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Sample records for systemic fibrosis mini-review

  1. Support for designing waste sorting systems: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Ordoñez, Isabel; Bolton, Kim; Dahlén, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    This article presents a mini review of research aimed at understanding material recovery from municipal solid waste. It focuses on two areas, waste sorting behaviour and collection systems, so that research on the link between these areas could be identified and evaluated. The main results presented and the methods used in the articles are categorised and appraised. The mini review reveals that most of the work that offered design guidelines for waste management systems was based on optimising technical aspects only. In contrast, most of the work that focused on user involvement did not consider developing the technical aspects of the system, but was limited to studies of user behaviour. The only clear consensus among the articles that link user involvement with the technical system is that convenient waste collection infrastructure is crucial for supporting source separation. This mini review reveals that even though the connection between sorting behaviour and technical infrastructure has been explored and described in some articles, there is still a gap when using this knowledge to design waste sorting systems. Future research in this field would benefit from being multidisciplinary and from using complementary methods, so that holistic solutions for material recirculation can be identified. It would be beneficial to actively involve users when developing sorting infrastructures, to be sure to provide a waste management system that will be properly used by them.

  2. Computer-based quantitative computed tomography image analysis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Niimi, Akio

    2018-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of progressive idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in adults. Many computer-based image analysis methods of chest computed tomography (CT) used in patients with IPF include the mean CT value of the whole lungs, density histogram analysis, density mask technique, and texture classification methods. Most of these methods offer good assessment of pulmonary functions, disease progression, and mortality. Each method has merits that can be used in clinical practice. One of the texture classification methods is reported to be superior to visual CT scoring by radiologist for correlation with pulmonary function and prediction of mortality. In this mini review, we summarize the current literature on computer-based CT image analysis of IPF and discuss its limitations and several future directions. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of druggable proteins using machine learning and systems biology: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eKandoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of -omics technologies has allowed the collection of vast amounts of data on biological systems. Although the pace of such collection has been exponential, the impact of these data remains small on many critical biomedical applications such as drug development. Limited resources, high costs and low hit-to-lead ratio have led researchers to search for more cost effective methodologies. A possible alternative is to incorporate computational methods of potential drug target prediction early during drug discovery workflow. Computational methods based on systems approaches have the advantage of taking into account the global properties of a molecule not limited to its sequence, structure or function. Machine learning techniques are powerful tools that can extract relevant information from massive and noisy data sets. In recent years the scientific community has explored the combined power of these fields to propose increasingly accurate and low cost methods to propose interesting drug targets. In this mini-review, we describe promising approaches based on the simultaneous use of systems biology and machine learning to access gene and protein druggability. Moreover, we discuss the state-of-the-art of this emerging and interdisciplinary field, discussing data sources, algorithms and the performance of the different methodologies. Finally, we indicate interesting avenues of research and some remaining open challenges.

  4. GABA system in schizophrenia and mood disorders. A mini review on third generation imaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eChiapponi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Third-generation neuroimaging research has been enriched by advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measuring the concentration of important neurotrasmitters, such as the inhibitory amino acid GABA. Here, we performed a systematic mini-review on brain MRS studies measuring GABA concentration in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD and major depressive disorder (MDD. We wondered whether multimodal investigations could overcome intrinsic technical limits of MRS giving a broader view of mental disorders pathogenesis.In SZ unimodal studies gave mixed results, as increased, decreased or unaltered GABA levels were reported depending on region, disease phase and treatment. Conversely, multimodal results showed reduced level of glutamate, but not of GABA, in patients, mirrored by in vitro biochemical findings revealing hippocampal reduction in glutamate signalling in SZ, and no deficits in GABA synthesis. Moreover, a mouse model confirmed the unique pathological characteristic of glutamate function in SZ.Unimodal studies in BD revealed, again, inconsistent results, while no multimodal investigations including MRS on GABA exist. In MDD, unimodal studies could not differentiate patients from controls, nor characterize high-risk subjects and remitted patients. However, a multimodal study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and MRS revealed that cingulate cortex activity is related to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate levels and anhedonia in patients, and to GABA concentration in healthy subjects, improving the distinction between MDD and physiology.Overall, our results show that unimodal studies do not indicate GABA as a biomarker for the psychiatric disorders considered. Conversely, multimodal studies can widen the understanding of the link between psychopathology, genetics, neuroanatomy and functional-biochemical brain activity in mental disorders. Although scarce, multimodal approaches seem promising for moving

  5. Role of the Human Breast Milk-Associated Microbiota on the Newborns' Immune System: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Grossi, Enzo; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the "initial" intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns' immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. The aim of the present Mini Review is to elucidate the specific immunologic role of the human milk-associated microbiota and its impact on the newborn's health and life, highlighting the importance to properly study the biological interactions in a bacterial population and between the microbiota and the host. The Auto Contractive Map, for instance, is a promising analytical methodology based on artificial neural network that can elucidate the specific role of bacteria contained in the breast milk in modulating the infants' immunological response.

  6. Role of the Human Breast Milk-Associated Microbiota on the Newborns’ Immune System: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Toscano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human milk is fundamental for a correct development of newborns, as it is a source not only of vitamins and nutrients, but also of commensal bacteria. The microbiota associated to the human breast milk contributes to create the “initial” intestinal microbiota of infants, having also a pivotal role in modulating and influencing the newborns’ immune system. Indeed, the transient gut microbiota is responsible for the initial change from an intrauterine Th2 prevailing response to a Th1/Th2 balanced one. Bacteria located in both colostrum and mature milk can stimulate the anti-inflammatory response, by stimulating the production of specific cytokines, reducing the risk of developing a broad range of inflammatory diseases and preventing the expression of immune-mediated pathologies, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. The aim of the present Mini Review is to elucidate the specific immunologic role of the human milk-associated microbiota and its impact on the newborn’s health and life, highlighting the importance to properly study the biological interactions in a bacterial population and between the microbiota and the host. The Auto Contractive Map, for instance, is a promising analytical methodology based on artificial neural network that can elucidate the specific role of bacteria contained in the breast milk in modulating the infants’ immunological response.

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Bed Sediment on Fluvial System: A Mini Review of the Aceh Meandering River

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    Muhammad Irham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic interactions of hydrological and geomorphological processes in the fluvial system result in accumulated deposit on the bed because the capacity to carry sediment has been exceeded. The bed load of the Aceh fluvial system is primarily generated by mechanical weathering resulting in boulders, pebbles, and sand, which roll or bounce along the river bed forming temporary deposits as bars on the insides of meander bends, as a result of a loss of transport energy in the system. This dynamic controls the style and range of deposits in the Aceh River. This study focuses on the spatial distribution of bed-load transport of the Aceh River. Understanding the spatial distribution of deposits facilitates the reconstruction of the changes in controlling factors during accumulation of deposits. One of the methods can be done by sieve analysis of sediment, where the method illuminates the distribution of sediment changes associated with channel morphology under different flow regimes. Hence, the purpose of this mini review is to investigate how the sediment along the river meander spatially dispersed. The results demonstrate that channel deposits in the Aceh River are formed from four different type of materials: pebble deposited along upstream left bank; sand located on the upstream, downstream, and along meander belts; and silt and clay located along the cut bank of meander bends. Because of different depositional pattern, the distribution of the sediment along the river can be used as a surrogate to identify bank stability, as well as to predict critical geometry for meander bend initiation

  8. Mini-review: high rate algal ponds, flexible systems for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P; Taylor, M; Fallowfield, H J

    2017-06-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been a growing requirement by governments around the world for organisations to adopt more sustainable practices. Wastewater treatment is no exception, with many currently used systems requiring large capital investment, land area and power consumption. High rate algal ponds offer a sustainable, efficient and lower cost option to the systems currently in use. They are shallow, mixed lagoon based systems, which aim to maximise wastewater treatment by creating optimal conditions for algal growth and oxygen production-the key processes which remove nitrogen and organic waste in HRAP systems. This design means they can treat wastewater to an acceptable quality within a fifth of time of other lagoon systems while using 50% less surface area. This smaller land requirement decreases both the construction costs and evaporative water losses, making larger volumes of treated water available for beneficial reuse. They are ideal for rural, peri-urban and remote communities as they require minimum power and little on-site management. This review will address the history of and current trends in high rate algal pond development and application; a comparison of their performance with other systems when treating various wastewaters; and discuss their potential for production of added-value products. Finally, the review will consider areas requiring further research.

  9. Mini-review: novel non-destructivein situbiofilm characterization techniques in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Luca; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilard; Staal, M.; Fridjonsson, E.O.; Johns, M.L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-01-01

    Membrane systems are commonly used in the water industry to produce potable water and for advanced wastewater treatment. One of the major drawbacks of membrane systems is biofilm formation (biofouling), which results in an unacceptable decline in membrane performance. Three novel in situ biofouling characterization techniques were assessed: (i) optical coherence tomography (OCT), (ii) planar optodes, and (iii) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first two techniques were assessed using a biofilm grown on the surface of nanofiltration (NF) membranes using a transparent membrane fouling simulator that accurately simulates spiral wound modules, modified for in situ biofilm imaging. For the NMR study, a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module was used. Results show that these techniques can provide information to reconstruct the biofilm accurately, either with 2-D (OCT, planar optodes and NMR), or 3-D (OCT and NMR) scans. These non-destructive tools can elucidate the interaction of hydrodynamics and mass transport on biofilm accumulation in membrane systems. Oxygen distribution in the biofilm can be mapped and linked to water flow and substrate characteristics; insights on the effect of crossflow velocity, flow stagnation, and feed spacer presence can be obtained, and in situ information on biofilm structure, thickness, and spatial distribution can be quantitatively assessed. The combination of these novel non-destructive in situ biofilm characterization techniques can provide real-time observation of biofilm formation at the mesoscale. The information obtained with these tools could potentially be used for further improvement in the design of membrane systems and operational parameters to reduce impact of biofouling on membrane performance. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  10. Mini-review: novel non-destructivein situbiofilm characterization techniques in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2016-05-12

    Membrane systems are commonly used in the water industry to produce potable water and for advanced wastewater treatment. One of the major drawbacks of membrane systems is biofilm formation (biofouling), which results in an unacceptable decline in membrane performance. Three novel in situ biofouling characterization techniques were assessed: (i) optical coherence tomography (OCT), (ii) planar optodes, and (iii) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The first two techniques were assessed using a biofilm grown on the surface of nanofiltration (NF) membranes using a transparent membrane fouling simulator that accurately simulates spiral wound modules, modified for in situ biofilm imaging. For the NMR study, a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module was used. Results show that these techniques can provide information to reconstruct the biofilm accurately, either with 2-D (OCT, planar optodes and NMR), or 3-D (OCT and NMR) scans. These non-destructive tools can elucidate the interaction of hydrodynamics and mass transport on biofilm accumulation in membrane systems. Oxygen distribution in the biofilm can be mapped and linked to water flow and substrate characteristics; insights on the effect of crossflow velocity, flow stagnation, and feed spacer presence can be obtained, and in situ information on biofilm structure, thickness, and spatial distribution can be quantitatively assessed. The combination of these novel non-destructive in situ biofilm characterization techniques can provide real-time observation of biofilm formation at the mesoscale. The information obtained with these tools could potentially be used for further improvement in the design of membrane systems and operational parameters to reduce impact of biofouling on membrane performance. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Palatable Diets in Reward System Activation: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in eating patterns that have occurred in recent decades are an important cause of obesity. Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by a complex neural system involving the hypothalamic centers and peripheral satiety system (gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones. Highly palatable and caloric food disrupts appetite regulation; however, palatable foods induce pleasure and reward. The cafeteria diet is such a palatable diet and has been shown consistently to increase body weight and induce hyperplasia in animal obesity models. Moreover, palatable high-fat foods (such as those of the cafeteria diet can induce addiction-like deficits in brain reward function and are considered to be an important source of motivation that might drive overeating and contribute to the development of obesity. The mechanism of neural adaptation triggered by palatable foods is similar to those that have been reported for nondrug addictions and long-term drug use. Thus, this review attempts to describe the potential mechanisms that might lead to highly palatable diets, such as the cafeteria diet, triggering addiction, or compulsion through the reward system.

  12. Autonomic nervous system profile in fibromyalgia patients and its modulation by exercise: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Poorvi; Deepak, Kishore K

    2013-03-01

    This review imparts an impressionistic tone to our current understanding of autonomic nervous system abnormalities in fibromyalgia. In the wake of symptoms present in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), autonomic dysfunction seems plausible in fibromyalgia. A popular notion is that of a relentless sympathetic hyperactivity and hyporeactivity based on heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and responses to various physiological stimuli. However, some exactly opposite findings suggesting normal/hypersympathetic reactivity in patients with fibromyalgia do exist. This heterogeneous picture along with multiple comorbidities accounts for the quantitative and qualitative differences in the degree of dysautonomia present in patients with FM. We contend that HRV changes in fibromyalgia may not actually represent increased cardiac sympathetic tone. Normal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and normal autonomic reactivity tests in patients with fibromyalgia suggest defective vascular end organ in fibromyalgia. Previously, we proposed a model linking deconditioning with physical inactivity resulting from widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Deconditioning also modulates the autonomic nervous system (high sympathetic tone and a low parasympathetic tone). A high peripheral sympathetic tone causes regional ischaemia, which in turn results in widespread pain. Thus, vascular dysregulation and hypoperfusion in patients with FM give rise to ischaemic pain leading to physical inactivity. Microvascular abnormalities are also found in patients with FM. Therapeutic interventions (e.g. exercise) that result in vasodilatation and favourable autonomic alterations have proven to be effective. In this review, we focus on the vascular end organ in patients with fibromyalgia in particular and its modulation by exercise in general. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  13. Emerging Viral Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Developing Nervous System: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Mohammed, Abdul H; Kristensson, Krister; Juliano, Sharon L; Lutwama, Julius J

    2018-01-01

    The global public health concern is heightened over the increasing number of emerging viruses, i.e., newly discovered or previously known that have expanded into new geographical zones. These viruses challenge the health-care systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from which several of them have originated and been transmitted by insects worldwide. Some of these viruses are neuroinvasive, but have been relatively neglected by neuroscientists. They may provide experiments by nature to give a time window for exposure to a new virus within sizeable, previously non-infected human populations, which, for instance, enables studies on potential long-term or late-onset effects on the developing nervous system. Here, we briefly summarize studies on the developing brain by West Nile, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses, which are mosquito-borne and have spread worldwide out of SSA. They can all be neuroinvasive, but their effects vary from malformations caused by prenatal infections to cognitive disturbances following perinatal or later infections. We also highlight Ebola virus, which can leave surviving children with psychiatric disturbances and cause persistent infections in the non-human primate brain. Greater awareness within the neuroscience community is needed to emphasize the menace evoked by these emerging viruses to the developing brain. In particular, frontline neuroscience research should include neuropediatric follow-up studies in the field on long-term or late-onset cognitive and behavior disturbances or neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies on pathogenetic mechanisms for viral-induced perturbations of brain maturation should be extended to the vulnerable periods when neurocircuit formations are at peaks during infancy and early childhood.

  14. Enzyme Stability and Activity in Non-Aqueous Reaction Systems: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enormous interest in biocatalysis in non-aqueous phase has recently been triggered due to the merits of good enantioselectivity, reverse thermodynamic equilibrium, and no water-dependent side reactions. It has been demonstrated that enzyme has high activity and stability in non-aqueous media, and the variation of enzyme activity is attributed to its conformational modifications. This review comprehensively addresses the stability and activity of the intact enzymes in various non-aqueous systems, such as organic solvents, ionic liquids, sub-/super-critical fluids and their combined mixtures. It has been revealed that critical factors such as Log P, functional groups and the molecular structures of the solvents define the microenvironment surrounding the enzyme molecule and affect enzyme tertiary and secondary structure, influencing enzyme catalytic properties. Therefore, it is of high importance for biocatalysis in non-aqueous media to elucidate the links between the microenvironment surrounding enzyme surface and its stability and activity. In fact, a better understanding of the correlation between different non-aqueous environments and enzyme structure, stability and activity can contribute to identifying the most suitable reaction medium for a given biotransformation.

  15. Which Ballast Water Management System Will You Put Aboard? Remnant Anxieties: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Batista

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An accepted solution to the environmental problems related to a ship’s ballast water has been the adoption and proper utilization of approved onboard ballast water plans and management systems (BWMS. On 8 September 2017, the International Maritime Organization Ballast Water Management Convention comes into force, and under this Convention, ships engaged in international trade must have an approved BWMS aboard to discharge ballast water, reducing species transfer. In response to enormous global concern about this problem, the overwhelming majority of the BWMS, approved currently for use by International Maritime Organization (IMO and United States Coast Guard, utilize two main technologies (electro-chlorination or ultraviolet irradiation as their principle mode of disinfection, often used in combination with filtration. However, both technologies have been questioned regarding their practically, efficiency, and possible environmental impacts upon discharge. This review article aims to explore some questions about these two technologies, drawing attention to some current uncertainties associated with their use. Also, it draws attention to some technical obstacles and regulatory impediments related to the new development of green biocide technology, which largely has been ignored, despite its potential as a simpler, cleaner and effective technology.

  16. Investigation of Self-Assembly Processes for Chitosan-Based Coagulant-Flocculant Systems: A Mini-Review

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    Savi Bhalkaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of contaminants in wastewater poses significant challenges to water treatment processes and environmental remediation. The use of coagulation-flocculation represents a facile and efficient way of removing charged particles from water. The formation of stable colloidal flocs is necessary for floc aggregation and, hence, their subsequent removal. Aggregation occurs when these flocs form extended networks through the self-assembly of polyelectrolytes, such as the amine-based polysaccharide (chitosan, which form polymer “bridges” in a floc network. The aim of this overview is to evaluate how the self-assembly process of chitosan and its derivatives is influenced by factors related to the morphology of chitosan (flocculant and the role of the solution conditions in the flocculation properties of chitosan and its modified forms. Chitosan has been used alone or in conjunction with a salt, such as aluminum sulphate, as an aid for the removal of various waterborne contaminants. Modified chitosan relates to grafted anionic or cationic groups onto the C-6 hydroxyl group or the amine group at C-2 on the glucosamine monomer of chitosan. By varying the parameters, such as molecular weight and the degree of deacetylation of chitosan, pH, reaction and settling time, dosage and temperature, self-assembly can be further investigated. This mini-review places an emphasis on the molecular-level details of the flocculation and the self-assembly processes for the marine-based biopolymer, chitosan.

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a new, rare disease of unknown cause that affects patients with renal failure. Single cases led to the suspicion of a causative role of gadodiamide that is used for magnetic resonance imaging. This study therefore reviewed all of the authors' confirmed cases...... of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (n = 13) with respect to clinical characteristics, gadodiamide exposure, and subsequent clinical course. It was found that all had been exposed to gadodiamide before the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. The delay from exposure to first sign of the disease was 2 to 75...... d (median 25 d). Odds ratio for acquiring the disease when gadodiamide exposed was 32.5 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 549.2; P

  18. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khurram, Misbah; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a fibrotic disease seen in renal failure patients that may lead to severe physical disability. It has been demonstrated in recent studies that NSF can be caused by some gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents. In this report we present one of a total of 26...

  19. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated....... Increasingly poor renal function, aberrations in calcium-phosphate metabolism and erythropoietin treatment seem to increase the risk of the disease and its severity. Up to 25-30% of patients with renal failure exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents may develop nephrogenic systemic disease. The figure...... that gadolinium-containing contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging have an essential causative role in most, if not all, cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. One particular agent, gadodiamide, caused the majority of cases, but gadopentetate dimeglumine has also been implicated in several cases...

  20. Review of wireless and wearable electroencephalogram systems and brain-computer interfaces--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Ko, Li-Wei; Chang, Meng-Hsiu; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chen, Jing-Ying; Su, Tung-Ping; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Biomedical signal monitoring systems have rapidly advanced in recent years, propelled by significant advances in electronic and information technologies. Brain-computer interface (BCI) is one of the important research branches and has become a hot topic in the study of neural engineering, rehabilitation, and brain science. Traditionally, most BCI systems use bulky, wired laboratory-oriented sensing equipments to measure brain activity under well-controlled conditions within a confined space. Using bulky sensing equipments not only is uncomfortable and inconvenient for users, but also impedes their ability to perform routine tasks in daily operational environments. Furthermore, owing to large data volumes, signal processing of BCI systems is often performed off-line using high-end personal computers, hindering the applications of BCI in real-world environments. To be practical for routine use by unconstrained, freely-moving users, BCI systems must be noninvasive, nonintrusive, lightweight and capable of online signal processing. This work reviews recent online BCI systems, focusing especially on wearable, wireless and real-time systems. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Virtual Reality in Health System: Beyond Entertainment. A Mini-Review on the Efficacy of VR During Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Andrea; Lucidi, Fabio; De Laurentiis, Michele; Milanese, Carla; Napoli, Alessandro; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR), a computer-generated virtual environment, has been increasingly used in the entertainment world becoming a very new evolving field, but VR technology has also found a variety of applications in the biomedical field. VR can offer to subjects a safe environment within which to carry on different interventions ranging from the rehabilitation of discharged patients directly at home, to the support of hospitalized patients during different procedures and also of oncological inpatient subjects. VR appears as a promising tool for support and monitoring treatments in cancer patients influencing psychological and physiological functions. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of all the studies that used VR intervention on cancer patients and analyze their main findings. Nineteen studies across nearly a thousand articles were identified that explored effects of VR interventions on cancer patients. Although these studies varied greatly in setting and design, this review identified some overarching themes. Results found that VR improved patients' emotional well-being, and diminished cancer-related psychological symptoms. The studies explored various relevant variables including different types of settings (i.e., during chemotherapy, during pain procedures, during hospitalization). Here, we point to the need of a global and multi-disciplinary approach aimed at analyzing the effects of VR taking advantage of the new technology systems like biosensors as well as electroencephalogram monitoring pre, during, and after intervention. Devoting more attention to bio-physiological variables, standardized procedures, extending duration to longitudinal studies and adjusting for motion sickness related to VR treatment need to become standard of this research field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samtleben, W.

    2007-01-01

    A scleromyxedema-like disease was recognized in 1997. In 2000 this disorder was first published and termed nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy because all patients had advanced renal failure. In 2006 it was discovered that the patients had a history of a preceding contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had acute or chronic severe renal insufficiency with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 2 . So far a total of about 215 patients with this new skin disorder have been reported to international registries. The skin thickening has a typical histology and begins in the peripheral extremities and progresses proximally, including also the abdominal wall and the head in some patients. NSF involves not only the skin, but also the muscles and other organs (e.g., lungs, heart, eyes) in some patients. Therefore the term nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) was introduced. Skin fibrosis and sclerosis are usually progressive with disabling contractures of involved joints (knees, hands, feet). NSF may be lethal in up to 28% of patients. Spontaneous remissions are rare. No generally accepted treatment is available. So far, the pathogenesis is not well understood. One hypothesis supposes a role of gadolinium liberated from the contrast agents. As patients with acute or chronic advanced renal failure (GFR 2 ) including those with hepatorenal dysfunctions are at high risk to develop NSF after exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents, contrast-enhanced MRI should be avoided in this group and alternative diagnostic procedures should be used whenever possible. (orig.) [de

  3. Mini Review: Biomaterials for Enhancing Neuronal Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangellaris, Olivia V.; Gillette, Martha U.

    2018-04-01

    As they differentiate from neuroblasts, nascent neurons become highly polarized and elongate. Neurons extend and elaborate fine and fragile cellular extensions that form circuits enabling long-distance communication and signal integration within the body. While other organ systems are developing, projections of differentiating neurons find paths to distant targets. Subsequent post-developmental neuronal damage is catastrophic because the cues for reinnervation are no longer active. Advances in biomaterials are enabling fabrication of micro-environments that encourage neuronal regrowth and restoration of function by recreating these developmental cues. This mini-review considers new materials that employ topographical, chemical, electrical, and/or mechanical cues for use in neuronal repair. Manipulating and integrating these elements in different combinations will generate new technologies to enhance neural repair.

  4. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, C

    2010-11-05

    Nephroaenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a potentiallv fatal dermatiological condition found exclusively in patients with advanced renal I failure. There is minimal literature regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with NSF in Ireland. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with NSF in Ireland. Ireland\\'s experience with the disease was examined in light of international reports. There have been three cases of NSF in Ireland; an area which serves 1915 dialysis patients--giving a point prevalence among Irish end-stage kidney disease patients of 0.002. There was a large variation in disease severity between the three patients. All three patients had significant exposure to gadolinium chelate. Caution with gadolinium administration must be exercised in patients with advanced renal failure.

  5. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Madke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF is a relatively new fibrosing disorder which has caught the attention of various specialities in the past decade. NSF is an extremely disabling and often painful condition, affecting up to 13% of the individuals with chronic kidney disease. The administration of a gadolinium chelate contrast agent has been reported to induce the development of NSF, particularly in patients who have acute or chronic renal disease with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR lower than 30-mL/min/1.73 m 2 and in those with acute renal insufficiency. Mass spectroscopy studies have demonstrated particles of gadolinium in the lesional tissue. The exact pathogenesis of this curious sclerosing condition is unknown. The role of the aberrant targeting of ′circulating fibrocytes′ to the peripheral tissues and viscera has been hypothesized. NSF has distinct clinicopathological features in the setting of renal failure and needs to be looked upon as a new entity on the block. The condition is characterized by irregular indurated plaques, with amoeba-like projections and islands of sparing, chiefly on the trunk and extremities. Flexion contractures of fingers, knees, and elbow joints are known to occur in advanced cases of NSF. The course is frequently associated with painful episodes and loss of ambulation. Histopathology shows haphazard arrangement of thickened bundles of collagen, varying amount of mucin, and increased population of fibroblast-like cells in the dermis. Immunohistochemistry shows increased deposition of type-I procollagen and CD 34+ cells having fibroblastic activity. The condition is refractory to treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents. Various modalities of therapy such as UVA1 phototherapy, imatinib mesylate, photodynamic therapy, plasmapheresis, extracorporeal photochemotherapy, and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin have shown a moderate degree of improvement in skin thickness scores. A prudent

  6. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Tina Rask; Olesen, Anne; J�rgensen, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a debilitating and painful disorder with an increased stimulation of the connective tissue in the skin and systemic tissues. The disease is associated with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging in patients with renal...

  7. Tourette Syndrome: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Novotny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this mini-review is to provide the latest information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS. The authors conducted a literature search of available sources describing the issue of tic disorders with special focus on TS and made a comparison and evaluation of relevant findings. The results of this mini-review indicate that TS is a complex disorder, which has a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patients and his/her family. Therefore, early and proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary in order to reduce or even eliminate both symptoms and social burden of the patient. This requires a multidisciplinary management approach in order to meet the patients’ special needs. Future research should focus on neuroimaging, new neurotransmitter targets, in functional neurosurgery, as well as the effect of non-pharmacological psychotherapies for these people.

  8. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated....... Increasingly poor renal function, aberrations in calcium-phosphate metabolism and erythropoietin treatment seem to increase the risk of the disease and its severity. Up to 25-30% of patients with renal failure exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents may develop nephrogenic systemic disease. The figure...... that gadolinium-containing contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging have an essential causative role in most, if not all, cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. One particular agent, gadodiamide, caused the majority of cases, but gadopentetate dimeglumine has also been implicated in several cases...

  9. Levan And Levansucrase-A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Caroline Marques Goncalves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Levansucrase is a fructosyltranferase that synthesizes levan and present great biotechnological interest. Its being widely used in therapeutic food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Levansucrase is produced by many microorganisms such as the Bacillus subtilis Natto using the sucrose fermentation. In this mini-review we described some properties and functions of this important group of enzymes and the recent technologies used in the production and purification of levansucrase and levan.

  10. Targeting MicroRNA Function in Respiratory Diseases: Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eMaltby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognised as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g. for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer, no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic. In this mini-review, we review the current knowledge on miRNA expression and function in respiratory diseases, intervention strategies to target miRNA function and considerations specific to respiratory diseases. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been reported in a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These include alterations in isolated lung tissue, as well as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and peripheral blood or serum. The observed alterations in easily accessible body fluids (e.g. serum have been proposed as new biomarkers that may inform disease diagnosis and patient management. In a subset of studies, miRNA-targeted interventions also improved disease outcomes, indicating functional roles for altered miRNA expression in disease pathogenesis. In fact, direct administration of miRNA-targeting molecules to the lung has yielded promising results in a number of animal models. The ability to directly administer compounds to the lung holds considerable promise and may limit potential off-target effects and side effects caused by the systemic administration required to treat other diseases.

  11. Micropropagation of Ajuga species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Yong; Kim, Doo Hwan; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu

    2017-09-01

    The genus Ajuga L., belonging to Lamiaceae family, is widespread. The demand for Ajuga species has risen sharply because of their medicinal, ornamental, and pharmacological properties. These wide-ranging plants are being rapidly depleted due to over-collection for ornamental and medicinal purposes, as well as by habitat destruction and deforestation. Ajuga boninsimae, A. bracteosa, A. ciliate, A. genevensis, A. incisa, A. makinoi, A. multiflora, A. pyramidalis, A. shikotanensis, A. reptans, and A. vestita are categorized and protected as endangered plants. In vitro plant culture has therefore emerged for the conservation and mass clonal propagation of rare plants. This mini-review covers the current in vitro scenario in the propagation of Ajuga species. Adventitious or axillary shoots are initiated on the leaf, petiole and internodes, as well as roots, nodes, and shoot tip explants. Shoot induction is predominantly dependent on plant growth regulators added to the culture medium. Full- or half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with or without auxin is used for in vitro rooting. Rooted shoots need to be acclimatized in the greenhouse with an estimated 82-100% survival rate.

  12. Mini-review: Prediction errors, attention and associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Peter C; Schiffino, Felipe L

    2016-05-01

    Most modern theories of associative learning emphasize a critical role for prediction error (PE, the difference between received and expected events). One class of theories, exemplified by the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, asserts that PE determines the effectiveness of the reinforcer or unconditioned stimulus (US): surprising reinforcers are more effective than expected ones. A second class, represented by the Pearce-Hall (1980) model, argues that PE determines the associability of conditioned stimuli (CSs), the rate at which they may enter into new learning: the surprising delivery or omission of a reinforcer enhances subsequent processing of the CSs that were present when PE was induced. In this mini-review we describe evidence, mostly from our laboratory, for PE-induced changes in the associability of both CSs and USs, and the brain systems involved in the coding, storage and retrieval of these altered associability values. This evidence favors a number of modifications to behavioral models of how PE influences event processing, and suggests the involvement of widespread brain systems in animals' responses to PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: history and epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2009-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a new disease; the first case was diagnosed in 1997. It took 9 years before an association between NSF and gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CAs) was identified. Gadolinium has several advantages for use in relation to enhanced MRI, but it is also a toxic...... that the real number of patients who have NSF has not been accurately totaled; the disease seems to be underdiagnosed for various reasons....

  14. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Waikhom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder of the skin that develops in patients with advanced renal failure. It mostly presents with progressive hardening or induration of the skin of the extremities. Systemic involvement is also known to occur in this entity. Exposure to gadolinium contrast for radiological evaluation has been identified as the offending agent. The condition is progressive and can be seriously disabling. Therapeutic options are limited and not rewarding in majority of the cases. Awareness of this entity is important so that proper precautionary measures can be taken at the earliest to ameliorate the condition.

  15. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...

  16. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Abildskov, Jens; Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns and

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and gadolinium-based contrast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), unknown before March 1997 and first described in 2000, is a systemic disorder characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis. The first known case occurred in 1997, after the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) at high doses in patients with renal failure had become routine.

  18. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: late skin manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Marckmann, Peter; Rossen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists...... and nephrologists recognize the disease. OBSERVATIONS: We studied 17 patients with NSF late in the disease. All patients showed epidermal atrophy and hairlessness of the affected regions, primarily the lower legs. Affected areas were symmetrically distributed and hyperpigmented in most cases. Eleven patients showed......: This descriptive case series of patients with NSF gives a detailed clinical picture of the skin manifestations late in the disease. It demonstrates that the clinical picture in the late stage has a varied presentation and that NSF has a significant effect on the quality of life....

  19. Current status of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftari Besheli, L.; Aran, S.; Shaqdan, K.; Kay, J.; Abujudeh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) occurs in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute renal failure, most commonly following exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). NSF can be debilitating and associated with increased mortality. The putative association of NSF with GBCAs prompted the development of guidelines to limit the use of these contrast agents in at-risk patients. Indeed, the incidence of NSF has decreased dramatically following application of these guidelines, which appears to be the only effective means of decreasing NSF incidence. Thus, increasing clinician awareness of these updated guidelines is important. The present review introduces and compares updated guidelines for GBCA use and discusses the latest advances in the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and treatment of NSF

  20. Modular microfluidic system as a model of cystic fibrosis airways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skolimowski, Maciej; Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Abeille, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    A modular microfluidic airways model system that can simulate the changes in oxygen tension in different compartments of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airways was designed, developed, and tested. The fully reconfigurable system composed of modules with different functionalities: multichannel peristalt...

  1. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed.

  2. Circular RNAs as Promising Biomarkers: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiah Abu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interest in circular RNAs has resurfaced in the past few years. What was considered as junk for nearly two decades is now one of the most interesting molecules. Circular RNAs are non-coding RNAs that are formed by back-splicing events and have covalently closed loops with no poly-adenylated tails. The regulation of circular RNAs is distinctive and they are selectively abundant in different types of tissues. Based on the current knowledge of circular RNAs, these molecules have the potential to be the next big thing especially as biomarkers for different diseases. This mini-review attempts to concisely look at the biology of circular RNAs, the putative functional activities, the prevalence of circular RNAs, and the possible role of circular RNA as biomarkers for diagnosis or measuring drug response.

  3. Classification system for oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramani Bhagvan More

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a potentially malignant disorder (PMD and crippling condition of oral mucosa. It is a chronic insidious scarring disease of oral cavity, pharynx and upper digestive tract, characterized by progressive inability to open the mouth due to loss of elasticity and development of vertical fibrous bands in labial and buccal tissues. OSMF is a debilitating but preventable oral disease. It predominantly affects people of Southeast Asia and Indian subcontinent, where chewing of arecanut and its commercial preparation is high. Presence of fibrous bands is the main characteristic feature of OSMF. The present literature review provides the compilation of various classification system based on clinical and/or histopathological features of OSMF from several databases. The advantages and drawbacks of these classifications supersede each other, leading to perplexity. An attempt is made to provide and update the knowledge about this potentially malignant disorder to health care providers in order to help in early detection and treatment, thus reducing the mortality of oral cancer.

  4. Current Strategies for Quantitating Fibrosis in Liver Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present mini-review updated the progress in methodologies based on using liver biopsy. Data Sources: Articles for study of liver fibrosis, liver biopsy or fibrosis assessment published on high impact peer review journals from 1980 to 2014. Study Selection: Key articles were selected mainly according to their levels of relevance to this topic and citations. Results: With the recently mounting progress in chronic liver disease therapeutics, comes by a pressing need for precise, accurate, and dynamic assessment of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in individual patients. Histopathological information is recognized as the most valuable data for fibrosis assessment. Conventional histology categorical systems describe the changes of fibrosis patterns in liver tissue; but the simplified ordinal digits assigned by these systems cannot reflect the fibrosis dynamics with sufficient precision and reproducibility. Morphometric assessment by computer assist digital image analysis, such as collagen proportionate area (CPA, detects change of fibrosis amount in tissue section in a continuous variable, and has shown its independent diagnostic value for assessment of advanced or late-stage of fibrosis. Due to its evident sensitivity to sampling variances, morphometric measurement is feasible to be taken as a reliable statistical parameter for the study of a large cohort. Combining state-of-art imaging technology and fundamental principle in Tissue Engineering, structure-based quantitation was recently initiated with a novel proof-of-concept tool, qFibrosis. qFibrosis showed not only the superior performance to CPA in accurately and reproducibly differentiating adjacent stages of fibrosis, but also the possibility for facilitating analysis of fibrotic regression and cirrhosis sub-staging. Conclusions: With input from multidisciplinary innovation, liver biopsy assessment as a new "gold standard" is anticipated to substantially support the accelerated

  5. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Pediatric Hypertension: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Woroniecki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults with arterial hypertension (HTN have stroke, myocardial infarction, end-stage renal disease (ESRD, or die at higher rates than those without. In children, HTN leads to target organ damage, which includes kidney, brain, eye, blood vessels, and heart, which precedes “hard outcomes” observed in adults. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH or an anatomic and pathologic increase in left ventricular mass (LVM in response to the HTN is a pediatric surrogate marker for HTN-induced morbidity and mortality in adults. This mini review discusses current definitions, clinically relevant methods of LVM measurements and normalization methods, its epidemiology, management, and issue of reversibility in children with HTN. Pediatric definition of LVH and abnormal LVM is not uniformed. With multiple definitions, prevalence of pediatric HTN-induced LVH is difficult to ascertain. In addition while in adults cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is considered “the gold standard” for LVM and LVH determination, pediatric data are limited to “special populations”: ESRD, transplant, and obese children. We summarize available data on pediatric LVH treatment and reversibility and offer future directions in addressing LVH in children with HTN.

  6. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments – a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems. PMID:24031949

  7. Challenges and opportunities of biodegradable plastics: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujnić-Sokele, Maja; Pilipović, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The concept of materials coming from nature with environmental advantages of being biodegradable and/or biobased (often referred to as bioplastics) is very attractive to the industry and to the consumers. Bioplastics already play an important role in the fields of packaging, agriculture, gastronomy, consumer electronics and automotive, but still they have a very low share in the total production of plastics (currently about 1% of the about 300 million tonnes of plastic produced annually). Biodegradable plastics are often perceived as the possible solution for the waste problem, but biodegradability is just an additional feature of the material to be exploited at the end of its life in specific terms, in the specific disposal environment and in a specific time, which is often forgotten. They should be used as a favoured choice for the applications that demand a cheap way to dispose of the item after it has fulfilled its job (e.g. for food packaging, agriculture or medical products). The mini-review presents the opportunities and future challenges of biodegradable plastics, regarding processing, properties and waste management options.

  8. Effect of dietary macronutrients on aflatoxicosis: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Adilah, Zainuddin; Mohd Redzwan, Sabran

    2017-06-01

    Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. The main route of aflatoxin exposure is through the diet. Indeed, long-term aflatoxin exposure is linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aflatoxin causes aflatoxicosis, which can be affected by several factors and is prevalent in many developing Asian and African countries. This mini-review discusses the effects of carbohydrate, fat and protein on aflatoxicosis based on findings from animal and human studies. It was found that high carbohydrate intake enhanced aflatoxicosis occurrence, while low ingestion of carbohydrate with caloric restriction slowed the symptoms associated with aflatoxicosis. Additionally, diets with low protein content worsened the symptoms related to HCC due to aflatoxin exposure. Nevertheless, a study reported that a high-protein diet favored detoxification of aflatoxin in vivo. There were also conflicting results on the influence of dietary fat, as high ingestion of fat enhanced aflatoxicosis development as compared with a low-fat diet. Moreover, the type of fat also plays a significant role in influencing aflatoxin toxicity. In regard to food safety, understanding the influence of macronutrients toward the progression of aflatoxicosis can improve preventive measures against human and animal exposure to aflatoxin. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  10. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K; Almén, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence of neph...... guidelines regarding gadolinium contrast agents minimises the risk of NSF • Potential long-term harm from gadolinium accumulation in the body is discussed.......PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence...... of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the current understanding of its pathophysiology. The risk factors for NSF are discussed and prophylactic measures are recommended. The stability of the different gadolinium-based contrast media and the potential long-term effects of gadolinium in the body have also been...

  11. Environmental Mycobiome Modifiers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    autoimmune systemic sclerosis and cancer: disease stratification, co-expression networks and genetic polymorphisms” Cancer Mechanisms Program, Norris ...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This project is focused on Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), a progressive fibrotic disease characterized by skin fibrosis and damage to...quantitative manner. Our studies suggest that disease pathogenesis includes a common environmental fungal trigger, Rhodotorula glutinis, which we

  12. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors suggested from Japanese published cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Y; Kanal, E; Thomsen, H S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the published cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in Japan. The Japanese medical literature database and MedLine were searched using the keywords NSF and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (January 2000 to March 2009). Reports in peer-reviewed journals ...

  13. Alternate service delivery models in cancer genetic counseling: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hudson Buchanan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Demand for cancer genetic counseling has grown rapidly in recent years as germline genomic information has become increasingly incorporated into cancer care and the field has entered the public consciousness through high-profile celebrity publications. Increased demand and existing variability in the availability of trained cancer genetics clinicians place a priority on developing and evaluating alternate service delivery models for genetic counseling. This mini-review summarizes the state of science regarding service delivery models such as telephone counseling, telegenetics and group counseling. Research on comparative effectiveness of these models in traditional individual, in-person genetic counseling has been promising for improving access to care in a manner acceptable to patients. Yet, it has not fully evaluated the short- and long-term patient- and system-level outcomes that will help answer the question of whether these models achieve the same beneficial psychosocial and behavioral outcomes as traditional cancer genetic counseling. We propose a research agenda focused on comparative effectiveness of available service delivery models and how to match models to patients and practice settings. Only through this rigorous research can clinicians and systems find the optimal balance of clinical quality, ready and secure access to care, and financial sustainability. Such research will be integral to achieving the promise of genomic medicine in oncology.

  14. Environmental Mycobiome Modifiers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    shown that PBMCs and macrophages from SSc patients (monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of SSc patients that are differentiated in autologous...systemic sclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension ” Scleroderma Research Foundation Annual Workshop, San Francisco, CA 2/16...Cruz), and patient sera for 1 h at room temperature. Secondary antibodies (anti-goat-Cy3, anti-mouse-Cy2, and anti-human-Cy5) were purchased from

  15. Personalized medicine for cystic fibrosis: establishing human model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Hongmei; Brazauskas, Karissa; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-10-01

    With over 1,500 identifiable mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that result in distinct functional and phenotypical abnormalities, it is virtually impossible to perform randomized clinical trials to identify the best therapeutics for all patients. Therefore, a personalized medicine approach is essential. The only way to realistically accomplish this is through the development of improved in vitro human model systems. The lack of a readily available and infinite supply of human CFTR-expressing airway epithelial cells is a key bottleneck. We propose that a concerted two-pronged approach is necessary for patient-specific cystic fibrosis research to continue to prosper and realize its potential: (1) more effective culture and differentiation conditions for growing primary human airway and nasal epithelial cells and (2) the development of collective protocols for efficiently differentiating disease- and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) into pure populations of adult epithelial cells. Ultimately, we need a personalized human model system for cystic fibrosis with the capacity for uncomplicated bankability, widespread availability, and universal applicability for patient-specific disease modeling, novel pharmacotherapy investigation and screening, and readily executable genetic modification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Pollutant Organotins Leads to Respiratory Disease by Inflammation: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Albená; Dittz, Dalton; Santana, Higor Scardini; Faria, Rodrigo Alves; Freitas, Katia Michelle; Coutinho, Christiane Rabelo; de Melo Rodrigues, Livia Carla; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian Victor; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Freitas Lima, Leandro Ceotto

    2018-01-01

    Organotins (OTs) are organometallic pollutants. The OTs are organometallic pollutants that are used in many industrial, agricultural, and domestic products, and it works as powerful biocidal compound against large types of microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. In addition, OTs are well known to be endocrine-disrupting chemicals, leading abnormalities an “imposex” phenomenon in the female mollusks. There are some studies showing that OTs’ exposure is responsible for neural, endocrine, and reproductive dysfunctions in vitro and in vivo models. However, OTs’ effects over the mammalian immune system are poorly understood, particularly in respiratory diseases. The immune system, as well as their cellular components, performs a pivotal role in the control of the several physiologic functions, and in the maintenance and recovery of homeostasis. Thus, it is becoming important to better understand the association between environmental contaminants, as OTs, and the physiological function of immune system. There are no many scientific works studying the relationship between OTs and respiratory disease, especially about immune system activation. Herein, we reported studies in animal, humans, and in vitro models. We searched studies in PUBMED, LILACS, and Scielo platforms. Studies have reported that OTs exposure was able to suppress T helper 1 (Th1) and exacerbate T helper 2 (Th2) response in the immune system. In addition, OTs’ contact could elevate in the airway inflammatory response, throughout a mechanism associated with the apoptosis of T-regulatory cells and increased oxidative stress response. In addition, OTs induce macrophage recruitment to the tissue, leading to the increased necrosis, which stimulates an inflammatory cytokines secretion exacerbating the local inflammation and tissue function loss. Thus, the main intention of this mini-review is to up to date the main findings involving the inflammatory profile (especially Th1 and Th2 response) in the

  17. Management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocoiu, Carmen Nadia; Colesca, Sofia Elena; Rudăreanu, Costin; Popescu, Maria-Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Around the world there are growing concerns for waste electrical and electronic equipment. This is motivated by the harmful effects of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the environment, but also by the perspectives of materials recovery. Differences between countries regarding waste electrical and electronic equipment management are notable in the European Union. Romania is among the countries that have made significant efforts to comply with European Union regulations, but failed reaching the collection target. The article presents a mini review of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system in Romania, based on legislation and policy documents, statistical data, research studies and reports published by national and international organisations. The article debates subjects like legislative framework, the electrical and electronic equipment Romanian market, the waste electrical and electronic equipment collection system, waste electrical and electronic equipment processing and waste electrical and electronic equipment behaviour. The recast of the European directive brings new challenges to national authorities and to other stakeholders involved in the waste electrical and electronic equipment management. Considering the fact that Romania has managed a collection rate of roughly 1 kg capita(-1) in the last years, the new higher collection targets established by the waste electrical and electronic equipment Directive offer a serious challenge for the management system. Therefore, another aim of the article is to highlight the positive and negative aspects in the Romanian waste electrical and electronic equipment field, in order to identify the flows that should be corrected and the opportunities that could help improve this system to the point of meeting the European standards imposed by the European Directive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Current status of waste management in Botswana: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmereki, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Effective waste management practices are not all about legislative solutions, but a combination of the environmental, social, technical, technically skilled human resources, financial and technological resources, resource recycling, environmental pollution awareness programmes and public participation. As a result of insufficient resources, municipal solid waste (MSW) in transition and developing countries like Botswana remains a challenge, and it is often not yet given highest priority. In Botswana, the environment, public health and other socio-economic aspects are threatened by waste management practices due to inadequate implementation and enforcement mechanisms of waste management policy. This mini-review paper describes the panorama of waste management practices in Botswana and provides information to competent authorities responsible for waste management and to researchers to develop and implement an effective waste management system. Waste management practices in Botswana are affected by: lack of effective implementation of national waste policy, fragmented tasks and overlapping mandates among relevant institutions; lack of clear guidelines on the responsibilities of the generators and public authorities and on the associated economic incentives; and lack of consistent and comprehensive solid waste management policies; lack of intent by decision-makers to prepare national waste management plans and systems, and design and implement an integrated sustainable municipal solid waste management system. Due to these challenges, there are concerns over the growing trend of the illegal dumping of waste, creating mini dumping sites all over the country, and such actions jeopardize the efforts of lobbying investors and tourism business. Recommendations for concerted efforts are made to support decision makers to re-organize a sustainable waste management system, and this paper provides a reference to other emerging economies in the region and the world.

  19. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: risk factors suggested from Japanese published cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsushima, Y; Kanal, E; Thomsen, H S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the published cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in Japan. The Japanese medical literature database and MedLine were searched using the keywords NSF and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy (January 2000 to March 2009). Reports in peer-reviewed journals...... and meeting abstracts were included, and cases with biopsy confirmation were selected. 14 biopsy-verified NSF cases were found. In seven of eight patients reported after the association between gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) and NSF was proposed, GBCA administration was documented: five received only...

  20. A moderate response to plasmapheresis in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Ustuner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF is a recently identified idiopathic cutaneous fibrosing disorder that occurs in the setting of renal failure. The disease initially called nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy is closely linked to exposure to gadolinium-based contrast media used during magnetic resonance imaging in patients with renal insufficiency. Although little is known about the pathogenesis of this disease, the increased expression of transforming growth factor-beta has been demonstrated recently. Herein, we present a case of NSF was partially treated due to a moderate and temporary response to plasmapheresis with no recurrence for 6 months, but returned at the end of 6th month.

  1. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis symptoms alleviated by renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2011-01-01

    are limited. Anecdotal reports have shown partial or complete resolution of NSF following successful renal transplantation early in the course of NSF. In this report, we describe alleviation of NSF symptoms in two women following successful renal transplantation more than 3 years after onset of NSF.......Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a rare, serious, and life-threatening disease of patients with severe renal impairment. Gadolinium-containing contrast agents have been shown to be the crucial trigger. There is no proven medical cure for the disease, and symptomatic treatment options...

