoneal). MK-801 was given to developing mice living in a standard (SE) and an enrichment environment (EE) and once the animals reached adulthood, emotional behaviors were evaluated using an open field test (OF) and an elevated plus maze (EPM) test whereas cognitive processes were evaluated using the Morris water-maze (MWM). The EE group showed decreased locomotor activity (pcritical period of development led to deterioration in the emotional and cognitive processes during adulthood. An enriched environmental did not reverse the deleterious effects of the NMDA receptor blockade on emotional and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Neuroprotection by Combined Administration with Maslinic Acid, a Natural Product from Olea europaea, and MK-801 in the Cerebral Ischemia Model

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    Yisong Qian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is a major cause of ischemic brain damage. MK-801 confers neuroprotection by attenuating the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, but it failed in clinical use due to the short therapeutic window. Here we aim to investigate the effects of maslinic acid, a natural product from Olea europaea, on the therapeutic time window and dose range for the neuroprotection of MK-801. Rats were administered with maslinic acid intracerebroventricularly and cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO followed by reperfusion. MK-801 was administered at 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h after ischemia, respectively. The cerebral infarct volume was determined by 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining, neuronal damage was assessed by Haematoxylin Eosin (H&E staining, and the expression of glial glutamate transporters and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot post-ischemia. Results showed that the presence of maslinic acid extended the therapeutic time window for MK-801 from 1 h to 3 h. Co-treatment of maslinic acid and MK-801 at a subthreshold dosage obviously induced neuroprotection after ischemia. The combination of these two compounds improved the outcome in ischemic rats. Moreover, maslinic acid treatment promoted the expression of GLT-1 and GFAP post-ischemia. These data suggest that the synergistic effect of maslinic acid on neurological protection might be associated with the improvement of glial function, especially with the increased expression of GLT-1. The combination therapy of maslinic acid and MK-801 may prove to be a potential strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke.

  11. NMDA receptor antagonism by repetitive MK801 administration induces schizophrenia-like structural changes in the rat brain as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Wu, H; Wang, X; Gao, Y; Lin, F; Song, T; Zou, Y; Xu, L; Lei, H

    2016-05-13

    Animal models of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism have been widely used for schizophrenia research. Less is known whether these models are associated with macroscopic brain structural changes that resemble those in clinical schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure brain structural changes in rats subjected to repeated administration of MK801 in a regimen (daily dose of 0.2mg/kg for 14 consecutive days) known to be able to induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed significant gray matter (GM) atrophy in the hippocampus, ventral striatum (vStr) and cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrated microstructural impairments in the corpus callosum (cc). Histopathological results corroborated the MRI findings. Treatment-induced behavioral abnormalities were not measured such that correlation between the brain structural changes observed and schizophrenia-like behaviors could not be established. Chronic MK801 administration induces MRI-observable brain structural changes that are comparable to those observed in schizophrenia patients, supporting the notion that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to the pathology of schizophrenia. Imaging-derived brain structural changes in animal models of NMDAR antagonism may be useful measurements for studying the effects of treatments and interventions targeting schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

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    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 {+-} 235% (mean {+-} SEM) of basal level vs. 520 {+-} 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 {+-} 83% of basal level vs. 969 {+-} 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine.

  13. Effect of MK-801 on the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine release

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    Hong, Soo Kyung; Choung, In Soon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 ± 235% (mean ± SEM) of basal level vs. 520 ± 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 ± 83% of basal level vs. 969 ± 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine

  14. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding of [123I]epidepride in risperidone-treatment chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model using nanoSPECT/CT neuroimaging

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    Huang, Y.R.; Pai, C.W.; Cheng, K.H.; Kuo, W.I.; Chen, M.W.; Chang, K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Epidepride is a compound with an affinity in picomolar range for D 2 /D 3 receptors. The aim of this work was designed to investigate the diagnostic possibility of [ 123 I]epidepride imaging platform for risperidone-treatment chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model. Methods: Rats received repeated administration of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, i.p., 0.3 mg/kg/day) or saline for 4 weeks. After 1-week administration of MK-801, rats in MK-801 + risperidone group received risperidone (0.5 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally 15 min prior to MK-801 administration for the rest of 3-week treatment. We obtained serial [ 123 I]epidepride neuroimages from nanoSPECT/CT and evaluated the alteration of specific binding in striatum and midbrain. Results: Risperidone reversed chronic MK-801-induced decrease in social interaction duration. IHC and ELISA analysis showed consistent results that chronic MK-801 treatment significantly decreased striatal and midbrain D 2 R expression but repeated risperidone administration reversed the effect of MK-801 treatment. In addition, [ 123 I]epidepride nanoSPECT/CT neuroimaging revealed that low specific [ 123 I]epidepride binding ratios caused by MK-801 in striatum and midbrain were statistically alleviated after 1- and 2-week risperidone administration, respectively. Conclusions: We established a rat schizophrenia model by chronic MK-801 administration for 4 weeks. [ 123 I]Epidepride nanoSPECT neuroimaging can trace the progressive alteration of D 2 R expression in striatum and midbrain caused by long-lasting MK-801 treatment. Besides diagnosing illness stage of disease, [ 123 I]epidepride can be a useful tool to evaluate therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drug in chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model

  15. The neuroprotective efficacy of MK-801 in focal cerebral ischemia varies with rat strain and vendor.

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    Oliff, H S; Marek, P; Miyazaki, B; Weber, E

    1996-08-26

    The present study was designed to evaluate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of MK-801 in focal cerebral ischemia was dependent on strain and/or vendor differences. MK-801 (0.12 mg/kg i.v. bolus followed by 0.108 mg/kg/h infusion or 0.60 mg/kg i.v. bolus followed by 0.540 mg/kg/h infusion) or saline was administered just after intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Administration of 0.540 mg/kg/h MK-801 provided strain/line-dependent neuroprotection in the following rank order: Simonsen Laboratories Sprague-Dawley rats > Simonsen Laboratories Wistar rats > Taconic Laboratories Sprague-Dawley rats. After 0.108 mg/kg/h MK-801 treatment, Simonsen Laboratories Wistar rats were the only strain/line that were significantly neuroprotected. These results indicate that the neuroprotective effect of an experimental drug may be influenced by rat strain and vendor differences.

  16. Effects of dizocilpine (MK-801) on motor activity and memory.

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    Carey, R J; Dai, H; Gui, J

    1998-06-01

    The effects of MK-801 upon motor activity and memory were assessed in a novel use of open-field behavior testing. In this study, rats were treated with different doses of MK-801 (0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg) and given a brief 10-min exposure to an open-field in which locomotor activity and within-session habituation were measured. Doses of MK-801 motor activity and memory and that these two effects can be disassociated.

  17. The Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonist DL77 Ameliorates MK801-Induced Memory Deficits in Rats

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    Nermin Eissa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs in memory, and the prospective of H3R antagonists in pharmacological control of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer disease (AD is well-accepted. For that reason, the procognitive effects of the H3R antagonist DL77 on cognitive impairments induced with MK801 were tested in an inhibitory passive avoidance paradigm (PAP and novel object recognition (NOR task in adult male rats, using donepezil (DOZ as a standard drug. Acute systemic pretreatment with DL77 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p. significantly ameliorated memory deficits induced with MK801 in PAP (all P < 0.05, n = 7. The ameliorative effect of most promising dose of DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. was reversed when rats were co-injected with the H3R agonist R-(α-methylhistamine (RAMH, 10 mg/kg, i.p. (p = 0.701 for MK801-amnesic group vs. MK801+DL77+RAMH group, n = 6. In the NOR paradigm, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. counteracted long-term memory (LTM deficits induced with MK801 (P < 0.05, n = 6–8, and the DL77-provided effect was similar to that of DOZ (p = 0.788, n = 6–8, and was reversed when rats were co-injected with RAMH (10 mg/kg, i.p. (p = 0.877, n = 6, as compared to the (MK801-amnesic group. However, DL77 (5 mg/kg, i.p. did not alter short-term memory (STM impairment in NOR test (p = 0.772, n = 6–8, as compared to (MK801-amnesic group. Moreover, DL77 (5 mg/kg failed to modify anxiety and locomotor behaviors of animals innate to elevated-plus maze (EPM (p = 0.67 for percentage of time spent exploring the open arms, p = 0.52 for number of entries into the open arms, p = 0.76 for percentage of entries into the open arms, and p = 0.73 number of closed arm entries as compared to saline-treated groups, all n = 6, demonstrating that the procognitive effects observed in PAP or NOR tests were unconnected to alterations in emotions or in natural locomotion of tested animals. These results signify the potential involvement of H3Rs in modulating

  18. Oxytocin reversed MK-801-induced social interaction and aggression deficits in zebrafish.

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    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2016-09-15

    Changes in social behavior occur in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The interaction between individuals is an essential aspect and an adaptive response of several species, among them the zebrafish. Oxytocin is a neuroendocrine hormone associated with social behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of MK-801, a non-competitive antagonist of glutamate NMDA receptors, on social interaction and aggression in zebrafish. We also examined the modulation of those effects by oxytocin, the oxytocin receptor agonist carbetocin and the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. Our results showed that MK-801 induced a decrease in the time spent in the segment closest to the conspecific school and in the time spent in the segment nearest to the mirror image, suggesting an effect on social behavior. The treatment with oxytocin after the exposure to MK-801 was able to reestablish the time spent in the segment closest to the conspecific school, as well as the time spent in the segment nearest to the mirror image. In addition, in support of the role of the oxytocin pathway in modulating those responses, we showed that the oxytocin receptor agonist carbetocin reestablished the social and aggressive behavioral deficits induced by MK-801. However, the oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899 was not able to reverse the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. This study supports the critical role for NMDA receptors and the oxytocinergic system in the regulation of social behavior and aggression which may be relevant for the mechanisms associated to autism and schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MK-801 treatment affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes more than in astrocytes and neuronal cells: insights for schizophrenia

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    Paul C Guest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a multifactorial disease, the underlying causes of schizophrenia require analysis by multiplex methods such as proteomics to allow identification of whole protein networks. Previous post-mortem proteomic studies on brain tissues from schizophrenia patients have demonstrated changes in activation of glycolytic and energy metabolism pathways. However, it is not known whether these changes occur in neurons or in glial cells. To address this question, we treated neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lines with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and measured the levels of six glycolytic enzymes by Western blot analysis. MK-801 acts on the glutamatergic system and has been proposed as a pharmacological means of modeling schizophrenia. Treatment with MK-801 resulted in significant changes in the levels of glycolytic enzymes in all cell types. Most of the differences were found in oligodendrocytes, which had altered levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1, enolase 2 (ENO2, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1 after acute MK-801 treatment (8 hours, and HK1, ENO2, PGK and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI following long term treatment (72 hours. Addition of the antipsychotic clozapine to the cultures resulted in counter-regulatory effects to the MK-801 treatment by normalizing the levels of ENO2 and PGK in both the acute and long term cultures. In astrocytes, MK-801 affected only aldolase C (ALDOC under both acute conditions and HK1 and ALDOC following long term treatment, and TPI was the only enzyme affected under long term conditions in the neuronal cells. In conclusion, MK-801 affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes to a larger extent than neuronal cells and this may be modulated by antipsychotic treatment. Although cell culture studies do not necessarily reflect the in vivo pathophysiology and drug effects within the brain, these results suggest that neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are affected differently in

  20. Competitive (AP7) and non-competitive (MK-801) NMDA receptor antagonists differentially alter glucose utilization in rat cortex

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    Clow, D.W.; Lee, S.J.; Hammer, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of D,L-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on regional brain metabolism were studied in unanesthetized, freely moving rats by using the quantitative 14 C2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic procedure. AP7 (338 or 901 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity throughout most of the regions studied including sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. In contrast, MK-801 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity in sensory cortices, and an increase in limbic regions such as the hippocampal stratum lacunosum moleculare and entorhinal cortex. MK-801 also produced a biphasic response in agranular motor cortex, whereby the low dose increased while the high dose decreased labeling. In addition, MK-801 produced heterogeneous effects on regional cerebral metabolism in sensory cortices. Metabolic activity decreased in layer IV relative to layer Va following MK-801 treatment in primary somatosensory (SI) and visual (VI) cortices, suggesting a shift in activity from afferent fibers innervating layer IV to those innervating layer Va. MK-801 administration also decreased metabolic activity in granular SI relative to dysgranular SI, and in VI relative to secondary visual cortex (VII), thus providing a relative sparing of activity in dysgranular SI and VII. Thus, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist suppressed activity from extrinsic neocortical sources, enhancing relative intracortical activity and stimulating limbic regions, while the competitive NMDA antagonist depressed metabolic activity in all cortical regions

  1. Competitive (AP7) and non-competitive (MK-801) NMDA receptor antagonists differentially alter glucose utilization in rat cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clow, D.W.; Lee, S.J.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. (Department of Anatomy and Reproductive Biology, School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The effects of D,L-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on regional brain metabolism were studied in unanesthetized, freely moving rats by using the quantitative {sup 14}C2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic procedure. AP7 (338 or 901 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity throughout most of the regions studied including sensory, motor, and limbic cortices. In contrast, MK-801 (0.1 or 1.0 mg/kg) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of metabolic activity in sensory cortices, and an increase in limbic regions such as the hippocampal stratum lacunosum moleculare and entorhinal cortex. MK-801 also produced a biphasic response in agranular motor cortex, whereby the low dose increased while the high dose decreased labeling. In addition, MK-801 produced heterogeneous effects on regional cerebral metabolism in sensory cortices. Metabolic activity decreased in layer IV relative to layer Va following MK-801 treatment in primary somatosensory (SI) and visual (VI) cortices, suggesting a shift in activity from afferent fibers innervating layer IV to those innervating layer Va. MK-801 administration also decreased metabolic activity in granular SI relative to dysgranular SI, and in VI relative to secondary visual cortex (VII), thus providing a relative sparing of activity in dysgranular SI and VII. Thus, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist suppressed activity from extrinsic neocortical sources, enhancing relative intracortical activity and stimulating limbic regions, while the competitive NMDA antagonist depressed metabolic activity in all cortical regions.

  2. Kindling-induced potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to hippocampal dentate granule cells. II. Effects of the NMDA antagonist MK-801.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robinson, G B

    1991-10-18

    The effect of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 on the early development of kindling-induced potentiation was examined in the rabbit hippocampal dentate gyrus. MK-801 (0.5 mg\\/kg) was administered 2 h before each daily kindling stimulation was applied to the perforant path. This treatment continued for the first 10 days of kindling. MK-801 depressed the growth of the afterdischarge duration and suppressed development of behavioral seizures. MK-801 did not block kindling-induced potentiation of either the perforant path-dentate granule cell population spike or excitatory postsynaptic potential. Random impulse train stimulation and non-linear systems analytic techniques were used to examine kindling-induced potentiation of presumed GABAergic recurrent inhibitory circuits. Both the magnitude and duration of kindling-induced response inhibition, to the second of each pair of impulses within the train, were reduced in rabbits pretreated with MK-801. These results suggest that MK-801 differentially affects kindling-induced potentiation of excitatory and inhibitory circuits within the rabbit hippocampal dentate gyrus.

  3. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  4. Effects of MK-801 on vicarious trial-and-error and reversal of olfactory discrimination learning in weanling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, G S; Hu, D; Amsel, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (VTE), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. The term VTE was used by Tolman (The determiners of behavior at a choice point. Psychol. Rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in simultaneous discrimination learning. It takes the form of head movements from one stimulus to the other, and has recently been proposed by Amsel (Hippocampal function in the rat: cognitive mapping or vicarious trial-and-error? Hippocampus, 1993;3:251-256) as related to hippocampal, nonspatial function during this learning. Weanling male rats received systemic MK-801 either 30 min before the onset of olfactory discrimination training and its reversal, or only before its reversal. The MK-801-treated animals needed significantly more sessions to acquire the discrimination and showed significantly fewer VTEs in the acquisition phase of learning. Impaired reversal learning was shown only when MK-801 was administered during the reversal-learning phase, itself, and not when it was administered throughout both phases.

  5. Effects of chronic prenatal MK-801 treatment on object recognition, cognitive flexibility, and drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile and adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, S; Welch, L; Martone, P; Shalev, U

    2017-06-15

    Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered saline or MK-801 (0.1mg/kg; s.c.) at gestation day 7-19. Object recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed in the male offspring using a novel object preference task and a maze-based set-shifting procedure, respectively. Locomotor-activating effects of acute amphetamine and MK-801 were also assessed. Adult, but not juvenile, prenatally MK-801-treated rats failed to show novel object preference after a 90min delay, suggesting that object recognition memory may have been impaired. In addition, the set-shifting task revealed impaired acquisition of a new rule in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats compared to controls. This deficit appeared to be driven by regression to the previously learned behaviour. There were no significant differences in drug-induced locomotor activity in juvenile offspring or in adult offspring following acute amphetamine challenges. Unexpectedly, MK-801-induced locomotor activity in adult prenatally MK-801-treated rats was lower compared to controls. Glutamate transmission dysfunction during early development may modify behavioural parameters in adulthood, though these parameters do not appear to model deficits observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological or genetic orexin 1 receptor inhibition attenuates MK-801 induced glutamate release in mouse cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah eAluisio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides are produced by a cluster of neurons within the lateral posterior hypothalamus and participate in neuronal regulation by activating their receptors (OX1 and OX2 receptors. The orexin system projects widely through the brain and functions as an interface between multiple regulatory systems including wakefulness, energy balance, stress, reward and emotion. Recent studies have demonstrated that orexins and glutamate interact at the synaptic level and that orexins facilitate glutamate actions. We tested the hypothesis that orexins modulate glutamate signaling via OX1 receptors by monitoring levels of glutamate in frontal cortex of freely moving mice using enzyme coated biosensors under inhibited OX1 receptor conditions. MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, was administered subcutaneously (0.178 mg/kg to indirectly disinhibit pyramidal neurons and therefore increase cortical glutamate release. In wild-type mice, pretreatment with the OX1 receptor antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg S.C. which had no effect by itself, significantly attenuated the cortical glutamate release elicited by MK-801. OX1 receptor knockout mice had a blunted glutamate release response to MK-801 and exhibited about half of the glutamate release observed in wild-type mice in agreement with the data obtained with transient blockade of OX1 receptors. These results indicate that pharmacological (transient or genetic (permanent inhibition of the OX1 receptor similarly interfere with glutamatergic function in the cortex. Selectively targeting the OX1 receptor with an antagonist may normalize hyperglutamatergic states and thus may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders associated with hyperactive states.

  7. A neuroligin-1-derived peptide stimulates phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit and rescues MK-801-induced decrease in long-term potentiation and memory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshunova, Irina; Gjørlund, Michelle D; Jacobsen, Sylwia Owczarek

    2015-01-01

    , neurolide-2, reduces sociability and increase animal aggression. We hypothesized that interfering with NL1 function at the excitatory synapses might regulate synaptic plasticity and learning, and counteract memory deficits induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibition. First, neuronal NMDA...... receptor phosphorylation after treatment with NL1 or a mimetic peptide, neurolide-1, was quantified by immunoblotting. Subsequently, we investigated effects of neurolide-1 on long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in hippocampal slices compromised by NMDA receptor inhibitor MK-801. Finally, we investigated...... neurolide-1 effects on short- and long-term social and spatial memory in social recognition, Morris water-maze, and Y-maze tests. We found that subcutaneous neurolide-1 administration, restored hippocampal LTP compromised by NMDA receptor inhibitor MK-801. It counteracted MK-801-induced memory deficit...

  8. Synthesis and receptor binding studies of (+/-)1-iodo-MK-801

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.J.; Ciliax, B.J.; Van Dort, M.E.; Gildersleeve, D.; Pirat, J.L.; Young, A.B.; Wieland, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    The glutamate analogue N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) binds to a subset of glutamate receptors that are coupled to a voltage-sensitive cation channel. This NMDA-linked channel is the likely binding locus of the potent anticonvulsant MK-801. To develop single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) probes of this brain channel, we synthesized (+/)1-iodo-MK-801 and (+/-)1-[ 125 I]iodo-MK-801. The effect of (+/-)1-iodo-MK-801 on ligand binding to the NMDA-linked glutamate receptor site was assessed using a rat brain homogenate assay. (+/-)1-Iodo-MK-801 displaced the dissociative anesthetic ligand [ 3 H]N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine ([ 3 H]TCP) binding with an IC50 of 1 microM, which is a 10-fold lower binding affinity than that of (+/-)MK-801. In in vivo autoradiographic studies, (+/-)MK-801 failed to block selective uptake of (+/-)1-iodo-MK-801 in rat brain. These results suggest that (+/-)1-iodo-MK-801 may not be a suitable ligand for mapping NMDA-linked glutamate receptor channels

  9. MK-801-induced impairments on the trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location task in rats: effects of acute sodium nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtubise, Jessica L; Marks, Wendie N; Davies, Don A; Catton, Jillian K; Baker, Glen B; Howland, John G

    2017-01-01

    The cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia are not consistently alleviated by conventional antipsychotics. Following a recent pilot study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been identified as a promising adjunct treatment to reduce the working memory impairments experienced by schizophrenia patients. The present experiments were designed to explore the effects of SNP on the highly translatable trial-unique, delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task in rats with and without acute MK-801 treatment. SNP (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mg/kg) were acutely administered to rats trained on the TUNL task. Acute MK-801 treatment impaired TUNL task accuracy. Administration of SNP (2.0 mg/kg) with MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) failed to rescue performance on TUNL. SNP (5.0 mg/kg) administration nearly 4 h prior to MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) treatment had no preventative effect on performance impairments. SNP (2.0 mg/kg) improved performance on a subset of trials. These results suggest that SNP may possess intrinsic cognitive-enhancing properties but is unable to block the effects of acute MK-801 treatment on the TUNL task. These results are inconsistent with the effectiveness of SNP as an adjunct therapy for working memory impairments in schizophrenia patients. Future studies in rodents that assess SNP as an adjunct therapy will be valuable in understanding the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of SNP as a treatment for schizophrenia.

  10. Postnatal Administration of Dizocilpine Inhibits Neuronal Excitability in PFC and Induces Social Deficits Detected by MiceProfiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jintao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Ling; Zhao, Yue; Pang, Kunkun; Shi, Qingqing; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Jinhao

    2017-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disease with social deficit as its core component of negative symptoms, which could be induced in rodents by dizocilpine (MK-801), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors are highly expressed during the postnatal period. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of postnatal MK-801 administration on social interaction. In this study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal administration of MK-801 on social interaction and explored the possible mechanisms. Postnatal day-7 mice were intraperitoneally injected with MK-801 twice daily for 5 days, and their social interaction repertoire was monitored by a computerized video in the 10th week. The contact event, relative position event, stop-state, and dynamic event were analyzed with MiceProfiler automatic idTracker system. The results showed that MK-801 reduced the number of the contact events, relative position events, and stop-states, while increased the number and duration of dynamic events. These changes implied that MK-801-injected mice had indifference and lower motivation in social interaction and could be a useful model for studies on the social deficit of schizophrenia. The prefrontal cortex is the key region for social interaction behaviors. Slice patch clamp was performed to analyze the cellular excitability of prefrontal cortical neurons after postnatal treatment with MK-801 in mice. The results demonstrated that MK-801 injection reduced the frequency and amplitude of action potentials, but increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. These data illustrated that the excitability of neurons in the prefrontal cortex was inhibited. Finally, immunoblotting data demonstrated that MK-801 significantly decreased the levels of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-PKB) in the prefrontal cortex (both P social interaction deficits possibly due to inhibiting the neuronal excitability and decreasing the

  11. Vitamin A depletion alters sensitivity of motor behavior to MK-801 in C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids are crucial for the development, maintenance and morphogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS. Although motor impairment has been reported in postnatal vitamin A depletion rodents, the effect of vitamin A depletion on homeostasis maintaining capability in response to external interference is not clear. Methods In the current study, we measured the effect of vitamin A depletion on motor ability and pain sensitivity under two different conditions: 1. prior to any injection and 2. after the injection of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801. Results Vitamin A depletion mice showed decreased body weight, enhanced locomotor activity, increased rearing and less tail flick latency. Vitamin A depletion also induced hypersensitivity of stereotypy, ataxia, rearing, and tail flick latency to MK-801, but hyposensitivity of locomotion to MK-801. Conclusions These findings suggest that vitamin A depletion affect broad basal behavior and disrupt homeostasis maintaining capability in response to glutamate perturbation. We provide a useful animal model for assessing the role of vitamin A depletion in regulating animal behavior, and for detecting how neurotransmitter pathways might be involved in vitamin A depletion related behavioral abnormalities.

  12. The effect of combined treatment with risperidone and antidepressants on the MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rogóż, Zofia

    2015-12-01

    Several clinical reports have suggested that augmentation of atypical antipsychotics' activity by antidepressants may efficiently improve the treatment of negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of antidepressant mirtazapine or escitalopram and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic), given separately or jointly, on the MK-801-induced deficits in the social interaction test in rats. Antidepressants and risperidone were given 60 and 30 min before the test, respectively. The social interaction of male Wistar rats was measured for 10 min, starting 4 h after MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) administration. In the social interaction test, MK-801-induced deficits in the parameters studied, i.e. the number of episodes and the time of interactions. Risperidone at a higher dose (0.1 mg/kg) reversed that effect. Co-treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.01 mg/kg) and mirtazapine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) or escitalopram only at a dose of 5 mg/kg (but not 2.5 and 10 mg/kg) abolished the deficits evoked by MK-801. The obtained results suggest that especially mirtazapine, and to a smaller degree escitalopram may enhance the antipsychotic-like effect of risperidone in the animal test modeling some negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactive Transformation and Increased BDNF Signaling by Hippocampal Astrocytes in Response to MK-801.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Yu

    Full Text Available MK-801, also known as dizocilpine, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonist that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms. While astrocytes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, astrocytic responses to MK-801 and their significance to schizotypic symptoms are unclear. Changes in the expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli, were examined in the hippocampus of rats treated with the repeated MK-801 injection (0.5 mg/10 ml/kg body weight for 6 days and in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes incubated with MK-801 (5 or 20 μM for 24 h. Moreover, the expression levels of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75 were examined in MK-801-treated astrocyte cultures. MK-801 treatment enhanced GFAP expression in the rat hippocampus and also increased the levels of GFAP protein and mRNA in hippocampal astrocytes in vitro. Treatment of cultured hippocampal astrocytes with MK-801 enhanced protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and p75. Collectively, our results suggest that hippocampal astrocytes may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia symptoms associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction by reactive transformation and altered BDNF signaling.

  14. Reactive Transformation and Increased BDNF Signaling by Hippocampal Astrocytes in Response to MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjuan; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Yueming; Li, Guanjun; Wang, Lihua; Li, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    MK-801, also known as dizocilpine, is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist that induces schizophrenia-like symptoms. While astrocytes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, astrocytic responses to MK-801 and their significance to schizotypic symptoms are unclear. Changes in the expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), a marker of astrocyte activation in response to a variety of pathogenic stimuli, were examined in the hippocampus of rats treated with the repeated MK-801 injection (0.5 mg/10 ml/kg body weight for 6 days) and in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes incubated with MK-801 (5 or 20 μM for 24 h). Moreover, the expression levels of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75 were examined in MK-801-treated astrocyte cultures. MK-801 treatment enhanced GFAP expression in the rat hippocampus and also increased the levels of GFAP protein and mRNA in hippocampal astrocytes in vitro. Treatment of cultured hippocampal astrocytes with MK-801 enhanced protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, TrkB, and p75. Collectively, our results suggest that hippocampal astrocytes may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia symptoms associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction by reactive transformation and altered BDNF signaling.

  15. "Interaction of different doses of Aspartame with Morphine-induced antinociception in the presence of MK-801, a NMDA antagonist "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi M

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the relative role of sweetness and comparative effects of different taste sensation of the non - caloric sweetener , aspartame on pain and its interaction with MK - 80] as a non - selective MMDA antagonist by formalin - test in mice. The formalin - test was chosen because it measures the response to a long - lasting nociceptive stimulus and closely resembles to the clinical pain. Morphine induced a dose dependent antinociception in the early and late phases of formalin test. Twelve days pretreatment of animals by aspartame ( 0.08% , 0.16% , 0.32% significantly potentiated morphine - induced (1.5-9 mg/kg analgesia in the early phase but significantly antagonized its analgesic effect in the late phase, dose dependently. Aspartame (0.16% alone showed a reduction in pain response . Naloxone (0.4 mg/kg significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effect of morphine in the presence of aspartame (0-0.32% in the early phase. Increasing the dose of aspartame decreased effects of naloxone. MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg as an N- Methyl - D - Aspartate (NMDA antagonist significantly potentiated the effect of aspartame on morphine - induced antinociception in the early phase. In the late phase, naloxone (0.4 mg/kg increased pain response but MK- 801 (0.1 mg/kg induced anti-inflammatory effect significantly. Treatment of animals with MK- 801 alone, significantly induced analgesia in both phases of formalin - test. This effect was potentiated with aspartame dose - dependently. Possible interaction of aspartame with NMDA receptors and its role to facilitate endogenous opioid system are proposed mechanisms of aspartame in modulating morphine - induced antinociception. Furthermore, the resulting association between morphine and aspartame chronic consumption may be explained as an interactive action rather than simple dose combination of both drugs.

  16. NAAG peptidase inhibitors block cognitive deficit induced by MK-801 and motor activation induced by d-amphetamine in animal models of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, R T; Janczura, K J; Ball, S R; Madore, J C; Lavin, K M; Lee, J C-M; Lee, M J; Der, E K; Hark, T J; Farago, P R; Profaci, C P; Bzdega, T; Neale, J H

    2012-01-01

    The most widely validated animal models of the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia involve administration of d-amphetamine or the open channel NMDA receptor blockers, dizocilpine (MK-801), phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine. The drug ZJ43 potently inhibits glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), an enzyme that inactivates the peptide transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and reduces positive and negative behaviors induced by PCP in several of these models. NAAG is an agonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3). Polymorphisms in this receptor have been associated with expression of schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine whether two different NAAG peptidase inhibitors are effective in dopamine models, whether their efficacy was eliminated in GCPII knockout mice and whether the efficacy of these inhibitors extended to MK-801-induced cognitive deficits as assessed using the novel object recognition test. ZJ43 blocked motor activation when given before or after d-amphetamine treatment. (R,S)-2-phosphono-methylpentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), another potent NAAG peptidase inhibitor, also reduced motor activation induced by PCP or d-amphetamine. 2-PMPA was not effective in GCPII knockout mice. ZJ43 and 2-PMPA also blocked MK-801-induced deficits in novel object recognition when given before, but not after, the acquisition trial. The group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 blocked the effects of NAAG peptidase inhibition in these studies. 2-PMPA was more potent than ZJ43 in a test of NAAG peptidase inhibition in vivo. By bridging the dopamine and glutamate theories of schizophrenia with two structurally different NAAG peptidase inhibitors and demonstrating their efficacy in blocking MK-801-induced memory deficits, these data advance the concept that NAAG peptidase inhibition represents a potentially novel antipsychotic therapy. PMID:22850437

  17. Acute NMDA Receptor Hypofunction induced by MK801 Evokes Sex-Specific Changes in Behaviors Observed in Open Field Testing in Adult Male and Proestrus Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Igor; Kritzer, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex constellation of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Acute administration of the non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dizocilpine (MK801) in rats is one of few preclinical animal models of this disorder that has both face and/or construct validity for these multiple at-risk behavioral domains and predictive power for the efficacy of therapeutic drugs in treating them. This study asked whether and to what extent the rat NMDAR hypofunction model also embodies the sex differences that distinguish the symptoms of schizophrenia and their treatment. Thus, we compared the effects of acute MK801, with and without pretreatment with haloperidol or clozapine, on seven discrete spontaneous open field activities in adult male and female rats. These analyses revealed that MK801 was more effective in stimulating ataxia and locomotion and inhibiting stationary behavior in females while more potently stimulating stereotypy and thigmotaxis and inhibiting rearing and grooming in males. Haloperidol and clozapine pretreatments had markedly different efficacies in terms of behaviors but strong similarities in their effectiveness in male and female subjects. These results bear intriguing relationships with the complex male/female differences that characterize the symptoms of schizophrenia and suggest possible applications for acute NMDAR hypofunction as a preclinical model for investigating the neurobiology that underlies them. PMID:23085219

  18. The N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist MK-801 Prevents Thallium-Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Alterations in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Rico, Laura; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Santamaría, Abel; Königsberg, Mina; Galván-Arzate, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Thallium (Tl(+)) is a toxic heavy metal capable of increasing oxidative damage and disrupting antioxidant defense systems. Thallium invades the brain cells through potassium channels, increasing neuronal excitability, although until now the possible role of glutamatergic transmission in this event has not been investigated. Here, we explored the possible involvement of a glutamatergic component in the Tl(+)-induced toxicity through the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) in rats. The effects of MK-801 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) on early (24 hours) motor alterations, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH peroxidase activity induced by Tl(+) acetate (32 mg/kg, ip) were evaluated in adult rats. MK-801 attenuated the Tl(+)-induced hyperactivity and lipid peroxidation in the rat striatum, hippocampus and midbrain, and produced mild effects on other end points. Our findings suggest that glutamatergic transmission via NMDA receptors might be involved in the Tl(+)-induced altered regional brain redox activity and motor performance in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Blockade of voltage-gated K+ currents in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells by MK801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MK801 (dizocilpine, a phencyclidine (PCP derivative, is a potent noncompetitive antagonist of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr. Another PCP derivative, ketamine, was reported to block voltage-gated K+ (Kv channels, which was independent of NMDAr function. Kv currents are major regulators of the membrane potential (Em and excitability of muscles and neurons. Here, we investigated the effect of MK801 on the Kv channels and Em in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (RMASMCs. We used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to analyze the effect of MK801 enantiomers on Kv channels and Em. (+MK801 inhibited Kv channels in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 89.1 ± 13.1 μM, Hill coefficient of 1.05 ± 0.08. The inhibition was voltage- and state- independent. (+MK801 didn't influence steady-state activation and inactivation of Kv channels. (+MK801 treatment depolarized Em in a concentration-dependent manner and concomitantly decreased membrane conductance. (−MK801 also similarly inhibited the Kv channels (IC50 of 134.0 ± 17.5 μM, Hill coefficient of 0.87 ± 0.09. These results indicate that MK801 directly inhibits the Kv channel in a state-independent manner in RMASMCs. This MK801-mediated inhibition of Kv channels should be considered when assessing the various pharmacological effects produced by MK801, such as schizophrenia, neuroprotection, and hypertension.

  20. The NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 selectively disrupts reversal learning in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Jamilja A. J.; Bilbija, Luka; Joosten, Ruud N. J. M. A.; de Bruin, Jan P. C.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NMDA-receptors in rats would lead to a selective impairment of reversal learning in a serial reversal task in the Skinner box. Low doses of MK-801 (0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg) did not affect acquisition of the two-lever discrimination, but impaired performance

  1. The effect of hippocampal NMDA receptor blockade by MK-801 on cued fear extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Chuan-Yu; Wang, Xiu-Song

    2017-08-14

    Extinction of conditioned fear has been suggested to be a new form of learning instead of erasure of what was originally learned, and the process is NMDA (N-methyl d-aspartate) receptor (NMDAR) dependent. Most of studies have so far revealed the important roles of NMDARs in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in cued fear extinction. Although the ventral hippocampus has intimately reciprocal connections with the amygdala and mPFC, the role of its NMDARs in cued fear extinction remains unclear. The present experiment explored the issue by bilateral pre-extinction microinjection of the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801 into the ventral hippocampus. Four groups of rats were given habituation, tone cued fear conditioning, fear extinction training and extinction test. Prior to extinction training, rats received bilateral infusions of either MK-801 (1.5, 3, or 6μg/0.5μl) or saline. Our results showed that MK-801 reduced freezing on the first trial of extinction training with no impact on within-session acquisition of extinction, and that the lower doses of MK-801 resulted in increased freezing on the extinction retrieval test. These findings suggest that ventral hippocampal NMDARs are necessary for the consolidation of tone cued fear extinction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, 1-2 (2002), s. 221-225 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * elevated plus-maze * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  3. Kynurenic acid prevented social recognition deficits induced by MK-801 in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2003), s. 805-808 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * kynurenic acid * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  4. N-methyl-D-aspartate prevented memory deficits induced by MK-801 in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2003), s. 809-812 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : N-methyl-D-aspartate * MK-801 * spatial memory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  5. ERK activation in the amygdala and hippocampus induced by fear conditioning in ethanol withdrawn rats: modulation by MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotto, María Eugenia; Maldonado, Noelia Martina; Bignante, Elena Anahi; Gorosito, Silvana Vanesa; Cambiasso, María Julia; Molina, Víctor Alejandro; Martijena, Irene Delia

    2011-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, which can be activated by NMDA receptor stimulation, is involved in fear conditioning and drug addiction. We have previously shown that withdrawal from chronic ethanol administration facilitated the formation of contextual fear memory. In order to explore the neural substrates and the potential mechanism involved in this effect, we examined: 1) the ERK1/2 activation in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei of the amygdala and in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip), 2) the effect of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on fear conditioning and ERK activation and 3) the effect of the infusion of U0126, a MEK inhibitor, into the BLA on fear memory formation in ethanol withdrawn rats. Rats made dependent via an ethanol-containing liquid diet were subjected to contextual fear conditioning on day 3 of ethanol withdrawal. High basal levels of p-ERK were found in CeA and dHip from ethanol withdrawn rats. ERK activation was significantly increased both in control (60min) and ethanol withdrawn rats (30 and 60min) in BLA after fear conditioning. Pre-training administration of MK-801, at a dose that had no effect on control rats, prevented the increase in ERK phosphorylation in BLA and attenuated the freezing response 24h later in ethanol withdrawn rats. Furthermore, the infusion of U0126 into the BLA, but not the CeA, before fear conditioning disrupted fear memory formation. These results suggest that the increased fear memory can be linked to changes in ERK phosphorylation, probably due to NMDA receptor activation in BLA in ethanol withdrawn rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte; Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael; Noetzel, Meredith J; Lamsal, Atin; Niswender, Colleen M; Daniels, J Scott; Poslusney, Michael S; Melancon, Bruce J; Tarr, James C; Byers, Frank W; Wess, Jürgen; Duggan, Mark E; Dunlop, John; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael R; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2014-10-15

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an antipsychotic drug-like profile in rodents after amphetamine challenge. Previous studies suggest that enhanced cholinergic activity may also improve cognitive function and reverse deficits observed with reduced signaling through the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) in the central nervous system. Prior to this study, the M1 mAChR subtype was viewed as the primary candidate for these actions relative to the other mAChR subtypes. Here we describe the discovery of a novel M4 PAM, VU0467154, with enhanced in vitro potency and improved pharmacokinetic properties relative to other M4 PAMs, enabling a more extensive characterization of M4 actions in rodent models. We used VU0467154 to test the hypothesis that selective potentiation of M4 receptor signaling could ameliorate the behavioral, cognitive, and neurochemical impairments induced by the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist MK-801. VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. Hippocampal serotonin depletion unmasks differences in the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK-801: quantitative versus qualitative analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy K Adams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors by phencyclidine is thought to underlie its ability to induce a schizophrenia-like syndrome in humans, yet evidence indicates it has a broader pharmacological profile. Our previous lesion studies highlighted a role for serotonergic projections from the median, but not dorsal, raphe nucleus in mediating the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine, without changing the action of the more selective NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801. Here we compared locomotor responses to phencyclidine and MK 801 in rats that were administered 5,7 dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT into either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus, which are preferentially innervated by median and dorsal raphe, respectively. Dorsal hippocampus lesions potentiated phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion (0.5, 2.5 mg/kg, but not the effect of MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg. Ventral hippocampus lesions did not alter the hyperlocomotion elicited by either compound. Given that phencyclidine and MK-801 may induce different spatiotemporal patterns of locomotor behavior, together with the known role of the dorsal hippocampus in spatial processing, we also assessed whether the 5,7-DHT-lesions caused any qualitative differences in locomotor responses. Treatment with phencyclidine or MK-801 increased the smoothness of the path travelled (reduced spatial d and decreased the predictability of locomotor patterns within the chambers (increased entropy. 5,7-DHT-lesions of the dorsal hippocampus did not alter the effects of phencyclidine on spatial d or entropy—despite potentiating total distance moved—but caused a slight reduction in levels of MK-801-induced entropy. Taken together, serotonergic lesions targeting the dorsal hippocampus unmask a functional differentiation of the hyperlocomotor effects of phencyclidine and MK 801. These findings have implications for studies utilising NMDA receptor antagonists in modeling glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  8. Altered 13C glucose metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in the MK-801 rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyjolfsson, Elvar M; Nilsen, Linn Hege; Kondziella, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified MK-801 (dizocilpine) N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor hypofunction model for schizophrenia, we analyzed glycolysis, as well as glutamatergic, GABAergic, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. Rats received an injection of MK-801 daily for 6 days...... in all regions. In conclusion, neurotransmitter metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop is severely impaired in the MK-801 (dizocilpine) NMDA receptor hypofunction animal model for schizophrenia....

  9. Molecular responses of the Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models of Down syndrome to MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, A; Lacroix, T; Stasko, M R; Scott-McKean, J J; Costa, A C S; Gardiner, K J

    2008-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (chr21), is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of 94 chr21-encoded, confirmed protein-coding genes and displays a number of behavioral deficits. Recently, Ts65Dn mice were shown to be hypersensitive to the locomotor stimulatory effects of the high-affinity N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) channel blocker, MK-801. This is consistent with the functions of several chr21 proteins that are predicted directly or indirectly to impact NMDAR function or NMDAR-mediated signaling. In this study, we show that a second mouse model of DS, the Ts1Cje, which is trisomic for 70 protein-coding genes, is also hypersensitive to MK-801. To investigate the molecular basis for the responses to MK-801, we have measured levels of a subset of chr21 and phosphorylated non-chr21 proteins, in the cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mice and euploid controls, with and without treatment with MK-801. We show that in euploid mice, the chr21-encoded proteins, TIAM1 and DYRK1A, and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and the transcription factor ELK are involved in the MK-801 response. However, in both Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mice, levels of phosphorylation are constitutively elevated in naïve, unstimulated mice, and the MK-801-induced changes in TIAM1 and DYRK1A and in phosphorylation are either absent or abnormal, with both genotype and brain-region-specific patterns. These results emphasize the complexities of the pathway perturbations that arise with segmental trisomy.

  10. Design and synthesis of enantiomerically enriched, radiolabeled MK-801 analogs as potential radiotracers for imaging and autoradiographic studies of the NMDA receptor-ion channel complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.S.; Burns, H.D.; Gibson, R.E.; Ransom, R.W.; Thorpe, H.; Fioravanit, C.; Britcher, S.F.; Magill, C.A.; Solomon, H.F.; Dannals, R.F.; Wilson, A.A.; Ravert, H.T.; Wagner, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    MK-801 is a potent, non-competitive antagonist for the N-methyl-D-asspartate (NMDA) receptor-ion channel complex. This complex is though to be involved in nerve cell damage in stroke patients when excess calcium is released through the activated channel. A thorough understanding of drug interactions with the NMDA receptor complex could lead to improved therapy for reducing hypoxic-ischemic neuronal injuries in stroke patients. Based on the results of extensive structure-activity studies, the authors have developed several enantiomerically enriched, radiolabeled analogs of MK-801, including: 3-1231-MK-801 for Single Photon Emission Computed tomography (SPECT); 3-1251-MK-801 for in-vivo and in-vitro autoradiography; 8-11C-MeO-MK-801 for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Details of the synthesis of these radiotracers and their application to both in-vitro and in-vivo studies are described

  11. The combination of glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 with tamoxifen and its active metabolites potentiates their antiproliferative activity in mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Mariana P.C. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Nunes-Correia, Isabel [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Flow Cytometry Unit, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Armanda E., E-mail: aesantos@ci.uc.pt [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal); Custódio, José B.A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-15

    Recent reports suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade by MK-801 decreases tumor growth. Thus, we investigated whether other ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists were also able to modulate the proliferation of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) decreases the proliferation of melanoma cells, and is included in combined therapies for melanoma. As the efficacy of TAM is limited by its metabolism, we investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 in combination with TAM and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and endoxifen (EDX). The NMDAR blockers MK-801 and memantine decreased mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cell proliferation. In contrast, the NMDAR competitive antagonist APV and the AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist NBQX did not affect cell proliferation, suggesting that among the iGluR antagonists only the NMDAR channel blockers inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. The combination of antiestrogens with MK-801 potentiated their individual effects on cell biomass due to diminished cell proliferation, since it decreased the cell number and DNA synthesis without increasing cell death. Importantly, TAM metabolites combined with MK-801 promoted cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, the data obtained suggest that the activity of MK-801 and antiestrogens in K1735-M2 cells is greatly enhanced when used in combination. - Highlights: • MK-801 and memantine decrease melanoma cell proliferation. • The combination of MK-801 with antiestrogens inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. • These combinations greatly enhance the effects of the compounds individually. • MK-801 combined with tamoxifen active metabolites induces cell cycle arrest in G1. • The combination of MK-801 and antiestrogens is an innovative strategy for melanoma.

