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Sample records for systemic bovine aspergillosis

  1. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Jan W. M.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Bresters, Dorine; Visser, Caroline E.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  2. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  3. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  4. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Ali; Gluckman, Eliane; Tabti, Bachir; Miaux, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  5. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 150, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Department of Radiology, Saint-Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Paris (France); Gluckman, Eliane [Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Saint-Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Paris (France); Tabti, Bachir [Department of Radiology, Saint-Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Paris (France); Miaux, Yves [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, 350 Parnassus Avenue, Suite 150, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  6. Systemic candidosis and concomitant aspergillosis and zygomycosis in two Amazon parakeets (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Jensen, H E

    1998-01-01

    Systemic candidosis and concomitant aspergillosis and zygomycosis were diagnosed immunohistochemically in two Amazon parakeets (Amazona aestiva). In the bird with systemic candidosis, subacute necrotic lesions were present in the lung and the gastrointestinal tract, whereas chronic giant cell-containing granulomas were located in the liver, heart, spleen and on the serosal lining of the small intestine. Although the lesions in the liver, heart and spleen most likely developed as a result of haematogenous spread, the granulomas on the serosal surface may have developed after a local transmural intestinal invasion. In the second bird, aspergillosis and zygomycosis were restricted to the lung, whereas some zygomycetes were found in the air sacs as well as in the heart and kidneys. In all organs the zygomycotic lesions were dominated by thrombosing vasculitis, supporting haematogenous dissemination.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections

  8. Pulmonary aspergillosis and central nervous system hemorrhage as complications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleri, Dennis J; Moser, Robert L; Villota, Francisco J; Wang, Yue; Husain, Syed A; Nadeem, Shahzinah; Anjari, Tarek; Sajed, Mohammad

    2003-06-01

    Warm, active antibody adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia is the most common form of hemolytic anemia not related to drug therapy. Mortality in adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia is related to the inability to successfully treat patients' underlying disease, or the infectious complications of splenectomy and prolonged steroid therapy. Predisposing factors for invasive aspergillosis are neutropenia and steroid therapy. We present a fatal case of aspergillosis complicating a nonneutropenic case of warm active antibody adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with prolonged steroid therapy.

  9. Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Liver Transplantation Complicated by Systemic Aspergillosis with Pancarditis

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    Joseph Romagnuolo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is a common complication after bone marrow transplantation, with characteristic rash and diarrhea being the most common features. After liver transplantation, however, this phenomenon is very rare. Most transplant patients are on a variety of medications, including immunosuppressants; therefore, the differential diagnosis of skin rash or diarrhea is broad. A 37-year-old man who underwent liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis, and developed a rash and watery diarrhea, is presented. Skin and colonic biopsies confirmed acute GVHD. A pulse of intravenous steroids was given. The skin rash improved, but he developed pancytopenia. His course was complicated by central line infection, jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis, pseudomembranous colitis, recurrent bacteremia, cholestasis on total parenteral nutrition and cytomegalovirus infection. After the onset of pleuritic chest pain and clinical sepsis, spiral computed tomography scan of his chest and abdomen revealed septic infarcts in multiple organs. Despite empirical treatment with amphotericin B, he died of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome within 72 h. Autopsy revealed systemic aspergillosis with pancarditis, endocardial vegetations, and septic pulmonary, splenic, hepatic and renal infarcts. The pathogenesis and experience with this rare, but often fatal, complication of liver transplantation are reviewed. In contrast to GVHD after bone marrow transplantation, pancytopenia is common and liver dysfunction is rare. One should have a high level of suspicion in the liver transplant recipient presenting with rash and/or diarrhea.

  10. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections.

  11. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine aspergillosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against water-soluble somatic antigens (WSSA) and the wall fraction (WF) from Aspergillus fumigatus were produced by fusion of splenocytes from immunized BALB/c mice with mouse myeloma X63-Ag 8.653 cells. The supernatants of in vitro cultured hybridomas were...... techniques using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from experimentally infected mice. Because of a high immunohistochemical reactivity with homologous fungi, 4 MAbs raised against A. fumigatus WSSA and WF were selected for a further evaluation of cross-reactivity (diagnostic specificity......) in immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays. In immunohistochemical assays, all MAbs raised against WSSA cross-reacted heavily with a number of other fungal species. All 4 MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1-4) raised against the WF reacted strongly with hyphae of Aspergillus spp.; hyphae of Scedosporium apiospermum were also...

  12. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  13. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  14. Radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Im, Chung Kie

    1985-01-01

    The pulmonary aspergillosis is a group of three separate disease, comprising invasive aspergillosis, aspergilloma, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or a disease process in which one of three entities overlap with another process such as mucoid impaction, pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia, bronchocentric granulomatosis, microgranulomatous hypersensitivity, or asthma. The radiological findings of 24 cases of pulmonary aspergillosis diagnosed and treated at Seoul National University Hospital during the past 7 years were analyzed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnosis of 24 cases of pulmonary aspergillosis was aspergilloma in 16 cases, invasive aspergillosis in 2 cases, variant form of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in 3 cases, and endobronchial aspergillosis in 3 cases. 2. The underlying causes of the aspergilloma were healed tuberculous cavity in 6 cases, bronchiectasis in 8 cases, and no underlying cause were found in 2 cases. All the 16 cases of aspergilloma were correctly diagnosed without difficultly by demonstrating the intracavitary mass or air meniscus. 3. Radiological findings of the invasive aspergillosis in kidney transplant patients were multiple round nodules with early cavitation and formation of aspergilloma which shows slowly progressive cavitation over 13 months in one case, and diffusely scattered miliary nodules with occasional cavitation in the other case. 4. Classic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis were not found in our series but variant form of ABPA was found in 3 young female patients. All the three patients shows some degree of central bronchiectasis and combined aspergilloma was found in 2 cases. 5. Three patients diagnosed as endobronchial aspergillosis-saprophytic infection of aspergillus in the bronchial tree-by bronchoscopic biopsy shows nonspecific radiological findings

  15. ASPERGILLOSIS OF MANDIBLE : A RARE CASE OF OSTEOMYELITIS

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Nurdan; ERSOY, Burak; SÖNMEZ, Ahmet; ÇELEBİLER, Özhan; NUMANOĞLU, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus species are saprophyticus fungi which may be the cause of infection predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Aspergillosis is usually manifested in the respiratory system and bone involvement is rarely encountered. Osteomyelitis of the mandible with aspergillus species has been reported in only two cases in the literature. Treatment mainly consists of antimicrobial therapy in combination with surgery. We report a case of aspergillosis of the mandible in a patient who was under im...