  2. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-lik... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  3. Mini-review: The Morphology, Mineralogy and Microbiology of Accumulated Iron Corrosion Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-11

    including the morphology, mineralogy , microbiology and the mecha- nisms for formation. Use of descriptive terms to denote specific iron corrosion product...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 11-03-2014 Journal Article Mini-review: the morphology, mineralogy and microbiology of...oxides/ hydroxides with a preponderance of α-FeOOH (goethite) and accumulation of metals. Bacteria, particularly iron-oxidizing and sulfatereducing

  4. Clinical and histological findings in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowper, Shawn E.; Rabach, Morgan; Girardi, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a relative newcomer to the world of medicine. NSF was introduced just over 10 years ago as nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy, but with further investigation, its systemic nature was determined. The strict adherence to a definition requiring both clinical and pathological concordance has allowed for careful separation of this entity from other fibrosing disorders, leading eventually to the realization that gadolinium-based contrast agents were closely associated with its onset. As planned prospective studies get underway, it is of paramount importance that researchers and clinicians realize that NSF remains a very challenging diagnosis, and that both clinical and histopathological criteria must be employed to reach the most accurate diagnosis possible

  5. Nebuliser systems for drug delivery in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Tracey; Mills, Nicola; Whitaker, Paul

    2013-04-30

    Nebuliser systems are used to deliver medications to control the symptoms and the progression of lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis. Many types of nebuliser systems are available for use with various medications; however, there has been no previous systematic review which has evaluated these systems. To evaluate effectiveness, safety, burden of treatment and adherence to nebulised therapy using different nebuliser systems for people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each study for additional publications and approached the manufacturers of both nebuliser systems and nebulised medications for published and unpublished data. Date of the most recent search: 15 Oct 2012. Randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing nebuliser systems including conventional nebulisers, vibrating mesh technology systems, adaptive aerosol delivery systems and ultrasonic nebuliser systems. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. They also independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. A third author assessed studies where agreement could not be reached. The search identified 40 studies with 20 of these (1936 participants) included in the review. These studies compared the delivery of tobramycin, colistin, dornase alfa, hypertonic sodium chloride and other solutions through the different nebuliser systems. This review demonstrates variability in the delivery of medication depending on the nebuliser system used. Conventional nebuliser systems providing higher flows, higher respirable fractions and smaller particles decrease treatment time, increase deposition and may be preferred by people with CF, as compared to conventional nebuliser systems providing

  6. Enzymatic processes in alternative reaction media: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ghaffari-Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocatalysis is a growing field in the production of fine chemicals and will most probably increase its share in the future. Enzymatic reactions are carried out under mild conditions, i.e., non-toxic solvents, low temperature and pressure, which eliminates most environmental drawbacks associated with conventional production methods. The superiority of chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity of enzymes exhibit significant advantages over conventional catalysts for production of fine chemicals, flavors, fragrances, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Enzymes can function both in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. As a result of the growing scientific and industrial interest towards green chemistry, green solvent systems, which are mainly water, supercritical fluids, ionic liquids, fluorinated solvents, and solvent-free systems have become more popular in biocatalysis. However, the activity and selectivity of an enzyme is heavily dependent on solvent properties. In this review, various green solvents were classified and some of their influential features on enzyme activity were discussed.

  7. Gaucher disease. Unusual presentation and mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Tamer M; Ariganjoye, Rafiu O; Alsaeed, Gihad I

    2015-07-01

    We aim to describe an 8-year-old boy with an unusual clinical presentation of Gaucher disease (GD). Gaucher disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of the specific enzyme glucocerebrosidase with varying clinical features, but often involving the monocytes-macrophages systems. This child ran a progressive course with a devastating outcome. Three distinct GD subtypes have been described with varying clinical features based on the presence or absence of neurologic involvement. Gaucher disease diagnosis is obtained via: enzyme activity assay, gene mutation study, bone marrow aspiration in addition to multiple other tests that have been successfully used in diagnosis of cases of GD. Treatment modalities include enzyme replacement treatment, substrate reduction therapy, bone marrow transplantation, blood transfusion, and surgery are available management modalities for GD. Gaucher disease is a chronic disease requiring a multidisciplinary team approach with regular follow up with multiple subspecialties.

  8. Mini review : Pengolahan kerupuk “Rambak” kulit di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedes Amertaningtyas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hide a waste product of animal slaughter house is still can be utilized as food in the form of cracker. Cattle, buffalo, rabbit, chicken shank and fish skin can be used of raw materials for cracker production. This process include hide selection, washing, immersing, liming, deliming, boiling, cutting, immersing in sauce, drying and frying. In Indonesia, the skin cracker industriesare consentralised in certain area of west, central and east java provinces where Sumatra skin cracker are popular knows as “ kerupuk jangek”. Although skin cracker have a high protein content, however its quality are low comparedto other meat processed products. The most dominant amino acid in this product is glycine. Some important issues such as it is not recommended for people suffering uric acid, addition of harmfull additives i.e. formalin and borax, containg chrome which originated from hide prosessing industry and unreligion system of slaughtering (is not halal. Key words: waste product, skin animal, rambak cracker.

  9. Oral piercings and their dental implications: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrinder; Tuli, Avantika

    2012-05-01

    Oral piercing has become common in young adults in recent years. Adolescents are characterized by a compulsive tendency to distinguish themselves from the rest; differences in clothes, hairstyle, or "decorative" details are used to this effect, based on highly-diverse criteria. Dental health-care professionals need to be aware of the procedures and risks involved with oral piercings and the social and psychological reasons that lead people to engage in this practice, regardless of the risks. The present article addresses oral mutilation practices, specifically from the oral health perspective, as it is of concern to dental professionals due to the health risks and oral complications associated with such practices. The various oral ornaments, piercing sites, and their implications, orally, as well as systemically, have been discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Serum uric acid and acute kidney injury: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hahn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury causes great morbidity and mortality in both the community and hospital settings. Understanding the etiological factors and the pathophysiological principles resulting in acute kidney injury is essential in prompting appropriate therapies. Recently hyperuricemia has been recognized as a potentially modifiable risk factor for acute kidney injury, including that associated with cardiovascular surgery, radiocontrast administration, rhabdomyolysis, and associated with heat stress. This review discussed the evidence that repeated episodes of acute kidney injury from heat stress and dehydration may also underlie the pathogenesis of the chronic kidney disease epidemic that is occurring in Central America (Mesoamerican nephropathy. Potential mechanisms for how uric acid might contribute to acute kidney injury are also discussed, including systemic effects on renal microvasculature and hemodynamics, and local crystalline and noncrystalline effects on the renal tubules. Pilot clinical trials also show potential benefits of lowering uric acid on acute kidney injury associated with a variety of insults. In summary, there is mounting evidence that hyperuricemia may have a significant role in the development of acute kidney injury. Prospective, placebo controlled, randomized trials are needed to determine the potential benefit of uric acid lowering therapy on kidney and cardio-metabolic diseases.

  11. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets are ones often considered non-toxic. Such compounds act variously on ion channels, quorum sensing systems, neurotransmitters, production/release of adhesive, and specific enzymes that regulate energy production or primary metabolism. In contrast, AF compounds with general targets may or may not act through toxic mechanisms. These compounds affect a variety of biological activities including algal photosynthesis, energy production, stress responses, genotoxic damage, immunosuppressed protein expression, oxidation, neurotransmission, surface chemistry, the formation of biofilms, and adhesive production/release. Among all the targets, adhesive production/release is the most common, possibly due to a more extensive research effort in this area. Overall, the specific molecular targets and the molecular mechanisms of most AF compounds have not been identified. Thus, the information available is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the types of molecular targets to be used as sensitive biomarkers for future design and screening of compounds with AF potential. In this review, the relevant advantages and disadvantages of the molecular tools available for studying the molecular targets of AF compounds are highlighted briefly and the molecular mechanisms of the AF compounds, which are largely a source of speculation in the literature, are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. Mini-review. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Visag-Castillo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation is the gold standard treatment for end stage liver disease, including patients with cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma falling within Milan criteria. HCC is the sixth most common cancer around the world, and leading cause of death among cirrhotic patients. Diagnosis is based upon radiological characteristics and rarely biopsy results; the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system is the most used guideline for treatment. With several treatment options available transplantation and resection continue to be the major curative therapeutic option for this patients. However treatment must be individualized to each patient to improve recurrences and outcomes. The aim of this paper is to review the present role of liver transplantation in the management of hepatocarcinoma. Resumen: El trasplante hepático es el estándar de oro en el tratamiento de enfermedad hepática avanzada, incluyendo pacientes cirróticos que han desarrollado hepatocarcinoma pero que se encuentran dentro de los criterios de Milán. El hepatocarcinoma es el sexto tumor más común alrededor del mundo y es la principal causa de muerte en pacientes cirróticos. El diagnóstico se basa principalmente en las características radiológicas del tumor y raras veces en resultados de patología. El sistema de estatificación desarrollado por el Clinic de Barcelona es la guía más usada para el tratamiento. Existen diferentes opciones terapéuticas para el hepatocarcinoma; sin embargo, el trasplante y la resección quirúrgica siguen siendo la opción curativa con mejores resultados. El tratamiento debe de ser individualizado para cada paciente con el fin de mejorar los resultados y minimizar recurrencias. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar el rol actual del trasplante hepático en el manejo del hepatocarcinoma. Keywords: Chronic hepatitis C, End stage liver disease, Recurrence, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Cirrhosis, Palabras clave: Hepatitis C cr

  13. Epidemiology and vaccine of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in China: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongbo; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Shan; Chen, Jianfei; Feng, Li

    2016-03-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an intestinal infectious disease caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); manifestations of the disease are diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. Starting from the end of 2010, a PED outbreak occurred in several pig-producing provinces in southern China. Subsequently, the disease spread throughout the country and caused enormous economic losses to the pork industry. Accumulating studies demonstrated that new PEDV variants that appeared in China were responsible for the PED outbreak. In the current mini-review, we summarize PEDV epidemiology and vaccination in China.

  14. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving o...

  15. [Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database: An information system for storage and management of clinical and microbiological data of cystic fibrosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Claudia I; Palau, María J; Martina, Pablo; Achiary, Carlos; Achiary, Andrés; Bettiol, Marisa; Montanaro, Patricia; Cazzola, María L; Leguizamón, Mariana; Massillo, Cintia; Figoli, Cecilia; Valeiras, Brenda; Perez, Silvia; Rentería, Fernando; Diez, Graciela; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Bosch, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological and clinical management of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from acute pulmonary exacerbations or chronic lung infections demands continuous updating of medical and microbiological processes associated with the constant evolution of pathogens during host colonization. In order to monitor the dynamics of these processes, it is essential to have expert systems capable of storing and subsequently extracting the information generated from different studies of the patients and microorganisms isolated from them. In this work we have designed and developed an on-line database based on an information system that allows to store, manage and visualize data from clinical studies and microbiological analysis of bacteria obtained from the respiratory tract of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The information system, named Cystic Fibrosis Cloud database is available on the http://servoy.infocomsa.com/cfc_database site and is composed of a main database and a web-based interface, which uses Servoy's product architecture based on Java technology. Although the CFC database system can be implemented as a local program for private use in CF centers, it can also be used, updated and shared by different users who can access the stored information in a systematic, practical and safe manner. The implementation of the CFC database could have a significant impact on the monitoring of respiratory infections, the prevention of exacerbations, the detection of emerging organisms, and the adequacy of control strategies for lung infections in CF patients. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: Review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF has now been virtually eliminated by the discovery of its association with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs and the consequent reduced use of GBCA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in severe renal failure patients. This review of 408 biopsy-confirmed cases shows how to minimize NSF risk when performing GBCA-enhanced MRI or magnetic resonance angiography. The absence of any NSF cases in patients less than 8 years old or greater than 87 years old suggests that infants and elderly patients are already protected. Limiting GBCA dose to a maximum of 0.1 mMol/kg, dialyzing dialysis patients quickly following GBCA administration, delaying administration of GBCA in acute renal failure until after renal function returns or dialysis is initiated, and avoiding nonionic linear GBCA in renal failure patients, especially when there are pro-inflammatory conditions, appear to have reduced NSF risk to the point where safe GBCA-enhanced MRI is possible in most patients.

  17. An epidemic outbreak of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in a Danish hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The nephrological department of Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev experienced an epidemic accumulation of patients developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in the period 2002-2006. Systematic studies of these patients revealed that they all had a gadodiamide-enhanced magnetic resonance examination prior to their symptoms, and that they all had severe renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease stage 5) at the time of their exposure to gadodiamide. Besides exposure to gadodiamide, our analyses indicated that increasing cumulative gadodiamide exposure (i.e. repeated exposures), and higher serum concentrations of ionized calcium and phosphate were cofactors that raised the risk of developing nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Higher cumulative gadodiamide exposure, higher prescribed erythropoietin dosage at exposure, and being hemodialysis patient were three factors associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in its most severe form. Retrospective reviews of patients records and patient interviews revealed the large variability in symptoms and clinical course of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, but also highlighted that the typical initial symptoms were symmetric swelling, discoloration and pain of lower legs, whereas the typical late symptoms of severely affected patients were skin thickening, stiffness, contractures, and debilitating disabilities. In conclusion, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a serious iatrogenic disease of patients with renal insufficiency caused by some Gd-containing contrast agents, in particular gadodiamide. Unfortunately, there is no proven curative treatment. It is therefore essential that future cases of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis are prevented

  18. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella M; Höglund, Peter; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats

    2012-12-01

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. Tomosynthesis is more sensitive than conventional radiography for pulmonary cystic fibrosis changes. The radiation dose from chest tomosynthesis is low compared with computed tomography. Tomosynthesis may become useful in the regular follow-up of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  19. The status and developments of leather solid waste treatment: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Leather making is one of the most widespread industries in the world. The production of leather goods generates different types of solid wastes and wastewater. These wastes will pollute the environment and threat the health of human beings if they are not well treated. Consequently, the treatment of pollution caused by the wastes from leather tanning is really important. In comparison with the disposal of leather wastewater, the treatment of leather solid wastes is more intractable. Hence, the treatment of leather solid wastes needs more innovations. To keep up with the rapid development of the modern leather industry, various innovative techniques have been newly developed. In this mini-review article, the major achievements in the treatment of leather solid wastes are highlighted. Emphasis will be placed on the treatment of chromium-tanned solid wastes; some new approaches are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide some valuable information to promote the broad understanding and effective treatment of leather solid wastes in the leather industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. A systematic review of overlapping microRNA patterns in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, Gianluca; Roberts, William Neal; Roman, Jesse; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    Lung fibrosis can be observed in systemic sclerosis and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, two disorders where lung involvement carries a poor prognosis. Although much has been learned about the pathogenesis of these conditions, interventions capable of reversing or, at the very least, halting disease progression are not available. Recent studies point to the potential role of micro messenger RNAs (microRNAs) in cancer and tissue fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNA sequences (20-23 nucleotides) that are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved and encoded in the genome. By acting on several genes, microRNAs control protein expression. Considering the above, we engaged in a systematic review of the literature in search of overlapping observations implicating microRNAs in the pathogenesis of both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our objective was to uncover top microRNA candidates for further investigation based on their mechanisms of action and their potential for serving as targets for intervention against lung fibrosis. Our review points to microRNAs of the -29 family, -21-5p and -92a-3p, -26a-5p and let-7d-5p as having distinct and counter-balancing actions related to lung fibrosis. Based on this, we speculate that readjusting the disrupted balance between these microRNAs in lung fibrosis related to SSc and IPF may have therapeutic potential. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  2. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil: a complex or a single species? A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz GSR Bauzer

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. Although there is strong evidence that Lu. longipalpis is a species complex, not all data concerning populations from Brazil support this hypothesis. The issue is still somewhat controversial for this large part of Lu. longipalpis distribution range even though that it is the Latin American region contributing to most of the cases of AVL. In this mini-review we consider in detail the current data for the Brazilian populations and conclude that Lu. longipalpis is a complex of incipient vector species with a complexity similar to Anopheles gambiae s.s. in Africa.

  3. Evaluation and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersen, Maarten; Orabi, Hazem; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Before the 20th century, individuals often did not live beyond the reproductive years, and sexuality of the elderly was not an issue. However, in the current era it is known that as life expectancy improves, both men and women are seeking to preserve their sexuality into old age. While the appreciation of sexuality persists with aging, a decline in sexual activity is typically seen with, and can be attributed to both general health problems as well as specific sexual dysfunctions. Erectile dysfunction is the most frequently diagnosed sexual dysfunction in the older male population. This mini-review provides an overview of contemporary literature concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment and treatment of erectile dysfunction in the aging male. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Alexithymia and Suicide Risk in Psychiatric Disorders: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico De Berardis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that alexithymic individuals may show significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, and psychological suffering than non-alexithymics. There is an increasing evidence that alexithymia may be considered a risk factor for suicide, even simply increasing the risk of development of depressive symptoms or per se. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative mini-review was to elucidate a possible relationship between alexithymia and suicide risk. The majority of reviewed studies pointed out a relationship between alexithymia and an increased suicide risk. In several studies, this relationship was mediated by depressive symptoms. In conclusion, the importance of alexithymia screening in everyday clinical practice and the evaluation of clinical correlates of alexithymic traits should be integral parts of all disease management programs and, especially, of suicide prevention plans and interventions. However, limitations of studies are discussed and must be considered.

  5. Pharmacological Activities and Synthesis of Esculetin and Its Derivatives: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyuan Liang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Esculetin, synonymous with 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Fraxini. The twig skin or trunk bark of Cortex Fraxini are used by herb doctors as a mild, bitter liver and gallbladder meridians’ nontoxic drug as well as dietary supplement. Recently, with a variety of novel esculetin derivatives being reported, the molecular mechanism research as well as clinical application of Cortex Fraxini and esculetin are becoming more attractive. This mini-review will consolidate what is known about the biological activities, the mechanism of esculetin and its synthetic derivatives over the past decade in addition to providing a brief synopsis of the properties of esculetin.

  6. Social media and college student risk behaviors: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Gabrielle G; Longo, Laura M; Martin, Jessica L

    2017-02-01

    Use of social media use is widespread and frequent among college students. Posting photos and text related to risk behaviors (e.g., problematic alcohol use, illicit drug use) on social media websites is common and has been linked to personal substance use and negative outcomes. This mini-review summarizes current findings related to associations between college students' social media use and engagement in risk behaviors. Conducting research on social media poses unique challenges for researchers; these challenges are reviewed and their impact on the state of the current literature discussed. Finally, implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed as well as recommendations regarding future research in the area of social media and college student risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulating Spatial Processes and Navigation via Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T. Brunyé

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES uses low intensity current to alter neuronal activity in superficial cortical regions, and has gained popularity as a tool for modulating several aspects of perception and cognition. This mini-review article provides an overview of tES and its potential for modulating spatial processes underlying successful navigation, including spatial attention, spatial perception, mental rotation and visualization. Also considered are recent advances in empirical research and computational modeling elucidating several stable cortical-subcortical networks with dynamic involvement in spatial processing and navigation. Leveraging these advances may prove valuable for using tES, particularly transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS/tACS, to indirectly target subcortical brain regions by altering neuronal activity in distant yet functionally connected cortical areas. We propose future research directions to leverage these advances in human neuroscience.

  8. Identification and Fibrosis Staging of Hepatitis C Patients Using the Electronic Medical Record System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vijay; Hyun, Christian; Khan, Qasim M; Hall, Curtis; Hessefort, Norbert; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Fimmel, Claus J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to noninvasively assess the severity of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in large patient populations. It would be helpful if fibrosis scores could be calculated solely on the basis of data contained in the patients' electronic medical records (EMR). We performed a pilot study to identify all HCV-infected patients in a large health care system, and predict their fibrosis stage on the basis of demographic and laboratory data using common data from their EMR. HCV-infected patients were identified using the EMR. The liver biopsies of 191 HCV patients were graded using the Ishak and Metavir scoring systems. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted from the EMR and used to calculate the aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, Fib-4, Fibrosis Index, Forns, Göteborg University Cirrhosis Index, Lok Index, and Vira-HepC. In total, 869 HCV-infected patients were identified from a population of over 1 million. In the subgroup of patients with liver biopsies, all 7 algorithms were significantly correlated with the fibrosis stage. The degree of correlation was moderate, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.22 to 0.60. For the detection of advanced fibrosis (Metavir 3 or 4), the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.71 to 0.84, with no significant differences between the individual scores. Sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values were within the previously reported range. All scores tended to perform better for higher fibrosis stages. Our study demonstrates that HCV-infected patients can be identified and their fibrosis staged using commonly available EMR-based algorithms.

  9. Case-control study of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone; Rossen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    exposed to gadodiamide develop nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 19 histologically verified cases and 19 sex- and age-matched controls. All subjects had chronic renal failure when exposed to gadodiamide. Clinical, biochemical and pharmacological data were.......02). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing cumulative gadodiamide exposure, high-dose epoietin-beta treatment, and higher serum concentrations of ionized calcium and phosphate increase the risk of gadodiamide-related nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in renal failure patients. Severe cases seem to develop primarily among patients......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis may be caused by gadolinium (Gd)-containing magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Most reported cases were associated with one particular agent, gadodiamide. Yet, unidentified cofactors might explain why only a minority of renal failure patients...

  10. Life-threatening systemic symptoms in a cystic fibrosis patient

    OpenAIRE

    Gohy, Sophie; Froidure, Antoine; Lebecque, Patrick; ECFS

    2014-01-01

    Case report A 20-year-old male patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) (F508del/F508del, last FEV1: 92% predicted) was admitted for the sudden occurrence of high-grade fever, FEV1 drop (72% predicted) without increased cough, malaise, diffuse pain and generalized lymphadenopathies. Initial check-up revealed the presence of very recent bilateral hilar lymphadenopathies along with a marked inflammatory syndrome (WBC: 35,680/µl, neutrophils: 28,220/µl, CRP: 163mg/L). Within 24 hours, the patient devel...

  11. Angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels modulate lung remodeling and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Edwin Roger; Ruppert, Aline Domingos Pinto; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza

    2014-01-01

    To validate the importance of the angiotensin II receptor isotypes and the lymphatic vessels in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We examined angiotensin II type 1 and 2 receptors and lymphatic vessels in the pulmonary tissues obtained from open lung biopsies of 30 patients with systemic sclerosis and 28 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Their histologic patterns included cellular and fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia for systemic sclerosis and usual interstitial pneumonia for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We used immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry to evaluate the number of cells in the alveolar septae and the vessels stained by these markers. Survival curves were also used. We found a significantly increased percentage of septal and vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors in the systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients compared with the controls. A similar percentage of angiotensin 2 receptor positive vessel cells was observed in fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. A significantly increased percentage of lymphatic vessels was present in the usual interstitial pneumonia group compared with the non-specific interstitial pneumonia and control groups. A Cox regression analysis showed a high risk of death for the patients with usual interstitial pneumonia and a high percentage of vessel cells immunostained for the angiotensin 2 receptor in the lymphatic vessels. We concluded that angiotensin II receptor expression in the lung parenchyma can potentially control organ remodeling and fibrosis, which suggests that strategies aimed at preventing high angiotensin 2 receptor expression may be used as potential therapeutic target in patients with pulmonary systemic sclerosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role of Toll-like receptors in anti-viral immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223961 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances i...147(2):217-26. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: r...nity. PubmedID 17223961 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inund

  13. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Bjoerkman-Burtscher, Isabella M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats [Skaane University Hospital, Lund University, Centre for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Hoeglund, Peter [Skaane University Hospital, Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. (orig.)

  14. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Bjoerkman-Burtscher, Isabella M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats; Hoeglund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. (orig.)

  15. Dancing as an Intervention Tool for People with Dementia: A Mini-Review Dancing and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Valis, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Research studies show a positive impact of physical activities such as dancing on the improvement of cognitive reserves of people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to explore dancing efficacy on people with dementia and list the key benefits and limitations of dancing therapy for these people. The methods used in this study include a method of literature review of available Englishwritten sources with respect to the dancing therapy and dementia in the acknowledged databases Pub- Med, Web of Science, Springer, and Scopus, and a method of comparison and evaluation of their findings. The findings of this mini review confirm positive efficacy of dancing therapy on cognitive, physical, emotional and social performance of people with dementia. More randomized controlled clinical trials should be conducted in this field, as well as other non-pharmacological therapies should be employed in order to holistically contribute to the prevention and treatment of dementia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing. Keywords: Cell-free, Biosynthesis, Metabolic pathways, Design-build-test cycle

  17. Transformation of toxic potential of Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot into protein source: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of animal largely depends on supplying of quality feed and proteinaceous supplement to the animals. Jatropha plant can grow in the barren lands, and are used as a source of biodiesel. Besides, the plant may act as a rich proteinaceous source. However, the antinutritional factors present in the seed and seed oil of the plant may hamper the availability and beneficial use of the plant. Curcin and phorbol esters are the major toxic compounds present in the plant; these toxic compounds cause to produce liver and kidney diseases. Detoxification of these toxic compounds by physical and chemical means converting to less toxic seed cake may serve the purpose of using this plant in future as a replacement of costly protein supplement for animals. Therefore, in modern world, it is recommended to utilize the protein source by neutralizing the antinutritional factors. This mini-review describes the updates on how J. curcas can be utilized as a supplementary source of protein for animals by decreasing its toxicity.

  18. Genomic and metagenomic challenges and opportunities for bioleaching: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Juan Pablo; Quatrini, Raquel; Holmes, David S

    2016-09-01

    High-throughput genomic technologies are accelerating progress in understanding the diversity of microbial life in many environments. Here we highlight advances in genomics and metagenomics of microorganisms from bioleaching heaps and related acidic mining environments. Bioleaching heaps used for copper recovery provide significant opportunities to study the processes and mechanisms underlying microbial successions and the influence of community composition on ecosystem functioning. Obtaining quantitative and process-level knowledge of these dynamics is pivotal for understanding how microorganisms contribute to the solubilization of copper for industrial recovery. Advances in DNA sequencing technology provide unprecedented opportunities to obtain information about the genomes of bioleaching microorganisms, allowing predictive models of metabolic potential and ecosystem-level interactions to be constructed. These approaches are enabling predictive phenotyping of organisms many of which are recalcitrant to genetic approaches or are unculturable. This mini-review describes current bioleaching genomic and metagenomic projects and addresses the use of genome information to: (i) build metabolic models; (ii) predict microbial interactions; (iii) estimate genetic diversity; and (iv) study microbial evolution. Key challenges and perspectives of bioleaching genomics/metagenomics are addressed. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  19. Robot therapy: a new approach for mental healthcare of the elderly - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takanori; Wada, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Mental healthcare of elderly people is a common problem in advanced countries. Recently, high technology has developed robots for use not only in factories but also for our living environment. In particular, human-interactive robots for psychological enrichment, which provide services by interacting with humans while stimulating their minds, are rapidly spreading. Such robots not only simply entertain but also render assistance, guide, provide therapy, educate, enable communication, and so on. Robot therapy, which uses robots as a substitution for animals in animal-assisted therapy and activity, is a new application of robots and is attracting the attention of many researchers and psychologists. The seal robot named Paro was developed especially for robot therapy and was used at hospitals and facilities for elderly people in several countries. Recent research has revealed that robot therapy has the same effects on people as animal therapy. In addition, it is being recognized as a new method of mental healthcare for elderly people. In this mini review, we introduce the merits and demerits of animal therapy. Then we explain the human-interactive robot for psychological enrichment, the required functions for therapeutic robots, and the seal robot. Finally, we provide examples of robot therapy for elderly people, including dementia patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Aging and human sexual behavior: biocultural perspectives - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Garcia, Justin R

    2012-01-01

    In this mini-review, we consider an evolutionary biocultural perspective on human aging and sexuality. An evolutionary approach to senescence highlights the energetic trade-offs between fertility and mortality. By comparing humans to other primates, we situate human senescence as an evolutionary process, with shifts in postreproductive sexual behavior in this light. Age-related declines in sexual behavior are typical for humans but also highly contingent on the sociocultural context within which aging individuals express their sexuality. We briefly review some of the most comprehensive studies of aging and sexual behavior, both from the USA and cross-culturally. We frame these patterns with respect to the long-term relationships within which human sexual behavior typically occurs. Because sexuality is typically expressed within pair-bonds, sexual behavior sometimes declines in both members of a couple with age, but also exhibits sex-specific effects that have their roots in evolved sex differences. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin

  2. Mini-review: impact and dynamics of surface fouling by solitary and compound ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2014-01-01

    Globally, ascidians are a significant contributor to benthic marine fouling communities, but have remained poorly studied in this context. In some cases, such as in shellfish and finfish aquaculture, ascidians are the most problematic of all fouling organisms. The disproportionate impact of ascidian fouling in some specific geographic locations has been related directly to anthropogenic translocation of these organisms around the globe. In the case of ascidians, therefore, the economic issue of biofouling and the ecological ramifications of invasion are inextricably linked. This mini-review briefly discusses the introduction of non-native ascidians to areas where they have subsequently proven to be a significant fouling pest. The elements of ascidian reproductive ecology that support their aggressive fouling character are discussed and the scant information pertaining to their adhesion and adhesives is presented. Finally, strategies for mitigating ascidian fouling are examined. It is suggested that sufficient working knowledge currently exists to support the inclusion of one or more common ascidian species as 'standard' test organisms used for evaluation of novel fouling-resistant surfaces.

  3. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management--aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community

  6. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-11-13

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.

  7. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Redzwan eSabran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global

  8. Perceptual Learning as a potential treatment for amblyopia: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M.; Li, Roger W.

    2009-01-01

    Amblyopia is a developmental abnormality that results from physiological alterations in the visual cortex and impairs form vision. It is a consequence of abnormal binocular visual experience during the “sensitive period” early in life. While amblyopia can often be reversed when treated early, conventional treatment is generally not undertaken in older children and adults. A number of studies over the last twelve years or so suggest that Perceptual Learning (PL) may provide an important new method for treating amblyopia. The aim of this mini-review is to provide a critical review and “meta-analysis” of perceptual learning in adults and children with amblyopia, with a view to extracting principles that might make PL more effective and efficient. Specifically we evaluate: What factors influence the outcome of perceptual learning?Specificity and generalization – two sides of the coin.Do the improvements last?How does PL improve visual function?Should PL be part of the treatment armamentarium? A review of the extant studies makes it clear that practicing a visual task results in a long-lasting improvement in performance in an amblyopic eye. The improvement is generally strongest for the trained eye, task, stimulus and orientation, but appears to have a broader spatial frequency bandwidth than in normal vision. Importantly, practicing on a variety of different tasks and stimuli seems to transfer to improved visual acuity. Perceptual learning operates via a reduction of internal neural noise and/or through more efficient use of the stimulus information by retuning the weighting of the information. The success of PL raises the question of whether it should become a standard part of the armamentarium for the clinical treatment of amblyopia, and suggests several important principles for effective perceptual learning in amblyopia. PMID:19250947

  9. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  10. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kwang Yong; Eom, Young Woo; Kim, Moon Young; Kang, Seong Hee; Baik, Soon Koo

    2018-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. As hepatic fibrosis progresses, levels of the RAS components angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang-(1-7), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are increased. The primary effector Ang II regulates vasoconstriction, sodium homoeostasis, fibrosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in various diseases, including liver cirrhosis, through the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis in the classical RAS. The ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor and ACE2/Ang-(1-9)/AT2R axes make up the alternative RAS and promote vasodilation, antigrowth, proapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects; thus, countering the effects of the classical RAS axis to reduce hepatic fibrogenesis and portal hypertension. Patients with portal hypertension have been treated with RAS antagonists such as ACE inhibitors, Ang receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, with very promising hemodynamic results. In this review, we examine the RAS, its roles in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension, and current therapeutic approaches based on the use of RAS antagonists in patients with portal hypertension.

  11. Prediction of improvement in skin fibrosis in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrota, Rucsandra; Maurer, Britta; Graf, Nicole; Jordan, Suzana; Mihai, Carina; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Allanore, Yannick; Distler, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Improvement of skin fibrosis is part of the natural course of diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). Recognising those patients most likely to improve could help tailoring clinical management and cohort enrichment for clinical trials. In this study, we aimed to identify predictors for improvement of skin fibrosis in patients with dcSSc. We performed a longitudinal analysis of the European Scleroderma Trials And Research (EUSTAR) registry including patients with dcSSc, fulfilling American College of Rheumatology criteria, baseline modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) ≥7 and follow-up mRSS at 12±2 months. The primary outcome was skin improvement (decrease in mRSS of >5 points and ≥25%) at 1 year follow-up. A respective increase in mRSS was considered progression. Candidate predictors for skin improvement were selected by expert opinion and logistic regression with bootstrap validation was applied. From the 919 patients included, 218 (24%) improved and 95 (10%) progressed. Eleven candidate predictors for skin improvement were analysed. The final model identified high baseline mRSS and absence of tendon friction rubs as independent predictors of skin improvement. The baseline mRSS was the strongest predictor of skin improvement, independent of disease duration. An upper threshold between 18 and 25 performed best in enriching for progressors over regressors. Patients with advanced skin fibrosis at baseline and absence of tendon friction rubs are more likely to regress in the next year than patients with milder skin fibrosis. These evidence-based data can be implemented in clinical trial design to minimise the inclusion of patients who would regress under standard of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Ultrasound lung comets: new echographic sign of lung interstitial fibrosis in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Giacomelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interstitial lung disease (ILD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH are common complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc. Echocardiography evaluates PAH, and chest sonography detects even mild ILC as ultrasound lung comets (ULC, i.e. multiple comet-tails fanning out from the lung surface and originating from subpleural interlobular septa thickened by fibrosis. Aim: to assess ILaD and PAH by integrated cardiac and chest ultrasound in SSc. Methods: We enrolled 30 consecutive SSc patients (age= 54±13 years, 23 females in the Rheumatology Clinic of Pisa University. In all, we assessed systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP, from maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation flow, and ULC score with chest sonography (summing the number of ULC from each scanning space of anterior and posterior right and left chest, from second to fifth intercostal space. All patients underwent plasma assay for anti-topoisomerase antibodies (anti-Scl70, and antiicentromere associated with development of pulmonary involvement. Twenty-eight patients also underwent high resolution computed tomography, HRCT (from 0= no fibrosis to 3= honey combing. Results: ULC number - but not SPAP - was correlated to HRCT fibrosis and presence Scl-70 antibodies. ULC number was similar in localized or diffuse forms (16±20 vs 21±19, p=ns and was unrelated to SPAP (r=0.216, p=ns. Conclusions: Chest sonography assessment and ULC allow a complete, simple, radiation-free characterization of interstitial lung involvement in SSc - all in one setting and with the same instrument, same transducer and the same sonographer. In particular, ULC number is associated with HRCT evidence of lung fibrosis and presence of Scl-70 antibodies.

  13. Multiorgan gadolinium (Gd) deposition and fibrosis in a patient with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis--an autopsy-based review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Soma; Marckmann, Peter; Scherer, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    tissues of NSF patients, predominantly at the bulk chemical level. The distribution of Gd at the histologic level of organs other than skin has not been reported previously. METHODS: We analysed tissues from an autopsy case with verified advanced NSF by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy......), kidney, lymph node, skeletal muscle, dura mater and cerebellum of the NSF autopsy case, primarily in vascular walls. Some, but not all, Gd deposits were seen in fibrotic areas. Literature review highlighted that non-specific tissue fibrosis and calcification are frequent findings in tissues of patients...

  14. Age-Related Alterations in Signaling Pathways in Articular Chondrocytes: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Progression of Osteoarthritis - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kraan, Peter; Matta, Csaba; Mobasheri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, healthcare systems, and social care systems throughout the world, with indirect costs having a predominant economic impact. Aging is a major contributing factor to the development and progression of arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases. Indeed, aging and inflammation (often referred to as 'inflammaging') are critical risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), which is one of the most common forms of joint disease. The term 'chondrosenescence' has recently been introduced to define the age-dependent deterioration of chondrocyte function and how it undermines cartilage function in OA. An important component of chondrosenescence is the age-related deregulation of subcellular signaling pathways in chondrocytes. This mini-review discusses the role of age-related alterations in chondrocyte signaling pathways. We focus our attention on two major areas: age-dependent alterations in transforming growth factor-β signaling and changes in protein kinase and phosphoprotein phosphatase activities in aging chondrocytes. A better understanding of the basic signaling mechanisms underlying aging in chondrocytes is likely to facilitate the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies for OA and a range of other age-related osteoarticular disorders. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Systems Level Analysis and Identification of Pathways and Networks Associated with Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. In GSE13747, liver fibrosis was produced by bile duct ligation [60]. Six replicates of liver fibrosis...fibrosis produced by bile duct ligation. B) GSE6929 represents sunitinib (SU11248) treatment in liver cirrhosis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112193...respectively. In the study associated with the GSE13747 dataset, liver fibrosis was induced using bile duct ligation. We observed the predicted positive

  16. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: chronic imaging findings and review of the medical literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigle, Jeffrey P.; Broome, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic fibrosing disorder which has been strongly associated with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast media (GBCM) in the setting of renal insufficiency. Although this disorder primarily affects the skin, it can result in severe joint contractures, disabilities and even death. However, to date, there have been no published studies reporting chronic imaging findings of NSF. In this report we present three biopsy-proven cases of NSF with the associated chronic MRI, radiographic and bone scintigraphy findings. Two of the patients had been exposed to gadodiamide, and one had been exposed to gadopentetate dimeglumine prior to the onset of NSF. Two are newly reported cases. One patient's subacute imaging findings have previously been reported, but significant chronic images will now be presented. This patient became severely disabled from contractures and developed long bone smooth periosteal reaction, extensive intra-articular and periarticular calcifications, musculotendinous heterotopic ossification and ankylosis of several joints. One of the patients underwent renal transplantation 6 months after GBCM exposure, with near complete resolution of the skin fibrosis. The third patient had persistent MRI findings of skin thickening, with low T1 and high T2 signal intensity 5 years after exposure to gadodiamide. A review of the medical literature is provided, emphasizing the association of NSF with various GBCM. These cases broaden our understanding of the long-term imaging findings and complications of NSF and the stratified risk of NSF with various GBCM. (orig.)

  17. NIKEI: a new inexpensive and non-invasive scoring system to exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver Demir

    Full Text Available AIMS: To develop, validate and compare a non-invasive fibrosis scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD derived from routinely obtained clinical and biochemical parameters. METHODS: 267 consecutive patients with biopsy proven fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were randomly assigned to the estimation (2/3 or validation (1/3 group to develop a model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis. Univariate statistics were performed to compare patients with and without advanced fibrosis, and following a multivariate logistic regression analysis a new scoring system was constructed. This non-invasive Koeln-Essen-index (NIKEI was validated and compared to the FIB-4 index by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. We evaluated a stepwise combination of both scoring systems for the precise prediction of advanced fibrosis. To set in contrast, we additionally tested the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio, BARD score and the NAFLD fibrosis score in our cohort. RESULTS: Age, AST, AST/ALT ratio, and total bilirubin were identified as significant predictors of advanced fibrosis and used to construct the NIKEI with an AUC of 0.968 [0.937; 0.998] compared to 0.929 [0.869; 0.989] for the FIB-4 index. The absence of advanced fibrosis could be confirmed with excellent accuracy (99-100%. The positive predictive value of the FIB-4 index was higher (100% vs. 60%, however, the false negative rate was also high (33%. With a stepwise combination of both indices 82%-84% of biopsies would have been avoidable without a single misclassification. The AUROC for AST/ALT ratio, the NAFLD fibrosis score, and the BARD score were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90, 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-0.99, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.55-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: The NIKEI can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. In combination with the FIB-4 index misclassification with inadequate clinical management can be avoided while

  18. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  19. Central Nervous System Fibrosis Is Associated with Fibrocyte-Like Infiltrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic wall formation is essential for limiting pathogen dissemination during brain abscess development. However, little is known about the regulation of fibrotic processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS injury responses are associated with hypertrophy of resident astrocytes, a process termed reactive gliosis. Studies of fibrosis outside the CNS have identified two bone marrow–derived cell types, fibrocytes and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, as key mediators of fibrosis. The current study used bone marrow chimeras generated from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to evaluate the appearance of these cell types and whether bone marrow–derived cells were capable of acquiring fibrotic characteristics during brain abscess development. Immunofluorescence staining revealed partial overlap between green fluorescent protein, α-smooth muscle actin, and procollagen, suggesting that a population of cells forming the brain abscess capsule originate from a bone marrow precursor. In addition, the influx of fibrocyte-like cells into brain abscesses immediately preceded the onset of fibrotic encapsulation. Fibrotic wall formation was also associated with increased numbers of alternatively activated M2 microglia and macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that bone marrow–derived infiltrates are capable of expressing fibrotic molecules during CNS inflammation. PMID:22015460

  20. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis after application of gadolinium-based contrast agents - a status paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, M.; Uder, M.

    2007-01-01

    Recently the association of a rare disease named ''nephrogenic systemic fibrosis'' (NSF) with the administration of gadolinium-containing contrast media, especially gadodiamide (Omniscan, GE-Healthcare), was described. NSF is a scleroderma-like disease characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis. Until now, NSF cases were observed only in patients with kidney disease. Almost all patients were suffering from chronic renal insufficiency, 90 % of them required renal replacement therapy. The true incidence of the disease is unknown. First retrospective analyses of selected collectives of patients with end-stage renal disease showed 2 - 5 % cases of NSF after administration of Gadolinium-containing contrast agents with an odds ratio of 20 - 50 in comparison to non-exposed controls. NSF is a serious adverse reaction, which may result in severe disabilities and even death. Therefore all radiologists applying gadolinium-based contrast agents should be informed about this disease and the recent recommendations for its prevention. On the basis of the published data, Omniscan should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR 2 ) and those who have had or are undergoing liver transplantation. In neonates and infants up to 1 year of age, Omniscan should only be used after careful consideration. Also the other gadolinium-based contrast agents should be used in high-risk patients only after careful consideration using the lowest dose possible

  1. [Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Carmen

    2006-11-01

    Pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. Alveolitis, fibrosis and pulmonar arterial hypertension Lung disease is present in most of the patients with systemic sclerosis and is now the most important cause of mortality. Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension are, so far, the main disorders found and both are difficult to detect at the earliest stages. However, diagnostic tools such as immunological test, lung function test, high resolution CT, bronchoalveolar lavage, echocardiography, right-side cardiac catheterization, or lung biopsy are necessary to accurately evaluate the clinical status and allow to improve the management organ-specific ad hoc. Progress in immunological and vascular therapies as well as other emergence drugs offer new expectations to scleroderma patients. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis associated with gadolinium based contrast agents: A summary of the medical literature reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic fibrosing disorder that principally affects the skin, but can involve virtually any tissue in the human body and result in significant disability and even death. Since 2006 numerous retrospective case reports and case series have reported a very strong association of this disease with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CA) for MR imaging in the setting of severe or end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this report is to summarize the medical literature reporting of biopsy-proven NSF cases in which the authors specifically investigated patient exposure to Gd-CA. A Pub Med MEDLINE search was performed using the key words-nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. All case reports and case series of NSF were reviewed to determine if patients had a preceding exposure to Gd-CA and which specific Gd-CA was involved. If the original reports did not clarify the specific Gd-CA, I reviewed follow-up letters to the editors or contacted the authors to clarify which specific Gd-CA were linked to the NSF cases. If several reports originated from the same institution, clarification was also obtained to avoid redundant reporting. As of February 1, 2008 there have been 190 biopsy-proven cases of NSF published in the peer-reviewed literature with the following associations: 157 gadodiamide (Omniscan, GE Healthcare), 8 gadopentetate (Magnevist, Bayer Healthcare), 3 gadoversetamide (OptiMARK, Covidien), and 18 unspecified Gd-CA, and 4 confounded cases with more than one Gd-CA. Five cases of NSF were unassociated with Gd-CA

  3. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, HGM; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99 %. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and

  4. Gadolinium-induced nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: the rise and fall of an iatrogenic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Charles L; Qureshi, Zaina P; Sartor, A Oliver

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND.: In 2006, nephrologists in Denmark unexpectedly identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with a new syndrome, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Subsequently, 1603 NSF patients were reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Sixty hospitals in the USA account for 93......% of these cases, and two hospitals in Denmark account for 4% of these reports. We review Denmark's identification and subsequent rapid eradication of NSF. METHODS.: NSF reports from clinicians, the Danish Medicines Agency (DMA) and gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) manufacturers were reviewed (2002...... at Skejby Hospital and Herlev Hospital, respectively, began performing gadodiamide-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography scans (0.3 mmol/kg) of CKD patients. In 2005, Herlev clinicians requested assistance in evaluating etiological causes of NSF occurring among 10 CKD patients who had developed NSF...

  5. Renal function, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and other adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canga, Ana; Kislikova, Maria; Martínez-Gálvez, María; Arias, Mercedes; Fraga-Rivas, Patricia; Poyatos, Cecilio; de Francisco, Angel L M

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder that affects patients with impaired renal function and is associated with the administration of gadolinium-based contrast media used in MRI. Despite being in a group of drugs that were considered safe, report about this potentially serious adverse reaction was a turning point in the administration guidelines of these contrast media. There has been an attempt to establish safety parameters to identify patients with risk factors of renal failure. The close pharmacovigilance and strict observation of current regulations, with special attention being paid to the value of glomerular filtration, have reduced the published cases involving the use of gadolinium-based contrast media. In a meeting between radiologists and nephrologists we reviewed the most relevant aspects currently and recommendations for its prevention.

  6. MR imaging evaluation of pancreas and hepatobiliary system in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, S.; Robinson, A.E.; Stallworth, J.; Mulvihill, D.; Beckerman, R.; Davis, S.

    1988-01-01

    The pancreas and hepatobiliary system of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed with a 1.5-T magnet. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton-density images were obtained, and the T1 and T2 values of the pancreas were calculated. Signal intensity ratios were calculated for the signal intensities of the pancreas and the liver relative to that of muscle and fat on each pulse sequence. Fatty replacement of the pancreas and regenerating nodules of biliary cirrhosis were readily identified on T1-weighted images. The T1 values for pancreatic tissue showed promise as a good marker for pancreatic disease progression. Pancreas-to-fat signal intensity ratios on 300/20 (repetition time msec/echo time msec) and 2,000/75 images were considered to be a good standard for evaluating the level of pancreatic involvement

  7. Resveratrol Reduces the Incidence of Portal Vein System Thrombosis after Splenectomy in a Rat Fibrosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Xue, Wanli; Ma, Zhenhua; Bai, Jigang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the preventive effect of resveratrol (RES) on the formation of portal vein system thrombosis (PVST) in a rat fibrosis model. Methods. A total of 64 male SD rats, weighing 200–300 g, were divided into five groups: Sham operation, Splenectomy I, Splenectomy II, RES, and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), with the former two groups as nonfibrosis controls. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical assays. Platelet apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. All rats were euthanized for PVST detection one week after operation. Results. No PVST occurred in nonfibrosis controls. Compared to Splenectomy II, the incidences of PVST in RES and LMWH groups were significantly decreased (both p Splenectomy II (all p splenectomy in cirrhotic rat. Regulation of platelet function and induction of platelet apoptosis might be the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27433290

  8. Prehispanic Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia Associated to Cardiovascular Disease: a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Romo-Araiza, Alejandra; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Guttiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2017-01-27

    Dyslipidemia is an important modifi able risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are responsible for a large number of mortality and disability cases around the globe. Different strategies have been used within the treatment of dyslipidemia, including lifestyle modifi cations, pharmacologic therapy, as well as functional foods and nutraceuticals. Functional foods have been used worldwide since ancient times, particularly, the prehispanic civilizations utilized several as medicinal foods. In the current pandemic of dyslipidemia as well as the nutritional transition, particularly in Latin America, the use of native functional foods represents an attractive target for the treatment and/ or prevention of these conditions. In this mini-review, evidence regarding different functional foods such as cacao, amaranth, chia, nopal, spirulina, as well as their nutraceutical compounds, including fl avonoids, omega-3 PUFAs, fi ber, prebiotics, lovastatin, c-phycocyanin, among others, and their mechanism of action are presented and discussed. Although such foods certainly are considered as attractive potential agents to target dyslipidemia thus decrease the associated cardiometabolic risk, we conclude that for most of the presented functional foods there is currently not enough evidence to support its recommendation and every-day use.

  9. Nanocarbon/oxide composite catalysts for bifunctional oxygen reduction and evolution in reversible alkaline fuel cells: A mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjie; Wang, Lei; Yang, Haipeng; Zhao, Shuai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    A reversible fuel cell (RFC), which integrates a fuel cell with an electrolyzer, is similar to a rechargeable battery. This technology lies on high-performance bifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the fuel cell mode and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the electrolyzer mode. Current catalysts are platinum group metals (PGM) such as Pt and Ir, which are expensive and scarce. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop PGM-free catalysts for large-scale application of RFCs. In this mini review, we discussed the most promising nanocarbon/oxide composite catalysts for ORR/OER bifunctional catalysis in alkaline media, which is mainly based on our recent progress. Starting with the effectiveness of selected oxides and nanocarbons in terms of their activity and stability, we outlined synthetic methods and the resulting structures and morphologies of catalysts to provide a correlation between synthesis, structure, and property. A special emphasis is put on understanding of the possible synergistic effect between oxide and nanocarbon for enhanced performance. Finally, a few nanocomposite catalysts are discussed as typical examples to elucidate the rules of designing highly active and durable bifunctional catalysts for RFC applications.

  10. Senescence, apoptosis or autophagy? When a damaged cell must decide its path--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio, José Miguel; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Tajeddine, Nicolas; Ortiz, Carla; Criollo, Alfredo; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Morselli, Eugenia; Ben Younes, Amena; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Lavandero, Sergio; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Many features of aging result from the incapacity of cells to adapt to stress conditions. When damage accumulates irreversibly, mitotic cells from renewable tissues rely on either of two mechanisms to avoid replication. They can permanently arrest the cell cycle (cellular senescence) or trigger cell death programs. Apoptosis (self-killing) is the best-described form of programmed cell death, but autophagy (self-eating), which is a lysosomal degradation pathway essential for homeostasis, reportedly contributes to cell death as well. Unlike mitotic cells, postmitotic cells like neurons or cardiomyocytes cannot become senescent since they are already terminally differentiated. The fate of these cells entirely depends on their ability to cope with stress. Autophagy then operates as a major homeostatic mechanism to eliminate damaged organelles, long-lived or aberrant proteins and superfluous portions of the cytoplasm. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the molecular networks that allow damaged cells either to adapt to stress or to engage in programmed-cell-death pathways. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, Laila; Vercammen, Kelsey; Lu, Chang; Richardson, Scott; Tamez, Martha; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-01-01

    As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED) are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  12. Natural products mediating ecological interactions in Antarctic benthic communities: a mini-review of the known molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pons, L; Avila, C

    2015-07-01

    Out of the many bioactive compounds described from the oceans, only a small fraction have been studied for their ecological significance. Similarly, most chemically mediated interactions are not well understood, because the molecules involved remain unrevealed. In Antarctica, this gap in knowledge is even more acute in comparison to tropical or temperate regions, even though polar organisms are also prolific producers of chemical defenses, and pharmacologically relevant products are being reported from the Southern Ocean. The extreme and unique marine environments surrounding Antarctica along with the numerous unusual interactions taking place in benthic communities are expected to select for novel functional secondary metabolites. There is an urgent need to comprehend the evolutionary role of marine derived substances in general, and particularly at the Poles, since molecules of keystone significance are vital in species survival, and therefore, in structuring the communities. Here we provide a mini-review on the identified marine natural products proven to have an ecological function in Antarctic ecosystems. This report recapitulates some of the bibliography from original Antarctic reviews, and updates the new literature in the field from 2009 to the present.