  12. Spatial Discrimination Reversal Learning in Weanling Rats Is Impaired by Striatal Administration of an NMDA-Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Deborah J.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    The striatum plays a major role in both motor control and learning and memory, including executive function and "behavioral flexibility." Lesion, temporary inactivation, and infusion of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist into the dorsomedial striatum (dmSTR) impair reversal learning in adult rats. Systemic administration of MK-801

  13. In vivo protection against NMDA-induced neurodegeneration by MK-801 and nimodipine : Combined therapy and temporal course of protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, BT; Douma, BRK; Bakker, R; Nyakas, C; Luiten, PGM

    Neuroprotection against excitotoxicity by a combined therapy with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine was examined using an in vivo rat model of NMDA-induced neurodegeneration. Attention was focused on the neuroprotective

  14. FOXO/TXNIP pathway is involved in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by glutamate antagonist MK-801

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Akram, Hossain; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Sui, Li; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of glutamate signaling in cancer growth, yet the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activates intracellular signaling pathways such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and forkhead box, class O (FOXO). Suppression of lung carcinoma growth by NMDA receptor antagonists via the ERK pathway has been reported. However, series of evidences suggested the importance of FOXO pathways for the regulation of normal and cancer cell growth. In the liver, FOXO1 play important roles for the cell proliferation such as hepatic stellate cells as well as liver metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of the FOXO pathway and the target genes in the growth inhibitory effects of NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of NMDAR1 in cancer cell lines from different tissues was examined by Western blot. NMDA receptor subunits in HepG2, HuH-7, and HLF were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and growth inhibition by MK-801 and NBQX was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of MK-801 on the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and p27 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Activation of the FOXO pathway and TXNIP induction were examined by Western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and reporter gene assay. The effects of TXNIP on growth inhibition were examined using the gene silencing technique. NMDA receptor subunits were expressed in all cell lines examined, and MK-801, but not NBQX, inhibited cell growth of hepatocellular carcinomas. Cell cycle analysis showed that MK-801 induced G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D1 and up-regulating p27. MK-801 dephosphorylated

  15. Recovery of NMDA receptor currents from MK-801 blockade is accelerated by Mg2+ and memantine under conditions of agonist exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Sean; Bengtson, C Peter; Bading, Hilmar; Wyllie, David J A; Hardingham, Giles E

    2013-11-01

    MK-801 is a use-dependent NMDA receptor open channel blocker with a very slow off-rate. These properties can be exploited to 'pre-block' a population of NMDARs, such as synaptic ones, enabling the selective activation of a different population, such as extrasynaptic NMDARs. However, the usefulness of this approach is dependent on the stability of MK-801 blockade after washout. We have revisited this issue, and confirm that recovery of NMDAR currents from MK-801 blockade is enhanced by channel opening by NMDA, and find that it is further increased when Mg(2+) is also present. In the presence of Mg(2+), 50% recovery from MK-801 blockade is achieved after 10' of 100 μM NMDA, or 30' of 15 μM NMDA exposure. In Mg(2+)-free medium, NMDA-induced MK-801 dissociation was found to be much slower. Memantine, another PCP-site antagonist, could substitute for Mg(2+) in accelerating the unblock of MK-801 in the presence of NMDA. This suggests a model whereby, upon dissociation from its binding site in the pore, MK-801 is able to re-bind in a process antagonized by Mg(2+) or another PCP-site antagonist. Finally we show that even when all NMDARs are pre-blocked by MK-801, incubation of neurons with 100 μM NMDA in the presence of Mg(2+) for 2.5 h triggers sufficient unblocking to kill >80% of neurons. We conclude that while synaptic MK-801 'pre-block' protocols are useful for pharmacologically assessing synaptic vs. extrasynaptic contributions to NMDAR currents, or studying short-term effects, it is problematic to use this technique to attempt to study the effects of long-term selective extrasynaptic NMDAR activation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LY395756, an mGluR2 agonist and mGluR3 antagonist, enhances NMDA receptor expression and function in the normal adult rat prefrontal cortex, but fails to improve working memory and reverse MK801-induced working memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Lin; Yang, Sha-Sha; Xing, Bo; Ferguson, Brielle R; Gulchina, Yelena; Li, Yan-Chun; Li, Feng; Hu, Xi-Quan; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Targeting group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) has been proposed to correct the dysfunctional glutamatergic system, particularly NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction, for treatment of schizophrenia. However, how activation of mGluR2/3 affects NMDAR function in adult animals remains elusive. Here we show the effects of LY395756 (LY39), a compound acting as both an mGluR2 agonist and mGluR3 antagonist, on the NMDAR expression and function of normal adult rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) as well as working memory function in the MK801 model of schizophrenia. We found that in vivo administration of LY39 significantly increased the total protein levels of NMDAR subunits and NR2B phosphorylationin the PFC, along with the amplitude of NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) in the prefrontal cortical neurons. Moreover, LY39 also significantly increased mTOR and pmTOR expression, but not ERK1/2, Akt, and GSK3β, suggesting an activation of mTOR signaling. Indeed, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, and actinomycin-D, a transcription inhibitor, blocked the enhanced effects of LY39 on NMDAR-mEPSCs. These results indicate that LY39 regulates NMDAR expression and function through unidentified mTOR-mediated protein synthesis in the normal adult rat PFC. However, this change is insufficient to affect working memory function in normal animals, nor to reverse the MK801-induced working memory deficit. Our data provide the first evidence of an in vivo effect of a novel compound that acts as both an mGluR2 agonist and mGluR3 antagonist on synaptic NMDAR expression and function in the adult rat PFC, although its effect -on PFC-dependent cognitive function remains to be explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [123I]Epidepride neuroimaging of dopamine D2/D3 receptor in chronic MK-801-induced rat schizophrenia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuan-Ruei; Shih, Jun-Ming; Chang, Kang-Wei; Huang, Chieh; Wu, Yu-Lung; Chen, Chia-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: [ 123 I]Epidepride is a radio-tracer with very high affinity for dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptors in brain. The importance of alteration in dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding condition has been wildly verified in schizophrenia. In the present study we set up a rat schizophrenia model by chronic injection of a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, to examine if [ 123 I]epidepride could be used to evaluate the alterations of dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding condition in specific brain regions. Method: Rats were given repeated injection of MK-801 (dissolved in saline, 0.3 mg/kg) or saline for 1 month. Afterwards, total distance traveled (cm) and social interaction changes were recorded. Radiochemical purity of [ 123 I]epidepride was analyzed by Radio-Thin-Layer Chromatography (chloroform: methanol, 9:1, v/v) and [ 123 I]epidepride neuroimages were obtained by ex vivo autoradiography and small animal SPECT/CT. Data obtained were then analyzed to determine the changes of specific binding ratio. Result: Chronic MK-801 treatment for a month caused significantly increased local motor activity and induced an inhibition of social interaction. As shown in [ 123 I]epidepride ex vivo autoradiographs, MK-801 induced a decrease of specific binding ratio in the striatum (24.01%), hypothalamus (35.43%), midbrain (41.73%) and substantia nigra (37.93%). In addition, [ 123 I]epidepride small animal SPECT/CT neuroimaging was performed in the striatum and midbrain. There were statistically significant decreases in specific binding ratio in both the striatum (P 123 I]epidepride is a useful radio-tracer to reveal the alterations of dopamine D 2 /D 3 receptor binding in a rat schizophrenia model and is also helpful to evaluate therapeutic effects of schizophrenia in the future.

  18. A NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 impairs consolidating extinction of auditory conditioned fear responses in a Pavlovian model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In auditory fear conditioning, repeated presentation of the tone in the absence of shock leads to extinction of the acquired fear responses. The glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR is thought to be involved in the extinction of the conditioned fear responses, but its detailed role in initiating and consolidating or maintaining the fear extinction memory is unclear. Here we investigated this issue by using a NMDAR antagonist, MK-801. METHODS/MAIN FINDINGS: The effects of immediate (beginning at 10 min after the conditioning and delayed (beginning at 24 h after conditioning extinctions were first compared with the finding that delayed extinction caused a better and long-lasting (still significant on the 20(th day after extinction depression on the conditioned fear responses. In a second experiment, MK-801 was intraperitoneally (i.p. injected at 40 min before, 4 h or 12 h after the delayed extinction, corresponding to critical time points for initiating, consolidating or maintaining the fear extinction memory. i.p. injection of MK-801 at either 40 min before or 4 h after delayed extinction resulted in an impairment of initiating and consolidating fear extinction memory, which caused a long lasting increased freezing score that was still significant on the 7th day after extinction, compared with extinction group. However, MK-801 administered at 12 h after the delayed extinction, when robust consolidation has been occurred and stabilized, did not affect the established extinction memory. Furthermore, the changed freezing behaviors was not due to an alteration in general anxiety levels, since MK-801 treatment had no effect on the percentage of open-arm time or open-arm entries in an Elevated Plus Maze (EPM task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggested that the activation of NMDARs plays important role in initiation and consolidation but not maintenance of fear extinction memory. Together with the fact that NMDA receptor is

  19. MK-801 (Dizocilpine) Regulates Multiple Steps of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Alters Psychological Symptoms via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonu; Mishra, Akanksha; Srivastava, Neha; Shukla, Shubha

    2017-03-15

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is directly involved in regulation of stress, anxiety, and depression that are commonly observed nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). These symptoms do not respond to pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy. Excitotoxic damage to neuronal cells by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation is also a major contributing factor in PD development, but whether it regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and nonmotor symptoms in PD is yet unexplored. Herein, for the first time, we studied the effect of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral functions in 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) induced rat model of PD. MK-801 treatment (0.2 mg/kg, ip) increased neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, self-renewal capacity, long-term survival, and neuronal differentiation in the hippocampus of rat model of PD. MK-801 potentially enhanced long-term survival, improved dendritic arborization of immature neurons, and reduced 6-OHDA induced neurodegeneration via maintaining the NSC pool in hippocampus, leading to decreased anxiety and depression-like phenotypes in the PD model. MK-801 inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) through up-regulation of Wnt-3a, which resulted in the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling leading to enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in PD model. Additionally, MK-801 treatment protected the dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway and improved motor functions by increasing the expression of Nurr-1 and Pitx-3 in the PD model. Therefore, MK-801 treatment serves as a valuable tool to enhance hippocampal neurogenesis in PD, but further studies are needed to revisit the role of MK-801 in the neurodegenerative disorder before proposing a potential therapeutic candidate.

  20. Effect of antemortem and postmortem factors on [3H]MK-801 binding in the human brain: Transient elevation during early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornhuber, J.; Mack-Burkhardt, F.; Konradi, C.; Fritze, J.; Riederer, P.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a number of antemortem and postmortem factors on [ 3 H]MK-801 binding was investigated under equilibrium conditions in the frontal cortex of human brains of 38 controls. Binding values transiently increased during the early postnatal period reaching a maximum at the age of about 2 years. After age 10 years [ 3 H]MK-801 binding sites disappeared at 5.7% per decade. The storage time of brain tissue had a reducing effect on these binding sites. There was no effect of gender, brain weight or postmortem time interval and the binding sites were bilaterally symmetrically distributed in the frontal cortex

  1. Higher Doses of (+)MK-801 (Dizocilpine) Induced Mortality and Procedural but Not Cognitive Deficits in Delayed Testing in the Active Place Avoidance With Reversal on the Carousel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobellová, Veronika; Brichtová, Eva; Petrásek, Tomáš; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 269-275 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Dizocilpine * (+)MK-801 * active place avoidance * Carousel * Long-Evans rats Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD (PB) EXPOSURE REDUCES THE ABILITY OF THE NNDA ANTAGONIST MK801 TO SUPPRESS LONG-TERM POTENTIATION (LTP) IN THE RAT DENTATE GYRUS, IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic developmental lead (Pb) exposure increases the threshold and enhances decay of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. MK-801 and other antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype impair induction of LT...

  3. Effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin on behavioral alterations induced by MK-801 in a spatial memory task in Long-Evans rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Petrásek, Tomáš; Valeš, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2009), s. 733-740 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : prazosin * MK-801 * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  4. Selective activation of M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reverses MK-801-induced behavioral impairments and enhances associative learning in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Dencker, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) represent a novel approach for the treatment of psychotic symptoms associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently reported that the selective M4 PAM VU0152100 produced an ant....... VU0467154 produced a robust dose-dependent reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and deficits in preclinical models of associative learning and memory functions, including the touchscreen pairwise visual discrimination task in wild-type mice, but failed to reverse these stimulant......-induced deficits in M4 KO mice. VU0467154 also enhanced the acquisition of both contextual and cue-mediated fear conditioning when administered alone in wild-type mice. These novel findings suggest that M4 PAMs may provide a strategy for addressing the more complex affective and cognitive disruptions associated...

  5. Systemic administration of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, elicits a behavioural deficit of rats in the Active Allothetic Place Avoidance (AAPA) task irrespectively of their intact spatial pretraining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuchlík, Aleš; Valeš, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 1 (2005), s. 163-171 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP309/03/P126; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal model * rat Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2005

  6. The effect of combined treatment with escitalopram and risperidone on the MK-801-induced changes in the object recognition test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kamińska, Katarzyna

    2016-02-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs have some efficacy in alleviating the negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia but those effects are small and mechanisms of this action are still unknown. A few clinical reports have suggested that the antidepressant drugs, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are able to augment the activity of atypical antipsychotic drugs, thus effectively improving treatment of the negative and some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of escitalopram (SSRI) and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on the effect of MK-801 (a NMDA receptor antagonist) given before to the first introductory session, in the object recognition memory test. The mice were tested for the ability to discriminate between an old, familiar and a novel object. Escitalopram and risperidone were given 30min before MK-801, and MK-801 was administered 30min before the first introductory session. Memory retention was evaluated 90min after the introductory session. The obtained results showed that MK-801 (0.2mg/kg) decreased memory retention when given before the introductory session. Risperidone at a higher dose (0.1mg/kg) reversed that effect. Co-treatment with an ineffective dose of risperidone (0.01mg/kg) and escitalopram (5 or 10mg/kg) abolished the deficit of object recognition memory induced by MK-801. The obtained results suggest that escitalopram may enhance the antipsychotic-like effect of risperidone in the animal tests used for evaluation of some cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships of Noncompetitive Antagonists of the NMDA Receptor: A Study of a Series of MK801 Derivative Molecules Using Statistical Methods and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lakhlifi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: From a series of 50 MK801 derivative molecules, a selected set of 44 compounds was submitted to a principal components analysis (PCA, a multiple regression analysis (MRA, and a neural network (NN. This study shows that the compounds' activity correlates reasonably well with the selected descriptors encoding the chemical structures. The correlation coefficients calculated by MRA and there after by NN, r = 0.986 and r = 0.974 respectively, are fairly good to evaluate a quantitative model, and to predict activity for MK801 derivatives. To test the performance of this model, the activities of the remained set of 6 compounds are deduced from the proposed quantitative model, by NN. This study proved that the predictive power of this model is relevant.

  8. UCCB01-125, a dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, reduces inflammatory pain without disrupting cognitive or motor performance: Comparison with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T.; Bach, Anders; Gynther, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Excessive N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent production of nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain states, and is mediated by postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). By binding to both the NMDAR and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS), PSD-95 mediates...... a specific coupling between NMDAR activation and NO production. NMDAR antagonism shows anti-nociceptive action in humans and animal models of chronic pain but is associated with severe disturbances of cognitive and motor functions. An alternative approach to modulate the NMDAR-related activity is to perturb......'s adjuvant (CFA) model of inflammatory pain. To examine side-effect profiles we also compared the effects of UCCB01-125 and MK-801 in tests of attention, long-term memory, and motor performance. When administered concurrently with CFA, both MK-801 and UCCB01-125 prevented the development of CFA...

  9. Antagonista NMDA-receptorů MK-801 narušuje rozeznávání pozice vzdáleného objektu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levčík, David; Klement, Daniel; Nekovářová, Tereza; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, Suppl.2 (2010), s. 15-18 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA MZd(CZ) NR9178; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : recognition of position * MK-801 * CHPG * mGluR Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effects of MK-801 treatment across several pre-clinical analyses including a novel assessment of brain metabolic function utilizing PET and CT fused imaging in live rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya, R P; Bhandari, J K; Hui, P A; Tian, Y; Farncombe, T; Mishra, R K

    2014-02-01

    Functional imaging studies in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated metabolic brain abnormalities during cognitive tasks. This study aimed to 1) introduce a novel analysis of brain metabolic function in live animals to characterize the hypo- and hyperfrontality phenomena observed in schizophrenia and following NMDA antagonist exposure, and 2) identify a robust and representative MK-801 treatment regimen that effectively models brain metabolic abnormalities as well as a range of established behavioural abnormalities representative of schizophrenia. The validity of the MK-801 animal model was examined across several established pre-clinical tests, and a novel assessment of brain metabolic function using PET/CT fused imaging. In the present study, MK-801 was administered acutely at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, and sub-chronically at 0.5 mg/kg daily for 7 days. Acute treatment at 0.5 mg/kg-disrupted facets of memory measured through performance in the 8-arm radial maze task and generated abnormalities in sensorimotor gating, social interaction and locomotor activity. Furthermore, this treatment regimen induced hyperfrontality (increased brain metabolic function in the prefrontal area) observed via PET/CT fused imaging in the live rat. While PET and CT fused imaging in the live rat offers a functional representation of metabolic function, more advanced PET/CT integration is required to analyze more discrete brain regions. These findings provide insight on the effectiveness of the MK-801 pre-clinical model of schizophrenia and provide an optimal regimen to model schizophrenia. PET/CT fused imaging offers a highly translatable tool to assess hypo- and hyperfrontality in live animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of hypoxia-ischemia and MK-801 treatment on the binding of a phencyclidine analogue in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, F.S.; McDonald, J.W. III; Bommarito, M.; Johnston, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The phencyclidine analogue [ 3 H](1-[2-thienyl]cyclohexyl)piperidine ( 3 H-TCP) binds to the ion channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel complex. In vitro autoradiography indicates that the distribution of 3 H-TCP binding in brain closely parallels that of [ 3 H]glutamate binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. In nine 7-day-old rats, an acute focal hypoxic-ischemic insult produced by unilateral carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen acutely reduced 3 H-TCP binding ipsilateral to the ligation by 30% in the CA1, by 27% in the CA3, by 26% in the dentate gyrus, and by 17% in the striatum compared with values from the contralateral hemisphere. In 10 littermates that received 1 mg/kg of the neuroprotective noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 immediately before hypoxic exposure, the regional distribution of 3 H-TCP binding in hypoxic-ischemic brain was relatively preserved and there were no interhemispheric asymmetries in 3 H-TCP binding densities. In addition, in three unoperated rats decapitated 24 hours after MK-801 treatment, 3 H-TCP binding was reduced by 15-35%; similar bilateral suppression of 3 H-TCP binding was detected in MK-801-treated ligates. Our data indicate that 3 H-TCP autoradiography can be used to assay the efficacy of neuroprotective agents in this experimental model of perinatal stroke

  13. Chronic MK-801 Application in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Spatial Working Memory Deficit in Adult Long-Evans Rats But No Changes in the Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Uttl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of NMDA receptors in learning, memory and hippocampal function has long been recognized. Post-mortem studies have indicated that the expression or subunit composition of the NMDA glutamate receptor subtype might be related to the impaired cognitive functions found in schizophrenia patients. NMDA receptor antagonists have been used to develop animal models of this disorder. There is accumulating evidence showing that not only the acute but also the chronic application of NMDA receptor antagonists may induce schizophrenia-like alterations in behavior and brain functions. However, limited evidence is available regarding the consequences of NMDA receptor blockage during periods of adolescence and early adulthood. This study tested the hypothesis that a 2-week treatment of male Long-Evans and Wistar rats with dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.5 mg/kg daily starting at postnatal days (PD 30 and 60 would cause a long-term cognitive deficit and changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits. The working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM and active place avoidance with reversal on a rotating arena (Carousel requiring cognitive coordination and flexibility probed cognitive functions and an elevated-plus maze (EPM was used to measure anxiety-like behavior. The western blot method was used to determine changes in NMDA receptor subunit levels in the hippocampus. Our results showed no significant changes in behaviors in Wistar rats. Slightly elevated anxiety-like behavior was observed in the EPM in Long-Evans rats with the onset of treatment on PD 30. Furthermore, Long-Evans rats treated from PD 60 displayed impaired working memory in the MWM. There were; however, no significant changes in the levels of NMDA receptor subunits because of MK-801 administration. These findings suggest that a 2-week treatment starting on PD 60 in Long-Evans rats leads to long-term changes in working memory, but this deficit is not paralleled by changes in NMDA receptor

  14. EFECTO DE LA ADMINISTRACIÓN INTRACEREBRAL DE MK-801 Y (- NICOTINA EN LAS CONCENTRACIONES EXTRACELULARES DE GLU Y GABA EN EL NÚCLEO PEDUNCULOPONTINO DE RATAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Blanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la manipulación farmacológica de los sistemas glutamatérgico y colinérgico se ha tratado en modelos experimentales de enfermedad de Parkinson (EP, pocos autores han realizado estudios de esta temática a nivel del núcleo pedunculopontino (NPP. El presente trabajo aborda los cambios en las concentraciones extracelulares (CE de glutamato (Glu y ácido δ-amino butírico (GABA en el NPP de ratas hemiparkinsonizadas por inyección de 6-hidroxidopamina (6-OHDA y sometidas a la infusión local de MK-801 (10 mol/L o (- nicotina (10mM. La infusión se realizó mediante microdiálisis cerebral y la determinación de las CE de los neurotransmisores se realizó a través de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución acoplada a detección de fluorescencia. La infusión de MK-801 en el NPP produjo una disminución significativa de las CE de Glu (p

  15. Interrupción del efecto de inhibición latente por la administración de MK-801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G De la Casa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los receptores N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA parecen estar implicados en el retraso en la adquisición de una asociación pavloviana tras la preexposición sin consecuencias al que se va a convertir en estímulo condicionado, efecto al que se suele denominar Inhibición Latente (IL. Concretamente, la administración de compuestos antagonistas en la fase de preexposición o en las fases de preexposición y condicionamiento produce un efecto disruptivo sobre la expresión de la IL cuando se utiliza un procedimiento de aversión condicionada al sabor. En este trabajo describimos tres experimentos que replican el efecto del MK-801 sobre la IL (Experimento 1 y que demuestran la persistencia de la influencia de la droga independientemente del número de ensayos de preexposición (Experimento 2, o de la intensidad del EC empleado (Experimento 3. Los resultados se interpretan en relación a los modelos psicológicos y farmacológicos relacionados con la investigación y el tratamiento clínico de diversos desordenes neurocognitivos.

  16. Protective effect of MK-801 on the anoxia-aglycemia induced damage in the fluorocitrate-treated hippocampal slice of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, H; Kawachi, A; Okada, M; Fujiwara, M; Yamamoto, K

    1996-09-02

    We investigated electrophysiological responses induced by ischemia-like insult (anoxia and aglycemia, AA) in the rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in an in vitro slice preparation devoid of glial metabolism. In the slice treated with fluorocitrate (100 microM), a glia-specific metabolic inhibitor, 10 min AA induced hyperexcitation as evidenced by an appearance of multiple population spikes evoked by stimulation of the Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway in the CA1 region prior to elimination of the response. Readministration of oxygen and glucose failed to restore the population spike amplitude. Intracellular recordings revealed that 10 min AA induced slow EPSPs with relative long duration. The induction of the slow EPSPs was followed by a rapid membrane depolarization with a large amplitude. When the fluorocitrate-treated slice was exposed to MK-801 (10 microM), a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, 10 min AA failed to induce either the hyperexcitation of synaptic responses or the rapid depolarization. Furthermore, synaptic responses were fully restored after readministration of oxygen and glucose. In contrast, neither the synaptic hyperexcitation nor the rapid depolarization was observed during 10 min AA in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of the control slice. In addition, an irreversible synaptic failure associated with AA was not induced in the control slice. These results strongly suggest that fluorocitrate increases NMDA receptor-dependent AA-induced damage in the hippocampal slice by interfering glial spatial buffering of K+.

  17. Analysis of sensitivity to MK-801 treatment in a novel active allothetic place avoidance task and in the working memory version of the Morris water maze reveals differences between Long-Evans and Wistar rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Karel; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Klement, Daniel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2006), s. 383-388 ISSN 0168-0102 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NL7684; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GP309/03/P126; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Wistar/Long-Evans rats * MK-801 * cognition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2006

  18. Acute administration of MK-801 in an animal model of psychosis in rats interferes with cognitively demanding forms of behavioral flexibility on a rotating arena

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jan; Staňková, Anna; Entlerová, Marie; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR 1 (2015), s. 75 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0078 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : flexibility * memory * reversal learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.392, year: 2015

  19. Acute systemic MK-801 induced functional uncoupling between hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 with distant effect in the retrosplenial cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Helena; Fajnerová, Iveta; Stuchlík, Aleš; Kubík, Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 134-144 ISSN 1050-9631 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Arc * Homer1a * ensemble coding * cognitive control * hypersynchrony * hyperassociation * psychosis * NMDA antagonist * schizophrenia * animal model Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.945, year: 2016

  20. Secretory phospholipase A2-mediated neuronal cell death involves glutamate ionotropic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2002-01-01

    ]Arachidonic acid release induced by both sPLA and glutamate was partially blocked by MK-801, indicating that the glutamate-NMDA-cPLA pathway contributes to sPLA -induced arachidonic acid release. Systemic administration of MK-801 to rats that had sPLA injected into the right striatum significantly decreased...

  1. In vivo [(123)I]CNS-1261 binding to D-serine-activated and MK801-blocked NMDA receptors: A storage phosphor imaging study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Remco J. J.; de Bruin, Kora; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Pimlott, Sally; Wyper, David J.; Booij, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances of activity of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in the brain are present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is the most abundant receptor of the glutamatergic system. In the neurodegenerative events of Alzheimer's disease, excessive

  2. Protective effect of systemic L-kynurenine and probenecid administration on behavioural and morphological alterations induced by toxic soluble amyloid beta (25-35) in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Méndez-Cuesta, Luis A; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Fortoul-van Der Goes, Teresa I; Santamaría, Abel

    2010-07-11

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide exerts different toxic effects at a cellular level, including over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and excitotoxicity, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of NMDAr and alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Systemic administrations of both the immediate metabolic precursor of KYNA, L-kynurenine (L-KYN), and a proved inhibitor of KYNA's brain transport, probenecid (PROB), have shown to produce neuroprotective effects in a considerable number of experimental toxic conditions; however, this strategy has not been tested in the toxic model Abeta peptide so far. In this study we evaluated the effects of systemic administration of PROB (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days), L-KYN (75 mg/kg/day for 7 days) and their combination, on behavioural (locomotor activity and spatial memory) and morphological alterations induced by an intrahippocampal infusion of Abeta 25-35 to rats. An additional group was administered with the potent NMDAr antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801, 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) for comparative purposes. A significant improvement of spatial memory was evident in Abeta-lesioned rats since post-lesion day 21 with all treatments tested and this effect was correlated with a reduction of cell damage and a decrease in reactive gliosis in hippocampal CA1 area. Neither L-KYN, nor PROB, or their combination, produced major alterations in motor function when given alone to rats. These results suggest that modulation of NMDAr activity by mean of therapeutic strategies designed to enhance KYNA in the brain may help to counteract neurodegenerative events coursing with Abeta toxicity and excitotoxic patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  4. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  5. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  6. Oracle database systems administration

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavý, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis with the name Oracle database systems administration describes problems in databases and how to solve them, which is important for database administrators. It helps them in delivering faster solutions without the need to look for or figure out solutions on their own. Thesis describes database backup and recovery methods that are closely related to problems solutions. The main goal is to provide guidance and recommendations regarding database troubles and how to solve them. It ...

  7. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  8. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  9. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  10. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  11. Administrative litigation systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu Săraru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, analyzing the administrative litigation in the comparative law, groups the existing types of administrative litigation into four major systems, namely: a States with administrative jurisdictions who have the State Council on top, administrative body with consultative and judicial role (the French system; b States with administrative jurisdictions completely separated from the active and consultative administrations (the German system; c States with administrative jurisdictions included in the judicial system; d States with no administrative jurisdiction (English system. The administrative contentious systems analyzed have developed in line with historical evolution and legal traditions and have been continually adapted to the realities existing in each state. The manner in which the administrative contentious is regulated in a State reflects the degree of democratization of that country, the extent to which the citizen enjoys legal safeguards to defend himself against abuses by public authorities. The scientific novelty of this article is to capture the latest trends in the evolution of the administrative contentious systems analyzed. This study aims to provide an easy working tool for reforming administrative litigation on comparative law in states with young democracy. In the research we used the comparative method, the historical and the logical method.

  12. Synergistic antidepressant-like effect of the joint administration of caffeine and NMDA receptor ligands in the forced swim test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wlaź, Aleksandra; Wośko, Sylwia; Wlaź, Piotr; Poleszak, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The optimal treatment of depressed patients remains one of the most important challenges concerning depression. The identification of the best treatment strategies and development of new, safer, and more effective agents are crucial. The glutamatergic system seems to be a promising drug target, and consequently the use of the NMDA receptor ligands, particularly in co-administration with other substances exerting the antidepressant activity, has emerged among the new ideas. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on the performance of mice treated with various NMDA modulators in the forced swim test. We demonstrated a significant interaction between caffeine (5 mg/kg) and the following NMDA receptor ligands: MK-801 (an antagonist binding in the ion channel, 0.05 mg/kg), CGP 37849 (an antagonist of the glutamate site, 0.312 mg/kg), L-701,324 (an antagonist of the glycine site, 1 mg/kg), and D-cycloserine (a high-efficacy partial agonist of the glycine site, 2.5 mg/kg), while the interaction between caffeine and the inorganic modulators, i.e., Zn(2+) (2.5 mg/kg) and Mg(2+) (10 mg/kg), was not considered as significant. Based on the obtained results, the simultaneous blockage of the adenosine and NMDA receptors may be a promising target in the development of new antidepressants.

  13. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  14. Information in the system of state administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kalytych, G.; Litosh, G.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the approaches to the notions of "information", "state administration system", "administrative information". The article considers the importance of of information for the whole state administration system and reveals the criteria which provide the information with administrative status. Special attention is paid to making of administrative decisions on the level of the sate which are based on effective information management.

  15. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  16. Administration of memantine during ethanol withdrawal in neonatal rats: effects on long-term ethanol-induced motor incoordination and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can damage the developing fetus, illustrated by central nervous system dysfunction and deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, likely due to increased episodes of ethanol withdrawal. We hypothesized that overactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor during ethanol withdrawal leads to excitotoxic cell death in the developing brain. Consistent with this, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., MK-801) during withdrawal can attenuate ethanol's teratogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether administration of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, during ethanol withdrawal could effectively attenuate ethanol-related deficits, without the adverse side effects associated with other NMDA receptor antagonists. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol or isocaloric maltose solution via intubation on postnatal day 6, a period of brain development equivalent to a portion of the 3rd trimester. Twenty-four and 36 hours after ethanol, subjects were injected with 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg memantine, totaling doses of 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg. Motor coordination was tested on a parallel bar task and the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using unbiased stereology. Alcohol exposure induced significant parallel bar motor incoordination and reduced Purkinje cell number. Memantine administration significantly attenuated both ethanol-associated motor deficits and cerebellar cell loss in a dose-dependent manner. Memantine was neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data provide further support that ethanol withdrawal contributes to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution promulgated on the 6th of October 1958, with the latest amendments made in 1999, France is a presidential republic. The three authority branches are broadly represented in the French administration: the judicial branch – French courts of law are divided into: judicial courts and administrative courts. Judicial courts are under the supreme authority of the Court of Cassation with jurisdiction to cancel judgments passed courts on inferior hierarchy levels and plays a central role in the appropriate performance of the activity. The legislative body - normally, the legislation is voted by Parliament. French Parliament is comprised of two chambers: the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly is elected for five years by way of direct universal voting. The Senate is elected by way of indirect universal voting by the electoral group. The election system is based on rules contained in the Election Code. The executive authority is divided between the President of the Republic and the Prime Minister. The President of the Republic makes the appointments for civil and military positions located at the highest state level. The Council of Ministers is responsible for appointing the positions of state councillors, prefect and public administration director. The central government is headed by the Prime Minister. Regional authorities – the regions are free territories administered by elected Councils. As far as the metropolitan part of France is concerned, there are 22 such territories, to which are added other four districts / counties which are located out of borders. The region’s Prefect represents the state and is empowered to deploy legal actions in order to protect the state’s best interest. County authorities – there are currently 96 de districts, to which four other territories located out of borders are added, as well as the territorial communities of Mayoutte and St-Pierre et Miquelon. There are

  18. Salsa: Security Application Launcher for System Administrators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derrick, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    .... The need for system and network security is well-documented, and dozens of security "tools" already exist to assist system administrators in analyzing the relative vulnerability of their systems...

  19. UNIX and Linux system administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nemeth, Evi; Hein, Trent R; Whaley, Ben; Mackin, Dan; Garnett, James; Branca, Fabrizio; Mouat, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Now fully updated for today’s Linux distributions and cloud environments, it details best practices for every facet of system administration, including storage management, network design and administration, web hosting and scale-out, automation, configuration management, performance analysis, virtualization, DNS, security, management of IT service organizations, and much more. For modern system and network administrators, this edition contains indispensable new coverage of cloud deployments, continuous delivery, Docker and other containerization solutions, and much more.

  20. Phencyclidine administration during neurodevelopment alters network activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerby, Celia; Hovelsø, Nanna; Dalby, Nils Ole

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim...... a suppression of evoked theta power in ventral hippocampus, while evoked gamma power in mPFC was enhanced in rats administered with PCP neonatally. In addition, increased gamma synchrony elicited by acute administration of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 was exaggerated in neonatal PCP animals. These data suggest...... that NMDAR antagonist exposure during brain development alters functional networks within hippocampus and mPFC possibly contributing to the reported behavioral symptoms of this animal model of schizophrenia.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that insults with a NMDA receptor antagonist during neurodevelopment lead...

  1. RBAC administration in distributed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Crampton, J.; Etalle, Sandro; Li, N.

    Large and distributed access control systems are increasingly common, for example in health care. In such settings, access control policies may become very complex, thus complicating correct and efficient adminstration of the access control system. Despite being one of the most widely used access

  2. Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckiewicz, Robert; Kroculick, Joseph

    Columbia University's major program to distribute its central administrative data processing to its various schools and departments is described. The Distributed Administrative Management Information System (DAMIS) will link every department and school within the university via micrcomputers, terminals, and/or minicomputers to the central…

  3. Python for Unix and Linux system administration

    CERN Document Server

    Gift, Noah

    2007-01-01

    Python is an ideal language for solving problems, especially in Linux and Unix networks. With this pragmatic book, administrators can review various tasks that often occur in the management of these systems, and learn how Python can provide a more efficient and less painful way to handle them. Each chapter in Python for Unix and Linux System Administration presents a particular administrative issue, such as concurrency or data backup, and presents Python solutions through hands-on examples. Once you finish this book, you'll be able to develop your own set of command-line utilities with Pytho

  4. Debian 7 system administration best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollei, Rich

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how to install and administer the Debian Linux distribution.Debian 7: System Administration Best Practices is for users and administrators who are new to Debian, or for seasoned administrators who are switching to Debian from another Linux distribution. A basic knowledge of Linux or UNIX systems is useful, but not strictly required. Since the book is a high level guide, the reader should be willing to go to the referenced material for further details and practical examples.

  5. System Administrator for LCS Development Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System Project is creating a Checkout and Control System that will eventually launch the next generation of vehicles from Kennedy Space Center. KSC has a large set of Development and Operational equipment already deployed in several facilities, including the Launch Control Center, which requires support. The position of System Administrator will complete tasks across multiple platforms (Linux/Windows), many of them virtual. The Hardware Branch of the Control and Data Systems Division at the Kennedy Space Center uses system administrators for a variety of tasks. The position of system administrator comes with many responsibilities which include maintaining computer systems, repair or set up hardware, install software, create backups and recover drive images are a sample of jobs which one must complete. Other duties may include working with clients in person or over the phone and resolving their computer system needs. Training is a major part of learning how an organization functions and operates. Taking that into consideration, NASA is no exception. Training on how to better protect the NASA computer infrastructure will be a topic to learn, followed by NASA work polices. Attending meetings and discussing progress will be expected. A system administrator will have an account with root access. Root access gives a user full access to a computer system and or network. System admins can remove critical system files and recover files using a tape backup. Problem solving will be an important skill to develop in order to complete the many tasks.

  6. Software Architecture Patterns for System Administration Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebe Wiersema; Ronald Bijvank; Christian Köppe

    2013-01-01

    Many quality aspects of software systems are addressed in the existing literature on software architecture patterns. But the aspect of system administration seems to be a bit overlooked, even though it is an important aspect too. In this work we present three software architecture patterns that,

  7. Land Administration Systems in Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mađer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains an analysis of land administration systems in transition countries on the example of South Eastern European countries. An analysis of regulation on registration of real estate registration and rights was done in addition to the comparison of institutions and jurisdictions. Also an analysis of registers of real estates and real estate rights has been done and their main features listed. The paper provides insight into some of the technological achievements in the field of improvement and modernization of land administration systems.

  8. The role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems on serotonin- induced feeding behavior in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezaei, Sepideh Seyedali; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab; Hasani, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    It has been reported that serotonin can modulate glutamate and GABA release in central nervous system (CNS). The present study was designed to examine the role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems on serotonin- induced feeding behavior in chickens. In Experiment 1 intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MK- 801(NMDA receptor antagonist, 15 nmol) performed followed by serotonin (10 μg). In experiments 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 prior to serotonin injection, chickens received CNQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 390 nmol), AIDA (mGluR1 antagonist, 2 nmol), LY341495 (mGluR2 antagonist, 150 nmol), UBP1112 (mGluR3 antagonist, 2 nmol), picrotoxin (GABA A receptor antagonist, 0.5 μg), CGP54626 (GABAB receptor antagonist, 20 ng) respectively. Cumulative food intake was determined at 3 h post injection. The results of this study showed that the hypophagic effect of serotonin was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MK- 801 and CNQX (p 0.05). Also, the inhibitory effect of serotonin on food intake was amplified by picrotoxin (p 0.05). These results suggest that serotonin as a modulator probably interacts with glutamatergic (via NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors) and GABAergic (via GABAA receptor) systems on feeding behavior in chicken.

  9. TMACS Test Procedure TP007: System administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, P.; Washburn, S.; Seghers, R.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS System Administration functions

  10. ATLAS TDAQ system administration: Master of Puppets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)727357; The ATLAS collaboration; Ballestrero, Sergio; Brasolin, Franco; Fazio, Daniel; Gament, Costin-Eugen; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun

    2016-01-01

    Within the ATLAS detector, the Trigger and Data Acquisition system is responsible for the online processing of data streamed from the detector during collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The online farm is comprised of ∼4000 servers processing the data read out from ∼100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. The configurtion of these servers is not an easy task, especially since the detector itself is made up of multiple different sub-detectors, each with their own particular requirements. The previous method of configuring these servers, using Quattor and a hierarchical scripts system was cumbersome and restrictive. A better, unified system was therefore required to simplify the tasks of the TDAQ Systems Administrators, for both the local and net-booted systems, and to be able to fulfil the requirements of TDAQ, Detector Control Systems and the sub-detectors groups. Various configuration management systems were evaluated, though in the end, Puppet was chosen as the applic...

  11. Contemporary Development Trends in Administrative-Legal Relations in the System of Administrative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdikerimova, Aynur A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the main contemporary development trends in administrative-legal relations in the field of administrative justice. In order to examine theoretical and practical issues of modern administrative justice, normative legal acts identifying the relations in the system of administrative justice in the Republic in…

  12. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: Master of Puppets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Brasolin, F.; Fazio, D.; Gament, C.; Lee, C. J.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Twomey, M. S.

    2017-10-01

    Within the ATLAS detector, the Trigger and Data Acquisition system is responsible for the online processing of data streamed from the detector during collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The online farm is comprised of ∼4000 servers processing the data read out from ∼100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. The configurtion of these servers is not an easy task, especially since the detector itself is made up of multiple different sub-detectors, each with their own particular requirements. The previous method of configuring these servers, using Quattor and a hierarchical scripts system was cumbersome and restrictive. A better, unified system was therefore required to simplify the tasks of the TDAQ Systems Administrators, for both the local and net-booted systems, and to be able to fulfil the requirements of TDAQ, Detector Control Systems and the sub-detectors groups. Various configuration management systems were evaluated, though in the end, Puppet was chosen as the application of choice and was the first such implementation at CERN.

  13. Administrative Information System Design in Cash Sales PT. ABC

    OpenAIRE

    Yudhi Destri Young; Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKOM., MMSI Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKOM., MMSI

    2007-01-01

    Information System of cash sales administration is an information system intendedfor the company as a tool to facilitate the handling of cash sales in a procedure whichis managed by the sales manual. This information system should be able to producemonthly reports of sales reports. Application administration is a real form of cashsales from cash sales administrative information system using computerizedtechnology.

  14. System administration of ATLAS TDAQ computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel-Ur-Rehman, A.; Bujor, F.; Benes, J.; Caramarcu, C.; Dobson, M.; Dumitrescu, A.; Dumitru, I.; Leahu, M.; Valsan, L.; Oreshkin, A.; Popov, D.; Unel, G.; Zaytsev, A.

    2010-04-01

    This contribution gives a thorough overview of the ATLAS TDAQ SysAdmin group activities which deals with administration of the TDAQ computing environment supporting High Level Trigger, Event Filter and other subsystems of the ATLAS detector operating on LHC collider at CERN. The current installation consists of approximately 1500 netbooted nodes managed by more than 60 dedicated servers, about 40 multi-screen user interface machines installed in the control rooms and various hardware and service monitoring machines as well. In the final configuration, the online computer farm will be capable of hosting tens of thousands applications running simultaneously. The software distribution requirements are matched by the two level NFS based solution. Hardware and network monitoring systems of ATLAS TDAQ are based on NAGIOS and MySQL cluster behind it for accounting and storing the monitoring data collected, IPMI tools, CERN LANDB and the dedicated tools developed by the group, e.g. ConfdbUI. The user management schema deployed in TDAQ environment is founded on the authentication and role management system based on LDAP. External access to the ATLAS online computing facilities is provided by means of the gateways supplied with an accounting system as well. Current activities of the group include deployment of the centralized storage system, testing and validating hardware solutions for future use within the ATLAS TDAQ environment including new multi-core blade servers, developing GUI tools for user authentication and roles management, testing and validating 64-bit OS, and upgrading the existing TDAQ hardware components, authentication servers and the gateways.

  15. System administration of ATLAS TDAQ computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeel-Ur-Rehman, A; Bujor, F; Dumitrescu, A; Dumitru, I; Leahu, M; Valsan, L; Benes, J; Caramarcu, C; Dobson, M; Unel, G; Oreshkin, A; Popov, D; Zaytsev, A

    2010-01-01

    This contribution gives a thorough overview of the ATLAS TDAQ SysAdmin group activities which deals with administration of the TDAQ computing environment supporting High Level Trigger, Event Filter and other subsystems of the ATLAS detector operating on LHC collider at CERN. The current installation consists of approximately 1500 netbooted nodes managed by more than 60 dedicated servers, about 40 multi-screen user interface machines installed in the control rooms and various hardware and service monitoring machines as well. In the final configuration, the online computer farm will be capable of hosting tens of thousands applications running simultaneously. The software distribution requirements are matched by the two level NFS based solution. Hardware and network monitoring systems of ATLAS TDAQ are based on NAGIOS and MySQL cluster behind it for accounting and storing the monitoring data collected, IPMI tools, CERN LANDB and the dedicated tools developed by the group, e.g. ConfdbUI. The user management schema deployed in TDAQ environment is founded on the authentication and role management system based on LDAP. External access to the ATLAS online computing facilities is provided by means of the gateways supplied with an accounting system as well. Current activities of the group include deployment of the centralized storage system, testing and validating hardware solutions for future use within the ATLAS TDAQ environment including new multi-core blade servers, developing GUI tools for user authentication and roles management, testing and validating 64-bit OS, and upgrading the existing TDAQ hardware components, authentication servers and the gateways.

  16. Empowering Marine Corps System Administrators: Taxonomy of Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamilton, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Organizations cannot protect the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information in today's highly networked systems environment without ensuring that System Administrators are properly...

  17. Federal Aviation Administration Acquisition Management System (Rev.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    The Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1996, : Public Law 104-50 (the "1996 DOT Appropriations Act"), was enacted November 15, : 1995. Section 348 of this Act directed the Administrator to develop and : implement ...

  18. The Effects of Nicotine on MK-801-induced Attentional Deficits: An Animal Model of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    ECA) and the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) (USDHHS, 1999; APA, 2000). Support for a gender bias in schizophrenia is mixed with hospital- based... genders . Schizophrenia tends to have a later onset and a better prognosis in women (Hafner et al., 1998; APA, 2000; Leung & Chue, 2000). The cause...has been proposed that smoking may decrease the anxiety, tension, and dysphoria common in schizophrenia (Batel, 2000) in addition to regulating

  19. Voluntary wheel running ameliorates symptoms of MK-801-induced schizophrenia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Park, Joon-Ki; Lee, Sam-Jun; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2014-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder characterized by the disintegration of cognitive thought processes and emotional responses. Despite the precise cause of schizophrenia remains unclear, it is hypothesized that a dysregulation of the N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the brain is a major contributing factor to its development. Brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family and is implicated in learning and memory processes. In the present study, we investigated in vivo the effects of voluntary wheel running on behavioral symptoms associated with NMDA receptor expression, using MK‑801‑induced schizophrenic mice. Abilify (aripiprazole), a drug used to treat human schizophrenia patients, was used as the positive control. For the assessment of behavioral symptoms affecting locomotion, social interaction and spatial working memory, the open‑field, social interaction and Morris water maze tests were conducted. For investigating the biochemical parameters, NMDA receptor expression in the hippocampal CA2‑3 regions and prefrontal cortex was detected by NMDA immunofluorescence and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was measured using western blot analysis. MK‑801 injection for 14 days induced schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities with decreased expression of the NMDA receptor and BDNF in the brains of mice. The results indicated that free access to voluntary wheel running for 2 weeks alleviated schizophrenia‑like behavioral abnormalities and increased the expression of NMDA receptor and BDNF, comparable to the effects of aripiprazole treatment. In the present study, the results suggest that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced schizophrenia‑like behaviors, and that voluntary wheel running was effective in reducing these symptoms by increasing NMDA receptor and BDNF expression, resulting in an improvement of disease related behavioral deficits.

  20. Spontaneous alternation behaviour in rats: kynurenic acid attenuated deficits induced by MK-801

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2006), s. 144-149 ISSN 0166-4328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : kynurenic acid * locomotor activity * spontaneous alternation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2006

  1. Comparative analysis of tax administration system in Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevich Naydenov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on tax administration attractiveness for taxpayers in the Russian Federation. The authors provide an overview of existing approaches to understanding the nature of the tax administration. To solve the problem of estimating the attractiveness of the tax administration in this study, we proposed a methodological approach based on comparative analysis of the rank of territorial systems of tax administration. In the basis of comparative analysis is the calculation of a set of indicators that characterize the tax administration system attractiveness from the standpoint of the taxpayer, with subsequent calculation of integral indexes and rankings of the Russian Federation. The results assessing the attractiveness of the tax administration system in the regions are shown. In this paper, we attempt to assess modern tax administration as one of the key economic institutions, as well as to obtain quantitative data on the status of the tax administration in Russia's regions.

  2. Administrator Perspectives of Ohio's Teacher Evaluation System: Implications for Educational Administration Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nicole V.; Crates, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit elementary and middle school administrators' perceptions of the Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES). The researchers created a questionnaire to learn administrators' experiences with and attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and knowledge of OTES thus far. The questionnaire consisted of twenty-five Likert-based…

  3. Pediatric medication administration errors and workflow following implementation of a bar code medication administration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardmeier, Anna; Tsourounis, Candy; Moore, Mary; Abbott, Wendy E; Guglielmo, B Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation was used to detect medication errors and Bar Code Medication Administration (BCMA) workarounds on two pediatric units and one neonatal unit at UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital. The study (1) measured the frequency of nursing medication administration-related errors, (2) characterized the types of medication errors, (3) assessed compliance with the institution's six medication administration safety processes, and (4) identified observed workarounds following BCMA implementation. The results of the direct observation were compared to medication administration-related incident reports (IRs) for the same period. The frequency of medication errors was 5% for the three units. Compliance with the process measures was achieved 86% of the time (range 23-100%). Seven medication administration-related IRs were submitted during the same observation period. Three BCMA workarounds were identified; (1) failure to visually confirm patient's identification, (2) failure to compare the medication to the electronic medication administration record at least twice before administration, and (3) charting administration of medication before actual administration. The direct observation methodology identified a low frequency of medication administration errors (MAEs) consistent with post-BCMA implementation. The incident reporting system identified different MAEs than direct observation suggesting that both methods should be used to better characterize the scope of MAEs. © 2014 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  4. Management Information Systems: Applications to Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, Belle Ruth

    An orientation to management information systems (MIS) is offered which presents information about MIS in the context of public education and suggests some considerations that should be taken into account in designing and operating such systems. MIS is defined as a set of operating procedures that act as a control system to automatically provide…

  5. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  6. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  7. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  8. Human Resource Administration in Catholic School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobzanski, Joan L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a comprehensive human resource program, the purpose of which is to enhance the quality of Catholic education for all students. Defines the assumptions on which the formation and implementation of human resource programs for Catholic schools are based. Highlights the role and responsibilities of Catholic school system leaders. (VWC)

  9. System Administration Support/SWORDS G2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dito, Scott Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) rocket is a dedicated small satellite launcher that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow soldiers in the field to put payloads of up to 25kg into orbit from the field. The SWORDSG2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the SWORDS rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. In addition, observation of the current cryogenic fluid delivery system in the Kennedy Space Center Cry Lab has allowed me to gain valuable experience of fluid systems and propelant delivery that is valuable to our team when developing amd modeling our own system.The ultimate goal of having a test-ready application to show to the heads of the project, and demonstrating G2's capabilities, by late 2014 will require hard work and intense study and understanding of not only the programming aspect but also the physical phenomena we want to model, observe, and control.