  16. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  17. Necrotizing Liver Granuloma/Abscess and Constrictive Aspergillosis Pericarditis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Different Remarkable Phenotypes in Different Chronic Granulomatous Disease Genotypes

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    Sanem Eren Akarcan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

  18. Diagnostic performance of an Aspergillus-specific nested PCR assay in cerebrospinal fluid samples of immunocompromised patients for detection of central nervous system aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Reinwald

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS invasive aspergillosis (IA is a fatal complication in immunocompromised patients. Confirming the diagnosis is rarely accomplished as invasive procedures are impaired by neutropenia and low platelet count. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cultures or galactomannan (GM regularly yield negative results thus suggesting the need for improving diagnostic procedures. Therefore the performance of an established Aspergillus-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR in CSF samples of immunocompromised patients with suspicion of CNS IA was evaluated. We identified 113 CSF samples from 55 immunocompromised patients for whom CNS aspergillosis was suspected. Of these patients 8/55 were identified as having proven/probable CNS IA while the remaining 47 patients were classified as having either possible (n = 22 or no CNS IA (n = 25. PCR positivity in CSF was observed for 8/8 proven/probable, in 4/22 possible CNS IA patients and in 2/25 NoIA patients yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 1.0 (95% CI 0.68-1 and 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-0.98 and a positive likelihood ratio of 14 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.0, respectively, thus resulting in a diagnostic odds ratio of ∞. The retrospective analysis of CSF samples from patients with suspected CNS IA yielded a high sensitivity of the nested PCR assay. PCR testing of CSF samples is recommended for patients for whom CNS IA is suspected, especially for those whose clinical condition does not allow invasive procedures as a positive PCR result makes the presence of CNS IA in that patient population highly likely.

  19. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

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    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  20. Relationship between Bovine Brucellosis and production systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bovine abortion among the 3 production systems and among breeds (p < 0.0001). The overall individual cow Brucella seroprevalence was 10.2%, but with a non significant difference (p = 0.404) across the production systems. Brucella antibodies were detected in 21.8% of cows that had aborted and in 5% of animals that ...

  1. Invasive aspergillosis in two patients with Pearson syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.; Barton, R.C.; Crabbe, D.C.G.; Evans, E.G.V.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a serious opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host. In the pediatric population invasive aspergillosis is seen predominantly in patients with hematologic malignancie, chronic granullamotous disease (CGD) and AIDS. Invasive aspergillosis carries a high case

  2. Invasive intracranial aspergillosis spread by the pterygopalatine fossa in an immunocompetent patient

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    Anqi Xiao

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis of the central nervous system (CNS is an uncommon infection, mainly found in immunocompromised patients but rarely seen among immunocompetent patients. Herein we describe a 57 year-old immunocompetent man who suffered intracranial aspergillosis spread by the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF following a tooth extraction. Based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics, in this report we focus on the spreading routes of CNS aspergillosis via communicative structures of the PPF, the relationship between clinical manifestations and the locations of the lesion, and propose a therapeutic strategy to improve the prognosis.

  3. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  4. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

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    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  5. INCIDENCE DENSITY, PROPORTIONATE MORTALITY, AND RISK FACTORS OF ASPERGILLOSIS IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS IN A REHABILITATION CENTER FROM BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Filho, Rodolfo Pinho da; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Martins, Aryse Moreira; Ruoppolo, Valéria; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl Andrés; Adornes, Andréa Corrado; Cabana, Ângela Leitzke; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis, an opportunistic mycosis caused by the Aspergillus genus, affects mainly the respiratory system and is considered one of the most significant causes of mortality in captive penguins. This study aimed to examine a 6-yr period of cases of aspergillosis in penguins at the Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG), Rio Grande, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the institution's records of penguins received from January 2004 to December 2009. Animals were categorized according to the outcome "aspergillosis," and analyzed by age group, sex, oil fouling, origin, prophylactic administration of itraconazole, period in captivity, body mass, hematocrit, and total plasma proteins. A total of 327 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) was studied, 66 of which died of aspergillosis. Proportionate mortality by aspergillosis was 48.5%, and incidence density was 7.3 lethal aspergillosis cases per 100 penguins/mo. Approximately 75% of the aspergillosis cases occurred in penguins that had been transferred from other rehabilitation centers, and this was considered a significant risk factor for the disease. Significant differences were also observed between the groups in regard to the period of time spent in captivity until death, hematocrit and total plasma proteins upon admission to the center, and body mass gain during the period in captivity. The findings demonstrate the negative impacts of aspergillosis on the rehabilitation of Magellanic penguins, with a high incidence density and substantial mortality.

  6. Intracranial Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Young Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Prasan Kumar; Mavidi, Sunil Kumar; Wig, Naveet; Garg, Ajay; Nalwa, Aasma; Sharma, M C

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial aspergillosis (ICA) is very rare in the immunocompetent individuals, usually misdiagnosed as a tumor or an abscess. A high index of clinical suspicion is required in patients who present with focal neurological deficits, headache, or seizures. We report the case of a 25-year-old immunocompetent female, who presented with a 15-month history of headache, seizures, left-sided proptosis and ophthalmoplegia, and right hemiparesis. Recovery from the symptoms and decrease in the lesion size seen on the radiological assessment were achieved through two decompressive craniotomies followed by prolonged combined systemic antifungal therapies. Although the initial neuroimaging suggested a mitotic pathology, the surgical sample confirmed ICA. Now the patient is on single antifungal therapy (Tab. voriconazole, 200 mg twice daily) and doing her daily activities, but with a reduced intelligent quotient. We report a challenging case of ICA where multiple courses of combined antifungal therapies and repeat surgeries paved the way for a good prognosis.

  7. Role of inhaled amphotericin in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

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    I S Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by immune reactions mounted against the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease clinically manifests with poorly controlled asthma, hemoptysis, systemic manifestations like fever, anorexia and weight loss, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. The natural course of the disease is characterized by repeated episodes of exacerbations. Almost 30-40% of the patients require prolonged therapy, which currently consists of corticosteroids and anti-fungal azoles; both these agents have significant adverse reactions. Amphotericin B administered via the inhaled route can achieve a high concentration in the small airways with minimal systemic side-effects. Nebulized amphotericin B has been used in the management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The aim of this review is to study the utility of inhaled amphotericin in ABPA.

  8. Nasal Aspergillosis in a Dog: A Case Report

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    Camilo Padilla Peñuela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasal aspergillosis is a major chronic disease affecting the nostrils in dogs. Clinical sinology is typical in every chronic nasal disease. Epistaxis and occasional pain occurs. Rhinoscopic assessment of the area evidences findings associated with the pathology and allows collecting samples for cytology and culture. Systemic therapy with oral antifungals has had variable utility, but now it has been replaced by direct topical medication to the affected area. This article describes the case of a 4-years-old male dog, submitted to consultation by unilateral muco-bloody nasal discharge with a week of evolution. The patient was treated by another vet center with cyclonamine and vitamin K for a possible clotting disorder. After a series of tests that included rhinoscopy and fungal culture, nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed. Intranasal clotrimazole was applied twice and it allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.