  13. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Shaar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  14. Mini review: Recombinant production of tailored bio-pharmaceuticals in different Bacillus strains and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakowitz, Antonia; Godard, Thibault; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Krull, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    Bio-pharmaceuticals like antibodies, hormones and growth factors represent about one-fifth of commercial pharmaceuticals. Host candidates of growing interest for recombinant production of these proteins are strains of the genus Bacillus, long being established for biotechnological production of homologous and heterologous proteins. Bacillus strains benefit from development of efficient expression systems in the last decades and emerge as major industrial workhorses for recombinant proteins due to easy cultivation, non-pathogenicity and their ability to secrete recombinant proteins directly into extracellular medium allowing cost-effective downstream processing. Their broad product portfolio of pharmaceutically relevant recombinant proteins described in research include antibody fragments, growth factors, interferons and interleukins, insulin, penicillin G acylase, streptavidin and different kinases produced in various cultivation systems like microtiter plates, shake flasks and bioreactor systems in batch, fed-batch and continuous mode. To further improve production and secretion performance of Bacillus, bottlenecks and limiting factors concerning proteases, chaperones, secretion machinery or feedback mechanisms can be identified on different cell levels from genomics and transcriptomics via proteomics to metabolomics and fluxomics. For systematical identification of recurring patterns characteristic of given regulatory systems and key genetic targets, systems biology and omics-technology provide suitable and promising approaches, pushing Bacillus further towards industrial application for recombinant pharmaceutical protein production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Role of Soft Computing Approaches in HealthCare Domain: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Shalini; Malik, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Yugal

    2016-12-01

    In the present era, soft computing approaches play a vital role in solving the different kinds of problems and provide promising solutions. Due to popularity of soft computing approaches, these approaches have also been applied in healthcare data for effectively diagnosing the diseases and obtaining better results in comparison to traditional approaches. Soft computing approaches have the ability to adapt itself according to problem domain. Another aspect is a good balance between exploration and exploitation processes. These aspects make soft computing approaches more powerful, reliable and efficient. The above mentioned characteristics make the soft computing approaches more suitable and competent for health care data. The first objective of this review paper is to identify the various soft computing approaches which are used for diagnosing and predicting the diseases. Second objective is to identify various diseases for which these approaches are applied. Third objective is to categories the soft computing approaches for clinical support system. In literature, it is found that large number of soft computing approaches have been applied for effectively diagnosing and predicting the diseases from healthcare data. Some of these are particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, support vector machine etc. A detailed discussion on these approaches are presented in literature section. This work summarizes various soft computing approaches used in healthcare domain in last one decade. These approaches are categorized in five different categories based on the methodology, these are classification model based system, expert system, fuzzy and neuro fuzzy system, rule based system and case based system. Lot of techniques are discussed in above mentioned categories and all discussed techniques are summarized in the form of tables also. This work also focuses on accuracy rate of soft computing technique and tabular information is provided for

  16. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sawicki, Gregory S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  17. Young patients with cystic fibrosis demonstrate subtle alterations of the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eising, Jacobien B; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Teske, Arco J; Vanderschuren, Maaike M; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Meijboom, Folkert J

    2018-02-02

    As life expectancy increases in patients with cystic fibrosis, it is important to pay attention to extra-pulmonary comorbidities. Several studies have shown signs of myocardial dysfunction in adult patients, but little is known about onset and development of these changes over time. In this prospective study, cardiac function in children with cystic fibrosis was compared to that of healthy children. 33 children, aged 3-12years, with cystic fibrosis were recruited from the Wilhelmina Children's hospital and 33 age-matched healthy children were selected from the WHISTLER study, a population-based cohort study. Measurements of lung function, arterial stiffness, and echocardiography (conventional measures and myocardial deformation imaging) were performed. There were no differences in anthropometrics, lung function and blood pressure between the two groups. The cystic fibrosis children had a higher arterial stiffness compared to the healthy children (pulse wave velocity respectively 5.76±0.57m/s versus 5.43±0.61m/s, p-value 0.049). Using conventional echocardiographic parameters for right ventricular function, Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion) and Tissue Doppler Imaging, cystic fibrosis children had a reduced right ventricular systolic function when compared to the healthy children. After adjustment for lung function, global strains of both right and left ventricles were significantly lower in the cystic fibrosis group than in healthy children (linear regression coefficient 1.45% left ventricle, p-value 0.022 and 4.42% right ventricle, p-value cystic fibrosis children than in healthy controls. Our study suggests that already at a very young age, children with cystic fibrosis show an increased arterial stiffness and some signs of diminished both right and left ventricular function. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Zein nanoparticles and the strategies to improve the colloidal stability: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, Mônica; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2018-01-01

    Zein, a protein extracted from maize, can be employed to easily produce nanoscale particles suitable for use as carrier systems. This review investigates the main methods for obtaining zein nanoparticles, as well as the problems and options available in the development of stable colloidal suspensions. Considerable gaps were identified in the literature concerning this topic, with studies being unclear about the factors that affect the stability of zein particles. In the vast majority of cases, no data are presented in relation to the stability of the formulations over time. It could be concluded that in order to produce a high quality system, detailed evaluation is required, considering factors including the zein concentration, pH, ionic strength, thermal treatment of the protein prior to preparation of the nanoparticles, strategies employing other materials as coatings, and the storage conditions. It is extremely important that these aspects should be considered during product development, prior to commercial-scale manufacture.

  19. poor oral health and fertility problems: A narrative mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi; Mohammad Hosein Amirzade Iranaq

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, it has been recognized that oral infections, especially periodontitis might have effect on several systemic conditions. A possible role of oral diseases in sub-fertility and infertility was also has been suggested. The aim of this review was to evaluate the association between poor oral health and fertility problems. Methods: In this narrative review, authors used PUBMED, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar to included relevant papers in which had at least an Eng...

  20. Importance of Vitamin D in Athletes and Exercise; A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Kafkalias Marios Stavrou

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in the function of the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems. Regarding to this role there is a potential for vitamin D to affect the physical and athletic performance. To consider whether vitamin D is related to exercise, physical and athletic performance. We have examined a large number of literature related to the effect of vitamin D on exercise, physical and athletic performance. In elderly people with insufficient vitamin D levels, vitamin D ...

  1. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erling Rytter; Anders Holmen

    2015-01-01

    Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlat...

  2. Proposal of a CT scoring system of the paranasal sinuses in diagnosing cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggesboe, H.B.; Soevik, S.; Doelvik, S.; Eiklid, K.; Kolmannskog, F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a paranasal sinus CT scoring system that could be used as a diagnostic tool to discriminate cystic fibrosis (CF) patients from control patients examined for sinonasal disease. The model should include as few and easily applicable criteria as possible, supported by statistical analyses and clinical judgement. We used data from 116 CF and 136 control patients. The CF patients were grouped according to the number of confirmed CF mutations: genetically verified (CF-2), or based on sweat testing and clinical findings alone (CF-1, CF-0). Nine paranasal sinus CT criteria, including development, pneumatisation variants and inflammatory patterns, were evaluated. The final model included three criteria: (a) frontal and (b) sphenoid sinus development, and (c) absence of three pneumatisation variants. This model discriminated CF-2 from controls with overlap of summed scores in only 8 of 206 patients. When this model was applied in the CF-1 and CF-0 groups, two populations seemed to exist. A larger group with summed scores overlapping that of the CF-2 group and a smaller group with summed scores overlapping that of the control group. We conclude that this CT scoring system may support, as well as exclude, a CF diagnosis in cases of diagnostic uncertainty. (orig.)

  3. Possible involvement of gadolinium chelates in the pathophysiology of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idee, Jean-Marc; Port, Marc; Medina, Christelle; Lancelot, Eric; Fayoux, Emmanuelle; Ballet, Sebastien; Corot, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a recently described, highly debilitating scleroderma-like disease occurring in patients with severe or end-stage renal failure. NSF is characterized by cutaneous papules and coalescing plaques ('peau d'orange' appearance) and a wooden consistency. It may ultimately cause disabling contractures of several joints, thus making many patients wheelchair-dependent. NSF has been associated to prior administration of gadolinium chelates (GC) used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The best available treatment option at the present time is renal transplantation. The mechanism of NSF has not been fully elucidated. Several hypotheses have been proposed so far and are critically discussed in the present review article. Gadolinium has been found in skin biopsy samples of patients. The most widely accepted hypothesis is related to dechelation of less stable GC, progressively releasing free Gd 3+ which may subsequently lead to the attraction of CD34+, CD45+, pro-collagen+ circulating fibrocytes via the release of chemokines, thereby inducing systemic fibrosing disorders. Pre-existing renal failure may facilitate the process by delaying the excretion of GC. A complex interplay between gadolinium and co-factors (pro-inflammatory status, vascular injury, high dose of erythropoietin, high levels of calcium, phosphorus, etc.) may occur in patients with impaired renal function. This and other hypotheses remain to be investigated, as well as the role and independence of co-factors

  4. Remodeling of the transverse tubular system after myocardial infarction in rabbit correlates with local fibrosis: A potential role of biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, T; Sankarankutty, A C; Sachse, F B

    2017-11-01

    The transverse tubular system (t-system) of ventricular cardiomyocytes is essential for efficient excitation-contraction coupling. In cardiac diseases, such as heart failure, remodeling of the t-system contributes to reduced cardiac contractility. However, mechanisms of t-system remodeling are incompletely understood. Prior studies suggested an association with altered cardiac biomechanics and gene expression in disease. Since fibrosis may alter tissue biomechanics, we investigated the local microscopic association of t-system remodeling with fibrosis in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction (MI). Biopsies were taken from the MI border zone of 6 infarcted hearts and from 6 control hearts. Using confocal microscopy and automated image analysis, we quantified t-system integrity (I TT ) and the local fraction of extracellular matrix (f ECM ). In control, f ECM was 18 ± 0.3%. I TT was high and homogeneous (0.07 ± 0.006), and did not correlate with f ECM (R 2  = 0.05 ± 0.02). The MI border zone exhibited increased f ECM within 3 mm from the infarct scar (30 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01 vs control), indicating fibrosis. Myocytes in the MI border zone exhibited significant t-system remodeling, with dilated, sheet-like components, resulting in low I TT (0.03 ± 0.008, p < 0.001 vs control). While both f ECM and t-system remodeling decreased with infarct distance, I TT correlated better with decreasing f ECM (R 2  = 0.44) than with infarct distance (R 2  = 0.24, p < 0.05). Our results show that t-system remodeling in the rabbit MI border zone resembles a phenotype previously described in human heart failure. T-system remodeling correlated with the amount of local fibrosis, which is known to stiffen cardiac tissue, but was not found in regions without fibrosis. Thus, locally altered tissue mechanics may contribute to t-system remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapeutic potential of stellate ganglion block in orofacial pain: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-09-01

    Orofacial pain is a common complaint of patients that causes distress and compromises the quality of life. It has many etiologies including trauma, interventional procedures, nerve injury, varicella-zoster (shingles), tumor, and vascular and idiopathic factors. It has been demonstrated that the sympathetic nervous system is usually involved in various orofacial pain disorders such as postherpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes, and atypical facial pain. The stellate sympathetic ganglion innervates the head, neck, and upper extremity. In this review article, the effect of stellate ganglion block and its mechanism of action in orofacial pain disorders are discussed.

  6. Advanced drug delivery nanosystems (aDDnSs): a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas; Pippa, Natassa

    2014-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in nanoscale drugs and delivery systems employing diverse chemical formulations to facilitate the rate of drug delivery and to improve its pharmacokinetics. Biocompatible nanomaterials have been used as biological markers, contrast agents for imaging, healthcare products, pharmaceuticals, drug-delivery systems as well as in detection, diagnosis and treatment of various types of diseases. The classification of drug delivery nanosystems (DDnSs) is a crucial issue and fundamental efforts on this subject are missing from the literature. This article deals with the classification of DDnSs with a modulatory controlled release profile (MCR) denoted as modulatory controlled release nanosystems (MCRnSs). Conventional (c) and advanced (a) DDnSs are denoted by the acronyms cDDnSs and aDDnSs, and can be composed of a single or more than one biomaterials, respectively. The classification was based on their characteristics such as: surface functionality (f), the nature of biomaterials used and the kind of interactions between biomaterials. The aDDnSs can be classified as hybridic (Hy-) or chimeric (Chi-) based on the nature - same or different respectively - of biomaterials and inorganic materials used. The nature of the elements used for producing advanced biomaterials is of great importance and medicinal chemistry contributes effectively to the production of aDDnSs.

  7. SPECIFIC DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF THERAPY WITH DORNASE ALFA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Simanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to specific disorders of the respiratory system in cystic fibrosis. 64 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF aged 2 months to 32 years and residing in the Udmurtian Republic were studied. Epidemiological and genetic specifics of this disease in the mentioned region of the RF were examined. Clinical, X-ray, functional and microbiological studies of the CF patients’ respiratory system were conducted. It was found that genotype delF508 and chronic infection Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus cause severe structural changes to the bronchopulmonary system more often. The obtained data suggest the advisability of identifying the groups of CF patients at the highest risk of severe respiratory system disorders in order to optimise therapeutic efforts. The article provides indicators of clinical efficacy of a dornase alfa therapy in CF children.Key words: cystic fibrosis, genotype, delF508 mutation, respiratory organs, pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, staphylococcal infection, respiratory function, mucolytic function, dornase alfa. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:44-48

  8. Historical development and future perspectives of Environmental Specimen Bank in China: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fang; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Qing-Hui; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Qian-Fen; Sun, Ya-Jie; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Zhen-Yang; Yin, Da-Qiang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2015-02-01

    Environmental problems as well as their related ecosystem stress and human health risk in China have raised wide concerns along with the rapid economic development in recent years. Numerous studies with a sharp increase in publication number have addressed the ubiquitous of anthropogenic chemicals in various environmental compartments and human tissues. However, very few data were available to clarify the temporal trend and to give the retrospective analysis of chemical pollution in China. Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is a system for the systematic collection and long-term storage of specimens, which has been established since the 1970s in developed counties and recognized as a fundamental complement for environmental monitoring and scientific research. Currently, the value of ESB is becoming more broadly recognized globally, and China is still at the early stage. This article described the history and status and put forwarded the future key points of Chinese ESB development for illustrating the intensive environmental changes in China and the world.

  9. An Updated Mini Review of Vitamin D and Obesity: Adipogenesis and Inflammation State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zujaja-Tul-Noor Hamid Mehmood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D related research continues to expand and theorise regarding its involvement in obesity, as both hypovitaminosis D and obesity strike in pandemic proportions. Vitamin D plays an important role in immune system through Vitamin D Receptors (VDR, which are transcription factors located abundantly in the body. Due to this characteristic, it is potentially linked to obesity, which is a state of inflammation involving the release of cytokines from adipose tissue, and exerting stress on other organs in a state of positive energy balance. Research trials in the past couple of years and systematic reviews from SCOPUS and MEDLINE will be discussed. The role of Vitamin D throughout the lifespan (from fetal imprinting until older age, and in various other obesity mediated chronic conditions shall be highlighted. Various mechanisms attributed to the inverse relationship of Vitamin D and obesity are discussed with research gaps identified, particularly the role of adipokines, epigenetics, calcium and type of adipose tissue.

  10. Desalination by renewable energy: A mini review of the recent patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rawajfeh Aiman Eid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent patents on water desalination by using renewable energy technologies are critically reviewed with highlighting on environmental impacts and sustainable development. An overview of using wind, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, wind/solar, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for desalinated water production are assessed. Solar energy is the mother of all other renewable energies; it does not pollute, it is free and available everywhere. Several patents have been invented systems and methods that collected and converted solar energy to electrical energy via solar energy which can be used for water desalination. Wind farm with wind-driven pressurizing devices is used to desalinate salt water by reverse osmosis. Geothermal has been used as an effective method for water desalination. It is highly recommended to provide seawater desalination powered by a renewable energy source in remote areas. On the other hand, sequentially staged of energy conversion steps operate at low efficiencies.

  11. A mini-review on econophysics: Comparative study of Chinese and western financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Bo; Jiang Xiong-Fei; Ni Peng-Yun

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of our recent research in econophysics, and focus on the comparative study of Chinese and western financial markets. By virtue of concepts and methods in statistical physics, we investigate the time correlations and spatial structure of financial markets based on empirical high-frequency data. We discover that the Chinese stock market shares common basic properties with the western stock markets, such as the fat-tail probability distribution of price returns, the long-range auto-correlation of volatilities, and the persistence probability of volatilities, while it exhibits very different higher-order time correlations of price returns and volatilities, spatial correlations of individual stock prices, and large-fluctuation dynamic behaviors. Furthermore, multi-agent-based models are developed to simulate the microscopic interaction and dynamic evolution of the stock markets. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  12. Lead toxicity in rice: effects, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies--a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Kanu, Adam Sheka; Mo, Zhaowen; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Khan, Imran; Abbas, Rana Nadeem; Tang, Xiangru

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major environmental pollutant that affects plant morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes. Its higher levels in the environment are not only toxic to human beings but also harmful for plants and soil microbes. We have reviewed the uptake, translocation, and accumulation mechanisms of Pb and its toxic effects on germination, growth, yield, nutrient relation, photosynthesis, respiration, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense system of rice. Lead toxicity hampers rice germination, root/shoot length, growth, and final yield. It reduces nutrient uptake through roots, disrupts chloroplastic ultrastructure and cell membrane permeability, induces alterations in leaves respiratory activities, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), and triggers some enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants (as defense to oxidative damage). In the end, biochar amendments and phytoremediation technologies have been proposed as soil remediation approaches for Pb tainted soils.

  13. Binge Drinking and the Young Brain: A Mini Review of the Neurobiological Underpinnings of Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Hermens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Binge drinking has significant effects on memory, particularly with regards to the transfer of information to long-term storage. Partial or complete blocking of memory formation is known as blackout. Youth represents a critical period in brain development that is particularly vulnerable to alcohol misuse. Animal models show that the adolescent brain is more vulnerable to the acute and chronic effects of alcohol compared with the adult brain. This mini-review addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of binge drinking and associated memory loss (blackout in the adolescent and young adult period. Although the extent to which there are pre-existing versus alcohol-induced neurobiological changes remains unclear, it is likely that repetitive binge drinking in youth has detrimental effects on cognitive and social functioning. Given its role in learning and memory, the hippocampus is a critical region with neuroimaging research showing notable changes in this structure associated with alcohol misuse in young people. There is a great need for earlier identification of biological markers associated with alcohol-related brain damage. As a means to assess in vivo neurochemistry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has emerged as a particularly promising technique since changes in neurometabolites often precede gross structural changes. Thus, the current paper addresses how MRS biomarkers of neurotransmission (glutamate, GABA and oxidative stress (indexed by depleted glutathione in the hippocampal region of young binge drinkers may underlie propensity for blackouts and other memory impairments. MRS biomarkers may have particular utility in determining the acute versus longer-term effects of binge drinking in young people.

  14. Application of Zn isotopes in environmental impact assessment of Zn–Pb metallurgical industries: A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Nang-Htay; Sivry, Yann; Benedetti, Marc F.; Lens, Piet N.L.; Hullebusch, Eric D. van

    2016-01-01

    Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn and Pb emissions among all anthropogenic sources, thus, it is essential to understand Zn isotopic variations within the context of metallurgical industries, as well as its fractionation in different environments impacted by smelting activities. This mini review outlines the current state of knowledge on Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process in Zn and Pb refineries; δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters in comparison to the geogenic Zn isotopic signature of ores formation and weathering. In order to assess the environmental impact of these smelters, the available and measured δ"6"6Zn values are compiled for smelter impacted natural water bodies (groundwater, stream and river water), sediments (lake and reservoir) and soils (peat bog soil, inland soil). Finally, the discussion is extended to the fractionation induced during numerous physicochemical reactions and transformations, i.e. adsorption, precipitation as well as both inorganic and organic surface complexation. - Highlights: • Zn and Pb smelters are the major contributors to Zn emissions among all anthropogenic sources. • Zn isotopic variations in this context has been widely studied over the last 15 years. • Zn isotopic fractionation during the high-temperature roasting process and electroplating process is summarize. • Subsequent δ"6"6Zn values variations in air emissions, slags and effluents from the smelters are compared to the geogenic one. • The usefulness of δ"6"6Zn values to trace environmental impact of these smelters is discussed.

  15. Revisiting the health effects of psychological stress—its influence on susceptibility to ionizing radiation: a mini-review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Katsube, Takanori; Begum, Nasrin; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Both psychological stress (PS) and ionizing radiation (IR) cause varied detrimental effects on humans. There has been no direct evidence so far showing PS alone could cause cancer; however, long-lasting PS may affect our overall health and ability to cope with cancer. Due to their living conditions and occupations, some people may encounter concurrent exposure to both PS and IR to a high extent. In addition to possible health effects resulting directly from exposure to IR on these people, fear of IR exposure is also a cause of PS. The question of whether PS would influence susceptibility to IR, radiocarcinogenesis in particular, is of great concern by both the academic world and the public. Recently, investigations using animal PS models demonstrated that PS could modulate susceptibility to IR, causing increased susceptibility to radiocarcinogenesis in Trp53-heterozygous mice, hematological toxicity in peripheral blood and elevated chromosome aberration (dicentrics) frequency in splenocytes of Trp53–wild-type mice. To actively reduce health risk from exposure to IR, further studies are needed to cumulate more evidence and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the alterations in susceptibility due to PS modulation. This mini-review gives a general overview of the significance of PS effects on humans and experimental animals, with a special focus on summarizing the latest weight-of-evidence approaches to radiobiological studies on PS-induced alterations in susceptibility in experimental animal models. The susceptibility being investigated is mainly in the context of the impact of the modulatory effect of PS on radiocarcinogenesis; we seek to improve understanding of the combined effects of exposure to both PS and IR in order to facilitate, via active intervention, strategies for radiation risk reduction

  16. Nano-Sized Cyclodextrin-Based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Adsorbents for Perfluorinated Compounds—A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla H. Karoyo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts have been directed towards the design of efficient and contaminant selective remediation technology for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs from soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. While there is a general consensus on adsorption-based processes as the most suitable methodology for the removal of PFCs from aquatic environments, challenges exist regarding the optimal materials design of sorbents for selective uptake of PFCs. This article reviews the sorptive uptake of PFCs using cyclodextrin (CD-based polymer adsorbents with nano- to micron-sized structural attributes. The relationship between synthesis of adsorbent materials and their structure relate to the overall sorption properties. Hence, the adsorptive uptake properties of CD-based molecularly imprinted polymers (CD-MIPs are reviewed and compared with conventional MIPs. Further comparison is made with non-imprinted polymers (NIPs that are based on cross-linking of pre-polymer units such as chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the absence of a molecular template. In general, MIPs offer the advantage of selectivity, chemical tunability, high stability and mechanical strength, ease of regeneration, and overall lower cost compared to NIPs. In particular, CD-MIPs offer the added advantage of possessing multiple binding sites with unique physicochemical properties such as tunable surface properties and morphology that may vary considerably. This mini-review provides a rationale for the design of unique polymer adsorbent materials that employ an intrinsic porogen via incorporation of a macrocyclic compound in the polymer framework to afford adsorbent materials with tunable physicochemical properties and unique nanostructure properties.

  17. Nano-Sized Cyclodextrin-Based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Adsorbents for Perfluorinated Compounds—A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoyo, Abdalla H.; Wilson, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have been directed towards the design of efficient and contaminant selective remediation technology for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. While there is a general consensus on adsorption-based processes as the most suitable methodology for the removal of PFCs from aquatic environments, challenges exist regarding the optimal materials design of sorbents for selective uptake of PFCs. This article reviews the sorptive uptake of PFCs using cyclodextrin (CD)-based polymer adsorbents with nano- to micron-sized structural attributes. The relationship between synthesis of adsorbent materials and their structure relate to the overall sorption properties. Hence, the adsorptive uptake properties of CD-based molecularly imprinted polymers (CD-MIPs) are reviewed and compared with conventional MIPs. Further comparison is made with non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) that are based on cross-linking of pre-polymer units such as chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the absence of a molecular template. In general, MIPs offer the advantage of selectivity, chemical tunability, high stability and mechanical strength, ease of regeneration, and overall lower cost compared to NIPs. In particular, CD-MIPs offer the added advantage of possessing multiple binding sites with unique physicochemical properties such as tunable surface properties and morphology that may vary considerably. This mini-review provides a rationale for the design of unique polymer adsorbent materials that employ an intrinsic porogen via incorporation of a macrocyclic compound in the polymer framework to afford adsorbent materials with tunable physicochemical properties and unique nanostructure properties. PMID:28347047

  18. Coupling aging immunity with a sedentary lifestyle: has the damage already been done?--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard J; Guy, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The elderly population is at an unprecedented risk of infectious diseases and malignancy due to apparently inevitable age-related declines in immunity. The 'immune risk profile' (IRP) is an array of biomarkers that has been used to predict morbidity and mortality in older adults. As it is generally accepted that middle-aged and elderly individuals who habitually participate in moderate-intensity exercise are less likely to incur an infection than their sedentary counterparts, this review addresses current knowledge on the effects of regular exercise on aspects of adaptive immunity as they relate to the IRP. Findings from cross-sectional studies mostly show enhanced immunity in physically active compared to sedentary older adults. These include greater T-cell responsiveness to mitogens in vitro, a reduced frequency of antigen-experienced and senescent T-cells (i.e. CD45RO+/KLRG1+/CD57+/CD28-), enhanced IL-2 production and T-lymphocyte expression of the IL-2 receptor, longer chromosome telomere lengths in blood leukocytes and in vivo immune responses to vaccines and recall antigens. In contrast, the evidence from the available longitudinal studies that have used an exercise training intervention in previously sedentary elderly to improve similar immune responses is less compelling. Although this might indicate that exercise has limited immune restorative properties in previously sedentary elderly, there are still relatively few studies that have addressed specific IRP criteria and the large variation in experimental design among the longitudinal studies complicates the juxtaposition of these results. It is clear that a more substantial and focused research approach is required before physical exercise can be used in earnest as an effective immune restorative strategy in the elderly. This mini-review summarizes the major findings of these studies and proposes future avenues of research to investigate the effects of regular exercise on aspects of adaptive immunity in

  19. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells as potent anti-fibrosis therapy for systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Alexandre T J; Toupet, Karine; Maumus, Marie; Fonteneau, Guillaume; Le Quellec, Alain; Jorgensen, Christian; Guilpain, Philippe; Noël, Danièle

    2016-06-01

    Displaying immunosuppressive and trophic properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are being evaluated as promising therapeutic options in a variety of autoimmune and degenerative diseases. Although benefits may be expected in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare autoimmune disease with fibrosis-related mortality, MSC have yet to be evaluated in this specific condition. While autologous approaches could be inappropriate because of functional alterations in MSC from patients, the objective of the present study was to evaluate allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC in the HOCl-induced model of diffuse SSc. We also questioned the source of human MSC and compared bone marrow- (hBM-MSC) and adipose-derived MSC (hASC). HOCl-challenged BALB/c mice received intravenous injection of BM-MSC from syngeneic BALB/c or allogeneic C57BL/6 mice, and xenogeneic hBM-MSC or hASC (3 donors each). Skin thickness was measured during the experiment. At euthanasia, histology, immunostaining, collagen determination and RT-qPCR were performed in skin and lungs. Xenogeneic hBM-MSC were as effective as allogeneic or syngeneic BM-MSC in decreasing skin thickness, expression of Col1, Col3, α-Sma transcripts, and collagen content in skin and lungs. This anti-fibrotic effect was not associated with MSC migration to injured skin or with long-term MSC survival. Interestingly, compared with hBM-MSC, hASC were significantly more efficient in reducing skin fibrosis, which was related to a stronger reduction of TNFα, IL1β, and enhanced ratio of Mmp1/Timp1 in skin and lung tissues. Using primary cells isolated from 3 murine and 6 human individuals, this preclinical study demonstrated similar therapeutic effects using allogeneic or xenogeneic BM-MSC while ASC exerted potent anti-inflammatory and remodeling properties. This sets the proof-of-concept prompting to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic ASC in SSc patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Astrocytes as gate-keepers in optic nerve regeneration--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Dana M; Koke, Joseph R

    2009-02-01

    Animals that develop without extra-embryonic membranes (anamniotes--fish, amphibians) have impressive regenerative capacity, even to the extent of replacing entire limbs. In contrast, animals that develop within extra-embryonic membranes (amniotes--reptiles, birds, mammals) have limited capacity for regeneration as adults, particularly in the central nervous system (CNS). Much is known about the process of nerve development in fish and mammals and about regeneration after lesions in the CNS in fish and mammals. Because the retina of the eye and optic nerve are functionally part of the brain and are accessible in fish, frogs, and mice, optic nerve lesion and regeneration (ONR) has been extensively used as a model system for study of CNS nerve regeneration. When the optic nerve of a mouse is severed, the axons leading into the brain degenerate. Initially, the cut end of the axons on the proximal, eye-side of the injury sprout neurites which begin to grow into the lesion. Simultaneously, astrocytes of the optic nerve become activated to initiate wound repair as a first step in reestablishing the structural integrity of the optic nerve. This activation appears to initiate a cascade of molecular signals resulting in apoptotic cell death of the retinal ganglion cells axons of which make up the neural component of the optic nerve; regeneration fails and the injury is permanent. Evidence specifically implicating astrocytes comes from studies showing selective poisoning of astrocytes at the optic nerve lesion, along with activation of a gene whose product blocks apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells, creates conditions favorable to neurites sprouting from the cut proximal stump, growing through the lesion and into the distal portion of the injured nerve, eventually reaching appropriate targets in the brain. In anamniotes, astrocytes ostensibly present no such obstacle since optic nerve regeneration occurs without intervention; however, no systematic study of glial involvement

  1. Safety concerns over the use of intestinal permeation enhancers: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Fiona; Gleeson, John P; Brayden, David J

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are key components in ∼12 oral peptide formulations in clinical trials for a range of molecules, primarily insulin and glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs. The main PEs comprise medium chain fatty acid-based systems (sodium caprate, sodium caprylate, and N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC)), bile salts, acyl carnitines, and EDTA. Their mechanism of action is complex with subtle differences between the different molecules. With the exception of SNAC and EDTA, most PEs fluidize the plasma membrane causing plasma membrane perturbation, as well as enzymatic and intracellular mediator changes that lead to alteration of intestinal epithelial tight junction protein expression. The question arises as to whether PEs can cause irreversible epithelial damage and tight junction openings sufficient to permit co-absorption of payloads with bystander pathogens, lipopolysaccharides and its fragment, or exo- and endotoxins that may be associated with sepsis, inflammation and autoimmune conditions. Most PEs seem to cause membrane perturbation to varying extents that is rapidly reversible, and overall evidence of pathogen co-absorption is generally lacking. It is unknown however, whether the intestinal epithelial damage-repair cycle is sustained during repeat-dosing regimens for chronic therapy.

  2. From Traditional Usage to Pharmacological Evidence: A Systematic Mini-Review of Spina Gleditsiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spina Gleditsiae is an important herb with various medicinal properties in traditional and folk medicinal systems of East Asian countries. In China through the centuries, it has been traditionally used as a source of drugs for anticancer, detoxication, detumescence, apocenosis, and antiparasites effects. Recently, an increasing number of studies have been reported regarding its chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. To further evidence the traditional use, phytochemicals, and pharmacological mechanisms of this herb, a systematic literature review was performed herein for Spina Gleditsiae. The review approach consisted of searching several web-based scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Elsevier using the keywords “Spina Gleditsiae”, “Zao Jiao Ci”, and “Gleditsia sinensis”. Based on the proposed criteria, 17 articles were evaluated in detail. According to the reviewed data, it is quite evident that Spina Gleditsiae contains a number of bioactive phytochemical components, which account for variety medicinal values including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antiallergic, and antivirus activities. The phytochemical and pharmacological studies reviewed herein strongly underpin a fundamental understanding of herbal Spina Gleditsiae and support its ongoing clinical uses in China. The further phytochemical evaluation, safety verification, and clinical trials are expected to progress Spina Gleditsiae-based development to finally transform the traditional TCM herb Spina Gleditsiae to the valuable authorized drug.

  3. Ecological modulation of reproductive behaviour in the peacock blenny: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, J L; Gonçalves, D; Oliveira, R F

    2013-02-01

    The inter-populational variation in the reproductive behaviour of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo (Risso 1810), particularly the influence of the ecologic environment, was reviewed in the present work. Two populations of this species inhabiting contrasting environments were studied: the Ria Formosa population, a coastal lagoon with sandy/muddy substrate located in the south of Portugal, and the Gulf of Trieste, an area presenting rocky substrate located in the northern Adriatic sea. The remarkable differences in the mating system and reproductive behaviour between the two populations (namely sex-role reversal and high frequency of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) at the Ria Formosa vs typical sex roles and low frequency of ARTs at the Gulf of Trieste) are interpreted as a plastic behavioural and physiological response to contrasting ecological conditions. Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone, seem to act as mediators of this response. The expression and activity of the enzyme aromatase in the brain also seems to play a key role in fine-tuning the behavioural output in all male morphs as well as females.

  4. Mini review on role of β-galactosidase in lactose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Nivetha; V, Mohanasrinivasan

    2017-11-01

    This review mainly focuses on the role and properties of β-galactosidase in lactose intolerance and its industrial application. β-Galactosidase, hydrolyses the lactose into glucose and galactose and it is most commonly used in food based technology, particularly in the dairy manufacturing industry. This catalyst mainly focus for the improvement of new and novel products with hydrolyzed lactose, which can be appropriate for the lactose-intolerant persons, to improve the technological, texture and scientific properties of non-fermented dairy products. β-Galactosidase derived from the group of saccharides which is a converting enzymes in the family of hydrolases. They are broadly distributed in the several biological living systems. The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is also preferred in food based technology due to the low soluble range of lactose. The concentration lactose was found to be high in fermented dairy products such as ice cream, butter, cheese curd, yogurt, etc., can prompt extreme lactose crystallization bringing about items through a coarse, abrasive surface. Lactose hydrolysis in dairy products enhances adaptability also, richness altogether. These products are extra edible. Also for this purpose, the utilization of β-galactosidase enzyme prior to the condensing operation can reduce the lactose content to a point where lactose was no longer a problem industrial application of β-galactosidase. In Industries, due to the positive and constructive effect on intestinal bacterial microflora, different types of applications are possible in β-galactosidase enzyme.

  5. Drainage after Modified Radical Mastectomy – A Methodological Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsocheva, Dragostina; Marinova, Katerina; Dobrev, Emil; Nenkov, Rumen

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a socially relevant group of malignant conditions of the mammary gland, affecting both males and females. Most commonly the surgical approach of choice is a modified radical mastectomy (MRM), due to it allowing for both the removal of the main tumor mass and adjacent glandular tissue, which are suspected of infiltration and multifocality of the process, and a sentinel axillary lymph node removal. Most common post-surgical complications following MRM are the formation of a hematoma, the infection of the surgical wound and the formation of a seroma. These post-surgical complications can, at least in part, be attributed to the drainage of the surgical wound. However, the lack of modern and official guidelines provides an ample scope for innovation, but also leads to a need for a randomized comparison of the results. We compared different approaches to wound drainage after MRM, reviewed based on the armamentarium, number of drains, location, type of drainage system, timing of drain removal and no drainage alternatives. Currently, based on the general results, scientific and comparative discussions, seemingly the most affordable methodology with the best patient outcome, with regards to hospital stay and post-operative complications, is the placement of one medial to lateral (pectoro-axillary) drain with low negative pressure. Ideally, the drain should be removed on the second or third postoperative day or when the amount of drained fluid in the last 24 hours reaches below 50 milliliters. PMID:28929038

  6. Phytochemistry and potential therapeutic actions of Boswellic acids: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Iram

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentacyclic triterpenic acids isolated from the oleo gum resin of various Boswellia species are collectively called as Boswellic acids (BA. The oleo gum resin obtained from Indian variety i.e. Boswellia serrata (Family – Burseraceae is commonly known as Salai guggal. The resin fraction of Salai guggal is rich in Boswellic acids and its essential oil is composed of a mixture of mono, di and sesquiterpenes while gum fraction chiefly contains pentose and hexose sugars. This oleo-gum resin is quite popular among traditional practitioners of traditional Chinese and Indian Systems of medicine owing to their wide range of useful biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-asthmatic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial anti-fungal, anti-complementary and analgesic activity, etc. It has been used as a herbal medicine since the prehistoric time to cure acute and chronic ailments including inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of this herbal medicine lead to identification of Boswellic acids which are found to be novel, potent, specific anti-inflammatory agents due to non-redox inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO enzyme. However, the other important targets of Boswellic acids also include topoisomerases, angiogenesis, and cytochrome p450 enzymes. This review is a sincere attempt to discuss and present the current status of therapeutic potential, phytochemical as well as pharmacological profile of Boswellic acids primarily obtained from B. serrata.

  7. Deactivation and Regeneration of Commercial Type Fischer-Tropsch Co-Catalysts—A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Rytter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of commercially relevant cobalt catalysts for Low Temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT synthesis is discussed with a focus on the two main long-term deactivation mechanisms proposed: Carbon deposits covering the catalytic surface and re-oxidation of the cobalt metal. There is a great variety in commercial, demonstration or pilot LTFT operations in terms of reactor systems employed, catalyst formulations and process conditions. Lack of sufficient data makes it difficult to correlate the deactivation mechanism with the actual process and catalyst design. It is well known that long term catalyst deactivation is sensitive to the conditions the actual catalyst experiences in the reactor. Therefore, great care should be taken during start-up, shutdown and upsets to monitor and control process variables such as reactant concentrations, pressure and temperature which greatly affect deactivation mechanism and rate. Nevertheless, evidence so far shows that carbon deposition is the main long-term deactivation mechanism for most LTFT operations. It is intriguing that some reports indicate a low deactivation rate for multi-channel micro-reactors. In situ rejuvenation and regeneration of Co catalysts are economically necessary for extending their life to several years. The review covers information from open sources, but with a particular focus on patent literature.

  8. poor oral health and fertility problems: A narrative mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, it has been recognized that oral infections, especially periodontitis might have effect on several systemic conditions. A possible role of oral diseases in sub-fertility and infertility was also has been suggested. The aim of this review was to evaluate the association between poor oral health and fertility problems. Methods: In this narrative review, authors used PUBMED, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar to included relevant papers in which had at least an English abstract and considered no limitation in publication date. The author used combinations of the search terms “sub-fertility”, “infertility”, “sperm count”, “erectile dysfunction” or “conception” AND “oral hygiene”, oral infections”, “periodontitis” or “periodontal disease”. From the 40 titles which has been found, Letters to the editor, commentaries and case reports or case series, were excluded and finally 37 original articles were remained. Results: There was a consistency among studies about possible positive association between poor oral health and fertility problems features such as improper spermatological parameters and erectile dysfunction, increased time to conceive and endometriosis but there was an inconsistency about relationship between maternal periodontitis and male-babies sub fertility in future. Conclusion: Researches show that oral hygiene is an important component of general health and also a factor in sexual health. Oral inflammation controlling and regular dental check-ups in which both men and women are attending, particularly prior to conceiving, appears to be helpful in enhancing reproductive ability.

  9. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  10. Metacognition and perspective-taking in Alzheimer’s disease: a mini-review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia, studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. The current paper first briefly addresses the theme of metacognition and the impact of metacognitive deficits in people with AD. The focus then turns to the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in different neurological and psychiatric disorders, particularly AD. This relationship is also discussed based on theoretical models, particularly the Cognitive Awareness Model (CAM. Specifically, the CAM suggests the existence of distinct memory systems for self- and other-information, an idea which is supported by neuroimaging findings. We suggest that the Default Mode Network, as it has been shown to be implicated in self vs. other processing and is affected early in AD, could explain the impact of perspective-taking on awareness of deficits in AD. Finally, we present possible clinical implications of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in AD. Indeed, we considered the possibility of improving patient’s awareness through the use of a third-person perspective, which, consequently, may decrease the negative impacts of anosognosia in AD.

  11. Metacognition and Perspective-Taking in Alzheimer's Disease: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Elodie; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Mograbi, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition refers to the monitoring and regulation of cognitive processes and its impairment can lead to a lack of self-awareness of deficits, or anosognosia. In the context of different neurological and psychiatric disorders (e.g., traumatic brain injury, dementia, and schizophrenia), studies have shown that patients who present impairments in metacognitive abilities may be able to recognize such difficulties in others and in themselves when exposed to material in a third-person perspective. Considering that metacognitive impairments are an important characteristic of dementia, especially in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), studies of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking may be relevant to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. The current paper first briefly addresses the theme of metacognition and the impact of metacognitive deficits in people with AD. The focus then turns to the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in different neurological and psychiatric disorders, particularly AD. This relationship is also discussed based on theoretical models, particularly the Cognitive Awareness Model (CAM). Specifically, the CAM suggests the existence of distinct memory systems for self- and other-information, an idea which is supported by neuroimaging findings. We suggest that the Default Mode Network, as it has been shown to be implicated in self vs. other processing and is affected early in AD, could explain the impact of perspective-taking on awareness of deficits in AD. Finally, we present possible clinical implications of the relationship between metacognition and perspective-taking in AD. Indeed, we considered the possibility of improving patient's awareness through the use of a third-person perspective, which, consequently, may decrease the negative impacts of anosognosia in AD.

  12. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  13. Receptor-targeted liposome-peptide-siRNA nanoparticles represent an efficient delivery system for MRTF silencing in conjunctival fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, Cynthia; Tagalakis, Aristides D; Manunta, Maria D; Hart, Stephen L; Khaw, Peng T

    2016-02-24

    There is increasing evidence that the Myocardin-related transcription factor/Serum response factor (MRTF/SRF) pathway plays a key role in fibroblast activation and that knocking down MRTF can lead to reduced scarring and fibrosis. Here, we have developed a receptor-targeted liposome-peptide-siRNA nanoparticle as a non-viral delivery system for MRTF-B siRNA in conjunctival fibrosis. Using 50 nM siRNA, the MRTF-B gene was efficiently silenced by 76% and 72% with LYR and LER nanoparticles, respectively. The silencing efficiency was low when non-targeting peptides or siRNA alone or liposome-siRNA alone were used. LYR and LER nanoparticles also showed higher silencing efficiency than PEGylated LYR-P and LER-P nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were not cytotoxic using different liposomes, targeting peptides, and 50 nM siRNA. Three-dimensional fibroblast-populated collagen matrices were also used as a functional assay to measure contraction in vitro, and showed that MRTF-B LYR nanoparticles completely blocked matrix contraction after a single transfection treatment. In conclusion, this is the first study to develop and show that receptor-targeted liposome-peptide-siRNA nanoparticles represent an efficient and safe non-viral siRNA delivery system that could be used to prevent fibrosis after glaucoma filtration surgery and other contractile scarring conditions in the eye.

  14. Mini-review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since change in growth rate must be accompanied by changes in cell cycle parameters set through the activities of the DNA replication and cell division apparatus, (p)ppGpp could coordinate protein synthesis (cell mass increase) with these processes. Here we review the role of (p)ppGpp in bacterial cell cycle regulation.

  15. Pathological assessment of liver fibrosis regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bingqiong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common pathological outcome of chronic hepatic diseases. An accurate assessment of fibrosis degree provides an important reference for a definite diagnosis of diseases, treatment decision-making, treatment outcome monitoring, and prognostic evaluation. At present, many clinical studies have proven that regression of hepatic fibrosis and early-stage liver cirrhosis can be achieved by effective treatment, and a correct evaluation of fibrosis regression has become a hot topic in clinical research. Liver biopsy has long been regarded as the gold standard for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis, and thus it plays an important role in the evaluation of fibrosis regression. This article reviews the clinical application of current pathological staging systems in the evaluation of fibrosis regression from the perspectives of semi-quantitative scoring system, quantitative approach, and qualitative approach, in order to propose a better pathological evaluation system for the assessment of fibrosis regression.

  16. Thrombin and factor Xa link the coagulation system with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ameet; Sadiq, Fouzia; Anstee, Quentin M; Levene, Adam P; Goldin, Robert D; Thursz, Mark R

    2018-05-08

    Thrombin activates hepatic stellate cells via protease-activated receptor-1. The role of Factor Xa (FXa) in hepatic fibrosis has not been elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of FXa and thrombin in vitro on stellate cells and their respective inhibition in vivo using a rodent model of hepatic fibrosis. HSC-LX2 cells were incubated with FXa and/or thrombin in cell culture, stained for αSMA and relative gene expression and gel contraction calculated. C57BL/6 J mice were administered thioacetamide (TAA) for 8 weeks with Rivaroxaban (n = 15) or Dabigatran (n = 15). Control animals received TAA alone (n = 15). Fibrosis was scored and quantified using digital image analysis and hepatic tissue hydroxyproline estimated. Stellate cells treated with FXa and thrombin demonstrated upregulation of procollagen, TGF-beta, αSMA and significant cell contraction (43.48%+/- 4.12) compared to culturing with FXa or thrombin alone (26.90%+/- 8.90, p = 0.02; 13.1%+/- 9.84, p < 0.001). Mean fibrosis score, percentage area of fibrosis and hepatic hydroxyproline content (2.46 vs 4.08, p = 0.008; 2.02% vs 3.76%, p = 0.012; 276.0 vs 651.3, p = 0.0001) were significantly reduced in mice treated with the FXa inhibitor compared to control mice. FXa inhibition was significantly more effective than thrombin inhibition in reducing percentage area of fibrosis and hepatic hydroxyproline content (2.02% vs 3.70%,p = 0.031; 276.0 vs 413.1,p = 0.001). FXa promotes stellate cell contractility and activation. Early inhibition of coagulation using a FXa inhibitor significantly reduces TAA induced murine liver fibrosis and may be a viable treatment for liver fibrosis in patients.

  17. Age Estimation with DNA: From Forensic DNA Fingerprinting to Forensic (Epi)Genomics: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Walther

    2018-01-23

    , which can be comparable to, or even surpass those from, eyewitness reports. This mini-review puts recent developments in age estimation via (epi)genetic methods in the context of the requirements and goals of forensic genetics and highlights paths to follow in the future of forensic genomics. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: UK survey of the use of gadolinium-based contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, O.; Agarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To identify the current practice of administration of gadolinium-based contrast media (Gd-CM) within the UK with respect to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) guidelines on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty-two institutions were contacted to request details regarding the use of Gd-CM at their institution, their awareness of NSF, and of the ESUR guidelines, and their departmental policy on the administration of Gd-CM agents associated with NSF (high-risk agents) in patients with diminished renal function. Results: Of the 100 institutions that replied, 72% used a cyclic agent as a first-line Gd-CM. The majority of institutions used more than one Gd-CM, and 57% used a high-risk Gd-CM. Seventy percent were aware of the ESUR guidelines, and of the 57% that used a high-risk Gd-CM, 9% did not check renal function at all prior to administration. The course of action of the remaining 48% was varied in patients with diminished renal function with some changing to a low-risk Gd-CM and others electing not to use Gd-CM at all. Five percent continued to use a high-risk Gd-CM with an estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min. Conclusion: The present survey shows that the majority of institutions use a low-risk Gd-CM as a first-line agent; however, a number of institutions do use a high-risk Gd-CM and their course of action for patients with diminished renal function is varied. Given current evidence, it is advisable to use a low-risk Gd-CM, such as a cyclic agent, in patients with diminished renal function.

  19. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources to provide ... its battle against the deadly lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PULMONARY FIBROSIS WALK SURPASSES PARTICIPATION AND FUNDRAISING GOALS Nearly ...

  20. A mini review of designed mesoporous materials for energy-storage applications: from electric double-layer capacitors to hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunho; Jo, Changshin; Lee, Jinwoo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, porous materials have attracted significant attention in various research fields because of their structural merits. In particular, well-designed mesoporous structures with two- or three-dimensionally interconnected pores have been recognized as electrode materials of particular interest for achieving high-performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs). In this mini review, recent progress in the design of mesoporous electrode materials for ECs, from electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and pseudocapacitors (PCs) to hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs), and research challenges for the development of new mesoporous electrode materials has been discussed.