  10. Computerized System Administration Education in Indonesia Management Development Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Wardah; Aqwam Rosadi Kardian, SKom, MM

    1996-01-01

    Computerization as an alternative to meet the smoothness and timeliness in confectionery a system of educational administration Indonesian Institute for Management Development. Use of existing computers as data processing devices, the improvement of educational administrative services IPMI capabilities can be realized.

  11. ICT enabled land administration systems for sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the current Land Administration System (LAS) in Denmark with a focus on institutional arrangements, land policies, land information infrastructure, and the four land administration functions: land tenure, land value, land-use, and land development. The analysis, this way, builds...

  12. Evaluation method for krypton-81m reservoir administration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, A.G.; van Weeren, F.H.; de Goeij, J.J.; Wijnhoven, G.P.; Witsenboer, T.J.

    1989-05-01

    Large variations have been reported in counting rates during lung ventilation studies using different /sup 81m/Kr administration systems and among different patients. A method was set up to determine the activity utilization efficiency (AUE) using various administration systems. For that purpose a simple lung simulator was developed for combination with reservoir administration systems to be tested. It was found that under normal breathing conditions the AUE is 50% using a reservoir system and only 18% in the absence of a reservoir in the administration system. The measured results were confirmed by a mathematic model. The suggested simulator is suitable for use in hospitals and also enables an indirect check on the /sup 81/Rb//sup 81/mKr generator performance.

  13. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, John C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burnett, Robert A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Carter, Richard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Downing, Timothy R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Homer, Brian J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Holter, Nancy A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Daniel M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Ranata L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Johnson, Sharon M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Loveall, Robert M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ramos Jr., Juan (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schulze, Stacy A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Sivaraman, Chitra (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stephan, Alex J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stoops, Lamar R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wood, Blanche M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information on FEMIS System Administrator activities as well as the utilities that are included with FEMIS.

  14. Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cet imposant volume constitue un registre des cours magistraux tenus par l’auteur à l’École supérieure allemande des sciences administratives de Spire, enrichis des résultats de travaux scientifiques menés principalement à l'Institut Allemand de Recherche en Administration Publique (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung Speyer, FÖV). Il s’agit donc d’une entreprise au long cours, destinée à apporter un nouvel éclairage (quasi ?) exhaustif sur l’administration publique : son ...

  15. Nicotine administration and withdrawal affect survival in systemic inflammation models

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Alexandre A.; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Petersen, Scott R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2008-01-01

    How different regimens of nicotine administration and withdrawal affect systemic inflammation is largely unknown. We studied the effects of chronic and acute nicotine administration and of nicotine withdrawal on the outcome of aseptic and septic systemic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic pumps (to deliver nicotine) and intrabrain telemetry probes (to measure temperature). Aseptic inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (40 mg/kg ip); sepsis was in...

  16. Administrative law risks of the governmental and municipal procurement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyuzhikov Sergey, A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the administrative law risks of the Russian system of public procurement. The authors analyze the foregoing risks in the view of the correlation of risk situations, risk actions (omission and administrative law prohibitions. The authors are considering problems of the subject and some other characteristics essential to the administrative offenses in terms of the most systemic risk in this sphere – an information risk. The materials on law practice open to general use generated in more than 25 entities of the Russian Federation were used in the paper while preparing.

  17. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincho Vasilev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the opportunities of establishing a system for human resources management in a municipal administration as an example of a public organization operating in tcontemporary dynamic business environment and new trends in theory and practice of human resources management. The main conclusions underline the importance of the human factor to achieve efficiency in organizations and the need for application of new approaches in human resources management, incl. in the structures of public administration.

  18. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  19. Comparison of scientific and administrative database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics found to be different for scientific and administrative data bases are identified and some of the corresponding generic requirements for data base management systems (DBMS) are discussed. The requirements discussed are especially stringent for either the scientific or administrative data bases. For some, no commercial DBMS is fully satisfactory, and the data base designer must invent a suitable approach. For others, commercial systems are available with elegant solutions, and a wrong choice would mean an expensive work-around to provide the missing features. It is concluded that selection of a DBMS must be based on the requirements for the information system. There is no unique distinction between scientific and administrative data bases or DBMS. The distinction comes from the logical structure of the data, and understanding the data and their relationships is the key to defining the requirements and selecting an appropriate DBMS for a given set of applications.

  20. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    New solutions in land administration are required that can deliver security of tenure for all, are affordable and can be quickly developed and incrementally improved over time. The Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) approach to land administration has emerged to meet these simple, but challenging requirements...... administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased...... of formality, legality and technical accuracy. Such flexibility also relates to the recordation that should be organised at various levels rather than through one central register. The land administration system can then be upgraded and incrementally improved over time in response to social and legal needs...

  1. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  2. Identity Management Mismatch Challenges in the Danish Municipality Administration System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Schaarup; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2010-01-01

    Integrating a COTS product in a company’s product portfolio is appealing from a business perspective but highly challenging from the perspective of the software architecture. In this paper we outline research challenges regarding authorization in the identity management part of the Danish...... municipality administration system, called Opus BRS, a system that integrates SAP, legacy mainframe systems, and other systems present in the individual municipalities. Each of these systems defines their own access control model and architecture, which leads to architectural mismatch that impacts security...

  3. Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Cultural Change, the Hybrid Administrative System and Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decade ago, this author noted that the hybrid administrative system had created a huge dilemma for management training in Africa, in that there was a discrepancy between what was taught and what was happening because of wholesale importation of western theories into an alien culture. This article is an extension of ...

  5. Security administration plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.

    1998-09-29

    This document encompasses and standardizes the integrated approach for security within the PP and Ps applications, It also identifies the security tools and methods to be used. The Security Administration Plan becomes effective as of this document`s acceptance and will provide guidance through implementation efforts and, as a ``living document`` will support the operations and maintenance of the system.

  6. Building Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Bell, Keith; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time. The paper addresses some of the key technological, economic, legal, and social issues related to building fit-for purpose land administration systems in support of sustainable and transparent land governance especially in developing countries...

  7. Quality evaluation of the educational systems & educational administration and institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Pazhakh, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    The quality evaluation of educational systems as well as educational administration andinstitutions are described and discussed. Different analytical and conceptual approaches to these points are given. Conclusions are drawn and future lines of research in these topics are suggested and pointed out.

  8. An Administrator's Guide to Installing a Telephone System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Phyllis Rossiter

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines for administrators concerning installation of a new campus telephone system address these issues: where to start; location and emergency power; the project team; paperwork; communication among those involved in installation; working with the local operating company; existing wiring; the external cable plant; special needs; and training…

  9. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  10. Redesign and modernization of radioactive waste administration systems in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder-Westermann, Gerald H.; Walther, Thorsten; Krone, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The European Commission (EC) has undertaken a series of projects to render assistance to Ukraine in modernizing and redesigning the Ukrainian approach to the administration, management and ultimately disposal of all forms of radioactive waste, including waste associated with the Chornobyl accident as well as waste generated as part of the Ukrainian energy infrastructure and from industrial and medical applications. One of the most recently completed projects focused on modernizing Ukraine's management and administrative systems responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste.

  11. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    . A complete overview is required of the tenure systems and land rights related to the areas affected. All formal and informal tenure categories and sub-categories should be identified and related to space. It is recommended that a National Tenure Atlas will be developed in order to get overview of the spatial...... administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased...... of formality, legality and technical accuracy. Such flexibility also relates to the recordation that should be organised at various levels rather than through one central register. The land administration system can then be upgraded and incrementally improved over time in response to social and legal needs...

  12. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN A MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mincho Vasilev

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the opportunities of establishing a system for human resources management in a municipal administration as an example of a public organization operating in tcontemporary dynamic business environment and new trends in theory and practice of human resources management. The main conclusions underline the importance of the human factor to achieve efficiency in organizations and the need for application of new approaches in human resources management, incl. in the structures ...

  13. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    The administration of a large computer infrastructure is a great challenge in many aspects and requires experts in various domains to be successful. One criterion to which the users of a data center are directly exposed is the availability of the infrastructure. A high availability comes at the cost of constant and performant monitoring solutions as well as experts ready to diagnose and solve the problems. It is unfortunately not always possible to have an expert team constantly on site. This work presents a tool which is meant to support system administrators in their tasks by diagnosing problems, offering recovery solutions, and acting as a history and knowledge database. We will first detail what large data centers are composed of and what are the various competences that are required in order to successfully administrate them. This will lead us to consider the problems that are traditionally encountered by the administrators. Those problems are at the source of this project, and we will define our goals f...

  14. Artificial Intelligence in the service of system administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way  Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with a "object oriented paradigm" architecture should increase a lot our learning speed, and highlight relations between probl...

  15. Operations system administration plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-29

    The Hanford Data Integration 2000 (HANDI 2000) Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC). It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) product solution with commercially proven business processes. This includes systems that support finance, supply, chemical management, human resources and payroll activities on the Hanford Site. The Passport (PP) software is an integrated application for Accounts Payable, Contract Management, Inventory Management, Purchasing, and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). The PeopleSoft (PS) software is an integrated application for General Ledger, Project Costing, Human Resources, Payroll, Benefits, and Training. The implementation of this set of products, as the first deliverable of the HANDI 2000 Project, is referred to as Business Management System (BMS) and MSDS.

  16. Administrative compensation for medical injuries: lessons from three foreign systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M; Kachalia, Allen; Studdert, David M

    2011-07-01

    The United States requires patients injured by medical negligence to seek compensation through lawsuits, an approach that has drawbacks related to fairness, cost, and impact on medical care. Several countries, including New Zealand, Sweden, and Denmark, have replaced litigation with administrative compensation systems for patients who experience an avoidable medical injury. Sometimes called "no-fault" systems, such schemes enable patients to file claims for compensation without using an attorney. A governmental or private adjudicating organization uses neutral medical experts to evaluate claims of injury and does not require patients to prove that health care providers were negligent in order to receive compensation. Information from claims is used to analyze opportunities for patient safety improvement. The systems have successfully limited liability costs while improving injured patients' access to compensation. American policymakers may find many of the elements of these countries' systems to be transferable to demonstration projects in the U.S.

  17. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Curtis, L.M. [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that is being developed under the direction of the US Army Chemical biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS system package. System administrators, database administrators, and general users can use this guide to install, configure, and maintain the FEMIS client software package. This document provides a description of the FEMIS environment; distribution media; data, communications, and electronic mail servers; user workstations; and system management.

  18. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haen, C; Barra, V; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  19. Artificial intelligence in the service of system administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, C.; Barra, V.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-12-01

    The LHCb online system relies on a large and heterogeneous IT infrastructure made from thousands of servers on which many different applications are running. They run a great variety of tasks: critical ones such as data taking and secondary ones like web servers. The administration of such a system and making sure it is working properly represents a very important workload for the small expert-operator team. Research has been performed to try to automatize (some) system administration tasks, starting in 2001 when IBM defined the so-called “self objectives” supposed to lead to “autonomic computing”. In this context, we present a framework that makes use of artificial intelligence and machine learning to monitor and diagnose at a low level and in a non intrusive way Linux-based systems and their interaction with software. Moreover, the multi agent approach we use, coupled with an “object oriented paradigm” architecture should increase our learning speed a lot and highlight relations between problems.

  20. Information system for administrating and distributing color images through internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The information system for administrating and distributing color images through the Internet ensures the consistent replication of color images, their storage - in an on-line data base - and predictable distribution, by means of a digitally distributed flow, based on Windows platform and POD (Print On Demand technology. The consistent replication of color images inde-pendently from the parameters of the processing equipment and from the features of the programs composing the technological flow, is ensured by the standard color management sys-tem defined by ICC (International Color Consortium, which is integrated by the Windows operation system and by the POD technology. The latter minimize the noticeable differences between the colors captured, displayed or printed by various replication equipments and/or edited by various graphical applications. The system integrated web application ensures the uploading of the color images in an on-line database and their administration and distribution among the users via the Internet. For the preservation of the data expressed by the color im-ages during their transfer along a digitally distributed flow, the software application includes an original tool ensuring the accurate replication of colors on computer displays or when printing them by means of various color printers or presses. For development and use, this application employs a hardware platform based on PC support and a competitive software platform, based on: the Windows operation system, the .NET. Development medium and the C# programming language. This information system is beneficial for creators and users of color images, the success of the printed or on-line (Internet publications depending on the sizeable, predictable and accurate replication of colors employed for the visual expression of information in every activity fields of the modern society. The herein introduced information system enables all interested persons to access the

  1. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  2. Bilateral acute iris transillumination following systemic administration of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranos, Paris; Lokovitis, Evangelos; Masselos, Stelios; Kozeis, Nikolaos; Triantafylla, Magda; Markomichelakis, Nikolaos

    2018-03-02

    To describe the demographic characteristics, clinical features, and potential prognostic factors of bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT) following oral antibiotic uptake. A retrospective study of 16 consecutive patients who developed BAIT following treatment with systemic antibiotics. Detailed past medical and ocular history was obtained, presenting signs and symptoms were documented and demographic characteristics were analyzed. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination and laboratory investigation. The course of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior chamber activity, and intraocular pressure (IOP) during the follow-up period were recorded and possible correlations with potential prognosticators were investigated. Fourteen females and two males were included in the present study. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 43 (14) years. All individuals presented conjunctival injection and photophobia and developed bilateral transillumination defects, fixed mid-dilated pupils and pigment dispersion in the anterior chamber. Systemic antibiotics were previously prescribed in all cases (13 patients with moxifloxacin and three patients with clarithromycin) and the mean (SD) interval between onset of symptoms and antibiotic administration was 17 (4) days. Ocular hypertension complicated all eyes and required antiglaucoma medication in 25 eyes. Severe anterior chamber pigment dispersion and higher IOP during the first week after presentation was significantly associated with longer duration of ocular hypertension (OHT) (p = 0.019). BAIT represents a rare clinical entity with characteristic features. Although etiopathogenesis of this condition remains unclear, a series of cases that indicate a strong correlation between systemic antibiotic administration and BAIT is herein presented.

  3. Selected computer system controls at the Energy Information Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of our review of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) computer system was to evaluate disk and tape information storage and the adequacy of internal controls in the operating system programs. We used a set of computer-assisted audit techniques called CAATS, developed by the US Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General, in performing the review at the EIA Forrestal Computer Facility. Improved procedures are needed to assure more efficient use of disk space. By transferring data sets from disk to tape, deleting invalid data, releasing unused reserve space and blocking data efficiently, disk space with an estimated value of $1.1 million a year could be recovered for current use. Also, procedures governing the maximum times for storage of information on tapes should be enforced to help ensure that data is not lost. In addition, improved internal controls are needed over granting users system-wide privileges and over authorized program library names to prevent unauthorized access to the system and possible destruction or manipulation of data. Automated Data Processing (ADP) Services Staff officials indicated that software maintenance was not current, due to contractual difficulties with the operating contractor for the Forrestal Facility. Our review confirmed that improvements were needed to help prevent malfunctions of the operating system, which could cause performance degradations, system failures, or loss of either system or user data. Management generally concurred with the recommendations in the report.

  4. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  5. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: evolution and re-design

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Lee, Christopher Jon; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of $\\sim 3000$ servers, processing the data readout from $\\sim 100$ million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. The OS version has been upgraded to SLC6; for the largest part of the farm, which is composed by net booted nodes, this required a completely new design of the net booting system. In parallel, the migration to Puppet of the Configuration Management systems has been completed for both net booted and local booted hosts; the Post-Boot Scripts system and...

  6. Efectos del MK-801 sobre la inhibición latente en la aversión condicionada al sabor

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Arcos, Luis Miguel

    2004-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación que hemos venido realizando durante los últimos años, es un reflejo del creciente interés que existe en la comunidad científica por analizar y comprender el funcionamiento de los procesos cognitivos en animales y humanos. Esta inquietud que surgió en la psicología en los años 60 se ha extendido progresivamente haci ... a otras disciplinas, por lo que durante las últimas décadas se han incrementado los intentos de establecer conexiones teóricas y experimentales entr...

  7. Visuospatial working memory is impaired in an animal model of schizophrenia induced by acute MK-801: An effect of pretraining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Anna; Staňková, Anna; Lobellová, Veronika; Svoboda, Jan; Valeš, Karel; Vlček, Kamil; Kubík, Štěpán; Fajnerová, Iveta; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, May 2013 (2013), s. 117-123 ISSN 0091-3057 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : working memory * place avoidance * rats * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.820, year: 2013

  8. 75 FR 2457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... accounting system as defined in the clause at 252.242-7YYY, Accounting System Administration. (b) The ACO is... defined in the clause at 252.242-7YYY, Accounting System Administration. (b) The ACO shall determine... clause 252.242-7YYY, Accounting System Administration. (c) Disposition of audit findings--(1) Reporting...

  9. Antiviral Nanodelivery Systems: Current Trends in Acyclovir Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniza Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor bioavailability of acyclovir in the treatment of viral infections remains one of the major drug delivery concerns of pharmaceutical manufacturers and researchers. Nanoparticulate systems have been exploited with the aim of improving the current pharmacological limitations of acyclovir administration. In fact, nanoparticles do offer many advantages, especially in terms of their physicochemical stability and sustained-release properties. Besides, they are made of biocompatible materials, which are nontoxic to cells. Acyclovir has been a focus since the last decade as one of the low bioavailability drug models loaded in various types of newly synthesized drug delivery vehicles. In this review, compositions and formulations of nanosized acyclovir particles, as well as their stability and pharmacokinetic profile, are discussed in further detail.

  10. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. 91 This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login, privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment.

  11. The Communication System of the Presidential Administration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu Călin RUS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify the notions regarding the Presidential Administration in Romania. We shall try to emphasize the difference between the political communication and the public communication of the Presidential Administration. Along with the two objectives that have already been mentioned, we shall also attempt to make a presentation of the Communication Department of the Presidential Administration, as well as of the means through which the President expresses his/her ideas.

  12. Planning the future of JPL's management and administrative support systems around an integrated database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersole, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    JPL's management and administrative support systems have been developed piece meal and without consistency in design approach over the past twenty years. These systems are now proving to be inadequate to support effective management of tasks and administration of the Laboratory. New approaches are needed. Modern database management technology has the potential for providing the foundation for more effective administrative tools for JPL managers and administrators. Plans for upgrading JPL's management and administrative systems over a six year period evolving around the development of an integrated management and administrative data base are discussed.

  13. Design of security scheme of the radiotherapy planning administration system based on the hospital information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yongzhi; Zhao Jinzao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To design a security scheme of radiotherapy planning administration system. Methods: Power Builder 9i language was used to program the system through the model of client-server machine. Oracle 9i was used as the database server. Results In this system, user registration management, user login management, application-level functions of control, database access control, and audit trail were designed to provide system security. Conclusions: As a prototype for the security analysis and protection of this scheme provides security of the system, application system, important data and message, which ensures the system work normally. (authors)

  14. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  15. Intelligent transportation systems field operational test cross-cutting study : commercial vehicle administrative processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Commercial Vehicle Administrative (CVO) Processes Cross-Cutting report summarizes and interprets the results of several Field Operational Tests (FOTs) conducted to evaluate systems that increase the efficiency of commercial vehicle administrative pro...

  16. Federal Aviation Administration's Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-17

    On October 30, 1997, at a hearing of the Subcommittee on Transportation and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. House of Representatives, OIG provided their observations on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Standard Terminal...

  17. Accumulation of the anandamide precursor and other N-acylethanolamine phospholipids in infant rat models of in vivo necrotic and apoptotic neuronal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.H.; Ikonomidou, C.; Bittigau, P.

    2001-01-01

    infant rat models of in vivo neurodegeneration: (i) necrosis caused by intrastriatal injection of NMDA (25 nmol); (ii) apoptosis induced by systemic administration of the NMDA-receptor antagonist (+)MK-801 (3 × 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.); and (iii) apoptosis following focal necrosis triggered by concussive head......-801 did not alter cortical NAPE levels. Concussion head trauma resulted in a similar but less pronounced upregulation of NAPE levels at both 4 and 24 h as compared to NMDA injections. Increased levels of NAPE 24 h post-trauma possibly reflect that necrosis is still ongoing at this time point...

  18. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide. Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Downing, T.R. [and others

    1997-11-21

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide defines FEMIS hardware and software requirements and gives instructions for installing the FEMIS software package. This document also contains information on the following: software installation for the FEMIS data servers, communication server, mail server, and the emergency management workstations; distribution media loading and FEMIS installation validation and troubleshooting; and system management of FEMIS users, login privileges, and usage. The system administration utilities (tools), available in the FEMIS client software, are described for user accounts and site profile. This document also describes the installation and use of system and database administration utilities that will assist in keeping the FEMIS system running in an operational environment. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via telecommunications links.

  19. The Need of Politically Descentralization in Romanian Administrative System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for decentralization of the administrative system is one of the most discussed and acclaimed topics, in the Romanian governing acts. Decentralization, however, cannot be achieved without political decentralization, a democratization process of democracy, achieved from top to bottom, in which the state supports the evolution of the civil society through partnership, by stimulating local initiative and community development. According to Anthony Giddens’ theory, which is even more relevant due to the present economic recession, it states that the civil society represents a third option (neo-liberalism and social democracy being the other two in achieving social welfare. The welfare type state concept is replaced by the welfare society concept, in which the state and the civil society work together for progress, development and mutual support. Apart from the need for a participant democracy, the objective of this present study is to analyze the stages of the present political decentralization in Romania. We intend to find explanations and solutions regarding the fragile voice of the Romanian participant political culture. What were we lacking: logistics or the collective mentality (a consequence of the emerging democracy…? What are the distinctive mechanisms for proper governing, by which we can monitor the citizens’ involvement in the process of public decision and the ongoing possibility of influencing the governmental authorities’ policies and decisions by the people, at a national level by empowering the citizens with more authority? Respecting the existing interests of the society and not only those of the dignitaries, constitutes a condition for representation, something that the Romanian democracy lacks. Monitoring the manner in which the citizens’ interests are represented by public decision, constitutes a fundamental element of proper governing. This study’s objective is to create certain logistic conditions for the

  20. Systemic administration of erythropoietin inhibits retinopathy in RCS rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyong Shen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Royal College of Surgeons (RCS rats develop vasculopathy as photoreceptors degenerate. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of erythropoietin (EPO on retinopathy in RCS rats. METHODS: Fluorescein angiography was used to monitor retinal vascular changes over time. Changes in retinal glia and vasculature were studied by immunostaining. To study the effects of EPO on retinal pathology, EPO (5000 IU/kg was injected intraperitoneally in 14 week old normal and RCS rats twice a week for 4 weeks. Changes in the retinal vasculature, glia and microglia, photoreceptor apoptosis, differential expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, pro-neurotrophin 3 (pro-NT3, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, the production of CD34(+ cells and mobilization of CD34(+/VEGF-R2(+ cells as well as recruitment of CD34(+ cells into the retina were examined after EPO treatment. RESULTS: RCS rats developed progressive capillary dropout and subretinal neovascularization which were accompanied by retinal gliosis. Systemic administration of EPO stabilized the retinal vasculature and inhibited the development of focal vascular lesions. Further studies showed that EPO modulated retinal gliosis, attenuated photoreceptor apoptosis and p75NTR and pro-NT3 upregulation, promoted the infiltration of ramified microglia and stimulated VEGF-A expression but had little effect on TNFα and PEDF expression. EPO stimulated the production of red and white blood cells and CD34(+ cells along with effective mobilization of CD34(+/VEGF-R2(+ cells. Immunofluorescence study demonstrated that EPO enhanced the recruitment of CD34+ cells into the retina. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that EPO has therapeutic potentials in treatment of neuronal and vascular pathology in retinal disease. The protective effects of EPO on photoreceptors and the retinal vasculature may involve multiple

  1. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Security Administration for Occupational Information System (OIS) Development Planning; Request for Comment... information system tailored specifically for our disability programs and adjudicative needs. The Panel is... Information System Development Planning. The comment period is open through November 8, 2010. Contact...

  2. Prerequisites for Systems Analysts: Analytic and Management Demands of a New Approach to Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammentorp, William

    There is much to be gained by using systems analysis in educational administration. Most administrators, presently relying on classical statistical techniques restricted to problems having few variables, should be trained to use more sophisticated tools such as systems analysis. The systems analyst, interested in the basic processes of a group or…

  3. Duplicate Recording of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1996-01-01

    The audit objective was to evaluate whether controls in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services system were adequate to detect or prevent the recording of contract payment information...

  4. SUNRA - a sustainability rating system framework for National Road Administrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sowerby, Chris; Langstraat, James; Harmer, Clare

    , environmental and economic aspects of managing a road network. Whilst there is common understanding in some aspects of sustainability there is not a common understanding of sustainability as a whole and thus how to benchmark and improve overall performance. The Sustainability: National Road Administrations......National Road Administrations (NRAs) across Europe strive to improve the performance of their road networks. This improvement has been underpinned by significant research in the optimisation of road planning, design, construction and maintenance, which has enhanced the understanding of the social...... (SUNRA) project aims to provide a common way of defining sustainability, identify how to measure sustainable development at a strategic level and integrate sustainable decision making into key intervention points. The project has developed a series of sustainability frameworks that allow NRAs to develop...

  5. Disaster Management: AN Integral Part of Science & Technology System and Land Administration-Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawana, T.; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-06-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  6. DISASTER MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRAL PART OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM AND LAND ADMINISTRATION-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ghawana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of disasters management. Land administration and management agencies, as the administrative and management bodies, focus more on the coordination of designated tasks to various agencies responsible for their dedicated roles. They get help from Scientific and technical inputs & policies which require to be implemented in a professional manner. The paper provides an example of such integration from India where these two systems complement each other with their dedicated services. Delhi, the Capital of India, has such a disaster management system which has lot of technical departments of government which are mandated to provide their services as Emergency Service Functionaries. Thus, it is shown that disaster management is a job which is an integral part of Science & Technology system of a country while being implemented primarily with the help of land administration and management agencies. It is required that new policies or mandates for the Science and technology organizations of government should give a primary space to disaster management

  7. 78 FR 33705 - Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ..., ``Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands and Resources... 292 RIN 0596-AB45 Postdecisional Administrative Review Process for Occupancy or Use of National Forest System Lands and Resources AGENCY: USDA, Forest Service. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The United States...

  8. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The Defense Finance and Accounting Service planned to replace the payment and entitlement function performed by the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services system with a new or modified system...

  9. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) System Administration Guide for FEMIS Version 1.4.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J.; Downing, T.R.; Fangman, P.M.; Gerhardstein, L.H.; Homer, B.J.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Johnson, S.M.; Loveall, R.M.; Martin, T.J.; Millard, W.D.; Schulze, S.A.; Stoops, L.R.; Tzemos, S.; Wood, B.M.

    1999-06-29

    The Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are corrected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication data distribution and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment.

  10. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: an overview and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    LEE, CJ; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, AC; DARLEA, GL; KOROL, A; SCANNICCHIO, DA; TWOMEY, M; VALSAN, ML

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The system processes the direct data readout from ~100 million channels on the detector through three trigger levels, selecting interesting events for analysis with a factor of 10^7 reduction on the data rate with a latency of less than a few seconds. Most of the functionality is implemented on ~3000 servers composing the online farm. Due to the critical functionality of the system a sophisticated computing environment is maintained, covering the online farm and ATLAS control rooms, as well as a number of development and testing labs. The specificity of the system required the development of dedicated applications (e.g. ConfDB, BWM) for system configuration and maintenance; in parallel other Open Source tools (Puppet and Quattor) are used to centrally configure the operating systems. The health monitoring of the TDAQ system h...

  11. Evaluation of Mapleson systems for administration of inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, I; Okamoto, K; Sato, T; Shibata, Y; Shiihara, K; Kikuta, K

    1996-03-01

    To assess the safety of nitric oxide (NO) inhalation during manual-controlled ventilation using Mapleson A, D, and F systems, we examined nitrogen dioxide (NO2) production using a chemiluminescence analyzer. The NO concentration was changed from 0 to 19 parts per million (ppm), and at each level of NO the oxygen (O2) concentration was changed from 21% to 100%. The NO2 concentration was observed to increase when either the O2 or NO concentration was increased. The maximum NO2 concentrations (mean ± standard deviation) of the Mapleson A, D, and F systems were 0.20±0.03, 0.15±0.03, and 0.17±0.02 ppm, respectively, when the concentrations of NO and O2 were 19 ppm and 100%, respectively. The NO2 concentrations of the Mapleson A system were significantly higher than those of either the Mapleson D or F system at 4, 8, and 12 ppm NO and 100% O2, and than that of the Mapleson D system at 19 ppm NO and 100% O2. From the viewpoint of NO2 production, we suggest that the Mapleson D and F systems are safer than the Mapleson A system when manual-controlled ventilation is required.

  12. The Development and Administration of Automated Systems in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard De Gennaro

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available The first partof this paper considers three general approaches to the development of an automation system in a large research library. The library may decide simply to wait for developments; it may attempt to develop a total or integrated system from the start; or it may adopt an evolutionary approach leading to an integrated system. Oustside consultants, it is suggested, will become increasingly important. The second part of the paper deals with important elements in any program regardless of the approach. These include the building of a capability to do automation work, staffing, equipment, organizational structure, selection of projects, and costs.

  13. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  14. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  15. Current Issues in Salary Administration and the Factoran System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Edward L.; Matheny, Philip R.

    1978-01-01

    The Factoran System for determining salaries involves consideration of three primary factors--time (including the employee's education and experience), mental demand of the job, and personality of the worker. (IRT)

  16. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  17. Educational, scientific and administrative aspects of environmental monitoring system analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Сергіївна Бордюг

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition and problems of environmental monitoring system in Ukraine have been considered. The shortcomings of its operation in terms of management, research and educational aspects have been detected. The possibility of improving the system of environmental monitoring are shown and approaches to improve its efficiency have been suggested, as well as issues to be included in to the subject "Environmental monitoring" for future ecologists have been substantiated in higher educational establishments

  18. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  19. Professional performance evaluation within the Romanian administrative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MANOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis, manifested in the entire world, highlights the need for sustained involvement of the local and regional authorities in each country, in conceiving and implementing Community policies (which already exist at European level having an essential role in implementing the economic plans achievement. This view was shared by all European Union Member States, of which Romania is part, since 2007. Therefore, the economic crisis which is reflected in the Romanian society today, requires prompt and sustained intervention by the authorities in the execution of the economic recovery plan, implying the community strategies, due to sharply budgetary expenses cut, which is found in all European countries. In order to achieve this major objective, the Romanian authorities should have qualified and properly motivated personnel through an adequate remuneration, according to the training, skills, responsibilities and especially individual performance obtained at each position, as it happens in most developed countries of the European Union. In this context, this study approaches the issues related to the performance evaluation of the public sector’s employees. Considering the fact that strengthening and developing the human resources segment is a strategic goal of the Romanian administration for the period 2008 - 2013, which will lead to modernizing it and making it more efficient (at both central and local level, the personnel performance evaluation, at the organizational level represents a fundamental activity from the human resources’ management perspective.

  20. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: an overview and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    LEE, CJ; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, AC; DARLEA, G-L; KOROL, A; SCANNICCHIO, DA; TWOMEY, M; VALSAN, ML

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The system processes the direct data readout from ~100 million channels on the detector through multiple trigger levels, selecting interesting events for analysis with a factor of $10^{7}$ reduction on the data rate with a latency of less than a few seconds. Most of the functionality is implemented on ~3000 servers composing the online farm. Due to the critical functionality of the system a sophisticated computing environment is maintained, covering the online farm and ATLAS control rooms, as well as a number of development and testing labs. The specificity of the system required the development of dedicated applications (e.g. ConfDB, BWM) for system configuration and maintenance; in parallel other Open Source tools (Puppet and Quattor) are used to centrally configure the operating systems. The health monitoring of the TDAQ s...

  1. [The nurse's administrative point of view in the hospitalar macro system: a reflexive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fábia Maria; Soares, Enedina

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the nurses' administration points of view concerning managing activities in the hospital macro-system, based on the Administration Contingent Theory A group of 9 nurses responsible for the administration of nursing services at 6 reference hospitals in Fortaleza/Ceara, participated of the study. Data were assessed by means of free interview techniques, from August to December 2001. The results suggest that the administrative approach focused the development of Leadership and Control activities. The interview outcomes reveal that nursing administration in a Hospital Macro-system was not perceived as an easy task, but feasible nevertheless. The greatest difficulty seemed to be due to a poor reflexive practice about the nurse's administrative attributions.

  2. Federal Emergency Management Information System (FEMIS) system administration guide, version 1.4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, J.A.; Burnett, R.A.; Carter, R.J. [and others

    1998-06-26

    The Federal Emergency Management Information Systems (FEMIS) is an emergency management planning and response tool that was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the direction of the US Army Chemical Biological Defense Command. The FEMIS System Administration Guide provides information necessary for the system administrator to maintain the FEMIS system. The FEMIS system is designed for a single Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) site that has multiple Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). Each EOC has personal computers (PCs) that emergency planners and operations personnel use to do their jobs. These PCs are connected via a local area network (LAN) to servers that provide EOC-wide services. Each EOC is interconnected to other EOCs via a Wide Area Network (WAN). Thus, FEMIS is an integrated software product that resides on client/server computer architecture. The main body of FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Application Software, resides on the PC client(s) and is directly accessible to emergency management personnel. The remainder of the FEMIS software, referred to as the FEMIS Support Software, resides on the UNIX server. The Support Software provides the communication, data distribution, and notification functionality necessary to operate FEMIS in a networked, client/server environment. The UNIX server provides an Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) services, ARC/INFO GIS (optional) capabilities, and basic file management services. PNNL developed utilities that reside on the server include the Notification Service, the Command Service that executes the evacuation model, and AutoRecovery. To operate FEMIS, the Application Software must have access to a site specific FEMIS emergency management database. Data that pertains to an individual EOC`s jurisdiction is stored on the EOC`s local server. Information that needs to be accessible to all EOCs is automatically distributed by the FEMIS

  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Exploration Systems Interim Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate within NASA. Enabling the Vision for Space Exploration. The Role of the Directorate. 2. Strategic Context and Approach. Corporate Focus. Focused, Prioritized Requirements. Spiral Transformation. Management Rigor. 3. Achieving Directorate Objectives. Strategy to Task Process. Capability Development. Research and Technology Development. 4. Beyond the Horizon. Appendices.

  4. Police corruption and administration of criminal justice system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The words 'corruption' and 'Nigerian factor' are used interchangeably to mean the same thing in this paper. There is no gainsaying that corruption in the police system leaves much to be worried. The position which the Nigeria Police occupied is beyond mere protection of lives and property of the citizens. They are indeed ...

  5. Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haen, C; Barra, V; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on the Online system, which includes a very large and heterogeneous computing cluster. Ensuring the proper behavior of the different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small operator team and is a 24/7 task. At CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with steadily improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on Reinforcement Learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the submission at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present an implementation with improved algorithms and manipulation tools, and report on the experience gained with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  6. Small molecule inhibitors of PSD95-nNOS protein-protein interactions as novel analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Hung; Xu, Zhili; Ashpole, Nicole M.; Hudmon, Andy; Kulkarni, Pushkar M.; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Lai, Yvonne Y.; Hohmann, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant increases in NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling contributes to central nervous system sensitization and chronic pain by activating neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and generating nitric oxide (NO). Because the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density 95kDA (PSD95) tethers nNOS to NMDARs, the PSD95-nNOS complex represents a therapeutic target. Small molecule inhibitors IC87201 (EC5O: 23.94 µM) and ZL006 (EC50: 12.88 µM) directly inhibited binding of purified PSD95 and nNOS proteins in AlphaScreen without altering binding of PSD95 to ErbB4. Both PSD95-nNOS inhibitors suppressed glutamate-induced cell death with efficacy comparable to MK-801. IC87201 and ZL006 preferentially suppressed phase 2A pain behavior in the formalin test and suppressed allodynia induced by intraplantar complete Freund’s adjuvant administration. IC87201 and ZL006 suppressed mechanical and cold allodynia induced by the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (ED50s: 2.47 and 0.93 mg/kg i.p. for IC87201 and ZL006, respectively). Efficacy of PSD95-nNOS disruptors was similar to MK-801. Motor ataxic effects were induced by MK-801 but not by ZL006 or IC87201. Finally, MK-801 produced hyperalgesia in the tail-flick test whereas IC87201 and ZL006 did not alter basal nociceptive thresholds. Our studies establish the utility of using AlphaScreen and purified protein pairs to establish and quantify disruption of protein-protein interactions. Our results demonstrate previously unrecognized antinociceptive efficacy of ZL006 and establish, using two small molecules, a broad application for PSD95-nNOS inhibitors in treating neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Collectively, our results demonstrate that disrupting PSD95-nNOS protein-protein interactions is effective in attenuating pathological pain without producing unwanted side effects (i.e. motor ataxia) associated with NMDAR antagonists. PMID:26071110

  7. Cognitive enhancement and antipsychotic-like activity following repeated dosing with the selective M4 PAM VU0467154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Grannan, Michael D; Gunter, Barak W; Ball, Jacob; Bubser, Michael; Bridges, Thomas M; Wess, Jurgen; Wood, Michael W; Brandon, Nicholas J; Duggan, Mark E; Niswender, Colleen M; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Jones, Carrie K

    2018-01-01

    Although selective activation of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype has been shown to improve cognitive function in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, recent evidence suggests that enhancing M 4 mAChR function can also improve memory performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) targeting the M 4 mAChR subtype have shown therapeutic potential for the treatment of multiple symptoms observed in schizophrenia, including positive and cognitive symptoms when assessed in acute preclinical dosing paradigms. Since the cholinergic system has been implicated in multiple stages of learning and memory, we evaluated the effects of repeated dosing with the highly selective M 4 PAM VU0467154 on either acquisition and/or consolidation of learning and memory when dosed alone or after pharmacologic challenge with the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 challenge represents a well-documented preclinical model of NMDAR hypofunction that is thought to underlie some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia. In wildtype mice, 10-day, once-daily dosing of VU0467154 either prior to, or immediately after daily testing enhanced the rate of learning in a touchscreen visual pairwise discrimination task; these effects were absent in M 4 mAChR knockout mice. Following a similar 10-day, once-daily dosing regimen of VU0467154, we also observed 1) improved acquisition of memory in a cue-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm, 2) attenuation of MK-801-induced disruptions in the acquisition of memory in a context-mediated conditioned freezing paradigm and 3) reversal of MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. Comparable efficacy and plasma and brain concentrations of VU0467154 were observed after repeated dosing as those previously reported with an acute, single dose administration of this M 4 PAM. Together, these studies are the first to demonstrate that cognitive enhancing and antipsychotic

  8. The effect of age on systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veering, B.T.; Burm, A.G.; Vletter, A.A.; van den Hoeven, R.A.; Spierdijk, J. (Leiden Univ. Hospital (Netherlands))

    1991-02-01

    In order to evaluate the role of the pharmacokinetics of the age-related changes in the clinical profile of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, we studied the influence of age on the systemic absorption and systemic disposition of bupivacaine after subarachnoid administration in 20 male patients (22-81 yr), ASA Physical Status 1 or 2, by a stable isotope method. After subarachnoid administration of 3 ml 0.5% bupivacaine in 8% glucose, a deuterium-labeled analog (13.4 mg) was administered intravenously. Blood samples were collected for 24 h. Plasma concentrations of unlabeled and deuterium-labeled bupivacaine were determined with a combination of gas chromatography and mass fragmentography. Biexponential functions were fitted to the plasma concentration-time data of the deuterium-labeled bupivacaine. The systemic absorption was evaluated by means of deconvolution. Mono- and biexponential functions were fitted to the data of fraction absorbed versus time. The maximal height of analgesia and the duration of analgesia at T12 increased with age (r = 0.715, P less than 0.001; r = 0.640, P less than 0.01, respectively). In 18 patients the systemic absorption of bupivacaine was best described by a biexponential equation. The half-life of the slow systemic absorption process (r = -0.478; P less than 0.05) and the mean absorption time (r = -0.551; P less than 0.02) decreased with age. The total plasma clearance decreased with age (r = -0.650, P less than 0.002), whereas the mean residence time and terminal half-life increased with age (r = 0.597, P less than 0.01; r = 0.503, P less than 0.05).

  9. LHCb: Phronesis, a diagnosis and recovery tool for system administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    Haen, C; Bonaccorsi, E; Neufeld, N

    2013-01-01

    The backbone of the LHCb experiment is the Online system, which is a very large and heterogeneous computing center. Making sure of the proper behavior of the many different tasks running on the more than 2000 servers represents a huge workload for the small expert-operator team and is a 24/7 task. At the occasion of CHEP 2012, we presented a prototype of a framework that we designed in order to support the experts. The main objective is to provide them with always improving diagnosis and recovery solutions in case of misbehavior of a service, without having to modify the original applications. Our framework is based on adapted principles of the Autonomic Computing model, on reinforcement learning algorithms, as well as innovative concepts such as Shared Experience. While the presentation made at CHEP 2012 showed the validity of our prototype on simulations, we here present a version with improved algorithms, manipulation tools, and report on experience with running it in the LHCb Online system.

  10. The accuracy of administrative data diagnoses of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Linehan, Tina; Hanly, John G

    2011-08-01

    To examine the validity of case definitions for systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases [SARD; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), myositis, Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, and polymyalgia rheumatica] based on administrative data, compared to rheumatology records. A list of rheumatic disease diagnoses was generated from population-based administrative billing and hospitalization databases. Subjects who had been seen by an arthritis center rheumatologist were identified, and the medical records reviewed. We found that 844 Nova Scotia residents had a diagnosis of one of the rheumatic diseases of interest, based on administrative data, and had had ≥ 1 rheumatology assessment at a provincial arthritis center. Charts were available on 824 subjects, some of whom had been identified in the administrative database with > 1 diagnosis. Thus a total of 1136 diagnoses were available for verification against clinical records. Of the 824 subjects, 680 (83%) had their administrative database diagnoses confirmed on chart review. The majority of subjects who were "false-positive" for a given rheumatic disease on administrative data had a true diagnosis of a similar rheumatic disease. Most sensitivity estimates for specific administrative data-based case definitions were > 90%, although for SSc, the sensitivity was 80.5%. The specificity estimates were also > 90%, except for SLE, where the specificity was 72.5%. Although health administrative data may be a valid resource, there are potential problems regarding the specificity and sensitivity of case definitions, which should be kept in mind for future studies.

  11. A consideration about major business control system for independent administrative institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinya; Nakata, Yutaka; Iitsuka, Tomoaki; Yamagishi, Kojiro

    2003-10-01

    Japanese government is carrying out the administrative reform aiming to promote decentralization of authority, to magnify the field of private sectors, etc. in order to corresponds appropriately to matured economy, internationalized market, etc. As one of the reforms, Japanese government decided that JAERI and JNC would unite into an independent administrative agency. The aims of the independent administrative agency institution include realization of effective and transparent system and management. The aim of the present investigation is to be useful for the new agency to develop a major business control system, which manages financial affairs and accounts not only efficiently but also in correspondence with open information to the public and promoting research activities effectively. First of all, the authors examined Japanese laws and standards relating to the independent administrative agency. They investigated the financial affairs and accounts systems of the preceding independent administrative agencies for research and development and also the development trends of work-flow systems in private enterprises in Japan. They considered expected problems and solutions for developing and making use of the major business control system. On the basis of the above investigations, the authors revealed the total concept of the best major business control system of the new unified agency besides the necessary conditions of the system for an independent administrative agency. Additionally, the above mentioned laws and standards are collected in an appendix. (author)

  12. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Office of Administrative Services Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Administrative Services Information System collects contact information and other Personally Identifiable Information (PII). Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  13. Reconciliation of international administrative coding systems for comparison of colorectal surgery outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munasinghe, A.; Chang, D.; Mamidanna, R.; Middleton, S.; Joy, M.; Penninckx, F.; Darzi, A.; Livingston, E.; Faiz, O.; Chang, David; Dalton, Stephen; Engel, Alexander; Faiz, Omar; Livingston, Ed; Mahmoud, Najjia; Rabaglia, Jennifer L.; Ramamoorthy, Sonia; Singh, Baljit; Tollenaar, Rob; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Significant variation in colorectal surgery outcomes exists between different countries. Better understanding of the sources of variable outcomes using administrative data requires alignment of differing clinical coding systems. We aimed to map similar diagnoses and procedures across

  14. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 8: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, (5) terminal support, and (6) retrieval subsystem.

  15. High concentration of Daunorubicin and Daunorubicinol in human malignant astrocytomas after systemic administration of liposomal Daunorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, K. W.; de Witt Hamer, P. C.; Leenstra, S.; Bakker, P. J.; Beijnen, J. H.; Troost, D.; Kaaijk, P.; Bosch, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    The value of chemotherapy in patients with malignant astrocytoma remains controversial. In our laboratories in vitro experiments with organotypic spheroid cultures showed superior effectiveness of anthracyclines. Systemic administration did not provide in therapeutic concentrations so far. Because

  16. Development of Citizens’ Political Participation in Local Administration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çukurçayır

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of modern local governments in Turkey was laid with an imperial edict in 1839. This reform also called Gulhane Hatt-i Hümayunu or Tanzimat Edict, paved the way for local and regional councils. Since the 1850s, the municipalities have been established. However, it is not possible to talk about the functionality of these municipalities in current terms. Since the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, modern laws regulating local governments were issued. Village Law and Municipal Law are the first examples of these reformations. With the 1961 Constitution, modern participatory local government approach was adopted and mayors began to be elected directly by people for the first time. From 1960 to present, many local government reforms were made, but none of them were so fundamental as in 2012. With this reform, local government system has completely changed. Aim of this study is investigation of results of this reform and find out needs for a new wave of reform. New Metropolitan Municipalities Law is problematic in terms of local governance and local participation. Although European Charter of Local Self-Government and the European Urban Charter paying special importance to citizen’s participation, last developments in Turkey as a European Union candidate continues in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss all aspects of the new regulation. So that, field researches will be analyzed and recommendations will be presented in the light of these field studies relevant to the reforms.

  17. Payroll Administration System at PT. Solid Utama Nusantara by Using Microsoft Visual Foxpro 9.0

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Dwijanti Diah PSL; Melani Dewi Lusita, SKom, MMSI

    2007-01-01

    The increasing administrative activities at PT. Main Solid Archipelago and thegrowing need for a wide range of information about personnel, especially the writertrying to help create a system of personnel administration at this company. In apayroll system that has not used the application must be very difficult when to seekemployee data or files related to personnel and payroll. This will make the systemslow, errors caused by wrong at the time input and for different data transfer with theinp...