  9. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis – case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutossh Naaraayan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a severe fungal infection with a high mortality rate. The incidence of IPA is on the rise due to an increase in the number of patients undergoing transplants and receiving chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosis is challenging due to the non-specific nature of symptoms. Voriconazole is the mainstay of therapy. We present a case of an elderly woman presenting with acute bronchitis and asthma exacerbation, who succumbed to overwhelming IPA. It is uncommon for IPA to develop in patients on short-term steroid therapy for asthma exacerbation. The possibility of aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients should be considered in those on systemic steroids and deteriorating pulmonary functions.

  10. Azole-Resistant Aspergillosis: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Sharma, C.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains the most common species in all pulmonary syndromes, followed by Aspergillus flavus which is a common cause of allergic rhinosinusitis, postoperative aspergillosis and fungal keratitis. The manifestations of Aspergillus infections include invasive aspergillosis, chronic

  11. Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources en español Definición Síntomas Riesgo y prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud ... Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de ...

  12. Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  13. TOO MANY MOULDY JOINTS – MARIJUANA AND CHRONIC PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Gargani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a progressive debilitating disease with multiple underlying pulmonary diseases described. Here we report the association of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and long term marijuana smoking in 2 patients and review the literature related to invasive and allergic aspergillosis

  14. Early invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with fatal outcome in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, M.; Poczova, M.; Sladekova, M.; Drgona, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this publication is to highlight the complexity of the issue of care for patients with hemato-oncological disease, with a focus on infectious complication - invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Case: We present a case report of a 49-year-old patient treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the early post-transplant period, in spite of combined antimicrobial treatment, an onset of fever and dyspnoea occurred. Because of the clinical condition of our immunosuppressed patient, as well as radiological finding of suspected inflammatory changes in the lung, antibiotic and antifungal therapy was changed. Respiratory symptoms progressed and the state extorted artificial ventilation. Realized bronchoscopy showed structural changes in bronchial mucosa. The results of laboratory analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage testified to fungal infection - pulmonary aspergillosis, with the cultures of Aspergillus flavus. Despite intensive complex treatment, the patient's condition led to multiple organ failure and on the Day D +27 after transplantation physicians stated exitus letalis. Autopsy confirmed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Conclusion: Acute leukemia and its treatment is an increased risk of systemic fungal infections in those patients - especially invasive aspergillosis. The fatality rate for invasive aspergillosis in this risk group represents on average 50 %. With this in mind, it is necessary for life-saving to diagnose the infection in time and treat it appropriately. (author)

  15. Immunoproteome of Aspergillus fumigatus Using Sera of Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylli D. Virginio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection caused by the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and patients with hematological malignances or who have been submitted to stem cell transplantation are at high risk. Despite the current use of Platelia™ Aspergillus as a diagnostic test, the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a major challenge in improving the prognosis of the disease. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to identify proteins that could be putative candidates for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Antigenic proteins expressed in the first steps of A. fumigatus germination occurring in a human host were revealed using 2-D Western immunoblots with the serum of patients who had previously been classified as probable and proven for invasive aspergillosis. Forty antigenic proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS/MS. A BLAST analysis revealed that two of these proteins showed low homology with proteins of either the human host or etiological agents of other invasive fungal infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing specific antigenic proteins of A. fumigatus germlings that are recognized by sera of patients with confirmed invasive aspergillosis who were from two separate hospital units.

  16. [Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis: infrequent form of aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Domingo, C; Gallego, M; Roig, J; Mariscal, D; Marín, A

    1998-04-01

    Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) is a chronic pulmonary infection caused by the genus Aspergillus, which usually involves moderately immunosuppressed patients. We describe 3 patients with a toxic syndrome that had lasted several weeks or months, with lung infiltrates in the chest X-ray and the CT scan. Mycobacterium tuberculosis could not be isolated from different respiratory smears (sputum, bronchoaspiration, Barlett catheter and pulmonary punction in the third case). Moreover, there was no response to anaerobic treatment. All 3 patients were moderately immunosuppressed (2 men were COPD and the woman was an asthmatic patient). One of the men was being treated for a nocardiosis. In all three cases, A. fumigatus was isolated from de different respiratory smears. To diagnose a CPNA, a high degree of clinical suspicion is needed. The differential diagnose should be done with pulmonary tuberculosis and anaerobic infections. The presence of a member of the genus Aspergillus in the tracheobronchial secretions of a patient should not be systematically considered a saprofit, specially when other microorganisms can not be isolated.

  17. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  18. CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLOSIS IN MAGELLANIC PENGUINS (Spheniscus magellanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELISSA ORZECHOWSKI XAVIER

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied a series of fifteen fatal cases of aspergillosis in penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus, seen over a 4-year period at a rehabilitation center in Southern Brazil. The clinical and pathological findings based on the lesions found at necropsy are described herein. The majority of animals (11/15 had sudden death without clinical signs. In 33.3% (5/15 of the cases, aspergillosis was restricted to the respiratory system and 66.6% showed disseminateddisease, with liver, kidney, adrenal gland and gastrointestinal tract involvement. Typical lesions were characterized as white-yellowish granulomatous nodules. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest series of aspergillosis cases described in penguins in SouthAmerica.

  19. Invasive aspergillosis: results of multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Klimko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a multicenter study of 445 patients with “proven” and “probable” invasive aspergillosis (EORTC/MSG, 2008. Invasive aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematological malignancies (88 %, main underlying diseases were acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The risk factors: prolonged agranulocytosis (64 %, cytostatic chemotherapy (57 %, corticosteroid treatment (45 %, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (29 %. The pathogens – A. fumigatus (42 %, A. niger (33 %, and A. flavus (21 %. The main site of infection were lungs (86 %. 12 week overall survival was 83 %. Bronchoscopy use for the early diagnosis (p = 0.01, adequatetherapy with voriconazole (p = 0.002 and secondary antifungal prophylaxis (p = 0.0003 were positive prognostic factors for survival of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  20. Excellent outcome of Aspergillous endophthalmitis in a case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While invasive aspergillosis occurs typically in severely immunocompromised patients, cases of surgical site infections have been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The purpose is to report an eye with post-operative Aspergillus endophthalmitis, which achieved a good visual outcome following early and aggressive treatment. A young patient, known case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presented to us with post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis. He was treated with pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal voriconazole and systemic itraconazole. The patient regained a vision of 20/30 with follow up of 2 years.