  1. Vitamin A-coupled liposome system targeting free cholesterol accumulation in hepatic stellate cells offers a beneficial therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Tomita, Kengo; Teratani, Toshiaki; Shimizu, Motonori; Nishikawa, Makoto; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Takajo, Takeshi; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Maruta, Koji; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Aosasa, Suefumi; Nagao, Shigeaki; Yamamoto, Junji; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2018-04-01

    Liver fibrosis is a life-threatening disorder for which no approved therapy is available. Recently, we reported that mouse hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation increased free cholesterol (FC) accumulation, partly by enhancing signaling through sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) and microRNA-33a (miR-33a), which resulted in HSC sensitization to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced activation in a "vicious cycle" of liver fibrosis. Human HSCs were isolated from surgical liver specimens from control patients and patients with liver fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were treated with carbon tetrachloride for 4 weeks and concurrently given SREBP2-siRNA- or anti-miR-33a-bearing vitamin A-coupled liposomes. In human activated HSCs obtained from patients with liver fibrosis, FC accumulation was enhanced independently of serum cholesterol levels through increased signaling by both SREBP2 and miR-33a. This increased FC accumulation enhanced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein levels and lowered the TGFβ-pseudoreceptor Bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor) mRNA levels in HSCs. Notably, in a mouse liver fibrosis model, reduction of FC accumulation, specifically in activated HSCs by suppression of SREBP2 or miR-33a expression using SREBP2-siRNA- or anti-miR-33a-bearing vitamin A-coupled liposomes, downregulated TLR4 signaling, increased Bambi expression, and consequently ameliorated liver fibrosis. Our results suggest that FC accumulation in HSCs, as an intracellular mediator promoting HSC activation, contributes to a vicious cycle of HSC activation in human and mouse liver fibrosis independent of serum cholesterol levels. Targeting FC accumulation-related molecules in HSCs through a vitamin A-coupled liposomal system represents a favorable therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  2. Reduced nasal nitric oxide production in cystic fibrosis patients with elevated systemic inflammation markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth K Michl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO is produced within the respiratory tract and can be detected in exhaled bronchial and nasal air. The concentration varies in specific diseases, being elevated in patients with asthma and bronchiectasis, but decreased in primary ciliary dyskinesia. In cystic fibrosis (CF, conflicting data exist on NO levels, which are reported unexplained as either decreased or normal. Functionally, NO production in the paranasal sinuses is considered as a location-specific first-line defence mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between upper and lower airway NO levels and blood inflammatory parameters, CF-pathogen colonisation, and clinical data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nasal and bronchial NO concentrations from 57 CF patients were determined using an electrochemical analyser and correlated to pathogen colonisation of the upper and lower airways which were microbiologically assessed from nasal lavage and sputum samples. Statistical analyses were performed with respect to clinical parameters (lung function, BMI, laboratory findings (CRP, leucocytes, total-IgG, fibrinogen, and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy. There were significant correlations between nasal and bronchial NO levels (rho = 0.48, p<0.001, but no correlation between NO levels and specific pathogen colonisation. In patients receiving azithromycin, significantly reduced bronchial NO and a tendency to reduced nasal NO could be found. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation of nasal NO to CRP (rho = -0.28, p = 0.04 and to leucocytes (rho = -0.41, p = 0.003 was observed. In contrast, bronchial NO levels showed no correlation to clinical or inflammatory parameters. CONCLUSION: Given that NO in the paranasal sinuses is part of the first-line defence mechanism against pathogens, our finding of reduced nasal NO in CF patients with elevated systemic inflammatory markers indicates impaired upper airway defence. This

  3. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  4. SETTING UP OF A HOMECARE SYSTEM FOR HIGH COST NEBULISERS IN A PAEDIATRIC CYSTIC FIBROSIS CENTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorro-Mari, Veronica; Christiansen, Nanna

    2016-09-01

    Due to national changes to the commissioning process of high cost nebulisers (HCN) for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, CF centres have to repatriate the prescribing of the HCN to the tertiary care centres.1 The following nebulisers will no longer be prescribed by primary care: Cayston® (Aztreonam); Colomycin®, Pomixin®, Clobreathe® (Colistimethate); Pulmozyme® (Dornase alfa); Tobi®, Tobi Podhaler ®, Bramitob® (Tobramycin).This abstract explains how the Royal London Hospital (RLH) Paediatric Pharmacy recruited over 100 paediatric (CF) patients smoothly within a period of 4 months and set up a homecare system to avoid patients and families having to travel large distances to obtain their medication. A number of homecare companies were evaluated initially. Parameters looked at were reports of customer satisfaction, delivery cost, turn-around time once the prescription was received and availability of same day delivery service.In order to capture existing patients we met with CF Specialist Nurses to establish the total number of patients on HCN, what nebulised treatment they were on and their respective doses. We prioritised patients that had known problems with GP prescribing and anybody newly starting on HCN.To communicate the change to parents, a letter was sent to all parents explaining the changeover to homecare delivery and tertiary prescribing. In addition a section in the parent bulletin was dedicated to the topic as well. Following this we contacted parents via phone and in clinic to request consent and explain the process.Up to 10 patients were contacted weekly (average of 7); the consent form and registration form were then faxed to the Homecare company for patient registration. In parallel to this prescriptions were requested for the patients that had been set up in the previous week, ensuring that prescribing was spread out over time to avoid having peak times for repeat prescriptions.In addition to the letter to parents GP surgeries were also

  5. Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors, Type 2 Diabetes and Fibrosis Progression: An Observational Study in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Pelusi

    Full Text Available The clinical determinants of fibrosis progression in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD are still under definition.To assess the clinical determinants of fibrosis progression rate (FPR in NAFLD patients with baseline and follow-up histological evaluation, with a special focus on the impact of pharmacological therapy.In an observational cohort of 118 Italian patients from tertiary referral centers, liver histology was evaluated according to Kleiner. Independent predictors of FPR were selected by a stepwise regression approach.Median follow-up was 36 months (IQR 24-77. Twenty-five patients (18% showed some amelioration, 63 (53% had stability, 30 (25% had progression of fibrosis. Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH had similar demographic and anthropometric features, but a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D; p = 0.010, and use of renin-angiotensin axis system (RAS inhibitors (p = 0.005. Fibrosis progression was dependent of the length of follow-up, and was associated with, but did not require, the presence of NASH (p<0.05. Both fibrosis progression and faster FPR were independently associated with higher APRI score at follow-up, absence of treatment with RAS inhibitors, and T2D diagnosis at baseline (p<0.05. There was a significant interaction between use of RAS inhibitors and T2D on FPR (p = 0.002. RAS inhibitors were associated with slower FPR in patients with (p = 0.011, but not in those without (p = NS T2D.NASH is not required for fibrosis progression in NAFLD, whereas T2D seems to drive fibrogenesis independently of hepatic inflammation. Use of RAS inhibitors may contrast fibrosis progression especially in high-risk patients affected by T2D.

  6. Trace metals in fluids lining the respiratory system of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, Elena; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo; Rosi, Elisabetta; Prasse, Antje; Rota, Emilia; Voltolini, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease with a poor prognosis and an undefined etiopathogenesis. Oxidative stress contributes to alveolar injury and fibrosis development and, because transition metals are essential to the functioning of most proteins involved in redox reactions, a better knowledge of metal concentrations and metabolism in the respiratory system of IPF patients may provide a valuable complementary approach to prevent and manage a disease which is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed in later stages. The present review summarizes and discusses literature data on the elemental composition of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), induced sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from patients affected by IPF and healthy subjects. Available data are scanty and the lack of consistent methods for the collection and analysis of lung and airways lining fluids makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. However, the elemental composition of BAL samples from IPF patients seems to have a specific profile that can be distinguished from that of patients with other interstitial lung diseases (ILD) or control subjects. Suggestions are given towards standard sampling and analytical procedures of BAL samples, in the aim to assess typical element concentration patterns and their potential role as biomarkers of IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Okuzaki, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    When the chest is exposed to x radiation and Co-60 gamma radiation, radiation damage may occur in the lungs 2 to 10 weeks after irradiation. This condition is generally referred to as radiation pneumonitis, with the incidence ranging from 5.4% to 91.8% in the literature. Then radiation pneumonitis may develop into pulmonary fibrosis associated with roentgenologically diffuse linear and ring-like shadows and strong contraction 6 months to one year after irradiation. Until recently, little attention has been paid to pulmonary pneumonitis as a delayed effect of A-bomb radiation. The recent study using the population of 9,253 A-bomb survivors have suggested that the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis tended to be high in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Two other studies using the cohort of 16,956 and 42,728 A-bomb survivors, respectively, have shown that the prevalence of roentgenologically proven pulmonary fibrosis was higher in men than women (1.82% vs 0.41%), was increased with aging and had a higher tendency in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  8. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... more members within the same family have Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or any other form of Idiopathic Interstitial ...

  9. "Antifibrotic effect after low-dose imatinib mesylate treatment in patients with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: An open-label non-randomized, uncontrolled clinical trial"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Tina Rask; Olesen, Anne Braae

    2011-01-01

    Background Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a disease affecting the connective tissue of the skin and internal organs in patients with renal failure. No effective treatments are available. Objectives To investigate if the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate was effective in patients...... Imatinib mesylate may be an effective drug in the treatment of skin fibrosis in moderate to severe NSF cases, even at reduced doses. We found a positive clinical effect on the skin, but no convincing improvement of the joint mobility. Only few patients could be recruited limiting the interpretation...

  10. Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems have equal value as outcome assessment tools of cystic fibrosis lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine; Sawicki, Gregory; Kelliher, Emma; Wood, Christopher; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zucker, Evan J. [Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Several imaging-based scoring systems have been used as outcome measures in assessing the severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. It has been shown that chest radiography performs equally to computed tomography (CT). There is the opinion that of the two most commonly used chest radiograph (CXR) systems, the Brasfield system is less sensitive and reliable than the Wisconsin system. This report assesses the reproducibility and reliability of the two systems. Thirty patients with CXRs during a 5-year period were randomly selected. One hundred eighty-two studies had data for all CXRs and pulmonary function tests (PFTs), Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV-1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). PFT values closest to the date of each CXR were recorded. Four radiologists scored each image twice by both the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems. Intra- and inter-rater reliability, correlation with PFTs and direct correlation of the two systems were calculated. Intra-rater agreement: r = 0.86-0.99 Brasfield, r = 0.78-0.96 Wisconsin. Inter-rater agreement: 0.76-0.90 Brasfield, r = 0.74-0.97 Wisconsin. Brasfield vs. FEV-1: r = 0.55, vs. FVC r = 0.61. Wisconsin vs. FEV-1: r = 0.57, vs. FVC r = 0.66. Correlation of the two systems: r = 0.86 (all P < 0.001). The Brasfield and Wisconsin systems performed very similarly providing equally reproducible, robust and reliable measures. (orig.)

  11. Autoimmune myelofibrosis. A steroid-responsive cause of bone marrow fibrosis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, R L; Meshkinpour, A; Rosen, P J

    1994-05-01

    Autoimmune myelofibrosis is an uncommon disorder in which patients present with anemia and thrombocytopenia in conjunction with limited clinical manifestations of autoimmune disease or an exacerbation of previously established SLE. The presence of leukoerythroblastosis in a patient with SLE may suggest the presence of myelofibrosis. Conversely, the absence of splenomegaly in a patient with presumed idiopathic myelofibrosis may suggest an autoimmune etiology. Patients with autoimmune myelofibrosis universally have a positive ANA test and frequently have either elevated anti-DNA titers or a positive LE cell preparation. Because physical manifestations of autoimmune disease may not be evident at presentation, all patients found to have myelofibrosis should have an ANA test. Peripheral blood cytopenias in autoimmune myelofibrosis frequently respond to glucocorticoids but regression of bone marrow fibrosis may be incomplete. Hematologic response to treatment parallels that of the associated autoimmune disease.

  12. High prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in chronic renal failure patients exposed to gadodiamide, a gadolinium-containing magnetic resonance contrast agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Casper; Thomsen, Henrik S; Marckmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease affecting renal failure patients. It may be caused by some gadolinium (Gd)-containing contrast agents, including gadodiamide. The study aimed at estimating the prevalence of NSF after gadodiamide exposure for patients with chronic...

  13. A novel multi-network approach reveals tissue-specific cellular modulators of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Jaclyn N; Greene, Casey S; Martyanov, Viktor; Wood, Tammara A; Christmann, Romy B; Farber, Harrison W; Lafyatis, Robert A; Denton, Christopher P; Hinchcliff, Monique E; Pioli, Patricia A; Mahoney, J Matthew; Whitfield, Michael L

    2017-03-23

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis. Internal organ involvement is heterogeneous. It is unknown whether disease mechanisms are common across all involved affected tissues or if each manifestation has a distinct underlying pathology. We used consensus clustering to compare gene expression profiles of biopsies from four SSc-affected tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood) from patients with SSc, and the related conditions pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and derived a consensus disease-associate signature across all tissues. We used this signature to query tissue-specific functional genomic networks. We performed novel network analyses to contrast the skin and lung microenvironments and to assess the functional role of the inflammatory and fibrotic genes in each organ. Lastly, we tested the expression of macrophage activation state-associated gene sets for enrichment in skin and lung using a Wilcoxon rank sum test. We identified a common pathogenic gene expression signature-an immune-fibrotic axis-indicative of pro-fibrotic macrophages (MØs) in multiple tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells) affected by SSc. While the co-expression of these genes is common to all tissues, the functional consequences of this upregulation differ by organ. We used this disease-associated signature to query tissue-specific functional genomic networks to identify common and tissue-specific pathologies of SSc and related conditions. In contrast to skin, in the lung-specific functional network we identify a distinct lung-resident MØ signature associated with lipid stimulation and alternative activation. In keeping with our network results, we find distinct MØ alternative activation transcriptional programs in SSc-associated PF lung and in the skin of patients with an "inflammatory" SSc gene expression signature. Our results suggest that the innate immune

  14. Dermal inorganic gadolinium concentrations: evidence for in vivo transmetallation and long-term persistence in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, J L; Thakral, C; Skov, L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gadolinium (Gd)-based magnetic resonance contrast agents (GBMCA), including gadodiamide, have been identified as the probable causative agents of the serious disease, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). OBJECTIVES: To investigate retained Gd-containing deposits in skin biopsies from...... patients with NSF and to determine their relative concentrations over time from administration of GBMCA. METHODS: An investigator-blinded retrospective study, analysing 43 skin biopsies from 20 patients with gadodiamide-related NSF and one NSF-negative gadodiamide-exposed dialysis patient, ranging from 16...... days to 1991 days after Gd contrast dose. Utilizing automated quantitative scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy we determined the concentration of Gd and associated elements present as insoluble deposits in situ in the tissues. RESULTS: We detected Gd in skin lesions of all...

  15. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and class labeling of gadolinium-based contrast agents by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lucie; Krefting, Ira; Gorovets, Alex; Marzella, Louis; Kaiser, James; Boucher, Robert; Rieves, Dwaine

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration requested that manufacturers of all approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), drugs widely used in magnetic resonance imaging, use nearly identical text in their product labeling to describe the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Accumulating information about NSF risks led to revision of the labeling text for all of these drugs in 2010. The present report summarizes the basis and purpose of this class-labeling approach and describes some of the related challenges, given the evolutionary nature of the NSF risk evidence. The class-labeling approach for presentation of product risk is designed to decrease the occurrence of NSF and to enhance the safe use of GBCAs in radiologic practice. © RSNA, 2012.

  16. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra B. Andersen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s in stabilizing selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbor four in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2 limited mutations in core genome TA loci, suggesting they are not under negative selection; (3 no evidence for horizontal transmission of elements with TA systems between clone types within patients, despite their ability to mobilize; (4 no gain and limited loss of TA-bearing genomic islands, and of those elements partially lost, the remnant regions carry the TA systems supporting their role in genomic stabilization; (5 no significant correlation between frequency of TA systems and strain ability to establish as chronic infection, but those with a particular TA, are more successful in establishing a chronic infection.

  17. Proteomic Profiling of Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis in Rats: Targeting the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Luo, Judong [Department of Radiotherapy, Changzhou Tumor Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Sheng, Wenjiong; Xue, Jiao; Li, Ming [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Ji, Jiang [Department of Dermatology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Pengfei [Department of Gastroenterology, the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University, Jiangyin (China); Zhang, Xueguang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology and Jiangsu Stem Cell Key Laboratory, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Shuyu, E-mail: zhang.shuyu@hotmail.com [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Rat skin was irradiated to 30 or 45 Gy with an electron beam. Protein expression in fibrotic rat skin and adjacent normal tissues was quantified by label-free protein quantitation. Human skin cells HaCaT and WS-1 were treated by x-ray irradiation, and the proteasome activity was determined with a fluorescent probe. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on Transforming growth factor Beta (TGF-B) signaling was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The efficacy of bortezomib in wound healing of rat skin was assessed by the skin injury scale. Results: We found that irradiation induced epidermal and dermal hyperplasia in rat and human skin. One hundred ninety-six preferentially expressed and 80 unique proteins in the irradiated fibrotic skin were identified. Through bioinformatic analysis, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway showed a significant fold change and was investigated in greater detail. In vitro experiments demonstrated that irradiation resulted in a decline in the activity of the proteasome in human skin cells. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib suppressed profibrotic TGF-β downstream signaling but not TGF-β secretion stimulated by irradiation in HaCaT and WS-1 cells. Moreover, bortezomib ameliorated radiation-induced skin injury and attenuated epidermal hyperplasia. Conclusion: Our findings illustrate the molecular changes during radiation-induced skin fibrosis and suggest that targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system would be an effective countermeasure.

  18. High regenerative capacity of the liver and irreversible injury of male reproductive system in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Drahulian, Maria V; Buchek, Polina V; Gulko, Tamara P

    2018-03-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) is a chronic disease, associated with many collateral diseases including reproductive dysfunction. Although the normal liver has a large regenerative capacity the complications of LF could be severe and irreversible. Hormone and sex-related issues of LF development and interactions with male reproductive have not been finally studied. The aim was to study the reproductive function of male rats in experimental CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis rat model, and the capability for restoration of both the liver and male reproduction system. Studies were conducted on 20 3-month old Wistar male rats. The experimental animals were injected with freshly prepared 50% olive oil solution of carbohydrate tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). On the 8th week after injection we noted the manifestations of liver fibrosis. The rats were left to self-healing of the liver for 8 weeks. All male rats underwent ultrasound and biopsy of the liver and testes on the 8th and 16th weeks. The male rats were mated with healthy females before CCl 4 injection, after modeling LF on the 8th week, and after self-healing of the liver. Pregnancy was monitored on ultrasound. On the 8th week of experiment we observed ultrasound manifestation of advanced liver fibrosis, including hepatosplenomegaly, portal hypertension. Ultrasound exam of the rat testes showed testicular degeneration, hydrocele, fibrosis, scarring, petrifications, size reduction, and restriction of testicular descent; testes size decreased from 1.24 ± 0.62 ml to 0.61 ± 0.13, p  reproductive system and altering of fertility: the offspring of male rats with advanced LF was 4.71 ± 0.53 born alive vs 9.55 ± 0.47 born from mating with healthy males, p  reproductive system.

  19. Multicenter study of quantitative computed tomography analysis using a computer-aided three-dimensional system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Tae; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Hoshi, Toshiko; Ogura, Takashi; Baba, Tomohisa; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Oba, Mari S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of automated quantitative analysis with a three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided system (i.e., Gaussian histogram normalized correlation, GHNC) of computed tomography (CT) images from different scanners. Each institution's review board approved the research protocol. Informed patient consent was not required. The participants in this multicenter prospective study were 80 patients (65 men, 15 women) with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Their mean age was 70.6 years. Computed tomography (CT) images were obtained by four different scanners set at different exposures. We measured the extent of fibrosis using GHNC, and used Pearson's correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and kappa analysis to directly compare the GHNC results with manual scoring by radiologists. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the CT data and forced vital capacity (FVC). For each scanner, the extent of fibrosis as determined by GHNC was significantly correlated with the radiologists' score. In multivariate analysis, the extent of fibrosis as determined by GHNC was significantly correlated with FVC (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the results obtained using different CT scanners. Gaussian histogram normalized correlation was feasible, irrespective of the type of CT scanner used.

  20. Renin-angiotensin system inhibition ameliorates CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in mice through the inactivation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Sameh; Mahmoud, Amr A A; Helal, Noha S; El-Ahwany, Eman; Abdelghany, Rasha H

    2018-06-01

    Therapeutic interventions for liver fibrosis are still limited due to the complicated molecular pathogenesis. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) seems to contribute to the development of hepatic fibrosis. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of RAS inhibition on CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis. Mice were treated with silymarin (30 mg·kg -1 ), perindopril (1 mg·kg -1 ), fosinopril (2 mg·kg -1 ), or losartan (10 mg·kg -1 ). The administration of RAS inhibitors improved liver histology and decreased protein expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hepatic content of hydroxyproline. These effects found to be mediated via inactivation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway by the inhibition of NFκB p65 phosphorylation at the Ser536 residue and phosphorylation-induced degradation of nuclear factor kappa-B inhibitor alpha (NFκBia) subsequently inhibited NFκB-induced TNF-α and TGF-β1, leading to lower levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We concluded that the tissue affinity of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) has no impact on its antifibrotic activity and that interfering the RAS either through the inhibition of ACE or the blockade of AT1R has the same therapeutic benefit. These results suggest RAS inhibitors as promising candidates for further clinical trials in the management of hepatic fibrosis.

  1. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  2. Photoelectrochemical and theoretical investigations of spinel type ferrites (MxFe3-xO4) for water splitting: a mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffa, Dereje H.; Dillert, Ralf; Ulpe, Anna C.; Bauerfeind, Katharina C. L.; Bredow, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W.; Wark, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Solar-assisted water splitting using photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) is one of the promising pathways for the production of hydrogen for renewable energy storage. The nature of the semiconductor material is the primary factor that controls the overall energy conversion efficiency. Finding semiconductor materials with appropriate semiconducting properties (stability, efficient charge separation and transport, abundant, visible light absorption) is still a challenge for developing materials for solar water splitting. Owing to the suitable bandgap for visible light harvesting and the abundance of iron-based oxide semiconductors, they are promising candidates for PECs and have received much research attention. Spinel ferrites are subclasses of iron oxides derived from the classical magnetite (FeIIFe2IIIO4) in which the FeII is replaced by one (some cases two) additional divalent metals. They are generally denoted as MxFe3-xO4 (M=Ca, Mg, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn, and so on) and mostly crystallize in spinel or inverse spinel structures. In this mini review, we present the current state of research in spinel ferrites as photoelectrode materials for PECs application. Strategies to improve energy conversion efficiency (nanostructuring, surface modification, and heterostructuring) will be presented. Furthermore, theoretical findings related to the electronic structure, bandgap, and magnetic properties will be presented and compared with experimental results.

  3. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  4. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device... Guidance Document: CFTR Gene Mutation Detection System.” See § 866.1(e) for the availability of this...

  5. Evolutionary strategy to develop learning-based decision systems. Application to breast cancer and liver fibrosis stadialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorunescu, Florin; Belciug, Smaranda

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to propose an evolutionary-based method for building a decision model and, second, to assess and validate the model's performance using five different real-world medical datasets (breast cancer and liver fibrosis) by comparing it with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The evolutionary-inspired approach has been used to develop the learning-based decision model in the following manner: the hybridization of algorithms has been considered as "crossover", while the development of new variants which can be thought of as "mutation". An appropriate hierarchy of the component algorithms was established based on a statistically built fitness measure. A synergetic decision-making process, based on a weighted voting system, involved the collaboration between the selected algorithms in making the final decision. Well-established statistical performance measures and comparison tests have been extensively used to design and implement the model. Finally, the proposed method has been tested on five medical datasets, out of which four publicly available, and contrasted with state-of-the-art techniques, showing its efficiency in supporting the medical decision-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Risk After Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gadoxetate Disodium in Patients With Moderate to Severe Renal Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Thomas; Ramirez-Garrido, Francisco; Kim, Young Hoon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ricke, Jens; Phongkitkarun, Sith; Boettcher, Joachim; Gupta, Rajan T.; Korpraphong, Pornpim; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Furtner, Julia; Liu, Peter S.; Henry, Maren; Endrikat, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed. PMID:25756684

  7. Tautomerism and biological activity of beta-diketoner, triketoner, beta-ketoesters and beta-ketoamides. A mini review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik

    2017-01-01

    The review deals with β-diketones, β-ketoester, β-ketoamides, triketones, their tautomerism and biological activity. In addition, it covers briefly methods to detect tautomerism in particular NMR and deuterium isotope effects on chemical shifts, both primary and secondary. A number of typical sys...... systems are treated such as: usnic acid, tetracyclines, piroxicam, curcurmines, humulones, acyltetramic acids and quinolone 3-esters....

  8. Cystic fibrosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Si Hyun; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Chol Heui

    2002-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disease. Among Caucasians, it is the most common cause of pulmonary insufficiency during the first three decades of life. The prevalence of cystic fibrosis varies according to ethnic origin: it is common among Caucasians but rare among Asians. We report a case in which cystic fibrosis with bronchiectasis and hyperaeration was revealed by high-resolution CT, and mutation of the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR) by DNA analysis

  9. Cystic fibrosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Si Hyun; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Chol Heui

    2002-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a autosomal recessive genetic disease. Among caucasians, it is the most common cause of pulmonary insufficiency during the first three decades of life. The prevalence of cystic fibrosis varies according to ethnic origin: it is common among caucasians but rare among Asians. We report a case in which cystic fibrosis with bronchiectasis and hyperaeration was revealed by high-resolution CT, and mutation of the cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator gene (CFTR) by DNA analysis

  10. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  11. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition View more Partner Message ...

  12. Imaging from cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Posselt, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent metabolic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance in the Caucasian population. The gene defect is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. In Germany today, the actual median survival is 37 years. The genetic defect caused by chloride anion disturbances affects multiple body systems but the morbidity and mortality is due to lung disease. The secretion of highly viscous mucus promotes viral and bacterial pulmonary infections leading to airway obstruction and consecutive destruction of the lung parenchyma. This article will review and discuss both the clinical aspects of the disease and the diagnostic methods, referring in particular to new imaging strategies. (orig.)

  13. A Mini-Review of Track And Field’s Talent-Identification Models in Iran and Some Designated Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Ghasemzadeh Mirkolaee; Seyed Mohammad Hossein Razavi; Saeed Amirnejad

    2013-01-01

    Talent identification and training the athletes of the basic levels in track and field requires codifying a proper model like any other system so that any duplication is prevented as well as knowing the right path. The federation of track and field started to codify the national talent-identification scheme in track and field in 1385. Hence, the present studies track-and-field talent-identification patterns in some designated countries and compare them with the codified pattern in Iran. The r...

  14. Methane emission from natural wetlands: interplay between emergent macrophytes and soil microbial processes. A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007, natural wetlands contribute 20–39 % to the global emission of methane. The range in the estimated percentage of the contribution of these systems to the total release of this greenhouse gas is large due to differences in the nature of the emitting vegetation including the soil microbiota that interfere with the production and consumption of methane. Scope Methane is a dominant end-product of anaerobic mineralization processes. When all electron acceptors except carbon dioxide are used by the microbial community, methanogenesis is the ultimate pathway to mineralize organic carbon compounds. Emergent wetland plants play an important role in the emission of methane to the atmosphere. They produce the carbon necessary for the production of methane, but also facilitate the release of methane by the possession of a system of interconnected internal gas lacunas. Aquatic macrophytes are commonly adapted to oxygen-limited conditions as they prevail in flooded or waterlogged soils. By this system, oxygen is transported to the underground parts of the plants. Part of the oxygen transported downwards is released in the root zone, where it sustains a number of beneficial oxidation processes. Through the pores from which oxygen escapes from the plant into the root zone, methane can enter the plant aerenchyma system and subsequently be emitted into the atmosphere. Part of the oxygen released into the root zone can be used to oxidize methane before it enters the atmosphere. However, the oxygen can also be used to regenerate alternative electron acceptors. The continuous supply of alternative electron acceptors will diminish the role of methanogenesis in the anaerobic mineralization processes in the root zone and therefore repress the production and emission of methane. The role of alternative element cycles in the inhibition of methanogenesis is discussed. Conclusions The role of the nitrogen

  15. A Mini-Review on the Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA on Cerulein-Induced and Hypertriglyceridemic Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kyung Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis refers to the sudden inflammation of the pancreas. It is associated with premature activation and release of digestive enzymes into the pancreatic interstitium and systemic circulation, resulting in pancreatic tissue autodigestion and multiple organ dysfunction, as well as with increased cytokine production, ultimately leading to deleterious local and systemic effects. Although mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis have not been completely elucidated, oxidative stress is regarded as a major risk factor. In human acute pancreatitis, lipid peroxide levels in pancreatic tissues increase. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (C22:6n-3, exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on various cells. Previous studies have shown that DHA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and induces catalase, which inhibits oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory signaling required for cytokine expression in experimental acute pancreatitis using cerulein. Cerulein, a cholecystokinin analog, induces intra-acinar activation of trypsinogen in the pancreas, which results in human acute pancreatitis-like symptoms. Therefore, DHA supplementation may be beneficial for preventing or inhibiting acute pancreatitis development. Since DHA reduces serum triglyceride levels, addition of DHA to lipid-lowering drugs like statins has been investigated to reduce hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis. However, high DHA concentrations increase cytosolic Ca2+, which activates protein kinase C and may induce hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis. In this review, effect of DHA on cerulein-induced and hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis has been discussed. The relation of high concentration of DHA to hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis has been included.

  16. The impact of slice-reduced computed tomography on histogram-based densitometry assessment of lung fibrosis in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Maurer, Britta; Suliman, Yossra A; Morsbach, Fabian; Distler, Oliver; Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate usability of slice-reduced sequential computed tomography (CT) compared to standard high-resolution CT (HRCT) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) for qualitative and quantitative assessment of interstitial lung disease (ILD) with respect to (I) detection of lung parenchymal abnormalities, (II) qualitative and semiquantitative visual assessment, (III) quantification of ILD by histograms and (IV) accuracy for the 20%-cut off discrimination. From standard chest HRCT of 60 SSc patients sequential 9-slice-computed tomography (reduced HRCT) was retrospectively reconstructed. ILD was assessed by visual scoring and quantitative histogram parameters. Results from standard and reduced HRCT were compared using non-parametric tests and analysed by univariate linear regression analyses. With respect to the detection of parenchymal abnormalities, only the detection of intrapulmonary bronchiectasis was significantly lower in reduced HRCT compared to standard HRCT (P=0.039). No differences were found comparing visual scores for fibrosis severity and extension from standard and reduced HRCT (P=0.051-0.073). All scores correlated significantly (Phistogram parameters derived from both, standard and reduced HRCT. Significant higher values of kurtosis and skewness for reduced HRCT were found (both Phistogram parameters from reduced HRCT showed significant discrimination at cut-off 20% fibrosis (sensitivity 88% kurtosis and skewness; specificity 81% kurtosis and 86% skewness; cut-off kurtosis ≤26, cut-off skewness ≤4; both Phistogram parameters derived from the approach of reduced HRCT could discriminate at a threshold of 20% lung fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Hence it might be used to detect early disease progression of lung fibrosis in context of monitoring and treatment of SSc patients.

  17. iPS cell technologies and their prospect for bone regeneration and disease modeling: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csobonyeiova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone disorders are a group of varied acute and chronic traumatic, degenerative, malignant or congenital conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system. They are prevalent in society and, with an ageing population, the incidence and impact on the population’s health is growing. Severe persisting pain and limited mobility are the major symptoms of the disorder that impair the quality of life in affected patients. Current therapies only partially treat the disorders, offering management of symptoms, or temporary replacement with inert materials. However, during the last few years, the options for the treatment of bone disorders have greatly expanded, thanks to the advent of regenerative medicine. Skeletal cell-based regeneration medicine offers promising reparative therapies for patients. Mesenchymal stem (stromal cells from different tissues have been gradually translated into clinical practice; however, there are a number of limitations. The introduction of reprogramming methods and the subsequent production of induced pluripotent stem cells provides a possibility to create human-specific models of bone disorders. Furthermore, human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based autologous transplantation is considered to be future breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine. The main goal of the present paper is to review recent applications of induced pluripotent stem cells in bone disease modeling and to discuss possible future therapy options. The present article contributes to the dissemination of scientific and pre-clinical results between physicians, mainly orthopedist and thus supports the translation to clinical practice.

  18. Retrospective analysis of patients for development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following conventional angiography using gadolinium-based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Hanno; Spagnuolo, Sara; Froehlich, Johannes M; Nievergelt, Helga; Dinkel, Hans-Peter; Gretener, Silvia; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2010-03-01

    The purpose was to retrospectively review the data of 27 patients with renal insufficiency who underwent conventional angiography with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GDBCA) as alternative contrast agents and assess the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) together with associated potential risk factors. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. Statistical analysis was performed for all available laboratory and clinical data, including dermatology reports. Type and amount of the GDBCA used were recorded for angiography and additional MRI studies, if applicable. Serum creatinine levels (SCr) pre- and post-angiography were recorded, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated. Ten female and 17 male patients who underwent angiography with GDBCA were included. The mean amount of GDBCA administered was 44 +/- 15.5 ml (range 15-60 ml) or 0.24 + 0.12 mmol/kg (range 0.1-0.53 mmol/kg). At the time of angiography all patients had renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Mean eGFR pre-angiography was 26 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 33 ml/min/1.73 m(2) post-angiography. The mean follow-up period covers 28 months, range 1-84 months. Additional MRI studies with GDBCA administration were performed in 15 patients. One patient with typical skin lesions had developed biopsy-confirmed NSF. Conventional arterial angiography with GDBCA may play a role in the development of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. Alternative contrast agents, such as CO(2) angiography or rather the use of low doses of iodinated contrast agents, should be considered in these patients.

  19. Retrospective analysis of patients for development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following conventional angiography using gadolinium-based contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Hanno; Spagnuolo, Sara; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Thoeny, Harriet C.; Nievergelt, Helga; Dinkel, Hans-Peter; Gretener, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to retrospectively review the data of 27 patients with renal insufficiency who underwent conventional angiography with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GDBCA) as alternative contrast agents and assess the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) together with associated potential risk factors. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. Statistical analysis was performed for all available laboratory and clinical data, including dermatology reports. Type and amount of the GDBCA used were recorded for angiography and additional MRI studies, if applicable. Serum creatinine levels (SCr) pre- and post-angiography were recorded, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated. Ten female and 17 male patients who underwent angiography with GDBCA were included. The mean amount of GDBCA administered was 44 ± 15.5 ml (range 15-60 ml) or 0.24 + 0.12 mmol/kg (range 0.1-0.53 mmol/kg). At the time of angiography all patients had renal insufficiency (eGFR 2 ). Mean eGFR pre-angiography was 26 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and 33 ml/min/1.73 m 2 post-angiography. The mean follow-up period covers 28 months, range 1-84 months. Additional MRI studies with GDBCA administration were performed in 15 patients. One patient with typical skin lesions had developed biopsy-confirmed NSF. Conventional arterial angiography with GDBCA may play a role in the development of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. Alternative contrast agents, such as CO 2 angiography or rather the use of low doses of iodinated contrast agents, should be considered in these patients. (orig.)

  20. Retrospective analysis of patients for development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following conventional angiography using gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Hanno; Spagnuolo, Sara; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Thoeny, Harriet C. [University Hospital Bern, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional, and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Nievergelt, Helga [University Hospital Bern, Clinic of Dermatology, Bern (Switzerland); Dinkel, Hans-Peter [Hospital Landshut, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Landshut (Germany); Gretener, Silvia [University Hospital of Bern, Division of Vascular Medicine, Swiss Cardiovascular Center, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose was to retrospectively review the data of 27 patients with renal insufficiency who underwent conventional angiography with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GDBCA) as alternative contrast agents and assess the occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) together with associated potential risk factors. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was waived. Statistical analysis was performed for all available laboratory and clinical data, including dermatology reports. Type and amount of the GDBCA used were recorded for angiography and additional MRI studies, if applicable. Serum creatinine levels (SCr) pre- and post-angiography were recorded, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were calculated. Ten female and 17 male patients who underwent angiography with GDBCA were included. The mean amount of GDBCA administered was 44 {+-} 15.5 ml (range 15-60 ml) or 0.24 + 0.12 mmol/kg (range 0.1-0.53 mmol/kg). At the time of angiography all patients had renal insufficiency (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}). Mean eGFR pre-angiography was 26 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and 33 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} post-angiography. The mean follow-up period covers 28 months, range 1-84 months. Additional MRI studies with GDBCA administration were performed in 15 patients. One patient with typical skin lesions had developed biopsy-confirmed NSF. Conventional arterial angiography with GDBCA may play a role in the development of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. Alternative contrast agents, such as CO{sub 2} angiography or rather the use of low doses of iodinated contrast agents, should be considered in these patients. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with moderate renal insufficiency administered gadobenate dimeglumine for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, B.J.; Im, K.; Broome, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine the incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in stage 3 chronic kidney disease patients following intravenous exposure to gadobenate dimeglumine. Materials and methods: A prospective study was performed on 168 consecutive patients at a single institution with stage 3 chronic kidney disease who underwent clinically-indicated contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations with gadobenate dimeglumine from January 2007 to March 2008. All patients were contacted by phone by investigators 3 months after MRI to verify the presence or absence of NSF signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms suggestive of NSF developed, dermatologic referral was made and confirmatory skin biopsy performed if indicated. Results: One hundred and eighty contrast-enhanced MRI examinations with gadobenate dimeglumine were performed on the 168 patients. Twenty patients were lost to follow-up, but 160 incidents of contrast medium exposure were followed up for 3-months and 105 incidents were followed up for 6 months. The mean contrast medium dose per weight was 0.093 mmol/kg (range 0.042-0.153 mmol/kg). The mean estimated creatinine clearance was 50.4 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (range from 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ). Ten patients developed skin rashes during the 3-month follow-up period, but none were confirmed to represent NSF (0% prevalence rate). No other signs or symptoms of NSF were reported. Conclusion: Based on this limited study, NSF does not appear to occur in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease exposed to intravenous gadobenate dimeglumine for MRI at standard dosing of ∼0.1 mmol/kg.

  2. The status of pulmonary fibrosis in systemic sclerosis is associated with IRF5, STAT4, IRAK1, and CTGF polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjie; Yue, Xiaoyang; Liu, Kuai; Zheng, Junfeng; Huang, Runda; Zou, Jun; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Petersen, Frank; Yu, Xinhua

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is one of the leading causes of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. Although all SSc patients are characterized by autoimmunity, only part of them suffer from PF, suggesting that beside autoimmunity, some additional factors are involved in the initiation of PF in SSc. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with the status of PF in SSc. We performed that an exhaustive search of the PubMed database was performed to identify eligible studies. Then, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed by comparing PF + -SSc and PF - -SSc patients to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with the status of PF in SSc. Among eight SSc-associated susceptibility polymorphisms which were applied for meta-analysis, IRF5 rs2004640 polymorphism (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.22, P = 1.39 × 10 -2 ), STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.07-1.47, P = 5.3 × 10 -3 ), IRAK1 rs1059702 polymorphism (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37, P = 0.007), and CTGF G-945C polymorphism (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.18-1.71, P = 0.002) are associated with PF status in SSc, while TNFAIP3 rs5029939, CD226 rs763361, CD247 rs2056626, and IRF5 rs10488631 polymorphisms are not. Since IRF5, STAT4, and IRAK1 are important regulatory factors in the control of innate immune responses and CTGF is involved in the synthesis of extracellular matrix, these results suggest a role of the innate immunity and matrix compounds in the pathogenesis of PF in SSc.

  3. Multifocal fibrosclerosis and IgG4-related disease involving the cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Terasaki, Fumio; Sakamoto, Aiko; Imai, Yasushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular system may be involved as a target organ of multifocal fibrosclerosis, which may manifest as idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, inflammatory aortic aneurysm, inflammatory periarteritis, and inflammatory pericarditis. These pathological conditions can sometimes occur concomitantly. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm are both characterized by the presence of fibro-inflammatory tissue around the abdominal aorta expanding into the surrounding retroperitoneal structures, and together they may be termed 'chronic periaortitis'. Cardiovascular fibrosclerosis has become non-uncommonly encountered condition since imaging modalities have made its diagnosis more feasible. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that a certain fraction, but not all, of cardiovascular fibrosclerosis may have a link with immunoglobulin-G4 (IgG4)-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). IgG4-SD is histologically characterized by dense fibrosclerosis and infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells, and these histopathologic findings seem to be essentially similar regardless of the organs involved. In this mini review, we summarize what is known so far about multifocal fibrosclerosis of the cardiovascular system and its association with IgG4-SD, and what remains to be clarified in future investigations. (author)

  4. Premenstrual syndrome: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Aeli; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2015-12-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by recurrent, moderate-to-severe affective, physical, and behavioral symptoms that develop during the luteal menstrual cycle and disappear within a few days of menstruation. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling condition that can affect personal relationships and occupational activities. PMS occurs in 30-40% of reproductive-age females; PMDD affects 3-8% of this population. Although the etiology of PMS is unclear, several theories suggest increased sensitivity to normal hormonal changes and neurotransmitter abnormalities. The diagnostic method of PMS is the Daily Record of Severity of Problems, which women with PMS can use to self-report several symptoms and their severity. Although combined oral contraceptives and serotonergic antidepressants are effective drugs, each is a different option for treating PMS/PMDD. Serotonergic antidepressants are the drugs of choice for improving both physical and mood symptoms. Combined oral contraceptives appear to primarily improve physical symptoms. Clinicians should consider each patient's situation individually. Other treatment options include lifestyle modification, cognitive behavioral therapy, and herbal medicine (e.g., chasteberry). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovulation induction: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Ioannis E

    2005-10-01

    Ovulation induction is the method for treating anovulatory infertility. For patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, the treatment involves administration of both FSH and LH, while HCG is injected for follicle rupture. Pulsatile GnRH has the same effectiveness as gonadotrophins and the advantage of the low multiple pregnancy rate. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the first treatment choice is clomiphene citrate. With this drug, in properly selected patients, the cumulative pregnancy rate approaches that of normal women. Low-dose protocols of FSH are the second line of treatment, effective in inducing monofollicular development. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling can be an alternative but not as a first choice treatment in clomiphene-resistant patients. Other treatments, such as pulsatile GnRH and GnRH agonists, are hardly used today in PCOS. However, in obese women with PCOS, weight loss and exercise should be recommended as the first line of therapy. Newer agents including aromatase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers, although promising, need further evaluation.

  6. Nanoparticles for the treatment of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poilil Surendran S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Suchithra Poilil Surendran, Reju George Thomas, Myeong Ju Moon, Yong Yeon Jeong Department of Radiology, BioMolecular Theranostics (BiT Lab, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital (CNUHH, South Korea Abstract: Chronic liver diseases represent a global health problem due to their high prevalence worldwide and the limited available curative treatment options. They can result from various causes, both infectious and noninfectious diseases. The application of nanoparticle (NP systems has emerged as a rapidly evolving area of interest for the safe delivery of various drugs and nucleic acids for chronic liver diseases. This review presents the pathogenesis, diagnosis and the emerging nanoparticulate systems used in the treatment of chronic liver diseases caused by liver fibrosis. Activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC is considered to be the main mechanism for liver fibrosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are widely used noninvasive diagnostic methods for hepatic fibrosis. A variety of nanoparticulate systems are mainly focused on targeting HSC in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. As early liver fibrosis is reversible by current NP therapy, it is being studied in preclinical as well as clinical trials. Among various nanoparticulate systems, inorganic NPs, liposomes and nanomicelles have been widely studied due to their distinct properties to deliver drugs as well as other therapeutic moieties. Liposomal NPs in clinical trials is considered to be a milestone in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. Currently, NP therapy for liver fibrosis is updating fast, and hopefully, it can be the future remedy for liver fibrosis. Keywords: liver fibrosis, inorganic nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles

  7. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis versus contrast-induced nephropathy: risks and benefits of contrast-enhanced MR and CT in renally impaired patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Diego R; Semelka, Richard C; Chapman, Arlene

    2009-01-01

    -sectional imaging modality. Factors to consider include the relative risks of the contrast agent. Other factors include the relative procedural risks, including radiation risks and the relative expected diagnostic yield of the examination technique (12). In this review we describe both nephrogenic systemic fibrosis...... and contrast-induced nephropathy to compare the implications with regard to relative risks and benefits of contrast-enhanced MRI or CT in patients with impaired renal function. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:1350-1356. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  8. High IL-17E and Low IL-17C Dermal Expression Identifies a Fibrosis-Specific Motif Common to Morphea and Systemic Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lonati, Paola Adele; Brembilla, Nicolò Costantino; Montanari, Elisa; Fontao, Lionel; Gabrielli, Armando; Vettori, Serena; Valentini, Gabriele; Laffitte, Emmanuel; Kaya, Gurkan; Meroni, Pier-Luigi; Chizzolini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High interleukin (IL)-17A levels are characteristically found in the skin of systemic sclerosis (SSc) individuals. Our aim was to investigate whether the dermal expression of IL-17A and related IL-17 family members (i.e. IL-17C, IL-17E and IL-17F) could distinguish fibrotic from healthy skin and could show similarities in SSc and morphea, two disorders with presumed distinct pathogenesis, but characterized by skin fibrosis. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from the involved skin of...

  9. Development of Orally Bioavailable Therapeutics by the Chloroplast Expression System to Counter Muscle Degeneration, Weakness, and Fibrosis in DMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    strength in the diaphragm muscles . However, by 2 months of treatment the benefits were reduced back to untreated controls. We are continuing to analyze...Enzyme 2 Angiotensin-(1-7) Fibrosis Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Skeletal muscle Chloroplast expression Oral bioavailability 3... treatment regimen to determine if any acute functional benefit was achieved. While no significant improvement was observed in EDL muscles , the diaphragms

  10. Mini-review: the ultrasonographical and serological chanbges and their improvement after praziquantel treatment Schistosoma japonicum infected patients in Leyete, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Tanaka

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have identified the specific ultrasonographical (US changes in Schistosoma japonicum infected patients with the serological changes in general liver function markers. The US examination with the following haematological and biochemical serum analysis was performed on 102 patients in Shistosomiasis Hospital, Leyte, Philippines. The US liver images were classified into 4 patterns according to the development of periportal fibrosis and the patterns of echogenic bands. Among various haematological and biochemical serum parameters of liver damage. The serum levels of total bile acid (TBA and procollagen-III-peptide (P-III-P correlated well with the development of hepatic fibrosis and the portal hypertension. These patients were subsequently treated with praziquantel (3 x 20 mg/kg, and improvement of the thickening of the portal vein wall and the dintensity of the echogenic band formation was detected 6 months after treatment. The significant US changes could not be detected in the patients with severe hepatic fibrosis caused in the long term infection. The results revealed that the US examination with the serum TBa level would provider a sensitive tool monitor the severity of the infection and also the improvement occured shortly after praziquantel treatment.

  11. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  12. Vitamin A supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifant, Catherine M; Shevill, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne B

    2014-05-14

    People with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency are at risk of fat soluble vitamin deficiency as these vitamins (A, D, E and K) are co-absorbed with fat. Thus, some cystic fibrosis centres routinely administer these vitamins as supplements but the centres vary in their approach of addressing the possible development of deficiencies in these vitamins. Vitamin A deficiency causes predominantly eye and skin problems while supplementation of vitamin A to excessive levels may cause harm to the respiratory and skeletal systems in children. Thus a systematic review on vitamin A supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis would help guide clinical practice. To determine if vitamin A supplementation in children and adults with cystic fibrosis:1. reduces the frequency of vitamin A deficiency disorders;2. improves general and respiratory health;3. increases the frequency of vitamin A toxicity. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 07 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all preparations of oral vitamin A used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose and for any duration, in children or adults with cystic fibrosis (defined by sweat tests or genetic testing) with and without pancreatic insufficiency. No relevant studies for inclusion were identified in the search. No studies were included in this review. As there were no randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified, we cannot draw any conclusions on the benefits (or otherwise) of regular administration of vitamin A in people with cystic fibrosis. Until further data are available, country or region specific guidelines on the use of

  13. Festival food coma in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Chetan; Graham, Christie; Selvadurai, Hiran; Gaskin, Kevin; Cooper, Peter; van Asperen, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Children with cystic fibrosis liver disease and portal hypertension are at risk of developing acute hepatic encephalopathy. Even in the presence of normal synthetic liver function these children may have porto-systemic shunting. We report a case of an adolosecent who had cystic fibrosis liver disease and presented with life threatening hepatinc encephalopathy. This case illustrates that it is necessary to consider an appropriate dietary regimen in adolosecents with liver disease to prevent hepatic decompensation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Imaging pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, M.W.; Rety, F.; Naccache, J.M.; Girard, F.; Valeyre, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    Localized fibrosis of the lung is usually scar tissue while diffuse pulmonary fibrosis is more often a sign of active disease. Chronic infiltrative lung disease may be classified into four categories: idiopathic pneumonitis, collagen diseases, granulomatosis (sarcoidosis), and caused by known diseases (pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, drug-induced lung disease, radiation). (authors)

  15. Angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlia, Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis emerges in parallel with liver fibrosis, but it is still unclear whether angiogenesis is a defense mechanism of the body in response to fibrosis, or whether it aggravates the fibrotic condition. In this thesis, Amirah Adlia applied different approaches to elucidate the role of

  16. Fibrosis and Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R.; Erler, Janine T.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between fibrosis and cancer has long been debated, specifically whether desmoplasia precedes, accompanies, or succeeds tumourigenesis, progression, and metastasis. Recent reports have published opposing data, adding to the perplexity. However, what is emerging is that it is likely th...... the specific properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that determine the paradoxical nature of cancer-associated fibrosis....