  18. Administrative data provide vital research evidence for maximizing health-system performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Although the quality of administrative data is frequently questioned, these data are vital for health-services evaluation and complement data from trials, other research studies and registries for research. Trials generally provide the strongest evidence of outcomes in research settings but results may not apply in many service environments. High-quality observational research has a complementary role where trials are not applicable and for assessing whether trial results apply to groups excluded from trials. Administrative data have a broader system-wide reach, enabling system-wide health-services research and monitoring of performance markers. Where administrative data raise questions about service outcomes, follow-up enquiry may be required to investigate validity and service implications. Greater use should be made of administrative data for system-wide monitoring and for research on service effectiveness and equity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. The Administrative System of the European Union - From Concept to Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MATEI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the European Union (EU governance and administration are undergoing some significant transformations, not without obstacles, from concept to reality, revealing characteristics that aim both the European and national elements in a permanent interpenetration, whose complexity is superior to other processes and phenomena specific for the construction of a United Europe. The major objective of the current paper is to substantiate and describe systemically the process of affirmation and transformation of the EU administration as a core pillar of European governance. A doctrinal overview on the debated topic reveals an atypical concept in terms of the traditional approach in administrative sciences, thus leading in the specialized studies to controversies going to the conceptual negation of the EU administration. This time, the reality of EU construction anticipates traditional theories and doctrines, imposing even a change of vision, getting closer to the modern theories of public management and administration. The EU administration has developed simultaneously with the construction of the United Europe on a distinct area that overlaps with the EU area in its various enlargement stages. In a regulatory perspective, the EU administration has benefited due to the constitutive treaties, from a contextual ground containing relatively few direct and explicit assertions, but which valorize the European traditions and culture, mainly in the Member States, integrating creatively the international developments of public management. In a developing relation, we witness a permanent adaptation of the EU administration to the needs arising from the achievement of the EU objectives. The attempt to institute an ‘EU Constitution’ got the doctrinal approach of the EU administration closer to the traditional approach specific for the European legal systems. The failure of that activity has created a new impetus to a different

  20. Both acute and prolonged administration of EPO reduce cerebral and systemic vascular conductance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Kim, Yu-Sok; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) has been linked to cerebrovascular events. EPO reduces vascular conductance, possibly because of the increase in hematocrit. Whether EPO in itself affects the vasculature remains unknown; here it was evaluated in healthy males by determining systemic...... and cerebrovascular variables following acute (30,000 IU/d for 3 d; n=8) and chronic (5000 IU/week for 13 wk; n=8) administration of EPO, while the responsiveness of the vasculature was challenged during cycling exercise, with and without hypoxia. Prolonged administration of EPO increased hematocrit from 42.5 ± 3...

  1. Delivery systems and local administration routes for therapeutic siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Fabiana Testa Moura de Carvalho; Borgheti-Cardoso, Lívia Neves; Depieri, Lívia Vieira; de Macedo Mano, Danielle; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Petrilli, Raquel; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2013-04-01

    With the increasing number of studies proposing new and optimal delivery strategies for the efficacious silencing of gene-related diseases by the local administration of siRNAs, the present review aims to provide a broad overview of the most important and latest developments of non-viral siRNA delivery systems for local administration. Moreover, the main disease targets for the local delivery of siRNA to specific tissues or organs, including the skin, the lung, the eye, the nervous system, the digestive system and the vagina, were explored.

  2. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  3. The Changing Nature of the Cooperative Extension System: Views of Leading Extension Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Howard

    1993-01-01

    Four administrators of the Cooperative Extension System share their views concerning recent substantial changes in the system's focus of programing, sources of funding, and organizational structures; the need for all disciplines involved in extension to grapple with societal problems; and relationships with institutions of higher education. (LP)

  4. Diagnosis of multi-agent systems and its application to public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Abramowicz, W.; Maciaszek, L.; Węcel, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model-based diagnosis view on the complex social systems in which large public administration organizations operate. The purpose of diagnosis as presented in this paper is to identify agent role instances that are not conforming to expectations in a multi-agent system

  5. Legal expert systems in social administration: From fearing computers to fearing accountants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteen-eighties, the Tessec expert system was developed and several studies showed that this system could improve administrative decision making under the Netherlands' General Assistance Act. Despite this favourable evaluation, Dutch municipalities did not adopt Tessec and the development

  6. Accuracy of manual entry of drug administration data into an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Dotan, Koren; Weissman, Charles; Cohen, Matan J; Levin, Phillip D

    2014-11-01

    Data on drug administration are entered manually into anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). This study examined whether these data are accurate regarding drug name, dose administered, and time of administration, and whether the stage of anesthesia influences data accuracy. Real-time observational data on drug administration during elective operations were compared with computerized information on drug administration entered by anesthesiologists. A trained observer (K.D.) performed the observations. Data were collected during 57 operations which included 596 separate occasions of drug administration by 22 anesthesiologists. No AIMS records were found for 90 (15.1%) occasions of drug administration (omissions), while there were 11 (1.8%) AIMS records where drug administration was not observed. The AIMS and observer data matched for drug name on 495 of 596 (83.1%) occasions, for dose on 439 of 495 (92.5%) occasions, and for time on 476 of 495 (96.2%) occasions. Amongst the 90 omitted records, 34 (37.8%) were for vasoactive drugs with 24 (27.7%) for small doses of hypnotics. Omissions occurred mostly during maintenance: 50 of 153 (24.6%), followed by induction: 30 of 325 (9.2%) and emergence: 10 of 57 (17.5%) (P < 0.001). Time and dose inaccuracies occurred mainly during induction, followed by maintenance and emergence; time inaccuracies were 7/325 (8.3%), 10/203 (4.9%), and 0/57 (0%), respectively (P = 0.07), and dose inaccuracies were 15/325 (4.6%), 3/203 (1.5%), and 1/57 (1.7%), respectively (P = 0.11). The range of accuracy varies when anesthesiologists manually enter drug administration data into an AIMS. Charting omissions represent the largest cause of inaccuracy, principally by omissions of records for vasopressors and small doses of hypnotic drugs. Manually entered drug administration data are not without errors. Accuracy of entering drug administration data remains the responsibility of the anesthesiologist.

  7. Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglietti Felipe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a medical treatment widely used in human patients for tumor treatment, increases bleomycin toxicity by 1000 fold in the treated area with an objective response rate of around 80%. Despite its high response rate, there are still 20% of cases in which the patients are not responding. This could be ascribed to the fact that bleomycin, when administered systemically, is not reaching the whole tumor mass properly because of the characteristics of tumor vascularization, in which case local administration could cover areas that are unreachable by systemic administration.

  8. IBM i5iSeries Primer Concepts and Techniques for Programmers, Administrators, and System Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Forsythe, Kevin; Holt, Ted; Pence, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive, 35-chapter book is the ultimate resource and a "must-have" for every professional working with the i5/iSeries. It is perfect for novice and intermediate programmers as well as for system administrators and operators. In simple, straightforward style, the authors explain core i5/iSeries concepts and show you step by step how to perform a wide variety of essential functions. The book includes sections on installation, operations, administration, system architecture, programming, the Internet, and troubleshooting. These sections are organized in free-standing style so you d

  9. Glutamate receptors and the airways hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapkova, Anna; Antosova, Martina

    2012-03-01

    It is proposed the link between the hyperactivity of NMDA receptors and airway hyperresponsiveness. We investigated the effect of agents modulating the activity of NMDA receptors in the ovalbumin-induced airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs. The airways hyperreactivity was influenced by the agonist (NMDA) and selective antagonist - competitive (AP-5) and non-competitive (MK-801) of NMDA receptors. Airway responsiveness to histamine or acetylcholine was evaluated in in vitro conditions. NMDA administration caused the increase of tracheal smooth muscle response in ovalbumin-induced hyperreactivity to acetylcholine. MK 801 as well as AP-5 provoked the decrease of reactivity mainly to acetylcholine in tracheal smooth muscle, while the former, non-competitive antagonist was more effective. We recorded more pronounced response in tracheal than in lung tissue smooth muscle with more considerable response to acetylcholine than to histamine. The results of experiments show the modification of airway smooth muscles responses by agents modulating the activity of NMDA receptors. They confirm the possibility of NMDA receptors participation in experimental airway hyperreactivity. The results enlarge information regarding the link of the inflammatory diseases and glutamatergic system.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Activators of ERK/MAPK from Citrus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yoshida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2, components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascade, have been recently shown to be involved in synaptic plasticity and in the development of long-term memory in the central nervous system (CNS. We therefore examined the ability of Citrus compounds to activate ERK1/2 in cultured rat cortical neurons, whose activation might have a protective effect against neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Among the samples tested, extracts prepared from the peels of Citrus grandis (Kawachi bankan were found to have the greatest ability to activate ERK1/2. The active substances were isolated by chromatographic separation, and one of them was identified to be 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF. HMF significantly induced the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, a downstream target of activated ERK1/2, which appears to be a critical step in the signaling cascade for the structural changes underlying the development of long-term potentiation (LTP. In addition, the administration of HMF into mice treated with NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 restored the MK-801-induced deterioration of spatial learning performance in the Morris mater-maze task. Taken together, these results suggest that HMF is a neurotrophic agent for treating patients with memory disorders.

  11. Interoperability and models for exchange of data between information systems in public administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavev, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The types of software applications used by public administrations can be divided in three main groups: document management systems, record management systems and business process systems. Each one of them generates outputs that can be used as input data to the others. This is the main reason that requires exchange of data between these three groups and well defined models that should be followed. There are also many other reasons that will be discussed in the paper. Interoperability is a key aspect when those models are implemented, especially when there are different manufactures of systems in the area of software applications used by public authorities. The report includes examples of implementation of models for exchange of data between software systems deployed in one of the biggest administration in Bulgaria.

  12. Pro Linux system administration learn to build systems for your business using free and open source software

    CERN Document Server

    Matotek, Dennis; Lieverdink, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to ease the entry of businesses to the world of zero-cost software running on Linux. It takes a layered, component-based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure.

  13. Ketamine displaces the novel NMDA receptor SPET probe [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 in humans in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, James M. [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.stone@iop.kcl.ac.uk; Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London, W1N 8AA (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Bressan, Rodrigo A. [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Squassante, Lisa [GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Verona 37135 (Italy); Teneggi, Vincenza [GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Verona 37135 (Italy); Ell, Peter J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London, W1N 8AA (United Kingdom); Pilowsky, Lyn S. [Institute of Psychiatry, King' s College London, De Crespigny Park London, SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London, London, W1N 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 [N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-(3-iodophenyl)-N-methylguanidine] is a high-affinity SPET ligand with selectivity for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. This study evaluated the effects of ketamine (a specific competitor for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 site) on [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 binding to NMDA receptors in vivo. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 bolus-plus-infusion [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 scans, one during placebo and the other during a ketamine challenge. Ketamine administration led to a significant decrease in [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 V {sub T} in most of the brain regions examined (P<.05). [{sup 123}I]CNS-1261 appears to be a specific ligand in vivo for the intrachannel PCP/ketamine/MK-801 NMDA binding site.

  14. Provider risk factors for medication administration error alerts: analyses of a large-scale closed-loop medication administration system using RFID and barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeonsoo; Yoon, Dukyong; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Hee; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-12-01

    To determine the risk factors and rate of medication administration error (MAE) alerts by analyzing large-scale medication administration data and related error logs automatically recorded in a closed-loop medication administration system using radio-frequency identification and barcodes. The subject hospital adopted a closed-loop medication administration system. All medication administrations in the general wards were automatically recorded in real-time using radio-frequency identification, barcodes, and hand-held point-of-care devices. MAE alert logs recorded during a full 1 year of 2012. We evaluated risk factors for MAE alerts including administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, and factors associated with nurse practices by logistic regression analysis. A total of 2 874 539 medication dose records from 30 232 patients (882.6 patient-years) were included in 2012. We identified 35 082 MAE alerts (1.22% of total medication doses). The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration at non-standard time [odds ratio (OR) 1.559, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.515-1.604], emergency order (OR 1.527, 95%CI 1.464-1.594), and the number of medication doses administered (OR 0.993, 95%CI 0.992-0.993). Medication route, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule were also significantly related. The MAE alert rate was 1.22% over the 1-year observation period in the hospital examined in this study. The MAE alerts were significantly related to administration time, order type, medication route, the number of medication doses administered, nurse's employment duration, and working schedule. The real-time closed-loop medication administration system contributed to improving patient safety by preventing potential MAEs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Bone formation induced in an infant by systemic prostaglandin-E2 administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H R; Svanholm, H; Høst, A

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of long-term systemic administration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to a newborn infant with ductus-dependent congenital heart disease. After 46 days of treatment, radiography showed cortical hyperostosis of the long bones. The child died 62 days after discontinuation of prostaglandin...

  16. From street level to system level bureaucracies. How ICT is transforming administrative discretion and constitutional control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, M.A.P.; Zouridis, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of ICT is rapidly changing the structure of a number of large executive public agencies. They used to be machine bureaucracies in which street level officials exercised ample administrative discretion in dealing with individual clients. This was kept in check by elaborate systems of external

  17. Implementing an Enterprise Information System to Reengineer and Streamline Administrative Processes in a Distance Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2009-01-01

    During the past three years, we have developed and implemented an enterprise information system (EIS) to reengineer and facilitate the administrative process for preparing and teaching distance learning courses in a midsized-to-large university (with 23,000 students). The outcome of the implementation has been a streamlined and efficient process…

  18. Model-based administration of inhalation anaesthesia. 1. Developing a system model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerou, J.G.C.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the first of a series of reports on a system model for the administration of inhalation anaesthesia. We present the development and basic testing of the model. It is a multiple-gas model; it covers fresh-gas flow rates from basal to more than total ventilation and includes an actual,

  19. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  20. The Administrative Impact of Computers on the British Columbia Public School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Trevor P.

    This case study analyzes and evaluates the administrative computer systems in the British Columbia public school organization in order to investigate the costs and benefits of computers, their impact on managerial work, their influence on centralization in organizations, and the relationship between organizational objectives and the design of…

  1. Evolution of Medication Administration Workflow in Implementing Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the clinical workflow evolutions when implementing the health information technology (HIT). The study especially emphasized on administrating medication when the electronic health record (EHR) systems were adopted at rural healthcare facilities. Mixed-mode research methods, such as survey, observation, and focus group, were…

  2. Entrepreneurial environmental management model of marketing in a political-administrative system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadchenko Olena Vasylivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for entrepreneurial model of environmental management, in particular environmental marketing in modern political and administrative systems. In the context of the complexity of the social structure, forming a dense network of communications, globalization, cultural and economic-ecological space offers new mechanisms for the relationship between the state and civil society in environmental management.

  3. Creating and Using a Computer Networking and Systems Administration Laboratory Built under Relaxed Financial Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Michael P.; Mullins, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Computer Science Department at Slippery Rock University created a laboratory for its Computer Networks and System Administration and Security courses under relaxed financial constraints. This paper describes the department's experience designing and using this laboratory, including lessons learned and descriptions of some student projects…

  4. Manual for SFR R and D and Technology Monitoring System Administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Yong Bum; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-05-01

    This report is a administrator manual on R and D and technology monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. First of all, enterprise project management solution is introduced and then enterprise resources and data creation method are described. Also it made a description of project web assess design, data management method etc

  5. Manual for SFR R and D and Technology Monitoring System Administrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Yong Bum; Won, Byung Chool; Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-05-15

    This report is a administrator manual on R and D and technology monitoring system that is applicable for managing the generation IV sodium-cooled fast reactor development. First of all, enterprise project management solution is introduced and then enterprise resources and data creation method are described. Also it made a description of project web assess design, data management method etc.

  6. Some Teaching Reform Ideas on Management Information System of Master of Business Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chongjun

    2009-01-01

    Management information system (MIS) is one of the core courses of master of business administration (MBA). Based on the educational characteristics of MBA, this paper studies the teaching issues and strategies of MIS course of MBA. The discussion includes three parts: modification of educational content; improvement of educational ability; case…

  7. The legal regime of the relations between the center and the administrative-territorial units within the contemporary administrative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GORIUC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The decentralization of public administration refers to the process of increasing the autonomy of local communities by transferring new decision-making responsibilities, as well as financial and patrimonial resources, respecting the principle of subsidiarity, reducing current spending and increasing transparency in relation to citizens and increasing the quality and access to public services, or in other words, is a process of transferring authority and administrative responsibilities from central to local government in the areas of planning, decision-making, legal accountability and public service management.

  8. 77 FR 67820 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records; Food and Drug Administration User Fee System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records; Food and Drug Administration User Fee System AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of a new system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974 and the...

  9. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  10. The applicability of a gel delivery system for self-administration of buprenorphine to laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovard, A. M. B.; Teilmann, A. C.; Hau, J.

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration of perioperative analgesia to laboratory mice is beneficial compared with administration by injection. The mice become less stressed when allowed to voluntarily ingest the drug in a palatable feed item and it results in high and long-lasting serum concentrations of the drug. We...... system using an aqueous gel may serve as a supplementary source of fluid post-operatively and as a vehicle for analgesic drugs. In the present study, we investigated the willingness of the mice to ingest a commercially available gel, by measuring the duration from introduction of the gel to first...

  11. Enhancing topical analgesic administration: review and prospect for transdermal and transbuccal drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Roser; Calpena, Ana C; Mallandrich, Mireia; Clares, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Topical administration is an appealing method for drug delivery due to its non-invasiveness, self-controlled application, avoidance of first-pass metabolism in the liver and reduction of systemic side effects compared to other conventional routes such as oral and parenteral. However, topical administration must overcome the permeable barriers that skin and mucosa represent for the drug to achieve its desired therapeutic effect. Penetration of drugs through human skin is mainly impaired by the stratum corneum- the uppermost keratinized skin layer. In contrast, the stratified squamous epithelium (a nonkeratinized tissue) represents the major physical barrier for transbuccal drug administration in humans. Different technologies have been studied to enhance the bioavailability or local effects of drugs administered through skin and buccal mucosa. Those technologies involve the use of physical or chemical enhancers and new dosage forms such as vesicles, cyclodextrins, nanoparticles and other complex systems. Combinations of these technologies may further increase drug delivery in some cases. As analgesia is one of the main therapeutic effects sought through topical administration, this paper focuses on the review of drug delivery systems to improve the topical and transdermal/transbuccal drug delivery of substances with known analgesic action. A discussion of their possibilities and limitations is also included.

  12. Suggestions to organizational structure of system of state administration of military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the organizational structure of the system of state administration of military-technical policy is offered. Management of military-technical policy, as by the single integral system, is fixed in basis of construction of the system of state administration is considered. Connection of organizational structure of state administration of military-technical policy and development of its theory assist successful activity in military-technical sphere. In the article the spheres of cooperation of military-technical policy are distinguished with other systems. An author notices that military-technical policy can be examined as a certain result cooperations of many systems, that, in turn, feel the limited influence of military-technical policy, that, accordingly, can promote efficiency of functioning each of the cooperating with her systems. An author gives suggestions to the organizational structure of the system of state administration of military-technical policy, basic from which are: possibility of the balanced account in military-technical policy: political, soldiery, economic, resource, moral, cultural, social, educational and other interests of the state, society, different groups of population and separate members; possibility quickly to set rational technology of activity of the state of military-technical sphere and its constituents, including technology of development, creation and production of new standards, complexes of armament, taking into account world their progress and development of world military industry trends; possibility of coordination of activity of organs of executive power, ministries, at departments in military-technical sphere by decrees, commissions and orders of higher public servant of Ukraine in the real mode of time; possibility of establishment of single policy of the state in relation to the basic products of military-oriented and resources.

  13. Complex automated medication systems reduce medication administration errors in a Danish acute medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-03-24

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two automated medication systems in reducing medication administration errors. The study was a controlled before-and-after study and included three observation periods with collection of data during a 3-week period as initial baseline and two subsequent follow-up periods at 10 and 20 months. The study was conducted in two Danish acute medical units. Two automated medication systems were implemented: (i) a complex automated medication system (cAMS) consisting of an automated dispensing cabinet, automated unit-dose dispensing and barcode medication administration (BCMA) and (ii) a non-patient-specific automated medication system (npsAMS) consisting of automated unit-dose dispensing and BCMA. The occurrence of administration errors and sub-types; procedural and clinical errors were observed. The proportion of errors was calculated by dividing the number of doses with one or more errors with the number of opportunities for errors. Difference-in-difference analysis using logistic regression was used to assess changes in proportion of errors. Compared with control, the cAMS reduced the overall risk of administration errors in the intervention unit, (odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.90) and procedural errors were significantly reduced as well (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.126-0.94). The npsAMS effectively reduced the clinical errors in the intervention ward (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.15-0.96). In line with previous research, this study found that technological interventions in the medication administration process could reduce the occurrence of medication errors.

  14. Effects of acute systemic administration of cannabidiol on sleep-wake cycle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Marcos Hortes N; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Hallak, Jaime E C; Machado-de-Sousa, João Paulo; Hirotsu, Camila; Maia, Lucas; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2013-03-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main components of Cannabis sativa and has a wide spectrum of action, including effects in the sleep-wake cycle. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects on sleep of acute systemic administration of CBD. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups that received intraperitoneal injections of CBD 2.5 mg/kg, CBD 10 mg/kg, CBD 40 mg/kg or vehicle (n=seven animals/group). Sleep recordings were made during light and dark periods for four days: two days of baseline recording, one day of drug administration (test), and one day after drug (post-test). During the light period of the test day, the total percentage of sleep significantly increased in the groups treated with 10 and 40 mg/kg of CBD compared to placebo. REM sleep latency increased in the group injected with CBD 40 mg/kg and was significantly decreased with the dose of 10 mg/kg on the post-test day. There was an increase in the time of SWS in the group treated with CBD 40 mg/kg, although this result did not reach statistical significance. The systemic acute administration of CBD appears to increase total sleep time, in addition to increasing sleep latency in the light period of the day of administration.

  15. The difference in effect of mGlu2/3 and mGlu5 receptor agonists on cognitive impairment induced by MK-801

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valeš, Karel; Svoboda, Jan; Benkovičová, Kristína; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 639, 1-3 (2010), s. 91-98 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR9178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : animal model of schizophrenia * metabotropic glutamate receptor * cognition Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2010

  16. Two learning tasks provide evidence for disrupted behavioural flexibility in an animal model of schizophrenia-like behaviour induced by acute MK-801: A dose–response study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobellová, Veronika; Entlerová, Marie; Svojanovská, Barbora; Hatalová, Hana; Prokopová, Iva; Petrásek, Tomáš; Valeš, Karel; Kubík, Štěpán; Fajnerová, Iveta; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 1 (2013), s. 55-62 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : flexibility * dizocilpine * learning Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.391, year: 2013

  17. MK-801 impairs cognitive coordination on a rotating arena (Carousel) and contextual specificity of hippocampal immediate-early gene expression in a rat model of psychosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubík, Štěpán; Buchtová, Helena; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 12 (2014), s. 75 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P191 Grant - others:EC(XE) PIR06-GA/2009-256581 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cognitive coordination * learning * dizocilpine * animal model * psychosis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  18. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duda, W.; Wesierska, M.; Ostaszewski, P.; Valeš, Karel; Nekovářová, Tereza; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 311, Sep 15 (2016), s. 15-23 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : short-term memory * spatial working memory * memantine * dizocilpine * Morris water maze Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  19. Dizocilpine (MK-801) impairs learning in the active place avoidance task but has no effect on the performance during task/context alternation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěchová, Iveta; Petrásek, Tomáš; Hatalová, Hana; Pištíková, Adéla; Valeš, Karel; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 305, May 15 (2016), s. 247-257 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : task alternation * context alternation * active place avoidance * Morris water maze * Dizocilpine * schizophrenia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  20. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  1. Effect of systemic administration of essential oils and main components on honeybee survival

    OpenAIRE

    Porrini, M.P.; Pires, Sância; Rossini, C.; Garrido, P.M.; Hermida, L.; Gende, L.B.; Eguaras, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling bee diseases with non contaminant products is a challenge in apicultural research. Essential oils and their main components have been widely studied as alternative treatments for honeybee pathologies [1, 2, 3]. However, there is little information about prolonged systemic administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in laboratory assays, the effect of long term consumption of essential oils and main components. Oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from Lau...

  2. Depiction of Trends in Administrative Healthcare Data from Hospital Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalankesh, Leila R; Pourasghar, Faramarz; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Khanehdan, Negar

    2015-06-01

    administrative healthcare data are among main components of hospital information system. Such data can be analyzed and deployed for a variety of purposes. The principal aim of this research was to depict trends of administrative healthcare data from HIS in a general hospital from March 2011 to March 2014. data set used for this research was extracted from the SQL database of the hospital information system in Razi general hospital located in Marand. The data were saved as CSV (Comma Separated Values) in order to facilitate data cleaning and analysis. The variables of data set included patient's age, gender, final diagnosis, final diagnosis code based on ICD-10 classification system, date of hospitalization, date of discharge, LOS(Length of Stay), ward, and survival status of the patient. Data were analyzed and visualized after applying appropriate cleansing and preparing techniques. morbidity showed a constant trend over three years. Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium were the leading category of final diagnosis (about 32.8 %). The diseases of the circulatory system were the second class accounting for 13 percent of the hospitalization cases. The diseases of the digestive system had the third rank (10%). Patients aged between 14 and 44 constituted a higher proportion of total cases. Diseases of the circulatory system was the most common class of diseases among elderly patients (age≥65). The highest rate of mortality was observed among patients with final diagnosis of the circulatory system diseases followed by those with diseases of the respiratory system, and neoplasms. Mortality rate for the ICU and the CCU patients were 62% and 33% respectively. The longest average of LOS (7.3 days) was observed among patients hospitalized in the ICU while patients in the Obstetrics and Gynecology ward had the shortest average of LOS (2.4 days). Multiple regression analysis revealed that LOS was correlated with variables of surgery, gender, and type of payment, ward, the

  3. Systemic Hypotension Following Intravenous Administration of Nonionic Contrast Medium During Computed Tomography: Iopromide Versus Iodixanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Bale, Reto; Ulmer, Hanno; Putzer, Daniel; Schullian, Peter; Wiedermann, Franz-Josef; Lederer, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    In light of the increasing number of radiologic interventions performed under general anesthesia, the effects of contrast media (CM) on circulation and organ perfusion are of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to systematically quantify effects on blood pressure, heart rate, and kidney function following intravenous administration of nonionic CM with normal and low osmolality. In this controlled, double-blinded phase IV clinical trial, 40 consecutive patients were randomly assigned to receive repeated measures of either low-osmolar iopromide or iso-osmolar iodixanol. Normal saline solution (NSS) served as control. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured continuously from 1 minute before until 3 minutes after administration of CM and NSS. Urine output was recorded hourly. Administration of iopromide resulted in systemic hypotension lasting up to 300 seconds (105 ± 61 seconds) with the lowest mean arterial pressure of 39 mm Hg (56.7 ± 12.2 mm Hg). Iopromide caused a systolic/diastolic decrease of 31/26 mm Hg (P .640). Administration of low-osmolar iopromide was followed by a significant transient decrease in blood pressure and a rise in heart rate. Anesthetists and radiologists should be aware of these effects in patients in whom short episodes of disturbed tissue microcirculation may pose a clinical risk.

  4. How to maintain hundreds of computers offering different functionalities with only 2 system administrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempaska, R.; Bertrand, A.; Higgs, C.; Kapeller, R.; Lutz, H.; Provenzano, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the control systems of our large research facilities are maintained by the Controls section. These facilities include two proton accelerators, (HIPA and PROSCAN), two electron accelerators, (SLS and the Injector Test Facility of the future SwissFEL) as well as the control systems of all their related beamlines and test facilities. The control system configuration and applications for each facility is stored on independent NFS file servers. The total number of Linux computers and servers is about 500. Since only two system administrators are responsible for their installation, configuration and maintenance, we have adopted a well defined solution that relies on 3 ideas: -) Virtualization, -) Unified operating system installation and update mechanism, and -) Automatic configuration by a common tool (puppet). This paper describes methods and tools which are used to develop and maintain the challenging computing infrastructure deployed by the Controls section

  5. Dexamethasone loaded nanoparticles exert protective effects against Cisplatin-induced hearing loss by systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Chen, Dongye; Lin, Xin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2016-04-21

    Ototoxicity is one of the most important adverse effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. As a common treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, systemic administration of steroids was demonstrated ineffective against cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) in published studies. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effect of dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated in polyethyleneglycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) against cisplatin-induced hearing loss following systemic administration. DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using emulsion and evaporation technique as previously reported. DEX or DEX-NPs was administered intraperitoneally to guinea pigs 1h before cisplatin administration. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were measured at four frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 24kHz) 1 day before and three days after cisplatin injection. Cochlear morphology was examined to evaluate inner ear injury induced by cisplatin exposure. A single dose of DEX-NPs 1h before cisplatin treatment resulted in a significant preservation of the functional and structural properties of the cochlea, which was equivalent to the effect of multidose (3 days) DEX injection. In contrast, no significant protective effect was observed by single dose injection of DEX. The results of histological examination of the cochleae were consistent with the functional measurements. In conclusion, a single dose DEX-NPs significantly attenuated cisplatin ototoxicity in guinea pigs after systemic administration at both histological and functional levels indicating the potential therapeutic benefits of these nanoparticles for enhancing the delivery of DEX in acute sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho

    2001-03-01

    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents

  7. A study in improvement of administrative system in the nuclear safety regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Kuk, Doe Hyeong; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Jong Sam; Hwang, Sun Ho [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    One of the most important tasks to improve nuclear safety regulation system is to separate nuclear regulatory institutes from public agencies which promote the development nuclear power. Moreover, nuclear safety regulation should be not only specialized but optimized to be adapted for new environments such as high-tech information age. Especially, it is necessary to reform the current nuclear safety regulation systems both to be effective under the local self-administration which began to operate in recent years and to be supported by local residents.

  8. Axioms for SNABOK, a System and Network Administration Body of Knowledge : missing link stage of ontology process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    SNABOK, a system an network administration body of knowledge, is coined as an attempt to complement the well-known and quite influential SWEBOK (software engineering body of knowledge) for the less prominent but equally critical profession of system and network administration. General remarks

  9. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by 201 Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of 201 Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in 201 Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized. (author)

  10. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Safety of fluralaner, a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in MDR1(-/-) Collies after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Feli M; Paul, Allan J; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer K A; Nuernberger, Martin C

    2014-03-06

    Fluralaner is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner at 3 times the highest expected clinical dose to Multi Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR1(-/-)) gene defect Collies. Sixteen Collies homozygous for the MDR1 deletion mutation were included in the study. Eight Collies received fluralaner chewable tablets once at a dose of 168 mg/kg; eight sham dosed Collies served as controls. All Collies were clinically observed until 28 days following treatment. No adverse events were observed subsequent to fluralaner treatment of MDR1(-/-) Collies at three times the highest expected clinical dose. Fluralaner chewable tablets are well tolerated in MDR1(-/-) Collies following oral administration.

  12. Human Resource Reforms in Public Administration: The Importance of the Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Freitas Bradley Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management encompasses administrating and managing human resources or otherwise known as employees. The HR or Human Resources department of any company, whether it be public or private, deals with the day to aspects pertaining to employees, from the recruitment process to probably the most important aspect for any employee; remuneration and benefits. The importance of finding a perfect equilibrium between monetary and non-monetary incentives is crucial in obtaining an efficient work environment, as well as increasing productivity and employee motivation. Having an administrative background or knowledge is essential for any HR manager, in order to detect and implement the most beneficial reward system for both implicated parties.

  13. Educational Reform in Administrative Systems with Pre-modern Characteristics: the Case of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ruano y Ruano

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of specific instances of educational-reform failure in contemporary Guatemala. The purpose is to throw into relief those aspects which should be confronted in designing and implementing processes of educational reform in the context of weak nations with pre-modern features. One of these fundamental aspects is the need to study carefully the administrative and power structures within the government, with the aim of locating the channels of real and nominal decision-making. It is also argued that the principle of parallel liberty allows an understanding of the formation and reinforcement of parallel power structures, and that these are found outside the official bureaucratic channels. It is further argued that the administration and formulation of educational policies cannot be summed up in simple modernization schemes that do not take into account the particular sociohistorical conditions in which the educational systems originated.

  14. Employee working conditions and healthcare system performance: the Veterans Health Administration experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas; Hodgson, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Dyrenforth, Sue; Perlin, Jonathan; Murphy, Frances

    2007-04-01

    The authors explored the association between health care employees' perceptions of their organizations and objective measures of system performance. A national survey of employees conducted in 2001 by the Veterans Administration (VA) assessed employee perceptions of hospital organizational characteristics. The authors analyzed cross-sectional associations between these perceptions and objective measures of health care system performance--employee and patient care outcomes. Employee perceptions of organizational climate (indicators of the organizational culture) were strongly related to overall satisfaction and measures of system performance. Overall, change in perceptions of organizational climate by 1 standard deviation (SD) was potentially associated with changes of 2% to 35% in selected outcomes. Organizational climate, policies, and resultant working conditions in health care institutions appear to be strong drivers of system performance. Interventions directed toward improving care quality and safety should address these factors.

  15. tPA Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, Lucy Dana; Grantz, Matthew Ryan; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Background IV tPA utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Methods Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010–11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and analyzed for association with outcomes. Results We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at CSC, 68% at CH (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, p<0.001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, p<0.001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, mRS) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Conclusion Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. PMID:26698642

  16. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prescription and Administration Errors within a Regional Stroke System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Lee S; Tkach, Aleksander; Lingenfelter, Erin M; Dehoney, Sarah B; Rollo, Jeannie; de Havenon, Adam; DeWitt, L Dana; Grantz, Matthew R; Wang, Haimei; Wold, Jana J; Hannon, Peter M; Weathered, Natalie R; Majersik, Jennifer J

    2016-03-01

    Intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) utilization in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) requires weight-based dosing and a standardized infusion rate. In our regional network, we have tried to minimize tPA dosing errors. We describe the frequency and types of tPA administration errors made in our comprehensive stroke center (CSC) and at community hospitals (CHs) prior to transfer. Using our stroke quality database, we extracted clinical and pharmacy information on all patients who received IV tPA from 2010-11 at the CSC or CH prior to transfer. All records were analyzed for the presence of inclusion/exclusion criteria deviations or tPA errors in prescription, reconstitution, dispensing, or administration, and for association with outcomes. We identified 131 AIS cases treated with IV tPA: 51% female; mean age 68; 32% treated at the CSC, and 68% at CHs (including 26% by telestroke) from 22 CHs. tPA prescription and administration errors were present in 64% of all patients (41% CSC, 75% CH, P < .001), the most common being incorrect dosage for body weight (19% CSC, 55% CH, P < .001). Of the 27 overdoses, there were 3 deaths due to systemic hemorrhage or ICH. Nonetheless, outcomes (parenchymal hematoma, mortality, modified Rankin Scale score) did not differ between CSC and CH patients nor between those with and without errors. Despite focus on minimization of tPA administration errors in AIS patients, such errors were very common in our regional stroke system. Although an association between tPA errors and stroke outcomes was not demonstrated, quality assurance mechanisms are still necessary to reduce potentially dangerous, avoidable errors. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Relations between administrative monitoring system to cope with corporate scandals and market competition situation(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    SHIRAISHI Ken

    2005-01-01

    One of the measures to cope with corporate scandals is monitoring by the administrative agencies. This paper refers the theory of the monitoring, inspects some current Japanese administrative monitoring systems and indicates desirable way to design social system based on law and economic theory. As to current Japanese monitoring systems, some systems are rationally designed, combining inside and outside monitoring, and lowered the social costs, but others are excessive or underrate monitoring...

  18. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  19. Public administration archives: state of the art of record management and classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Reale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at presenting the state of art related to the records management in the public sector and, more specifically, to the main tools required for managing current records according to the Direction general for Archives and its specific competencies which imply a role for defining and approving classification and preservation plans. The article analyses various projects developed for the public sectors in the last 25 years in connection with the innovation processes for the public administration and the crucial role recognised to the records management. The paper illustrates the work done by working groups for universities, municipalities, regions and provinces but also for health environment, chambers of trade, banks and educational institutions. With reference to the State institutions, a general picture is presented for ministries such as Ministry of Justice and Ministry for cultural heritage. In the last case, the classification system developed and adopted in 2004 in connection with the electronic registry system is discussed in detail. The paper presents also the project supported by the Agenzia dell’Italia digitale (AGID dedicated to the definition of a common classification plan for administrative functions in the public sector. Even if not complete the picture is able to provide elements to evaluate the tools and their critical aspects, to stress the need for cooperation, to update the present systems and study general methodologies. The contribution is also dedicated to the role of professionals with specific experience in the records management systems for the public sector.

  20. Systemic Administration of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Does Not Halt Osteoporotic Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Huang

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have innate ability to self-renew and immunosuppressive functions, and differentiate into various cell types. They have become a promising cell source for treating many diseases, particular for bone regeneration. Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disorder with elevated systemic inflammation which in turn triggers enhanced bone loss. We hypothesize that systemic infusion of MSCs may suppress the elevated inflammation in the osteoporotic subjects and slow down bone loss. The current project was to address the following two questions: (1 Will a single dose systemic administration of allogenic MSCs have any effect on osteoporotic bone loss? (2 Will multiple administration of allogenic MSCs from single or multiple donors have similar effect on osteoporotic bone loss? 18 ovariectomized (OVX rats were assigned into 3 groups: the PBS control group, MSCs group 1 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs at Day 10, 46, 91 from the same donor following OVX and MSCs group 2 (receiving 2x106 GFP-MSCs from three different donors at Day 10, 46, 91. Examinations included Micro-CT, serum analysis, mechanical testing, immunofluorescence staining and bone histomorphometry analysis. Results showed that BV/TV at Day 90, 135, BMD of TV and trabecular number at Day 135 in the PBS group were significantly higher than those in the MSCs group 2, whereas trabecular spacing at Day 90, 135 was significantly smaller than that in MSCs group 2. Mechanical testing data didn't show significant difference among the three groups. In addition, the ELISA assay showed that level of Rantes in serum in MSCs group 2 was significantly higher than that of the PBS group, whereas IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. Bone histomorphometry analysis showed that Oc.S/BS and Oc.N/BS in the PBS group were significant lower than those in MSCs group 2; Ob.S/BS and Ob.N/BS did not show significant difference among the three groups. The current study

  1. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was developed and validated in accordance with the USA FDA guidelines including accuracy, precision, specificity, and linearity. Perilymph was sampled from the apical turn of the cochlea to prevent contamination with the cerebrospinal fluid. ADAC was detected in cochlear perilymph within two minutes following intravenous administration and remained in perilymph above its minimal effective concentration for at least two hours. The pharmacokinetic pattern of ADAC was significantly altered by exposure to noise, suggesting transient changes in permeability of the blood-labyrinth barrier and/or cochlear blood flow. This study supports ADAC development as a potential clinical otological treatment for acute sensorineural hearing loss caused by exposure to traumatic noise.

  2. Irinotecan-encapsulated double-reverse thermosensitive nanocarrier system for rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Fakhar Ud; Choi, Ju Yeon; Kim, Dong Wuk; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Shik; Thapa, Raj Kumar; Ku, Sae Kwang; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-11-01

    Intravenously administered for the treatment of rectum cancer, irinotecan produces severe side effects due to very high plasma concentrations. A novel irinotecan-encapsulated double reverse thermosensitive nanocarrier system (DRTN) for rectal administration was developed as an alternative. The DRTN was fabricated by dispersing the thermosensitive irinotecan-encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) in the thermosensitive poloxamer solution. Its gel properties, pharmacokinetics, morphology, anticancer activity and immunohistopathology were assessed after its rectal administration to rats and tumor-bearing mice. In the DRTN, the solid form of the SLN and the liquid form of the poloxamer solution persisted at 25 °C; the former melted to liquid, and the latter altered to gel at 36.5 °C. The DRTN was easily administered to the anus, gelling rapidly and strongly after rectal administration. Compared to the conventional hydrogel and intravenously administered solution, it retarded dissolution and initial plasma concentration. The DRTN gave sustained release and nearly constant plasma concentrations of irinotecan at 1-3 h in rats, resulting in improved anticancer activity. It induced no damage to the rat rectum and no body weight loss in tumor-bearing mice. Thus, this irinotecan-encapsulated DRTN associated with a reduced burst effect, lack of toxicity and excellent antitumor efficacy would be strongly recommended as a rectal pharmaceutical product alternative to commercial intravenous injection in the treatment of rectum and colon cancer.

  3. Development of an administrative system for an integral program of safety and occupational hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez R, J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation thesis will be to provide a clear application of the basic elements of the administration for the elaboration of an integral program of security and occupational hygiene that serves like guide for the creation of new programs and of an internal integral regulation, in the matter. For the above mentioned the present work of thesis investigation besides applying those basic elements of the integral administration will be given execution to the normative one effective as well as the up-to-date concepts of security and hygiene for that the present thesis will be based on these premises that guided us for the elaboration of the program of security and occupational hygiene and that it will serve like base to be applied in all the areas of the National Institute of Nuclear Research and in special in those that are certifying for the system of administration of quality ISO 9001:2000 that with their implantation the objectives were reached that the Institute it has been traced in their general politics. It is necessary to make mention that the Institute has a primordial activity that is the one of to make Research and Development in nuclear matter for the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy, for that that with a strong support of the conventional areas of the type industrial the institutional objectives are achieved, for what is in these areas where the present thesis investigation is developed, without stopping to revise and to apply the nuclear normativity. (Author)

  4. Sistema de gestión de datos GESTSOFT // System of data administration GESTSOFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rolando Rivero Galán

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe el uso del sistema de gestión GESTSOFT el cual fue desarrollado en el lenguaje deprogramación Visual Basic. Mediante el uso del sistema es posible la manipulación de las bases de datos de un almacén yrealizar a voluntad del usuario múltiples consultas, informes y reportes. Con el sistema se logra la confección de facturas ypre-facturas de ventas del los productos de forma totalmente automatizada.Palabras claves: base de datos, gestión de ventas.__________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the present work is described the use of the administration system GESTSOFT which was developed by the authors inVisual Basic programming language. By means of the use of the system it is possible the manipulation of a warehousedatabase and to carry out multiple consultations, accounts and reports according to the user's will. With the system it isachieved the confection of invoices and pre-invoices of sales in a completely automated way.Key words: Database, Sales administration..

  5. Social work in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) System: rewards, challenges, roles and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Joan; Postiglione, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For the social worker in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) System, numerous challenges are faced and met while serving the nation's Veterans. As part of the multidisciplinary team, social workers perform a variety of tasks and function in diverse roles. The qualitative survey research reported in this article sought to detail what social workers identified about the impact and rewards of their work and what they saw as the challenges and frustrations. In addition the social workers were asked to clarify their role with the patient and the family. Intervention strategies used in the course of the social workers interaction with the Veterans was also ascertained.

  6. Information systems for administration, clinical documentation and quality assurance in an Austrian disease management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Peter; Truskaller, Thomas; Rakovac, Ivo; Bruner, Fritz; Zanettin, Dominik; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    5.9% of the Austrian population is affected by diabetes mellitus. Disease Management is a structured treatment approach that is suitable for application to the diabetes mellitus area and often is supported by information technology. This article describes the information systems developed and implemented in the Austrian disease management programme for type 2 diabetes. Several workflows for administration as well as for clinical documentation have been implemented utilizing the Austrian e-Health infrastructure. De-identified clinical data is available for creating feedback reports for providers and programme evaluation.

  7. Analysis of higher harmonics in the power supply system of the administrative building with grouped nonlinear low-power loads

    OpenAIRE

    Derikučka Ilija M.; Radović Jadranka S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of influences of higher harmonics in the power supplying systems of administration building, obtained on the basis of formed simulation model. It also presents and analyses specific measurements of power quality at the level of distribution substations that feed the typical administration building. Formed simulation model as well as the conclusions drawn on the basis of measurements and simulation calculation for the given administration buildin...

  8. Application of intelligent business system within the administrative information system for complex services

    OpenAIRE

    NENKOV NAYDEN; VARBANOV STEFAN

    2016-01-01

    The document describes the application of BI tool in the practice of E-Government in Bulgaria. The field of application is the agrifood chain in the Republic of Bulgaria. To develop a system for the analysis and reporting of the integrated information system is selected business intelligent QlikView platform.Below are the main advantages and the reasoning upon the choices being made.

  9. PS-022 Complex automated medication systems reduce medication administration error rates in an acute medical ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Bettina Wulff; Lisby, Marianne; Sørensen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    the medication administration error rate in comparison with current practice. Material and methods This was a controlled before and after study with follow-up after 7 and 14 months. The study was conducted in two acute medical hospital wards. Two automated medication systems were tested: (1) automated dispensing...... cabinet, automated dispensing and barcode medication administration; (2) non-patient specific automated dispensing and barcode medication administration. The occurrence of administration errors was observed in three 3 week periods. The error rates were calculated by dividing the number of doses with one....... The complex automated medication system effectively reduced the overall risk of administration errors in the intervention ward (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.27–0.90), and the procedural error rate was also significantly reduced (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.126–0.94). The non-patient specific automated medication system...

  10. The Effects of Local and Systemic Administration of Proline on Wound Healing in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Husnu; Tatar, Cihad; Savas, Osman Anil; Karsidag, Tamer; Ozer, Bahri; Dursun, Nevra; Bekem, Aylin; Unal, Ahmet; Tuzun, Ishak Sefa

    2018-03-01

    Wound healing consists of a sequence of complex molecular and cellular events. Collagen is composed mainly of proline and hydroxyproline. Proline and hydroxyproline constitute 1/3 of the amino acids in collagen, which makes up approximately 30% of the proteins within the body. The hydroxylation of proline found in collagen determines the stability of the triple helical structure of collagen. In this study, we examined the effects of local and systemic administration of proline on wound healing. 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study and divided into three groups. Group 1: The defect created in the backs of the subjects was left to secondary healing. Group 2: 200 µl proline per day was administered topically for 30 days on the defect in the backs of the subjects. Group 3: 200 µl per day was administered intraperitoneally for 30 days on the defect in the backs of the subjects. On day 21, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the mean re-epithelialization score. On days 7 and 14, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the mean granulation score. On days 7, 14, and 21, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the mean collagen accumulation score. On day 30, there was a statistically significant difference between Groups 1 and 3 in terms of the mean E-mode score on mechanical tensile test. Our study confirmed that proline has positive effects on wound healing. However, it revealed that systemic administration of proline is more effective than local administration of proline.

  11. "You Need a System": Exploring the Role of Data in the Administration of University Students and Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Neil; Henderson, Michael; Chao, Shu-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Universities generate a mass of data related to students and the courses that they study. As such, "data work" using digital technologies and digital systems is integral to educational administration within higher education. Drawing on in-depth interviews with administrative and managerial staff in an Australian university, this article…

  12. An Exploration of the Leadership Style Preferences among African American Women Administrators of the 1890 Cooperative Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shelvy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and explore the leadership style preferences among current African American Administrators of the 1890 Land-Grant Cooperative Extension system. The population used in this study was African American women administrators from eighteen mostly southern states. The researcher used a…

  13. Disaster management : An integral part of science & technology system and land administration management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghawana, Tarun; Zlatanova, S.