  1. [Invasive aspergillosis after near-drowning: case reports and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Cao, E-hong; Zhao, Bei-lei; Sun, Hui-ming; Li, Miao-miao; Xu, Jin; Song, Yong; Shi, Yi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical presentations and disease courses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients after near-drowning. The clinical data of 3 cases of invasive aspergillosis after near-drowning from Oct. 2005 to Aug. 2010 in this hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the related literature was reviewed. There were 1 male and 2 female patients, aged from 18 to 72 years. All of them had been immunocompetent before drowning. Two patients drowned because of traffic accident, and 1 fell in sewage by accident. All of the 3 patients were intubated because of acute respiratory failure, and received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. One had transient leucopenia, and 2 patients received glucocorticoid therapy. The condition of the 3 cases deteriorated 9 to 11 days after near-drowning. Aspergillus was isolated from sputum samples of 2 patients at the same time. Thoracic CT findings included multiple nodules, consolidation and cavity formation. Multiple abscesses in cerebral parenchyma were found in 1 patient with invasive cerebral aspergillosis. One patient died, whose lungs, cerebral parenchyma, myocardium and kidney were all infected by aspergillus. The other 2 patients, whose infection limited to the lungs, had a positive prognosis. Using the terms "aspergillosis" and "near-drowning" a PUBMED search yielded 7 articles, published between 1984 and 2010. Using the terms "invasive pulmonary aspergillosis" and "near-drowning", searching Wangfang data and CHED data, encompass 1 article, published in 2009. In all of the 8 articles, there are 5 final diagnosis cases and 3 clinical diagnosis cases. IA was very rare in immunocompetent hosts but had been reported in previously healthy individuals after near-drowning. Aspergillosis might develop 1 to 2 weeks after near-drowning, and the prognosis was poor in patients with central nervous system involvement.

  2. Aspergillosis in the CLEAR outcomes trial: working toward a real-world clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, M

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillosis is a potentially lethal infection of immunocompromised patients. Until 10 years ago, antifungal therapy was largely limited to amphotericin B deoxycholate. Perceived poor response rates and inherent toxicities with amphotericin B deoxycholate were a major stimulus for the development of newer antifungals, including lipid-formulated amphotericin B, broad spectrum azoles, and echinocandins. Response rates to antifungals are highly dependent on the underlying diagnosis and degree of immune suppression of the patient. Patients at highest risk of death from aspergillosis also have very high mortality rates from other causes as well. Outcomes reported in historical literature reviews fail to distinguish between overall mortality and death attributable to aspergillosis. While this distinction can often be difficult to assess clinically, the net effect is to underestimate the therapeutic success rates of antifungals. The CLEAR (Collaborative Exchange of Antifungal Research) project started as a post approval survey to monitor clinical use of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC). The scope of the CLEAR project included collection of clinical data to assess outcomes in patients with invasive fungal infections treated with ABLC. Clinical data from more than 3500 patients were entered into the CLEAR database. Outcomes were assessed for 509 patients with documented aspergillosis and complete data records. Overall response rate was 63% (cured/improved/stable) with site-specific response rates of 61%, 59%, and 32% for lung, sinus, and central nervous system infections, respectively. Solid organ transplant recipients had higher response rates than patients with hematological malignancies. Bone marrow transplant recipients had the lowest response rates. Clinical response rates with ABLC reported in the CLEAR trial are higher than response rates reported for amphotericin B deoxycholate in other trials. Since it is unlikely we will see any new comparative Phase III

  3. Anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Masatsugu; Matsukura, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Munehiro; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a severe type of asthma. Some cases are resistant to treatment, even with regular use of antiasthmatic drugs and antifungal agents. The diagnosis of ABPA was made in a 40-year-old patient with ABPA according to the Rosenberg-Patterson criteria. Symptoms were not controlled despite regular use of antiasthmatic drugs, daily systemic steroids, and antifungal agents. Omalizumab, administered in an attempt to stabilize these uncontrolled symptoms, was effective with no adverse events. Our experience suggests omalizumab is a potential candidate drug for controlling steroid-dependent ABPA. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Development of a one-run real-time PCR detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mai; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Sugimura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Komatsu, Natsumi; Nagai, Makoto; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Naoi, Yuki; Sano, Kaori; Okazaki-Terashima, Sachiko; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Sato, Reiichiro; Asai, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2017-03-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is frequently found in cattle worldwide. The etiology of BRDC is complicated by infections with multiple pathogens, making identification of the causal pathogen difficult. Here, we developed a detection system by applying TaqMan real-time PCR (Dembo respiratory-PCR) to screen a broad range of microbes associated with BRDC in a single run. We selected 16 bovine respiratory pathogens (bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, influenza D virus, bovine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis B virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adenovirus 7, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma bovis and Ureaplasma diversum) as detection targets and designed novel specific primer-probe sets for nine of them. The assay performance was assessed using standard curves from synthesized DNA. In addition, the sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking solutions extracted from nasal swabs that were negative by Dembo respiratory-PCR for nucleic acids of pathogens or synthesized DNA. All primer-probe sets showed high sensitivity. In this study, a total of 40 nasal swab samples from cattle on six farms were tested by Dembo respiratory-PCR. Dembo respiratory-PCR can be applied as a screening system with wide detection targets.

  5. Primary Cutaneous Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 32-year-old woman with primary cutaneous aspergillosis and an apparently normal immune status. She is a dietitian who carried out research on Aspergillus contamination of ... A year before the onset of symptoms, she conducted a research on aspergillus contamination of palm oil over a six-month period and ...

  6. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis.

  7. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis. (orig.) [de

  8. The radiological spectrum of invasive aspergillosis in children: a 10-year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Veys, Paul A.; Novelli, Vas; Costoli, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is an uncommon but life-threatening event in the immunocompromised child. Attempts at fungal isolation are often unrewarding and a high index of radiological suspicion is essential in the early diagnosis of infected children. To document the radiological spectrum of disease in invasive aspergillosis in the paediatric population. A retrospective review of the imaging performed in 27 consecutive patients (age 7 months to 18 years) with documented invasive Aspergillosis encountered over a 10-year period at a single institution. Radiographic findings of pulmonary disease (20 patients) included segmental and multilobar consolidation, perihilar infiltrates, multiple small nodules, peripheral nodular masses and pleural effusions. No cavitating lesions were seen on CXR. Small cavitating nodules were present on CT in two of eight children. Chest wall disease was particularly associated with underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Disseminated disease manifested as osteomyelitis (n=5), cerebral (n=3), oesophageal (n=1), hepatic (n=2), renal (n=2) and cutaneous (n=5) involvement. Imaging findings are discussed. Twelve patients (44%) subsequently died from Aspergillus-related complications. Invasive aspergillosis presents with a wide variety of radiographic findings involving multiple organ systems. Respiratory findings are varied but often non-specific, and a high index of suspicion is necessary in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to adult disease, the incidence of cavitation of pulmonary lesions appears low. (orig.)

  9. Radiography of osseous lesions of the bovine locomotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blond, L.; Beauregard, G.; Mulon, P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography is the ancillary test of choice for lameness in cattle. Osseous lesions due to osteoporosis, osteitis or osteomyelitis and sequestrae can be visualised. Radiography is the only ancillary examination that provides a thorough investigation of the lesion affecting a bovine presented with a non-weight bearing suspected fracture and limb inflammation associated with soft tissue crepitation. Radiography is the only method to ensure that the fracture is not open. It facilitates follow-up of healing of osseous lesions. The period of time required for immobilisation can be adjusted depending on the type of lesions [it

  10. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  11. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Perplexing Clinical Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    In susceptible individuals, inhalation of Aspergillus spores can affect the respiratory tract in many ways. These spores get trapped in the viscid sputum of asthmatic subjects which triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions that can result in Aspergillus-induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS). An immunologically mediated disease, ABPA, occurs predominantly in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). A set of criteria, ...