  17. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Veeze

    1995-01-01

    textabstractApplying the sweat-test as the first choice of test when a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is suspected is still common practice and advisable. Since the cloning of the CFTR gene more than 400 different cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations have already been identified. The use of CF mutation

  18. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Coenzyme (Q10) with Improved Dissolution, Bioavailability, and Protective Efficiency on Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Abeer; Hassanin, Lobna; Zaki, Nashwah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of our investigation is to develop and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of CoQ 10 to improve its water solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability, and then evaluate its biochemical and physiological effect on liver cirrhosis in rats compared with CoQ 10 powder. SNEDDS are isotropic and thermodynamically stable mixture of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, and drug that form an oil/water nanoemulsion when added to aqueous phases with soft agitation. Upon administration, self-nanoemulsifying system becomes in contact with gastrointestinal fluid and forms o/w nanoemulsion by the aid of gastrointestinal motility. When the nanoemulsion is formed in the gastrointestinal tract, it presents the drug in a solubilized form inside small nano-sized droplets that provide a large surface area for enhancing the drug release and absorption. Solubility of CoQ 10 in various oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants were studied to identify the components of SNEDDS; pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the efficient self-emulsifying regions. CoQ 10 -loaded SNEDDS were prepared using isopropyl myristate as oil; Cremophor El, Labrasol, or Tween80 as surfactant; and Transcutol as co-surfactant. The amount of CoQ 10 in each vehicle was 3%. The formulations that passed thermostability evaluation test were assessed for particle size analysis, morphological characterization, refractive index, zeta potential, viscosity, electroconductivity, drug release profile, as well as ex vivo permeability. Pharmacokinetics and hepatoprotective efficiency of the optimized SNEDDS of CoQ 10 compared with CoQ 10 suspension were performed. Results showed that all optimized formulae have the ability to form a good and stable nanoemulsion when diluted with water; the mean droplet size of all formulae was in the nanometric range (11.7-13.5 nm) with optimum polydispersity index values (0.2-0.21). All formulae showed negative zeta potential (-11.3 to -17

  19. Profile of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M. El-Falaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was generally believed that Cystic fibrosis (CF is rare among Arabs; however, the few studies available from Egypt and other Arabic countries suggested the presence of many undiagnosed patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of CF patients out of the referred cases in a single referral hospital in Egypt. A total of 100 patients clinically suspected of having CF were recruited from the CF clinic of the Allergy and Pulmonology Unit, Children’s Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt, throughout a 2 year period. Sweat chloride testing was done for all patients using the Wescor macroduct system for collection of sweat. Quantitative analysis for chloride was then done by the thiocyanate colorimetric method. Patients positive for sweat chloride (⩾60 mmol/L were tested for the ΔF508 mutation using primer specific PCR for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR gene. Thirty-six patients (36% had a positive sweat chloride test. The main clinical presentations in patients were chronic cough in 32 (88.9%, failure to thrive in 27 (75%, steatorrhea in 24 (66.7%, and hepatobiliary involvement in 5 (13.9%. Positive consanguinity was reported in 50% of CF patients. Thirty-two patients were screened for ΔF508 mutation. Positive ΔF508 mutation was detected in 22 (68.8% patients, 8 (25% were homozygous, 14 (43.8% were heterozygous, and 10 (31.3% tested were negative. CF was diagnosed in more than third of patients suspected of having the disease on clinical grounds. This high frequency of CF among referred patients indicates that a high index of suspicion and an increasing availability of diagnostic tests lead to the identification of a higher number of affected individuals.

  20. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis after application of gadolinium-based contrast agents - a status paper; Nephrogene systemische Fibrose nach Anwendung gadoliniumhaltiger Kontrastmittel - ein Statuspapier zum aktuellen Stand des Wissens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, M.; Uder, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2007-06-15

    Recently the association of a rare disease named ''nephrogenic systemic fibrosis'' (NSF) with the administration of gadolinium-containing contrast media, especially gadodiamide (Omniscan, GE-Healthcare), was described. NSF is a scleroderma-like disease characterised by widespread tissue fibrosis. Until now, NSF cases were observed only in patients with kidney disease. Almost all patients were suffering from chronic renal insufficiency, 90 % of them required renal replacement therapy. The true incidence of the disease is unknown. First retrospective analyses of selected collectives of patients with end-stage renal disease showed 2 - 5 % cases of NSF after administration of Gadolinium-containing contrast agents with an odds ratio of 20 - 50 in comparison to non-exposed controls. NSF is a serious adverse reaction, which may result in severe disabilities and even death. Therefore all radiologists applying gadolinium-based contrast agents should be informed about this disease and the recent recommendations for its prevention. On the basis of the published data, Omniscan should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}) and those who have had or are undergoing liver transplantation. In neonates and infants up to 1 year of age, Omniscan should only be used after careful consideration. Also the other gadolinium-based contrast agents should be used in high-risk patients only after careful consideration using the lowest dose possible.

  1. MRI in mucoviscidosis (cystic fibrosis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, M.; Puderbach, M.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Heussel, C.-P.

    2006-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-systemic disease with major impact on the lungs. Pulmonary manifestation is crucial for the prognosis and life expectancy of patients. Imaging modalities and lung function tests reflect the pulmonary status in these patients. The standard imaging modality for diagnosis and follow-up of pulmonary changes is chest x-ray. The gold standard for the detection of parenchymal lung changes remains high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), but this is not used routinely for CF-patients due to radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used to be of no importance in monitoring cystic fibrosis lung disease, as shown in studies from the 1980s and early 1990s. The continuing improvement of MRI techniques, however, has allowed for an adequate application of this non-radiation method in diagnosing the major pulmonary findings in CF, in addition to the assessment of lung function. (orig.) [de

  2. Non-invasive measurement of liver and pancreas fibrosis in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Schlueter, Nina; Smaczny, Christina; Eickmeier, Olaf; Rosewich, Martin; Feifel, Kirstin; Herrmann, Eva; Poynard, Thierry; Gleiber, Wolfgang; Lais, Christoph; Zielen, Stefan; Wagner, Thomas O F; Zeuzem, Stefan; Bojunga, Joerg

    2013-09-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a relevant morbidity and mortality caused by CF-related liver-disease. While transient elastography (TE) is an established elastography method in hepatology centers, Acoustic-Radiation-Force-Impulse (ARFI)-Imaging is a novel ultrasound-based elastography method which is integrated in a conventional ultrasound-system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of liver-fibrosis in patients with CF using TE, ARFI-imaging and fibrosis blood tests. 106 patients with CF were prospectively included in the present study and received ARFI-imaging of the left and right liver-lobe, ARFI of the pancreas TE of the liver and laboratory evaluation. The prevalence of liver-fibrosis according to recently published best practice guidelines for CFLD was 22.6%. Prevalence of significant liver-fibrosis assessed by TE, ARFI-right-liver-lobe, ARFI-left-liver-lobe, Fibrotest, Fibrotest-corrected-by-haptoglobin was 17%, 24%, 40%, 7%, and 16%, respectively. The best agreement was found for TE, ARFI-right-liver-lobe and Fibrotest-corrected-by-haptoglobin. Patients with pancreatic-insufficiency had significantly lower pancreas-ARFI-values as compared to patients without. ARFI-imaging and TE seem to be promising non-invasive methods for detection of liver-fibrosis in patients with CF. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intravitreal anti-VEGF injection for the treatment of progressive juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma: a case report and mini review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelala E

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Elias Chelala, Ali Dirani, Ali Fadlallah Saint-Joseph University, Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: We report a case of a patient known to have a von Hippel–Lindau disease with documented progressive juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma (JRCH with well-preserved visual acuity (VA and visual field (VF. The patient received a single injection of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR. Six months after IVR injection, the JRCH showed reduced vascularization, fibrosis, and mild shrinkage, and VA and VF remained unchanged. IVR therapy might therefore be considered as an alternative treatment for progressive JRCH, especially in patients with well-preserved VA and VF. Keywords: juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma, intravitreal anti-VEGF injection, von Hippel–Lindau disease

  4. Development of a novel CsA-PLGA drug delivery system based on a glaucoma drainage device for the prevention of postoperative fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhaoxing; Yu, Xiaobo; Hong, Jiaxu; Liu, Xi [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Jianguo, E-mail: sjgsun@126.com [Research Center, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Xinghuai, E-mail: xhsun@shmu.edu.cn [Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2016-09-01

    The formation of a scar after glaucoma surgery often leads to unsuccessful control of intraocular pressure, and should be prevented by using a variety of methods. We designed and developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) comprising cyclosporine A (CsA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based on a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) that can continuously release CsA to prevent postoperative fibrosis following glaucoma surgery. The CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and revealed an asymmetric pore structure. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to measure the weight loss and evaluate the thermal stability of the CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS. The in vitro drug release profile of the DDS was studied using high performance liquid chromatography, which confirmed that the DDS released CsA at a stable rate and maintained adequate CsA concentrations for a relatively long time. The biocompatibility of the DDS and the inhibitory effects on the postoperative fibrosis were investigated in vitro using rabbit Tenon's fibroblasts. The in vivo safety and efficacy of the DDS were examined by implanting the DDS into Tenon's capsules in New Zealand rabbits. Bleb morphology, intraocular pressure, anterior chamber reactions, and anterior chamber angiography were studied at a series of set times. The DDS kept the filtration pathway unblocked for a longer time compared with the control GDD. The results indicate that the CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS represents a safe and effective strategy for preventing scar formation after glaucoma surgery. - Highlights: • CsA@PLGA@GDD drug delivery system (DDS) was designed and prepared successfully. • The DDS released CsA at a stable rate for > 3 months. • The DDS kept filtration pathway unblocked for a longer time than control. • CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS prevented glaucoma scar formation as a safe and effective strategy.

  5. Development of a novel CsA-PLGA drug delivery system based on a glaucoma drainage device for the prevention of postoperative fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhaoxing; Yu, Xiaobo; Hong, Jiaxu; Liu, Xi; Sun, Jianguo; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a scar after glaucoma surgery often leads to unsuccessful control of intraocular pressure, and should be prevented by using a variety of methods. We designed and developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) comprising cyclosporine A (CsA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based on a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) that can continuously release CsA to prevent postoperative fibrosis following glaucoma surgery. The CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and revealed an asymmetric pore structure. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to measure the weight loss and evaluate the thermal stability of the CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS. The in vitro drug release profile of the DDS was studied using high performance liquid chromatography, which confirmed that the DDS released CsA at a stable rate and maintained adequate CsA concentrations for a relatively long time. The biocompatibility of the DDS and the inhibitory effects on the postoperative fibrosis were investigated in vitro using rabbit Tenon's fibroblasts. The in vivo safety and efficacy of the DDS were examined by implanting the DDS into Tenon's capsules in New Zealand rabbits. Bleb morphology, intraocular pressure, anterior chamber reactions, and anterior chamber angiography were studied at a series of set times. The DDS kept the filtration pathway unblocked for a longer time compared with the control GDD. The results indicate that the CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS represents a safe and effective strategy for preventing scar formation after glaucoma surgery. - Highlights: • CsA@PLGA@GDD drug delivery system (DDS) was designed and prepared successfully. • The DDS released CsA at a stable rate for > 3 months. • The DDS kept filtration pathway unblocked for a longer time than control. • CsA@PLGA@GDD DDS prevented glaucoma scar formation as a safe and effective strategy.

  6. High IL-17E and low IL-17C dermal expression identifies a fibrosis-specific motif common to morphea and systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adele Lonati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High interleukin (IL-17A levels are characteristically found in the skin of systemic sclerosis (SSc individuals. Our aim was to investigate whether the dermal expression of IL-17A and related IL-17 family members (i.e. IL-17C, IL-17E and IL-17F could distinguish fibrotic from healthy skin and could show similarities in SSc and morphea, two disorders with presumed distinct pathogenesis, but characterized by skin fibrosis. METHODS: Biopsies were obtained from the involved skin of 14 SSc, 5 morphea and 8 healthy donors (HD undergoing plastic surgery. Immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence techniques were coupled to a semi-automated imaging quantification approach to determine the presence of the IL-17 family members in the skin. The in vitro effects induced by the IL-17 family members on fibroblasts from normal and SSc individuals were assessed by ELISA and RIA. RESULTS: Positive cells for each of the IL-17 isoforms investigated were present in the dermis of all the individuals tested, though with variable frequencies. SSc individuals had increased frequency of IL-17A+ (p = 0.0237 and decreased frequency of IL-17F+ (p = 0.0127 and IL-17C+ cells (p = 0.0008 when compared to HD. Similarly, morphea individuals had less frequent IL-17C+ cells (p = 0.0186 in their skin but showed similar number of IL-17A+ and IL-17F+ cells when compared to HD. Finally, IL-17E+ cells were more numerous in morphea (p = 0.0109 and tended to be more frequent in SSc than in HD. Fibroblast production of IL-6, MMP-1 and MCP-1 was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of IL-17E and IL-17F, but not in the presence of IL-17C. None of the cytokine tested had significant effect on type I collagen production. Of interest, in SSc the frequency of both IL-17A and IL-17F positive cells increased with disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of IL-17A and IL-17F distinguish SSc to morphea individuals while dermal expression of IL-17C (low and IL-17E (high

  7. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Paul W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000 than in women (13.2/100,000. The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock. IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP. The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant

  8. Experience acquired over a four-year period using Vichi's scoring system in chest alterations occurring in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichi, G.F.; Jenuso, R.; Pellegrini, T.

    1987-01-01

    The classification of chest alterations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and related score proposed by Chrispin and Norman has been widely adopted in Europe and is still applied (although slightly modified) in most European Centres. Brasfield classification instead has been monstly used in the USA. Lately, however, to revise both classifications, the need has been felt, for a more precise correlation to anatomo-radiological data as well as for inclusion of headings which have not been taken into account so far. In 1980 one of the authors (Vichi) worked out a new scoring system for the chest alterations of CF. Results are reported from a follow-up of 15 patients with CF carried out at the FC Center of Meyer Ospedale in Florence from the late 1981 to 1985. The patients underwent periodic checking including determination of clinical scoring system-according to Shwachman and Kulczychi modified by Doershuk-respiratory function tests, chest X-rays evaluated by three radiologists separately, following both Chrispin and Norman and Vichi scoring systems. The latter system has proved to be well correlated to clinical data and to the ordinary pulmonary function tests but it mainly presents a high observer reproducibility

  9. Syndecans in heart fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ida G; Herum, Kate M; Carlson, Cathrine C; Christensen, Geir

    2016-09-01

    Heart disease is a deadly syndrome affecting millions worldwide. It reflects an unmet clinical need, and the disease mechanisms are poorly understood. Cardiac fibrosis is central to heart disease. The four-membered family of transmembrane proteoglycans, syndecan-1 to -4, is believed to regulate fibrosis. We review the current literature concerning syndecans in cardiac fibrosis. Syndecan expression is up-regulated in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli in various forms of heart disease with fibrosis. Mice lacking syndecan-1 and -4 show reduced activation of pro-fibrotic signaling and increased cardiac rupture upon infarction indicating an important role for these molecules. Whereas the short cytoplasmic tail of syndecans regulates signaling, their extracellular part, substituted with heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains, binds a plethora of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules involved in fibrosis, e.g., collagens, growth factors, cytokines, and immune cell adhesion proteins. Full-length syndecans induce pro-fibrotic signaling, increasing the expression of collagens, myofibroblast differentiation factors, ECM enzymes, growth factors, and immune cell adhesion molecules, thereby also increasing cardiac stiffness and preventing cardiac rupture. Upon pro-inflammatory stimuli, syndecan ectodomains are enzymatically released from heart cells (syndecan shedding). Shed ectodomains affect the expression of ECM molecules, promoting ECM degradation and cardiac rupture upon myocardial infarction. Blood levels of shed syndecan-1 and -4 ectodomains are associated with hospitalization, mortality, and heart remodeling in patients with heart failure. Improved understanding of syndecans and their modifying enzymes in cardiac fibrosis might contribute to the development of compounds with therapeutic potential, and enzymatically shed syndecan ectodomains might constitute a future prognostic tool for heart diseases with fibrosis. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract summarizing

  10. Endomyocardial fibrosis in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatene Marcelo Biscegli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a 4-month-old infant, who underwent persistent ductus arteriosus interruption with titanium clips at the age of 13 days and, since the age of 2 months, had crises of hypoxia and hypertonicity. After clinical investigation, the presence of pulmonary hypertension was confirmed and left ventricular inflow tract obstruction was suspected. The patient underwent surgical treatment at the age of 4 months, during which right and left ventricular endocardial fibrosis was identified. The fibrosis was resected, but the infant had an unfavorable clinical evolution with significant diastolic restriction and died on the sixth postoperative day. Anatomicopathological and surgical findings suggested endomyocardial fibrosis, although that pathology is very rare at the patient's age.

  11. Noninvasive imaging of experimental lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Huaping; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Liu, Gang; Antony, Veena B; Ding, Qiang; Nath, Hrudaya; Eary, Janet F; Thannickal, Victor J

    2015-07-01

    Small animal models of lung fibrosis are essential for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying human fibrotic lung diseases; additionally, they are useful for preclinical testing of candidate antifibrotic agents. The current end-point measures of experimental lung fibrosis involve labor-intensive histological and biochemical analyses. These measures fail to account for dynamic changes in the disease process in individual animals and are limited by the need for large numbers of animals for longitudinal studies. The emergence of noninvasive imaging technologies provides exciting opportunities to image lung fibrosis in live animals as often as needed and to longitudinally track the efficacy of novel antifibrotic compounds. Data obtained by noninvasive imaging provide complementary information to histological and biochemical measurements. In addition, the use of noninvasive imaging in animal studies reduces animal usage, thus satisfying animal welfare concerns. In this article, we review these new imaging modalities with the potential for evaluation of lung fibrosis in small animal models. Such techniques include micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and multimodal imaging systems including PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It is anticipated that noninvasive imaging will be increasingly used in animal models of fibrosis to gain insights into disease pathogenesis and as preclinical tools to assess drug efficacy.

  12. The interdependent roles of patients, families and professionals in cystic fibrosis: a system for the coproduction of healthcare and its improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Batalden, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    A quality healthcare system is coproduced by patients, families and healthcare professionals working interdependently to cocreate and codeliver care. Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and families rely on healthcare professionals to provide the best possible care and timely, accurate information. They know that the care at home and in clinical settings needs to be seamless, using shared information and decisions. A parent's journey of better care begins with her son's diagnosis and moves to her involvement to improve the systems and processes of care for others. She reflects on this work and identifies five elements that contributed to the coproduction of improved care: (1) mental and emotional readiness to engage; (2) curiosity and the search for insight; (3) reframe challenges into opportunities for improvement; (4) listen and learn from everyone, bringing home what is relevant; and (5) personal participation. Joined with the reflections of an improvement scientist, they note that chronic care relies on informed, activated patients and prepared, proactive healthcare professionals working together and that it is more than 'patient-centric'. They propose a model for the coimprovement of systems of care.

  13. Drug-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daba, Mohammad H.; Al-Arifi, Mohammad N; Gubar, Othman A.; El-Tahir, Kamal E.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the accumulation of excessive connective tissue in the lungs. Its causes include chronic administration of some drugs for example bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, amiodarone, procainamide, penicillamine, gold and nitrofurantoin; exposure to certain environmental factors such as gases, asbestos and silica and bacterial or fungal infections. Some systemic diseases also predispose to the disease for example rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The disease is associated with release of oxygen radicals and some mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta Tbgf-beta, PDGF, If-I, Et-I and interleukins 1, 4, 8 and 13. The symptoms of the disease include dyspne a, non-productive cough, fever and damage to the lung cells. It is diagnosed with the aid of chest radiography, high resolution computed tomographic scanning and the result of pulmonary function tests. Drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis may involve release of free oxygen radicals and various cytokines for example Il-I beta and TNF-alpha via activation of nuclear transcription factor Nf-beta as in the case of bleomycin and mitomycin or via release of TGF-beta as in case of tamoxifen or via inhibition of macrophages and lymphocytes phospholipases as in the case of amiodarone with the resultant accumulation of phospholipids and reduction of the immune system. (author)

  14. IgG4-associated multifocal systemic fibrosis detected by cancer screening with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Shigeyoshi; Kita, Tamotsu; Hiratsuka, Miyuki; Sakaguchi, Chiharu; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Kosuda, Shigeru; Sakata, Ikuko; Miura, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Serial fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) studies were performed with an interval of one year in a 62-year-old man with IgG4-associated multifocal systemic fibrosis (IMSF). He first underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT cancer screening, which revealed multiple 18 F-FDG-avid uptakes in the pancreas, prostate, and lymph nodes in the upper mediastinum, pulmonary hila, porta hepatis, and the left iliac and inguinal regions. He was not symptomatic at this initial examination. The follow-up 18 F-FDG PET/CT study showed disappearance of 18 F-FDG-avid uptake foci in the pancreas despite no treatment having been administered, but demonstrated new lesions in the abdominal para-aortic region and more intense FDG uptake in the porta hepatis lesion. Serial 18 F-FDG PET/CT studies might be useful in monitoring patients with IMSF, as well as evaluating the state of systemic involvement. Findings of 18 F-FDG PET/CT may provide information useful for determining the optimal initiation of IMSF treatment. (author)

  15. SIMS imaging of gadolinium isotopes in tissue from Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis patients: Release of free Gd from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Jerrold L. [Department of Pathology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States); Chandra, Subhash [Cornell SIMS Laboratory, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: sc40@cornell.edu; Thakral, Charu [Department of Pathology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States); Abraham, Joshua M. [Cornell SIMS Laboratory, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Recently, Gd-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (GBMCA) have been linked to a new disease, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF), with skin and systemic toxicity and death in certain patients with renal failure. Due to widespread use of GBMCA in diagnostic MRI, it is essential to study their excretion, metabolism, and target sites in cells and tissues. A CAMECA IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used for imaging Gd isotopes in relation to calcium distributions in histologic sections of human tissues. SIMS imaging revealed two types of Gd localization in skin biopsies of patients who received GBMCA. The Gd was present in micrometer size deposits in association with calcium, and in detectable amounts in a more diffuse cellular distribution. Only the Gd-containing deposits associated with Ca and P were detectable using SEM/EDS. As only insoluble deposits remain in the biopsy tissues after aqueous and organic solvent processing of the tissue, our observations support release of free Gd from the GBMCA and selective localization of insoluble Gd in the target tissue from patients with NSF. This study opens new novel applications of SIMS for characterization of the safety of GBMCA.

  16. Pulmonary fibrosis caused by histiocytosis X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Seemann, W.R.; Ruehle, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on a 23-year-old man suffering from pulmonary fibrosis caused by localised histiocytosis X. Although chest film examination shows diffuse pulmonary involvement the patient is asymptomatic. No other organ systems are involved. The different forms and prognosis of histiocytosis X are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Preclinical investigation to compare different gadolinium-based contrast agents regarding their propensity to release gadolinium in vivo and to trigger nephrogenic systemic fibrosis-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, Martin A.; Frenzel, Thomas; Golfier, Sven; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim; Pietsch, Hubertus; Lengsfeld, Philipp; Schmitt-Willich, Heribert; Siegmund, Fred; Walter, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is associated with the administration of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and in particular with the stability of the Gd-complex. The aim of this investigation was to compare GBCAs and their potential to trigger NSF. Forty-two healthy male rats received repeated intravenous injections of six different GBCAs at high doses to simulate the exposure seen in patients with severe renal dysfunction. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the skin was performed, and the concentrations of Gd, zinc and copper were measured in several tissues by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Macroscopic and histological skin changes similar to those seen in NSF patients were only observed in rats receiving Omniscan. In addition, very high concentrations of Gd were observed in the animals treated with Omniscan, and, to a lesser extent, in animals treated with OptiMARK. Significantly lower levels of Gd were found after the treatment with ionic linear agents and even less after the treatment with macrocyclic agents. The data in this investigation strongly suggest that the stability of the Gd-complex is a key factor for the development of NSF-like symptoms in this experimental setting. (orig.)

  18. In an animal model nephrogenic systemic fibrosis cannot be induced by intraperitoneal injection of high-dose gadolinium based contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, R.D.; Lorke, D.E.; Neidl van Gorkom, K.F.; Petroianu, G.; Azimullah, S.; Nurulain, S.M.; Singh, S.; Fuchsjäger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim and objective: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been reported in humans to be most likely induced by gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA), namely by gadodiamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadoversetamide, rarely by other GBCA. The pathogenesis of NSF remains unclear; different hypotheses are under discussion. The objective of the study is to assess if in the animal model human-like NSF changes can be induced by high-dose, intraperitoneal GBCA injections over four weeks. Materials and methods: After approval by the institutional animal ethics committee, six rats each were randomly assigned to groups, and treated with seven different GBCA. Intraperitoneal (IP) injections – proven in the animal model to be effective – were chosen to prolong the animals’ exposure to the respective GBCA. GBCA doses of previous intravenous (IV) animal studies were applied. After five weeks all rats were sacrificed. Sham controls were treated with IP saline injections, employing the same regimen. Results: No findings comparable with human NSF were observed in all animals after IP treatment with all seven GBCA at daily doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mmol/kg body weight (BW). No histopathological abnormalities of all examined organs were noted. Weight loss was stated in weeks three and four with GBCA injections at doses of 5.0 mmol/kg BW, but rats regained weight after cessation of GBCA treatment. Conclusions: NSF-comparable pathological findings could not be induced by high dose intraperitoneal injection of seven GBCA

  19. Preclinical investigation to compare different gadolinium-based contrast agents regarding their propensity to release gadolinium in vivo and to trigger nephrogenic systemic fibrosis-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieber, Martin A.; Frenzel, Thomas; Golfier, Sven; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim; Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, Philipp [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, GMA DG Diagnostic Imaging, Berlin (Germany); Schmitt-Willich, Heribert [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, GDD Diagnostic Imaging, Berlin (Germany); Siegmund, Fred; Walter, Jakob [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Nonclinical Drug Safety, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Recent reports suggest that nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is associated with the administration of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and in particular with the stability of the Gd-complex. The aim of this investigation was to compare GBCAs and their potential to trigger NSF. Forty-two healthy male rats received repeated intravenous injections of six different GBCAs at high doses to simulate the exposure seen in patients with severe renal dysfunction. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the skin was performed, and the concentrations of Gd, zinc and copper were measured in several tissues by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Macroscopic and histological skin changes similar to those seen in NSF patients were only observed in rats receiving Omniscan. In addition, very high concentrations of Gd were observed in the animals treated with Omniscan, and, to a lesser extent, in animals treated with OptiMARK. Significantly lower levels of Gd were found after the treatment with ionic linear agents and even less after the treatment with macrocyclic agents. The data in this investigation strongly suggest that the stability of the Gd-complex is a key factor for the development of NSF-like symptoms in this experimental setting. (orig.)

  20. In an animal model nephrogenic systemic fibrosis cannot be induced by intraperitoneal injection of high-dose gadolinium based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, R.D., E-mail: rlanger@uaeu.ac.ae [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Lorke, D.E. [Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Neidl van Gorkom, K.F. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Petroianu, G. [Florida International University, Miami, FL (United States); Azimullah, S.; Nurulain, S.M.; Singh, S. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Fuchsjäger, M. [Al Ain Hospital, MUV-VAMED, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-10-15

    Aim and objective: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) has been reported in humans to be most likely induced by gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA), namely by gadodiamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, and gadoversetamide, rarely by other GBCA. The pathogenesis of NSF remains unclear; different hypotheses are under discussion. The objective of the study is to assess if in the animal model human-like NSF changes can be induced by high-dose, intraperitoneal GBCA injections over four weeks. Materials and methods: After approval by the institutional animal ethics committee, six rats each were randomly assigned to groups, and treated with seven different GBCA. Intraperitoneal (IP) injections – proven in the animal model to be effective – were chosen to prolong the animals’ exposure to the respective GBCA. GBCA doses of previous intravenous (IV) animal studies were applied. After five weeks all rats were sacrificed. Sham controls were treated with IP saline injections, employing the same regimen. Results: No findings comparable with human NSF were observed in all animals after IP treatment with all seven GBCA at daily doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mmol/kg body weight (BW). No histopathological abnormalities of all examined organs were noted. Weight loss was stated in weeks three and four with GBCA injections at doses of 5.0 mmol/kg BW, but rats regained weight after cessation of GBCA treatment. Conclusions: NSF-comparable pathological findings could not be induced by high dose intraperitoneal injection of seven GBCA.

  1. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  2. Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopova, V.; Salovsky, P.; Dancheva, V.

    2001-01-01

    The likelihood of toxic pulmonary lesions development as the result of radiation therapy for pulmonary carcinoma and breast cancer is discussed. Two possible forms of radiation induced changes are described, namely: classical radiation pneumonitis (RP) terminating with lung fibrosis circumscribed in the radiation zone, and sporadic RP giving rise to bilateral lymphatic alveolitis and manifestations outside the irradiation field. Attention is called to the fact that chemotherapy augments the risk of toxic lung damage occurrence. A number of markers for early RP diagnosis, including lactate dehydrogenase activity, KL-6, procollagen III, transforming growth factor β, C-reactive protein and partial oxygen pressure are listed. Therapeutic possibilities in coping with RP and pulmonary fibrosis are assayed. Apart from the standard therapeutic approach using corticosteroids and azatioprin, ideas are set forth concerning the application of some antioxidants, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and γ-interferon. It is pointed out that radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis treatment has an essential practical bearing on life expectancy and quality of life in a great number of cancer patients. (author)

  3. Radiotherapy of breast fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibel, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study radiotherapy of breast fibrosis in hormone-treated men with histologically confirmed prostate carcinoma was examined. 10 patients had received hormones even before irradiation, 113 obtained hormone administration only after irradiation. The objective size of the glandular body and the overall size of the breast were measured with a special method developed by the author. 46 patients indicated complaints. With hypertrophic mamma and hypertrophic mamilla in 67 examined patients, 127 different symptoms resulted in total. Four patients of the group who had obtained hormones before irradiation, suffered from subjective symptoms. It resulted that radiotherapy of breast fibrosis carried out during hormone treatment is no gynecomastia prophylaxis, that already existent mamma hypertrophies are irreversible, but that existent sensations were notably reduced within 6 months after irradiation therapy. These results indicate the necessity of a radiotherapy of the mamma fibrosis before the hormone treatment is begun. Particularly in cases of higher operative risks, also the possibility of preferring radiotherapy to mastectomy should be fully utilized, in view of adequate or even better therapeutic results. (orig./MG) [de

  4. How can we not 'lose it' if we still don't understand how to 'use it'? Unanswered questions about the influence of activity participation on cognitive performance in older age--a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A M

    2010-01-01

    The 'use it or lose it' hypothesis of cognitive aging predicts that engagement in intellectual, social, and physical activities offers protective benefits from age-related cognitive decline and lowers dementia risk. Although this hypothesis has not yet been supported conclusively, there is some empirical evidence in favor of the proposal. However, a number of questions surrounding the relationship between activity participation and cognitive ability in older adulthood are not yet well answered. This mini-review identifies seven key methodological and theoretical issues that are critical to our understanding and eventual possible promotion of activity participation as a way to maintain cognitive well-being. These include the mechanisms involved, the optimal ways of assessing activity engagement, which cognitive domains receive the most benefit from activity engagement, the temporal nature and the directionality of the relationship, the influence of demographic variables such as age, gender, or education, and whether one activity domain offers the most benefit to cognition. The current knowledge on each of these issues is critically evaluated, including describing what we already know about the issue, and identifying potential difficulties and opportunities that may exist in finding an answer. More studies need to take on the challenge of specifically targeting these issues, as each is essential to moving the field forward. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. An antisense peptide nucleic acid against Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibiting bacterial-induced inflammatory responses in the cystic fibrosis IB3-1 cellular model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagner, Giulia; Bezzerri, Valentino; Cabrini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    of the essential acpP gene of P. aeruginosa, and previously shown to inhibit bacterial growth, concomitantly also strongly inhibits induced up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory markers IL-8, IL-6, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IP-10, MCP-1 and TNF-α in IB3-1 cystic fibrosis cells infected by P. aeruginosa PAO1. Remarkably...... are significant considering the key role of this protein in the cystic fibrosis inflammatory process exacerbated by P. aeruginosa infection....

  6. Diversity, Prevalence, and Longitudinal Occurrence of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Systems of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infecting Cystic Fibrosis Lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Ghoul, Melanie; Griffin, Ashleigh S.

    2017-01-01

    Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress...... responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms—all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2) limited mutations in core genome TA loci, suggesting they are not under negative selection; (3) no evidence for horizontal transmission of elements with TA systems between clone types within patients, despite their ability...

  7. Immunohistochemical and morphometric evaluation of COX 1 and COX-2 in the remodeled lung in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Roger Parra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the remodeled lung in systemic sclerosis (SSc and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF patients, correlating that expression with patient survival.METHODS: We examined open lung biopsy specimens from 24 SSc patients and 30 IPF patients, using normal lung tissue as a control. The histological patterns included fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP in SSc patients and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP in IPF patients. We used immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry to evaluate the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in alveolar septa, vessels, and bronchioles. We then correlated that expression with pulmonary function test results and evaluated its impact on patient survival.RESULTS: The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in alveolar septa was significantly higher in IPF-UIP and SSc-NSIP lung tissue than in the control tissue. No difference was found between IPF-UIP and SSc-NSIP tissue regarding COX-1 and COX-2 expression. Multivariate analysis based on the Cox regression model showed that the factors associated with a low risk of death were younger age, high DLCO/alveolar volume, IPF, and high COX-1 expression in alveolar septa, whereas those associated with a high risk of death were advanced age, low DLCO/alveolar volume, SSc (with NSIP, and low COX-1 expression in alveolar septa.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that strategies aimed at preventing low COX-1 synthesis will have a greater impact on SSc, whereas those aimed at preventing high COX-2 synthesis will have a greater impact on IPF. However, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed in order to confirm that.

  8. Assessment of tissue fibrosis in skin biopsies from patients with systemic sclerosis employing confocal laser scanning microscopy: an objective outcome measure for clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Joanna; Del Galdo, Francesco; Kissin, Eugene Y.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To obtain an objective, unbiased assessment of skin fibrosis in patients with SSc for use in clinical trials of SSc disease-modifying therapeutics. Methods. Skin biopsies from the dorsal forearm of six patients with diffuse SSc and six healthy controls, and skin biopsies from the forearm of one patient with diffuse SSc before and following 1 year treatment with mycophenolate mofetil were analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with specific antibodies against collagen types I and III or fibronectin. The integrated density of fluorescence (IDF) was calculated employing National Institutes of Health-ImageJ software in at least four different fields per biopsy spanning the full dermal thickness. Results. The intensities of collagen types I and III and fibronectin IDF were 174, 147 and 139% higher in SSc skin than in normal skin, respectively. All differences were statistically significant. The sum of the IDF values obtained for the three proteins yielded a comprehensive fibrosis score. The average fibrosis score for the six SSc samples was 28.3 × 106 compared with 18.6 × 106 for the six normal skin samples (P < 0.0001). Comparison of skin biopsies obtained from the same SSc patient before treatment and after 12 months of treatment with mycophenolate mofetil showed a reduction of 39% in total fibrosis score after treatment. Conclusions. CLSM followed by quantitative image analysis provides an objective and unbiased assessment of skin fibrosis in SSc and could be a useful end-point for clinical trials with disease-modifying agents to monitor the response or progression of the disease. PMID:20202926

  9. Phenotypes selected during chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F; Wang, Hengzhuang

    2012-01-01

    During chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods of time under the challenging selective pressure imposed by the immune system and antibiotic treatment as a result of its biofilm mode of growth and adaptive evolution mediated by g...... the importance of biofilm prevention strategies by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy before phenotypic diversification during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis....

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Related Disorders among Female Yazidi Refugees following Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Attacks—A Case Series and Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gerdau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the severe attacks by the so-called “Islamic State of Iraq and Syria” on the Yazidi population, which started in summer 2014, the state government of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, funded a Special-Quota Project to bring 1,000 very ill or left-behind women and children who were being held hostage to 22 cities and towns in Baden-Württemberg to receive integrated care. Here, we report for the first time on the cases of four Yazidi women living in Ulm, Germany, focusing on the clinically observed and psychometrically assessed mental phenomena or disorders. Our primary aim was to explore what International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnoses are present in this population. Although highly traumatized, these women were suffering primarily from adjustment disorder rather than posttraumatic stress disorder according to official classification systems. Despite their symptoms of depression and anxiety, the women’s responses to self-assessment questionnaires provided no evidence of compulsion, somatization, or eating disorders. The results suggest that further investigation of the individual-level effects of rape and torture, as well the historic, systemic, and collective effects, e.g., on families and societies, is required.

  11. Adeno-associated virus for cystic fibrosis gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Martini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an alternative treatment for genetic lung disease, especially monogenic disorders such as cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a severe autosomal recessive disease affecting one in 2500 live births in the white population, caused by mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The disease is classically characterized by pancreatic enzyme insufficiency, an increased concentration of chloride in sweat, and varying severity of chronic obstructive lung disease. Currently, the greatest challenge for gene therapy is finding an ideal vector to deliver the transgene (CFTR to the affected organ (lung. Adeno-associated virus is the most promising viral vector system for the treatment of respiratory disease because it has natural tropism for airway epithelial cells and does not cause any human disease. This review focuses on the basic properties of adeno-associated virus and its use as a vector for cystic fibrosis gene therapy.

  12. Hypothyrodism as a risk factor of periodontitis and its relation with vitamin D deficiency: mini-review of literature and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussif, Nermin M; El-Mahdi, Fatema Mohammed; Wagih, Rasha

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the role and efficiency of the intra-ligamentary injection of vitamin D and calcium in the treatment of chronic periodontitis associated with hypothyroidism. A 43-year-old female with suspected hypothyroidism who revealed severe chronic periodontitis with grade III mobility. Pre-operative periodontal and systemic control preceded the used intervention. After 3 months, intra-ligamentary injectable vitamin D with calcium was introduced. Clinical evaluation revealed great improvement of the injected sites. Marked reduction of mobility, pocket depth and bleeding were detected. Injectabe vitamin D is an adjunctive treatment modality that needs to be discovered in another way. It may provide further solutions for the periodontal regeneration problem. Clinical studies with large sample sizes and long term follow up are needed.

  13. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addolorata Corrado

    Full Text Available A reduced bone mineral density (BMD is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc; nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content.

  14. High resolution computed tomography of the chest in cystic fibrosis (CF): is simplification of scoring systems feasible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Prassopoulos, Panos [University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Radiology, Dragana, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Tsanakas, John; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Kirvassilis, Fotios [Ippokratio Hospital of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 3d Department of Pediatrics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Efremidis, Stavros [University Hospital of Ioannina, University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to simplify HRCT scoring systems (SS) for CF by selecting representative HRCT parameters. Forty-two consecutive patients with CF underwent baseline and follow-up chest HRCT. Three radiologists evaluated 84 HRCTs employing five SS. ''Simplified'' HRCT SS were formed by selection of parameters exhibiting statistically significant relations with FEV1. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and nutrition (IBW%) were recorded. Regression analysis, Pearson correlation and T-test were used for statistical analysis. Three HRCT parameters were selected for the formation of ''simplified'' HRCT SS (severity of bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, atelectasis-consolidation) using regression analysis. There was excellent correlation between each ''simplified'' and corresponding complete score (0.892 < r < 0.0967, p < 0.0001) or the remaining four complete scores (0.786 < r < 0.961, p < 0.0001). Strong correlation was found among the five ''simplified'' scores (0.803 < r < 0.997, p < 0.0001). Comparing baseline complete and ''simplified'' scores with corresponding follow-up ones, significant worsening was observed (p < 0.0001). PFTs and IBW% did not change significantly. HRCT scores correlated moderately with FVC and FEV1, but there was no correlation with FEF25-75 and IBW%. ''Simplified'' HRCT SS are as reliable as the complete ones and detect progression of lung disease earlier than clinical parameters. They are easy to use and could be adopted in clinical practice. (orig.)

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis after Wilms' tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.A.; Marshall, G.S.; Neblett, W.W.; Gray, G.; Ghishan, F.K.

    1986-01-01

    A 9-yr-old girl developed massive hemorrhage from esophageal varices 2 yr after combined modality therapy for Wilms' tumor. Evaluation showed a patent extrahepatic portal venous system and an elevated splenic pulp pressure. In contrast to previous reports of hepatopathy after irradiation injury, histologic sections of the liver did not demonstrate occlusion of the central veins, but rather a diffuse obliteration of intrahepatic portal venous radicles. This pattern of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis has not been described following antitumor therapy

  17. Consideration of food wastage along the supply chain in lifecycle assessments: A mini-review based on the case of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna Karin; Cánovas, Alba; Valle, Rogerio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, increased light has been shed on the large amounts of food wasted along the food supply chain (FSC). As lifecycle assessments (LCAs) are commonly used for estimations of environmental impacts from food production, it is relevant to investigate and discuss how such wastage is reflected in foodstuff LCAs. The objective of the present paper is to review a larger set of LCAs of foodstuff in order to (1) investigate if and how wastage along the FSC is addressed and (2) explore the importance of including wastage accumulated along the FSC in terms of environmental impacts. Twenty-eight LCA case studies and two review papers, focusing on tomatoes, were reviewed and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions chosen as indicator for the second objective. Only one third of the studies consider wastage at some part of the supply chain, in many cases in an inconsistent manner, and only in nine cases were GHG emissions from wastage included in overall systems GHG emissions. In these, wastage accounts for between 2 and 33% of total contribution to climate change. Omitting wastage when conducting LCA of foodstuff could result in underestimations of environmental impacts. Occurrence of wastage along all phases of the supply chain should be acknowledged in order to estimate environmental benefits from prevention and to identify areas where strategies with the aim of reducing wastage could be most efficient.

  18. Mini Review: Anticholinergic Activity as a Behavioral Pathology of Lewy Body Disease and Proposal of the Concept of “Anticholinergic Spectrum Disorders”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the relationship between anticholinergic activity (AA and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we rereview our hypothesis of the endogenous appearance of AA in AD. Briefly, because acetylcholine (ACh regulates not only cognitive function but also the inflammatory system, when ACh downregulation reaches a critical level, inflammation increases, triggering the appearance of cytokines with AA. Moreover, based on a case report of a patient with mild AD and slightly deteriorated ACh, we also speculate that AA can appear endogenously in Lewy body disease due to the dual action of the downregulation of ACh and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Based on these hypotheses, we consider AA to be a behavioral pathology of Lewy body disease. We also propose the concept of “anticholinergic spectrum disorders,” which encompass a variety of conditions, including AD, Lewy body disease, and delirium. Finally, we suggest the prescription of cholinesterase inhibitors to patients in this spectrum of disorders to abolish AA by upregulating ACh.

  19. Microalgae for third generation biofuel production, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and wastewater treatment: Present and future perspectives – A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-01-01

    The extensive use of fossil fuels is increasingly recognized as unsustainable as a consequence of depletion of supplies and the contribution of these fuels to climate change by GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions into the atmosphere. Microalgae indicate alternative renewable sustainable energy sources as they have a high potential for producing large amounts of biomass which in turn can be used for production of different third-generation biofuels at large scale. Microalgae transform the solar energy into the carbon storage products, leads to lipid accumulation, including TAG (triacylglycerols), which then can be transformed into biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethanol. This paper reviews the selection, production and accumulation of target bioenergy carrier's strains and their advantages as well as the technological development for oil, biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, biogas production and GHG mitigation. The feedstock of promising algal strain exhibits the suitable biofuel production. The current progress of hybrid-technologies (biomass production, wastewater treatment, GHG mitigation) for production of prime-products as biofuels offer atmospheric pollution control such as the reduction of GHG (CO 2 fixation) coupling wastewater treatment with microalgae growth. The selection of efficient strain, microbial metabolism, cultivation systems, biomass production are key parameters of viable technology for microalgae-based biodiesel-production. - Highlights: • Microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuel production within lower farming area. • Production rate (L/ha) of oil from microalgae is much higher than other feedstock. • Lipid of Chlorella emersonii, Botryococcus braunii, Dunaliella tertiolecta, are high (>60% of dw biomass). • Remove pollutant from wastewater during feedstock production by selective strains. • Ecofriendly route to mitigate GHG (greenhouse gas) and water pollution during microalgae production

  20. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis and Ormond's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacl, G.M.; Bino, M.; Salomon, F.; Risti, B.; Marincek, B.

    1995-01-01

    Two cases of thoracic periaortal fibrosis as a manifestation of retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond's disease) are shown on CT and MRI. Thoracic periaortal fibrosis can result in an inflammatory aneurysmo with chronic dissection. Manifestation of thoracic periaortal fibrosis may typically occur intermittently over decades. (orig.) [de

  1. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  2. Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM is a rare disorder characterized by hereditary non-progressive restrictive strabismus and blepharoptosis. Although most of the cases are bilateral and isolated, some patients may have systemic findings. CFEOM is divided into three groups as CFEOM 1, 2, and 3 according to the phenotype. Primary responsible genes are KIF21A for CFEOM type 1 and 3 and PHOX2A/ARIX gene for CFEOM type 2. Studies suggest that abnormal innervation of the extraocular muscles is the cause of muscle fibrosis. Early treatment is important because of the risk of amblyopia. Surgery is the primary treatment option for strabismus and blepharoptosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 312-5

  3. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis has historically been considered a pulmonary disease, but with the increasing life expectancy of these patients, gastrointestinal manifestations are becoming more important. Furthermore, nutritional status is closely linked to pulmonary function and, thus, overall mortality. This article discusses gastrointestinal manifestations (which involve nutritional, pancreatic, hepatobiliary, and, in particular, gastrointestinal tract issues) of cystic fibrosis as well as management of the disease. In addition, the article discusses studies that have been critical to our understanding of gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27330503

  4. Radiotherapy and pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S; Miyata, Y; Tachiiri, H [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Clinical findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were outlined, and the relationship between occurence of these disorders and radiotherapy, clinical findings and X-ray picture were studied. Standard radiation dose as cell lethal response of carcinoma of the lung were 4,500 to 5,500 rad in 4 to 5.5 weeks in undifferentiated carcinoma, 6,000 to 7,000 rad in 6 to 7 weeks in squamous cell carcinoma, 7,000 to 9,000 rad in 7 to 9 weeks in adenocarcinoma, 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4 to 5 weeks in the large sized cancer of the esophagus, 6,500 to 7,000 rad in 5 to 7 weeks in the small sized cancer of the esophagus, and irradiation of these amount of dose caused hazards in pulmonary function. Pathological and clinical findings of pulmonary hazards within 6 month period after irradiation, factors causing them and changes in X-ray pictures before and after irradiation were observed and discussed in clinical cases: the case of breast cancer in which 3,000 R/6 times/18 days of 5.5 MeV Liniac electron was irradiated to the chest wall, and the case of pulmonary cancer in which 5,000 rad/25 times/34 days of 6 MeV Liniac X-ray was irradiated in opposite 2 ports radiation beam treatment. The former revealed alveolar lesion and interlobular pleuritis at 4 month later, and remarkable lesion of pulmonary fibrosis was followed at 9 month after radiotherapy. The later developed radiation pneumonitis 1 month after radiotherapy, of which lesion extended to the upper part by 3 months later, and cancer recurred 6.5 month later.

  5. A personal mini-review in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    I review the major events in my personal history which more-or-less determined my particular career in physics. Much of the emphasis is on β-decay, since so much of my work, both experimental and theoretical has been bound up in this subject

  6. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  7. Atmospheric rivers: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eGimeno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric rivers (ARs are narrow regions responsible for the majority of the poleward water vapour transport across the midlatitudes. They are characterized by high water vapour content and strong low level winds, and form a part of the broader warm conveyor belt of extratropical cyclones. Although the meridional water vapour transport within ARs is critical for water resources, ARs can also cause disastrous floods especially when encountering mountainous terrain. They were labelled as atmospheric rivers in the 1990s, and have since become a well-studied feature of the midlatitude climate. We briefly review the conceptual model, the methods used to identify them, their main climatological characteristics, their impacts, the predictive ability of numerical weather prediction models, their relationship with large-scale ocean-atmosphere dynamics, possible changes under future climates, and some future challenges.

  8. Brain visual impairment in childhood: mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozeis, N

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.

  9. Essentials of Conservation Biotechnology: A mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlyn Keziah, S.; Subathra Devi, C.

    2017-11-01

    Equilibrium of biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of the ecosystem as they are interdependent on each other. The decline in biodiversity is a global problem and an inevitable threat to the mankind. Major threats include unsustainable exploitation, habitat destruction, fragmentation, transformation, genetic pollution, invasive exotic species and degradation. This review covers the management strategies of biotechnology which include sin situ, ex situ conservation, computerized taxonomic analysis through construction of phylogenetic trees, calculating genetic distance, prioritizing the group for conservation, digital preservation of biodiversities within the coding and decoding keys, molecular approaches to asses biodiversity like polymerase chain reaction, real time, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, single sequence repeats, DNA finger printing, single nucleotide polymorphism, cryopreservation and vitrification.

  10. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulay, E A; Hoyte, O P-A

    2015-06-01

    Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated cost of 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this "non-communicable" disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation.

  11. Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, DM; Knill, DC; Bavelier, D

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recove...