    2016-01-01

    Disaster management is a multidisciplinary field, which requires a general coordination approach as well as specialist approaches. Science and Technology system of a country allows to create policies and execution of technical inputs required which provide services for the specific types of

  14. Expand classical drug administration ways by emerging routes using dendrimer drug delivery systems: a concise overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Serge; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Drugs are introduced into the body by numerous routes such as enteral (oral, sublingual and rectum administration), parenteral (intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous and inhalation administration), or topical (skin and mucosal membranes). Each route has specific purposes, advantages and disadvantages. Today, the oral route remains the preferred one for different reasons such as ease and compliance by patients. Several nanoformulated drugs have been already approved by the FDA, such as Abelcet®, Doxil®, Abraxane® or Vivagel®(Starpharma) which is an anionic G4-poly(L-lysine)-type dendrimer showing potent topical vaginal microbicide activity. Numerous biochemical studies, as well as biological and pharmacological applications of both dendrimer based products (dendrimers as therapeutic compounds per se, like Vivagel®) and dendrimers as drug carriers (covalent conjugation or noncovalent encapsulation of drugs) were described. It is widely known that due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties, dendrimers afforded improvement of corresponding carried-drugs as dendrimer-drug complexes or conjugates (versus plain drug) such as biodistribution and pharmacokinetic behaviors. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent progresses of dendrimers as nanoscale drug delivery systems for the delivery of drugs using enteral, parenteral and topical routes. In particular, we focus our attention on the emerging and promising routes such as oral, transdermal, ocular and transmucosal routes using dendrimers as delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of New Fluorescent Lipophosphoramidates for Gene Transfer and Biodistribution Studies after Systemic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Belmadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of lung gene therapy is to reach the respiratory epithelial cells in order to deliver a functional nucleic acid sequence. To improve the synthetic carrier’s efficacy, knowledge of their biodistribution and elimination pathways, as well as cellular barriers faced, depending on the administration route, is necessary. Indeed, the in vivo fate guides the adaptation of their chemical structure and formulation to increase their transfection capacity while maintaining their tolerance. With this goal, lipidic fluorescent probes were synthesized and formulated with cationic lipophosphoramidate KLN47 (KLN: Karine Le Ny. We found that such formulations present constant compaction properties and similar transfection results without inducing additional cytotoxicity. Next, biodistribution profiles of pegylated and unpegylated lipoplexes were compared after systemic injection in mice. Pegylation of complexes led to a prolonged circulation in the bloodstream, whereas their in vivo bioluminescent expression profiles were similar. Moreover, systemic administration of pegylated lipoplexes resulted in a transient liver toxicity. These results indicate that these new fluorescent compounds could be added into lipoplexes in small amounts without perturbing the transfection capacities of the formulations. Such additional properties allow exploration of the in vivo biodistribution profiles of synthetic carriers as well as the expression intensity of the reporter gene.

  16. Systemic, intratympanic and combined administration of steroids for sudden hearing loss. A prospective randomized multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Michael; Psillas, George; Tsalighopoulos, Miltiadis; Vital, Victor; Maroudias, Nicolas; Markou, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of systemic versus intratympanic versus combined administration of steroids in the treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. 102 patients with an up to 14 days history of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were randomized to 1 of 3 arms and followed prospectively. Group A (35 patients) received prednisolone intravenously followed by methylprednisolone orally, whereas Group B (34 patients) were administered intratympanic methylprednisolone. Patients in Group C (33 patients) were administered the combination of the above-mentioned treatment modalities. The patients were followed-up with pure tone audiograms on days 1 (initiation of treatment), 3, 5, 10, 30 and 90. The final mean hearing gain was 29.0 dB HL for Group A, 27.0 dB HL for Group B and 29.8 dB HL for Group C. The differences between the three groups were not statistically significant. When hearing improvement was assessed according to Siegel's criteria, no statistically significant difference was recorded either. Furthermore, patients younger than 60 years old achieved significantly better hearing outcomes. The results demonstrated that systemic, intratympanic and combined steroid administration have similar results in the primary treatment of idiopathic sudden hearing loss. Younger patients are more likely to achieve better hearing outcomes.

  17. beta-hexosaminidase lentiviral vectors: transfer into the CNS via systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Miller, Jennie H; Brouxhon, Sabine M; Olschowka, John A; Federoff, Howard J

    2005-02-18

    Brain inflammation in GM2 gangliosidosis has been recently realized as a key factor in disease development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a FIV beta-hexosaminidase vector in the brain of HexB-deficient (Sandhoff disease) mice following intraperitoneal administration to pups of neonatal age. Since brain inflammation, lysosomal storage and neuromuscular dysfunction are characteristics of HexB deficiency, these parameters were employed as experimental outcomes in our study. The ability of the lentiviral vector FIV(HEX) to infect murine cells was initially demonstrated with success in normal mouse fibroblasts and human Tay-Sachs cells in vitro. Furthermore, systemic transfer of FIV(HEX) to P2 HexB-/- knockout pups lead to transduction of peripheral and central nervous system tissues. Specifically, beta-hexosaminidase expressing cells were immunolocalized in periventricular areas of the cerebrum as well as in the cerebellar cortex. FIV(HEX) neonatal treatment resulted in reduction of GM2 storage along with attenuation of the brain inflammation and amelioration of the attendant neuromuscular deterioration. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effective transfer of a beta-hexosaminidase lentiviral vector to the brain of Sandhoff mice and resolution of the GM2 gangliosidosis after neonatal intraperitoneal administration.

  18. Change of nuclear administrative system and long-term program for nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, S. W.; Yang, M. H.; Jeong, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    Japanese new governmental adminstrative system was restructured and became in operation from January 1, 2001 including newly establishment of the Ministry of Cabinet. Accordingly, Japanese nuclear administrative system were also changed significantly, in order to reflect the changing policy environment and response to them more efficiently in the use and development of nuclear energy. Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Safety Commission administrated by Science and Technology Agency in the past, were moved to the Ministry of Cabinet, and Integrated Science and Technology Council was also newly established under the Ministry of Cabinet. And Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry(METI) is in charge of nuclear energy policy and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) is in charge of nuclear academic science consequently. At the same time, the revision work of 'Long-term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear of Japan' established in 1994, has been carried out from 1999 in order to set up the long term based national nuclear policy towards the 21st century, and finally the results were open to the public in November 2000. Major changes of nuclear policy of Japan the will be good references in the establishing future national nuclear policy for the use and development of nuclear energy

  19. The impact of a closed‐loop electronic prescribing and administration system on prescribing errors, administration errors and staff time: a before‐and‐after study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bryony Dean; O'Grady, Kara; Donyai, Parastou; Jacklin, Ann; Barber, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of a closed‐loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and electronic medication administration record (EMAR) system on prescribing and administration errors, confirmation of patient identity before administration, and staff time. Design, setting and participants Before‐and‐after study in a surgical ward of a teaching hospital, involving patients and staff of that ward. Intervention Closed‐loop electronic prescribing, automated dispensing, barcode patient identification and EMAR system. Main outcome measures Percentage of new medication orders with a prescribing error, percentage of doses with medication administration errors (MAEs) and percentage given without checking patient identity. Time spent prescribing and providing a ward pharmacy service. Nursing time on medication tasks. Results Prescribing errors were identified in 3.8% of 2450 medication orders pre‐intervention and 2.0% of 2353 orders afterwards (p<0.001; χ2 test). MAEs occurred in 7.0% of 1473 non‐intravenous doses pre‐intervention and 4.3% of 1139 afterwards (p = 0.005; χ2 test). Patient identity was not checked for 82.6% of 1344 doses pre‐intervention and 18.9% of 1291 afterwards (p<0.001; χ2 test). Medical staff required 15 s to prescribe a regular inpatient drug pre‐intervention and 39 s afterwards (p = 0.03; t test). Time spent providing a ward pharmacy service increased from 68 min to 98 min each weekday (p = 0.001; t test); 22% of drug charts were unavailable pre‐intervention. Time per drug administration round decreased from 50 min to 40 min (p = 0.006; t test); nursing time on medication tasks outside of drug rounds increased from 21.1% to 28.7% (p = 0.006; χ2 test). Conclusions A closed‐loop electronic prescribing, dispensing and barcode patient identification system reduced prescribing errors and MAEs, and increased confirmation of patient identity before

  20. Nanodelivery Systems as New Tools for Immunostimulant or Vaccine Administration: Targeting the Fish Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish disease treatments have progressed significantly over the last few years and have moved from the massive use of antibiotics to the development of vaccines mainly based on inactivated bacteria. Today, the incorporation of immunostimulants and antigens into nanomaterials provide us with new tools to enhance the performance of immunostimulation. Nanoparticles are dispersions or solid particles designed with specific physical properties (size, surface charge, or loading capacity, which allow controlled delivery and therefore improved targeting and stimulation of the immune system. The use of these nanodelivery platforms in fish is in the initial steps of development. Here we review the advances in the application of nanoparticles to fish disease prevention including: the type of biomaterial, the type of immunostimulant or vaccine loaded into the nanoparticles, and how they target the fish immune system.

  1. Attenuation of Morphine Physical Dependence and Blood Levels of Cortisol by Central and Systemic Administration of Ramelteon in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic administration of morphine cause physical dependence but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. The aim of this study is the assessment of systemic and intracerebroventricular (icv administration of ramelteon (a melatonin receptor agonist on morphine physical dependence. Methods: 88 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups, namely “systematic” and “central” administration of ramelteon. In the first category, systemic administration of ramelteon at various dosages (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with positive (received morphine and saline as systemic administration, negative control (saline and group under treatment by ramelteon (40 mg/kg groups. In the second category, central administration of ramelteon at various dosages (25, 50, or 100 μg, was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with the positive control (received morphine and saline as icv and negative control (saline groups, and the group under treatment by ramelteon (50 μg/5 μl/rat. On the test day, all animals received naloxone (3 mg/kg and were observed for withdrawal signs. Total withdrawal score (TWS was also determined. Finally, to evaluate the stress level of dependent rats, blood cortisols were measured. Results: Central administration of ramelteon in all doses and systemic administration in high doses attenuate withdrawal syndrome in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Both central and systemic administrations of ramelteon can attenuate the blood cortisol level in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that central administration of ramelteon attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms and cortisol level as a stress marker.

  2. Decreases in colonic and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection after IL-7 administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini Sereti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART, some HIV-infected persons maintain lower than normal CD4(+ T-cell counts in peripheral blood and in the gut mucosa. This incomplete immune restoration is associated with higher levels of immune activation manifested by high systemic levels of biomarkers, including sCD14 and D-dimer, that are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. In this 12-week, single-arm, open-label study, we tested the efficacy of IL-7 adjunctive therapy on T-cell reconstitution in peripheral blood and gut mucosa in 23 ART suppressed HIV-infected patients with incomplete CD4(+ T-cell recovery, using one cycle (consisting of three subcutaneous injections of recombinant human IL-7 (r-hIL-7 at 20 µg/kg. IL-7 administration led to increases of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cells in peripheral blood, and importantly an expansion of T-cells expressing the gut homing integrin α4β7. Participants who underwent rectosigmoid biopsies at study baseline and after treatment had T-cell increases in the gut mucosa measured by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 therapy also resulted in apparent improvement in gut barrier integrity as measured by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the rectosigmoid lamina propria 12 weeks after IL-7 administration. This was also accompanied by decreased TNF and increased FOXP3 expression in the lamina propria. Plasma levels of sCD14 and D-dimer, indicative of systemic inflammation, decreased after r-hIL-7. Increases of colonic mucosal T-cells correlated strongly with the decreased systemic levels of sCD14, the LPS coreceptor - a marker of monocyte activation. Furthermore, the proportion of inflammatory monocytes expressing CCR2 was decreased, as was the basal IL-1β production of peripheral blood monocytes. These data suggest that administration of r-hIL-7 improves the gut mucosal abnormalities of chronic HIV infection and attenuates the systemic inflammatory and coagulation

  3. The role of medical group practice administrators in the adoption and implementation of Medicare's physician quality reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulam, Robert; Kralewski, John; Dowd, Bryan; Gans, David

    2016-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the factors influencing the adoption of quality assurance (QA) programs by medical group practices, few have focused on the role of group practice administrators. To gain insights into the role these administrators play in QA programs, we analyzed how medical practices adopted and implemented the Medicare Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the largest physician quality reporting system in the United States. We conducted focus group interviews in 2011 with a national convenience sample of 76 medical group practice administrators. Responses were organized and analyzed using the innovation decision framework of Van de Ven and colleagues. Administrators conducted due diligence on PQRS, influenced how the issue was presented to physicians for adoption, and managed implementation thereafter. Administrators' recommendations were heavily influenced by practice characteristics, financial incentives, and practice commitments to early adoption of quality improvement innovations. Virtually, all who attempted it agreed that PQRS was straightforward to implement. However, the complexities of Medicare's PQRS reports impeded use of the data by administrators to support quality management. Group practice administrators are playing a prominent role in activities related to the quality of patient care--they are not limited to the business side of the practice. Especially, as PQRS becomes more nearly universal after 2014, Medicare should take account of the role that administrators play, by more actively engaging administrators in shaping these programs and making it easier for administrators to use the results. More research is needed on the rapidly evolving role of nonphysician administration in medical group practices. Practice administrators have a larger role than commonly understood in how quality reporting initiatives are adopted and used and are in an exceptional position to influence the more appropriate use of these resources if

  4. Chemical Leukoderma Associated with Methylphenidate Transdermal System: Data From the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Carmen; La Grenade, Lois; Diak, Ida-Lina; Brinker, Allen; Levin, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    To identify and characterize cases of chemical leukoderma, an underrecognized adverse event, associated with the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) reported to the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We searched the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System for reports of chemical leukoderma associated with MTS, received by the Food and Drug Administration from April 6, 2006 to December 23, 2014. We identified 51 cases of chemical leukoderma reported with the use of MTS. The median age was 11 years; 43 cases reported leukoderma at or near the application site only, and 7 reported leukoderma at other parts of the body in addition to the application site; 1 case did not provide enough information to confirm the affected site. The time to onset ranged from 2 months to 4 years after the initiation of MTS. MTS was discontinued in 31 cases. Thirteen patients were prescribed treatment for repigmentation. Three cases reported continued spread of leukoderma after MTS was discontinued. Nineteen cases were diagnosed as vitiligo, including 5 cases reporting histologic features consistent with vitiligo. Leukoderma was persistent in all cases. The median follow-up interval after the discontinuation of MTS in 23 cases was 14 months. As outlined in recent changes to the prescribing information for MTS, health care professionals need to be aware of the potential risk of chemical leukoderma caused by MTS, especially given that chemical leukoderma is often misdiagnosed as idiopathic vitiligo. MTS should be discontinued at the earliest sign of pigment loss and other treatment options considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Safety of fluralaner chewable tablets (Bravecto), a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in dogs after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Feli M; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer K A; Nuernberger, Martin C

    2014-03-07

    Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide that provides long acting efficacy in dogs after a single oral treatment. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner in chewable tablets to dogs at the highest recommended treatment dose and at multiples of this dose. Thirty-two (16 male and 16 female) healthy 8-week old Beagle dogs weighing 2.0 - 3.6 kg at first administration were included in the study. Fluralaner was administered on three occasions at 8-week intervals at doses of up to 56, 168, and 280 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 1, 3, and 5 times the highest recommended treatment dose of fluralaner; sham dosed dogs served as controls.During the study, all dogs were clinically observed, and their health was carefully monitored including body weight development, food consumption and measurement of hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry (including measurement of levels of ACTH and C-reactive protein) and urinalysis. Following euthanasia of the dogs, complete gross post mortem examination, including organ weight determination, and histopathological examination of multiple tissues were conducted. There were no clinical findings related to fluralaner treatment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control group were observed for some clinical pathology parameters and organ weights; none of these findings were considered to be of clinical relevance. Oral administration of fluralaner at the highest recommended treatment dose (56 mg/kg) at 8-week intervals is well tolerated and has a safety margin of more than five in healthy dogs eight weeks of age or older and weighing at least 2 kg.

  6. Using web-based group support systems to enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors are investigating whether Web-based Group Support System (GSS) tools can support and enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa. They report here on work that emanates from a masters dissertation...

  7. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 7: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety information system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, and (5) update mode functions.

  8. Local vs. systemic administration of bisphosphonates in rat cleft bone graft: A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hong

    Full Text Available A majority of patients with orofacial cleft deformity requires cleft repair through a bone graft. However, elevated amount of bone resorption and subsequent bone graft failure remains a significant clinical challenge. Bisphosphonates (BPs, a class of anti-resorptive drugs, may offer great promise in enhancing the clinical success of bone grafting. In this study, we compared the effects of systemic and local delivery of BPs in an intraoral bone graft model in rats. We randomly divided 34 female 20-week-old Fischer F344 Inbred rats into four groups to repair an intraoral critical-sized defect (CSD: (1 Control: CSD without graft (n = 4; (2 Graft/Saline: bone graft with systemic administration of saline 1 week post-operatively (n = 10; (3 Graft/Systemic: bone graft with systemic administration of zoledronic acid 1 week post-operatively (n = 10; and (4 Graft/Local: bone graft pre-treated with zoledronic acid (n = 10. At 6-weeks post-operatively, microCT volumetric analysis showed a significant increase in bone fraction volume (BV/TV in the Graft/Systemic (62.99 ±14.31% and Graft/Local (69.35 ±13.18% groups compared to the Graft/Saline (39.18±10.18%. Similarly, histological analysis demonstrated a significant increase in bone volume in the Graft/Systemic (78.76 ±18.00% and Graft/Local (89.95 ±4.93% groups compared to the Graft/Saline (19.74±18.89%. The local delivery approach resulted in the clinical success of bone grafts, with reduced graft resorption and enhanced osteogenesis and bony integration with defect margins while avoiding the effects of BPs on peripheral osteoclastic function. In addition, local delivery of BPs may be superior to systemic delivery with its ease of procedure as it involves simple soaking of bone graft materials in BP solution prior to graft placement into the defect. This new approach may provide convenient and promising clinical applications towards effectively managing cleft patients.

  9. Systemic Interleukin-4 Administration after Spinal Cord Injury Modulates Inflammation and Promotes Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lima

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI causes dramatic disability and dysfunction in the motor, sensory and autonomic systems. The severe inflammatory reaction that occurs after SCI is strongly associated with further tissue damage. As such, immunomodulatory strategies have been developed, aimed at reducing inflammation, but also at shaping the immune response in order to protect, repair and promote regeneration of spared neural tissue. One of those promising strategies is the intraspinal administration of the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4 that was shown to promote a phenotype on specific immune cells associated with neuroprotection and repair. In this work, we evaluated if a systemic delivery of IL-4 for a 7-days period was also capable of promoting neuroprotection after SCI by analyzing different neural cells populations and motor recovery. IL-4 treatment promoted an elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum both at 24 h and 7 days after injury. Locally, treatment with IL-4 led to a reduction on cells expressing markers associated with inflammation, CD11b/c and iNOS. Importantly, IL-4 treatment increased the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and NeuN, and the oligodendrocyte marker O4, suggesting a neuroprotective effect. Moreover, 100% of the animals treated with IL-4 were able to recover weight support against only 33% of saline treated animals. Overall, these results show that systemic administration of IL-4 positively impacts different aspects of spinal cord injury, creating a more favorable environment for recovery to take place.

  10. An analysis of the implementation of an environmental management system in a local public administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Macarena; Vallés, José

    2007-03-01

    The Environmental Management System (EMS) is commonly implemented in private firms. However, on the basis of a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, our work analyzes the consequences of implementing an EMS within the context of local public administrations, particularly regarding the City Council of Ohanes in Almería (Spain). This is the first European corporation to implement an EMS according to the ISO 14001 Standard, certified by the Spanish Association of Normalization and Certification. Its analysis would be equivalent to the Shumpeterian "market innovator study", so that public administration "followers" can take advantage of the derived benefits and of minimizing the negative effects of such an experience. On the other hand, we show that the economic and environmental advantages derived from the EMS go beyond the activities that the City Council is in charge of. They have spillover effects that extend them to all economic activities in the municipality and these effects are expected to be increased in the medium and long-term perspective. In this paper, we compare the costs and benefits that the municipality obtains in two cases: the City Council implements the EMS or it does not implement it. The main objective of this article is to show the economic and environmental advantages obtained by a municipality when it is only the City Council who is implementing an EMS. It is logical to suppose that this case study can stimulate other municipalities to use this instrument, even if the economic and environmental characteristics of the municipality are different.

  11. Information Systems Success In Public Administration: Proposal For An Exploratory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvison de Lima Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investments in Information Systems (IS have been significantly increasing and hence the relevance of the studies on the IS success is persistent. Delone and Mclean (2003 developed an IS successful model which is a benchmark for researches in the area, however, in the perspective of the public sector, studies are still rare. In this research it was sought to propose an exploratory model of successful IS in public administration, from the identification of each construct items of the Delone and McLean (2003 original model, through multiple case studies in three Municipalities and a Town Hall of the Southern Cone of Rondônia state, in Brazil. Based on the empirical research, it was found that the IS success factors in municipal public administration are close to those factors indicated in the reviewed literature, however, showing some particularities of the public sector. A model of successful factors and items of IS, from the confrontation between literature and empirical data, is presented in the end of this work.

  12. A case-mix classification system for explaining healthcare costs using administrative data in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Maria Chiara; Avossa, Francesco; Schievano, Elena; Gallina, Pietro; Ferroni, Eliana; Alba, Natalia; Dotto, Matilde; Basso, Cristina; Netti, Silvia Tiozzo; Fedeli, Ugo; Mantoan, Domenico

    2018-03-04

    The Italian National Health Service (NHS) provides universal coverage to all citizens, granting primary and hospital care with a copayment system for outpatient and drug services. Financing of Local Health Trusts (LHTs) is based on a capitation system adjusted only for age, gender and area of residence. We applied a risk-adjustment system (Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Groups System, ACG® System) in order to explain health care costs using routinely collected administrative data in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy). All residents in the Veneto Region were included in the study. The ACG system was applied to classify the regional population based on the following information sources for the year 2015: Hospital Discharges, Emergency Room visits, Chronic disease registry for copayment exemptions, ambulatory visits, medications, the Home care database, and drug prescriptions. Simple linear regressions were used to contrast an age-gender model to models incorporating more comprehensive risk measures aimed at predicting health care costs. A simple age-gender model explained only 8% of the variance of 2015 total costs. Adding diagnoses-related variables provided a 23% increase, while pharmacy based variables provided an additional 17% increase in explained variance. The adjusted R-squared of the comprehensive model was 6 times that of the simple age-gender model. ACG System provides substantial improvement in predicting health care costs when compared to simple age-gender adjustments. Aging itself is not the main determinant of the increase of health care costs, which is better explained by the accumulation of chronic conditions and the resulting multimorbidity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Development of the nowcasting system for the XVII Asiad at Korea Meteorological Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Juwon; Jang, Taekyu; Hwang, Seung On; Park, Yunho; Kim, Yoonjae; Park, Seonjoo; Joo, Sangwon; Noh, Hae Mi

    2014-05-01

    The XVII Asiad, known as the 2014 Asian game, is the largest sporting event in Asia. It will be held in Incheon, South Korea from September 19 to October 4, with 437 events in 36 sports. To support this game, Korea Meteorological Administration developed Incheon Data Assimilation and Prediction System (IDAPS) for nowcasting and very short range forecasts. The domain is centered at Incheon city and covers the central region of the Korean peninsula and adjacent seas. It repeats analysis and forecast processes with 1 hour cycling interval. IDAPS has approximately 1 km horizontal resolution with 324 x 360 grids and 70 vertical layers. Three dimensional variational data assimilation is applied to assimilate AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, rain rate, and radar products. The details of IDAPS and the experiment results will be given during the conference.

  14. Public and previous consultation on administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez Velásquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the figure of previous and public consultation in administrative rulemaking in the Colombian legal system. Doing that, the article uses a comparative law, a systematic interpretation and a jurisprudential approach to propose some de lege ferenda and de lege data interpretation on the figure. The thesis aims to hold is that from the existing legal framework it is possible to preach the existence of the figure form certain regulations, but also in a generic form in the light of the provisions of Article 8.8 of CPACA. However, due to the imprecise way the consultation was regulated there will be desirable that the legislative branch develop it in more detail manner in the near future or the Consejo de Estado as the Colombian supreme court on this particular issue defining in a unified way the scope of the public consultation. While this occurs, this paper proposes a constitutional interpretation of the institution.

  15. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  16. The effect of systemic administration of ibuprofen in the experimental gingivitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekino, Satoshi; Ramberg, Per; Lindhe, Jan

    2005-02-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that systemically administered flurbiprofen and ibuprofen may reduce gingivitis. De novo plaque formation is enhanced at tooth surfaces adjacent to inflamed gingivae. The aim of the present clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of ibuprofen on gingivitis and plaque build-up. Eleven subjects were recruited for the study and were given oral hygiene instruction, scaling and professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PTC). At the end of a preparatory period (Day 0), the participants were told to abstain from all mechanical plaque control measures during a 2-week experimental period but to rinse with an assigned mouth rinse (positive control: 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate; negative control: saline) or administer ibuprofen (tablets of 200 mg twice daily). Mouth rinsing was performed twice a day (after breakfast and in the evening), for 60 s with 10 ml. Re-examination was performed after 14 days of experiment. After a 2-week "wash-out" period, the participants received a new PTC and a second 14-day experimental period was initiated. The experimental and "wash-out" periods were repeated until all volunteers had been involved in all three regimens. Dental plaque was scored using the Quigley & Hein Plaque Index system and gingivitis according to the Gingival Index (GI) system. Supragingival plaque was collected and prepared for dark-field microscopy. One hundred bacterial cells were counted and classified into six different groups: coccoid cells, straight rods, filaments, fusiforms, spirochetes and motile rods. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from the same sites that were sampled for plaque. The volume of GCF collected in each strip was measured and analysed regarding content of lactoferrin and albumin. During the period when the panelists rinsed with saline they accumulated large amounts of plaque and developed marked signs of gingivitis. When they rinsed with chlorhexidine digluconate, small

  17. Information Technology Service Management with Cloud Computing Approach to Improve Administration System and Online Learning Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilianto Wilianto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the development of information technology service management using cloud computing approach to improve the performance of administration system and online learning at STMIK IBBI Medan, Indonesia. The network topology is modeled and simulated for system administration and online learning. The same network topology is developed in cloud computing using Amazon AWS architecture. The model is designed and modeled using Riverbed Academic Edition Modeler to obtain values of the parameters: delay, load, CPU utilization, and throughput. The simu- lation results are the following. For network topology 1, without cloud computing, the average delay is 54  ms, load 110 000 bits/s, CPU utilization 1.1%, and throughput 440  bits/s.  With  cloud  computing,  the  average  delay  is 45 ms,  load  2 800  bits/s,  CPU  utilization  0.03%,  and throughput 540 bits/s. For network topology 2, without cloud computing, the average delay is 39  ms, load 3 500 bits/s, CPU utilization 0.02%, and throughput database server 1 400 bits/s. With cloud computing, the average delay is 26 ms, load 5 400 bits/s, CPU utilization email server 0.0001%, FTP server 0.001%, HTTP server 0.0002%, throughput email server 85 bits/s, FTP    server 100 bits/sec, and HTTP server 95  bits/s.  Thus,  the  delay, the load, and the CPU utilization decrease; but,  the throughput increases. Information technology service management with cloud computing approach has better performance.

  18. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  19. Experience of health-system pharmacy administration residents in a longitudinal human resource management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerine, Lindsey B Poppe; Granko, Robert P; Savage, Scott W; Daniels, Rowell; Eckel, Stephen F

    2014-12-15

    The experience of health-system pharmacy administration (HSPA) residents in a longitudinal human resource (HR) management program is described. The subsequent benefits to the residents, department, and profession are also discussed. Postgraduate year 2 HSPA residents at an academic medical center desired more responsibility for managing an operational area. To this end, a program was created in which these residents directly manage a small group of pharmacy technicians and report to a clinical manager or assistant director with oversight responsibility. These "resident managers" are responsible, under the direction of the area's clinical manager, for the personnel, schedule, time and attendance, and HR activities of the area. Resident managers have led and sustained operational improvement projects in their areas. In addition to providing learning experiences to residents, the HSPA residency program has also improved the operations of the areas in which these residents work. Benefits to the residents include conducting annual performance evaluations for employees with whom they have a relationship as it is a task every administrator completes. Resident managers at UNC have consistently stated that this longitudinal HR experience is one of the most rewarding and most challenging experiences offered in the two-year HSPA residency. The involvement of HSPA residents in longitudinal management responsibilities furthers residents' leadership success by providing trained managers who are ready to immerse themselves into practice postresidency, having employee engagement and HR skills as well as experiences with leading operational improvements. A longitudinal HR management experience was successfully incorporated into an HSPA residency combined Master of Science degree program. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Veterans Health Administration: Management Attention Is Needed to Address Systemic, Long standing Human Capital Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Objectives, Scope, and Methodology 66 Appendix II Department of Veterans Affairs and Veterans Health Administration Human Resource Training...All Employee Survey 76 Table 4: Department of Veterans Affairs and Veterans Health Administration Human Resource Training Programs 78 Contents...Page ii GAO-17-30 VHA Human Capital Review Figures Figure 1: Attrition for Veterans Health Administration Human Resources

  1. 78 FR 31431 - Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Spacecraft Systems and Related Items the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... articles the President determines, as part of the Administration's Export Control Reform Initiative, no... Administration's larger Export Control Reform effort described, inter alia, in the Commerce Department's July 15... Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Export Control Reform...

  2. Enteric glial reactivity to systemic LPS administration: Changes in GFAP and S100B protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Franceschi, Raphaela; Nardin, Patrícia; Machado, Clivia Valle; Tortorelli, Lucas Silva; Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei; Zanotto, Caroline; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Zancan, Denise Maria

    2017-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to induce inflammation and promotes nervous system activation. Different regions of the brain present heterogeneous glial responses; thus, in order to verify whether systemic LPS-induced inflammation affects the enteric glia differently across the intestinal segments, we evaluated the expressions of two glial activity markers, GFAP and S100B protein, in different intestine segments, at 1h, 24h and 7days after acute systemic LPS administration (0.25 or 2.5mgkg -1 ) in rats. Histological inflammatory analysis indicated that the cecum was most affected when compared to the duodenum and proximal colon at the highest doses of LPS. LPS induced an increased S100B content after 24h in all three regions, which decreased at 7days after the highest dose in all regions. Moreover, at 24h, this dose of LPS increased ex-vivo S100B secretion only in the cecum. The highest dose of LPS also increased GFAP in all regions at 24h, but earlier in the cecum, where LPS-induced enteric S100B and GFAP alterations were dependent on dose, time and intestine region. No associated changes in serum S100B were observed. Our results indicate heterogeneous enteric glial responses to inflammatory insult, as observed in distinct brain areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Amygdala-prefrontal pathways and the dopamine system affect nociceptive responses in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onozawa Kitaro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the affective rather than the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain. The PFC receives dense projection from the limbic system. Monosynaptic projections from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA to the PFC are known to produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. We examined effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS delivered to the BLA on nociceptive responses in the rat PFC. Results HFS induced long lasting suppression (LLS of the specific high threshold responses of nociceptive neurons in the PFC. Microinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, dizocilpine (MK-801 and also metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR group antagonists (α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, and 2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl-D-alanine (LY341495, prevented the induction of LLS of nociceptive responses. We also examined modulatory effects of dopamine (DA on the LLS of nociceptive responses. With depletion of DA in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the ipsilateral forebrain bundle, LLS of nociceptive responses was decreased, while nociceptive responses were normally evoked. Antagonists of DA receptor subtypes D2 (sulpiride and D4 (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b] pyridine (L-745,870, microinjected into the PFC, inhibited LLS of nociceptive responses. Conclusions Our results indicate that BLA-PFC pathways inhibited PFC nociceptive cell activities and that the DA system modifies the BLA-PFC regulatory function.

  4. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  5. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  6. Independent Planning System and Public Administration in Metropolitan Development: Agglomeration Strategies of Greater Chaoshan in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines independent planning system as a means of public administration in regional economic development. It proposes a new strategy based on the theories of public administrative resources, to agglomerate and unify the cities of Shantou, Jieyang, and Chaozhou into a new administrative entity as a metropolis with the status of independent planning and the preferred policies of a Special Economic Region to lead regional development. The optimal allocation of public administrative resources has played a key role in the fundamental economic development in China in recent years. The new administrative system of large cities (metropolises with independent planning has become an innovative format to utilize the renewable soft resources of administration, which in fact is a new attempt to reform the economic system by the Chinese government. The greater Chaoshan area needs to be agglomerated and unified to further develop the regional economy with the implementation of independent planning system. The current research conducted from a practical and political point of view is of significant value to the overall planning and strategic layout of the economic and social development of the whole eastern Guangdong region.

  7. The involvement of NMDA receptor/NO/cGMP pathway in the antidepressant like effects of baclofen in mouse force swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Zolfaghari, Samira; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-26

    In the current study, the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system in the antidepressant-like effects of baclofen was evaluated by using animal model in forced swimming test. Followed by an open field test for the evaluation of locomotor activity, the immobility time for mice in force swimming test was recorded. Only the last four min was analyzed. Administration of Baclofen (0.5 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility interval in the FST. Prior administration of l-arginine (750mg/kg, i.p.,) a nitric oxide synthase substrate or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p.) a phosphodiesterase 5 into mice suppressed the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen (1mg/kg, i.p.).Co-treatment of 7-nitroindazole (50mg/kg, i.p.,) an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, L-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p.,) a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) an NMDA receptor antagonist with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the immobility time in the FST as compared to the drugs when used alone. Co-administrated of lower doses of MK-801 (0.01mg/kg) or l-NAME (1mg/kg) failed to effect immobility time however, simultaneous administration of these two agents in same dose with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), minimized the immobility time in the FST. Thus, our results support the role of NMDA receptors and l-arginine-NO-GMP pathway in the antidepressant-like action of baclofen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference

  9. Gas system 2015: Press conference 21 January 2016 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2015: Gas consumption resumed despite warm conditions in 2015. Gas demand for power generation in gas-fired power plants has strongly increased, due to favourable economic conditions. 2015 was characterised by the lowest LNG imports to France ever, which entailed a still intensive use of the North-South link, despite transits to Spain and Italy back to 5 year average level. New gas uses and biomethane permitted to avoid 490,000 tonnes of CO 2 emissions in 2015. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions by administrative regions

  10. Systemic administration of platelets incorporating inactivated Sendai virus eradicates melanoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Tung, Li Yu; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2014-12-01

    Tumor microenvironments include a number of fibrin clots due to the microbleeding caused by cancer cell invasion into blood vessels, which suggests the potential utility of a platelet vector for systemic cancer treatment. We previously reported that inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) activates anti-tumor immunity and induces cancer cell-selective apoptosis. The hemagglutination activity that blocks the systemic administration of HVJ-E was dramatically attenuated by incorporation into platelets. Platelets incorporating HVJ-E (PH complex) were then injected into the tail veins of B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice. The PH complex primarily accumulated in tumor tissues and caused the significant accumulation of various immune cells in the tumor bed. Injections of the PH complex to the melanoma-bearing mouse significantly reduced the tumor size, and the tumor growth was ultimately arrested. Secretion of the chemokine regulated upon activation normal T-expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) was upregulated following PH stimulation. The RANTES-depletion in melanoma-bearing mice significantly attenuated the cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and led to a dramatic abrogation of the mouse melanoma suppression induced by the PH complex. Thus, a platelet vector incorporating viral particles, a Trojan horse for cancer treatment, will provide a new approach for cancer therapy using oncolytic viruses.

  11. Measuring sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across Veterans Health Administration organizational components and by staff characteristics. Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the Veterans Affairs' Mental Health System Redesign initiative. A 1-way ANOVA with a Tukey post hoc test examined differences in sustainability by Veteran Integrated Service Networks, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify "a priori" and "in vivo" themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Sustainability differed across Veteran Integrated Service Networks and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for the following: (1) benefits and credibility of the change and (2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were staff and institutional resistance and nonsupportive leadership. Facilitators were commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of quality improvement tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of Plan, Do, Study, Adjust cycles. Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the Veterans Affairs' best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than "one-size-fits-all" approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a quality improvement collaborative affects sustainability.

  12. Design of a RESTful web information system for drug prescription and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Paganelli, Federica; Pettenati, Maria Chiara; Turchi, Stefano; Ciofi, Lucia; Iadanza, Ernesto; Giuli, Dino

    2014-05-01

    Drug prescription and administration processes strongly impact on the occurrence of risks in medical settings for they can be sources of adverse drug events (ADEs). A properly engineered use of information and communication technologies has proven to be a promising approach to reduce these risks. In this study, we propose PHARMA, a web information system which supports healthcare staff in the secure cooperative execution of drug prescription, transcription and registration tasks. PHARMA allows the easy sharing and management of documents containing drug-related information (i.e., drug prescriptions, medical reports, screening), which is often inconsistent and scattered across different information systems and heterogeneous organization domains (e.g., departments, other hospital facilities). PHARMA enables users to access such information in a consistent and secure way, through the adoption of REST and web-oriented design paradigms and protocols. We describe the implementation of the PHARMA prototype, and we discuss the results of the usability evaluation that we carried out with the staff of a hospital in Florence, Italy.

  13. Analysis of higher harmonics in the power supply system of the administrative building with grouped nonlinear low-power loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derikučka Ilija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of influences of higher harmonics in the power supplying systems of administration building, obtained on the basis of formed simulation model. It also presents and analyses specific measurements of power quality at the level of distribution substations that feed the typical administration building. Formed simulation model as well as the conclusions drawn on the basis of measurements and simulation calculation for the given administration building, may be of significance both in exploitation and in the planning of distribution networks with significant participation of nonlinear low-power loads in the structure of their consumption.

  14. Systemic administration of 6-OHDA to rhesus monkeys upregulates HLA-DR expression in brain microvasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joers V

    2014-09-01

    cortical and subcortical structures. Semiquantitative evaluation using a rating scale revealed higher HLA-DR-ir in blood vessels of 6-OHDA-treated animals than controls, specifically in animals with the lowest number of dopaminergic nigral neurons. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that systemic 6-OHDA administration to rhesus monkeys can affect the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system and upregulate inflammatory markers in the cerebrovasculature that persist 3 months post neurotoxin challenge. The variability of the subject response suggests differences in individual sensitivity to 6-OHDA. Keywords: 6-hydroxydopamine, blood–brain barrier, nonhuman primates, neuroinflammation, parkinsonism

  15. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  16. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) μg/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) μg/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) μg/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.

  17. New Morphine Analogs Produce Peripheral Antinociception within a Certain Dose Range of Their Systemic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackó, Erzsébet; Riba, Pál; Giricz, Zoltán; Váradi, András; Cornic, Laura; Balogh, Mihály; Király, Kornél; Csekő, Kata; Mousa, Shaaban A; Hosztafi, Sándor; Schäfer, Michael; Zádori, Zoltán Sándor; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Ferdinandy, Péter; Fürst, Susanna; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    Growing data support peripheral opioid antinociceptive effects, particularly in inflammatory pain models. Here, we examined the antinociceptive effects of subcutaneously administered, recently synthesized 14-O-methylmorphine-6-O-sulfate (14-O-MeM6SU) compared with morphine-6-O-sulfate (M6SU) in a rat model of inflammatory pain induced by an injection of complete Freund's adjuvant and in a mouse model of visceral pain evoked by acetic acid. Subcutaneous doses of 14-O-MeM6SU and M6SU up to 126 and 547 nmol/kg, respectively, produced significant and subcutaneous or intraplantar naloxone methiodide (NAL-M)-reversible antinociception in inflamed paws compared with noninflamed paws. Neither of these doses significantly affected thiobutabarbital-induced sleeping time or rat pulmonary parameters. However, the antinociceptive effects of higher doses were only partially reversed by NAL-M, indicating contribution of the central nervous system. In the mouse writhing test, 14-O-MeM6SU was more potent than M6SU after subcutaneous or intracerebroventricular injections. Both displayed high subcutaneous/intracerebroventricular ED50 ratios. The antinociceptive effects of subcutaneous 14-O-MeM6SU and M6SU up to 136 and 3043 nmol/kg, respectively, were fully antagonized by subcutaneous NAL-M. In addition, the test compounds inhibited mouse gastrointestinal transit in antinociceptive doses. Taken together, these findings suggest that systemic administration of the novel compound 14-O-MeM6SU similar to M6SU in specific dose ranges shows peripheral antinociception in rat and mouse inflammatory pain models without central adverse effects. These findings apply to male animals and must be confirmed in female animals. Therefore, titration of systemic doses of opioid compounds with limited access to the brain might offer peripheral antinociception of clinical importance. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. The influence of formulation and medicine delivery system on medication administration errors in care homes for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldred, David Phillip; Standage, Claire; Fletcher, Olivia; Savage, Imogen; Carpenter, James; Barber, Nick; Raynor, David Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    Older people in care homes are at increased risk of medication errors and adverse drug events. The effect of formulation on administration errors is not known, that is whether the medicine is a tablet or capsule, liquid or device such as an inhaler. Also, the impact on administration errors of monitored dosage systems (MDS), commonly used in UK care homes to dispense tablets and capsules, is not known. This study investigated the influence of formulation and MDS on administration errors. Administration errors were identified by pharmacists (using validated definitions) observing two drug rounds of residents randomly selected from a purposive sample of UK nursing and residential homes. Errors were classified and analysed by formulation and medicine delivery system. The odds of administration errors by formulation, when compared with tablets and capsules in MDS, were: liquids 4.31 (95% CI 2.02 to 9.21; p = 0.0002); topicals/transdermals/injections 19.61 (95% CI 6.90 to 55.73; p < 0.0001); inhalers 33.58 (95% CI 12.51 to 90.19; p < 0.0001). The odds of administration errors for tablets and capsules not in MDS were double those that were dispensed in MDS (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.51; p = 0.04). Inhalers and liquid medicines were associated with significantly increased odds of administration errors. Training of staff in safe administration of these formulations needs implementing. Although there was some evidence that MDS reduced the odds of an administration error, the use of MDS impacts on other aspects of medicines management. Because of this, and as the primary topic of our study was not MDS, a prospective trial specifically designed to evaluate the overall impact of MDS on medicine management in care homes is needed.

  19. New Insights on Different Response of MDMA-Elicited Serotonin Syndrome to Systemic and Intracranial Administrations in the Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Ibrahim M; Callanan, John J; Sousa, John; Tao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the fact that systemic administration of MDMA elicits serotonin syndrome, direct intracranial administration fails to reproduce the effect. To reconcile these findings, it has been suggested that the cause of serotonin syndrome is attributed mainly to MDMA hepatic metabolites, and less likely to MDMA itself. Recently, however, this explanation has been challenged, and alternative hypotheses need to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin syndrome is the result of excessive 5HT simultaneously in many brain areas, while MDMA administered intracranially fails to cause serotonin syndrome because it produces only a localized effect at the delivery site and not to other parts of the brain. This hypothesis was examined using adult male Sprague Dawley rats by comparing 5HT responses in the right and left hemispheric frontal cortices, right and left hemispheric diencephalons, and medullar raphe nucleus. Occurrence of serotonin syndrome was confirmed by measuring change in body temperature. Administration routes included intraperitoneal (IP), intracerebroventricular (ICV) and reverse microdialysis. First, we found that IP administration caused excessive 5HT in all five sites investigated and induced hypothermia, suggesting the development of the serotonin syndrome. In contrast, ICV and reverse microdialysis caused excessive 5HT only in regions of delivery sites without changes in body-core temperature, suggesting the absence of the syndrome. Next, chemical dyes were used to trace differences in distribution and diffusion patterns between administration routes. After systemic administration, the dyes were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. However, the dyes administered through ICV or reverse microdialysis injection still remained in the delivery sites, poorly diffusing to the brain. In conclusion, intracranial MDMA administration in one area has no or little effect on other areas, which must be considered a plausible reason for the

  20. New Insights on Different Response of MDMA-Elicited Serotonin Syndrome to Systemic and Intracranial Administrations in the Rat Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Shokry

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that systemic administration of MDMA elicits serotonin syndrome, direct intracranial administration fails to reproduce the effect. To reconcile these findings, it has been suggested that the cause of serotonin syndrome is attributed mainly to MDMA hepatic metabolites, and less likely to MDMA itself. Recently, however, this explanation has been challenged, and alternative hypotheses need to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin syndrome is the result of excessive 5HT simultaneously in many brain areas, while MDMA administered intracranially fails to cause serotonin syndrome because it produces only a localized effect at the delivery site and not to other parts of the brain. This hypothesis was examined using adult male Sprague Dawley rats by comparing 5HT responses in the right and left hemispheric frontal cortices, right and left hemispheric diencephalons, and medullar raphe nucleus. Occurrence of serotonin syndrome was confirmed by measuring change in body temperature. Administration routes included intraperitoneal (IP, intracerebroventricular (ICV and reverse microdialysis. First, we found that IP administration caused excessive 5HT in all five sites investigated and induced hypothermia, suggesting the development of the serotonin syndrome. In contrast, ICV and reverse microdialysis caused excessive 5HT only in regions of delivery sites without changes in body-core temperature, suggesting the absence of the syndrome. Next, chemical dyes were used to trace differences in distribution and diffusion patterns between administration routes. After systemic administration, the dyes were found to be evenly distributed in the brain. However, the dyes administered through ICV or reverse microdialysis injection still remained in the delivery sites, poorly diffusing to the brain. In conclusion, intracranial MDMA administration in one area has no or little effect on other areas, which must be considered a plausible

  1. TNF-α-induced depressive-like phenotype and p38(MAPK) activation are abolished by ascorbic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Morgana; Budni, Josiane; Freitas, Andiara Espíndola; Neis, Vivian Binder; Ribeiro, Camille Mertins; de Oliveira Balen, Grasiela; Rieger, Débora Kurrle; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on depressive-like behavior induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in mice. Additionally, we examined the effects of combined administration of ascorbic acid and antidepressants, MK-801 and 7-nitroindazole in mice exposed or not to TNF-α and the capacity of TNF-α and ascorbic acid to modulate hippocampal and cerebrocortical phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38(MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In control animals, ascorbic acid reduced the immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST). Unilateral intracerebroventricular administration of TNF-α produced a depressive-like behavior in the TST, and the treatment with ascorbic acid prevented this effect. Sub-effective dose of ascorbic acid combined with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine, imipramine, bupropion, MK-801 or 7-nitroindazole produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in mice exposed or not to TNF-α. No treatment caused significant alterations in the locomotor activity of mice. Administration of TNF-α increased the phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and the treatment with ascorbic acid prevented this effect. Ascorbic acid increased phosphorylation of ERK1 in the hippocampus of saline- and TNF-α-treated animals, however it did not produce alterations in the cerebral cortex. No effects on phosphorylation of ERK2 or JNK were found. The observed effect of ascorbic acid seems to be associated, at least partially, with a reduced p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, activation of the monoaminergic systems as well as inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Guiding Principles for Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaren, Robin; Enemark, Stig; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Most developing countries are struggling to find remedies for their many land problems that are often causing land conflicts, reducing economic development and preventing countries reaching their true potential. Existing investments in land administration have been built on legacy approaches and ...... and issues associated with implementing FFP land administration, including change management, capacity development and project delivery....