  12. Cutaneous Aspergillosis at the site of ulceration from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Fumiko; Okabe, Tomohiro.

    1979-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with cutaneous aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus nidulans was observed. The infection developed at the site of ulceration from radiation, which occurred after operation and radiotherapy for breast cancer. In cases of cutaneous aspergillosis, saprophytic lesions can be seen. (Nishio, M.)

  13. Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J.; Wang, Junfeng; Visser, Caroline E.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Bijlmer, Henk A.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Zhang, Mingming; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is the most common life-threatening opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients. A test for invasive aspergillosis should neither be too invasive nor too great a burden for the already weakened patient. The serum galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  14. Disseminated Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Ergene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Many cases of pulmonary, cutaneous, cerebral, and paranasal sinus aspergillosis in immunocompetent patient were defined in literature but disseminated aspergillosis is very rare. Here we present an immunocompetent case with extrapulmonary disseminated aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger, totally recovered after effective antifungal treatment with voriconazole.

  15. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated successfully for one year with omalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Collins,1 Gabriele deVos,2 Golda Hudes,2 David Rosenstreich21New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USABackground: Current therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA uses oral corticosteroids, exposing patients to the adverse effects of these agents. There are reports of the steroid-sparing effect of anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab for ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, but there is little information on its efficacy against ABPA in patients with bronchial asthma without CF.Objective: To examine the effects of omalizumab, measured by asthma control, blood eosinophilia, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, oral corticosteroid requirements, and forced expiratory volume spirometry in patients with ABPA and bronchial asthma.Methods: A retrospective review of charts from 2004–2006 of patients treated with omalizumab at an academic allergy and immunology practice in the Bronx, New York were examined for systemic steroid and rescue inhaler usage, serum immunoglobulin E levels, blood eosinophil counts, and asthma symptoms, as measured by the Asthma Control Test (ACT.Results: A total of 21 charts were screened for the diagnosis of ABPA and bronchial asthma. Four patients with ABPA were identified; two of these patients were male. The median monthly systemic corticosteroid use at 6 months and 12 months decreased from baseline usage. Total serum IgE decreased in all patients at 12 months of therapy. Pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory vital capacity at one second (FEV1 was variable at 1 year of treatment. There was an improvement in Asthma Control Test (ACT symptom scores for both daytime and nighttime symptoms.Conclusions: Treatment with omalizumab creates a steroid-sparing effect, reduces systemic inflammatory markers, and results in improvement in ACT scores in patients with ABPA.Keywords: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

  16. Innate Lung Defense during Invasive Aspergillosis: New Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Jaleesa M; Steele, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system. This review highlights recent findings about innate host defense mechanisms, including novel aspects of innate cellular immunity and pathogen recognition, and the inflammatory mediators that control infection with A. fumigatus. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bronner

    Full Text Available The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.

  18. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection.

  19. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  20. Primary aspergillosis of vocal cord: Long-term inhalational steroid use can be the miscreant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Saha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary laryngeal aspergillosis is extremely rare, especially in an immunocompetent host. It is commonly found as a part of systemic infection in immunocompromised patients. A case of vocal cord aspergillosis with no systemic extension in an immunocompetent patient on long-term steroid metered dose inhaler (MDI is presented here, because of its rarity. The present case is a 28-year-old asthmatic female who was on inhalational steroid for 8 years, presented with sudden onset of severe dysphonia for 5 days. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy demonstrated whitish plaque involving right vocal cord, clinically suggestive of fungal laryngitis. Microlaryngeal laser surgery was performed with stripping of the plaque. Histopathology demonstrated ulcerated hyperplastic squamous epithelium with masses of fungal hyphae, which was confirmed to be Aspergillus species on fungal culture. This rare but serious adverse effect of long-term steroid MDI use must be kept in mind while treating an asthmatic patient. We also present a brief review of literature of laryngeal aspergillosis.

  1. Pattern recognition receptors and their role in invasive aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, M.S.; Netea, M.G.; van de Veerdonk, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are germline receptors that recognize conserved structures on microorganisms. Several PRRs have been identified in the recent years that are involved in the immune response against Aspergillus fumigatus. The role of PRRs in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

  2. Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicated by Nocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 70-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma who presented with increasing breathlessness for 5 months. He was diagnosed to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA by serological and radiographic criteria. He was treated with steroids and itraconazole. After initial improvement, he developed fever with cough and mucopurulent sputum. X-ray chest revealed multiple cavities with air fluid level. Patient was treated with antibiotics without any response. Sputum was negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Sputum culture for bacteria and fungus did not reveal any significant growth; however a delayed growth of Nocardia was noted on fungal plates. Modified Ziehl Nelsen stain was positive for AFB. Patient was treated with cotrimoxazole. We discuss the serological and radiological criteria of ABPA, presentation and treatment of nocardia pulmonary infection and other possible causes of necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised settings.

  3. Seroepidemiological survey of bovine brucellosis in cattle under a traditional production system in western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, K E; Agga, G E; Zewde, G

    2013-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis, an important bacterial zoonosis, is usually associated with intensive systems of production. A cross-sectional study was conducted in western Ethiopia to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in cattle undertraditional extensive husbandry. Sera collected from 1,152 cattle originating from 164 herds were screened, using the Rose Bengal test, and all positive sera were then examined, using complement fixation as a confirmatory test. Based on the results of two-step testing, the apparent seroprevalences were 1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5%, 1.7%) at the animal level and 4.9% (95% CI: 1.6%, 8.2%) at the herd level. A random-effects binary logistic regression model was used to examine potential risk factors, using 'herd' as a random effect. Herd size (p = 0.009) and abortion (p = 0.015) were significant risk factors for animal-level seropositivity, after controlling for other factors. Although bovine brucellosis was found at a low prevalence in the indigenous cattle population, the disease should be considered in any future expansion of dairy cattle production involving improved breeds.

  4. Proteomics-based systems biology modeling of bovine germinal vesicle stage oocyte and cumulus cell interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyaswetha Peddinti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oocytes are the female gametes which establish the program of life after fertilization. Interactions between oocyte and the surrounding cumulus cells at germinal vesicle (GV stage are considered essential for proper maturation or 'programming' of oocytes, which is crucial for normal fertilization and embryonic development. However, despite its importance, little is known about the molecular events and pathways involved in this bidirectional communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used differential detergent fractionation multidimensional protein identification technology (DDF-Mud PIT on bovine GV oocyte and cumulus cells and identified 811 and 1247 proteins in GV oocyte and cumulus cells, respectively; 371 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between each cell type. Systems biology modeling, which included Gene Ontology (GO and canonical genetic pathway analysis, showed that cumulus cells have higher expression of proteins involved in cell communication, generation of precursor metabolites and energy, as well as transport than GV oocytes. Our data also suggests a hypothesis that oocytes may depend on the presence of cumulus cells to generate specific cellular signals to coordinate their growth and maturation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Systems biology modeling of bovine oocytes and cumulus cells in the context of GO and protein interaction networks identified the signaling pathways associated with the proteins involved in cell-to-cell signaling biological process that may have implications in oocyte competence and maturation. This first comprehensive systems biology modeling of bovine oocytes and cumulus cell proteomes not only provides a foundation for signaling and cell physiology at the GV stage of oocyte development, but are also valuable for comparative studies of other stages of oocyte development at the molecular level.