  12. Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Knill, David C; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-09-01

    Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recovery of function. Over the past two decades there has been a rekindling of interest in developing more effective methods for treating amblyopia, and for extending the treatment beyond the critical period, as exemplified by new clinical trials and new basic research studies. The focus of this review is on stereopsis and its potential for recovery. Impaired stereoscopic depth perception is the most common deficit associated with amblyopia under ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions (Webber & Wood, 2005). Our review of the extant literature suggests that this impairment may have a substantial impact on visuomotor tasks, difficulties in playing sports in children and locomoting safely in older adults. Furthermore, impaired stereopsis may also limit career options for amblyopes. Finally, stereopsis is more impacted in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Our review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. However, recovery of stereoacuity may require more active treatment in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Individuals with strabismic amblyopia have a very low probability of improvement with monocular training; however they fare better with dichoptic training than with monocular training, and even better with direct stereo training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mini-review: Far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105 0 , but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereopsis and amblyopia: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M.; Knill, David C.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children. Amblyopia is also of basic interest because it reflects the neural impairment that occurs when normal visual development is disrupted. Amblyopia provides an ideal model for understanding when and how brain plasticity may be harnessed for recovery of function. Over the past two decades there has been a rekindling of interest in developing more effective methods for treating amblyopia, and for extending the treatment beyond the critical period, as exemplified by new clinical trials and new basic research studies. The focus of this review is on stereopsis and its potential for recovery. Impaired stereoscopic depth perception is the most common deficit associated with amblyopia under ordinary (binocular) viewing conditions (Webber & Wood, 2005). Our review of the extant literature suggests that this impairment may have a substantial impact on visuomotor tasks, difficulties in playing sports in children and locomoting safely in older adults. Furthermore, impaired stereopsis may also limit career options for amblyopes. Finally, stereopsis is more impacted in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Our review of the various approaches to treating amblyopia (patching, perceptual learning, videogames) suggests that there are several promising new approaches to recovering stereopsis in both anisometropic and strabismic amblyopes. However, recovery of stereoacuity may require more active treatment in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Individuals with strabismic amblyopia have a very low probability of improvement with monocular training; however they fare better with dichoptic training than with monocular training, and even better with direct stereo training. PMID:25637854

  15. Mini-review of wind energy 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At the 1995 meeting of the International Energy Agency CADDET renewable energy technologies programme, contributors aimed to advise on wind energy use and identify future needs for analysis of future trends and review research tasks. Three major trends leading to the commercial exploitation of wind energy are identified. Firstly, cost reduction and increased efficiency is aimed at through technical innovation, economies of scale and reduced labour costs. The environmental and social benefits of wind energy are acknowledged in the second place. Lastly, wind turbine deployment has been given decisive market incentives. Two major barriers block the development of the wind energy market, availability of site locations and the current economic state of countries likely to espouse wind energy. (UK)

  16. Diagnosis of different liver fibrosis characteristics by blood tests in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, Paul; Boursier, Jérôme; Chaigneau, Julien; Lainé, Fabrice; Sandrini, Jeremy; Michalak, Sophie; Hubert, Isabelle; Dib, Nina; Oberti, Frédéric; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hunault, Gilles; Cavaro-Ménard, Christine; Gallois, Yves; Deugnier, Yves; Rousselet, Marie C

    2010-10-01

    Our aim was to develop an accurate, non-invasive, blood-test-based method for identifying the main characteristics of liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fibrosis was staged according to NASH-CRN and Metavir systems in 226 patients with NAFLD. A fully automated algorithm measured the fractal dimension (FD) and the area of fibrosis (AOF). Independent predictors of diagnostic targets were determined using bootstrap methods. (i) Development. Significant fibrosis defined by NASH-CRN F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, glycaemia, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and prothrombin index [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC)=0.867]; significant fibrosis defined by Metavir F ≥2 was diagnosed by weight, age, glycaemia, AST, ALT, ferritin and platelets (FibroMeter AUROC=0.941, Pfibrosis staging, Metavir staging was a better reference for blood test. Thus, the patient rate with predictive values ≥90% by tests was 97.3% with Metavir reference vs. 66.5% with NASH-CRN reference (Pfibrosis score for significant fibrosis, but not for severe fibrosis or cirrhosis, with both staging systems. Relationships between fibrosis lesions were well reflected by blood tests, e.g., the correlation between histological area and FD of fibrosis (r(s) =0.971, Pblood tests (r(s) =0.852, Pfibrosis in NAFLD can be diagnosed and quantified by blood tests with excellent accuracy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The Vitamin D for Enhancing the Immune System in Cystic Fibrosis (DISC trial: Rationale and design of a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of high dose bolus administration of vitamin D3 during acute pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vin Tangpricha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF. Recent studies have found an association between vitamin D status and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in children and adults with CF. The ongoing Vitamin D for enhancing the Immune System in Cystic fibrosis (DISC study, a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, will test the hypothesis of whether high dose vitamin D given as a single oral bolus of 250,000 IU to adults with CF during a pulmonary exacerbation followed by a maintenance dose of vitamin D will improve time to next pulmonary exacerbation and re-hospitalization, improve survival and lung function compared to placebo and reduce the rates of pulmonary exacerbation. Subjects will be randomized 1:1 at each clinical site to vitamin D or placebo within 72 h of hospital admission for pulmonary exacerbation. Clinical follow-up visits will occur at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after randomization. Blood and sputum will be collected and determination of clinical outcomes will be assessed at each visit. The primary endpoint will be the time to next pulmonary exacerbation requiring antibiotics, re-hospitalization or death. The secondary endpoints will include lung function assessed by forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, blood markers of inflammatory cytokines, anti-microbial peptide expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating concentrations in blood. Other exploratory endpoints will examine the phenotype of neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages in sputum. Nutritional status will be assessed by 3 day food records and food frequency questionnaire.

  18. Gene therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flotte, T R; Laube, B L

    2001-09-01

    Theoretically, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene replacement during the neonatal period can decrease morbidity and mortality from cystic fibrosis (CF). In vivo gene transfers have been accomplished in CF patients. Choice of vector, mode of delivery to airways, translocation of genetic information, and sufficient expression level of the normalized CFTR gene are issues that currently are being addressed in the field. The advantages and limitations of viral vectors are a function of the parent virus. Viral vectors used in this setting include adenovirus (Ad) and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Initial studies with Ad vectors resulted in a vector that was efficient for gene transfer with dose-limiting inflammatory effects due to the large amount of viral protein delivered. The next generation of Ad vectors, with more viral coding sequence deletions, has a longer duration of activity and elicits a lesser degree of cell-mediated immunity in mice. A more recent generation of Ad vectors has no viral genes remaining. Despite these changes, the problem of humoral immunity remains with Ad vectors. A variety of strategies such as vector systems requiring single, or widely spaced, administrations, pharmacologic immunosuppression at administration, creation of a stealth vector, modification of immunogenic epitopes, or tolerance induction are being considered to circumvent humoral immunity. AAV vectors have been studied in animal and human models. They do not appear to induce inflammatory changes over a wide range of doses. The level of CFTR messenger RNA expression is difficult to ascertain with AAV vectors since the small size of the vector relative to the CFTR gene leaves no space for vector-specific sequences on which to base assays to distinguish endogenous from vector-expressed messenger RNA. In general, AAV vectors appear to be safe and have superior duration profiles. Cationic liposomes are lipid-DNA complexes. These vectors generally have been

  19. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points.

  20. Respiratory muscle training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Nathan; Solis-Moya, Arturo

    2018-05-24

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of most recent search: 17 April 2018.A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases up until 07 May 2018. Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 19 studies, of which nine studies with 202 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the nine included studies were published as abstracts only and lacking concise details, thus limiting the information available. Seven studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory

  1. Breakdown in Breathing: The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthier Lungs in Kids Wise Choices Living with Cystic Fibrosis In between checkups, practice good self-care and ... Links What Is Cystic Fibrosis? Learning About Cystic Fibrosis NIH Cystic Fibrosis Fact Sheet Genetic and Rare Diseases Information ...

  2. Cystic fibrosis: a clinical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Carlo; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene on chromosome 7, is complex and greatly variable in clinical expression. Airways, pancreas, male genital system, intestine, liver, bone, and kidney are involved. The lack of CFTR or its impaired function causes fat malabsorption and chronic pulmonary infections leading to bronchiectasis and progressive lung damage. Previously considered lethal in infancy and childhood, CF has now attained median survivals of 50 years of age, mainly thanks to the early diagnosis through neonatal screening, recognition of mild forms, and an aggressive therapeutic attitude. Classical treatment includes pancreatic enzyme replacement, respiratory physiotherapy, mucolitics, and aggressive antibiotic therapy. A significant proportion of patients with severe symptoms still requires lung or, less frequently, liver transplantation. The great number of mutations and their diverse effects on the CFTR protein account only partially for CF clinical variability, and modifier genes have a role in modulating the clinical expression of the disease. Despite the increasing understanding of CFTR functioning, several aspects of CF need still to be clarified, e.g., the worse outcome in females, the risk of malignancies, the pathophysiology, and best treatment of comorbidities, such as CF-related diabetes or CF-related bone disorder. Research is focusing on new drugs restoring CFTR function, some already available and with good clinical impact, others showing promising preliminary results that need to be confirmed in phase III clinical trials.

  3. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  4. rheumatoid arthritis associated with pulmonary fibrosis in nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various pulmonary manifestations have been reported in the developed world, these include diffuse interstitial fibrosis ... system revealed pulse of 70bpm, BP 110/70 mmHg,. Apex beat not displaced, heart sounds I, II and normal. ... Other systems were essentially normal. Laboratory investigations showed elevated ESR.

  5. Fibrosis imaging : Current concepts and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baues, Maike; Dasgupta, Anshuman; Ehling, Josef; Prakash, Jai; Boor, Peter; Tacke, Frank; Kiessling, Fabian; Lammers, Twan

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis plays an important role in many different pathologies. It results from tissue injury, chronic inflammation, autoimmune reactions and genetic alterations, and it is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components. Biopsies are routinely employed for fibrosis

  6. Computed tomography of cystic pancreatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachlow, M.; Zaunbauer, W.; Haertel, M.

    1984-01-01

    The computer tomographic appearances of atrophic and lipomatous degeneration of the pancreas in cystic pancreatic fibrosis are described. CT exploration of the pancreas in recommended, particularly in differential diagnostic aspects of cystic fibrosis. (orig.) [de

  7. Cystic fibrosis in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors reviewed adult cystic fibrosis patients followed in the Pulmonology Unit from 1994-2004 (n = 8, five female and three male, aged 20-34 years old (median = 27 years. Patients were diagnosed at 18 months - 31 years old by sweat testing (positive in six patients and genotyping (four patients homozygous for ΔF508 mutation.Respiratory involvement was characterised by sinusitis and bronchiectasis. Pulmonary involvement was accompanied by functional abnormalities and gas exchange impairment in the majority of the patients. Bronchial tree was colonised permanently in five patients: Pseudomonas aeruginosa in four and Staphilococcus aureus in four (three patients affected by both agents simultaneously.The main causes of exacerbation were respiratory infections and haemoptysis.Non-respiratory involvement was variable. Four patients had digestive involvement (one with hepatic cirrhosis, one had renal failure and only one had a sperm count to document infertility. Four patients had osteopaenia.Treatment included chest physiotherapy, bronchodilators, dornase alfa, mucolytics, digestive enzymes, vitamins, antibiotics and oxygen therapy.At review, one had left follow-up, one had died, one was awaiting lung transplant and the others evidenced no difference in clinical characteristics.In this group of patients the severity of the pulmonary disease was not related to a late diagnosis. It can be explained by the diversity of cystic fibrosis presentation in adults Resumo: Os autores efectuaram uma revisão de doentes adultos com fibrose quística (FQ, seguidos na consulta de Pneumologia no período de 1994-2004 (n = 8: cinco mulheres e três homens, com idades compreendidas entre 20 e 34 anos (mediana  =  27 anos, cuja idade de diagnóstico variou entre os 18 meses e os 31 anos.O diagnóstico foi obtido por prova de suor (positiva em seis doentes e estudo genético (homozigotia para a mutação ΔF508 em

  8. Lung function imaging methods in Cystic Fibrosis pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Magdalena; de Veer, Michael J; Cholewa, Marian; Egan, Gary F; Thompson, Bruce R

    2017-05-17

    Monitoring of pulmonary physiology is fundamental to the clinical management of patients with Cystic Fibrosis. The current standard clinical practise uses spirometry to assess lung function which delivers a clinically relevant functional readout of total lung function, however does not supply any visible or localised information. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is a well-established current 'gold standard' method for monitoring lung anatomical changes in Cystic Fibrosis patients. HRCT provides excellent morphological information, however, the X-ray radiation dose can become significant if multiple scans are required to monitor chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis. X-ray phase-contrast imaging is another emerging X-ray based methodology for Cystic Fibrosis lung assessment which provides dynamic morphological and functional information, albeit with even higher X-ray doses than HRCT. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-ionising radiation imaging method that is garnering growing interest among researchers and clinicians working with Cystic Fibrosis patients. Recent advances in MRI have opened up the possibilities to observe lung function in real time to potentially allow sensitive and accurate assessment of disease progression. The use of hyperpolarized gas or non-contrast enhanced MRI can be tailored to clinical needs. While MRI offers significant promise it still suffers from poor spatial resolution and the development of an objective scoring system especially for ventilation assessment.

  9. Systemic right ventricular fibrosis detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance is associated with clinical outcome, mainly new-onset atrial arrhythmia, in patients after atrial redirection surgery for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydman, Riikka; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Ho, Siew Yen; Ernst, Sabine; Swan, Lorna; Li, Wei; Wong, Tom; Sheppard, Mary; McCarthy, Karen P; Roughton, Michael; Kilner, Philip J; Pennell, Dudley J; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that fibrosis detected by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts outcomes in patients with transposition of the great arteries post atrial redirection surgery. These patients have a systemic right ventricle (RV) and are at risk of arrhythmia, premature RV failure, and sudden death. Fifty-five patients (aged 27±7 years) underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance and were followed for a median 7.8 (interquartile range, 3.8-9.6) years in a prospective single-center cohort study. RV LGE was present in 31 (56%) patients. The prespecified composite clinical end point comprised new-onset sustained tachyarrhythmia (atrial/ventricular) or decompensated heart failure admission/transplantation/death. Univariate predictors of the composite end point (n=22 patients; 19 atrial/2 ventricular tachyarrhythmia, 1 death) included RV LGE presence and extent, RV volumes/mass/ejection fraction, right atrial area, peak Vo(2), and age at repair. In bivariate analysis, RV LGE presence was independently associated with the composite end point (hazard ratio, 4.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.60-15.28]; P=0.005), and only percent predicted peak Vo(2) remained significantly associated with cardiac events after controlling for RV LGE (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95]; P=0.009/5%). In 8 of 9 patients with >1 event, atrial tachyarrhythmia, itself a known risk factor for mortality, occurred first. There was agreement between location and extent of RV LGE at in vivo cardiovascular magnetic resonance and histologically documented focal RV fibrosis in an explanted heart. There was RV LGE progression in a different case restudied for clinical indications. Systemic RV LGE is strongly associated with adverse clinical outcome especially arrhythmia in transposition of the great arteries, thus LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance should be incorporated in risk stratification of these patients. © 2015 American Heart

  10. Areca nut and its role in oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Rachana V; Prabhu, Vishnudas; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashant; Suvarna, Nithin; Dandekeri, Savita

    2014-12-01

    Areca nut, commonly called as betel nut or supari, is a fruit of areca catechu palm tree, which is native of South Asia and Pacific Islands. The seed or endosperm is consumed fresh, boiled or after sun drying or curing. Chewing areca nut is thought to have central nervous system stimulating effect and along with this it is known to have salivary stimulating and digestive properties. According to the traditional Ayurvedic medicine, chewing areca nut and betel leaf is a good remedy against halitosis. It is also used for its deworming property. Along with these beneficial effects of areca nut one of its most harmful effects on the human body in general and oral cavity in particular is the development of potentially malignant disorder called Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The present paper discusses in detail the effects of the components of areca nut on pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. Key words:Areca nut, oral submucous fibrosis, potentially malignant disorder, supari.

  11. The Role of Vitamin A in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Rogovyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is hereditary monogenic exocrine disease, which manifests itself most often by disorders in bronchopulmonary and digestive systems. The affection of the latter leads to deficiency of liposoluble vitamins A, D, E and K in the body of the patient. The lack and excess of vitamin A in this disease may contribute to a number of pathological states and aggravate the disease. Therefore, in the records of all European centers of cystic fibrosis it is recommended to carry out annual determination of the levels of vitamin A, followed by individual dose adjustment.

  12. Epidemiological evaluation regarding the role of cystic fibrosis as a risk factor for child malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florescu, Laura; Paduraru, Dana Teodora Anton; Mîndru, Dana Elena; Temneanu, Oana Raluea; Petrariu, F D; Matei, Mioara Calipsoana

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common monogenic autosomal recessive disorder with progressive chronic evolution which is potentially lethal. Poor growth is a characteristic of children suffering from cystic fibrosis. A poor nutritional status is an independent risk factor for inadequate survival in cystic fibrosis and is associated with disease complications. The appropriate nutritional management is an important part of the treatment so that the patient with cystic fibrosis can achieve normal growth and development and maintain the best possible health status. A balanced diet supplemented with snacks high in fat and calories is necessary to increase the caloric intake in children with cystic fibrosis. Children with cystic fibrosis have higher caloric needs than healthy children of the same age and sex. Malnutrition in CF is multifactorial. Cystic fibrosis is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. Cystic fibrosis remains a paediatric disorder which is often underdiagnosed but which, if therapeutically managed properly (by means of drug therapy as well as by appropriate physiotherapy techniques), can lead to improved quality of life and, thus, to a bigger life expectancy.

  13. Radiation pericarditis and myocardial fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerhof, P W; van der Putte, S C.J.

    1976-06-01

    The case of a 45-yr-old man with constrictive pericarditis due to radiation for Hodgkin's disease is described. After pericardiectomy the clinical condition did not improve. At necropsy an extensive fibrosis of the myocardium especially located in the anterior part of the heart was found. The clinical consequences of this finding with respect to surgical treatment are briefly discussed.

  14. Hepatic fibrosis: Concept to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christian; Friedman, Scott L; Schuppan, Detlef; Pinzani, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying liver fibrogenesis is fundamentally relevant to developing new treatments that are independent of the underlying etiology. The increasing success of antiviral treatments in blocking or reversing the fibrogenic progression of chronic liver disease has unearthed vital information about the natural history of fibrosis regression, and has established important principles and targets for antifibrotic drugs. Although antifibrotic activity has been demonstrated for many compounds in vitro and in animal models, none has been thoroughly validated in the clinic or commercialized as a therapy for fibrosis. In addition, it is likely that combination therapies that affect two or more key pathogenic targets and/or pathways will be needed. To accelerate the preclinical development of these combination therapies, reliable single target validation is necessary, followed by the rational selection and systematic testing of combination approaches. Improved noninvasive tools for the assessment of fibrosis content, fibrogenesis and fibrolysis must accompany in vivo validation in experimental fibrosis models, and especially in clinical trials. The rapidly changing landscape of clinical trial design for liver disease is recognized by regulatory agencies in the United States (FDA) and Western Europe (EMA), who are working together with the broad range of stakeholders to standardize approaches to testing antifibrotic drugs in cohorts of patients with chronic liver diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Genetic counseling in cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, S; Bieth, E

    2000-08-01

    Genetic counseling is an important part of health care in patients with cystic fibrosis or respiratory diseases associated with the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene, including certain types of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergilloses or bronchial diseases (diffuse bronchiectasia). The basic goal is to provide patients with information on the transmission of cystic fibrosis and to asses the risk of recurrence. This risk is determined from molecular biology analyses examining the CFTR gene. Genotyping is the only means of screening for the heterozygous state, frequent in the French population (about 1/30). Because of the large number of mutated alleles not covered entirely by the genetic tests, there remains a question of probability expressed as a residual risk of a heterozygous state. A prenatal genotype diagnosis should be proposed to heterozygous couples who have a 25% risk of having a diseased child. Technically, this is almost always possible and the results are highly reliable. Nevertheless, there remains the risks related to sample taking and the ethical issue about which the patients must be informed. Management of these at risk couples who desire a child must be based on a multidisciplinary approach, particularly important when one of the parents has overt cystic fibrosis.

  16. Jaccoud's arthropathy and pulmonary fibrosis in CREST syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinel B, Nestor; Montenegro, Pablo; Rondon Federico; Restrepo, Jose F; Iglesias G, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 48 years old patient with diagnosis of incomplete CREST syndrome (variant limited systemic sclerosis) in who we documented the presence of Jaccoud's arthropathy of the hands and pulmonary involvement by pulmonary fibrosis type usual interstitial pneumonia, with positivity for rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody.

  17. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhan, Okan; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Ergen, Bilge

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue

  18. Global impact of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Redondo

    2016-09-01

    To understand variation in the aetiology, microbiology and burden of bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis across different global healthcare systems.; Bronchiectasis is the term used to refer to dilatation of the bronchi that is usually permanent and is associated with a clinical syndrome of cough, sputum production and recurrent respiratory infections. It can be caused by a range of inherited and acquired disorders, or may be idiopathic in nature. The most well recognised inherited disorder in Western countries is cystic fibrosis (CF, an autosomal recessive condition that leads to progressive bronchiectasis, bacterial infection and premature mortality. Both bronchiectasis due to CF and bronchiectasis due to other conditions are placing an increasing burden on healthcare systems internationally. Treatments for CF are becoming more effective leading to more adult patients with complex healthcare needs. Bronchiectasis not due to CF is becoming increasingly recognised, particularly in the elderly population. Recognition is important and can lead to identification of the underlying cause, appropriate treatment and improved quality of life. The disease is highly diverse in its presentation, requiring all respiratory physicians to have knowledge of the different “bronchiectasis syndromes”. The most common aetiologies and presenting syndromes vary depending on geography, with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease predominating in some parts of North America, post-infectious and idiopathic disease predominating in Western Europe, and post-tuberculosis bronchiectasis dominating in South Asia and Eastern Europe. Ongoing global collaborative studies will greatly advance our understanding of the international impact of bronchiectasis and CF.

  19. Imaging findings in congenital hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: akhano@tr.net; Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Ergen, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a rare congenital multisystemic disorder, mostly inherited in autosomal recessive fashion, primarily affecting renal and hepatobiliary systems. Main underlying process of the disease is the malformation of the ductal plate, the embryological precursor of the biliary system, and secondary biliary strictures and periportal fibrosis ultimately leading to portal hypertension. The natural course of the disease is highly variable ranging from minimally symptomatic disease to true cirrhosis of the liver. However, in most patients the most common manifestations of the diseases that are related to portal hypertension, particularly splenomegaly and bleeding varices. Many other disease processes may co-exist with the disease including Caroli's disease, choledochal cysts and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) reflecting the mulstisystemic nature of the disease. The associating biliary ductal disease led the authors to think that all these entities are a continuum and different reflections of the same underlying pathophysiological process. Although, conventional method of diagnosis of CHF is the liver biopsy the advent of imaging technologies and modalities, today, may permit the correct diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. Characteristic imaging features are generally present and recognition of these findings may obviate liver biopsy while preserving the diagnostic accuracy. In this article, it is aimed to increase the awareness of the practising radiologists to the imaging findings of this uncommon clinical disorder and trail the blaze for future articles relating to this issue.

  20. Protein S is protective in pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urawa, M; Kobayashi, T; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, C N; Fujimoto, H; Toda, M; Roeen, Z; Hinneh, J A; Yasuma, T; Takei, Y; Taguchi, O; Gabazza, E C

    2016-08-01

    Essentials Epithelial cell apoptosis is critical in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Protein S, a circulating anticoagulant, inhibited apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. Overexpression of protein S in lung cells reduced bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Intranasal therapy with exogenous protein S ameliorated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Background Pulmonary fibrosis is the terminal stage of interstitial lung diseases, some of them being incurable and of unknown etiology. Apoptosis plays a critical role in lung fibrogenesis. Protein S is a plasma anticoagulant with potent antiapoptotic activity. The role of protein S in pulmonary fibrosis is unknown. Objectives To evaluate the clinical relevance of protein S and its protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Results The circulating level of protein S was measured in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and controls by the use of enzyme immunoassays. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with bleomycin in transgenic mice overexpressing human protein S and wild-type mice, and exogenous protein S or vehicle was administered to wild-type mice; fibrosis was then compared in both models. Patients with pulmonary fibrosis had reduced circulating levels of protein S as compared with controls. Inflammatory changes, the levels of profibrotic cytokines, fibrosis score, hydroxyproline content in the lungs and oxygen desaturation were significantly reduced in protein S-transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. Wild-type mice treated with exogenous protein S showed significant decreases in the levels of inflammatory and profibrotic markers and fibrosis in the lungs as compared with untreated control mice. After bleomycin infusion, mice overexpressing human protein S showed significantly low caspase-3 activity, enhanced expression of antiapoptotic molecules and enhanced Akt and Axl kinase phosphorylation as compared with wild-type counterparts. Protein S also inhibited apoptosis of alveolar

  1. Obesity, metabolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis: pathophysiologic pathways, molecular mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalera, Michele; Wang, Junhong; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is strongly associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may contribute to the increased incidence of heart failure, atrial arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in obese subjects. Our review discusses the evidence linking obesity and myocardial fibrosis in animal models and human patients, focusing on the fundamental pathophysiologic alterations that may trigger fibrogenic signaling, the cellular effectors of fibrosis and the molecular signals that may regulate the fibrotic response. Obesity is associated with a wide range of pathophysiologic alterations (such as pressure and volume overload, metabolic dysregulation, neurohumoral activation and systemic inflammation); their relative role in mediating cardiac fibrosis is poorly defined. Activation of fibroblasts likely plays a major role in obesity-associated fibrosis; however, inflammatory cells, cardiomyocytes and vascular cells may also contribute to fibrogenic signaling. Several molecular processes have been implicated in regulation of the fibrotic response in obesity. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, induction of Transforming Growth Factor-β, oxidative stress, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), endothelin-1, Rho-kinase signaling, leptin-mediated actions and upregulation of matricellular proteins (such as thrombospondin-1) may play a role in the development of fibrosis in models of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Moreover, experimental evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance profoundly affect the fibrotic and remodeling response following cardiac injury. Understanding the pathways implicated in obesity-associated fibrosis may lead to development of novel therapies to prevent heart failure and to attenuate post-infarction cardiac remodeling in obese patients. PMID:24880146

  2. Novel algorithm for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis in NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Sowa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Various conditions of liver disease and the downsides of liver biopsy call for a non-invasive option to assess liver fibrosis. A non-invasive score would be especially useful to identify patients with slow advancing fibrotic processes, as in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD, which should undergo histological examination for fibrosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Classic liver serum parameters, hyaluronic acid (HA and cell death markers of 126 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for morbid obesity were analyzed by machine learning techniques (logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, linear support vector machines, rule-based systems, decision trees and random forest (RF. Specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the evaluated datasets to predict fibrosis were assessed. RESULTS: None of the single parameters (ALT, AST, M30, M60, HA did differ significantly between patients with a fibrosis score 1 or 2. However, combining these parameters using RFs reached 79% accuracy in fibrosis prediction with a sensitivity of more than 60% and specificity of 77%. Moreover, RFs identified the cell death markers M30 and M65 as more important for the decision than the classic liver parameters. CONCLUSION: On the basis of serum parameters the generation of a fibrosis scoring system seems feasible, even when only marginally fibrotic tissue is available. Prospective evaluation of novel markers, i.e. cell death parameters, should be performed to identify an optimal set of fibrosis predictors.

  3. In silico search for modifier genes associated with pancreatic and liver disease in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Trouvé

    Full Text Available Cystic Fibrosis is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in the white population, affecting among other organs, the lung, the pancreas and the liver. Whereas Cystic Fibrosis is a monogenic disease, many studies reveal a very complex relationship between genotype and clinical phenotype. Indeed, the broad phenotypic spectrum observed in Cystic Fibrosis is far from being explained by obvious genotype-phenotype correlations and it is admitted that Cystic Fibrosis disease is the result of multiple factors, including effects of the environment as well as modifier genes. Our objective was to highlight new modifier genes with potential implications in the lung, pancreatic and liver outcomes of the disease. For this purpose we performed a system biology approach which combined, database mining, literature mining, gene expression study and network analysis as well as pathway enrichment analysis and protein-protein interactions. We found that IFI16, CCNE2 and IGFBP2 are potential modifiers in the altered lung function in Cystic Fibrosis. We also found that EPHX1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, DSP and SLC33A1, GPNMB, NCF2, RASGRP1, LGALS3 and PTPN13, are potential modifiers in pancreas and liver, respectively. Associated pathways indicate that immune system is likely involved and that Ubiquitin C is probably a central node, linking Cystic Fibrosis to liver and pancreatic disease. We highlight here new modifier genes with potential implications in Cystic Fibrosis. Nevertheless, our in silico analysis requires functional analysis to give our results a physiological relevance.

  4. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  5. [Historical compilation of cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-shortening recessively inherited disorder in the Caucasian population. The genetic mutation that most frequently provokes cystic fibrosis (ΔF508) appeared at least 53,000years ago. For many centuries, the disease was thought to be related to witchcraft and the "evil eye" and it was only in 1938 that Dorothy H. Andersen characterized this disorder and suspected its genetic origin. The present article reviews the pathological discoveries and diagnostic and therapeutic advances made in the last 75 years. The review ends with some considerations for the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibrosis endomiocárdica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Juliana Rodríguez-González

    2017-07-01

    Una de las formas más comunes de miocardiopatía restrictiva es la fibrosis endomiocárdica la cual es endémica en algunas zonas tropicales especialmente en África (países de bajos ingresos, pero en nuestro medio hay pocos reportes de aparición. Su etiología es desconocida, aunque existen diversos mecanismos que han sido involucrados en su fisiopatología. Su diagnóstico se basa en estudios imagenológicos (ecocardiograma transtorácico y resonancia magnética nuclear cardíaca. El pronóstico es muy pobre, y usualmente se diagnostica en etapas muy avanzadas de la enfermedad. Se describe el caso de una paciente femenina, adulta media, que debutó con cardiopatía restrictiva, cuyo diagnóstico final fue fibrosis endomiocárdica.

  7. Recommendations for quality improvement in genetic testing for cystic fibrosis European Concerted Action on Cystic Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dequeker, E; Cuppens, H; Dodge, J; Estivill, [No Value; Goossens, M; Pignatti, PF; Scheffer, H; Schwartz, M; Schwarz, M; Tummler, B; Cassiman, JJ

    These recommendations for quality improvement of cystic fibrosis genetic diagnostic testing provide general guidelines for the molecular genetic testing of cystic fibrosis in patients/individuals. General strategies for testing as well as guidelines for laboratory procedures, internal and external

  8. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated...... and 25 stable CF patients via spectrophotometry and gaschromatography. Lung function was assessed via spirometry. Seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and three patients with acute lung inflammation served as control groups. Neutrophil and bacterial lactate production...

  9. Anorexia nervosa in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkson, Lynette; Macedo, Patricia; Perrin, Felicity M R; Elston, Caroline M

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the challenges associated with diagnosing and managing eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa amongst adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis. It reviews the known risk factors, generic verses disease specific eating disorder risk screening tools and considers the ethical dilemmas associated with critically low body mass indices. A case review is included to illustrate the complexities of managing both conditions in the context of declining respiratory function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: treatment update.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Despite multiple recent clinical trials, there is no strong evidence supporting a survival advantage for any agent in the management of patients with IPF. The limited effectiveness of current treatment regimes has led to a search for novel therapies including antifibrotic strategies. This article reviews the evidence supporting the treatments currently used in the management of IPF.

  11. Maintaining Respiratory Health in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Modaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of  CF patients is due to lung complications.  Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance  

  12. Pathogenic mechanism in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.; Haschek, W.M.; Meyer, K.R.; Ullrich, R.L.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether an interaction between two agents causing alveolar epithelial damage would produce lung fibrosis. In mouse lung, intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene causes diffuse alveolar type I cell necrosis, followed by proliferation of type II alveolar cells. In animals exposed to 70% O 2 or 100-200 rad x rays during the phase of type II cell proliferation following BHT, diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis developed within 2 weeks. Quantitative analysis of the lungs for hydroxyproline showed that the interaction between BHT and O 2 or x rays was synergistic. If exposure to O 2 or x rays was delayed until epithelial recovery was complete, no fibrosis was seen. Abnormally high levels of lung collagen persisted up to 6 months after one single treatment with BHT and 100 rad x rays. A commonly seen form of chronic lung damage may thus be caused by an acute interaction between a bloodborne agent which damages the alveolar cell and a toxic inhalant or x rays, provided a critically ordered sequence of exposure is observed

  13. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Shyam B Verma,2 Fareedi Mukram Ali,3 Kishor Patil4 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Nirvana Skin Clinic, Vadodara, Gujarat, India; 3Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India; 4Departments of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, SMBT Dental College, Sangamner, Maharashtra, India Abstract: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. Keywords: betel nut, betel quid, oral disease, squamous cell carcinoma, tobacco, fibrosis

  14. Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Kayani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is the most common autosomal recessive disorder in Caucasian populations. Individuals with CF have seen significant increases in life expectancy in the last 60 years. As a result, previously rare complications are now coming to light. The most common of these is cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD, which affects 40–50% of CF adults. CFRD significantly impacts the pulmonary function and longevity of CF patients, yet a lack of consensus on the best methods to diagnose and treat CFRD remains. We begin by reviewing our understanding of the pathogenesis of CFRD, as emerging evidence shows the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR also has important roles in the release of insulin and glucagon and in the protection of β cells from oxidative stress. We then discuss how current recommended methods of CFRD diagnosis are not appropriate, as continuous glucose monitoring becomes more effective, practical, and cost-effective. Finally, we evaluate emerging treatments which have narrowed the mortality gap within the CF patient group. In the future, pharmacological potentiators and correctors directly targeting CFTR show huge promise for both CFRD and the wider CF patient groups.

  15. Fibrosis in connective tissue disease: the role of the myofibroblast and fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Thomas; Abraham, David; Lafyatis, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, is a common feature of many connective tissue diseases, notably scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Experimental studies suggest that a complex network of intercellular interactions involving endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells, using an array of molecular mediators, drives the pathogenic events that lead to fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β and endothelin-1, which are part of a cytokine hierarchy with connective tissue growth factor, are key mediators of fibrogenesis and are primarily responsible for the differentiation of fibroblasts toward a myofibroblast phenotype. The tight skin mouse (Tsk-1) model of cutaneous fibrosis suggests that numerous other genes may also be important. PMID:17767742

  16. A comparison of MR elastography and {sup 31}P MR spectroscopy with histological staging of liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Edmund M. [St James' Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); St James' Hospital, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Patterson, Andrew J.; Priest, Andrew N.; Davies, Susan E.; Joubert, Ilse; Krishnan, Anant S.; Shaw, Ashley S.; Alexander, Graeme J.; Allison, Michael E.; Griffiths, William J.H.; Gimson, Alexander E.S. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Griffin, Nyree [St Thomas' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Lomas, David J. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Conventional imaging techniques are insensitive to liver fibrosis. This study assesses the diagnostic accuracy of MR elastography (MRE) stiffness values and the ratio of phosphomonoesters (PME)/phosphodiesters (PDE) measured using {sup 31}P spectroscopy against histological fibrosis staging. The local research ethics committee approved this prospective, blinded study. A total of 77 consecutive patients (55 male, aged 49 {+-} 11.5 years) with a clinical suspicion of liver fibrosis underwent an MR examination with a liver biopsy later the same day. Patients underwent MRE and {sup 31}P spectroscopy on a 1.5 T whole body system. The liver biopsies were staged using an Ishak score for chronic hepatitis or a modified NAS fibrosis score for fatty liver disease. MRE increased with and was positively associated with fibrosis stage (Spearman's rank = 0.622, P < 0.001). PME/PDE was not associated with fibrosis stage (Spearman's rank = -0.041, p = 0.741). Area under receiver operating curves for MRE stiffness values were high (range 0.75-0.97). The diagnostic utility of PME/PDE was no better than chance (range 0.44-0.58). MRE-estimated liver stiffness increases with fibrosis stage and is able to dichotomise fibrosis stage groupings. We did not find a relationship between {sup 31}P MR spectroscopy and fibrosis stage. circle Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and MR spectroscopy can both assess the liver. (orig.)

  17. Otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of cystic fibrosis: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Carolina Pimenta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic Fibrosis is the most common recessive autosomic genetic disease among Caucasians. It's caused by mutations in the gene that decodes regulatory protein for transmembrane conductance, resulting in defective transport of chlorine. Objective: Review the literature about Cystic Fibrosis, with emphasis on otorhinolaryngologic manifestations. Method: The online Pub Med databases were researched and we applied the following search terms Fibrosis Cystic and Sinusitis, and Mucoviscidosis and Sinusitis. Conclusions: Although it is not the main cause of death, the otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of the Cystic Fibrosis bring important morbidity to these patients.

  18. Targeting a genetic defect: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Derichs

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by genetic mutations that affect the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein. These mutations can impact the synthesis and transfer of the CFTR protein to the apical membrane of epithelial cells, as well as influencing the gating or conductance of chloride and bicarbonate ions through the channel. CFTR dysfunction results in ionic imbalance of epithelial secretions in several organ systems, such as the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, liver and the respiratory system. Since discovery of the CFTR gene in 1989, research has focussed on targeting the underlying genetic defect to identify a disease-modifying treatment for CF. Investigated management strategies have included gene therapy and the development of small molecules that target CFTR mutations, known as CFTR modulators. CFTR modulators are typically identified by high-throughput screening assays, followed by preclinical validation using cell culture systems. Recently, one such modulator, the CFTR potentiator ivacaftor, was approved as an oral therapy for CF patients with the G551D-CFTR mutation. The clinical development of ivacaftor not only represents a breakthrough in CF care but also serves as a noteworthy example of personalised medicine.

  19. The Sociology and Entrenchment. A Cystic Fibrosis Test for Everyone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Stemerding, Dirk

    1994-01-01

    Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology......Socialmedicine, genetic screening, cystic fibrosis, ethics, political regulation, sociology of technology...

  20. Diabetes mellitus in childhood cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rauf, F

    2012-02-03

    Since 1984, five patients in the cystic fibrosis (CF) clinic at Cork Regional Hospital have developed diabetes mellitus (DM) and were treated with Insulin. None had received systemic corticosteroids but two had high calorie naso-gastric feeding regimes. Two died from lung disease. A fifteen year old boy developed bilateral cataracts. In nine other paediatric CF clinics in the Republic of Ireland (total: 420 patients), three patients have DM, two receiving Insulin. Abnormal glucose tolerance is becoming more common in CF as patients survive longer. The possible role of corticosteroid treatment and intensive carbohydrate feeding regimes in development of glucose intolerance must be considered. DM in CF differs from the usual childhood DM. Regular screening and early Insulin supplementation may be beneficial.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is due to biofilm-growing mucoid (alginate-producing) strains. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein...... and DNA. In CF lungs, the polysaccharide alginate is the major part of the P. aeruginosa biofilm matrix. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and resist phagocytosis, as well as other components of the innate and the adaptive immune system....... As a consequence, a pronounced antibody response develops, leading to immune complex-mediated chronic inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The chronic inflammation is the major cause of the lung tissue damage in CF. Biofilm growth in CF lungs is associated with an increased frequency...

  2. Application of extracellular gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents and the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis; Anwendung von extrazellulaeren gadoliniumhaltigen MR-Kontrastmitteln und Risiko der Nephrogenen Systemischen Fibrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heverhagen, J.T. [Univ. Hospital Bern (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital; Krombach, G.A. [Justus Liebig Univ. Hopsital Giessen (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Gizewski, E. [Medical Univ. Innsbruck (Austria). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2014-07-15

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious, sometimes fatal disease. Findings in recent years have shown that a causal association between gadolinium containing contrast media and NSF is most likely. Therefore, the regulatory authorities have issued guidelines on the use of gadolinium-containing contrast media which have reduced the number of new cases of NSF to almost zero. However, it is for precisely this reason that the greatest care must still be taken to ensure that these guidelines are complied with. The most important factors are renal function, the quantity of gadolinium administered and coexisting diseases such as inflammation. All of these factors crucially influence the quantity of gadolinium released from the chelat in the body. This free gadolinium is thought to be the trigger for NSF. Other important factors are the stability of the gadolinium complex and furthermore the route of its elimination from the body. Partial elimination via the liver might be an additional protective mechanism. In conclusion, despite the NSF risk, contrast-enhanced MRI is a safe diagnostic procedure which can be used reliably and safely even in patients with severe renal failure, and does not necessarily have to be replaced by other methods.

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outcome in cystic fibrosis liver disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowland, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD) does not affect mortality or morbidity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The importance of gender and age in outcome in CF makes selection of an appropriate comparison group central to the interpretation of any differences in mortality and morbidity in patients with CFLD.

  5. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, D S

    2012-02-03

    Two female patients with Cystic Fibrosis, attending the Adult Regional Cystic Fibrosis centre at the Cork University Hospital, were investigated for upper abdominal pain and found to have gallstones at ultrasonography. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed successfully and, without complication, in both patients.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these health problems has idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis . Other respiratory diseases, some of which are less serious, can cause similar signs and symptoms. In people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis , scarring of the lungs increases over time until the lungs can no longer ...

  7. Imaging pulmonary fibrosis; Imagerie des fibroses pulmonaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, M.W.; Rety, F.; Naccache, J.M.; Girard, F.; Valeyre, D.F. [Hopital Avicenne, 93 - Bobigny (France). Service de radiologie et de pneumologie

    2001-02-01

    Localized fibrosis of the lung is usually scar tissue while diffuse pulmonary fibrosis is more often a sign of active disease. Chronic infiltrative lung disease may be classified into four categories: idiopathic pneumonitis, collagen diseases, granulomatosis (sarcoidosis), and caused by known diseases (pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, drug-induced lung disease, radiation). (authors)

  8. Self-management education for cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Savage, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Self-management education may help patients with cystic fibrosis and their families to choose, monitor and adjust treatment requirements for their illness, and also to manage the effects of illness on their lives. Although self-management education interventions have been developed for cystic fibrosis, no previous systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been conducted.

  9. Unusual Presentation Of Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF) is an uncommon entity described as progressive proliferation of connective tissues leading to a fibrous plaque-like lesions that encases the aorta and inferior vena cava inferior to the level of the renal arteries. Mass forming retroperitoneal fibrosis is rare. We present a rare case of a ...

  10. Pulmonary complications of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, M.Y.; Flight, W.; Smith, E.

    2014-01-01

    The life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has steadily increased over recent decades with a corresponding increase in the frequency of complications of the disease. Radiologists are increasingly involved with managing and identifying the pulmonary complications of CF. This article reviews the common manifestations of CF lung disease as well as updating radiologists with a number of less well-known complications of the condition. Early and accurate detection of the pulmonary effects of CF are increasingly important to prevent irreversible lung damage and give patients the greatest possibility of benefiting from the new therapies becoming available, which correct the underlying defect causing CF

  11. Liver manifestations of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is one of the major complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). Significant liver disease is seen in 13-25% of children with CF. Improved life expectancy and prolonged follow-up have favored better characterization of the hepatic manifestations of CF and allowed direct observation of an increasing number of liver-related events. Liver disease typically develops in the first decade of life, with the incidence dropping rapidly after the age of 10 years. The wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from asymptomatic gallbladder abnormalities to biliary cirrhosis will be reviewed in this article

  12. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Macrophage and Innate Lymphoid Cell Interplay in the Genesis of Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hams, Emily; Bermingham, Rachel; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is a characteristic pathological feature of an array of chronic diseases, where development of fibrosis in tissue can lead to marked alterations in the architecture of the affected organs. As a result of this process of sustained attrition to organs, many diseases that involve fibrosis are often progressive conditions and have a poor long-term prognosis. Inflammation is often a prelude to fibrosis, with innate and adaptive immunity involved in both the initiation and regulation of the fibrotic process. In this review, we will focus on the emerging roles of the newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the generation of fibrotic disease with an examination of the potential interplay between ILC and macrophages and the adaptive immune system. PMID:26635811

  14. Postinjection Muscle Fibrosis from Lupron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Everest

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 6.5-year-old girl with central precocious puberty (CPP, which signifies the onset of secondary sexual characteristics before the age of eight in females and the age of nine in males as a result of stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Her case is likely related to her adoption, as children who are adopted internationally have much higher rates of CPP. She had left breast development at Tanner Stage 2, adult body odor, and mildly advanced bone age. In order to halt puberty and maximize adult height, she was prescribed a gonadotropin releasing hormone analog, the first line treatment for CPP. She was administered Lupron (leuprolide acetate Depot-Ped (3 months intramuscularly. After her second injection, she developed swelling and muscle pain at the injection site on her right thigh. She also reported an impaired ability to walk. She was diagnosed with muscle fibrosis. This is the first reported case of muscle fibrosis resulting from Lupron injection.

  15. System-level perturbations of cell metabolism using CRISPR/Cas9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociunas, Tadas; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats and the associated protein Cas9) techniques have made genome engineering and transcriptional reprogramming studies more advanced and cost-effective. For metabolic engineering purposes, the CRISPR-based tools have been applied...... previously possible. In this mini-review we highlight recent studies adopting CRISPR/Cas9 for systems-level perturbations and model-guided metabolic engineering....

  16. Liver Fibrosis Regression Measured by Transient Elastography in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-Coinfected Individuals on Long-Term HBV-Active Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Jennifer; Robson, Christopher; Aitchison, Stacey; Matthews, Gail V; Iser, David; Sasadeusz, Joe; Lewin, Sharon R

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Advanced fibrosis occurs more commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfected individuals; therefore, fibrosis monitoring is important in this population. However, transient elastography (TE) data in HIV-HBV coinfection are lacking. We aimed to assess liver fibrosis using TE in a cross-sectional study of HIV-HBV coinfected individuals receiving combination HBV-active (lamivudine and/or tenofovir/tenofovir-emtricitabine) antiretroviral therapy, identify factors associated with advanced fibrosis, and examine change in fibrosis in those with >1 TE assessment. Methods.  We assessed liver fibrosis in 70 HIV-HBV coinfected individuals on HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Change in fibrosis over time was examined in a subset with more than 1 TE result (n = 49). Clinical and laboratory variables at the time of the first TE were collected, and associations with advanced fibrosis (≥F3, Metavir scoring system) and fibrosis regression (of least 1 stage) were examined. Results.  The majority of the cohort (64%) had mild to moderate fibrosis at the time of the first TE, and we identified alanine transaminase, platelets, and detectable HIV ribonucleic acid as associated with advanced liver fibrosis. Alanine transaminase and platelets remained independently advanced in multivariate modeling. More than 28% of those with >1 TE subsequently showed liver fibrosis regression, and higher baseline HBV deoxyribonucleic acid was associated with regression. Prevalence of advanced fibrosis (≥F3) decreased 12.3% (32.7%-20.4%) over a median of 31 months. Conclusions.  The observed fibrosis regression in this group supports the beneficial effects of cART on liver stiffness. It would be important to study a larger group of individuals with more advanced fibrosis to more definitively assess factors associated with liver fibrosis regression.

  17. Viral infection drives tissue fibrosis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea P. Malizia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by loss of alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study we utilised a microarray-based differential gene expression analysis strategy to identify molecular drivers of EBV associated with lung fibrosis. A549 cells and an alveolar epithelial cell line infected with EBV (VAAK were used to identify genes whose expression was altered by EBV reactivation. EBV reactivation by TGFbeta1 drives alterations in expression of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. Cell invasion, EMT correlated transcripts expression, GSK-3b and c-Jun activation were altered in response to non-canonical Wnt pathway regulation. The role of EBV in promoting fibrosis can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signalling. Activation of non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of tissue fibrosis. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  18. Inhaled mannitol for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Sarah J; Thornton, Judith; Murray, Clare S; Dwyer, Tiffany

    2018-02-09

    Several agents are used to clear secretions from the airways of people with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol increases mucociliary clearance, but its exact mechanism of action is unknown. The dry powder formulation of mannitol may be more convenient and easier to use compared with established agents which require delivery via a nebuliser. Phase III trials of inhaled dry powder mannitol for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have been completed and it is now available in Australia and some countries in Europe. This is an update of a previous review. To assess whether inhaled dry powder mannitol is well tolerated, whether it improves the quality of life and respiratory function in people with cystic fibrosis and which adverse events are associated with the treatment. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic databases, handsearching relevant journals and abstracts from conferences.Date of last search: 28 September 2017. All randomised controlled studies comparing mannitol with placebo, active inhaled comparators (for example, hypertonic saline or dornase alfa) or with no treatment. Authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, carried out data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in included studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Six studies (reported in 50 publications) were included with a total of 784 participants.Duration of treatment in the included studies ranged from 12 days to six months, with open-label treatment for an additional six months in two of the studies. Five studies compared mannitol with control (a very low dose of mannitol or non-respirable mannitol) and the final study compared mannitol to dornase alfa alone and to mannitol plus dornase alfa. Two large studies had a similar parallel design and provided data for 600 participants, which could be pooled where data for a particular outcome and time point were

  19. Voice Disorder in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Bruna Mendes; Costa, Kauê Machado; da Silva Filho, Manoel

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a common autosomal recessive disorder with drastic respiratory symptoms, including shortness of breath and chronic cough. While most of cystic fibrosis treatment is dedicated to mitigating the effects of respiratory dysfunction, the potential effects of this disease on vocal parameters have not been systematically studied. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis patients, given their characteristic respiratory disorders, would also present dysphonic symptoms. Given that voice disorders can severely impair quality of life, the identification of a potential cystic fibrosis-related dysphonia could be of great value for the clinical evaluation and treatment of this disease. We tested our hypothesis by measuring vocal parameters, using both objective physical measures and the GRBAS subjective evaluation method, in male and female cystic fibrosis patients undergoing conventional treatment and compared them to age and sex matched controls. We found that cystic fibrosis patients had a significantly lower vocal intensity and harmonic to noise ratio, as well as increased levels of jitter and shimmer. In addition, cystic fibrosis patients also showed higher scores of roughness, breathiness and asthenia, as well as a significantly altered general grade of dysphonia. When we segregated the results according to sex, we observed that, as a group, only female cystic fibrosis patients had significantly lower values of harmonic to noise ratio and an abnormal general grade of dysphonia in relation to matched controls, suggesting that cystic fibrosis exerts a more pronounced effect on vocal parameters of women in relation to men. Overall, the dysphonic characteristics of CF patients can be explained by dysfunctions in vocal fold movement and partial upper airway obstruction, potentially caused by the accumulation of mucus and chronic cough characteristic of CF symptomatology. Our results show that CF patients exhibit significant dysphonia and suggest they may

  20. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for cystic fibrosis-related diabetes in the Scandinavian Cystic Fibrosis Nutritional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincikova, T; Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Moen, I E

    2011-01-01

    Many cystic fibrosis patients are vitamin D-insufficient. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is a major complication of cystic fibrosis. The literature suggests that vitamin D might possess certain glucose-lowering properties. We aimed to assess the relationship between vitamin D and cystic fibrosis...

  1. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by Aspergillus empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. This is the first report describing AE-IPF triggered by Aspergillus empyema, which was improved by a combination of corticosteroid, systemic antifungal therapy, local antifungal therapy, and additional pharmacological therapies. Future research may reveal optimal strategies for both idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Acute exacerbation, AE-IPF, Triggered AE, Aspergillus infection

  2. Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Sharon I. S.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing clinical, radiologic, and pathologic recognition of the coexistence of emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis in the same patient, resulting in a clinical syndrome known as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) that is characterized by dyspnea, upper-lobe emphysema, lower-lobe fibrosis, and abnormalities of gas exchange. This syndrome frequently is complicated by pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. The CPFE syndrome typically occurs in male smokers, and the mortality associated with this condition, especially if pulmonary hypertension is present, is significant. In this review, we explore the current state of the literature and discuss etiologic factors and clinical characteristics of the CPFE syndrome. PMID:22215830

  3. Transient elastography for liver fibrosis diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Weis, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the "golden standard" for assessment of hepatic fibrosis. However, the procedure has limitations because of inconvenience and rare but serious complications as bleeding. Furthermore, sampling errors are frequent, and interobserver variability often poses problems....... Recently, a modified ultrasound scanner (transient elastography) has been developed to assess fibrosis. The device measures liver elasticity, which correlates well with the degree of fibrosis. Studies have shown that transient elastography is more accurate in diagnosing cirrhosis than minor to moderate...... to be a valuable diagnostic procedure and follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases....