  3. Reflections of the Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System Regional Nurse Practitioner Residency Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kameka; Poppe, Anne; Kaminetzky, Catherine P; Wipf, Joyce A; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2016-01-01

    There is a proliferation of advanced practice residency programs. However, there is no uniform model of developing and evaluating program success. An information forum was convened by Veterans Health Administration Puget Sound Health Care System's Center for Primary Care Education on September 17, 2013, in Seattle, Washington, to explore critical aspects of residency models. The three objectives of this forum were to develop a shared understanding of key elements needed to support nurse practitioner residencies; define the unique needs of nurse practitioner trainees who are interested in applying for a residency; and examine the viability of designing a replicable nurse practitioner residency model benchmarking stakeholder best practices. This article describes the organization of the forum and summarizes the presentations during the program. The companion article explores key recommendations from the forum related to future development of residency "toolkits" to aid in future evaluation and accreditation. As nurse practitioner residencies continue to develop and evolve, more is needed in the area of structure and alignment. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Preformulation Studies of Furosemide-Loaded Electrospun Nanofibrous Systems for Buccal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kovács

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Furosemide loaded electrospun fibers were prepared for buccal administration, with the aim of improving the oral bioavailability of the poorly soluble and permeable crystalline drug, which can be achieved by the increased solubility and by the circumvention of the intensive first pass metabolism. The water soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC was chosen as a mucoadhesive polymer. In order to improve the electrospinnability of HPC, poly (vinylpyrrolidone (PVP was used. During the experiments, the total polymer concentration was kept constant at 15% (w/w, and only the ratio of the two polymers (HPC-PVP = 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1 was changed. A combination of rheological measurements with scanning electron microscopic morphological images of electrospun samples was applied for the determination of the optimum composition of the gels for fiber formation. The crystalline–amorphous transition of furosemide was tracked by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A correlation was found between the rheological properties of the polymer solutions and their electrospinnability, and the consequent morphology of the resultant samples. With decreasing HPC ratio of the system, a transition from the spray-dried droplets to the randomly oriented fibrous structures was observed. The results enable the determination of the polymer ratio for the formation of applicable quality of electrospun fibers.

  5. The Effects of Methylphenidate Administration on the Histological Alterations of the Lymphatic System in the Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Louei Monfared

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The lymphatic system as a key component in the organism's body can be affected by used drugs. Methylphenidate or Ritalin is widely used for treatment of behavioral disorders in children and some depressed people. This study carried out to examine the immunotoxic effects of Ritalin. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 healthy adult female mice were selected and randomly divided into a control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received Ritalin as 0.5,5 and 50 mg/kg body weight and control groups received distillated water by gavage method for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, the structure and function of the lymphoid organs were evaluated. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s test (p<0.05. Results: Significant alterations including a reduction in the size and number of lymphoid follicles, increasing in the megakaryocytes numbers as well as spleen capsular thickens were seen following Ritalin administration. The atrophy of the lymph nodes together with significant reduction in the number and size of lymph follicles but an increasing in the parenchyma hyperemia were seen. Also lymphocyte numbers increased while the monocytes numbers decreased (p<0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of Ritalin could be exerted detrimental effects on the lymphoid organs in the mouse model.

  6. Descriptive Analysis of the Regional Innovation System - Novel Method for Public Administration Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina MATATKOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Making innovation is currently one of the key factors of economic development, both for the private sector and the public sector. The public sector can help to support the effective form of knowledge creation and development that will lead to real innovations in the administrated region. Innovations can help meet the objectives of public policies (such as the creation of new jobs and support small and medium-sized enterprises, etc.. This paper tries to summarize the findings regarding knowledge and the innovation environment that public authorities can support in the form of regional innovation systems (RIS. Authors suggest a novel method for increasing efficiency of public financial support. This method was proven in RIS research in the Czech Republic, where the strategic documents initiating support RIS were created. The authors discuss the characters which adequately describe RIS. The added value of this paper is represented by the methodology of RIS describing and listing the public authorities’ roles in establishing a knowledge environment.

  7. Effects of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Kasai, Shunsuke; Ihara, Yuichiro; Imamura, Kentaro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Saito, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect(s) of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microbial profiles of acute periodontal lesions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates was also investigated. Patients with acute phases of chronic periodontitis were subjected to clinical examination and microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples by culture technique. Sitafloxacin was then administered (100 mg/day for 5 days) systemically. The clinical and microbiological examinations were repeated 6-8 days after administration. Susceptibilities of clinical isolates to various antimicrobials were determined using the broth and agar dilution methods. From the sampled sites in 30 participants, a total of 355 clinical isolates (34 different bacterial species) were isolated and identified. Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus mitis were the most prevalent cultivable bacteria in acute sites. Systemic administration of sitafloxacin yielded a significant improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters. Among the antimicrobials tested, sitafloxacin was the most potent against the clinical isolates with an MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml at baseline. After administration, most clinical isolates were still highly susceptible to sitafloxacin although some increase in MICs was observed. The results suggest that systemic administration of sitafloxacin is effective against subgingival bacteria isolated from acute periodontal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nurses' perspectives on how an e-message system supports cross-sectoral communication in relation to medication administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Signe; Nørholm, Vibeke; Andersen, Ove

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe nurses' perspectives on how an e-message system supports communication between hospital and home care nurses in relation to medication administration. BACKGROUND: Medication administration is a complex process involving a high risk of error. Unclear......: The e-message system did not provide the information needed by the home care nurses to ensure safe medication administration after discharge due to (a) limitations of the system, (b) hospital nurses' lack of knowledge about home care nurses' information needs, and (c) hospital nurses' lack of access...... information between nurses. DESIGN: A qualitative design using content analysis. METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted with nurses from eight hospital wards and six municipalities (n=79). Participant observations were conducted in three hospital wards and in three municipalities (165 hours). RESULTS...

  9. Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells combined with parathyroid hormone therapy synergistically regenerates multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn Yakubovich, Doron; Sheyn, Dmitriy; Bez, Maxim; Schary, Yeshai; Yalon, Eran; Sirhan, Afeef; Amira, May; Yaya, Alin; De Mel, Sandra; Da, Xiaoyu; Ben-David, Shiran; Tawackoli, Wafa; Ley, Eric J; Gazit, Dan; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi

    2017-03-09

    A devastating condition that leads to trauma-related morbidity, multiple rib fractures, remain a serious unmet clinical need. Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to regenerate various tissues. We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy would enhance MSC homing and differentiation, ultimately leading to bone formation that would bridge rib fractures. The combination of human MSCs (hMSCs) and a clinically relevant PTH dose was studied using immunosuppressed rats. Segmental defects were created in animals' fifth and sixth ribs. The rats were divided into four groups: a negative control group, in which animals received vehicle alone; the PTH-only group, in which animals received daily subcutaneous injections of 4 μg/kg teriparatide, a pharmaceutical derivative of PTH; the hMSC-only group, in which each animal received five injections of 2 × 10 6 hMSCs; and the hMSC + PTH group, in which animals received both treatments. Longitudinal in vivo monitoring of bone formation was performed biweekly using micro-computed tomography (μCT), followed by histological analysis. Fluorescently-dyed hMSCs were counted using confocal microscopy imaging of histological samples harvested 8 weeks after surgery. PTH significantly augmented the number of hMSCs that homed to the fracture site. Immunofluorescence of osteogenic markers, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, showed that PTH induced cell differentiation in both exogenously administered cells and resident cells. μCT scans revealed a significant increase in bone volume only in the hMSC + PTH group, beginning by the 4 th week after surgery. Eight weeks after surgery, 35% of ribs in the hMSC + PTH group had complete bone bridging, whereas there was complete bridging in only 6.25% of ribs (one rib) in the PTH-only group and in none of the ribs in the other groups. Based on the μCT scans, biomechanical analysis using the micro-finite element method demonstrated that

  10. Muscle pain sensitivity after glutamate injection is not modified by systemic administration of monosodium glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akiko; Castrillon, Eduardo; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Ghafouri, Bijar; Gerdle, Björn; Ernberg, Malin; Cairns, Brian; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is often thought to be associated with headache and craniofacial pains like temporomandibular disorders. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was performed to investigate how ingestion of MSG affects muscle pain sensitivity before and after experimentally induced muscle pain. Sixteen healthy adult subjects participated in 2 sessions with at least 1-week interval between sessions. In each session, two injections of glutamate (Glu, 0.5 M, 0.2 ml) and two injections of saline (0.9%, 0.2 ml) into the masseter and temporalis muscles, respectively, were undertaken, with a 15 min interval between each injection. Injections of saline were made contralateral to Glu injections and done in a randomized order. Participants drank 400 mL of soda mixed with either MSG (150 mg/kg) or NaCl (24 mg/kg, placebo) 30 min before the intramuscular injections. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT), autonomic parameters and pain intensity were assessed prior to (baseline) and 30 min after ingestion of soda, as well as 5 min and 10 min after the intramuscular injections and at the end of the session. Whole saliva samples were collected prior to and 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after the ingestion of soda. MSG administration resulted in a significantly higher Glu level in saliva than administration of NaCl and was associated with a significant increase in systolic blood pressure. Injections of Glu were significantly more painful than injections of NaCl. However, ingestion of MSG did not change the intensity of Glu-evoked pain. Glu injections also significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but without an additional effect of MSG ingestion. Glu injections into the masseter muscle significantly reduced the PPT. However, pre-injection MSG ingestion did not significantly alter this effect. Interestingly, PPT was significantly increased in the trapezius after MSG ingestion and intramuscular injection of Glu in the jaw muscles. The main finding

  11. How and why do countries differ in their governance and financing-related administrative expenditure in health care? An analysis of OECD countries by health care system typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, Luc L.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Mueller, Michael; Morgan, David J.; Jeurissen, Patrick P. T.

    2017-01-01

    Administration is vital for health care. Its importance may increase as health care systems become more complex, but academic attention has remained minimal. We investigated trends in administrative expenditure across OECD countries, cross-country spending differences, spending differences between

  12. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  13. Systemic absorption and adverse ocular and systemic effects after topical ophthalmic administration of 0.1% diclofenac to healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kimberly K; Pinard, Chantale L; Johnson, Ron J; Allen, Dana G; KuKanich, Butch K; Nykamp, Stephanie G

    2015-03-01

    To quantify plasma concentrations and determine adverse ocular, renal, or hepatic effects associated with repeated topical ophthalmic application of 0.1% diclofenac to healthy cats. 8 healthy sexually intact male cats. A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. A topical formulation of 0.1% diclofenac was administered 4 times/d for 7 days to 4 cats, and artificial tear (control) solution was administered to the other 4 cats. After a 12-day washout period, cats received the other treatment. Ophthalmic examinations were performed daily. Plasma samples were obtained on days 1 and 7 for pharmacokinetic analysis. A CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, determination of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and determination of glomerular filtration rate were performed before the start of the study and after each 7-day treatment period. Mild conjunctival hyperemia was the only adverse ocular effect detected. Maximal drug concentration and area under the curve were significantly higher on day 7 than on day 1. Diclofenac-treated cats had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate than did control-treated cats after the second but not after the first treatment period, presumably associated with iatrogenic hypovolemia. Topical ophthalmic administration of 0.1% diclofenac was well tolerated in healthy cats, with only mild signs of ocular irritation. Detectable systemic concentrations of diclofenac were achieved with accumulation over 7 days. Systemic absorption of diclofenac may be associated with reduced glomerular filtration rate, particularly in volume-contracted animals. Topical ophthalmic 0.1% diclofenac should be used with caution in volume-contracted or systemically ill cats.

  14. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  15. Bilayered buccal films as child-appropriate dosage form for systemic administration of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Angela; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Dalena, Francesco; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2017-10-05

    Buccal mucosa has emerged as an attractive site for systemic administration of drug in paediatric patients. This route is simple and non-invasive, even if the saliva wash-out effect and the relative permeability of the mucosa can reduce drug absorption. Mucoadhesive polymers represent a common employed strategy to increase the contact time of the formulation at the application site and to improve drug absorption. Among the different mucoadhesive dosage forms, buccal films are particularly addressed for paediatric population since they are thin, adaptable to the mucosal surface and able to offer an exact and flexible dose. The objective of the present study was to develop bilayered buccal films for the release of propranolol hydrochloride. A primary polymeric layer was prepared by casting and drying of solutions of film-forming polymers, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinylalcohol (PVA), added with different weight ratios of gelatin (GEL) or chitosan (CH). In order to achieve unidirectional drug delivery towards buccal mucosa, a secondary ethylcellulose layer was applied onto the primary layer. Bilayered films were characterized for their physico-chemical (morphology, thickness, drug content and solid state) and functional (water uptake, mucoadhesion, drug release and permeation) properties. The inclusion of CH into PVP and PVA primary layer provided the best mucoadhesion ability. Films containing CH provided a lower drug release with respect to films containing GEL and increased the amount of permeated drug through buccal mucosa, thanks to its ability of interfering with the lipid organization. The secondary ethylcellulose layer did not interfere with drug permeation, but it could limit drug release in the buccal cavity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Systems genetics of intravenous cocaine self-administration in the BXD recombinant inbred mouse panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Price E; Miller, Mellessa M; Calton, Michele A; Bubier, Jason A; Cook, Melloni N; Goldowitz, Daniel; Chesler, Elissa J; Mittleman, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem with a substantial genetic basis for which the biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Systems genetics is a powerful method for discovering novel mechanisms underlying complex traits, and intravenous drug self-administration (IVSA) is the gold standard for assessing volitional drug use in preclinical studies. We have integrated these approaches to identify novel genes and networks underlying cocaine use in mice. Mice from 39 BXD strains acquired cocaine IVSA (0.56 mg/kg/infusion). Mice from 29 BXD strains completed a full dose-response curve (0.032-1.8 mg/kg/infusion). We identified independent genetic correlations between cocaine IVSA and measures of environmental exploration and cocaine sensitization. We identified genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 7 and 11 associated with shifts in the dose-response curve and on chromosome 16 associated with sessions to acquire cocaine IVSA. Using publicly available gene expression data from the nucleus accumbens, midbrain, and prefrontal cortex of drug-naïve mice, we identified Aplp1 and Cyfip2 as positional candidates underlying the behavioral QTL on chromosomes 7 and 11, respectively. A genome-wide significant trans-eQTL linking Fam53b (a GWAS candidate for human cocaine dependence) on chromosome 7 to the cocaine IVSA behavioral QTL on chromosome 11 was identified in the midbrain; Fam53b and Cyfip2 were co-expressed genome-wide significantly in the midbrain. This finding indicates that cocaine IVSA studies using mice can identify genes involved in human cocaine use. These data provide novel candidate genes underlying cocaine IVSA in mice and suggest mechanisms driving human cocaine use.

  17. Systemic administration of monosodium glutamate elevates intramuscular glutamate levels and sensitizes rat masseter muscle afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian E; Dong, Xudong; Mann, Mandeep K; Svensson, Peter; Sessle, Barry J; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; McErlane, Keith M

    2007-11-01

    There is evidence that elevated tissue concentrations of glutamate may contribute to pain and sensitivity in certain musculoskeletal pain conditions. In the present study, the food additive monosodium glutamate (MSG) was injected intravenously into rats to determine whether it could significantly elevate interstitial concentrations of glutamate in the masseter muscle and whether MSG administration could excite and/or sensitize slowly conducting masseter afferent fibers through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation. The interstitial concentration of glutamate after systemic injection of isotonic phosphate-buffered saline (control) or MSG (10 and 50mg/kg) was measured with a glutamate-selective biosensor. The pre-injection baseline interstitial concentration of glutamate in the rat masseter muscle was 24+/-11 microM. Peak interstitial concentration after injection of 50mg/kg MSG was 63+/-18 microM and remained elevated above baseline for approximately 18 min. In vivo single unit recording experiments were undertaken to assess the effect of MSG (50mg/kg) on masseter afferent fibers. Injection of MSG evoked a brief discharge in one afferent fiber, and significantly decreased ( approximately 25%) the average afferent mechanical threshold (n=10) during the first 5 min after injection of MSG. Intravenous injection of ketamine (1mg/kg), 5 min prior to MSG, prevented the MSG-induced decreases in the mechanical threshold of masseter afferent fibers. The present results indicate that a 2- to 3-fold elevation in interstitial glutamate levels in the masseter muscle is sufficient to excite and induce afferent mechanical sensitization through NMDA receptor activation. These findings suggest that modest elevations of interstitial glutamate concentration could alter musculoskeletal pain sensitivity in humans.

  18. Nurses' Perceptions of the Impact of Work Systems and Technology on Patient Safety during the Medication Administration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher Gordon, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines nurses' perceptions of the impacts of systems and technology utilized during the medication administration process on patient safety and the culture of medication error reporting. This exploratory research study was grounded in a model of patient safety based on Patricia Benner's Novice to Expert Skill Acquisition model,…

  19. Administrator and Faculty Perceptions of Institutional Support for Online Education in Florida's College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gerene M.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 30% of Florida's college system (FCS) students are enrolled in distance learning courses (FLDOE, 2015). As FCS institutions continue to grow their online programs to meet demand, a lack of support from, and consensus among administrator and faculty stakeholders could undermine institutional efforts to sustain growth and quality…

  20. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) causes growth of the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Vinter-Jensen, L; Pedersen, S B

    1997-01-01

    -I after 3 days of treatment, and administration of IGF-I concomitantly with DFMO significantly inhibited ODC activity and the weight increase of the prostate. Stereological examination of the prostate in the IGF-I-treated animals showed growth of the epithelial component of the gland. Systemic treatment...

  1. The Administrative Consensuality and the Preparation of Clinical Protocols and Therapeutic Guidelines Within the Framework of The Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Sampaio Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the need for the Public Administration rescue his decision spaces in relation to the realization of the right to health, as opposed to excessive judicialization. Based on doctrinal and legislative research seeks to demonstrate that the consensuality, new aspects of administrative action, has importance for the development, under the Public Health System, scientific medical consensus, which recommended observance in statements of the National Justice Council . The increase of social participation in the adoption of those guidelines and the opening of institutional dialogue to discuss certain cases can reduce recourse to the courts.

  2. The influence of topic and systemic administration of copaiba oil on the alveolar wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-da-Silva, Marco A; Pereira, Andresa C; Marin, Miguel Cc; Salgado, Miguel Ac

    2013-10-01

    The Copaiba oil has been used as an auxiliary treatment of inflammations, skin disorders and stomach ulcers, however, in dentistry, this "alternative" medicine has not been investigated yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of topic and systemic administration of copaiba oil on the alveolar wound healing after tooth extraction. Twenty-eight wistar male rats had their lower first molar teeth extracted. Subsequently, they were divided in four groups, according to the treatment performed: (a) alveolar socket irrigation with copaiba oil; (b) alveolar socket irrigation with physiological serum; (c) daily gavage with copaiba oil or (d) daily gavage with physiological serum. After the sacrifice, the mandibles were removed and processed in order to obtain decalcified histological sections. The results demonstrated high level of epithelial migration, small number of inflammatory cells and vascular enhancement in the animals which received systemic administration of copaiba oil. The rats treated with topic administration of copaiba oil presented ulcerations and large number of inflammatory cells. An increased bone neoformation was observed in both groups treated with copaiba oil when compared with placebo group. It could be concluded that topic or systemic administration of copaiba oil leads to a better alveolar bone healing, however the topic application on connective tissue should be carefully considered, regarding the whole socket wound healing. Key words:Alveolar wound healing, oil-resin, copaiba.

  3. Histochemical examination of systemic administration of eldecalcitol combined with guided bone regeneration for bone defect restoration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuchun; Du, Juan; Liu, Di; Liu, Hongrui; Amizuka, Norio; Li, Minqi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to elucidate the histological alterations after systemic administration of eldecalcitol (ELD) combined with guided bone regeneration during the restoration of bone defect healing in rats. The femurs of 8-week-old Wister rats were used to generate bone defect models. The defect was covered with a collagen membrane, and ELD group was administrated with eldecalcitol (50 ng/kg body weight) intragastrically once every other day. Femora were harvested at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-surgery. Decalcify tissue slices were made and used for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Bone biomarkers of RANKL, OPG and osteocalcin (OCN) were detected by western blot. The results revealed that the system administration of ELD could improve new bone formation demonstrated by the increased bone volume/tissue volume ratio and accelerated mineralization. ELD suppressed osteoclastic bone resorption by reducing the number of osteoclasts, decreasing the expression of cathepsin-K and the ratio of RANKL/OPG at the early stage of bone defect restoration (1 and 2 weeks) and upregulating OCN expression at the later stage of bone defect healing (4 and 8 weeks). These data suggested that systemic administration of eldecalcitol accelerated bone formation and promoted bone maturation by decreasing bone resorption and promoting bone mineralization during bone defect restoration.

  4. Systemic and transdermal melatonin administration prevents neuropathology in response to perinatal asphyxia in newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridas, James D S; Yawno, Tamara; Sutherland, Amy E; Nitsos, Ilias; Ditchfield, Michael; Wong, Flora Y; Hunt, Rod W; Fahey, Michael C; Malhotra, Atul; Wallace, Euan M; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2018-02-21

    Perinatal asphyxia remains a principal cause of infant mortality and long-term neurological morbidity, particularly in low-resource countries. No neuroprotective interventions are currently available. Melatonin (MLT), a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic agent, offers promise as an intravenous (IV) or transdermal therapy to protect the brain. We aimed to determine the effect of melatonin (IV or transdermal patch) on neuropathology in a lamb model of perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was induced in newborn lambs via umbilical cord occlusion at birth. Animals were randomly allocated to melatonin commencing 30 minutes after birth (60 mg in 24 hours; IV or transdermal patch). Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was undertaken at 12 and 72 hours. Animals (control n = 9; control+MLT n = 6; asphyxia n = 16; asphyxia+MLT [IV n = 14; patch n = 4]) were euthanised at 72 hours, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brains were collected for analysis. Asphyxia resulted in severe acidosis (pH 6.9 ± 0.0; lactate 9 ± 2 mmol/L) and altered determinants of encephalopathy. MRS lactate:N-acetyl aspartate ratio was 2.5-fold higher in asphyxia lambs compared with controls at 12 hours and 3-fold higher at 72 hours (P asphyxia; P = .02). Asphyxia significantly increased brain white and grey matter apoptotic cell death (activated caspase-3), lipid peroxidation (4HNE) and neuroinflammation (IBA-1). These changes were significantly mitigated by both IV and patch melatonin. Systemic or transdermal neonatal melatonin administration significantly reduces the neuropathology and encephalopathy signs associated with perinatal asphyxia. A simple melatonin patch, administered soon after birth, may improve outcome in infants affected by asphyxia, especially in low-resource settings. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. VA INFORMATION SYSTEMS: Computer Security Weaknesses Persist at the Veterans Health Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... To determine the status of computer security within VHA, we (1) evaluated information system general controls at the VA Maryland Health Cafe System, the New Mexico VA Health Care System, and the VA North Texas Health Care System and (2...

  6. Schools: Bureaucracies, Flexible Systems, Anarchies or What? A Consideration of Alternative Image Production in Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Derek J.

    The workings of schools have not received the attention due them in the study of educational administration. We need to generate new "images" or models of school organization that are more congruent with reality. These models need to be refined through expression and discussion and selected and changed through scientific methodology.…

  7. Effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangjian; Wang, Yun; Zhuo, Lin; Chen, Shi; Zhao, Lin; Luan, Xianguo; Wang, Haifang; Jia, Guang

    2015-12-03

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various consumer products, especially food and personal care products. Compared to the well-characterized adverse cardiovascular effect of inhaled ambient ultrafine particles, research on the health response to orally administrated TiO2 NPs is still limited. In our study, we performed an in vivo study in Sprague-Dawley rats to understand the cardiovascular effect of TiO2 NPs after oral intake. After daily gastrointestinal administration of TiO2 NPs at 0, 2, 10, 50 mg/kg for 30 and 90 days, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, blood biochemical parameters and histopathology of cardiac tissues was assessed to quantify cardiovascular damage. Mild and temporary reduction of HR and systolic blood pressure as well as an increase of diastolic blood pressure was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 30 days. Injury of cardiac function was observed after daily oral administration of TiO2 NPs for 90 days as reflected in decreased activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Increased white blood cells count (WBC) and granulocytes (GRN) in blood as well as increased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the serum indicated inflammatory response initiated by TiO2 NPs exposure. It was hypothesize that cardiac damage and inflammatory response are the possible mechanisms of the adverse cardiovascular effects induced by orally administrated TiO2 NPs. Data from our study suggested that even at low dose of TiO2 NPs can induce adverse cardiovascular effects after 30 days or 90 days of oral exposure, thus warranting concern for the dietary intake of TiO2 NPs for consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic hypoxia and chronic hypercapnia differentially regulate an NMDA-sensitive component of the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Jessica; Gheshmy, Afshan; Manga, Jasmin; Reid, Stephen G

    2011-08-01

    This study addressed the hypotheses that exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) and chronic hypercapnia (CHC) would modify the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina; formerly Bufo marinus or Chaunus marinus) and its regulation by NMDA-mediated processes. Cane toads were exposed to 10 days of CH (10% O(2)) or CHC (3.5% CO(2)) followed by acute in vivo hypercapnic breathing trials, conducted before and after an injection of the NMDA-receptor channel blocker, MK801 into the dorsal lymph sac. CH, CHC and MK801 did not alter ventilation under acute normoxic normocapnic conditions. CH blunted the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia while CHC had no effect. The effect of CH on breathing frequency was mediated by a decrease in the number of breaths per breathing episode. Neither CH nor CHC altered breath area (volume). MK801 augmented breathing frequency (via an increase in breaths per episode) and total ventilation during acute hypercapnia in control toads and toads exposed to CH; there was no effect of MK801 on the increase in breathing frequency or total ventilation, during acute hypercapnia in toads exposed to CHC. The results indicate that CH and CHC differentially alter breathing pattern. Furthermore, they indicate an absence of NMDA-mediated glutamatergic tone during normoxic normocapnia but that NMDA-mediated processes attenuate the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia under control conditions and following CH but not following CHC. Given that MK801 was administered systemically, the effects could be acting anywhere in the reflex pathway from CO(2)-sensing to respiratory motor output.

  9. Medication Administration Errors in Nursing Homes Using an Automated Medication Dispensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bemt, Patricia M.L.A.; Idzinga, Jetske C.; Robertz, Hans; Kormelink, Dennis Groot; Pels, Neske

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the frequency of medication administration errors as well as their potential risk factors in nursing homes using a distribution robot. Design The study was a prospective, observational study conducted within three nursing homes in the Netherlands caring for 180 individuals. Measurements Medication errors were measured using the disguised observation technique. Types of medication errors were described. The correlation between several potential risk factors and the occurrence of medication errors was studied to identify potential causes for the errors. Results In total 2,025 medication administrations to 127 clients were observed. In these administrations 428 errors were observed (21.2%). The most frequently occurring types of errors were use of wrong administration techniques (especially incorrect crushing of medication and not supervising the intake of medication) and wrong time errors (administering the medication at least 1 h early or late).The potential risk factors female gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.83), ATC medication class antibiotics (OR 11.11; 95% CI 2.66–46.50), medication crushed (OR 7.83; 95% CI 5.40–11.36), number of dosages/day/client (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01–1.05), nursing home 2 (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.86–5.50), medication not supplied by distribution robot (OR 2.92; 95% CI 2.04–4.18), time classes “7–10 am” (OR 2.28; 95% CI 1.50–3.47) and “10 am-2 pm” (OR 1.96; 1.18–3.27) and day of the week “Wednesday” (OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.03–2.07) are associated with a higher risk of administration errors. Conclusions Medication administration in nursing homes is prone to many errors. This study indicates that the handling of the medication after removing it from the robot packaging may contribute to this high error frequency, which may be reduced by training of nurse attendants, by automated clinical decision support and by measures to reduce workload. PMID:19390109

  10. Exploring the Phase Behavior of Monoolein/Oleic Acid/Water Systems for Enhanced Donezepil Administration for Alzheimer Disease Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruela, André Luís Morais; Carvalho, Flávia Chiva; Pereira, Gislaine Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Donepezil is a drug usually administered by oral route for Alzheimer disease treatment, but several gastric side effects have been reported as diarrhea, nausea, and anorexia. We explored the phase behavior of lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) mesophases composed by monoolein/oleic acid/water for enhanced administration of donepezil. Polarized light microscopy suggested that these systems ranged from isotropic inverse micellar solutions (L2) to viscous and birefringent reverse hexagonal (HII) mesophases according to the amount of water in the ternary systems. Phase transition was observed from a L2 phase to HII mesophase after swelling studies, an interesting property to be explored as a precursor of LLC mesophases for mucosal administration that increases its viscosity in situ. Mucoadhesive properties of LLC mesophases were characterized using a texture analyzer indicating that these systems can have an increased residence time in the site of absorption. Donepezil-free base was incorporated in the evaluated formulations, and their in vitro release was controlled up to 24 h. The phase behavior of the systems demonstrated a great potential for enhanced donepezil administration once these mucoadhesive-controlled release formulations can incorporate the drug and prolong its release, possibly reducing its side effects. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin protects skin against solar UV-induced damage through activation of NRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Park, Sophia L; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photodamage and carcinogenesis, and an urgent need exists for improved molecular photoprotective strategies different from (or synergistic with) photon absorption. Recent studies suggest a photoprotective role of cutaneous gene expression orchestrated by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2). Here we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying carotenoid-based systemic skin photoprotection in SKH-1 mice and provide genetic evidence that photoprotection achieved by the FDA-approved apocarotenoid and food additive bixin depends on NRF2 activation. Bixin activates NRF2 through the critical Cys-151 sensor residue in KEAP1, orchestrating a broad cytoprotective response in cultured human keratinocytes as revealed by antioxidant gene expression array analysis. Following dose optimization studies for cutaneous NRF2 activation by systemic administration of bixin, feasibility of bixin-based suppression of acute cutaneous photodamage from solar UV exposure was investigated in Nrf2(+/+) versus Nrf2(-/-) SKH-1 mice. Systemic administration of bixin suppressed skin photodamage, attenuating epidermal oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice, confirming the NRF2-dependence of bixin-based cytoprotection. Taken together, these data demonstrate feasibility of achieving NRF2-dependent cutaneous photoprotection by systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin, a natural food additive consumed worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  13. Modeling the effects of repeated systemic administrations of small activity amounts In radionuclide therapy with beta emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, Carlos; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Cepero, Janet; Colom, Camila; Rodriguez, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Good results for radionuclide therapy treatments where repeated short time spaced systemic injection of small activity amounts are given have been reported. Bone marrow and kidneys are usually considered as dose-limiting organs in radionuclide therapy. The treatments in radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be optimized if irradiation effects in those one might be estimated. Xeno-grafted mice is the often biological model used during the evaluation of candidates for radionuclide therapy. A mathematical model of tumor cell kinetics was combined with another one reported for marrow cell kinetics which allows the calculation of marrow cell survival and proliferation in response to different irradiation schemes. Radionuclide therapy treatment with repeated administrations with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta emitters were simulated. The effects on fast-growing and slow-growing tumors were evaluated, as well as radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. For more realistic estimation of absorbed dose in mice organs the cross-irradiation due to high energy beta particles was included into the MIRD's formula. Tumor and kidneys responses to the irradiation were estimated on the linear-quadratic model framework which was adapted for a multi-exponential dose rate function describing radionuclide therapy treatments with repeated administrations. Published values for murine tumors kinetics, marrows cellular turnover rates and radiosensitivities were used during the calculations. Iso-effective schemes were also determined varying the interval between fractions and the number of administration. For a given tolerated level of thrombocytopenia and absorbed dose in kidneys an optimal regime of radionuclide therapy with repeated administration could be found. The mathematical model presented here allows the prediction of the nadir and duration of thrombocytopenia, the effects on kidneys and the tumor cell response to various treatment schemes

  14. Implantation of an ergonomics administration system in a company: report of an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.

  15. Effect of acute lithium administration on penile erection: involvement of nitric oxide system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Sandoughdaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lithium has been the treatment of choice for bipolar disorder (BD for many years. Although erectile dysfunction is a known adverse effect of this drug, the mechanism of action by which lithium affects erectile function is still unknown. Objective: The aim was to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO in modulatory effect of lithium on penile erection (PE. We further evaluated the possible role of Sildenafil in treatment of lithium-induced erectile dysfunction. Materials and Methods: Erectile function was determined using rat model of apomorphine-induced erections. For evaluating the effect of lithium on penile erection, rats received intraperitoneal injection of graded doses of lithium chloride 30 mins before subcutaneous injection of apomorphine. To determine the possible role of NO pathway, sub-effective dose of N (G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, was administered 15 min before administration of sub-effective dose of lithium chloride. In other separate experimental groups, sub- effective dose of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, or Sildenafil was injected into the animals 15 min before administration of a potent dose of lithium. 30 min after administration of lithium chloride, animals were assessed in apomorphine test. Serum lithium levels were measured 30 min after administration of effective dose of lithium. Results: Lithium at 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased number of PE (p<0.001, whereas at lower doses (5, 10 and 30 mg/kg had no effect on apomorphine induced PE. The serum Li+ level of rats receiving 50 mg/kg lithium was 1±0.15 mmol/L which is in therapeutic range of lithium. The inhibitory effect of Lithium was blocked by administration of sub-effective dose of nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (100 mg/kg (p<0.001 and sildenafil (3.5 mg/kg (p<0.001 whereas pretreatment with a low and sub-effective dose of L-NAME (10mg/kg potentiated sub

  16. The influence of topic and systemic administration of copaiba oil on the alveolar wound healing after tooth extraction in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dias-da-Silva, Marco-Antonio; Pereira, Andresa-Costa; Marin, Miguel-Christian-Castillo; Salgado, Miguel-Angel-Castillo [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    The Copaiba oil has been used as an auxiliary treatment of inflammations, skin disorders and stomach ulcers, however, in dentistry, this alternative medicine has not been investigated yet. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of topic and systemic administration of copaiba oil on the alveolar wound healing after tooth extraction. Twenty-eight wistar male rats had their lower first molar teeth extracted. Subsequently, they were divided in four groups, according to the treatm...

  17. Effects of Systemic Administration of Oxytocin on Contextual Fear Extinction in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandarian, Sharaf; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Vaezi, Gholam Hassan; Taherian, Fatemeh; Kashefi, Adel; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Introduction One of the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the impaired extinction of traumatic memory. Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been suggested as an animal model of PTSD, since SPS rats exhibited the impaired fear extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has been recently suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for treatment of PTSD. In this study, using SPS rats we investigated the effects of multiple systemic administration of OXT on contextual fear extinction. Method...

  18. Principles of General Systems Theory: Some Implications for Higher Education Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Martha W.; Gilliland, J. Richard

    1978-01-01

    Three principles of general systems theory are presented and systems theory is distinguished from systems analysis. The principles state that all systems tend to become more disorderly, that they must be diverse in order to be stable, and that only those maximizing their resource utilization for doing useful work will survive. (Author/LBH)

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE AND LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF FUNCTIONING OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM IN UKRAINE AND EUROPE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Chyzhmar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is a comparative legal analysis of the administrative and legal principles of the functioning of the financial system in Ukraine and European countries. The subject of the study is the peculiarities of the state regulation of financial systems in Great Britain, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and Ukraine. Methodology. The research is based on comparing the legal regulation of the financial system in Ukraine and in the EU countries. An analysis of European experience in the administrative regulation of financial systems and financial activity has shown that most European states support the policy of regulating the financial system as a holistic, indivisible phenomenon, gradually moving away from its understanding as a set of separate segments. A significant influence on this issue was made by the European Union, within which there was introduced a combination of the most important functions in the regulation of the EU financial system and entrusting them to a separate group of special bodies. Results of the comparative legal study showed that, unlike most European countries, in Ukraine, the administrative and legal framework for the provision of certain components of the financial sector, in particular, banking, investment, tax and budget, financial services market, etc., are not combined into a single model of state regulation of financial system, but they are scattered. In turn, the lack of a unified legal basis for state regulation of the national financial system in practice creates a situation where such regulation is carried out by a large number of state bodies of varying degrees, whose powers are repeated in some cases, which causes contradictions. Practical implications. It is found that the key difference between the regulation of financial systems in the countries of Europe lies in the very principle of perceiving the role of the state in this process and understanding the content of the financial system as a

  20. Implementing a bar-code assisted medication administration system: effects on the dispensing process and user perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Cheng, K; Lai, K; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the effects of a bar-code assisted medication administration system used without the support of computerised prescribing (stand-alone BCMA), on the dispensing process and its users. The stand-alone BCMA system was implemented in one ward of a teaching hospital. The number of dispensing steps, dispensing time and potential dispensing errors (PDEs) were directly observed one month before and eight months after the intervention. Attitudes of pharmacy and nursing staff were assessed using a questionnaire (Likert scale) and interviews. Among 1291 and 471 drug items observed before and after the introduction of the technology respectively, the number of dispensing steps increased from five to eight and time (standard deviation) to dispense one drug item by one staff personnel increased from 0.8 (0.09) to 1.5 (0.12) min. Among 2828 and 471 drug items observed before and after the intervention respectively, the number of PDEs increased significantly (Ptechnology decreased significantly (P=0.003 and P=0.004 respectively) among users who participated in the before (N=16) and after (N=16) questionnaires surveys. Among the interviewees, pharmacy staff felt that the system offered less benefit to the dispensing process (9/16). Nursing staff perceived the system as useful in improving the accuracy of drug administration (7/10). Implementing a stand-alone BCMA system may slow down and complicate the dispensing process. Nursing staff believe the stand-alone BCMA system could improve the drug administration process but pharmacy staff believes the technology would be more helpful if supported by computerised prescribing. However, periodical assessments are needed to identify weaknesses in the process after implementation, and all users should be educated on the benefits of using this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Memory Impairment and Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice after Administration of Systemic Morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kitanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of morphine were examined on tests of spatial memory, object exploration, locomotion, and anxiety in male ICR mice. Administration of morphine (15 or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p. induced a significant decrease in Y-maze alternations compared to saline vehicle-treated mice. The reduced Y-maze alternations induced by morphine were completely blocked by naloxone (15 mg/kg or β-funaltrexamine (5 mg/kg but not by norbinaltorphimine (5 mg/kg or naltrindole (5 mg/kg, suggesting that the morphine-induced spatial memory impairment was mediated predominantly by jl-opioid receptors (MOPs. Significant spatial memory retrieval impairments were observed in the Morris water maze (MWM in mice treated with morphine (15 mg/kg or scopolamine (1 mg/kg, but not with naloxone or morphine plus naloxone. Reduced exploratory time was observed in mice after administration of morphine (15 mg/kg, in a novel-object exploration test, without any changes in locomotor activity. No anxiolytic-like behavior was observed in morphine-treated mice in the elevated plus maze. A significant reduction in buried marbles was observed in morphine-treated mice measured in the marble-burying test, which was blocked by naloxone. These observations suggest that morphine induces impairments in spatial short-term memory and retrieval, and reduces exploratory behavior, but that these effects are not because of overall changes in locomotion or anxiety.

  2. Systemic Administration of Proteoglycan Protects BALB/c Retired Breeder Mice from Experimental Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the prophylactic potential of proteoglycan (PG administration in experimental arthritis. Female BALB/c retired breeder mice received two (2xPG50 and 2xPG100 groups or three (3xPG50 group intraperitoneal doses of bovine PG (50 μg or 100 μg every three days. A week later the animals were submitted to arthritis induction by immunization with three i.p. doses of bovine PG associated with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide adjuvant at intervals of 21 days. Disease severity was daily assessed after the third dose by score evaluation. The 3xPG50 group showed significant reduction in prevalence and clinical scores. This protective effect was associated with lower production of IFN-γ and IL-17 and increased production of IL-5 and IL-10 by spleen cells restimulated in vitro with PG. Even though previous PG administration restrained dendritic cells maturation this procedure did not alter the frequency of regulatory Foxp3+ T cells. Lower TNF-α and IL-6 levels and higher expression of ROR-γ and GATA-3 were detected in the paws of protected animals. A delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction confirmed specific tolerance induction. Taken together, these results indicate that previous PG inoculation determines a specific tolerogenic effect that is able to decrease severity of subsequently induced arthritis.

  3. Measuring quality of diabetes care by linking health care system administrative databases with laboratory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klomp Helena

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic complications of diabetes can be reduced through optimal glycemic and lipid control as evaluated through measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. We aimed to produce measures of quality of diabetes care in Saskatchewan and to identify sub-groups at particular risk of developing complications. Findings Prevalent adult cases of diabetes in 2005/06 were identified from administrative databases and linked with A1C and LDL-C tests measured in centralized laboratories. A1C results were performed in 33,927 of 50,713 (66.9% diabetes cases identified in Saskatchewan, and LDL-C results were performed in 12,031 of 24,207 (49.7% cases identified within the province's two largest health regions. The target A1C of Conclusions Linkage of laboratory with administrative data is an effective method of assessing quality of diabetes care on a population basis and to identify sub-groups requiring particular attention. We found that less than 50% of Saskatchewan people with diabetes achieved optimal glycemic and lipid control. Disparities were most evident among First Nations people and young women. The indicators described can be used to provide standardized information that would support quality improvement initiatives.

  4. The Hanau atomic energy laws. Nuclear fuel fabrication and the administrative law system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Neetz, G.; Uebersohn, G.

    1989-01-01

    The review concentrates on administrative law aspects in the discussion of problems relating to the licences and preliminary notices of approval issued for the Hanau nuclear industry. The authors deal with the licences granted in 1974 (according to sec. 9 Atomic Energy Act), with the extended licensing requirements of sec. 7 Atomic Energy Act as amended by the 3rd amendment (concerning fabrication and handling of nuclear fuels), and the criminal court proceedings examining the conduct of the Alkem management and senior officers of the Hessian Ministry of Economics. Specific aspects investigated in the review include continuation of existing operations in accordance with transitory provisions, replacement of existing by new installations, and preliminary notice of approval. The preliminary notices of approval given up to the date of December 31, 1977 are said to have been illegal and extinct at that date, but the court's decision to abstain from punishment is accepted. The authors outline some possibilities of giving more concrete shape to the judicial control by administrative courts. (RST) [de

  5. The Reform in the Administrative System, Aspects of Progress or Form of Discrimination of the Public Officer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gradinaru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The current social, economic and political status determined the issue of O.U.G 74/13 which regards some measures for improvement and re-organization of the activity of National Agency of Fiscal Administration, also for modification and completion of some legal acts and of H.G 520/2013 regarding organization and operation of National Agency of Fiscal Administration, legal acts which even if they are suppose to reform the administrative system, they reflect some problems regarding the legality of the release from the office of the public clerks, this measure being applied arbitrarily and discretionary, violating at the same time the right to work of the public clerks. The present work analyses some aspects regarding the legality of applying two legal acts issued by the Government, which are O.U.G 74/2013 and H.G. 520/2013, which were considered by the issuer as being necessary in relation to the process of re-organization of activity of National Agency of Fiscal Administration. We are analyzing at the same time all the irregularities found in practice, because applying the O.U.G 74/2013 and H.G. 520/2013 generated discriminations, on one hand caused by the confusion determinate by the writing of the legal acts, and on the other hand, by the enforcement of some legal provision which generated an conflict with other legal acts. Even though the main purpose of these legal initiatives was to reform, restructure and reorganize the activity of National Agency of Fiscal Administration, enforcing these legal acts led to a series of illegal acts even abusive, which violates the fundamental rights ensured by the Constitution, referring to the right to work, and also the guarantees offered by the law 188/1999R regarding the Status of Public Clerks.

  6. Administrative Costs Associated With Physician Billing and Insurance-Related Activities at an Academic Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Phillip; Kaplan, Robert S; Richman, Barak D; Shah, Mahek A; Schulman, Kevin A

    2018-02-20

    Administrative costs in the US health care system are an important component of total health care spending, and a substantial proportion of these costs are attributable to billing and insurance-related activities. To examine and estimate the administrative costs associated with physician billing activities in a large academic health care system with a certified electronic health record system. This study used time-driven activity-based costing. Interviews were conducted with 27 health system administrators and 34 physicians in 2016 and 2017 to construct a process map charting the path of an insurance claim through the revenue cycle management process. These data were used to calculate the cost for each major billing and insurance-related activity and were aggregated to estimate the health system's total cost of processing an insurance claim. Estimated time required to perform billing and insurance-related activities, based on interviews with management personnel and physicians. Estimated billing and insurance-related costs for 5 types of patient encounters: primary care visits, discharged emergency department visits, general medicine inpatient stays, ambulatory surgical procedures, and inpatient surgical procedures. Estimated processing time and total costs for billing and insurance-related activities were 13 minutes and $20.49 for a primary care visit, 32 minutes and $61.54 for a discharged emergency department visit, 73 minutes and $124.26 for a general inpatient stay, 75 minutes and $170.40 for an ambulatory surgical procedure, and 100 minutes and $215.10 for an inpatient surgical procedure. Of these totals, time and costs for activities carried out by physicians were estimated at a median of 3 minutes or $6.36 for a primary care visit, 3 minutes or $10.97 for an emergency department visit, 5 minutes or $13.29 for a general inpatient stay, 15 minutes or $51.20 for an ambulatory surgical procedure, and 15 minutes or $51.20 for an inpatient surgical procedure. Of

  7. Cannabidiol attenuates sensorimotor gating disruption and molecular changes induced by chronic antagonism of NMDA receptors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Felipe V; Issy, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Frederico R; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Del Bel, Elaine A; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2014-10-31

    Preclinical and clinical data suggest that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, induces antipsychotic-like effects. However, the antipsychotic properties of repeated CBD treatment have been poorly investigated. Behavioral changes induced by repeated treatment with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been proposed as an animal model of schizophrenia-like signs. In the present study, we evaluated if repeated treatment with CBD would attenuate the behavioral and molecular modifications induced by chronic administration of one of these antagonists, MK-801. Male C57BL/6J mice received daily i.p. injections of MK-801 (0.1, 0.5, or 1mg/kg) for 14, 21, or 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, animals were submitted to the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. After that, we investigated if repeated treatment with CBD (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) would attenuate the PPI impairment induced by chronic treatment with MK-801 (1mg/kg; 28 days). CBD treatment began on the 6th day after the start of MK-801 administration and continued until the end of the treatment. Immediately after the PPI, the mice brains were removed and processed to evaluate the molecular changes. We measured changes in FosB/ΔFosB and parvalbumin (PV) expression, a marker of neuronal activity and a calcium-binding protein expressed in a subclass of GABAergic interneurons, respectively. Changes in mRNA expression of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene (GRN1) were also evaluated. CBD effects were compared to those induced by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. MK-801 administration at the dose of 1mg/kg for 28 days impaired PPI responses. Chronic treatment with CBD (30 and 60mg/kg) attenuated PPI impairment. MK-801 treatment increased FosB/ΔFosB expression and decreased PV expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. A decreased mRNA level of GRN1 in the hippocampus was also observed. All the molecular changes were attenuated by CBD. CBD by

  8. Cannabidiol Attenuates Sensorimotor Gating Disruption and Molecular Changes Induced by Chronic Antagonism of NMDA receptors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issy, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Frederico R.; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Del Bel, Elaine A.; Guimarães, Francisco S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa, induces antipsychotic-like effects. However, the antipsychotic properties of repeated CBD treatment have been poorly investigated. Behavioral changes induced by repeated treatment with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists have been proposed as an animal model of schizophrenia-like signs. In the present study, we evaluated if repeated treatment with CBD would attenuate the behavioral and molecular modifications induced by chronic administration of one of these antagonists, MK-801. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice received daily i.p. injections of MK-801 (0.1, 0.5, or 1mg/kg) for 14, 21, or 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, animals were submitted to the prepulse inhibition (PPI) test. After that, we investigated if repeated treatment with CBD (15, 30, and 60mg/kg) would attenuate the PPI impairment induced by chronic treatment with MK-801 (1mg/kg; 28 days). CBD treatment began on the 6th day after the start of MK-801 administration and continued until the end of the treatment. Immediately after the PPI, the mice brains were removed and processed to evaluate the molecular changes. We measured changes in FosB/ΔFosB and parvalbumin (PV) expression, a marker of neuronal activity and a calcium-binding protein expressed in a subclass of GABAergic interneurons, respectively. Changes in mRNA expression of the NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene (GRN1) were also evaluated. CBD effects were compared to those induced by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Results: MK-801 administration at the dose of 1mg/kg for 28 days impaired PPI responses. Chronic treatment with CBD (30 and 60mg/kg) attenuated PPI impairment. MK-801 treatment increased FosB/ΔFosB expression and decreased PV expression in the medial prefrontal cortex. A decreased mRNA level of GRN1 in the hippocampus was also observed. All the molecular changes were

  9. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements and supplemental schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration (Western) financial statements as of September 30, 1991. In their opinion, Western`s statements are fairly presented in all material respects in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and its compliance with laws and regulations, as well as a management letter addressing needed improvements are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  10. Field experience with the FAA's Web-based medical certification system "AMCS/DIWS". Federal Aviation Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Arnold A; Mohler, Stanley R

    2002-04-01

    The October 1, 1999, introduction in the U.S. of a Web-based medical certification process for civil aircrew opened a new era within civil aviation. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aeromedical Certification System/Document Imaging Workflow System (AMCS/DIWS) has imposed certain new requirements on the designated Aviation Medical Examiners (AMEs), including the use of Internet systems and procedures. A number of AMEs elected to discontinue their work as the classic medical certification processes were replaced. The authors document their personal experience with respect to the new system, and cite the overall advantages that modernized medical certification procedures bring. These advantages include far fewer "mistakes of omission" by AMEs, more timely receipt by the FAA of aircrew certification data, and a developing master aircrew database for analytic studies.