  5. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we...

  6. Short communication: ELISA system for screening of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Sato, Ayano; Sobukawa, Hideto; Sato, Yuko; Ito, Takaaki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Prototheca zopfii is an achlorophyllic alga that causes bovine mastitis, resulting in a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. This study evaluated the use of an ELISA system for distinguishing cows with mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2 from healthy cows and cows with chronic candidal mastitis. We also investigated the transitional changes of specific antibody titers in healthy cows injected with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. The ELISA system exhibited the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (100%) for chronic protothecal mastitis when the positive cutoff value was set at 43.4 ELISA units. Anti-protothecal IgG titers were positive in all cows after they were inoculated with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. These results indicated that ELISA detection of anti-protothecal IgG in serum provided specificity and sensitivity sufficient for diagnosing protothecal mastitis. Thus, an ELISA system incorporating this specific antiserum is expected to be valuable for definitive field-based diagnosis of bovine mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, F.A.; Gow, K.; Davidoff, A.; Flynn, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  8. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortosa Raül

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  9. Inflammation in aspergillosis: the good, the bad, and the therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Agostinho; Cunha, Cristina; Iannitti, Rossana G; De Luca, Antonella; Giovannini, Gloria; Bistoni, Francesco; Romani, Luigina

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillosis includes a spectrum of diseases caused by different Aspergillus spp. New insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of resistance and immune tolerance to the fungus in infection and allergy have been obtained in experimental settings. The fact that virulence factors, traditionally viewed as fungal attributes, are contingent upon microbial adaptation to various environmental stresses encountered in the human host implies that the host and fungus are jointly responsible for pathogenicity. Ultimately, despite the occurrence of severe aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients, clinical evidence indicates that aspergillosis also occurs in the setting of a heightened inflammatory response, in which immunity occurs at the expense of host damage and pathogen eradication. Thus, targeting pathogenicity rather than microbial growth, tolerance rather than resistance mechanisms of defense may pave the way to targeted anti-inflammatory strategies in difficult-to-treat patients. The challenge now is to translate promising results from experimental models to the clinic. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.

  11. Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus simulating a pituitary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larranaga, J.; Fandino, J.; Gomez-Bueno, J.; Botana, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Gonzalez-Carrero, J.

    1989-09-01

    Sphenoidal aspergillosis is an unusual cause of sella turcica enlargement. Pituitary abscess secondary to Aspergillus had been reported. In the present case, a woman with sphenoid sinus aspergillosis mimiced a pituitary tumor. This patient survived her infection with intact pituitary function following a transsphenoidal approach. No postoperative amphotericine-B and 5-fluorocytosine were necessary. CT scan revealed a mass occupying the sphenoid sinus extending to the sella turcica. Factors that should alert the clinican to the presence of a sphenoidal and pituitary abscess in a patient with sella turcica enlargement are prior episodes of sinusitis, meningitis and immunosuppression and, as in the present case, hyperglycemia. (orig.).

  12. Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Peano, Andrea; Piga, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background This report describes a case of primary subcutaneous aspergillosis in a 7-year-old neutered male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius). Case presentation The animal developed a large nodular lesion in the right scrotum two years after surgical intervention for neutering. The mass had...... was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp. Conclusions The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary...

  13. Chest radiographic staging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: relationship with immunological findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, J L

    2012-02-03

    The question of whether a chest radiographic severity staging system could be correlated with standard blood\\/serum diagnostic indices in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was addressed in 41 patients. Asthma and positive Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) serology were considered essential diagnostic inclusion criteria. Eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and immediate skin hypersensitivity were also tested to grade patients as "definite" or "likely" ABPA. Definite cases had all five of these factors present, whereas likely cases had three or more. Chest radiographs were examined by experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data. The six-stage radiographic score (0-5) was based on the severity and duration of changes seen: stage 0: normal; stage 1: transient hyperinflation; stage 2: transient minor changes; stage 3: transient major changes; stage 4: permanent minor changes; and stage 5: permanent major changes. Significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were observed between peak AF titres (expressed as an index), peak eosinophil count and radiographic severity stage. When considered as subgroups, these correlations approached, but did not reach, significance for the group with "likely" ABPA (n=28), but in the group with definite ABPA (n=13), there was a high correlation between radiographic score and peak AF index (r=0.59), as well as peak eosinophil count (r=0.62). This study suggests that the peak Aspergillus fumigatus index and eosinophil counts correlate best with the severity of radiographic stages in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This chest radiographic staging system may be useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, particularly in those patients with more severe radiographic stages.

  14. A renal aspergilloma - an unusual presentation of aspergillosis in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The patient with CD4 above 200 did well with nephrectomy followed by amphotericin therapy for 14 days. Conclusions: The merits of surgery followed by antifungal chemotherapy or vice versa are limited. More studies are needed to ascertain the most effective method of treatment for Aspergillosis in HIV patients.

  15. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jackson T.; Frazho, Jean K.; Randell, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  16. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jackson T; Frazho, Jean K; Randell, Susan C

    2012-02-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  17. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity...

  18. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  19. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity...... of various paraclinical parameters in the diagnosis of ABPA in patients with CF....

  20. Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, Mariska M.; Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J.; Visser, Caroline E.; Scholten, Rob J. P. M.; Hooft, Lotty; Bijlmer, Henk A.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the most common life-threatening opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromized patients. A test for IA needs to be not too invasive and not too big a burden for the already weakened patient. The serum galactomannan ELISA seems to have potential for

  1. Simultaneous primary invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in two preterm twins: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Floriane; Denis, Julie; Koobar, Olfa; Dillenseger, Laurence; Astruc, Dominique; Herbrecht, Raoul; Candolfi, Ermanno; Letscher-Bru, Valérie; Sabou, Marcela

    2017-08-02

    Primary invasive cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare fungal infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients. Newborns of very low birth weight present a high risk for this type of infection due to an immaturity of the cutaneous barrier and of the immune system. We describe here a case of simultaneous invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in two preterm twins. Two male preterm bichorionic biamniotic twins (A & B) were born at a general hospital by spontaneous normal delivery at 24 weeks and 6 days of gestation. They were transferred to our hospital where they receive surfactant, antibiotics and hydrocortisone. Six days later, twin A showed greenish lesions in the umbilical region. The spectrum of antibiotic therapy was broadened and fluconazole was added. The umbilical catheters of the two twins were removed and replaced by epicutaneo-cava venous catheters and the cultures were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. Fluconazole was replaced in both twins by liposomal amphotericin B and the incubators were changed. The serum galactomannan was also positive for both twins. At day 10, yellowish lesions appeared in the abdominal region in twin B. He died on day 18 following complications related to his prematurity. Concerning the twin A, serum galactomannan was negative on day 30; liposomal amphotericin B was stopped 1 week later, with a relay by econazole (cream). His condition improved and on day 66 he was transferred for follow-up at the general hospital where he was born. The source of contamination by A. fumigatus was not identified, but other similar cases from the literature include construction work at or near the hospital, oximeter sensors, latex finger stalls, non-sterile gloves, humidifying chambers of incubators, bedding and adhesive tapes. The skin fragility of preterm newborns is an excellent potential entry point for environmental fungal infections. These cases highlight the importance of suspecting primary cutaneous aspergillosis in extremely low