  4. Transient elastography for liver fibrosis diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Weis, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the "golden standard" for assessment of hepatic fibrosis. However, the procedure has limitations because of inconvenience and rare but serious complications as bleeding. Furthermore, sampling errors are frequent, and interobserver variability often poses problems....... Recently, a modified ultrasound scanner (transient elastography) has been developed to assess fibrosis. The device measures liver elasticity, which correlates well with the degree of fibrosis. Studies have shown that transient elastography is more accurate in diagnosing cirrhosis than minor to moderate...... to be a valuable diagnostic procedure and follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases....

  5. FibroMeters: a family of blood tests for liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calès, P; Boursier, J; Oberti, F; Hubert, I; Gallois, Y; Rousselet, M-C; Dib, N; Moal, V; Macchi, L; Chevailler, A; Michalak, S; Hunault, G; Chaigneau, J; Sawadogo, A; Lunel, F

    2008-09-01

    FibroMeters are blood tests for liver fibrosis with several specificities: two main diagnostic targets (fibrosis stage and area of fibrosis); adaptation to specific causes; and results confirmed by an expert system. Thus, FibroMeters comprise six different tests: one for staging and one for quantitation of liver fibrosis in each of the three main causes of chronic liver disease-chronic viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). FibroMeters display a high overall diagnostic accuracy and are the only tests to correctly classify 100% of HCV patients without fibrosis or with cirrhosis. They have 90% predictive values in a higher proportion of patients than with other usual blood tests. A 90% correct classification is available in 100% of HCV patients with the following reliable diagnostic intervals: F0/1, F1/2, F2+/-1, F3+/-1. In real-life conditions, the reproducibility of FibroMeters is higher than that of liver biopsy or ultrasonographic elastometry. FibroMeters are robust tests with the most stable diagnostic performance across different centers. Optional tests are also available, such as a specific one for cirrhosis, which has a diagnostic accuracy of 93.0% (AUROC: 0.92) and a 100% positive predictive value for diagnosis of HCV cirrhosis. Determination by FibroMeters of the area of fibrosis - the only direct, non-invasive, quantitative measurement of liver fibrosis - are especially useful for following-up cirrhosis as it correlates well with clinical events. FibroMeters are also very accurate in HVB or HIV-HCV co-infected patients. The tests specific for ALD and NAFLD also have a high diagnostic accuracy (AUROCs: 0.96 and 0.94, respectively, for significant fibrosis).

  6. IGFBP-1 and IGF-I as markers for advanced fibrosis in NAFLD - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Hannes; Stål, Per; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Brismar, Kerstin; Ansurudeen, Ishrath

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease globally. Advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) is the most robust marker for future mortality, but diagnosis requires liver biopsy. Current non-invasive scoring systems aimed to identify advanced fibrosis are imperfect. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP-1 are liver derived proteins, that are involved in various liver disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between advanced fibrosis and IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in NAFLD. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 52 patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy. Total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 concentrations were determined in serum by in-house radio-immuno-assays. IGF-I levels were age-standardized (IGF-SD). A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association of IGF-SD and IGFBP-1 with advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4). Patients with advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4 vs. 0-2) had lower IGF-SD (-1.17 vs. 0.11, p = .01) and higher mean levels of IGFBP-1 (29.9 vs. 18.8 µg/l, p = .02). IGFBP-1 was associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.04 per unit increase, 95%CI 1.0-1.07, p = .05), while IGF-1 was negatively associated with advanced fibrosis (OR 0.63 per standard deviation, 95%CI 0.44-0.92, p = .02). This pilot study suggests an association between serum IGFBP-1 and IGF-I levels with advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients. IGFBP1 and IGF-1 could be of interest as future biomarkers. Similar studies in larger cohorts are needed.

  7. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably “multifactorial” and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF.

  8. Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627

  9. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: findings with MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonnati, L.; Diago, T.; Ferrer, M.D.; Aleixandre, A.; Morote, V.

    1993-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) is an uncommon disease characterized by the presence of a chronic inflammatory reaction, with the formation of fibrous tissue that replaces the normal retroperitoneal tissue, trapping vessels and/or ureters. We present a retrospective review of 3 cases of idiopathic RF studied by means of ultrasound, CT scan and MR imaging, and we assess the features of the MR image, as well as its capacity for characterizing the lesion. We compare the findings obtained with 3 imaging techniques, describing the utility of each one, and their advantages and disadvantages in the assessment of this pathology. In MR, idiopathic RF appears as a hypodense mass in SET1, SE-T2 and STIR sequences. (Author) 9 ref

  10. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  11. Uncovering a Predictive Molecular Signature for the Onset of NASH-Related Fibrosis in a Translational NASH Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koppen, Arianne; Verschuren, Lars; van den Hoek, Anita M; Verheij, Joanne; Morrison, Martine C; Li, Kelvin; Nagabukuro, Hiroshi; Costessi, Adalberto; Caspers, Martien P M; van den Broek, Tim J; Sagartz, John; Kluft, Cornelis; Beysen, Carine; Emson, Claire; van Gool, Alain J; Goldschmeding, Roel; Stoop, Reinout; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, Ivana; Turner, Scott M; Hanauer, Guido; Hanemaaijer, Roeland

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing. The pathophysiological mechanisms of NASH and the sequence of events leading to hepatic fibrosis are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dynamics of key molecular processes involved in NASH and to rank early markers for hepatic fibrosis. A time-course study in low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout. Leiden mice on a high-fat diet was performed to identify the temporal dynamics of key processes contributing to NASH and fibrosis. An integrative systems biology approach was used to elucidate candidate markers linked to the active fibrosis process by combining transcriptomics, dynamic proteomics, and histopathology. The translational value of these findings were confirmed using human NASH data sets. High-fat-diet feeding resulted in obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and NASH with fibrosis in a time-dependent manner. Temporal dynamics of key molecular processes involved in the development of NASH were identified, including lipid metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. A data-integrative approach enabled identification of the active fibrotic process preceding histopathologic detection using a novel molecular fibrosis signature. Human studies were used to identify overlap of genes and processes and to perform a network biology-based prioritization to rank top candidate markers representing the early manifestation of fibrosis. An early predictive molecular signature was identified that marked the active profibrotic process before histopathologic fibrosis becomes manifest. Early detection of the onset of NASH and fibrosis enables identification of novel blood-based biomarkers to stratify patients at risk, development of new therapeutics, and help shorten (pre)clinical experimental time frames.

  12. Establishing ultrasound based transient elastography cutoffs for different stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Aisha; Alboraie, Mohamed; Fouad, Rabab; Asem, Noha; Abdo, Mahmoud; Elmakhzangy, Hesham; Mehrez, Mai; Khattab, Hany; Esmat, Gamal

    2017-12-01

    Transient elastography is widely used to assess fibrosis stage in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We aimed to establish and validate different transient elastography cut-off values for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in CHC genotype 4 patients. The data of 100 treatment-naive CHC patients (training set) and 652 patients (validation set) were analysed. The patients were subjected to routine pretreatment laboratory investigations, liver biopsy and histopathological staging of hepatic fibrosis according to the METAVIR scoring system. Transient elastography was performed before and in the same week as liver biopsy using FibroScan (Echosens, Paris, France). Transient elastography results were correlated to different stages of hepatic fibrosis in both the training and validation sets. ROC curves were constructed. In the training set, the best transient elastography cut-off values for significant hepatic fibrosis (≥F2 METAVIR), advanced hepatic fibrosis (≥F3 METAVIR) and cirrhosis (F4 METAVIR) were 7.1, 9 and 12.2 kPa, with sensitivities of 87%, 87.5% and 90.9% and specificities of 100%, 99.9% and 99.9%, respectively. The application of these cut-offs in the validation set showed sensitivities of 85.5%, 82.8% and 92% and specificities of 86%, 89.4% and 99.01% for significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, respectively. Transient elastography performs well for significant hepatic fibrosis, advanced hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with validated cut-offs of 7.1, 9 and 12.2 kPa, respectively, in genotype 4 CHC patients. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disease characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and remodeling of the lung architecture. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is considered the most common and severe form of the disease, with a median survival of approximately three years and no proven effective therapy. Despite the fact that effective treatments are absent and the precise mechanisms that drive fibrosis in most patients remain incompletely understood, an extensive body of scientific literature regarding pulmonary fibrosis has accumulated over the past 35 years. In this review, we discuss three broad areas which have been explored that may be responsible for the combination of altered lung fibroblasts, loss of alveolar epithelial cells, and excessive accumulation of ECM: inflammation and immune mechanisms, oxidative stress and oxidative signaling, and procoagulant mechanisms. We discuss each of these processes separately to facilitate clarity, but certainly significant interplay will occur amongst these pathways in patients with this disease. PMID:22824096

  14. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G.; Stoffel, F.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  15. European Cystic Fibrosis Society Standards of Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stern, Martin; Bertrand, Dominique Pougheon; Bignamini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Since the earliest days of cystic fibrosis (CF) treatment, patient data have been recorded and reviewed in order to identify the factors that lead to more favourable outcomes. Large data repositories, such as the US Cystic Fibrosis Registry, which was established in the 1960s, enabled successful ...... to indicators of health, the role of CF Centres, regional networks, national health policy, and international data registration and comparisons.......Since the earliest days of cystic fibrosis (CF) treatment, patient data have been recorded and reviewed in order to identify the factors that lead to more favourable outcomes. Large data repositories, such as the US Cystic Fibrosis Registry, which was established in the 1960s, enabled successful...... therapies, approaches to care and indeed data recording. The quality of care for individuals with CF has become a focus at several levels: patient, centre, regional, national and international. This paper reviews the quality management and improvement issues at each of these levels with particular reference...

  16. Liver Fibrosis: Current Principles of Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Duda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis — a natural consequence of almost all liver diseases of any origin. We are faced with a number of standard stereotype processes that take place in the liver tissue. Mostly it is the processes of chronic inflammation, which oppose the processes of liver tissue regeneration. The basis of imbalance between the processes of fibrosis and regeneration is an accumulation of extracellular matrix. Liver fibrosis in its development leads to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the increase in morbidity rate is observed worldwide. Furthermore, the process is genetically determined, but modifiable factors play an important role in the progression of this disease. Current data indicate the possibility of reversible liver fibrosis.

  17. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Stoffel, F. [Inst. of Urology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-04-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  18. Nutrition in Cystic Fibrosis: Macro- and Micronutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Johanna Hermiena

    2006-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive inherited disease in Caucasians, and is characterized by progressive lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency, malnutrition, hepatobiliary disease and elevated sweat electrolyte levels. The increased survival of CF patients

  19. Psychological interventions for individuals with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Fidika, Astrid; Herle, Marion; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2014-06-18

    With increasing survival estimates for individuals with cystic fibrosis, long-term management has become an important focus. Psychological interventions are largely concerned with adherence to treatment, emotional and social adaptation and health-related quality of life. We are unaware of any relevant systematic reviews. To determine whether psychological interventions for people with cystic fibrosis provide significant psychosocial and physical benefits in addition to standard medical care. Studies were identified from two Cochrane trials registers (Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group; Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group), Ovid MEDLINE and PsychINFO; unpublished trials were located through professional networks and Listserves. Most recent search of the Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's register: 19 December 2013.Most recent search of the Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group's register: 12 November 2013. Randomised controlled studies of a broad range of psychological interventions evaluating subjective and objective health outcomes, such as quality of life or pulmonary function, in individuals of all ages with cystic fibrosis and their immediate family. We were interested in psychological interventions, including psychological methods within the scope of psychotherapeutic or psychosomatic mechanism of action (e.g. cognitive behavioural, cognitive, family systems or systemic, psycho-dynamic, or other, e.g. supportive, relaxation, or biofeedback), which were aimed at improving psychological and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. quality of life, levels of stress or distress, psychopathology, etc.), adaptation to disease management and physiological outcomes. Three authors were involved in selecting the eligible studies and two of these authors assessed their risk of bias. The review includes 16 studies (eight new studies included in this update) representing data from 556 participants. Studies are diverse in their design and their methods. They

  20. Drug- and radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthgenannt, H.

    1976-01-01

    These two forms of pulmonary fibrosis which according to their type have nothing to do with one another, are presented as they are well suited to clarify the problems of the diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis which is not a fixed concept for the pathologists. The frequent discrepancy found between the subjective clinical symptoms, clinical findings and X-ray and morphological pictures is indicated. (MG) [de

  1. Serum levels of angiotensin converting enzyme as a biomarker of liver fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Aline Silva; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is classically conceived as a circulating hormonal system involved in blood pressure control and hydroelectrolyte balance. The discovery that RAS components are locally expressed in a wide range of organs and tissues, including the liver, pointed to a role for this system in the pathogenesis of several conditions including hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been widely reported that the classical RAS axis composed by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin (Ang) II-Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor mediates pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and pro-fibrotic processes. On the other hand, the alternative axis comprising ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor seems to play a protective role by frequently opposing Ang II action. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the leading causes of liver fibrosis, accounting for the death of nearly one million people worldwide. Liver fibrosis is a key factor to determine therapeutic interventions for patients with CHB. However, the establishment of non-invasive and accurate methods to detect reversible stages of liver fibrosis is still a challenge. In an elegant study published in the 36th issue of the World Journal of Gastroenterology, Noguchi et al showed the predictive value of serum ACE levels in detecting not only advanced stages of liver fibrosis but also initial and intermediate fibrotic stages. The serum levels of ACE might represent an accurate, non-invasive, widely available, and easy method to evaluate fibrosis related to CHB. Moreover, therapies involving the inhibition of the classical RAS axis components might be promising in the control of CHB-related liver fibrosis. PMID:29358853

  2. Modulation of pulmonary fibrosis by IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Robert V; Worrell, Julie C; Boylan, Denise; Walsh, Sinead M; Cramton, Jennifer; Counihan, Ian; O'Beirne, Sarah; Medina, Maria Fe; Gauldie, Jack; Fabre, Aurelie; Donnelly, Seamas C; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disease that involves the remodeling of the distal airspace and the lung parenchyma, which results in compromised gas exchange. The median survival time once diagnosed is less than three years. Interleukin (IL)-13 has been shown to play a role in a number of inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. IL-13 modulates its effector functions via a complex receptor system that includes the IL-4 receptor (R) α, IL-13Rα1, and the IL-13Rα2. IL-13Rα1 binds IL-13 with low affinity, yet, when it forms a complex with IL-4α, it binds with much higher affinity, inducing the effector functions of IL-13. IL-13Rα2 binds IL-13 with high affinity but has a short cytoplasmic tail and has been shown to act as a nonsignaling decoy receptor. Transfection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells with IL-13Rα2 inhibited the IL-13 induction of soluble collagen, TGF-β, and CCL17. Adenoviral overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in the lung reduced bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Our work shows that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 inhibits the IL-13 induction of fibrotic markers in vitro and inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary our study highlights the antifibrotic nature of IL-13Ra2. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Automatic liver volume segmentation and fibrosis classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Evgeny; Klang, Eyal; Amitai, Michal; Greenspan, Hayit

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present an automatic method for liver segmentation and fibrosis classification in liver computed-tomography (CT) portal phase scans. The input is a full abdomen CT scan with an unknown number of slices, and the output is a liver volume segmentation mask and a fibrosis grade. A multi-stage analysis scheme is applied to each scan, including: volume segmentation, texture features extraction and SVM based classification. Data contains portal phase CT examinations from 80 patients, taken with different scanners. Each examination has a matching Fibroscan grade. The dataset was subdivided into two groups: first group contains healthy cases and mild fibrosis, second group contains moderate fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. Using our automated algorithm, we achieved an average dice index of 0.93 ± 0.05 for segmentation and a sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.81for classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first end to end automatic framework for liver fibrosis classification; an approach that, once validated, can have a great potential value in the clinic.

  4. Network Analysis of the Systemic Response to Fasciola hepatica Infection in Sheep Reveals Changes in Fibrosis, Apoptosis, Toll-Like Receptors 3/4, and B Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Browne, John A.; Killick, Kate; Mulcahy, Grace

    2017-01-01

    The Trematode Fasciola hepatica is an important cause of disease in livestock and in man. Modulation of immunity is a critical strategy used by this parasite to facilitate its long-term survival in the host. Understanding the underlying mechanisms at a system level is important for the development of novel control strategies, such as vaccination, as well as for increasing general understanding of helminth-mediated immunoregulation and its consequences. Our previous RNA sequencing work identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEG) from ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at acute and chronic stages of F. hepatica infection, and yielded important information on host–parasite interaction, with particular reference to the immune response. To extend our understanding of the immunoregulatory effects of this parasite, we employed InnateDB to further analyze the DEG dataset and identified 2,458 and 224 molecular interactions in the context of innate immunity from the acute and chronic stages of infection, respectively. Notably, 458 interactions at the acute stage of infection were manually curated from studies involving PBMC-related cell-types, which guaranteed confident hypothesis generation. NetworkAnalyst was subsequently used to construct and visualize molecular networks. Two complementary strategies (function-first and connection-first) were conducted to interpret the networks. The function-first approach highlighted subnetworks implicated in regulation of Toll-like receptor 3/4 signaling in both acute and chronic infections. The connection-first approach highlighted regulation of intrinsic apoptosis and B-cell receptor-signaling during acute and chronic infections, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first system level analysis of the regulation of host innate immunity during F. hepatica infection. It provides insights into the profound changes induced by F. hepatica infection that not only favors parasite

  5. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Data-driven Textural Analysis of Extent of Fibrosis at Baseline and 15-Month Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Stephen M; Yagihashi, Kunihiro; Huckleberry, Jason; Rho, Byung-Hak; Schroeder, Joyce D; Strand, Matthew; Schwarz, Marvin I; Flaherty, Kevin R; Kazerooni, Ella A; van Beek, Edwin J R; Lynch, David A

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To evaluate associations between pulmonary function and both quantitative analysis and visual assessment of thin-section computed tomography (CT) images at baseline and at 15-month follow-up in subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Materials and Methods This retrospective analysis of preexisting anonymized data, collected prospectively between 2007 and 2013 in a HIPAA-compliant study, was exempt from additional institutional review board approval. The extent of lung fibrosis at baseline inspiratory chest CT in 280 subjects enrolled in the IPF Network was evaluated. Visual analysis was performed by using a semiquantitative scoring system. Computer-based quantitative analysis included CT histogram-based measurements and a data-driven textural analysis (DTA). Follow-up CT images in 72 of these subjects were also analyzed. Univariate comparisons were performed by using Spearman rank correlation. Multivariate and longitudinal analyses were performed by using a linear mixed model approach, in which models were compared by using asymptotic χ 2 tests. Results At baseline, all CT-derived measures showed moderate significant correlation (P pulmonary function. At follow-up CT, changes in DTA scores showed significant correlation with changes in both forced vital capacity percentage predicted (ρ = -0.41, P pulmonary function (P fibrosis at CT yields an index of severity that correlates with visual assessment and functional change in subjects with IPF. © RSNA, 2017.

  6. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  7. STAT4 is a genetic risk factor for systemic sclerosis having additive effects with IRF5 on disease susceptibility and related pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudé, P; Guedj, M; Wipff, J; Ruiz, B; Hachulla, E; Diot, E; Granel, B; Sibilia, J; Tiev, K; Mouthon, L; Cracowski, J L; Carpentier, P H; Amoura, Z; Fajardy, I; Avouac, J; Meyer, O; Kahan, A; Boileau, C; Allanore, Y

    2009-08-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) belongs to the group of connective tissue disorders (CTDs), among which are several disorders characterized by a type I interferon (IFN) signature. The recent identification of an association between IRF5 and SSc further highlights a key role for IFN. STAT4, which encodes STAT-4, contributes to IFN signaling, and its genetic variants were found to be associated with CTDs. The aim of this study was to determine whether the STAT4 rs7574865 single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with SSc, and whether it interacts with IRF5. Both the STAT4 rs7574865 and IRF5 rs2004640 polymorphisms were genotyped in 1,855 individuals of French Caucasian origin comprising a discovery set of 440 patients with SSc and 485 control subjects and a replication set of 445 patients with SSc and an additional 485 control subjects. STAT4 rs7574865 was shown to be associated with SSc (P=0.001, odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.11-1.51). This association was not restricted to a particular phenotype. An additive effect of the STAT4 rs7574865 T allele and the IRF5 rs2004640 T allele was observed, resulting in a multiple increased 1.28-fold risk of SSc. The OR for SSc was 2.72 (95% CI 1.86-3.99) for combinations of genotypes with >or=3 risk alleles. An additive effect was also detected for fibrosing alveolitis: carriage of at least 3 risk alleles appeared to be an independent risk factor (P=2.2x10(-4), OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.28-3.04). Our results establish STAT4 rs7574865 as a new SSc genetic susceptibility factor. STAT4 and IRF5 act with additive effects in terms of susceptibility to both SSc and SSc-related fibrosing alveolitis.

  8. Cystic fibrosis school for 10-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2000-01-01

    the children about the respiratory system in CF. They take physiotherapi together and go to the swimmingpool. The dietician and the nurse teach the children about the digestive system in CF and they cook together. The children learn about genetics, liver problems, infertility etc from the doctor and the nurse......Compliance or rather lack of compliance has always been a problem when treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients tend to drop the treatment more or less if the treatment gets too complicated or laboured. We have attempted a systematical education of our patients in a CF school...

  9. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  10. Pneumothorax and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Tae; Ogura, Takashi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Asakura, Akira; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Yazawa, Takuya; Inoue, Tomio

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the relation between the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the incidence of pneumothorax on computed tomography (CT) images. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of pneumothorax in 56 consecutive patients who died of IPF from the initial CT to death. We quantitatively analyzed a total of 207 CT images and measured the volume of the normal pattern (N-pattern) and each lesion pattern on the initial CT and their serial changes. The effects of pneumothorax and clinical and CT features on survival were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Pneumothorax occurred in 17 of 56 patients. Comparison of the pneumothorax (+) and (-) groups showed the initial vital capacity (VC) was lower (P=0.005) and the follow-up period was shorter (P=0.03) in the former group. The decrease in the N-pattern volume in the pneumothorax (+) group was significantly faster than in the pneumothorax (-) group (P=0.013). Cox regression analyses identified a rapid decrease in N-pattern volume (P=0.008) and a rapid decrease in VC (P=0.002), but not pneumothorax, as significant predictors of poor survival. Pneumothorax in IPF patients is associated with lower VC and rapid deterioration of CT findings. The findings suggest that pneumothorax is a complication of advanced IPF. (author)

  11. Lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil El-Chemaly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the lymphatic system is absorbing and transporting macromolecules and immune cells to the general circulation, thereby regulating fluid, nutrient absorption and immune cell trafficking. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination. Lymphatic involvement is seen in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. LAM, a disease primarily affecting females, involves the lung (cystic destruction, kidney (angiomyolipoma and axial lymphatics (adenopathy and lymphangioleiomyoma. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Cystic lung destruction results from proliferation of LAM cells, which are abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Lymphatic abnormalities arise from infiltration of LAM cells into the lymphatic wall, leading to damage or obstruction of lymphatic vessels. Benign appearing LAM cells possess metastatic properties and are found in the blood and other body fluids. IPF is a progressive lung disease resulting from fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pulmonary destruction and disease severity. A macrophage subset isolated from IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF express lymphatic endothelial cell markers in vitro, in contrast to the same macrophage subset from normal BALF. Herein, we review lymphatic involvement in LAM and IPF.

  12. Liver Disease in Cystic Fibrosis: an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Giuseppe Fabio; Di Dio, Giovanna; Franzonello, Chiara; Gennaro, Alessia; Rotolo, Novella; Lionetti, Elena; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Context Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most widespread autosomal recessive genetic disorder that limits life expectation amongst the Caucasian population. As the median survival has increased related to early multidisciplinary intervention, other manifestations of CF have emergedespecially for the broad spectrum of hepatobiliary involvement. The present study reviews the existing literature on liver disease in cystic fibrosis and describes the key issues for an adequate clinical evaluation and management of patients, with a focus on the pathogenetic, clinical and diagnostic-therapeutic aspects of liver disease in CF. Evidence Acquisition A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for relevant studies published from 1990 about liver disease in cystic fibrosis. The databases searched were: EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Library. Results CF is due to mutations in the gene on chromosome 7 that encodes an amino acidic polypeptide named CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator). The hepatic manifestations include particular changes referring to the basic CFTR defect, iatrogenic lesions or consequences of the multisystem disease. Even though hepatobiliary disease is the most common non-pulmonary cause ofmortalityin CF (the third after pulmonary disease and transplant complications), only about the 33%ofCF patients presents clinically significant hepatobiliary disease. Conclusions Liver disease will have a growing impact on survival and quality of life of cystic fibrosis patients because a longer life expectancy and for this it is important its early recognition and a correct clinical management aimed atdelaying the onset of complications. This review could represent an opportunity to encourage researchers to better investigate genotype-phenotype correlation associated with the development of cystic fibrosis liver disease, especially for non-CFTR genetic polymorphisms, and detect predisposed individuals. Therapeutic trials are needed to find strategies of

  13. Prediction of survival by texture-based automated quantitative assessment of regional disease patterns on CT in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Tae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo

    2018-01-01

    To retrospectively investigate whether the baseline extent and 1-year change in regional disease patterns on CT can predict survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A total of 144 IPF patients with CT scans at the time of diagnosis and 1 year later were included. The extents of five regional disease patterns were quantified using an in-house texture-based automated system. The fibrosis score was defined as the sum of the extent of honeycombing and reticular opacity. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the independent predictors of survival. A total of 106 patients (73.6%) died during the follow-up period. Univariate analysis revealed that age, baseline forced vital capacity, total lung capacity, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, six-minute walk distance, desaturation , honeycombing, reticular opacity, fibrosis score, and interval changes in honeycombing and fibrosis score were significantly associated with survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, desaturation, fibrosis score and interval change in fibrosis score were significant independent predictors of survival (p = 0.003, <0.001, 0.001 and <0.001). The C-index for the developed model was 0.768. Texture-based, automated CT quantification of fibrosis can be used as an independent predictor of survival in IPF patients. (orig.)

  14. Prediction of survival by texture-based automated quantitative assessment of regional disease patterns on CT in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Namkug [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon; Song, Jin Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    To retrospectively investigate whether the baseline extent and 1-year change in regional disease patterns on CT can predict survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A total of 144 IPF patients with CT scans at the time of diagnosis and 1 year later were included. The extents of five regional disease patterns were quantified using an in-house texture-based automated system. The fibrosis score was defined as the sum of the extent of honeycombing and reticular opacity. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the independent predictors of survival. A total of 106 patients (73.6%) died during the follow-up period. Univariate analysis revealed that age, baseline forced vital capacity, total lung capacity, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, six-minute walk distance, desaturation{sub ,} honeycombing, reticular opacity, fibrosis score, and interval changes in honeycombing and fibrosis score were significantly associated with survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, desaturation, fibrosis score and interval change in fibrosis score were significant independent predictors of survival (p = 0.003, <0.001, 0.001 and <0.001). The C-index for the developed model was 0.768. Texture-based, automated CT quantification of fibrosis can be used as an independent predictor of survival in IPF patients. (orig.)

  15. [Comparison of various noninvasive serum markers of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Min; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Roh, Young Wook; Eun, Chang Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Han, Dong Soo; Oh, Young Ha

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical performances of noninvasive serum markers for the prediction of liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. We analyzed a total of 225 patients with chronic viral liver diseases (180 with hepatitis B virus, 43 with hepatitis C virus, and 2 with hepatitis B+C virus) who underwent a liver biopsy procedure at the Hanyang University Guri Hospital between March 2002 and February 2007. Serum was also obtained at the time of liver biopsy. Liver fibrosis was staged according to the scoring system proposed by the Korean Study Group for the Pathology of Digestive Diseases. Various noninvasive serum markers were evaluated, including the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR), age-platelet (AP) index, AST/platelet ratio index (APRI), cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), platelet count, hyaluronic acid (HA), and type IV collagen. There were 17, 40, 61, 74, and 33 patients at stages F0, F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracies of each marker, as determined by the area under receiver operating characteristics curves, were APRI=0.822, CDS=0.776, platelet count=0.773, AP index=0.756, HA=0.749, type IV collagen=0.718, and AAR=0.642 for predicting significant fibrosis (> or =F2); and CDS=0.835, platelet count=0.795, AP index=0.794, HA=0.766, AAR=0.711, type IV collagen=0.697, and APRI=0.691 for predicting extensive fibrosis (> or =F3). All noninvasive serum markers evaluated in this study were useful for predicting significant or extensive liver fibrosis in chronic viral liver diseases. In particular, APRI was most useful for the prediction of significant fibrosis, and CDS was most useful for the prediction of extensive fibrosis.

  16. Value of 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessing liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Chourmouzi, Danai; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Constantinides, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Talwalkar, Jayant; Akriviadis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly the new generation 3 Tesla technology, and especially diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting liver fibrosis. The aim of our pilot study was to assess the clinical performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of liver parenchyma for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 18 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD underwent DWI with 3 Tesla MRI. DWI was performed with single-shot echo-planar technique at b values of 0-500 and 0-1000 s/mm 2 . ADC was measured in four locations in the liver and the mean ADC value was used for analysis. Staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR system. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 23-73). The distribution of patients in different fibrosis stages was: 0 (n=1), 1 (n=7), 2 (n=1), 3 (n=5), 4 (n=4). Fibrosis stage was poorly associated with ADC at b value of 0-500 s/mm 2 (r= -0.30, P=0.27). However it was significantly associated with ADC at b value of 0-1000 s/mm 2 (r= -0.57, P=0.01). For this b value (0-1000 s/mm 2 ) the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.93 for fibrosis stage ≥3 and the optimal ADC cut-off value was 1.16 ×10 -3 mm 2 /s. 3 Tesla DWI can possibly predict the presence of advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

  17. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: clinical picture and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the histology of deep skin biopsies. Symptomatic treatment with intensive physiotherapy and painkillers is important, but there is no known curative medical treatment. Spontaneous remission of NSF symptoms may occur with recovery of renal function after an episode of acute renal failure, or with kidney...

  18. Glycemic variability is an independent predictive factor for development of hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Hashiba

    Full Text Available Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH often have metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We clarified the predictive factors in glucose metabolism for progression of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75gOGTT and a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS. One hundred sixty-nine patients (68 female and 101 male patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD with performance with 75gOGTT were enrolled and divided into four groups according to the stage of hepatic fibrosis (F0-3. The proportion of patients with T2DM significantly gradually increased, HbA1c and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were significantly elevated, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG was remarkably decreased with the progression of fibrosis. In the 75gOGTT, both plasma glucose and insulin secretion were remarkably increased with the progression of fibrosis. The only factor significantly associated with advanced fibrosis was 1,5-AG (P = 0.008 as determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We next evaluated the changes in blood glucose during 24 hours by monitoring with the CGMS to confirm the relationship between glycemic variability and progression of fibrosis. Variability of median glucose, standard deviation of median glucose (P = 0.0022, maximum blood glucose (P = 0.0019, and ΔMin-max blood glucose (P = 0.0029 were remarkably higher in severe fibrosis than in mild fibrosis.Hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia, especially glycemic variability, are important predictive factors in glucose impairment for the progression of hepatic fibrosis in NAFLD.

  19. Proteome analysis of Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jie Young; Lim, Hee Soon; Kim, Hyung Doo; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Son, Hyeog Jin Son; Yun, Yeon Sook

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is perhaps the most universal late effect of organ damage after both chemical insult and irradiation in the treatment of lung cancer. The use chemotherapy and radiation therapy, alone or combined, can be associated with clinically significant pulmonary toxicity, which leads to pneumonia and pulmonary fibrosis. It is also reported that about 100,000 people in the United States are suffered from pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, pulmonary fibrosis will be more focused by medicinal researchers. Because current therapies, aimed at inhibiting pulmonary inflammation that often precedes fibrosis, are effective only in a minority of suffered patients, novel therapeutic methods are highly needed. Some researchers have used bleomycininduced pulmonary fibrosis as a basis for looking at the molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, and total gene expression was monitored using genomics method. However, radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis has not been fully focused and investigated. Here, we have analyzed changes in gene expression in response to γ- irradiation by using proteomic analysis

  20. Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 This Web cast is supported by an unrestricted ... Moran, MD Professor, Pediatric Endocrinology University of Minnesota Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD): Daily Management September 20, 2011 ...

  1. Gastroenterological endpoints in drug trials for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Frank A. J. A.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Wilschanski, Micheal

    2016-01-01

    The phenotype of cystic fibrosis includes a wide variety of clinical and biochemical gastrointestinal presentations. These gastrointestinal characteristics of the disease have come under renewed interest as potential outcome measures and clinical endpoints for therapeutic trials in cystic fibrosis.

  2. Ketamine induced renal fibrosis in a ketamine addition rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu Jang

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Ketamine treatment not only induced cystitis-like syndrome, but also renal fibrosis. These renal interstitial fibrosis changes may be induced by the TGF-β pathway. These preliminary results can provide valuable information from a clinical perspective.

  3. induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via regulation of IL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TRAF6, IL-33 and ST2 in lung tissue were determined by western blotting assay. Serum levels of ..... facilitate excessive tissue repair and fibrosis [20]. Therefore ... to cancer biology. ... liver regeneration, fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Hepatol.

  4. Fibrosis miocárdica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Francisco de

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de la fibroelastosis endocárdica anotando la confusión en la denominación que existe actualmente. Se enumeran los diferentes factores que hasta ahora se han encontrado como causantes del cuadro y las distintas teorías que tratan de explicar su patogenia. Se hace la descripción del cuadro clínico y se presenta un caso de un hombre de treinta años que ingresó al Hospital de San Juan de' Dios por una afasia principalmente de expresión y un cuadro clínico de insuficiencia cardíaca de origen obscuro. Se sospechó el diagnóstico de Fibrosis miocárdica por la clínica, el  E. C. G. y los rayos X. Posteriormente estuvieron de acuerdo con este diagnóstico los datos hemodinámicos y e! hecho de que durante la 'toma de una biopsia de pulmón se produjera paro cardíaco, que hizo necesario el masaje cardíaco, encontrando un corazón enormemente aumentado de tamaño, que presentaba una placa de color blanco de 11/2 centímetros localizada sobre e! epicardio de! Ventrículo izquierdo. Al examen microscópico se observó que esta placa estaba formada por tejido conjuntivo fibroso laxo. Se discute el diagnóstico y se pone de presente que el paciente de que se trata está vivo.

  5. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value o...

  6. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  7. "Tipping" extracellular matrix remodeling towards regression of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magdaleno, Fernando; Schierwagen, Robert; Uschner, Frank E

    2018-01-01

    Fibrosis development was initially conceived as an incessant progressive condition. Nowadays, it has become evident that fibrotic tissue undergoes a continuous two-way process: fibrogenesis and fibrinolysis, characterizing the remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, in established...... fibrosis, this two-way process is tipped towards fibrogenesis and this leads to a self-perpetuating accumulation of ECM, a distinct metabolic unit, together with other cells and processes promoting fibrosis deposition. Several mechanisms promote fibrosis regression, such as degradation of ECM, infiltration...

  8. Matrix Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Philip; Antony, Veena B.; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema are chronic lung diseases characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. A hallmark of these diseases is recurrent or persistent alveolar epithelial injury, typically caused by common environmental exposures such as cigarette smoke. We propose that critical determinants of the outcome of the injury-repair processes that result in fibrosis versus emphysema are mesenchymal cell fate and associated extracellular matrix dynamics. In this review, we explore the concept that regulation of mesenchymal cells under the influence of soluble factors, in particular transforming growth factor-β1, and the extracellular matrix determine the divergent tissue remodeling responses seen in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. PMID:26741177

  9. Fibrocytes in pulmonary fibrosis: a brief synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Maharaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived, circulating mesenchymal progenitor cells that play a role in several fibrotic disorders, including lung fibrosis. They are attracted to injured tissue by various chemokines. It is likely that fibrocytes play a detrimental role in tissue homeostasis and promote fibrosis, although this paradigm needs further confirmation. This would make fibrocytes a possible novel treatment target for fibrotic disorders. Fibrocytes also have some potential as a biomarker for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and other diseases, but the promising preliminary data from single centre studies still require independent validation. Despite several, as yet, unresolved issues, it has become clear that fibrocytes are more than an incidental finding in lung injury and repair, and may hold great promise for the future of IPF management.

  10. Defects in MAP1S-mediated autophagy turnover of fibronectin cause renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guibin; Yue, Fei; Huang, Hai; He, Yongzhong; Li, Xun; Zhao, Haibo; Su, Zhengming; Jiang, Xianhan; Li, Wenjiao; Zou, Jing; Chen, Qi; Liu, Leyuan

    2016-05-01

    Excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins in renal tissues causes renal fibrosis and renal function failure. Mammalian cells primarily use the autophagy-lysosome system to degrade misfolded/aggregated proteins and dysfunctional organelles. MAP1S is an autophagy activator and promotes the biogenesis and degradation of autophagosomes. Previously, we reported that MAP1S suppresses hepatocellular carcinogenesis in a mouse model and predicts a better prognosis in patients suffering from clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, we have characterized that MAP1S enhances the turnover of fibronectin, and mice overexpressing LC3 but with MAP1S deleted accumulate fibronectin and develop liver fibrosis because of the synergistic impact of LC3-induced over-synthesis of fibronectin and MAP1S depletion-caused impairment of fibronectin degradation. Here we show that a suppression of MAP1S in renal cells caused an impairment of autophagy clearance of fibronectin and an activation of pyroptosis. Depletion of MAP1S in mice leads to an accumulation of fibrosis-related proteins and the development of renal fibrosis in aged mice. The levels of MAP1S were dramatically reduced and levels of fibronectin were greatly elevated in renal fibrotic tissues from patients diagnosed as renal atrophy and renal failure. Therefore, MAP1S deficiency may cause the accumulation of fibronectin and the development of renal fibrosis.

  11. Endocytosis and intracellular protein degradation in cystic fibrosis fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessup, W.; Dean, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Normal rates of pinocytosis of [ 3 H]sucrose were measured in cystic fibrosis fibroblasts, and were not affected by the addition of cystic fibrosis serum. Bulk protein degradation (a significant proportion of which occurs intralysosomally following autophagy) and its regulation by growth state were apparently identical in normal and cystic fibrosis cultures. (Auth.)

  12. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  13. [Endomyocardial fibrosis with massive calcification of the left ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Joana; Camacho, Ana; Gago, Paula; Candeias, Rui; Santos, Walter; Marques, Nuno; Matos, Pedro; Brandão, Victor; Gomes, Veloso

    2010-03-01

    Endomyocardial fibrosis is a rare disease, endemic in tropical countries. It is characterized by fibrosis of the endocardium that can extend to myocardium. Important calcification of the endocardium is rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of endomyocardial fibrosis in a european caucasian patient, associated with massive calcification of left ventricle.

  14. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Méry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM, cross metathesis (CM, enyne metathesis reactions (EYM – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions.

  15. Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinuck, Ruth; Dewar, Jane; Baldwin, David R; Hendron, Elizabeth

    2014-07-27

    Chronic loss of appetite in cystic fibrosis concerns both individuals and families. Appetite stimulants have been used to help cystic fibrosis patients with chronic anorexia attain optimal body mass index and nutritional status. However, these may have adverse effects on clinical status. The aim of this review is to systematically search for and evaluate evidence on the beneficial effects of appetite stimulants in the management of CF-related anorexia and synthesize reports of any side-effects. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, handsearching reference lists and contacting local and international experts.Last search of online databases: 01 April 2014.Last search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 08 April 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of appetite stimulants, compared to placebo or no treatment for at least one month in adults and children with cystic fibrosis. Authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias within eligible trials. Meta-analyses were performed. Three trials (total of 47 recruited patients) comparing appetite stimulants (cyproheptadine hydrochloride and megesterol acetate) to placebo were included; the numbers of adults or children within each trial were not always reported. The risk of bias of the included trials was graded as moderate.A meta-analysis of all three trials showed appetite stimulants produced a larger increase in weight z score at three months compared to placebo, mean difference 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.93) (P children, appetite stimulants improved only two of the outcomes in this review - weight (or weight z score) and appetite; and side effects were insufficiently reported to determine the full extent of their impact. Whilst the data may suggest the potential use of appetite stimulants in treating anorexia in adults and children with cystic fibrosis

  16. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF. PMID:27625576

  17. The Role of PPARs in Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather F. Lakatos

    2007-01-01

    wound healing. PPARβ/δ agonists inhibit lung fibroblast proliferation and enhance the antifibrotic properties of PPARγ agonists. PPARγ ligands oppose the profibrotic effect of TGF-β, which induces differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, a critical effector cell in fibrosis. PPARγ ligands, including the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs, effectively inhibit lung fibrosis in vitro and in animal models. The clinical availability of potent and selective PPARα and PPARγ agonists should facilitate rapid development of successful treatment strategies based on current and ongoing research.

  18. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Karlas, Thomas; Neuschulz, Marie; Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patient...

  19. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagy Doha M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  20. Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: An update on immune interactions and molecular diagnostics in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, A; Romain, T; Ranque, S; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Dubus, J-C; Mège, J-L; Vitte, J

    2017-11-01

    A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe A. fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution toward pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. An estimated 8%-10% of patients with cystic fibrosis experience this condition. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis relies on criteria first established in 1977. Progress in the understanding of host-pathogen interactions in A. fumigatus and patients with cystic fibrosis and the ongoing validation of novel laboratory tools concur to update and improve the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  1. Sub-aortic obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract secondary to benfluorex-induced endocardial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Szymanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients exposed to benfluorex have an increased risk of restrictive organic valvular heart disease. Aortic and mitral regurgitations caused by fibrotic valve disease are the most common features observed in exposure to fenfluramine derivatives in general and benfluorex in particular. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, a well-documented case in which obstructive sub-aortic endocardium fibrosis within the left ventricular outflow tract is related with exposure to a drug that modifies the metabolism of serotonin. It now remains to be established whether extensive fibrosis of the myocardium in addition to well-documented valvular fibrosis may develop in patients exposed to amphetamine-derived drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  2. A pilot study on the use of optical spectroscopy to detection of liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabila, A; La Rosa, J. de; Stolik, S.; Escobedo, C.; Suarez Alvarez, K.; Lopez Navarrete, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary study to evaluate the use of optical spectroscopy as a tool to detect liver fibrosis. In vivo fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from male rats in which fibrosis were induced by means of carbon tetrachloride. Spectral measurements were obtained using a portable system with an excitation source of 365 nm and a fiber-optic probe. The livers from rats with fibrosis showed an increase in fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensity when compared to normal liver tissue. A support vector machine discrimination algorithm based on fluorescence and diffuse reflectance intensities at 493 and 365 nm was developed. This algorithm yields a sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 94%, respectively, in differentiating fibrotic liver from normal liver tissue. the results obtained in this study suggest that optical spectroscopy could be worthy of further exploration in patients. (Author)

  3. Plasma YKL-40: a new potential marker of fibrosis in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J S; Møller, S; Price, P A

    1997-01-01

    YKL-40 is released or extracted in the hepatosplanchnic system and to localize YKL-40 in liver tissue. METHODS: Plasma YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 25 patients with liver diseases (alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 20), chronic active hepatitis (n = 2), cirrhosis of unknown aetiology (n = 2...... with alcoholic liver disease. RESULTS: Plasma YKL-40 was significantly increased in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (median, 523 micrograms/l; P ... with a moderate or severe degree of liver fibrosis, and immunohistochemical studies showed positive staining for YKL-40 antigen in areas of the liver biopsy with fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The increased plasma YKL-40 in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis may reflect the remodelling of liver fibrosis....

  4. Psychological interventions for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, C A; Quittner, A L

    2003-01-01

    As survival estimates for cystic fibrosis (CF) steadily increase long-term management has become an important focus for intervention. Psychological interventions are largely concerned with emotional and social adjustments, adherence to treatment and quality of life, however no systematic review of such interventions has been undertaken for this disease. To describe the extent and quality of effectiveness studies utilising psychological interventions for CF and whether these interventions provide significant psychosocial and physical benefits in addition to standard care. Relevant trials were identified from searches of Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane trial registers for CF and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Groups and PsychINFO; unpublished trials were located through professional networks and Listserves. Most recent search: April 2003. This review included RCTs and quasi-randomised trials. Study participants were children and adults diagnosed with CF, and their immediate family members. Psychological interventions were from a broad range of modalities and outcomes were primarily psychosocial, although physical outcomes and cost effectiveness were also considered. Two reviewers independently selected relevant trials and assessed their methodological quality. For binary and continuous outcomes a pooled estimate of treatment effect was calculated for each outcome. This review is based on the findings of eight studies, representing data from a total of 358 participants. Studies fell into four conceptually similar groups: (1) gene pre-test education counselling for relatives of those with CF (one study); (2) biofeedback, massage and music therapy to assist physiotherapy (three studies); (3) behavioural intervention to improve dietary intake in children up to 12 years (three studies); and (4) self-administration of treatments to improve quality of life in adults (one study). Interventions were largely educational or behavioural, targeted at specific treatment concerns

  5. Mouse and Rat Models of Induction of Hepatic Fibrosis and Assessment of Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Uschner, Frank Erhard; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension either develops due to progressive liver fibrosis or is the consequence of vascular liver diseases such as portal vein thrombosis or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. This chapter focuses on different rodent models of liver fibrosis with portal hypertension and also in few non-cirrhotic portal hypertension models. Importantly, after the development of portal hypertension, the proper assessment of drug effects in the portal and systemic circulation should be discussed. The last part of the chapter is dedicated in these techniques to assess the in vivo hemodynamics and the ex vivo techniques of the isolated liver perfusion and vascular contractility.

  6. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Chuanlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value of these noninvasive diagnosis techniques, and it discusses the progress in clinical research and its limitations for noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  7. Macrophage recruitment by fibrocystin-defective biliary epithelial cells promotes portal fibrosis in congenital hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Luigi; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Spirlì, Carlo; Fiorotto, Romina; Lecchi, Silvia; Morell, Carola Maria; Popov, Yury; Scirpo, Roberto; De Matteis, Maria; Amenduni, Mariangela; Pietrobattista, Andrea; Torre, Giuliano; Schuppan, Detlef; Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is a disease of the biliary epithelium characterized by bile duct changes resembling ductal plate malformations and by progressive peribiliary fibrosis, in the absence of overt necroinflammation. Progressive liver fibrosis leads to portal hypertension and liver failure; however, the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in CHF remain elusive. CHF is caused by mutations in PKHD1, a gene encoding for fibrocystin, a ciliary protein expressed in cholangiocytes. Using a fibrocystin-defective (Pkhd1(del4/del4)) mouse, which is orthologous of CHF, we show that Pkhd1(del4/del4) cholangiocytes are characterized by a β-catenin-dependent secretion of a range of chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 1, 10, and 12, which stimulate bone marrow-derived macrophage recruitment. We also show that Pkhd1(del4/del4) cholangiocytes, in turn, respond to proinflammatory cytokines released by macrophages by up-regulating αvβ6 integrin, an activator of latent local transforming growth factor-β1. While the macrophage infiltrate is initially dominated by the M1 phenotype, the profibrogenic M2 phenotype increases with disease progression, along with the number of portal myofibroblasts. Consistent with these findings, clodronate-induced macrophage depletion results in a significant reduction of portal fibrosis and portal hypertension as well as of liver cysts. Fibrosis can be initiated by an epithelial cell dysfunction, leading to low-grade inflammation, macrophage recruitment, and collagen deposition; these findings establish a new paradigm for biliary fibrosis and represent a model to understand the relationship between cell dysfunction, parainflammation, liver fibrosis, and macrophage polarization over time. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. MicroRNA mimicry blocks pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rusty L; Yu, Guoying; Latimer, Paul A; Stack, Christianna; Robinson, Kathryn; Dalby, Christina M; Kaminski, Naftali; van Rooij, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, great enthusiasm has evolved for microRNA (miRNA) therapeutics. Part of the excitement stems from the fact that a miRNA often regulates numerous related mRNAs. As such, modulation of a single miRNA allows for parallel regulation of multiple genes involved in a particular disease. While many studies have shown therapeutic efficacy using miRNA inhibitors, efforts to restore or increase the function of a miRNA have been lagging behind. The miR-29 family has gained a lot of attention for its clear function in tissue fibrosis. This fibroblast-enriched miRNA family is downregulated in fibrotic diseases which induces a coordinate increase of many extracellular matrix genes. Here, we show that intravenous injection of synthetic RNA duplexes can increase miR-29 levels in vivo for several days. Moreover, therapeutic delivery of these miR-29 mimics during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis restores endogenous miR-29 function whereby decreasing collagen expression and blocking and reversing pulmonary fibrosis. Our data support the feasibility of using miRNA mimics to therapeutically increase miRNAs and indicate miR-29 to be a potent therapeutic miRNA for treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25239947

  9. Immunoreactive trypsin and neonatalscreening for cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travert, G.; Laroche, D.; Blandin, C.; Pasquet, C.

    1988-01-01

    Immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was measured in dried blood spots from 160.822 five-day-old babies as a part of a regionwide neonatal screening program for cystic fibrosis. A second test was performed for 492 babies in whom blood IRT levels were found greater than 900 μg/l; retesting revealed persistent elevation in 55. Sweat testing confirmed cystic fibrosis in 43 babies, but results were normal in 12. During the course of this study, a total of 51 cystic fibrosis babies were identified: 43 by newborn screening, 6 because they had meconium ileus; so, early diagnosis was achieved in 49 cases out of 51. Two newborn babies did not have elevated IRT and they were missed by the screening test. Our results confirm that elevated blood IRT is characteristic of newborn babies with cystic fibrosis and show that this test has an excellent specificity (99.7%) and a good sensitivity (95%) when used as a neonatal screening test [fr

  10. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...... respiratory tract (nasal sampling) should be investigated and both infection sites should be treated....