  11. Correlating behaviour and gene expression endpoints in the dopaminergic system after modafinil administration in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ron, P; Dremier, S; Winlow, P; Jenkins, A; Hanon, E; Nogueira da Costa, A

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms of action of modafinil continue to be poorly characterised and its potential for abuse in preclinical models remains controverted. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanism of action of modafinil, through a potential behavioural and molecular association in the mouse. A conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm was implemented to investigate the rewarding properties of modafinil. Whole genome expression and qRT-PCR analysis were performed on the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of modafinil-treated and control animals. Modafinil administration (65 mg/kg) induced an increase in locomotor activity, an increase in the change of preference for the drug paired side after a conditioning period as well as changes to gene expression profiles in the VTA (120 genes), NAC (23 genes) and PFC (19 genes). A molecular signature consisting of twelve up-regulated genes was identified as common to the three brain regions. Multiple linear correlation analysis showed a strong correlation (R(2)>0.70) between the behavioural and molecular endpoints in the three brain regions. We show that modafinil had a concomitant effect on CPP, locomotor activity, and up-regulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulated genes (Gbp2, Gbp3, Gbp10, Cd274, Igtp), while correlating the latter set of genes with behaviour changes evaluated through the CPP. A potential association can be proposed based on the dysregulation of p47 family genes and Gbp family of IFN-γ induced GTPases. In conclusion, these findings suggest a link between the behavioural and molecular events in the context of modafinil administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Systemic apomorphine alters HPA axis responses to interleukin-1 beta administration but not sound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, K M; Crane, J W; Spencer, S J; Day, T A

    2003-08-01

    Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist that was recently licensed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, although sexual activity can be stressful, there has been little investigation into whether treatments for erectile dysfunction affect stress responses. We have examined whether a single dose of apomorphine, sufficient to produce penile erections (50 microg/kg, i.a.), can alter basal or stress-induced plasma ACTH levels, or activity of central pathways thought to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats. An immune challenge (interleukin-1 beta, 1 microg/kg, i.a.) was used as a physical stressor while sound stress (100 dB white noise, 30 min) was used as a psychological stressor. Intravascular administration of apomorphine had no effect on basal ACTH levels but did substantially increase the number of Fos-positive amygdala and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. Administration of apomorphine prior to immune challenge augmented the normal ACTH response to this stressor at 90 min and there was a corresponding increase in the number of Fos-positive paraventricular nucleus corticotropin-releasing factor cells, paraventricular nucleus oxytocin cells and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. However, apomorphine treatment did not alter ACTH or Fos responses to sound stress. These data suggest that erection-inducing levels of apomorphine interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibitory feedback mechanisms in response to a physical stressor, but have no effect on the response to a psychological stressor. Consequently, it is likely that apomorphine acts on a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control pathway that is unique to physical stressors. A candidate for this site of action is the nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cell population and, in particular, A2 noradrenergic neurons.

  13. Serotonergic systems associated with arousal and vigilance behaviors following administration of anxiogenic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, J K; Johnson, P L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Serotonergic systems play important roles in modulating behavioral arousal, including behavioral arousal and vigilance associated with anxiety states. To further our understanding of the neural systems associated with increases in anxiety states, we investigated the effects of multiple anxiogenic...... drugs have selective actions on a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons projecting to a distributed central autonomic and emotional motor control system regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses....

  14. Enterprise Architecture Modeling of Core Administrative Systems at KTH : A Modifiability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This project presents a case study of modifiability analysis on the Information Systems which are central to the core business processes of Royal Institution of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden by creating, updating and using models. The case study was limited to modifiability regarding only specified Information Systems. The method selected was Enterprise Architecture together with Enterprise Architecture Analysis research results and tools from the Industrial Information and Control Systems ...

  15. Introduction of library administration system using an office computer in the smallscale library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Keizo; Ishikawa, Masashi

    1984-01-01

    Research Information Center was established in Fusion Research Center at Naka site as a new section of Department of Technical Information of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. A library materials management system utilizing an office computer was introduced to provide good services. The system is a total-system centered on services at counter except purchase business and the serviced materials are books, reports, journals and pamphlets. The system has produced good effects on many aspects, e.g. a significantly easy inventory of library materials, and complete removal of user's handwriting for borrowing materials, by using an optical chracter recognition handscanner. Those improvements have resulted in better image of the library. (author)

  16. DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AS A TOOL WHICH IMPROVE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna MARCINIAK

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the overview of the costs incurred by the traditional record‐keeping. This was followed by characteristics of document management systems. It also presents the current state of implementation of such systems and presents the benefits of their implementation. Presented tool seems to be a good alternative that meets the expectations of both – clerks and applicants. The paper describes essential characteristics of such systems. There are also important aspects, that have to be considered before the implementation of this type of system.

  17. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  18. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  19. Minimizing human error in radiopharmaceutical preparation and administration via a bar code-enhanced nuclear pharmacy management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, John L; Hung, Joseph C; Mosman, Elton A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this project was to ensure correct radiopharmaceutical administration through the use of a bar code system that links patient and drug profiles with on-site information management systems. This new combined system would minimize the amount of manual human manipulation, which has proven to be a primary source of error. The most common reason for dosing errors is improper patient identification when a dose is obtained from the nuclear pharmacy or when a dose is administered. A standardized electronic transfer of information from radiopharmaceutical preparation to injection will further reduce the risk of misadministration. Value stream maps showing the flow of the patient dose information, as well as potential points of human error, were developed. Next, a future-state map was created that included proposed corrections for the most common critical sites of error. Transitioning the current process to the future state will require solutions that address these sites. To optimize the future-state process, a bar code system that links the on-site radiology management system with the nuclear pharmacy management system was proposed. A bar-coded wristband connects the patient directly to the electronic information systems. The bar code-enhanced process linking the patient dose with the electronic information reduces the number of crucial points for human error and provides a framework to ensure that the prepared dose reaches the correct patient. Although the proposed flowchart is designed for a site with an in-house central nuclear pharmacy, much of the framework could be applied by nuclear medicine facilities using unit doses. An electronic connection between information management systems to allow the tracking of a radiopharmaceutical from preparation to administration can be a useful tool in preventing the mistakes that are an unfortunate reality for any facility.

  20. Development of the System of Innovation: the Establishment of the Aircraft Industry in the Central Administrative Region (SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bueno de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to show the establishment of the aircraft industry in the Central Administrative Region (SP, in the last seven years, which introduced a new element in the economical structure of the region. Based on the innovation systemic approach , the objective is to identify and characterize the investments related to the aircraft industry segment carried out in the region and to identify the potentialities of the new production geographical axle and aircraft's maintenance for a dynamic setorial insertion, given by the capacity of integration to innovation system related to the aircraft industry. Some qualitative information was obtained from primary (questionnaires and secondary sources. For the analysis, all the information was organized taking into consideration the most important aspects of the innovation activities according to the Oslo Manual. Technology and efficient staff are the strategic factors to this type of industry. Based on these requirements, they have potentialities in the Central Administrative Region (CAR for a possible insertion in the innovation system: (i the favorable institutional environment concerning the education system, availability and training of human qualified resources, which demonstrated fast structuring capacity seeking to attend a new demand that appeared in the region; (ii Technology & Science infrastructure.

  1. U.S. Army-Baylor University Health Care Administration Program: evidenced-based outcomes in the military health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorff, A David; Rogers, Jody; Finstuen, Kenn; Pryor, Rene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of an educational program on the Military Health System on some of the evidence-based educational outcomes for the Individual (student) and the Society (all Army Medical Treatment Facilities). The U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA program provides a unique opportunity to assess the impact of an educational program on the Military Health System (MHS). Since the majority of the graduate students are military officers who serve in military medical treatment facilities (MTFs), tracking their career progression allows assessing the value added of the U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA experience from 1951 to 2001 (n = 2234). The context of Society outcomes includes all the Army MTFs where U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA graduates execute their leadership skills. During the time from 1994 to 2001, all of the Army MTFs in the MHS (n = 38) were examined by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). In a similar but shorter time frame (1997-2001), DoD patient satisfaction assessments were conducted. The Individual outcomes (career advancement, increase in status, higher professional association membership) demonstrate that the selection criteria used for program admission appear to be successful. The Society outcomes showed higher JCAHO scores and satisfied consumers in Army facilities with Baylor graduates as the Deputy Commander for Administration (DCA). Continued internal program assessments (curriculum reviews) and external reviews (Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration accreditations of 5 years in 1987, 8 years in 1993 and 7 years in 2001, and 7 ACHE student chapter awards) attest to the strengths of the U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA program. Educating the MHS shareholders (patients, beneficiaries, professional and support staff, senior leaders) and leveraging technology to. share best practices for all administrators (including non-Baylor graduates) will

  2. 75 FR 75549 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... satisfied and that the risk of material misstatements caused by error or fraud is low. The rule has been... risk of material misstatements caused by error or fraud is low. DoD further notes that this existing... (EVMS), material management and accounting systems (MMAS), and property management systems. 2. DoD is...

  3. SYSTEMIC ADMINISTRATION OF BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS ENHANCES PULMONARY SENSITIZATION TO HOUSE DUST MITE IN JUVENILE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of allergies and asthma has increased significantly in the past few decades. The objectives of this study were to establish an allergy model in weanling rats to more closely reflect the developing immune system of children, and to determine whether systemic administ...

  4. [Public relations in institutions and establishments of the health administration system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, A V

    2002-01-01

    The article is dedicated to development of directions and specific functions of the health system bodies/institutions public relations (PR) activities. Priorities are set forth depending on the form of property thereof. A complex use of approaches toward carrying out of PR activities permits optimizing work both within the system itself and relations with the society as a whole.

  5. Library Systems: FY 1992-2012 Public Libraries Survey Trends (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on trends in library systems around the United States from FY 1992 to FY 2012.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not...

  6. Salary administration as part of employee incentive system at industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagandykov Michail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the financial staff incentives at industrial enterprises. The paper concludes that the incentive system should be developed taking into account the developed staff motivation. The only efficient target of influence is the existing staff motivation components. A 3-element employee incentive framework for industrial enterprises is suggested. The article presents the critical analysis of the existing payroll systems of several industrial enterprises, elicits the common flaws of the incentive payments, and develops requirements for such systems. The paper also provides an industrial enterprise needs matrix and an incentive payment types matrix required to build up a rational monetary staff incentive system. These matrices can be adapted for any industrial enterprise with regard to its long-term objectives.

  7. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... In anticipation of transitioning to the new contract payment system, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and the Defense Contract Management Agency were attempting to close out as many contracts as possible...

  8. Institutionalizing the Pennsylvania System: Organizational Exceptionalism, Administrative Support, and Eastern State Penitentiary, 1829-1875

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Ashley T.

    2013-01-01

    I examine the puzzling case of Eastern State Penitentiary and its long-term retention of a unique mode of confinement between 1829 and 1875. Most prisons built in the nineteenth century followed the "Auburn System" of congregate confinement in which inmates worked daily in factory-like settings and retreated at night to solitary confinement. By contrast, Eastern State Penitentiary (f. 1829, Philadelphia) followed the "Pennsylvania System" of separate confinement in which each inmate was confi...

  9. Peripubertal diazepam administration prevents the emergence of dopamine system hyperresponsivity in the MAM developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijuan; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is believed to arise from an interaction of genetic predisposition and adverse environmental factors, with stress being a primary variable. We propose that alleviating anxiety produced in response to stress during a sensitive developmental period may circumvent the dopamine (DA) system alterations that may correspond to psychosis in adults. This was tested in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia based on prenatal administration of the mitotoxin methyl azoxymethanol acetate (MAM). MAM administration leads to a hyperdopaminergic state consisting of an increase in the number of DA neurons firing spontaneously, which correlates with an increased behavioral response to amphetamine. MAM-treated rats exhibited a heightened level of anxiety during adolescence. Peripubertal administration of the antianxiety agent diazepam was found to prevent the increase in DA neuron activity and blunt the behavioral hyperresponsivity to amphetamine in these rats. These data suggest that the pathophysiological factors leading to the onset of psychosis in early adulthood may be circumvented by controlling the response to stress during the peripubertal period.

  10. Peripubertal Diazepam Administration Prevents the Emergence of Dopamine System Hyperresponsivity in the MAM Developmental Disruption Model of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijuan; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is believed to arise from an interaction of genetic predisposition and adverse environmental factors, with stress being a primary variable. We propose that alleviating anxiety produced in response to stress during a sensitive developmental period may circumvent the dopamine (DA) system alterations that may correspond to psychosis in adults. This was tested in a developmental rat model of schizophrenia based on prenatal administration of the mitotoxin methyl azoxymethanol acetate (MAM). MAM administration leads to a hyperdopaminergic state consisting of an increase in the number of DA neurons firing spontaneously, which correlates with an increased behavioral response to amphetamine. MAM-treated rats exhibited a heightened level of anxiety during adolescence. Peripubertal administration of the antianxiety agent diazepam was found to prevent the increase in DA neuron activity and blunt the behavioral hyperresponsivity to amphetamine in these rats. These data suggest that the pathophysiological factors leading to the onset of psychosis in early adulthood may be circumvented by controlling the response to stress during the peripubertal period. PMID:23612434

  11. Suppression of Angiogenesis and Therapy of Human Colon Cancer Liver Metastasis by Systemic Administration of Interferon-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shutaro Ozawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether systemic administration of interferon-alpha (IFN-α can inhibit liver metastasis produced in nude mice by human colon cancer cells. KM12L4 (IFN-α-sensitive or KM12L4 IFNR (IFN-α-resistant cells were injected into the spleen of nude mice. Seven days later, the mice were treated with subcutaneous (s.c. injections of IFN-α (70,000 units/week at different dosing schedules (1, 2, or 7 times/week. Significant inhibition of tumor growth, vascularization and expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or matrix metal loproteinase9 (MMP-9 mRNA and protein occurred in mice given daily injections of IFN-α. Kinetic analysis of therapy showed that daily s.c. administrations of 10,000 units of IFN-α induced apoptosis in liver metastasis-associated endothelial cells, followed by inhibition of tumor cell division and apoptosis of tumor cells. These data suggest that the antiangiogenic activity of IFN-α-2a depends on frequent administration of the optimal biologic dose.

  12. Vitamin A is systemically bioavailable after intratracheal administration with surfactant in an animal model of newborn respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avash J; Bronshtein, Vadim; Khashu, Minesh; Lee, Kyle; Potts, James E; Friel, James; Chessex, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Chronic lung disease (CLD) is a major cause of long-term morbidity in extremely LBW infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Parenteral vitamin A administration decreases the risk of CLD. We tested the hypothesis that intratracheal vitamin A administration with surfactant is systemically bioavailable without interfering with the functional properties of exogenous surfactant. Newborn piglets were ventilated with 100% FiO2 and sequential saline lavage induced respiratory distress syndrome. During lung injury induction, ventilator changes were allowed, but none were made following treatment allocation. Animals were assigned by chance in a blinded control trial to three groups: I=control; II=surfactant; III=surfactant+vitamin A. Hemodynamics, lung mechanics, and blood gases were measured following instrumentation, pre- and posttreatment for 4 h, at which time the liver was sampled for retinol determination. All parameters improved in animals receiving surfactant. A significant interaction existed between time and group for PaO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-aDO2). Hepatic levels of retinol were higher (p<0.001) in animals receiving retinyl acetate. Intratracheal administration of surfactant+vitamin A did not alter the beneficial effects of surfactant on lung compliance and gas exchange. Intratracheal Vitamin A was associated with rapid hepatic uptake. Further studies are warranted.

  13. Overview of the Croatian Land Administration System and the Possibilities for Its Upgrade to 3D by Existing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vučić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of the application of these regulations on the present situation of registration in cadastre and land register were considered. This paper also explores current legal, institutional, and technical solutions implemented in the Croatian Land Administration System and the possibilities for its upgrade to 3D cadastre. Implementation of any technological option to establish a 3D cadastre is tightly related to legislation. Hence, legislation and technological options are considered to find solutions that will be possible to implement. One suggestion presented in this paper was to use other sources of 3D data such as topographic signs or symbols used to represent topographic objects on 2D maps. In combination with other geodetic and cartographic products, useful information can be obtained, often quite relevant to provide a reference context for a 3D cadastre. Topographic signs on topographic maps and on other geodetic products provide a representation of complex real-world situations (tunnels, bridges, overpasses etc. that are not usually presented on cadastral maps. This paper presents the possibility of utilizing those topographic signs to achieve the first steps towards establishing a 3D cadastre. Furthermore, this study proposes the establishment of a 3D Multipurpose Land Administration System as the most efficient system of land administration in a time when spatial information is easier to obtain than ever before and traditional real estate registers are subject to frequent and demanding changes.

  14. NucleoRed - Computerized system for increasing the effectiveness of the technical administrative conduct of the Laguna Verde Central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna D, J.

    2003-01-01

    The on-line systems for the management of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV) have had the challenge to evolve from the PC's of first generation until emigrate to the new Internet technologies, so that they allow to the diverse work groups to have the computer tool that allows them to gather the necessary data and to carry out efficiently the analysis of their results. To confront the previous challenge, in the CLV it has been developed and implemented the Nucleo Red that is an on-line system with the objective of providing in it lines strategic information for the Technician-administrative management of the plant in the nuclear context. The Nucleo Red is the computational tool that reflects the technical administrative processes implemented by personnel of the different Operative departments, it seeks to cooperate to the reliable and efficient operation of the first nucleo electric central of Mexico, with technology and Mexican personnel the one which already it had received international recognitions. The perspective of this computer system is to continue inside the process of continuous improvement and that although it was designed for a nucleo electric plant it can also be taken to the conventional plants of generation of electric power, so that this technology can be taken advantage of in other non nuclear facilities. The objective of the present work, is to show the new modules that have been developed in the Nucleo Red, its operation in general, and the benefits that it presents its use. (Author)

  15. Absence of Systemic Immune Response to Adenovectors After Intraocular Administration to Children With Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonso, Cristhian J; Kong, Lingkun; Leen, Ann; Chai, Samantha J; Petrochelli, Veronica; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hurwitz, Mary Y; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Hurwitz, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    The ocular environment has been shown to induce tolerance to locally administered antigens. We therefore investigated whether there was a systemic immune response against adenoviral vectors injected into the vitreous of retinoblastoma patients enrolled in a phase 1 clinical trial of adenoviral-mediated thymidine kinase gene transfer. Sections of enucleated eyes were immunostained with antibodies against inflammatory cells. A trend toward increasing numbers of plasma cells, T cells, macrophages, and antigen-presenting cells was observed in the injected subjects' eyes, but systemically, there was no significant increase in the number of adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or in adenovirus neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, in contrast to studies showing significant immunogenicity of Ad-RSVtk following injection into extraocular tumors, injection into the eye produces only a mild local inflammatory response without evidence of systemic cellular or humoral immune responses to adenovirus. PMID:20606647

  16. Bioadhesive drug delivery system using glyceryl monooleate for the intravesical administration of paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Sae Woong; Chung, Hesson; Park, Yeong Taek; Choi, Young Wook; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Yoon, Moon Soo

    2005-10-01

    Many reports have shown that the efficacy of intravesical therapy for bladder cancer is in part limited by the poor penetration of drugs into the urothelium. The present study evaluated the effect of glyceryl monooleate (GMO) on the absorption of intravesically administered paclitaxel in a rabbit model of bladder cancer. Urine, plasma, and tissue pharmacokinetics were determined in rabbits treated for 120 min with paclitaxel (500 microg/20 ml) by intravesical instillation. Two formulations of GMO/paclitaxel were evaluated using different proportions of water, 15 and 30%, and Taxol was used as a control. Animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and necropsy was performed. 120 min after instillation, the bladder was emptied and excised. In the urine, paclitaxel concentration was decreased by 39.6 and 41.2% in the two experimental groups and by 25.2% in the control group. The paclitaxel concentrations in the urothelium were 53 and 56% of the urine concentration in both experimental groups, but 11% in the control group. The concentration then declined exponentially in the underlying capillary-perfused tissues, reaching equilibrium at a depth of 1,400-1,700 microm. The plasma concentrations were extremely low compared with concentrations in urine and bladder tissues and were not associated with clinical toxicity. We conclude that GMO has a significantly increased bioadhesiveness to bladder mucosa. Therefore, intravesical administration of GMO/paclitaxel/water provides a significant advantage for drugs targeting the bladder tissue, and paclitaxel represents a viable option for intravesical bladder cancer therapy. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Chikungunya Fever Cases Identified in the Veterans Health Administration System, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perti, Tara; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia A; Schirmer, Patricia L; Winters, Mark A; Holodniy, Mark

    2016-05-01

    During December 2013, the first locally transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections in the Americas were reported in the Caribbean. Although CHIKV infection is rarely fatal, risk for severe disease increases with age and medical comorbidities. Herein we describe characteristics of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with CHIKV infection and, among those with infections diagnosed in Puerto Rico, investigated risk factors for hospitalization. We queried VHA's national electronic medical records to identify patients with CHIKV testing during 2014. Demographics, clinical history, laboratory results, and outcomes were abstracted. We investigated risk factors for hospitalization among patients with laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection in Puerto Rico. We identified 180 laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infections; 148 (82.2%) were diagnosed in Puerto Rico, and 32 (17.8%) were diagnosed among returning travelers elsewhere in the United States. In Puerto Rico, where more patients were hospitalized (55.4% versus 20.0%) and died (4.1% versus 0%), risk for hospitalization increased with age (relative risk [RR]/each 10-year increase, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.32) and, adjusted for age, increased among patients with congestive heart failure (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.25-1.99), chronic kidney disease (RR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.94), diabetes mellitus (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.84), or chronic lung disease (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.03-1.82). CHIKV infection is an emerging problem among Veterans residing in or visiting areas with CHIKV transmission. Although overall mortality rates are low, clinicians in affected areas should be aware that older patients and patients with comorbidities may be at increased risk for severe disease.

  18. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  19. An animal model of pain produced by systemic administration of an immunotherapeutic anti-ganglioside antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, R.; Yu, A L; Yaksh, T L; Sorkin, L S

    For the management of pediatric neuroblastoma, a promising experimental treatment includes slow systemic infusion of a human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against the GD2 ganglioside. Beneficial actions are however, accompanied by severe pain and altered cardiovascular tone. The pain is

  20. Quality in Education in the Calcasieu Parish School System: Experiences of Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebodeaux, Pamela Stacey

    2010-01-01

    The Malcolm Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence outline effective practices and core values that have assisted businesses, health agencies, government institutions, and several school systems in the United States to improve performance within their organizations. Recent studies of school districts from across the nation have…

  1. 76 FR 28855 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Business Systems-Definition and Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... withheld on amounts due under each progress payment, performance-based payment, or interim cost voucher... rule mandates payment withholdings on all contracts, including firm-fixed price contract types, while... mechanisms in the form of a business systems clause which includes payment withholding that allows...

  2. Geographical information System - Tool for the administration of the services of basic sanitation and drinkable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas A, Claudia; Figueroa V, Claudia; Betancur V, Teresita

    2000-01-01

    The utility a Geographic Information System (GIS), is to develop urbane zone in this case, in the Jardin Municipality many elements and tools are supporting the management of service of potable water and basic sanitation, which constitute components of Territorial Ordering Plane (TOP)

  3. Post-Implementation Success Factors for Enterprise Resource Planning Student Administration Systems in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Linda; Bozeman, William

    2010-01-01

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems can represent one of the largest investments of human and financial resources by a higher education institution. They also bring a significant process reengineering aspect to the institution and the associated implementation project through the integration of compiled industry best practices into the…

  4. Cocaine Self-Administration Alters the Relative Effectiveness of Multiple Memory Systems during Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Amanda; Setlow, Barry; Packard, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were trained to run a straight-alley maze for an oral cocaine or sucrose vehicle solution reward, followed by either response or latent extinction training procedures that engage neuroanatomically dissociable "habit" and "cognitive" memory systems, respectively. In the response extinction condition, rats performed a runway approach response…

  5. The use of legal knowledge-based systems in public administration: what can go wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Hugo; Prakken, Henry; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Bench-Capon, Trevor J.M.; Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Winkels, Radboud

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, practical applications of legal knowledge-based systems have become increasingly common. This raises the issue of their functioning in practice and their actual influence on the quality of decisions. In this paper we investigate to what extent incorrect decisions may be caused by

  6. Gas system 2016: Press conference 17 January 2017 + Gas consumption by administrative regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2016: A first part presents the national data about gas consumption, production of gas-fired power plants, new gas uses (diesel-gas substitution, biomethane..) and their environmental impacts, and the development of the Internet open-data platform. A second part presents the regional gas consumptions with a focus on industrial clients

  7. Systemic Interleukin-4 Administration after Spinal Cord Injury Modulates Inflammation and Promotes Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rui; Monteiro, Susana; Lopes, José P.; Barradas, Pedro; Vasconcelos, Natália L.; Gomes, Eduardo D.; Assunção-Silva, Rita C.; Teixeira, Fábio G.; Morais, Mónica; Sousa, Nuno; Salgado, António J.; Silva, Nuno A.

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes dramatic disability and dysfunction in the motor, sensory and autonomic systems. The severe inflammatory reaction that occurs after SCI is strongly associated with further tissue damage. As such, immunomodulatory strategies have been developed, aimed at reducing inflammation, but also at shaping the immune response in order to protect, repair and promote regeneration of spared neural tissue. One of those promising strategies is the intraspinal adminis...

  8. Numerical Simulation of Hemodynamic and Physiological Responses of Human Cardiovascular and Respiratory System under Drugs Administration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2004), s. 295-304 ISSN 1567-8822 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1073; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : human cardiovascular and respiratory system * baroreflex and chemoreflex control * physiologically based pharmacokinetic model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Information on the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-30

    Areas were reviewed related to EIA's independence from policy influences, EIA's quality assurance procedures, and the impact of budget reductions on six EIA programs and to develop information on EIA's Financial Reporting System (FRS). This report provides information on FRS and specifically discusses EIA's original plans for developing FRS and FRS' data, products, and current status. Audit work addressing each of the other areas is described.

  10. Implementing evidence-based patient self-management programs in the Veterans Health Administration: perspectives on delivery system design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damush, T M; Jackson, G L; Powers, B J; Bosworth, H B; Cheng, E; Anderson, J; Guihan, M; LaVela, S; Rajan, S; Plue, L

    2010-01-01

    While many patient self-management (PSM) programs have been developed and evaluated for effectiveness, less effort has been devoted to translating and systematically delivering PSM in primary and specialty care. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review delivery system design considerations for implementing self-management programs in practice. As lessons are learned about implementing PSM programs in Veterans Health Administration (VHA), resource allocation by healthcare organization for formatting PSM programs, providing patient access, facilitating PSM, and incorporating support tools to foster PSM among its consumers can be refined and tailored. Redesigning the system to deliver and support PSM will be important as implementation researchers translate evidence based PSM practices into routine care and evaluate its impact on the health-related quality of life of veterans living with chronic disease.

  11. Systemic administration of high-molecular weight hyaluronan stimulates wound healing in genetically diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Mariarosaria; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Campo, Giuseppe M; Avenoso, Angela; Calò, Margherita; Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Minutoli, Letteria; Barone, Mauro; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica

    2011-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), an essential component of the extracellular matrix, is an efficient space filler that maintains hydration, serves as a substrate for assembly of proteoglycans and is involved in wound healing. Although numerous pieces of evidence demonstrate beneficial effects in promoting wound healing in diabetes, a systemic approach has never been tested. We used an incisional wound healing model in genetically diabetic mice to test the effects of systemic injection of HA. Diabetic (n=56) and normoglycemic (n=56) mice were subjected to incision and randomized (8 groups of 7 animals each) to receive HA at different doses, 7.5, 15 and 30mg/kg/i.p., or vehicle (0.9% NaCl solution) for 12days. At the end of the experiment animals were sacrificed and skin wounds were excised for histological, biochemical and molecular analysis. Histology revealed that the most effective dose to improve wound repair and angiogenesis in diabetic mice was 30mg/kg. Furthermore HA injection (30mg/kg) improved the altered healing pattern in diabetic animals, increased skin remodeling proteins TGF-β and transglutaminase-II and restored the altered expression of cyclin B1/Cdc2 complex. Evaluation of skin from diabetic animals injected with HA revealed also an increase in HA content, suggesting that systemic injection may be able to restore the reduced intracellular HA pool of diabetic mice. Finally HA markedly improved skin mechanical properties. These promising results, if confirmed in a clinical setting, may improve the care and management of diabetic patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Scalability, Interoperability, and Security at the Data Discovery Level: A System Administrator's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) has been one of the best known Earth science and global change data discovery online resources throughout its extended operational history. The growing popularity of the system since its introduction on the World Wide Web in 1994 has created an environment where resolving issues of scalability, security, and interoperability have been critical to providing the best available service to the users and partners of the GCMD. Innovative approaches developed at the GCMD in these areas will be presented with a focus on how they relate to current and future GO-ESSP community needs.

  13. DNA Nanocarriers for Systemic Administration: Characterization and In Vivo Bioimaging in Healthy Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie David

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby present different DNA nanocarriers consisting of new multimodular systems (MMS, containing the cationic lipid dioleylaminesuccinylparomomycin (DNA MMS DOSP, or bis (guanidinium-tren-cholesterol (DNA MMS BGTC, and DNA lipid nanocapsules (DNA LNCs. Active targeting of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R using galactose as a ligand for DNA MMS (GAL DNA MMS and passive targeting using a polyethylene glycol coating for DNA LNCs (PEG DNA LNCs should improve the properties of these DNA nanocarriers. All systems were characterized via physicochemical methods and the DNA payload of DNA LNCs was quantified for the first time. Afterwards, their biodistribution in healthy mice was analyzed after encapsulation of a fluorescent dye via in vivo biofluorescence imaging (BFI, revealing various distribution profiles depending on the cationic lipid used and their surface characteristics. Furthermore, the two vectors with the best prolonged circulation profile were administered twice in healthy mice revealing that the new DNA MMS DOSP vectors showed no toxicity and the same distribution profile for both injections, contrary to PEG DNA LNCs which showed a rapid clearance after the second injection, certainly due to the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon.

  14. Systemic zinc protoporphyrin administration reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y; Tian, H; Xi, G; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Hua, Y

    2006-01-01

    Hemoglobin degradation products result in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recent studies found that intracerebral infusion of heme oxygenase inhibitors reduces hemoglobin- and ICH-induced brain edema in rats and pigs. The present study examined whether systemic use of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a heme oxygenase inhibitor, can attenuate brain edema, behavioral deficits, and brain atrophy following ICH. All rats had intracerebral infusion of 100-microL autologous blood. ZnPP (1 nmol/hour/rat) or vehicle was given immediately or 6 hours following ICH. ZnPP was delivered intraperitoneally up to 14 days through an osmotic mini-pump. Rats were killed at day 3 and day 28 after ICH for brain edema and brain atrophy measurements, respectively. Behavioral tests were performed. We found that ZnPP attenuated brain edema in animals sacrificed 3 days after ICH (p ZnPP also reduced ICH-induced caudate atrophy (p ZnPP given immediately or 6 hours after ICH improved neurological deficits (p < 0.05). In conclusion, systemic zinc protoporphyrin treatment started at 0 or 6 hours after ICH reduced brain edema, neurological deficits, and brain atrophy after ICH. These results indicate that heme oxygenase may be a new target for ICH therapeutics.

  15. Measuring Sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across VHA organizational components and by staff characteristics. Subjects Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the VA’s Mental Health System Redesign initiative. Methods A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test examined differences in sustainability by VISN, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify “a priori” and “in vivo” themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Results Sustainability differed across VISN and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for: 1) Benefits and Credibility of the change and 2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were: staff and institutional resistance, and non-supportive leadership. Facilitators were: commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of QI Tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of PDSA cycles. Conclusions Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the VA’s best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than “one-size-fits all” approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a QI collaborative affects sustainability. PMID:21971024

  16. CpG-PEG Conjugates and their Immune Modulating Effects after Systemic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Caixing; Xiang, Xiaofei; Yue, Yang; Li, Lin; Li, Yesen; Zhang, Chong; Xu, Yuhong

    2018-03-02

    Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG motifs were found to be able to target cells that express Toll-like receptor 9 to modulate innate and adaptive immune reactions. But their in vivo application in immunotherapy against cancer has not been successful. We attempted in this study to examine polyethylene-glycol (PEG) conjugated CpG ODNs and investigated their mechanism of immune modulation in anti-cancer therapy. CpG-PEG conjugates with different PEG lengths were synthesized. In vitro activity as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics properties were evaluated. CpG-PEG20Ks were found to be able to persist longer in circulation and activate various downstream effector cells. After intravenous injection, they resulted in higher levels of IL-12p70 in the circulation and lower M-MDSC infiltrates in the tumor microenvironment. Such activities were different from those of CpG ODNs without PEGylation, suggesting different PK-PD profiles systemically and locally. Our data support the development of CpG-PEGs as a new therapeutic agent that can be systemically administered to modulate immune responses and the microenvironment in tumor tissues.

  17. Potentiating antimicrobial efficacy of propolis through niosomal-based system for administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay; Ketkar, Sameer; Patil, Sharvil; Fearnley, James; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a multicomponent active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) from a variety of plant sources. This study was designed to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of propolis by engineering a niosomal-based system for topical application. Propolis was extracted in ethanol and screened for total polyphenol content. Propolis-loaded niosomes (PLNs) were prepared with varying concentrations of Span 60 and cholesterol. The PLNs were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, namely, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, surface topography and shape, and stability, followed by screening for in vitro antimicrobial activity. The PLNs were formulated into propolis niosomal gel (PNG) using Carbopol P934 base and subjected to ex vivo skin deposition study. The ethanolic extract of propolis had high polyphenolic content (270 ± 9.2 mg GAE/g). The prepared PLNs showed vesicle size between 294 nm and 427 nm, and the percent entrapment in the range of 50.62-71.29% with a significant enhancement in antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . Enhanced antimicrobial activity of PLNs was attributed to the ability of niosomes to directly interact with the bacterial cell envelop thereby facilitating the diffusion of propolis constituents across the cell wall. The formulated PNG exhibited a twofold better skin deposition due to improved retention of niosomes in the skin. The findings indicate that the engineering of a niosomal-based system for propolis enhanced its antimicrobial potential through topical application.

  18. Quantitative performance targets by using balanced scorecard system: application to waste management and public administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Paula; Nunes, Luis Miguel; Teixeira, Margarida Ribau

    2014-09-01

    This article demonstrates how decision-makers can be guided in the process of defining performance target values in the balanced scorecard system. We apply a method based on sensitivity analysis with Monte Carlo simulation to the municipal solid waste management system in Loulé Municipality (Portugal). The method includes two steps: sensitivity analysis of performance indicators to identify those performance indicators with the highest impact on the balanced scorecard model outcomes; and sensitivity analysis of the target values for the previously identified performance indicators. Sensitivity analysis shows that four strategic objectives (IPP1: Comply with the national waste strategy; IPP4: Reduce nonrenewable resources and greenhouse gases; IPP5: Optimize the life-cycle of waste; and FP1: Meet and optimize the budget) alone contribute 99.7% of the variability in overall balanced scorecard value. Thus, these strategic objectives had a much stronger impact on the estimated balanced scorecard outcome than did others, with the IPP1 and the IPP4 accounting for over 55% and 22% of the variance in overall balanced scorecard value, respectively. The remaining performance indicators contribute only marginally. In addition, a change in the value of a single indicator's target value made the overall balanced scorecard value change by as much as 18%. This may lead to involuntarily biased decisions by organizations regarding performance target-setting, if not prevented with the help of methods such as that proposed and applied in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Effects of prolonged recombinant human erythropoietin administration on muscle membrane transport systems and metabolic marker enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, C; Thomsen, J J; Rentsch, R L

    2007-01-01

    on the expression of muscle membrane transport proteins. Likewise, improvements in performance may involve upregulation of metabolic enzymes. Since Epo is known to augment performance we tested the effect of rHuEpo on some marker enzymes that are related to aerobic capacity. For these purposes eight subjects...... performance by approximately 54%. Membrane transport systems and carbonic anhydrases involved in pH regulation remained unchanged. Of the Na(+), K(+)-pump isoforms only the density of the alpha2 subunit was decreased (by 22%) after treatment. The marker enzymes cytochrom c and hexokinase remained unchanged......Adaptations to chronic hypoxia involve changes in membrane transport proteins. The underlying mechanism of this response may be related to concomitant occurring changes in erythropoietin (Epo) levels. We therefore tested the direct effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment...

  20. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  1. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  2. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  3. Space administration

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  4. Safety of fluralaner chewable tablets (BravectoTM), a novel systemic antiparasitic drug, in dogs after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide that provides long acting efficacy in dogs after a single oral treatment. This study investigated the safety of oral administration of fluralaner in chewable tablets to dogs at the highest recommended treatment dose and at multiples of this dose. Methods Thirty-two (16 male and 16 female) healthy 8-week old Beagle dogs weighing 2.0 - 3.6 kg at first administration were included in the study. Fluralaner was administered on three occasions at 8-week intervals at doses of up to 56, 168, and 280 mg fluralaner/kg body weight, equivalent to 1, 3, and 5 times the highest recommended treatment dose of fluralaner; sham dosed dogs served as controls. During the study, all dogs were clinically observed, and their health was carefully monitored including body weight development, food consumption and measurement of hematology, coagulation, clinical chemistry (including measurement of levels of ACTH and C-reactive protein) and urinalysis. Following euthanasia of the dogs, complete gross post mortem examination, including organ weight determination, and histopathological examination of multiple tissues were conducted. Results There were no clinical findings related to fluralaner treatment. Statistically significant differences between the treated groups and the control group were observed for some clinical pathology parameters and organ weights; none of these findings were considered to be of clinical relevance. Conclusions Oral administration of fluralaner at the highest recommended treatment dose (56 mg/kg) at 8-week intervals is well tolerated and has a safety margin of more than five in healthy dogs eight weeks of age or older and weighing at least 2 kg. PMID:24606886

  5. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that are expected to occur at high penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator...

  6. Effects of co-administration of ketamine and ethanol on the dopamine system via the cortex-striatum circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Xu, Tian-Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Bi; Leung, Chi-Kwan; You, Ding-Yun; Wang, Shang-Wen; Yi, Shuai; Jing, Qiang; Xie, Run-Fang; Li, Huifang-Jie; Zeng, Xiao-Feng

    2017-06-15

    Ketamine and ethanol are increasingly being used together as recreational drugs in rave parties. Their effects on the dopamine (DA) system remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of consuming two different concentrations of ketamine with and without alcohol on the DA system. We employed the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to evaluate the rewarding effects of the combined administration of two different doses of ketamine (30mg/kg and 60mg/kg) with ethanol (0.3156g/kg). We evaluated the effects of the combined drug treatment on the transcriptional output of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) as well as protein expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. We found that rats exhibited a dose-dependent, drug-paired, place preference to ketamine and ethanol associated with an elevated DA level in the striatum but not in the PFC. Moreover, treatment involving low- or high-dose ketamine with or without ethanol caused a differential regulatory response in the mRNA levels of the four DA metabolism genes and the cellular protein abundance of BDNF via the cortex-striatum circuitry. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms that occur following the combined administration of ketamine and ethanol in the DA system, which could potentially lead to alterations in the mental status and behavior of ketamine/ethanol users. Our findings may aid the development of therapeutic strategies for substance abuse patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EGFR-targeted gelatin nanoparticles for systemic administration of gemcitabine in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Xu, Jing; Mattheolabakis, George; Amiji, Mansoor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have formulated redox-responsive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted type B gelatin nanoparticles as a targeted vector for systemic delivery of gemcitabine therapy in pancreatic cancer. The gelatin nanoparticles were formed by ethanol-induced desolvation process to encapsulate the bound drug. The surface of the nanoparticles was decorated either with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to impart enhanced circulation time or with EGFR targeting peptide to confer target specificity. Our in vitro studies in Panc-1 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells confirm that gemcitabine encapsulated in EGFR-targeted gelatin nanoparticles, released through disulfide bond cleavage, had a significantly improved cytotoxic profile. Further, the in vivo anticancer activity was evaluated in an orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor bearing SCID beige mice, which confirmed that EGFR-targeted gelatin nanoparticles could efficiently deliver gemcitabine to the tumor leading to higher therapeutic benefit as compared to the drug in solution. The treatment of pancreatic cancer remains unsatisfactory, with an average 5-year survival of less than 5%. New treatment modalities are thus urgently needed. In this study, the authors presented their formulation of redox-responsive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted type B gelatin nanoparticles as a carrier for gemcitabine. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments showed encouraging results. It is hoped that the findings would provide a novel and alternative drug delivery platform for the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of portal systemic circulation by oral and per-rectal administration of I-123 iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Susumu; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Ueda, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Kenzo; Ikeoka, Naoko; Monna, Takeyuki; Ochi, Hironobu

    1990-01-01

    In an earlier study, we measured the portal circulation noninvasively by Tc-99m pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy. This method makes it possible to see the portal circulation and to diagnose portal hypertension from the images of the liver and heart. However, the method mainly reflects circulation from the inferior mesenteric vein, the contribution of which to the portal circulation is less than that of the superior mesenteric vein. Here, we devised capsules of I-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) that dissolve when the pH changes to evaluate the portal circulation arising from the superior mesenteric vein. I-123 IMP enclosed in an enteric-coated capsule was prepared and given orally, just before I-123 IMP was injected into the rectum. The per-rectal portal shunt index (RSI) and oral portal shunt index (OSI) were calculated from the count of radioactivity of the liver and lungs. The RSI and OSI of patients with cirrhosis were both higher than those of the patients with chronic hepatitis. In individual patients, the RSI was higher than the OSI. This noninvasive method seemed to be useful in evaluation of the portal systemic circulation in chornic liver diseases. (author)

  9. Problems of administration of ACCOUNTING OF QUALITY OF LANDs in system of state land of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhenko O.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of land resources of Ukraine and quality of soil getting worse, increasing areas of technogenic pollution. Uncontrolled land use leads to deterioration of soil fertility. To maintain a high level of natural properties of lands is necessary to monitor over their use, which can be achieved by accounting of land quality. Information about the quantity and quality of lands summarizing by the central executive authority that implements the state policy in the sphere of land relations. Summarized information on the quantity and quality of land on gratis personnel provided to state authorities and local governments according to Order of conducting of State Land Cadastre. One of the main problems of accounting quality of lands is in Ukraine now is not only the absence of regulatory documents, but also the reliability of available information According to it’s providing is necessary of availability of actual information about the status of land resources. The absence of qualitative characteristics land plots in cadastral system complicates state control over land use and protection, because there are no grounds for levy fines for the catastrophic decline of soil fertility. One of the layers of Public Cadastral Map of Ukraine are soils. Nowadays is approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine ( № 1051 nomenclature list of agro-industrial group of soils, which includes 222 of the agro groups with deciphering by granulometric composition. If with soil units identified, so the indicators that characterize them more difficult. That indicators, which were the basis for accounting of the quality of lands should check up to modern realities and condition of soils. According to the Law of Ukraine "On Land Protection", in the field of land protection and restoration of soil fertility establishes the following standards: maximum allowable soil contamination; qualitative condition of soils; the optimum ratio of lands; indicators of land and soils

  10. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide in laying hens stimulates antimicrobial properties of egg white against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrani, Larbi; Helloin, Emmanuelle; Guyot, Nicolas; Nys, Yves

    2013-04-15

    The natural protective system of eggs relies on egg yolk immunoglobulins and on antimicrobial proteins/peptides mainly concentrated in the egg white. There is much evidence concerning the specific stimulation of immunoglobulins by antigens but to date, the influence of the hen milieu on the regulation of the egg innate molecular immunity has not been established. To explore the hypothesis of modulation in egg antimicrobial molecules, laying hens were immune-challenged with intravenous injections of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 24 h intervals. Eggs of the control and LPS groups were collected over a period of 21 days following the first LPS injection and the egg white activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were assessed. The increase in egg white anti-S. aureus activity reached 20.9% and 23.4% (pegg whites. We recorded no significant variations between the two experimental groups for these potential modulating factors. Finally, using RT-qPCR we studied the expression of several genes coding for antimicrobial proteins and peptides involved in the immune response in the infundibulum and the magnum, Out of the 11 genes, only TLR4 in the magnum and ovocalyxin-36 in infundibulum were over-expressed respectively 24h and 8 days after the first LPS injection. The other candidate genes showed similar or down regulated expression in the LPS group as compared to the control especially during the first 24h. Our results suggest that the hen enhances the albumen antimicrobial activity of its eggs when exposed to immune stimulations or infections. This could be an attempt to preventively reinforce the protection of the embryo with nonspecific antimicrobial agents in addition to the specific antibodies exported to the egg. The origin of this stimulation of egg molecular immunity remains to be characterized amongst the numerous novel egg proteins recently identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critique of Public Administrative Reform System: Post-Independence in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Adegbenga Aladegbola

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The public service of any nation is its veritable instrument for national development. If it fails, the gamut of policies meant for the nation’s development would have failed. In this sense, the observable developmental deficits in Africa cannot therefore, be separated from the failures of the continents public service and the largest chunk of these failures are located on the ethical behaviour of the public servants who are taking the service mostly as a colonial service. Writing from Nigeria hindsight, the author observed that most nation’s public service in Africa, like its larger society, have not been able to separate themselves from their history, the history of “colonial mentality.” In a way, an enduring problem noticeable within the public service in most sub-Saharan Africa (SSA states has been what appropriate strategy will remove, the clove of “colonial mentality” associated with the public servant behaviour even years after decolonization of most SSA states and in spite of various post independent reforms put up to rectify these deficiencies. Has the knowledge of Africa Solution to Africa Problem (ASAP instil the right type of ethical behaviours that will accept the public service as African service and not foreign service of the old exploitative order, divide and rule system and the ‘not my business’ syndrome that pervaded the era of colonial rules? It is critical that the failure of public service is a failure of service delivery in Africa. This paper, using Nigeria as a case study, does not only chronicle these failures/challenges as it affects Africa development strides, it also offers a process of public service ethics education as strategy, in order to have long-term and sustainable solutions that will promote public service delivery in Africa.