  2. Performance of Aspergillus PCR in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, S; Brossas, J-Y; Palous, M; Joly, I; Meyer, I; Fekkar, A

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare but often fatal form of invasive aspergillosis that remains difficult to diagnose. The literature has shown the value of Aspergillus PCR in blood-derived samples for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis but provides far less information for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cerebral aspergillosis. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus PCR assay performed on CSF for the diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis. This retrospective study involved 72 patients with suspected cerebral aspergillosis for a total of 88 CSF samples in whom CSF Aspergillus PCR was performed. Seventeen patients had proven/probable invasive aspergillosis according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria, including 12 cases of proven/probable cerebral aspergillosis. Aspergillus PCR in CSF was positive in nine of the twelve patients with cerebral aspergillosis, i.e. 75% sensitivity. In contrast, CSF culture was positive for Aspergillus in only two patients. In the non-cerebral aspergillosis group (60 patients), PCR was positive in one patient, i.e. 98.3% specificity. In this particular population of high-risk patients with suspicion of cerebral aspergillosis, the disease incidence was 16.7%. Therefore, the positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 90% and 95.2%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that Aspergillus PCR in CSF is an interesting tool that may eliminate the need for cerebral biopsy in patients with suspected cerebral aspergillosis. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging features of gastric invasive aspergillosis: A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Jin; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Ji Yeol; Lee, Yil Gi [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. Although there are a few rare reports of isolated invasive aspergillosis affecting the small intestine, isolated or disseminated gastric invasive aspergillosis is extremely rare. Herein, we report 2 cases of gastric invasive aspergillosis in a 72 year old woman and a 43 year old man; the woman had been recovering from ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which presented as emphysematous gastritis and the man from acute subdural haemorrhage in the intensive care unit, which presented as a pseudoaneurysm on CT imaging.

  4. Detection of bovine central nervous system tissues in rendered animal by-products by one-step real-time reverse transcription PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrievskaia, Olga; Tangorra, Erin

    2014-12-01

    Contamination of rendered animal byproducts with central nervous system tissues (CNST) from animals with bovine spongiform encephalopathy is considered one of the vehicles of disease transmission. Removal from the animal feed chain of CNST originated from cattle of a specified age category, species-labeling of rendered meat products, and testing of rendered products for bovine CNST are tasks associated with the epidemiological control of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A single-step TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase (RRT) PCR assay was developed and evaluated for specific detection of bovine glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA, a biomarker of bovine CNST, in rendered animal by-products. An internal amplification control, mammalian b -actin mRNA, was coamplified in the duplex RRT-PCR assay to monitor amplification efficiency, normalize amplification signals, and avoid false-negative results. The functionality of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR was assessed through analysis of laboratory-generated binary mixtures of bovine central nervous system (CNS) and muscle tissues treated under various thermal settings imitating industrial conditions. The assay was able to detect as low as 0.05 % (wt/wt) bovine brain tissue in binary mixtures heat treated at 110 to 130°C for 20 to 60 min. Further evaluation of the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay involved samples of industrial rendered products of various species origin and composition obtained from commercial sources and rendering plants. Low amounts of bovine GFAP mRNA were detected in several bovine-rendered products, which was in agreement with declared species composition. An accurate estimation of CNS tissue content in industrial-rendered products was complicated due to a wide range of temperature and time settings in rendering protocols. Nevertheless, the GFAP mRNA RRT-PCR assay may be considered for bovine CNS tissue detection in rendered products in combination with other available tools (for example, animal age

  5. Comparison of topical administration of clotrimazole through surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters for treatment of nasal aspergillosis in dogs: 60 cases (1990-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.G.; Davidson, A.P.; Koblik, P.D.; Richardson, E.F.; Komtebedde, J.; Pappagianis, D.; Hector, R.F.; Kass, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the clinical response to topical administration of clotrimazole in dogs with nasal aspergillosis, to compare effect of surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters used for administration on outcome, and to examine whether subjective scoring of computed tomographic images can predict outcome. Retrospective case series. 60 dogs with nasal aspergillosis. Information including signalment, history, diagnostics, treatment method, and outcome was retrieved from medical records of dogs with nasal aspergillosis treated between 1990 and 1996 at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine or cooperating referral practices. Final outcome was determined by telephone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians. Images obtained before treatment were subjectively assessed to develop an algorithm for predicting outcome. Clotrimazole solution (1%) was infused during a 1-hour period via catheters surgically placed in the frontal sinus and nose (27 dogs) and via nonsurgically placed catheters in the nose (18). An additional 15 dogs received 2 to 4 infusions by either route. Topical administration of clotrimazole resulted in resolution of clinical disease in 65% of dogs after 1 treatment and 87% of dogs after one or more treatments. The scoring system correctly classified dogs with unfavorable and favorable responses 71 to 78% and 79 to 93% of the time, respectively. Topical administration of clotrimazole, using either technique, was an effective treatment for nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Use of non-invasive intranasal infusion of clotrimazole eliminated the need for surgical trephination of frontal sinuses in many dogs and was associated with fewer complications

  6. Anatomicopathological study of vascular and biliary systems using cast samples of Fasciola-infected bovine livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, W; Sato, T; Shibuya, H; Naito, K; Tsukise, A

    2006-06-01

    In 117 livers with fascioliasis, this study was focused on the number of Fasciola, the number and intrahepatic localization of affected hepatic ducts and bile ducts, and the degree of fibrosis in the hepatic segments and bile ducts. The degree of pathological changes in bile ducts caused by fascioliasis was classified into five levels. The site of Fasciola habitation was most often the hepatic ducts of the porta hepatis: it was the left hepatic duct in 101 livers and the right hepatic duct in 88 livers. Casts were prepared by infusing synthetic resin into the hepatic arterial, portal, hepatic venous and biliary systems of 15 bovine livers with fascioliasis and then examined. In the left lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate process where atrophic fibrosis was noted, the bile ducts became rod-shaped by losing branches, and the samples resembled dead branches of liver. Portal branches were thinned or completely terminated with marked fibrosis. Fine and irregular newly formed bile ducts not parallel with portal branches were observed in livers with markedly chronic fascioliasis. Distal portal branches in the right lobe, caudate lobe, and papillary process showed hypertrophic proliferative changes. The arterial system was generally well developed in thickened walls of bile ducts and formed vascular beds, and surrounded the bile ducts as tubes. In livers with severe fibrosis, capillaries were markedly developed and resembled glass cotton.