  11. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  12. Cystic fibrosis year in review 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Adrienne P; McColley, Susanna A

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we highlight cystic fibrosis (CF) research and case reports published in Pediatric Pulmonology during 2016. We also include articles from a variety of journals that are thematically related to these articles, or are of special interest to clinicians. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Agmatine attenuates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agamy, D S; Sharawy, M H; Ammar, E M

    2014-06-01

    There is a large body of evidence that nitric oxide (NO) formation is implicated in mediating silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. As a reactive free radical, NO may not only contribute to lung parenchymal tissue injury but also has the ability to combine with superoxide and form a highly reactive toxic species peroxynitrite that can induce extensive cellular toxicity in the lung tissues. This study aimed to explore the effect of agmatine, a known NO synthase inhibitor, on silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with agmatine for 60 days following a single intranasal instillation of silica suspension (50 mg in 0.1 ml saline/rat). The results revealed that agmatine attenuated silica-induced lung inflammation as it decreased the lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein concentration, and the accumulation of the inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Agmatine showed antifibrotic activity as it decreased total hydroxyproline content of the lung and reduced silica-mediated lung inflammation and fibrosis in lung histopathological specimen. In addition, agmatine significantly increased superoxide dismutase (p Agmatine also reduced silica-induced overproduction of pulmonary nitrite/nitrate as well as tumor necrosis factor α. Collectively, these results demonstrate the protective effects of agmatine against the silica-induced lung fibrosis that may be attributed to its ability to counteract the NO production, lipid peroxidation, and regulate cytokine effects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Pirfenidone treatment in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salih, Goran Nadir; Shaker, Saher Burhan; Madsen, Helle Dall

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pirfenidone was approved by the European Medicines Agency and introduced in most European countries in 2011 for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To describe the national Danish experiences of pirfenidone treatment for IPF during 30 months with respect...

  15. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of

  16. The cystic fibrosis of exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilschanski, Michael; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is highly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelia and permits anions and water to enter the ductal lumen. This results in an increased volume of alkaline fluid allowing the highly concentrated proteins secreted by the acina...... (CF) and pancreatitis, and outline present and potential therapeutic approaches in CF treatment relevant to the pancreas....

  17. Serum hyaluronic acid as a marker of hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Khan, N.A.; Mehmood, T.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the serum hyaluronic acid (HA) levels as biochemical marker of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and correlate it with the degree of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. This study was performed on 100 patients of chronic liver disease whose liver biopsies had been carried out. Fifty healthy controls were also included in the study. Routine liver function tests, hepatitis serology and serum hyaluronic acid levels were carried out on patients and controls. Liver biopsy of 100 patients revealed that 21 were in stage 0 fibrosis, 38 in stage 1 fibrosis, 26 in stage 3 fibrosis and 15 in stage 4 fibrosis. Mean Serum HA (mean +- SD) concentration in patients were 189 +- 98 mg/L vs. 21 +- 10 mg/L of healthy controls. The difference observed was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Patients in stage 4 fibrosis had significantly higher (p <0.001) mean serum HA concentration as compared to other stages of liver fibrosis. Diagnostic accuracy of serum HA at marginally elevated level of 60 mg/L determined the sensitivity 78.4 %, specificity 80.9%, positive predicted value 93.9% and negative predicted value of 50%. Serum HA is a useful non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis. There is a strong positive correlation between serum HA levels and degree of liver fibrosis. The concentration of serum HA rises according to progression of liver fibrosis and levels are highest in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  18. Interferon gamma peptidomimetic targeted to interstitial myofibroblasts attenuates renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poosti, Fariba; Bansal, Ruchi; Yazdani, Saleh; Prakash, Jai; Beljaars, Leonie; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Poelstra, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis cannot be adequately treated since anti-fibrotic treatment is lacking. Interferon-gamma is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-fibrotic properties. Clinical use of interferon-gamma is hampered due to inflammation-mediated systemic side effects. We used an interferon-gamma

  19. Associations between Academic Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Adam J.; Tluczek, Audrey; Racine-Gilles, Caroline N.; Laxova, Anita; Albers, Craig A.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic genetic disease that leads to the accumulation of thick mucus in multiple organ systems, leading to chronic lung infection and affecting the body's ability to absorb nutrients necessary for growth and development. This cross-sectional, correlational study examined the potential effects of CF on…

  20. The optimal approach to nutrition and cystic fibrosis : latest evidence and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, FM; Ross, NM; Heijerman, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a progressive genetic disease that affects multiple organ systems. Therapy is directed to maintain and optimize nutritional status and pulmonary function, as these are key factors in survival. In this review, the most recent findings regarding nutritional

  1. Modeling the mechanical properties of liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping; Shen, Yuanyuan; Song, Liang

    2016-06-14

    The progression of liver fibrosis changes the biomechanical properties of liver tissue. This study characterized and compared different liver fibrosis stages in rats in terms of viscoelasticity. Three viscoelastic models, the Voigt, Maxwell, and Zener models, were applied to experimental data from rheometer tests and then the elasticity and viscosity were estimated for each fibrosis stage. The study found that both elasticity and viscosity are correlated with the various stages of liver fibrosis. The study revealed that the Zener model is the optimal model for describing the mechanical properties of each fibrosis stage, but there is no significant difference between the Zener and Voigt models in their performance on liver fibrosis staging. Therefore the Voigt model can still be effectively used for liver fibrosis grading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient Status of Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORDON, CATHERINE M.; ANDERSON, ELLEN J.; HERLYN, KAREN; HUBBARD, JANE L.; PIZZO, ANGELA; GELBARD, RONDI; LAPEY, ALLEN; MERKEL, PETER A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition is thought to influence disease status in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This cross-sectional study sought to evaluate nutrient intake and anthropometric data from 64 adult outpatients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrient intake from food and supplements was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes for 16 nutrients and outcomes influenced by nutritional status. Attention was given to vitamin D and calcium given potential skeletal implications due to cystic fibrosis. Measurements included weight, height, body composition, pulmonary function, and serum metabolic parameters. Participants were interviewed about dietary intake, supplement use, pulmonary function, sunlight exposure, and pain. The participants’ mean body mass index (±standard deviation) was 21.8±4.9 and pulmonary function tests were normal. Seventy-eight percent used pancreatic enzyme replacement for malabsorption. Vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)<37.5 nmol/L] was common: 25 (39%) were deficient despite adequate vitamin D intake. Lipid profiles were normal in the majority, even though total and saturated fat consumption represented 33.0% and 16.8% of energy intake, respectively. Reported protein intake represented 16.9% of total energy intake (range 10%–25%). For several nutrients, including vitamin D and calcium, intake from food and supplements in many participants exceeded recommended Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Among adults with cystic fibrosis, vitamin D deficiency was common despite reported adequate intake, and lipid profiles were normal despite a relatively high fat intake. Mean protein consumption was adequate, but the range of intake was concerning, as both inadequate or excessive intake may have deleterious skeletal effects. These findings call into question the applicability of established nutrient thresholds for patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18060897

  3. Dual core quantum dots for highly quantitative ratiometric detection of trypsin activity in cystic fibrosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló Serrano, Iván; Stoica, Georgiana; Matas Adams, Alba; Palomares, Emilio

    2014-10-01

    We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. Current detection methods for cystic fibrosis diagnosis are slow, costly and suffer from false positives. The 2nanoSi proved to be a highly sensitive, fast (minutes), and single-step approach nanosensor for the screening and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range relevant for clinical applications (25-350 μg L-1). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis (CF), different human genotypes, i.e. CF homozygotic, CF heterozygotic, and unaffected, respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres. We anticipate the 2nanoSi system to be a starting point for non-invasive, easy-to-use and cost effective ratiometric fluorescent biomarkers for recessive genetic diseases like human cystic fibrosis. In a screening program in which the goal is to detect disease and also the carrier status, early diagnosis could be of great help.We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. Current detection methods for cystic fibrosis diagnosis are slow, costly and suffer from false positives. The 2nanoSi proved to be a highly sensitive, fast (minutes), and single-step approach nanosensor for the screening and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range relevant for clinical applications (25-350 μg L-1). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis (CF), different human genotypes, i.e. CF homozygotic, CF heterozygotic, and unaffected, respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres. We anticipate the 2nanoSi system to be a starting point for non-invasive, easy-to-use and cost effective ratiometric fluorescent biomarkers for

  4. Real time shear wave elastography in chronic liver diseases: Accuracy for predicting liver fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Kim, Tae Yeob; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yongsoo; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Oh, Young-Ha; Yoo, Kyo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by real-time shear wave elastography (SWE) and liver fibrosis stage and the accuracy of LSM for predicting significant and advanced fibrosis, in comparison with serum markers. METHODS: We consecutively analyzed 70 patients with various chronic liver diseases. Liver fibrosis was staged from F0 to F4 according to the Batts and Ludwig scoring system. Significant and advanced fibrosis was defined as stage F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3, respectively. The accuracy of prediction for fibrosis was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Seventy patients, 15 were belonged to F0-F1 stage, 20 F2, 13 F3 and 22 F4. LSM was increased with progression of fibrosis stage (F0-F1: 6.77 ± 1.72, F2: 9.98 ± 3.99, F3: 15.80 ± 7.73, and F4: 22.09 ± 10.09, P < 0.001). Diagnostic accuracies of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 0.915 (95%CI: 0.824-0.968, P < 0.001) and 0.913 (95%CI: 0.821-0.967, P < 0.001), respectively. The cut-off values of LSM for prediction of F ≥ 2 and F ≥ 3 were 8.6 kPa with 78.2% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity and 10.46 kPa with 88.6% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between LSM and serum hyaluronic acid and type IV collagen in diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSION: SWE showed a significant correlation with the severity of liver fibrosis and was useful and accurate to predict significant and advanced fibrosis, comparable with serum markers. PMID:25320528

  5. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available In chronic hepatitis C (CHC, liver biopsy is the gold standard method for assessing liver histology, however it is invasive and can have complications. Non-invasive markers have been proposed and aspartate aminotransferase (AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI has been shown as an easy and inexpensive marker of liver fibrosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of APRI for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis prediction in CHC patients. This study included treatment-naive CHC patients who had undergone liver biopsy from January 2000 to August 2006. All histological slides were reviewed according to the METAVIR system. APRI was calculated based on laboratory results performed within four months from the biopsy. Twenty-eight (56% patients had significant fibrosis (F2-F4 and 13 (26% had cirrhosis (F4. The area under ROC curves of APRI for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were 0.92 (0.83-1.00 and 0.92 (0.85-1.00, respectively. Using cut-off values recommended by prior studies, significant fibrosis could be identified, in accordance with liver biopsy, in 44% and cirrhosis in 66% of patients. APRI could identify significant fibrosis and cirrhosis at a high degree of accuracy in studied patients.

  6. Medical Ethics in Plastic Surgery: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ebrahimi, Azin; Hashem-Zade, Haleh

    2016-09-01

    Currently, cosmetic surgery is spread around the world. Several factors are involved in this rapidly evolving field such as socio-economic development, changes in cultural norms, globalization and the effects of Western culture, advertising, media, and mental disorders. Nowadays the cosmetic surgery is becoming a profitable business, which deals exclusively with human appearance and less from the perspective of beauty based on physical protests and considering factors such as sex, age, and race. The morality of plastic surgery subspecialty has undergone many moral dilemmas in the past few years. The role of the patient regardless of his unrealistic dreams has questionable ethical dimension. The problem is the loss of human values and replacing them with false values, of pride and glory to a charismatic person of higher status, that may underlie some of the posed ethical dilemmas. Cosmetic surgery has huge difference with the general principle of legal liability in professional orientation, because the objective for cosmetic surgeries is different from common therapeutic purposes. To observe excellence in the medical profession, we should always keep in mind that these service providers, often as a therapist (healer) must maintain a commitment and priority for patient safety and prior to any action, a real apply for this service recipient should be present. Also, patient-physician confidentiality is the cornerstone of medical ethics. In this review, we study the issues addressed and the ways that they can be resolved.

  7. Essential Oil Compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Salleh, Farediah Ahmad * , Khong Heng Yen, Razauden Mohamed Zulkifli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have been largely employed for human need due to their antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. At present, approximately 3000 essential oils are known, 300 of which are commercially important. Essential oils or some of their components are used in perfumes and make-up products, sanitary products, dentistry, agriculture, as food preservers and additives, and as natural remedies. The essential oil compositions of Malaysian Lauraceae family have been investigated for many years. In the recent years, studies on the essential oils of the species have been progressing and many of them have reported interesting pharmacological activities. In this article, we summarized and updated the chemical compositions and biological activities of Malaysian Lauraceae. Throughout our literature review, only four genera which are Lindera, Beilschmiedia, Litsea, and Cinnamomum have been studied for their essential oil compositions in Malaysia. They were found to contain mainly safrole, eugenol, linalool, camphor, benzyl benzoate or cinnamaldehyde as major components. There were significant priorities to find out the details of the chemical compositions of the essential oils from Malaysian Lauraceae. Therefore, more clinical studies on the toxicity of the essential oil of the species are also crucial to ensure their safety and to assess their eligibility to be used as the sources of modern medicines.

  8. Social media use of older adults: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining social relationships has been defined as a core element of aging well. With a considerable amount of older adults living alone, social media provides the possibility to engage in meaningful social contact, e.g. by joining online social networks and online discussion forums. The review encompasses current knowledge of prerequisites in social media use of older adults such as functional capacity, information and communications technology-related knowledge, and favorable attitudes towards social media. Then, the potential of social media use for clinical practice and possible negative consequences are outlined. Literature on social media use from a gerontological perspective was reviewed in July and August 2012. Online communities are suitable for providing and receiving social support when confronted with a difficult life situation, regardless of geographical location or time. From a practitioner's perspective, social media can be used to advance health-related knowledge such as information on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of specific conditions and disorders. Further positive consequences have been shown to be overcoming loneliness, relieving stress, and raising feelings of control and self-efficacy. Possible negative consequences could be misuse of personal data as well as the distribution and uncritical adoption of potentially harmful information via online communities. The potential of social media in clinical practice is reflected in a wide range of intervention possibilities for older adults. However, with the rise of social media, new threats emerge for older adults as well. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. E-waste management in India: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Zhishi; Awasthi, Mrigendra Kumar; Li, Jinhui

    2018-05-01

    Environmental deterioration and health risk due to improper e-waste management has become a serious issue in India. The major portion of e-waste reaches an unorganized e-waste recycling sector and is then treated by using crude methods. This review article presents a brief highlight on e-waste management status, legislation, and technology uses in India. The present e-waste management needs to be more focused on environmentally sound management, by more active support from all the participants involved in the e-waste flow chain in India.

  10. Hospital waste management in developing countries: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Health care activities can generate different kinds of hazardous wastes. Mismanagement of these wastes can result in environmental and occupational health risks. Developing countries are resource-constrained when it comes to safe management of hospital wastes. This study summarizes the main issues faced in hospital waste management in developing countries. A review of the existing literature suggests that regulations and legislations focusing on hospital waste management are recent accomplishments in many of these countries. Implementation of these rules varies from one hospital to another. Moreover, wide variations exist in waste generation rates within as well as across these countries. This is mainly attributable to a lack of an agreement on the definitions and the methodology among the researchers to measure such wastes. Furthermore, hospitals in these countries suffer from poor waste segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal practices, which can lead to occupational and environmental risks. Knowledge and awareness regarding proper waste management remain low in the absence of training for hospital staff. Moreover, hospital sanitary workers, and scavengers, operate without the provision of safety equipment or immunization. Unsegregated waste is illegally recycled, leading to further safety risks. Overall, hospital waste management in developing countries faces several challenges. Sustainable waste management practices can go a long way in reducing the harmful effects of hospital wastes.

  11. Dermatophilus Infection in Nigeria: A Mini-Review | Ikpeze | Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dermatophilosis in Nigeria is reviewed. Dermatophilosis, a chronic dermatitis that damages the skin of cattle, is caused by Dermatophilus congolensis. The organism requires existing skin lesions to establish infection. An association between ticks bites and dermatophilosis has been established. 12% prevalence of infection ...

  12. Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, N. V.; Anupama, S.; Navya, K.; Shalini, H. N.; Idris, M.; Hampannavar, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are common water pollutants and include wide variety of organic chemicals. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and various other methods which can result in health effects. High exposures to phenol may be fatal to human beings. Accumulation of phenol creates toxicity both for flora and fauna. Therefore, removal of phenol is crucial to perpetuate the environment and individual. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environmental friendly. Biological methods are gaining importance as they convert the wastes into harmless end products. The present work focuses on assessment of biological removal (biodegradation) of phenol. Various factors influence the efficiency of biodegradation of phenol such as ability of the microorganism, enzymes involved, the mechanism of degradation and influencing factors. This study describes about the sources of phenol, adverse effects on the environment, microorganisms involved in the biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) and enzymes that polymerize phenol.

  13. Theories relating baryon asymmetry and dark matter: a Mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eMorisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of dark matter and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are two of the deepest mysteries of modern particle physics. In the absence of hints regarding a possible solution to these mysteries, many approaches have been developed to tackle them simultaneously { leading to very diverse and rich models}. We give a short review where we describe the general features of some of these models and an overview on the general problem. We also propose a diagrammatic notation to label the different models.

  14. Sacroiliac screw fixation: A mini review of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sacral percutaneous fixation has many advantages but can be associated with a significant exposure to X-ray radiation. Currently, sacroiliac screw fixation represents the only minimally invasive technique to stabilize the posterior pelvic ring. It is a technique that should be used by experienced surgeons. We present a practical review of important aspects of this technique.

  15. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  16. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets

  17. Biotechnological potentials of Seidlitzia rosmarinus: A mini review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... It has also many industrial applications such as dyeing, making soaps, pottery and ceramics among others. Besides being used as fodder in dry and desert regions, its "Ghalyab" can be used in biotechnological studies. Cultivation of S. rosmarinus plants in salt affected and dry farm lands for "Ghalyab" ...

  18. Magnesium-based implants: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to bring to the attention of the readership of Magnesium Research another facet of the importance of magnesium, i.e. magnesium-based biomaterials. A concise history of biomaterials and magnesium are thus presented. In addition, historical and current, clinical magnesium-based applications are presented.

  19. Mini Review: Innovation technology cultivation of durio in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFRILIA TRI WIDYAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Widyawati AT, Nurbani. 2017. . Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 132-137. Durian is native of the region where the climate is tropical wet, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Durian plant species most widely known and cultivated in Indonesia is Durio zibethinus Murr. Improve the quality of fruit production in sufficient quantity to do with the increase in population as well as increasing fruit crop cultivation technology do. In addition to ensuring that products are safe to eat fruit cultivation technology needs to be done in an environmentally responsible in accordance with the SOP (Standard Operating Procedure and the concept of cultivation of GAP (Good Agriculture Practice.

  20. Mini Review - Phenolics for skin photo-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Atif

    2017-07-01

    Photo-aging is one of the foremost problems caused by generation of reactive oxygen species when skin is exposed on UV irradiation. In view of that, generation of reactive oxygen species intermingle with proteins, DNA, saccharides and fatty acids triggering oxidative mutilation and effects are in the appearance of distressed cell metabolism, morphological and ultra-structural changes, mistreat on the routes and revisions in the demarcation, propagation and skin apoptosis living cells which leads to photo-aging. Plant phenolics are universally found in both edible and inedible plants and have extended substantial interest as photo-protective for human skin due to their antioxidant activities. The objective of this review is to highlight the use of plant phenolics for their antioxidant activities against photo-aging.

  1. Synthetic Aziridines in Medicinal Chemistry: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Girija S

    2016-01-01

    Azaheterocyclic compounds are well-known to have diverse types of biological activity. Among them, azacyclopropanes, commonly referred as aziridines, occupy a prominent place in synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry due to its occurrence in natural resources, complexity involved in synthesis due to ring-strain, building blocks in organic synthesis, and its biological properties. Several novel compounds containing aziridine ring have been designed and synthesized recently by medicinal chemists for evaluating their biological profile. A number of compounds are reported as cysteine protease inhibitors, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antileishmanial, and antimalarial agents. This review article summarizes the biological activity of such compounds. The preparation of such compounds is also described.

  2. The industrial potential of herbs and spices - a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Katarzyna B; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used for food and medicinal purposes for centuries - the first recorded evidence of their use dates back to 1500BC and the Ebers Papyrus, which mentioned spices such as anise, mustard, saffron, cinnamon, and cassia. Now, in the 21st century, a variety of secondary compounds produced by plants are used in many fields of industry, such as food production (to improve taste, to provide vitamins and macro- and microelements, and also to inhibit food spoilage caused by foodborne bacteria), in medicine (in the treatment of various diseases; in chemoprevention and cancer therapy; as a source of natural antimicrobials for the treatment of infectious disease), and in pharmacology and cosmetology (in dietary supplements, and as a result of the demand for preservative-free cosmetics, to reduce the risk of methylparaben allergies). The aim of this review is to present the major active compounds in herbs and spices and explore their potential applications in industry.

  3. Sonochemical Method for Casting the Polymer Nanocomposites: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arthisree

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present nano science domain focussed on sample preparation and inhibition of chemical reaction achieved by several techniques based on the principle of cavitation process using ultrasonic frequency-sonochemical routes. The effect of sonochemical routes is highly advantageous in reaction methods such as triggering reaction pathways, inducing the speedy reaction of inter-particle collision. In polymers, high intensity ultrasound waves are used for the polymerization of monomers by step growth process. This review is an outlook of sonochemical approach for polymer nanocomposites, which follows the physics of ultrasonic frequency bands, chemical reactions and the properties of acoustic cavitation highly applicable for the development of modern target materials.

  4. Psychedelic Fauna for Psychonaut Hunters: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Laura; Ciccarese, Michela; Papanti, Duccio; De Berardis, Domenico; Guirguis, Amira; Corkery, John M; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Currently different classes of psychoactive substances are easily available for abuse, including several hundred novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Some of these drugs occur naturally in plants and animals or are chemically modified from plant or animal compounds and have been abused by humans over millennia. Recently, the occurrence of a new "drug culture" (e.g., psychonauts) who consume a great variety of NPS with hallucinogenic/psychedelic properties, facilitated the development of a new "psychedelic trend" toward the consumption of substances contained in some species of animals ("psychedelic fauna"). The present review aims at providing an overview of the most commonly abused "psychedelic animals," by combining a dual search strategy coming from online psychonauts' experiences and English literature searches on the PubMed/Medline Google Scholar databases. A multilingual qualitative assessment on a range of websites and online resources was performed in order to identify a list of animals who possess some psychoactive properties and could be abused by humans for recreational purposes. Several species are implicated (i.e., ants, amphibians, fish). Routes of administration depend on the animal, substance included, metabolism, toxicity and individual, social and cultural variability. Online purchase and access are easy through tourism-related search strategies (" frog trip ," " help of charmer snake," " religious trip ").

  5. Anticancer Properties of Psidium guajava - a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Mariana Goncalves; Couto, Jessica Soldani; Teodoro, Anderson Junger

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease caused by a progressive accumulation of multiple genetic mutations. Consumption of fruits is associated with lower risk of several cancers, which is mainly associated to their phytochemical content. The use of functional foods and chemopreventive compounds seems to contribute in this process, acting by mechanisms of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and hormonal. The Psidium Guajava has high potential functional related to pigments who are involved in the process of cancer prevention by having antioxidant activity. The aim of the present review is to expose some chemical compounds from P. Guajava fractions and their association with anti-carcinogenic function. The evidences supports the theory of anticancer properties of P. Guajava, although the mechanisms are still not fully elucidated, but may include scavenging free radicals, regulation of gene expression, modulation of cellular signalling pathways including those involved in DNA damage repair, cell proliferation and apoptosis.

  6. Mini-review: Inhibition of biofouling by marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Any natural or artificial substratum exposed to seawater is quickly fouled by marine microorganisms and later by macrofouling species. Microfouling organisms on the surface of a substratum form heterogenic biofilms, which are composed of multiple species of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, protozoa and fungi. Biofilms on artificial structures create serious problems for industries worldwide, with effects including an increase in drag force and metal corrosion as well as a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Additionally, microorganisms produce chemical compounds that may induce or inhibit settlement and growth of other fouling organisms. Since the last review by the first author on inhibition of biofouling by marine microbes in 2006, significant progress has been made in the field. Several antimicrobial, antialgal and antilarval compounds have been isolated from heterotrophic marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. Some of these compounds have multiple bioactivities. Microorganisms are able to disrupt biofilms by inhibition of bacterial signalling and production of enzymes that degrade bacterial signals and polymers. Epibiotic microorganisms associated with marine algae and invertebrates have a high antifouling (AF) potential, which can be used to solve biofouling problems in industry. However, more information about the production of AF compounds by marine microorganisms in situ and their mechanisms of action needs to be obtained. This review focuses on the AF activity of marine heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi and covers publications from 2006 up to the end of 2012.

  7. Remediation of copper in vineyards – A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, K.A.; Müller, T.; Kandeler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Viticulturists use copper fungicide to combat Downy Mildew. Copper, a non-degradable heavy metal, can accumulate in soil or leach into water sources. Its accumulation in topsoil has impacted micro and macro organisms, spurring scientists to research in situ copper removal methods. Recent publications suggest that microorganism assisted phytoextraction, using plants and bacteria to actively extract copper, is most promising. As vineyards represent moderately polluted sites this technique has great potential. Active plant extraction and chelate assisted remediation extract too little copper or risk leaching, respectively. However, despite interesting pot experiment results using microorganism assisted phytoextraction, it remains a challenge to find plants that primarily accumulate copper in their shoots, a necessity in vineyards where whole plant removal would be time consuming and financially cumbersome. Vineyard remediation requires a holistic approach including sustainable soil management, proper plant selection, increasing biodiversity and microorganisms. - Highlights: ► We describe copper distribution and availability in vineyards. ► We explain the environmental impact of copper on organisms, plants and processes. ► We detail possible remediation methods within vineyards. ► Microbially assisted phytoremediation is the most promising remediation method. ► A solution requires an interdisciplinary approach between plants, soil and vines. - This review is significant because it highlights prospective remediation methods usable in copper contaminated vineyards.

  8. Modified polyether-sulfone membrane: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Noof A; Hussein, Mahmoud A; Alamry, Khalid A; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2017-01-01

    Polyethersulfone has been widely used as a promising material in medical applications and waste-treatment membranes since it provides excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Hydrophobicity of polyethersulfone is considered one main disadvantage of using this material because hydrophobic surface causes biofouling effects to the membrane which is always thought to be a serious limitation to the use of polyethersulfone in membrane technology. Chemical modification to the material is a promising solution to this problem. More specifically surface modification is an excellent technique to introduce hydrophilic properties and functional groups to the polyethersulfone membrane surface. This review covers chemical modifications of the polyethersulfone and covers different methods used to enhance the hydrophilicity of polyethersulfone membrane. In particular, the addition of amino functional groups to polyethersulfone is used as a fundamental method either to introduce hydrophilic properties or introduce nanomaterials to the surface of polyethersulfone membrane. This work reviews also previous research reports explored the use of amino functionalized polyethersulfone with different nanomaterials to induce biological activity and reduce fouling effects of the fabricated membrane.

  9. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  10. A mini review on CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the present status of the Higgs sector of the CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (CPVMSSM). In the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics, the only source of CP violation is the complex phase in the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) matrix. By now we all know that this singlephase is ...

  11. A mini-review of Bunyaviruses recorded in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Chaubal, Gouri Y; Shete, Anita M; Mourya, Devendra T

    2017-05-01

    Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country. For many of the discovered viruses, we still need to study their relevance to human and animal health. Chittoor virus, a variant of Batai virus; Ganjam virus, an Asian variant of Nairobi sheep disease virus; tick-borne viruses such as Bhanja, Palma and mosquito-borne viruses such as Sathuperi, Thimiri, Umbre and Ingwavuma viruses have been identified as the members of this family. As Bunyaviruses are three segmented RNA viruses, they can reassort the segments into genetically distinct viruses in target cells. This ability is believed to play a major role in evolution, pathogenesis and epidemiology of the viruses. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of discovery, emergence and distribution of Bunyaviruses in India.

  12. A mini-review of Bunyaviruses recorded in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya D Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections are of major public health concern. Bunyaviridae family of viruses comprises a large group of animal viruses. Clinical symptoms exhibited by persons infected by viruses belonging to this family vary from mild-to-severe diseases i.e., febrile illness, encephalitis, haemorrhagic fever and acute respiratory illness. Several arthropods-borne viruses have been discovered and classified at serological level in India in the past. Some of these are highly pathogenic as the recent emergence and spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus and presence of antibodies against Hantavirus in humans in India have provided evidences that it may become one of the emerging diseases in this country. For many of the discovered viruses, we still need to study their relevance to human and animal health. Chittoor virus, a variant of Batai virus; Ganjam virus, an Asian variant of Nairobi sheep disease virus; tick-borne viruses such as Bhanja, Palma and mosquito-borne viruses such as Sathuperi, Thimiri, Umbre and Ingwavuma viruses have been identified as the members of this family. As Bunyaviruses are three segmented RNA viruses, they can reassort the segments into genetically distinct viruses in target cells. This ability is believed to play a major role in evolution, pathogenesis and epidemiology of the viruses. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of discovery, emergence and distribution of Bunyaviruses in India.

  13. Traumatic dural venous sinus thrombosis: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dural venous sinus thrombosis is a benign disease, representing about 1% of cerebral vascular events. In some cases the development of the disease increased intracranial pressure or symptomatic epilepsy. The development towards a dural venous sinus thrombosis is rare, but is a condition to be considered before the development of ischemic vascular events and a history of recent head trauma. Intracranial hematomas or skull fractures can lead to the establishment of obstructive pathology of the dural venous sinuses. The knowledge of this entity is necessary for the critical care staff and neurosurgery staff.

  14. A mini review on CP-violating minimal supersymmetric Standard ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... invariant local quantum field theory with a Hermitian. Hamiltonian .... butions to the Higgs mass introducing scalar partners of the SM .... troweak symmetry breaking. Name. Spin. Gauge eigenstates ..... icant amount of higher-order loop corrections in the ..... Krasnoshekova, A V Vasiliev, A O Polyushkin, M S.

  15. Crocus sativus L. (saffron for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R. Bhandari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; 番紅花 fān hóng huā has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  16. Effects of vitamin K in postmenopausal women: mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Onur; Erel, Cemal Tamer

    2014-03-01

    Possible benefits of vitamin K on bone health, fracture risk, markers of bone formation and resorption, cardiovascular health, and cancer risk in postmenopausal women have been investigated for over three decades; yet there is no clear evidence-based universal recommendation for its use. Interventional studies showed that vitamin K1 provided significant improvement in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) levels in postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density (BMD); however, there are inconsistent results in women with low BMD. There is no study showing any improvement in bone-alkaline-phosphatase (BAP), n-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTX), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, and urinary markers. Improvement in BMD could not be shown in the majority of the studies; there is no interventional study evaluating the fracture risk. Studies evaluating the isolated effects of menatetrenone (MK-4) showed significant improvement in osteocalcin (OC); however, there are inconsistent results on BAP, NTX, and urinary markers. BMD was found to be significantly increased in the majority of studies. The fracture risk was assessed in three studies, which showed decreased fracture risk to some extent. Although there are proven beneficial effects on some of the bone formation markers, there is not enough evidence-based data to support a role for vitamin K supplementation in osteoporosis prevention among healthy, postmenopausal women receiving vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Interventional studies investigating the isolated role of vitamin K on cardiovascular health are required. Longterm clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of vitamin K on gynecological cancers. MK-4 seems safe even at doses as high as 45 mg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Mini review] metagenomic studies of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied amongst marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmolyte C1 oxidation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1–3 °C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and the bio-prospecting potential of the Red Sea microbiota. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of the previous studies and the need for generating a large and representative metagenomic database of the Red Sea to help establish a dynamic model of the Red Sea microbiota.

  18. Trophoblast cells of ruminant placentas - A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igwebuike, U.M.

    2004-09-01

    Understanding of ruminant placental structure and function is essential for veterinarians and researchers. The ruminant placenta is classified as cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial on the bases of its gross anatomical features and histological characteristics respectively. The richly vascularized embryonic chorioallantois is lined on its outer surface by cells of the trophectodermal epithelium. These cells which assume specialized functions are referred to as trophoblast cells. Two morphologically and functionally distinct cell types have been recognized in the trophectoderm of the placenta of ruminant animals. These are the mononucleate trophoblast cells and the binucleate trophoblast cells. The occurrence, morphological characteristics, and specialized functions of these trophoblast cells, in relation to conceptus nutrition and survival in utero are discussed in this review. (author)

  19. Multisensory Technology for Flavor Augmentation: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna; Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human-food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic) visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human-food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

  20. Multisensory Technology for Flavor Augmentation: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velasco

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human–food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human–food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

  1. [Mini review] metagenomic studies of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Behzad, Hayedeh

    2015-10-23

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied amongst marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmolyte C1 oxidation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1–3 °C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and the bio-prospecting potential of the Red Sea microbiota. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of the previous studies and the need for generating a large and representative metagenomic database of the Red Sea to help establish a dynamic model of the Red Sea microbiota.

  2. Mini-review: Biofilm responses to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms constitute the predominant microbial style of life in natural and engineered ecosystems. Facing harsh environmental conditions, microorganisms accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially encountering a dangerous condition called oxidative stress. While high levels of oxidative stress are toxic, low levels act as a cue, triggering bacteria to activate effective scavenging mechanisms or to shift metabolic pathways. Although a complex and fragmentary picture results from current knowledge of the pathways activated in response to oxidative stress, three main responses are shown to be central: the existence of common regulators, the production of extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm heterogeneity. An investigation into the mechanisms activated by biofilms in response to different oxidative stress levels could have important consequences from ecological and economic points of view, and could be exploited to propose alternative strategies to control microbial virulence and deterioration.

  3. Factors Promoting Development of Fibrosis in Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Rogler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concepts on the pathophysiology of intestinal fibrosis in Crohn’s disease (CD have changed in recent years. Some years ago fibrosis was regarded to be a consequence of long-standing inflammation with subsequent destruction of the gut wall matrix followed by scar formation and collagen deposition. Fibrosis in CD patients appeared to be an irreversible process that could hardly be influenced. Therefore, the main target in CD therapy was to control inflammation to avoid fibrosis development. Many of these assumptions seem to be only partially true. Inflammation may be a necessary prerequisite for the initiation of fibrosis. However, when the pathophysiologic processes that lead to fibrosis in CD patients have been initiated fibrosis development may be independent of inflammation and may continue even when inflammation is under good medical control. Fibrosis in CD also may be reversible. After strictureplasty local collagen deposits decrease or even disappear. With new animal models for intestinal fibrosis on the horizon, we need to spend more efforts on understanding the factors influencing fibrosis in CD patients to finally find specific therapies. In this context, it will be as important to find markers and quantitative imaging tools to have reliable endpoints for clinical trials in fibrosing CD.

  4. Review of drug treatment of oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chole, Revant H; Gondivkar, Shailesh M; Gadbail, Amol R; Balsaraf, Swati; Chaudhary, Sudesh; Dhore, Snehal V; Ghonmode, Sumeet; Balwani, Satish; Mankar, Mugdha; Tiwari, Manish; Parikh, Rima V

    2012-05-01

    This study undertook a review of the literature on drug treatment of oral submucous fibrosis. An electronic search was carried out for articles published between January 1960 to November 2011. Studies with high level of evidence were included. The levels of evidence of the articles were classified after the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The main outcome measures used were improvement in oral ulceration, burning sensation, blanching and trismus. Only 13 publications showed a high level of evidence (3 randomized controlled trials and 10 clinical trials/controlled clinical trials), with a total of 1157 patients. Drugs like steroids, hyaluronidase, human placenta extracts, chymotrypsin and collagenase, pentoxifylline, nylidrin hydrochloride, iron and multivitamin supplements including lycopene, have been used. Only systemic agents were associated with few adverse effects like gastritis, gastric irritation and peripheral flushing with pentoxifylline, and flushingly warm skin with nylidrin hydrochloride; all other side-effects were mild and mainly local. Few studies with high levels of evidence were found. The drug treatment that is currently available for oral submucous fibrosis is clearly inadequate. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis misdiagnosed as sputum-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Muhammad Danasabe; Abbas, Aminu; Abba, Abdullahi A; Umar, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), also known as cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, is one of a spectrum of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is an increasingly common condition which poses many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges leading to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We presented a 55-year-old male textile trader who was initially managed as sputum-negative pulmonary tuberculosis before histology report. He presented to our clinic with Breathlessness and cough of 3 years and 2.5 years, respectively. He had commenced anti-tuberculosis two months before presentation without significant relief. General Physical examination and vital signs were essentially normal. SPO2 was 96% on room air. Chest Examination revealed end-inspiratory bi-basal velcro-like crackles. Other systemic examinations were normal. Radiological examination by way of chest X- ray and chest CT showed features suggestive of IPF. The patient also had open Lung biopsy for histology and spirometry which demonstrated restrictive ventilatory function pattern. A diagnosis of Interstitial lung disease probably Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis was entertained. He was commenced on Tab prednisolone, Tab Rabeprazole, with minimal improvement. IPF have often been misdiagnosed and treated as pulmonary tuberculosis with unfavorable outcome.

  6. Aberrant repair and fibrosis development in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The repair process of damaged tissue involves the coordinated activities of several cell types in response to local and systemic signals. Following acute tissue injury, infiltrating inflammatory cells and resident stem cells orchestrate their activities to restore tissue homeostasis. However, during chronic tissue damage, such as in muscular dystrophies, the inflammatory-cell infiltration and fibroblast activation persists, while the reparative capacity of stem cells (satellite cells is attenuated. Abnormal dystrophic muscle repair and its end stage, fibrosis, represent the final common pathway of virtually all chronic neurodegenerative muscular diseases. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of muscle fibrosis has progressed, it has become evident that the muscle provides a useful model for the regulation of tissue repair by the local microenvironment, showing interplay among muscle-specific stem cells, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix components of the mammalian wound-healing response. This article reviews the emerging findings of the mechanisms that underlie normal versus aberrant muscle-tissue repair.

  7. Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling in Kidney Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schinner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney fibrosis is an important factor for the progression of kidney diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus induced kidney failure, glomerulosclerosis and nephritis resulting in chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP were implicated to suppress several of the above mentioned renal diseases. In this review article, identified effects and mechanisms of cGMP and cAMP regarding renal fibrosis are summarized. These mechanisms include several signalling pathways of nitric oxide/ANP/guanylyl cyclases/cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP/Epac/adenylyl cyclases/cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Furthermore, diverse possible drugs activating these pathways are discussed. From these diverse mechanisms it is expected that new pharmacological treatments will evolve for the therapy or even prevention of kidney failure.

  8. Lymphoplasmacytic Sclerosing Pancreatitis and Retroperitoneal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel K. F. Koo Ng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LSP associated with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis have been reported, the association is rare. We describe a 74-year-old man who presented with obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Nineteen months earlier, he had been diagnosed with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis and treated with bilateral ureteric stents. Initial investigations were suggestive of a diagnosis of LSP, however, a malignant cause could not be ruled out. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy and frozen sections confirmed the diagnosis of LSP. An internal biliary bypass was performed using a Roux loop of jejunum, and the patient made an uneventful recovery. This case illustrates the difficulty in distinguishing LSP from pancreatic carcinoma preoperatively.

  9. MR imaging of pancreas in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, S.; Robinson, A.E.; Mulvihill, D.M.; Stallworth, J.M.; Goyco, P.G.; Beckerman, R.C.; Hines, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The pancreatic regions of 18 patients with cystic fibrosis were analyzed with a 1.5 Tesla MR unit. Signal intensity of the pancreas was correlated with clinical data and ultrasound. A hyperintense pancreas on T1-weighted image was consistent with fatty replacement of pancreatic insufficiency. A pancreas of normal soft tissue intensity was found in two asymptomatic and one symptomatic patient. A very hypointense pancreas on any pulse sequence was considered to be an intermediate stage of pancreatic degeneration. (orig.)

  10. Cystic fibrosis Delta F508 heterozygotes, smoking, and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Wittrup, H H

    1998-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested this hypot......Cystic fibrosis is the most common fatal autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasian populations. It remains a puzzle how this disease is maintained at such a remarkably high incidence, however, it could be due to a reproductive advantage in cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. We tested.......001). In conclusion, overall these results do not support a reproductive advantage for cystic fibrosis DeltaF508 heterozygotes. However, the data cannot totally exclude the possibility that nonsmoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience a reproductive advantage while smoking DeltaF508 heterozygotes experience...... the opposite, a reproductive disadvantage. Accordingly, the data suggest a previously undocumented role of smoking on fecundity among cystic fibrosis heterozygotes....

  11. Pregnancy and cystic fibrosis: Approach to contemporary management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, George; Callaway, Leonie; Bell, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Over the previous 50 years survival of patients with cystic fibrosis has progressively increased. As a result of improvements in health care, increasing numbers of patients with cystic fibrosis are now considering starting families of their own. For the health care professionals who look after these patients, the assessment of the potential risks, and the process of guiding prospective parents through pregnancy and beyond can be both challenging and rewarding. To facilitate appropriate discussions about pregnancy, health care workers must have a detailed understanding of the various important issues that will ultimately need to be considered for any patient with cystic fibrosis considering parenthood. This review will address these issues. In particular, it will outline pregnancy outcomes for mothers with cystic fibrosis, issues that need to be taken into account when planning a pregnancy and the management of pregnancy for mothers with cystic fibrosis or mothers who have undergone organ transplantation as a result of cystic fibrosis. PMID:27512443

  12. Technology evaluation: cystic fibrosis therapy, Genzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, M I

    1999-04-01

    Genzyme is developing therapies to replace the defective forms of the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein in CF patients. The company is developing a gene therapy, as well as a recombinant production of CFTR for protein replacement therapy. Both approaches have been granted orphan drug status by the FDA [156348]. The results of several clinical trials were discussed at the first annual meeting of the American Society of Gene Therapy in May 1998. A single dose nasal administration was well tolerated by volunteers, but had disappointing efficacy. In a study completed at the Royal Brompton Hospital, London, a single dose aerosol application of GL-67:DOPE was administered to eight patients, while another eight received GL-67:DOPE plus pCF1-CFTR. In the second group, a moderate increase in the potential difference in the lung was observed, with a slight trend towards bacterial adherence normalization in the airway cells. Seven of the patients in the second group, and three patients who received lipid alone, developed, flu-like symptoms within 24 h. A trial at the University of Alabama, using the same formulation, showed that flu-like symptoms developed in six of eight patients by day two, and in all patients by day seven [290120]. In 1995, the company began a clinical safety trial involving delivery of a normal CF gene to the patient's lungs via an adenovirus vector. The administration involves the inhalation of an aerosol containing the vector or, separately, delivery to one lobe of the patient's lung via a bronchoscope [191678]. To evaluate additional delivery methods for the gene, Genzyme has an exclusive research agreement for the use of Vical's cytofectins as non-viral delivery vectors for CFTR. Also under investigation are delivery systems for the nasal epithelium using liposomes or lipid-DNA complexes. These protocols are being developed in collaboration with the National Heart & Lung Institute, London, and an undisclosed

  13. Smoking and Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D. Samara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between smoking and pulmonary fibrosis is under debate and intense investigation. The aim of this paper is to review the existing literature and identify further areas of research interest. Recently the negative influence of cigarette smoking on IPF outcome was highlighted, as non-smokers exhibit a better survival than ex-smokers and combined current- and ex-smokers. In patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, a high prevalence of emphysema was recently demonstrated, providing an indirect support for a smoking pathogenetic hypothesis in NSIP. The coexistence of pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema has been extensively described in a syndrome termed combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE. Connective tissue disorders (CTDs are a group of autoimmune diseases which affect the lung, as one of the most common and severe manifestations. However, the relationship between smoking and autoimmune disorders is still conflicting. Rheumatoid arthritis results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, while the best established environmental factor is tobacco smoking. Smoking has also a negative impact on the response of the RA patients to treatment. The aforementioned smoking-related implications give rise to further research questions and certainly provide one more important reason for physicians to advocate smoking cessation and smoke-free environment.

  14. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  15. Subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Saeko; Tsujino, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Takada, Yoshiki; Kono, Michio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 233 cases of patients who had undergone whole neck irradiation with 4-MV X-ray or 8-10-MeV electrons, or both, and had been followed with regard to their skin condition for at least 1 year. The prescribed dose to the whole neck ranged from 19.2 to 72.4 Gy (median 50). The skin-absorbed dose was specified as that at a depth of 4.1 mm (d4.1-mm depth ), and a biologically equivalent dose (BED) of d4.1-mm depth was also estimated (BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth ). Results: Univariate analysis revealed that previous neck dissection, concurrent chemotherapy, corticosteroid administration as a part of chemotherapy, fractionation, and BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth were significant prognostic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that BED 1.8 4.1-mm depth and previous neck dissection were the only prognostic variables for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis. Conclusion: A high dose to a 4.1-mm depth of the skin and a history of neck dissection were identified as the predominant risk factors for moderate to severe subcutaneous fibrosis after whole neck irradiation. A subcutaneous dose should be considered in radiotherapy treatment planning involving the whole neck, especially in cases in which patients have undergone previous neck dissection

  16. Cystic fibrosis: a mucosal immunodeficiency syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taylor Sitarik; Prince, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a channel that regulates the transport of ions and the movement of water across the epithelial barrier. Mutations in CFTR, which form the basis for the clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis, affect the epithelial innate immune function in the lung, resulting in exaggerated and ineffective airway inflammation that fails to eradicate pulmonary pathogens. Compounding the effects of excessive neutrophil recruitment, the mutant CFTR channel does not transport antioxidants to counteract neutrophil-associated oxidative stress. Whereas mutant CFTR expression in leukocytes outside of the lung does not markedly impair their function, the expected regulation of inflammation in the airways is clearly deficient in cystic fibrosis. The resulting bacterial infections, which are caused by organisms that have substantial genetic and metabolic flexibility, can resist multiple classes of antibiotics and evade phagocytic clearance. The development of animal models that approximate the human pulmonary phenotypes—airway inflammation and spontaneous infection—may provide the much-needed tools to establish how CFTR regulates mucosal immunity and to test directly the effect of pharmacologic potentiation and correction of mutant CFTR function on bacterial clearance. PMID:22481418

  17. [Endocrine complications of cystic fibrosis in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanet, M; Wieliczko, M-C

    2012-05-01

    Since the 20 last years, the median age of survival has dramatically improved in children suffering from cystic fibrosis and complications such as growth retardation, pubertal delay and low bone mineral density are now more often than not observed in affected adolescents. The severity of the disease and the poor nutritional status due to pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorption are commonly implicated but recent data suggest that the disease could also play a role though the alteration of the chlore chanel (CFTR). Furthermore an increase prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes due to the progressive β cells destruction is observed in these children that make the life sometimes difficult for these adolescents already affected by an heavy chronic disease. The monitoring of the children should thus now become pluridisciplinary and include regular clinical evaluation of height and pubertal status, mineral bone density by DEXA and OGTT every two years since 10 years of age. Therefore, in addition to the standard treatment of cystic fibrosis is now added the vitamin D supplementation, the subcutaneous insulin therapy and may be the growth hormone that could be a new therapeutic demonstrating beneficial effects in these chronic disease. However further studies need to be performed to improve the management of these new endocrine complications more and more frequent in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. MFAP4: a candidate biomarker for hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölleken, Christian; Poschmann, Gereon; Bonella, Francesco; Costabel, Ulrich; Sitek, Barbara; Stühler, Kai; Meyer, Helmut E; Schmiegel, Wolff H; Marcussen, Niels; Helmer, Michael; Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Søren; Schlosser, Anders; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2016-03-29

    Several comparable mechanisms have been identified for hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis. The human microfibrillar associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4), produced by activated myofibroblasts, is a ubiquitous protein playing a potential role in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and was recently identified as biomarker for hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C patients. The current study aimed to evaluate serum levels of MFAP4 in patients with pulmonary fibrosis in order to test its potential as biomarker in clinical practice. A further aim was to determine whether MFAP4 deficiency in mice affects the formation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. 91 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 23 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and 31 healthy subjects were studied. In the mouse model, C57BL/6 Mfap4+/+ and Mfap4-/- mice between 6-8 weeks of age were studied. Serum levels of MFAP4 were measured by ELISA in patients and in mice. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and LDH were measured as comparison biomarkers in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Morphometric assessment and the Sircol kit were used to determine the amount of collagen in the lung tissue in the mouse model. Serum levels of MFAP4 were not elevated in lung fibrosis - neither in the patients with IPF or HP nor in the animal model. Furthermore no significant correlations with pulmonary function tests of IPF patients could be found for MFAP4. MFAP4 levels were increased in BAL of bleomycin treated mice with pulmonary fibrosis. MFAP4 is not elevated in sera of patients with pulmonary fibrosis or bleomycin treated mice with pulmonary fibrosis. This may be due to different pathogenic mechanisms of liver and lung fibrogenesis. MFAP4 seems to be useful as serum biomarker for hepatic but not for lung fibrosis.

  19. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype.

  20. Inhibition of the Unfolded Protein Response Mechanism Prevents Cardiac Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Groenendyk

    Full Text Available Cardiac fibrosis attributed to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins is a major cause of heart failure and death. Cardiac fibrosis is extremely difficult and challenging to treat in a clinical setting due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to cardiac fibrosis and effective anti-fibrotic therapies. The objective in this study was to examine whether unfolded protein response (UPR pathway mediates cardiac fibrosis and whether a pharmacological intervention to modulate UPR can prevent cardiac fibrosis and preserve heart function.We demonstrate here that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse with increased expression of calreticulin, a model of heart failure, stems from impairment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis, transient activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR pathway and stimulation of the TGFβ1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Remarkably, sustained pharmacologic inhibition of the UPR pathway by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA is sufficient to prevent cardiac fibrosis, and improved exercise tolerance.We show that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse model of heart failure stems from transient activation of UPR pathway leading to persistent remodelling of cardiac tissue. Blocking the activation of the transiently activated UPR pathway by TUDCA prevented cardiac fibrosis, and improved prognosis. These findings offer a window for additional interventions that can preserve heart function.