  12. Societal costs of intrathecal drug delivery systems--an administrative analysis based on patient claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Timothy Adam; Fisher, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the overall and disaggregated societal costs of intrathecal drug delivery systems (IDDSs) in the treatment of pain and spasticity in the United States. A retrospective review of medical and pharmacy claims was performed on patients with IDDS. Patients were divided into three cohorts according to the conditions that their IDDSs were intended to treat pain, spasticity, or both. Patients also were stratified according to whether or not cost data were available for the implantation of their IDDSs. Total societal costs that were directly attributable to pain or spasticity were summarized, and medical/pharmaceutical encounters were enumerated. N = 38,951 patients (52.7% women, age 54.1 ± 14.1 years) with IDDSs were identified and included in this study. IDDS patients have an average of 34.0-52.7 (depending on cohort) medical encounters per year, of which an average of 6.3-10.1 is attributable to the condition their IDDS is intended to treat. The average societal cost of the attributable encounters is $12,233 to $20,049 per patient year (inflation-adjusted 2011 U.S. dollars); however, the distribution of these costs is extremely skewed in the positive direction. Inpatient treatment accounts for 65.9% of the societal costs incurred by IDDS patients. The societal costs for IDDS patients are high and extremely variable. A relatively small number of patients made an extreme number of medical encounters and represent a heavy societal cost burden. In order to reduce the growing societal cost of chronic pain and spasticity treatment, measures should be taken to reduce the resource utilization and costs of the most challenging patients. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. Systemic Administration of Propentofylline, Ibudilast, and (+)-Naltrexone Each Reverses Mechanical Allodynia in a Novel Rat Model of Central Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amanda; Wieseler, Julie; Favret, Jacob; Johnson, Kirk W.; Rice, Kenner C.; Maier, Steven F.; Falci, Scott; Watkins, Linda R.

    2014-01-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is a debilitating consequence of central nervous system (CNS) damage for which current treatments are ineffective. To explore mechanisms underlying CNP, we developed a rat model involving T13/L1 dorsal root avulsion. The resultant dorsal horn damage creates bilateral below-level (L4-6) mechanical allodynia. This allodynia, termed spinal neuropathic avulsion pain (SNAP), occurs in the absence of confounding paralysis. To characterize this model, we undertook a series of studies aimed at defining whether SNAP could be reversed by any of 3 putative glial activation inhibitors, each with distinct mechanisms of action. Indeed, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor propentofylline, the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) inhibitor ibudilast, and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist (+)-naltrexone each reversed below-level allodynia bilaterally. Strikingly, none of these impacted SNAP upon first administration but required 1–2 wk of daily administration before pain reversal was obtained. Given reversal of CNP by each of these glial modulatory agents, these results suggest that glia contribute to the maintenance of such pain and enduring release of MIF and endogenous agonists of TLR4 is important for sustaining CNP. The markedly delayed efficacy of all 3 glial modulatory drugs may prove instructive for interpretation of apparent drug failures after shorter dosing regimens. PMID:24412802

  14. CKD screening and management in the Veterans Health Administration: the impact of system organization and an innovative electronic record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Thakor G; Pogach, Leonard M; Barth, Robert H

    2009-03-01

    At the beginning of this decade, Healthy People 2010 issued a series of objectives to "reduce the incidence, morbidity, mortality and health care costs of chronic kidney disease." A necessary feature of any program to reduce the burden of kidney disease in the US population must include mechanisms to screen populations at risk and institute early the aspects of management, such as control of blood pressure, management of diabetes, and, in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), preparation for dialysis therapy and proper vascular access management, that can retard CKD progression and improve long-term outcome. The Department of Veterans Affairs and the Veterans Health Administration is a broad-based national health care system that is almost uniquely situated to address these issues and has developed a number of effective approaches using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, performance measures, innovative use of a robust electronic medical record system, and system oversight during the past decade. In this report, we describe the application of this systems approach to the prevention of CKD in veterans through the treatment of risk factors, identification of CKD in veterans, and oversight of predialysis and dialysis care. The lessons learned and applicability to the private sector are discussed.

  15. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  16. The Use of a Satellite Communications System for Command and Control of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surrogate Unmanned Aerial System Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T.; Jones, Frank; Hutchinson, Brian; Joyce, Claude; Nelson, Skip; Melum, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft which has served for several years as a platform for unmanned systems research and development. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and a Research Systems Operator (RSO) that allows for flight operations almost any-where in the national airspace system (NAS) without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be remotely controlled from a modular, transportable ground control station (GCS) like a true UAS. Ground control of the aircraft is accomplished by the use of data links that allow the two-way passage of the required data to control the aircraft and provide the GCS with situational awareness. The original UAS Surrogate data-link system was composed of redundant very high frequency (VHF) data radio modems with a maximum range of approximately 40 nautical miles. A new requirement was developed to extend this range beyond visual range (BVR). This new requirement led to the development of a satellite communications system that provided the means to command and control the UAS Surrogate at ranges beyond the limits of the VHF data links. The system makes use of the Globalstar low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications system. This paper will provide details of the development, implementation, and flight testing of the satellite data communications system on the UAS Surrogate research aircraft.

  17. Effect of systemic administration of nicotine on healing in osseous defects. An experimental study in rabbits. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Sørensen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of systemic administration of nicotine on bone healing in osseous defects in the tibia of rabbits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits received nicotine (n=8; test group) or saline (n=8; control group) via subcutaneously...... 4 weeks and in the left leg after 6 weeks of nicotine/placebo exposure. Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created for the bone defects. After 8 weeks, the animals were killed. Tissue blocks including the bone defects were prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: The animals in the test...... group lost weight, while the control group gained weight during the experiment. The prostaglandin E(2) levels in plasma increased significantly following nicotine exposure in the test group. No significant differences in the percentage of vessels and bone density in the osseous defects were found...

  18. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) causes growth of the rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Vinter-Jensen, L; Pedersen, S B

    1997-01-01

    .01) increase in the mean wet weight of the ventral prostate. The mean weight of the dorsolateral lobe of the prostate increased by 39% (p controls. The ODC-activity in the prostate was significantly increased by IGF......-I after 3 days of treatment, and administration of IGF-I concomitantly with DFMO significantly inhibited ODC activity and the weight increase of the prostate. Stereological examination of the prostate in the IGF-I-treated animals showed growth of the epithelial component of the gland. Systemic treatment...... with EGF did not affect the mean weight of the prostate or the seminal vesicle compared to controls.CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that treatment with IGF-I but not EGF for 7 days induces profound growth of the rat prostate and the seminal vesicle, and that the growth is dependent on an intact ODC-activity....

  19. Effects of Systemic Administration of Oxytocin on Contextual Fear Extinction in a Rat Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Eskandarian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is the impaired extinction of traumatic memory. Single prolonged stress (SPS has been suggested as an animal model of PTSD, since SPS rats exhibited the impaired fear extinction. Oxytocin (OXT has been recently suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for treatment of PTSD. In this study, using SPS rats we investigated the effects of multiple systemic administration of OXT on contextual fear extinction. Methods: SPS was conducted in three stages: restraint for 2 h, forced swim for 20 min, and diethyl ether anesthesia, and then left undisturbed in their home cage for 7 days. In the SPS group, 7 days after SPS treatment, contextual fear conditioning was performed (on day 0, and then extinction training was performed on each of four consecutive days following fear conditioning. In the sham group, the procedures were similar except that SPS treatment was not performed. Results: During extinction trial (10 min freezing behavior was recorded. OXT (1, 10, 100 and 1000μg/kg was administrated (I.P immediately after each extinction trial. SPS rats exhibited significant impairment of contextual fear extinction as compared with sham rats. While there was no significant difference in the freezing levels between SPS and Sham rats 24 h after the fear conditioning, the freezing levels in SPS rats were significantly higher than those in sham rats after the second extinction training. Systemic OXT delayed fear extinction in sham rats as compared with sham-saline treated animals. No effect of OXT was found in SPS rats. Discussion: These findings indicate that increasing OXT transmission during fear memory reactivation delays fear extinction, and thus, the recommendation of OXT for PTSD treatment should be considered with caution.

  20. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase administration in newborns decreases systemic inflammatory cytokine expression in a neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Liedel, Jennifer L; Fredrich, Katherine; Welak, Scott R; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Oldham, Keith T; Simpson, Pippa M; Gourlay, David M

    2012-10-01

    Supplementation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an endogenous protein expressed in the intestines, decreases the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)-associated intestinal injury and permeability. We hypothesized that IAP administration is protective in a dose-dependent manner of the inflammatory response in a neonatal rat model. Pre- and full-term newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were sacrificed on day of life 3. Control pups were vaginally delivered and dam fed. Preterm pups were delivered via cesarean section and exposed to intermittent hypoxia and formula feeds containing lipopolysaccharide (NEC) with and without IAP. Three different standardized doses were administered to a group of pups treated with 40, 4, and 0.4U/kg of bovine IAP (NEC+IAP40, IAP4, or IAP0.4U). Reverse transcription-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on liver and lung tissues and serum cytokine analysis for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were performed. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, expressed as mean±standard error of the mean and P≤0.05 considered significant. Levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α increased significantly in NEC versus control, returning to control levels with increasing doses of supplemental enteral IAP. Hepatic and pulmonary TNF-α and iNOS messenger ribonucleic acid expressions increased in NEC, and the remaining elevated despite IAP supplementation. Proinflammatory cytokine expression is increased systemically with intestinal NEC injury. Administration of IAP significantly reduces systemic proinflammatory cytokine expression in a dose-dependent manner. Early supplemental enteral IAP may reduce NEC-related injury and be useful for reducing effects caused by a proinflammatory cascade. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Framework for Establishment of a Comprehensive and Standardized Administration System for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in College Student Community in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoru; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tianhua; Wang, Xiangni; Liu, Weiping; Ma, Xuexue; Li, Yuelu; Fan, Yahui

    2016-10-01

    College student community is the one with high risk of tuberculosis (TB). A systemic and standardized administration model for prevention and control of TB is significance in controlling TB spread in universities. Currently, the universities in China have not established the comprehensive and standardized administration system for TB prevention and control in college student community. Firstly, the literature research and brainstorming method (n=13) were used to construct the clause and sub-clause pool for the administration of TB prevention and control within college student community in 2014. Secondly, a total of twenty experts in the field of TB prevention and control who are representatives of the east, west, south and north parts of China were selected and invited to participate the Delphi letter-inquiry. After two rounds of letter-inquiry, the opinions of the experts reached a consensus and the framework for the administration system was constructed. A framework for the administration system was constructed, which included 8 first class indexes, 26 second class indexes and 104 third class indexes. The results are highly scientific and reliable, which can be helpful for improving the systemic and standardized levels for the administration of TB prevention and control in universities in China and perhaps in other developing counties with high TB burden as well.

  2. Political administration

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2000-01-01

    One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...

  3. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  4. Methodological approach and tools for systems thinking in health systems research: technical assistants' support of health administration reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesse, Nathalie; Bossyns, Paul; Marchal, Bruno; Karemere, Hermes; Burman, Christopher J; Macq, Jean

    2017-03-01

    In the field of development cooperation, interest in systems thinking and complex systems theories as a methodological approach is increasingly recognised. And so it is in health systems research, which informs health development aid interventions. However, practical applications remain scarce to date. The objective of this article is to contribute to the body of knowledge by presenting the tools inspired by systems thinking and complexity theories and methodological lessons learned from their application. These tools were used in a case study. Detailed results of this study are in process for publication in additional articles. Applying a complexity 'lens', the subject of the case study is the role of long-term international technical assistance in supporting health administration reform at the provincial level in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Methods section presents the guiding principles of systems thinking and complex systems, their relevance and implication for the subject under study, and the existing tools associated with those theories which inspired us in the design of the data collection and analysis process. The tools and their application processes are presented in the results section, and followed in the discussion section by the critical analysis of their innovative potential and emergent challenges. The overall methodology provides a coherent whole, each tool bringing a different and complementary perspective on the system.

  5. Intratracheal Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulates Tachykinin System, Suppresses Airway Remodeling and Reduces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in an Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Urbanek

    Full Text Available The need for new options for chronic lung diseases promotes the research on stem cells for lung repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can modulate lung inflammation, but the data on cellular processes involved in early airway remodeling and the potential involvement of neuropeptides are scarce.To elucidate the mechanisms by which local administration of MSCs interferes with pathophysiological features of airway hyperresponsiveness in an animal model.GFP-tagged mouse MSCs were intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin mouse model with subsequent functional tests, the analysis of cytokine levels, neuropeptide expression and histological evaluation of MSCs fate and airway pathology. Additionally, MSCs were exposed to pro-inflammatory factors in vitro.Functional improvement was observed after MSC administration. Although MSCs did not adopt lung cell phenotypes, cell therapy positively affected airway remodeling reducing the hyperplastic phase of the gain in bronchial smooth muscle mass, decreasing the proliferation of epithelium in which mucus metaplasia was also lowered. Decrease of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and increase of interleukin-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage was also observed. Exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines, MSCs upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Moreover, asthma-related in vivo upregulation of pro-inflammatory neurokinin 1 and neurokinin 2 receptors was counteracted by MSCs that also determined a partial restoration of VIP, a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory properties.Intratracheally administered MSCs positively modulate airway remodeling, reduce inflammation and improve function, demonstrating their ability to promote tissue homeostasis in the course of experimental allergic asthma. Because of a limited tissue retention, the functional impact of MSCs may be attributed to their immunomodulatory response combined with the interference of neuropeptide system activation and tissue

  6. Chronic MK-801 Application in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Spatial Working Memory Deficit in Adult Long-Evans Rats But No Changes in the Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Subunits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uttl, Libor; Petrásek, Tomáš; Sengul, Hilal; Svojanovská, Markéta; Lobellová, Veronika; Valeš, Karel; Radostová, Dominika; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Kubová, Hana; Mikulecká, Anna; Svoboda, Jan; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Feb 12 (2018), č. článku 42. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA ČR NV17-30833A Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) PAN-17-07 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal model * dizocilpine * rats * chronic treatment * western blot * behavior Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  7. Paradoxical reaction of raynaud phenomenon following the repeated administration of iloprost in a patient with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Rebeca Iglesias; García, Belén Bardán; López, Mónica Granero; Legazpi, Iria Rodríguez; Díaz, Hortensia Álvarez; Penín, Isaura Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    To report a paradoxical reaction of Raynaud phenomenon following the repeated administration of iloprost in a patient with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with vascular involvement. In January 2006, a 40-year-old male was diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis with pulmonary, esophageal, cutaneous, and vascular involvement (Raynaud phenomenon, with digital ulcers on his hands). In December 2008, treatment with iloprost was started due to worsening disease. Nine cycles of iloprost were administered at a rate of 0.5-1 ng/kg/min (6 hours per day, for 5 days every 6-8 weeks); the patient tolerated this treatment well. However, on the fourth day of cycles 10 and 11, the patient developed paradoxical Raynaud phenomenon in the hand with perfusion when the infusion was increased to 1 ng/kg/min, requiring treatment to be stopped. Treatment was continued during cycles 12 and 13 at 0.5 ng/kg/min; the patient tolerated the treatment well, although paradoxical Raynaud phenomenon occurred when the rate of infusion was increased. Raynaud phenomenon is extremely common in patients with scleroderma, and often is severe. Iloprost has vasodilating, antiplatelet, cytoprotective, and immunomodulating properties, and has been found to be an efficacious alternative to nifedipine for the treatment of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with scleroderma. The Naranjo probability scale indicated that iloprost was the probable cause of the paradoxical Raynaud phenomenon in this patient. This case demonstrates a probable relationship between the rate of infusion of iloprost and the paradoxical reaction of Raynaud phenomenon.

  8. Rural Population Administration Management System Based On RESTful API In Bone District (Sistem Manajemen Administrasi Kependudukan Tingkat Pedesaan Berbasis RESTful API di Kabupaten Bone)

    OpenAIRE

    Rismayani, nfn

    2017-01-01

    Bone district is one of region in South Sulawesi province. There are 27 sub-districts and 374 villages in Bone district. A villages sampled in this study is Barakkae village Lamuru Bone district. The problem in this research is how to make the management system administration at rural level in Bone district and how to apply information technology based on RESTful API on rural administration of Bone district. The technology or method used is the RESTful API, RESTful API is REST (REpresentatio...

  9. The concomitant administration of systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole compared to scaling and root planing alone in treating periodontitis : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, D.; Slot, D.E.; Niederman, R.; van der Weijden, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of periodontitis begins with a non-surgical phase that includes scaling and root planing(SRP) and on occasion the use of systemic antibiotics. The goal was to systematically evaluate in systemic healthy adults the effect of the concomitant administration of amoxicillin

  10. A Study of Present Practices and Attitudes Concerning the Letter Grading System of Secondary School Language Arts Teachers and Administrators of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Dorothy Loretta

    The attitudes and opinions of secondary school language arts teachers and administrators on the island of Oahu were surveyed regarding the traditional letter grading system and their uses of it. By administering a questionnaire on the letter grade system and computing the responses, data were obtained on educator attitudes toward the definition…

  11. Effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulator CDPPB on rats tested with the paired associates learning task in touchscreen-equipped operant conditioning chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Brittney R; Howland, John G

    2016-03-15

    Effective treatments for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are critically needed. Positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) is one strategy currently under investigation to improve these symptoms. Examining cognition using touchscreen-equipped operant chambers may increase translation between preclinical and clinical research through analogous behavioral testing paradigms in rodents and humans. We used acute CDPPB (1-30mg/kg) treatment to examine the effects of mGluR5 PAM in the touchscreen paired associates learning (PAL) task using well-trained rats with and without co-administration of acute MK-801 (0.15mg/kg). CDPPB had no consistent effects on task performance when administered alone and failed to reverse the MK-801 induced impairments at any of the examined doses. Overall, the disruptive effects of MK-801 on PAL were consistent with previous research but increasing mGluR5 signaling is not beneficial in the PAL task. Future research should test whether administration of CDPPB during PAL acquisition increases performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Silvestri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes the organization of administrative courts in Italy, as a set of courts distinguished from ordinary courts that deal with civil and commercial cases. Since the 19th century Italy has adopted a dual system of jurisdiction, and has never abandoned the traditional criterion according to which ordinary jurisdiction and administrative jurisdiction are established: this criterion, having regard to the entitlement claimed by the plaintiff, is unique to Italy and, leaving aside its distinctiveness, it is quite enigmatic and difficult to apply in practice. Reference is made to the procedure followed before administrative courts, a procedure recently updated through the enactment of the Code of Administrative Procedure.

  14. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  15. Beneficial effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. seed extract on the body's own antioxidant defense system on subacute administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükkurt, Ismail; Ince, Sinan; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli; Avci, Gülcan; Yeşilada, Erdem; Bacak, Elif

    2010-05-04

    Seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L. have long been used in European phytotherapy to treat inflammatory and vascular problems. In Turkish folk medicine, tea prepared from the crushed seeds was used to pass kidney stone and against stomach ache, while a fraction of seed was swallowed to alleviate hemorrhoids symptoms. In order to evaluate the in vivo effects of escin mixture from Aesculus hippocastanum seed on the blood and tissue antioxidant defense systems in standard pellet diet (SPD) and in high-fat diet (HFD) consumed male mice. Escin mixture was obtained from the ethanol extract of seeds. Escin mixture was administered orally to male mice fed either standard pellet diet (SPD) or high-fat diet (HFD) at 100mg/kg doses daily for 5 weeks and the tissue (liver, kidney and heart) and blood samples were collected at the end of experimental period. The effect of escin mixture on the plasma antioxidant activity; blood and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels; erythrocyte and tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT) in SPD and HFD consumed animals were experimentally studied. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Escin mixture prohibited the adverse effects of oxidative stress and showed a protective effect on the liver architecture both in SPD and HFD consumed male mice. Combined administration of high-fat diet with escin mixture decreased blood (p<0.01), liver (p<0.01), kidney (p<0.05), and heart (p<0.05) of MDA, liver SOD (p<0.01) and CAT (p<0.05) levels and increased blood (p<0.01) and liver GSH (p<0.001) levels in mice. The present results indicate that Aesculus hippocastanum increase the antioxidative defense system of the body and prevent HFD-induced lipid peroxidation in male mice. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The nicotine metabolite, cotinine, attenuates glutamate (NMDA) antagonist-related effects on the performance of the five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alvin V; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Schade, R Foster; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Callahan, Patrick M; Beck, Wayne D; Hutchings, Elizabeth J; Chapman, James M; Li, Pei; Bartlett, Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Cotinine, the most predominant metabolite of nicotine in mammalian species, has a pharmacological half-life that greatly exceeds its precursor. However, until recently, relatively few studies had been conducted to systematically characterize the behavioral pharmacology of cotinine. Our previous work indicated that cotinine improves prepulse inhibition of the auditory startle response in rats in pharmacological impairment models and that it improves working memory in non-human primates. Here we tested the hypothesis that cotinine improves sustained attention in rats and attenuates behavioral alterations induced by the glutamate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. The effects of acute subcutaneous (dose range 0.03-10.0 mg/kg) and chronic oral administration (2.0 mg/kg/day in drinking water) of cotinine were evaluated in fixed and variable stimulus duration (VSD) as well as variable intertrial interval (VITI) versions of a five choice serial reaction time task (5C-SRTT). The results indicated only subtle effects of acute cotinine (administered alone) on performance of the 5C-SRTT (e.g., decreases in timeout responses). However, depending on dose, acute treatment with cotinine attenuated MK-801-related impairments in accuracy and elevations in timeout responses, and it increased the number of completed trials. Moreover, chronic cotinine attenuated MK-801-related impairments in accuracy and it reduced premature and timeout responses when the demands of the task were increased (i.e., by presenting VSDs or VITIs in addition to administering MK-801). These data suggest that cotinine may represent a prototype for compounds that have therapeutic potential for neuropsychiatric disorders (i.e., by improving sustained attention and decreasing impulsive and compulsive behaviors), especially those characterized by glutamate receptor alterations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  18. Blockade of NMDA receptors prevents analgesic tolerance to repeated transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingne, Priyanka M.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Repeated daily application transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) results in tolerance, at spinal opioid receptors, to the anti-hyperalgesia produced by TENS. Since N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists prevent analgesic tolerance to opioid agonists we hypothesized that blockade of NMDA receptors will prevent tolerance to TENS. In rats with knee joint inflammation, TENS was applied for 20 minute daily at high frequency (100 Hz), low frequency (4 Hz), or sham TENS. Rats were treated with the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg-0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle daily before TENS. Paw withdrawal thresholds were tested before and after inflammation, and before and after TENS treatment for 4 days. On day 1 TENS reversed the decreased mechanical withdrawal threshold induced by joint inflammation. On day 4 TENS had no effect on the decreased withdrawal threshold in the group treated with vehicle demonstrating development of tolerance. However, in the group treated with 0.1 mg/kg MK-801, TENS significantly reversed the mechanical withdrawal thresholds on day 4 demonstrating that tolerance did not develop. Vehicle treated animals developed cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. Treatment with MK-801 reversed this cross-tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. In summary, blockade of NMDA receptors prevents analgesic tolerance to daily TENS by preventing tolerance at spinal opioid receptors. Perspective Tolerance observed to the clinical treatment of TENS could be prevented by administration of pharmaceutical agents with NMDA receptors activity such as ketamine or dextromethorphan. PMID:18061543

  19. Role of the NMDA receptor and iron on free radical production and brain damage following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Doo Soon; Jeon, Jeong Wook; Lee, Jin Soo; Won, Seok Joon; Cho, Sung Ig; Lee, Yong Beom; Gwag, Byoung Joo

    2012-05-21

    Excess activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and iron is believed to contribute to free radical production and neuronal death following hypoxic ischemia. We examined the possibility that both NMDA receptor activation and iron overload determine spatial and temporal patterns of free radical production after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Mitochondrial free radical (MFR) levels were maximally increased in neurons in the core at 1 h and 24 h after tMCAO. Early MFR production was blocked by administration of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, but not deferoxamine, an iron chelator. Neither MK-801 nor deferoxamine attenuated late MFR production in the core. Increased MFRs were observed in penumbral neurons within 6 h and gradually increased over 24 h after tMCAO. Slowly-evolving MFRs in the core and penumbra were accompanied by iron overload. Deferoxamine blocked iron overload but reduced MFR production only in the penumbra. Combined MK-801/deferoxamine reduced late MFR production in both core and penumbra in an additive manner. Combination therapy significantly ameliorated infarction compared with monotherapy. These findings suggest that the NMDA receptor activation and iron overload mediate late MFR production and infarction after tMCAO. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Repeated Blockade of NMDA Receptors during Adolescence Impairs Reversal Learning and Disrupts GABAergic Interneurons in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitao eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is of particular significance to schizophrenia, since psychosis onset typically occurs in this critical period. Based on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis of schizophrenia, in this study, we investigated whether and how repeated NMDA receptor blockade during adolescence would affect GABAergic interneurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mPFC-mediated cognitive functions. Specifically, adolescent rats were subjected to intraperitoneal administration of MK-801 (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, for 14 days and then tested for reference memory and reversal learning in the water maze. The density of parvabumin (PV-, calbindin (CB- and calretinin (CR-positive neurons in mPFC were analyzed at either 24 hours or 7 days after drug cessation. We found that MK-801 treatment delayed reversal learning in the water maze without affecting initial acquisition. Strikingly, MK-801 treatment also significantly reduced the density of PV+ and CB+ neurons, and this effect persisted for 7 days after drug cessation at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg. We further demonstrated that the reduction in PV+ and CB+ neuron densities was ascribed to a downregulation of the expression levels of PV and CB, but not to neuronal death. These results parallel the behavioral and neuropathological changes of schizophrenia and provide evidence that adolescent NMDA receptors antagonism offers a useful tool for unraveling the etiology of the disease.

  1. The juridical status of the service firearm ownership and utilization procedure and the armament and munitions operations within the Romanian penitentiary administrative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Valeria Sabău

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The general activity of the special status civil servants from within the Romanian penitentiary administration system, involves, due to the nature of the work-related duties, particular risks and tasks, therefore this activity cannot be conducted without ensuring a distinct and efficient juridical regime, ensuring the protection and safeguarding the fundamental rights of people deprived of their freedom. This paper aims to present the adoption of the current juridical regime of the procedure of owning and using the worksupplied weapons and the weapons and ammunition operations in the Romanian prison system, the no. 23/2016 Law regarding the possession and use of the work-supplied weapons and the weapons and munitions operations in the penitentiary administrative system, namely the use of weapons, munitions and military devices, by the civil servants with a special status from the penitentiary administrative system, being allowed only in the specially designed, approved and authorized shooting ranges, for this purpose; the situations in which the civil servants from the penitentiary administrative system, carrying lethal weapons, in the line of duty, are entitled to use their lethal or nonlethal weapon, depending on the case, only after the official warning has been made, as well as the situations in which they can use their weapons, without warning, if there is no time for this: in case of self-defense or in case of a state of emergency.

  2. Some Problems of the Implementation of Administrative Responsibility for Violations of the Legislation on Contract System in the Procurement Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei E. Yuritsin; Yurii B. Lavrov

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the issues of application of Article 6.9 of the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation and the significance of the practice of implementation of this legal norm to counteraction to illegal drug use. The author estimates the possibility of dealing all cases of illegal use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and their analogues by law enforcement practice as well as the sufficiency of administrative penalties provided for by the Article. Critic...

  3. Bureaucratic structure, geographical location and the autonomy of administrative systems. Evidence from the European External Action Service

    OpenAIRE

    Henökl, Thomas; Trondal, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Presentation on department page: http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/oekonomi_og_samfunnsvitenskap/statsvitenskap_og_ledelsesfag/ forskning_isl/isl_working_papers_series Formulating and implementing public policy in Europe has historically been a prerogative of national administrations. This paper explores how these prerogatives may have become challenged with the ‘autonomization’ of the European Union’s (EU’s) foreign affairs administration (The European External Action Service...

  4. Stimulated reporting: the impact of US food and drug administration-issued alerts on the adverse event reporting system (FAERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Keith B; Demakas, Andrea R; Dimbil, Mo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Erdman, Colin B

    2014-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses the Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to support post-marketing safety surveillance programs. Currently, almost one million case reports are submitted to FAERS each year, making it a vast repository of drug safety information. Sometimes cited as a limitation of FAERS, however, is the assumption that "stimulated reporting" of adverse events (AEs) occurs in response to warnings, alerts, and label changes that are issued by the FDA. To determine the extent of "stimulated reporting" in the modern-day FAERS database. One hundred drugs approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2010 were included in this analysis. FDA alerts were obtained by a comprehensive search of the FDA's MedWatch and main websites. Publicly available FAERS data were used to assess the "primary suspect" AE reporting pattern for up to four quarters before, and after, the issuance of an FDA alert. A few drugs did demonstrate "stimulated reporting" trends. A majority of the drugs, however, showed little evidence for significant reporting changes associated with the issuance of alerts. When we compared the percentage changes in reporting after an FDA alert with those after a sham "control alert", the overall reporting trends appeared to be quite similar. Of 100 drugs analyzed for short-term reporting trends, 21 real alerts and 25 sham alerts demonstrated an increase (greater than or equal to 1 %) in reporting. The long-term analysis of 91 drugs showed that 24 real alerts and 28 sham alerts demonstrated a greater than or equal to 1 % increase. Our results suggest that most of modern day FAERS reporting is not significantly affected by the issuance of FDA alerts.

  5. Perioperative glucocorticoid administration for prevention of systemic organ failure in patients undergoing esophageal resection for esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Raimondi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Preoperative glucocorticoid administration has been proposed for reducing postoperative morbidity. This is not widely used before esophageal resection because of incomplete knowledge regarding its effectiveness. The aim here was to assess the effects of preoperative glucocorticoid administration in adults undergoing esophageal resection for esophageal carcinoma. SEARCH STRATEGY: Studies were identified by searching the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancer Lit, SCIELO and Cochrane Library, and by manual searching from relevant articles. The last search for clinical trials for this systematic review was performed in December 2004. SELECTION CRITERIA: This review included randomized studies of patients with potentially resectable carcinomas of the esophagus that compared preoperative glucocorticoid administration with placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted by the same reviewers, and the trial quality was assessed using Jadad scoring. Relative risk and weighted mean difference with 95% confidence limits were used to assess the significance of the difference between the treatment arms. RESULTS: Four randomized trials involving 146 patients were found. There were no differences in postoperative mortality, sepsis, anastomotic leakage, hepatic and renal failure between the glucocorticoid and placebo groups. There were fewer postoperative respiratory complications (p = 0.005 and multiple postoperative complications (p = 0.004 and lower postoperative plasma interleukin-6 levels (p = 0.00001 with preoperative glucocorticoid administration. There was a higher postoperative PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p = 0.0001 with preoperative glucocorticoid administration. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic administration of glucocorticoids is associated with decreased postoperative complications.

  6. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  7. Overview of the 2016 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Circulatory System Devices Advisory Panel Meeting on the Absorb Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvil, Arie; Rogers, Toby; Torguson, Rebecca; Waksman, Ron

    2016-09-12

    This study aims to describe the discussions and recommendations made during the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Circulatory System Device Panel pre-market approval application for the Absorb Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) System. The Absorb BVS System is a first-of-its-kind fully bioresorbable percutaneous coronary intervention technology. The absorb BVS was studied in the ABSORB III (A Clinical Evaluation of Absorb BVS, the Everolimus Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in the Treatment of Subjects with de Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) trial, the pivotal U.S. investigational device exemption trial. Observational report of the FDA Circulatory System Device Panel pre-market approval application meeting held on March 15, 2016. The U.S. FDA Circulatory System Device Panel members reviewed the ABSROB III trial outcomes and additional post hoc analyses presented by the sponsor and the FDA. The ABSORB III trial met the primary endpoint of noninferiority of Absorb BVS compared with the control, XIENCE drug-eluting stent, for target lesion failure at 1 year. Although a higher numerical trend for adverse outcomes was reported for the Absorb BVS, there were no statistical differences between Absorb BVS and XIENCE for any safety or effectiveness components for target lesion failure or for the secondary pre-specified outcomes. Panel members raised concerns with regard to the ABSORB III results and post hoc analyses focusing mainly on the noninferiority design of the trial, the apparent safety issues of the Absorb BVS in small vessels, the mismatch of visually versus intravascular imaging assessed vessel size found in ABSORB III and its implications on the adequate device labeling, the safety of Absorb BVS in specific patient and lesion subsets, and the post-approval commitments of the sponsor. Following panel discussions and the evidence presented, the panel voted for approval of the device. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  8. Webb Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Prahl, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    I’ve built an Internet based administration front-end for the company Allt I Brand in Jamjö. Allt I Brand’s main goals are maintenance and sale of fire preventive equipment. This front-end is programmed mostly in PHP, connected to a MySQL database. Because both Allt I Brand’s main page and my administration front-end use the same database and the database is designed to virtually fit any type of company, the result is both dynamic and powerful. The front-end design is made to make it easy to ...

  9. Systemic PD149163, a neurotensin receptor 1 agonist, decreases methamphetamine self-administration in DBA/2J mice without causing excessive sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Sharpe

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH is a psychostimulant that exhibits significant abuse potential. Although METH addiction is a major health and societal concern, no drug is currently approved for its therapeutic management. METH activates the central dopaminergic "reward" circuitry, and with repeated use increases levels of the neuromodulatory peptide neurotensin in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Previous studies in rats suggest that neurotensin agonism decreases METH self-administration, but these studies did not examine the effect of neurotensin agonism on the pattern of self-administration or open field locomotion. In our studies, we established intravenous METH self-administration in male, DBA/2J mice (fixed ratio 3, 2 hr sessions and examined the effect of pretreatment with the NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 on METH self-administration behavior. Locomotion following PD149163 was also measured up to 2 hours after injection on a rotarod and in an open field. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg, s.c. significantly decreased METH self-administration. The pattern of responding suggested that PD149163 decreased motivation to self-administer METH initially in the session with more normal intake in the second hour of access. Voluntary movement in the open-field was significantly decreased by both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg (s.c. PD149163 from 10-120 minutes after injection, but rotarod performance suggested that PD149163 did not cause frank sedation. These results suggest that a systemically delivered NTS1 receptor agonist decreases METH self-administration in mice. The pattern of self-administration suggests that PD149163 may acutely decrease motivation to self-administer METH before the drug is experienced, but cannot rule out that depression of voluntary movement plays a role in the decreased self-administration.

  10. A mouse model of pathological small intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and shedding induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The gut barrier, composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs held together by tight junctions, prevents the entrance of harmful microorganisms, antigens and toxins from the gut lumen into the blood. Small intestinal homeostasis is normally maintained by the rate of shedding of senescent enterocytes from the villus tip exactly matching the rate of generation of new cells in the crypt. However, in various localized and systemic inflammatory conditions, intestinal homeostasis can be disturbed as a result of increased IEC shedding. Such pathological IEC shedding can cause transient gaps to develop in the epithelial barrier and result in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been implicated in the pathogenesis of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. We have therefore developed a murine model to study this phenomenon, because IEC shedding in this species is morphologically analogous to humans. IEC shedding was induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and in mice deficient in TNF-receptor 1 (Tnfr1−/−, Tnfr2 (Tnfr2−/−, nuclear factor kappa B1 (Nfκb1−/− or Nfĸb2 (Nfĸb2−/−. Apoptosis and cell shedding was quantified using immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3, and gut-to-circulation permeability was assessed by measuring plasma fluorescence following fluorescein-isothiocyanate–dextran gavage. LPS, at doses ≥0.125 mg/kg body weight, induced rapid villus IEC apoptosis, with peak cell shedding occurring at 1.5 hours after treatment. This coincided with significant villus shortening, fluid exudation into the gut lumen and diarrhea. A significant increase in gut-to-circulation permeability was observed at 5 hours. TNFR1 was essential for LPS-induced IEC apoptosis and shedding, and the fate of the IECs was also dependent on NFκB, with signaling via NFκB1 favoring cell survival and

  11. Multiple sclerosis in Germany: data analysis of administrative prevalence and healthcare delivery in the statutory health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höer, Ariane; Schiffhorst, Guido; Zimmermann, Anne; Fischaleck, Johann; Gehrmann, Luise; Ahrens, Henrik; Carl, Gunther; Sigel, Karl-Otto; Osowski, Ulrike; Klein, Maria; Bleß, Hans-Holger

    2014-09-10

    Healthcare-utilization data for multiple sclerosis (MS) are scarce in Germany. The Purpose of the study was to analyse administrative prevalence of MS, medication use and type of specialists involved in MS treatment in the outpatient setting in Bavaria. Pseudonymized claims data from Bavarian Statutory Health Insurance (SHI)-accredited physicians were used. Administrative prevalence of MS was defined as having ≥1 MS diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, code G35) documented by a neurologist or psychiatrist, or ≥1 prescription for disease-modifying drugs (DMDs)). The administrative prevalence calculated for Bavaria was projected to Germany. DMD prescription and involvement of different specialities in health care service for MS patients was analysed. Administrative prevalence of MS in Bavaria increased from 0.123% to 0.175% of insured persons between 2005 and 2009; when projected, this yielded ~102,000-143,000 patients with MS in the German population. The percentage of patients receiving ≥1 DMD prescription increased from 45.5% to 50.5%. Patients with MS were mainly treated by neurologists in the ambulatory care setting. These results provide important information on the administrative prevalence of MS in Bavaria and on healthcare provision for patients, which is relevant for resource planning in the healthcare sector.

  12. Potential Uses of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence in Research Libraries and Their Effect on Administration and Job Descriptions (Abstract Only)

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Lloyd A

    2012-01-01

    Expert systems promise to revolutionize many aspects of library functions and services from technical processing to reference and administrative procedures. The first generation expert systems, which are already appearing, have the potential for replacing many of the repetitive tasks which now p1ague many library positions. In order to cope more effectively with the advent of these changes and help give them direction, it is necessary to understand what functions will be affected and how libr...

  13. Acute and subacute IL-1β administrations differentially modulate neuroimmune and neurotrophic systems: possible implications for neuroprotection and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Zhang, Ye; Dong, Yilong

    2013-05-07

    In Alzheimer's disease, stroke and brain injuries, activated microglia can release proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β. These cytokines may change astrocyte and neurotrophin functions, which influences neuronal survival and induces apoptosis. However, the interaction between neuroinflammation and neurotrophin functions in different brain conditions is unknown. The present study hypothesized that acute and subacute elevated IL-1β differentially modulates glial and neurotrophin functions, which are related to their role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Rats were i.c.v. injected with saline or IL-1β for 1 or 8 days and tested in a radial maze. mRNA and protein expressions of glial cell markers, neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors, β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in the hippocampus. When compared to controls, memory deficits were found 4 days after IL-1 administrations, however the deficits were attenuated by IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA). Subacute IL-1 administrations increased expressions of APP, microglial active marker CD11b, and p75 neurotrophin receptor, and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β, but decreased expressions of astrocyte active marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrK B. By contrast, up-regulations of NGF, BDNF and TrK B expressions were found after acute IL-1 administration, which are associated with the increase in both glial marker expressions and IL-10 concentrations. However, TrK A was down-regulated by acute and up-regulated by subacute IL-1 administrations. Subacute IL-1-induced changes in the glial activities, cytokine concentrations and expressions of BDNF and p75 were reversed by IL-1RA treatment. These results indicate that acute and subacute IL-1 administrations induce different changes toward neuroprotection after acute IL-1 administrations but

  14. Overburdened Systems and Dealing With Disaster: Nursing Administrators' Experiences and Nursing Leadership Recommendations From a State-Level Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Clair P; Porche, Demetrius J

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Louisiana coast on August 29, 2005. Since 2005, there has been a dramatic increase in natural, infectious, and man-made disasters. It is more evident that nursing leaders and administrators need to be prepared for all hazards. The purpose of this article is to provide nursing administrators with a perspective of state-level leadership during a natural disaster and to suggest recommendations based on lessons learned during Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike in 2005. These come from a state governmental public health and a state nursing school within an academic health sciences center.

  15. Local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulins without systemic intramuscular administration: An alternative cost effective approach for passive immunization against rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Gaunta, Pyare Lal; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman

    2016-03-03

    Presently the dose of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) which is an integral part of rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is calculated based on body weight though the recommendation is to infiltrate the wound(s). This practice demands large quantities of RIG which may be unaffordable to many patients. In this background, we conducted this study to know if the quantity and cost of RIG can be reduced by restricting passive immunization to local infiltration alone and avoiding systemic intramuscular administration based on the available scientific evidence. Two hundred and sixty nine category III patients bitten by suspect or confirmed rabid dogs/animals were infiltrated with equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIGs) in and around the wound. The quantity of ERIG used was proportionate to the size and number of wounds irrespective of their body weight. They were followed with a regular course of rabies vaccination by intra-dermal route. As against 363 vials of RIGs required for all these cases as per current recommendation based on body weight, they required only 42 vials of 5ml RIG. Minimum dose of RIGs given was 0.25 ml and maximum dose given was 8 ml. On an average 1.26 ml of RIGs was required per patient that costs Rs. 150 ($3). All the patients were followed for 9 months and they were healthy and normal at the end of observation period. With local infiltration, that required small quantities of RIG, the RIGs could be made available to all patients in times of short supply in the market. A total of 30 (11%) serum samples of patients were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and all showed antibody titers >0.5 IU/mL by day 14. In no case the dose was higher than that required based on body weight and no immunosuppression resulted. To conclude, this pilot study shows that local infiltration of RIG need to be considered in times of non-availability in the market or unaffordability by poor patients. This

  16. Systemic administration of a novel human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells population accelerates the resolution of acute liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burra Patrizia

    2012-07-01

    , cells seeded on 3D-supports showed a minor or negligible differentiation capacity. UCMSCs-transplanted mice showed a more rapid damage resolution, as shown by histological analysis, with a lower inflammation level and an increased catalase activity compared to CCl4-treated mice. Conclusions Our findings show that UCMSCs can be reliably isolated, have hepatogenic properties and following systemic administration are able to accelerate the resolution of an acute liver injury without any differentiation and manipulation. These features make UCMSCs strong candidates for future application in regenerative medicine for human acute liver disease.

  17. Implementation and testing of a Neighborhood Office Center (NOC) and integration of the NOC with an administrative correspondence management information system. [for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The application of telecommunications and telecomputing was investigated as a means of reducing NASA's consumption of natural resources and the proliferation of paper copies of correspondence. The feasibility, operational advantages, and limitations of decentralized (remote) neighborhood offices (NOC) linked through an electronic network are demonstrated. These offices are joined to a management information system for correspondence tracking, and to an administrative office center service based on the use of magnetic medium word processing typewriters which handle the daily typing load. In connection with an augmented teleconference network, a uniform means is provided for creating, storing, and retrieving administrative documents, records, and data, while simultaneously permitting users of the system to track their status. Information will be transferred without using paper - merely through digital electronic communication and display, as a step toward the establishment of an agency-wide electronic mail system.

  18. Judicial control of administrative activity and advantages of reorganization of the juridical system in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Muçaj

    2016-01-01

    In the last part of the paper there are clear and consistent conclusions and significant recommendations relating to general views about judicial control, with particular emphasis on their practical implementation in the Republic of Kosovo and the way of adjustment with the reforms in the field of administrative justice which are at the beginnings of the implementation.

  19. Investigations of oxidative stress effects and their mechanisms in rat brain after systemic administration of ceria engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardas, Sarita S.

    Advancing applications of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in various fields create the opportunity for intended (e.g. drug and gene delivery) or unintended (e.g. occupational and environmental) exposure to ENM. However, the knowledge of ENM-toxicity is lagging behind their application development. Understanding the ENM hazard can help us to avoid potential human health problems associated with ENM applications as well as to increase their public acceptance. Ceria (cerium [Ce] oxide) ENM have many current and potential commercial applications. Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of ceria ENM applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of ceria ENM exposure have yet to be fully defined. Both pro-and anti-oxidative effects of ceria ENM exposure are repeatedly reported in literature. EPA, NIEHS and OECD organizations have nominated ceria for its toxicological evaluation. All these together gave us the impetus to examine the oxidative stress effects of ceria ENM after systemic administration. Induction of oxidative stress is one of the primary mechanisms of ENM toxicity. Oxidative stress plays an important role in maintaining the redox homeostasis in the biological system. Increased oxidative stress, due to depletion of antioxidant enzymes or molecules and / or due to increased production of reactive oxygen (ROS) or nitrogen (RNS) species may lead to protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and/or DNA damage. Increased protein oxidation or lipid peroxidation together with antioxidant protein levels and activity can serve as markers of oxidative stress. To investigate the oxidative stress effects and the mechanisms of ceria-ENM toxicity, fully characterized ceria ENM of different sizes (˜ 5nm, 15nm, 30nm, 55nm and nanorods) were systematically injected into rats intravenously in separate experiments. Three brain regions

  20. MANAGING THE LOAD SCHEDULE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE BUILDING TAKING INTO ACCOUNT EMERGING RISKS WHEN CONNECTING THE KINETIC ENERGY STORAGE TO THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Shevchenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to analyze load schedules of the administrative building and develop a structural scheme for connecting the kinetic energy storage in the power supply system of this building, which will allow using it as a consumer regulator, as well as a theoretical study of the risks that arise. Methodology. To conduct the research, the theory of designing internal electrical networks of buildings, the theory of plotting electric load graphs, methods of the theory of electromechanical systems and for analyzing the risk system, the T. Saati method of hierarchies were used. Results. The structure of kinetic energy storage (KES connection to the power supply system of the administrative building is developed and the structural diagram of the KES proposed for installation is given, the average daily winter and summer load schedules are presented, a set of groups and subgroups of risks and their influence on the work of the power supply system of the building are connected with the connection of the KES. Originality. For the first time, the application of the kinetic energy storage in the power supply system of the building with the analysis of emerging risks is considered, which makes it possible to improve the reliability of the developed system and the efficiency of load regulation. Practical value. The application of the proposed scheme will make it possible to use administrative buildings as load regulators of the external power supply system, and also effectively manage the load in the internal power supply system of the building.