  7. Management of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Grammer, Leslie C

    2012-06-01

    Since the first description of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in the 1950s there have been numerous studies that have shed light on the characteristics and immunopathogenesis of this disease. The increased knowledge and awareness have resulted in earlier diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition. This article aims to provide a summary and updates on ABPA by reviewing the results of recent studies on this disease with a focus on articles published within the last 5 years. A systematic search of PubMed/Medline with keywords of ABPA or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was performed. All selected articles were reviewed with a focus on findings of articles published from December 2006 to December 2011. The relevant findings are summarized in this paper.

  8. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis with Disseminated Infection in Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreno-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a rare pathology with increasing incidence mainly in critical care settings and recently in immunocompetent patients. The mortality of the disease is very high, regardless of an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment. Here, we report a case of a 56 yr old previously healthy woman who was found unconscious at home and admitted to the emergency room with mild respiratory insufficiency. In the first 24 hours she developed an acute respiratory failure with new radiographic infiltrates requiring Intensive Care Unit admission. A severe obstructive pattern with impossibility of ventilation because of bilateral atelectasis was observed, requiring emergent venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device insertion. Bronchoscopy revealed occlusion of main bronchi, demonstrating by biopsy an invasive infection by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus. Despite an aggressive treatment and vital support the patient had a fatal outcome. The forensic study confirms the diagnosis of IPA but also revealed the presence of disseminated aspergillosis.

  9. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  10. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis successfully treated with mepolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Takeshi; Shinozaki, Taro; Iwami, Eri; Nakajima, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Tatsu

    2018-03-27

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease comprising a complex hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus. Clinical features of ABPA are wheezing, mucoid impaction, and pulmonary infiltrates. Oral corticosteroids and anti-fungal agents are standard therapy for ABPA, but long-term use of systemic corticosteroids often causes serious side effects. A 64-year-old woman was diagnosed with ABPA based on a history of bronchial asthma (from 40 years of age), elevated total IgE, the presence of serum precipitating antibodies and elevated specific IgE antibody to A. fumigatus, and pulmonary infiltration. Bronchoscopy showed eosinophilic mucoid impaction. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was initiated, and her symptoms disappeared. Peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltration recurred five months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment. Systemic corticosteroids were re-initiated and itraconazole was added as an anti-fungal agent. The patient was free of corticosteroids, aside from treatment with a short course of systemic corticosteroids for asthma exacerbation, and clinically stable with itraconazole and asthma treatments for 3 years. In 2017, she experienced significant deterioration. Laboratory examination revealed marked eosinophilia (3017/μL) and a chest computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltration in the left upper lobe and mucoid impaction in both lower lobes. The patient was treated with high-dose inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, and theophylline; spirometry revealed a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 1.01 L. An uncontrolled asthma state was indicated by an Asthma Control Test (ACT) score of 18. Mepolizumab, 100 mg every 4 weeks, was initiated for the treatment of severe bronchial asthma with ABPA exacerbation. Bronchial asthma symptoms dramatically improved, and ACT score increased to 24

  11. Isolated Orbital Aspergillosis in Immunocompetent Patients: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ekta; Mulay, Kaustubh; Menon, Vikas; Sundar, Gangadhara; Honavar, Santosh G; Sharma, Mukesh

    2016-05-01

    To report clinicopathologic features, radiologic findings, and treatment outcomes of isolated, orbital aspergillosis. Multicenter, retrospective case series. setting: Multicenter. There were 8 lesions in 8 eyes of 8 patients with isolated, orbital aspergillosis. Review of medical records and histopathology slides. Disease control. Of 34 patients with orbital aspergillosis, 8 (23.5%) had isolated orbital involvement at presentation. The mean age at presentation was 34.5 years (median, 43 years: range, 0.5-72 years). Gradually progressive proptosis and eyelid swelling were the most common presenting features (each 4/8). Proptosis ranged from 4 mm to 9 mm (median, 5.5 mm; mean, 5.75 mm). Restriction of ocular motility was seen in all 8 patients. Other examination findings included palpable mass (2/8), conjunctival chemosis (2/8), hyperglobus (1/8), hypoglobus (1/8), and resistance to retropulsion (1/8). Microbial culture results were available in 1 patient and showed Aspergillus fumigatus. Two patients were treated with complete surgical excision alone while 6 were treated with antifungal medications. Complete resolution of proptosis and restoration of ocular motility were seen in all patients following treatment. Visual disturbances present in 1 were corrected following treatment. Recurrence was observed in 1 patient. Isolated orbital aspergillosis, though rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with a gradually progressive orbital mass, especially in Asian individuals. Early recognition will help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beware of the devastating pulmonary aspergillosis syndromes In certain environments

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooblall, M

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays with more stem cell transplants and immunosuppressive therapies there has been a rise in pulmonary aspergillosis syndromes. The following illustrates such a case. A 49 year old man had a past history of ankylosing spondylitis with a bilateral hip replacement. He was also on surveillance for a superficial bladder tumour since 2007. His chest x-ray in 2008 was normal. In 2010 his CXR showed patchy opacification in the right apex. CT thorax confirm fibrotic changes.

  13. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  14. Evaluation of the Staph-Ident and STAPHase systems for identification of staphylococci from bovine intramammary infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, J L; Pankey, J W; Nickerson, S C

    1984-01-01

    The Staph-Ident and STAPHase systems (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) were compared with conventional methods for identification of staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections. Adjunct testing by colony morphology, pigmentation, and biochemical tests was conducted to resolve discrepant identifications. The initial accuracies of the conventional scheme and Staph-Ident were 92.1 and 89.2%, respectively. Staphylococcus hyicus subsp. chromogenes could not be identified by means...

  15. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  16. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Resolution of orbitocerebral aspergillosis during combination treatment with voriconazole and amphotericin plus adjunctive cytokine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Delia; Hall, Georgina; Goodman, T Robin; Klein, Nigel; Pollard, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Orbitocerebral aspergillosis has a very high fatality rate and cure is unusual. We describe the successful management of a child with cereberal aspergillosis who had a dramatic response to therapy with a combination of liposomal amphotericin and voriconazole with adjunctive cytokine therapy during immunosuppresive chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

  18. Aspergillus felis sp nov., an Emerging Agent of Invasive Aspergillosis in Humans, Cats, and Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrs, Vanessa R.; van Doorn, Tineke M.; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E.; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a

  19. Vitamin D Signaling in the Bovine Immune System: A Model for Understanding Human Vitamin D Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corwin D. Nelson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance.

  20. Typologie des systemes d'elevage bovin de la commune de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afin de caractériser les systèmes d'élevage bovin de la commune de Gogounou au nord-est du Bénin, une enquête concernant 102 élevages ayant un effectif total de 7.769 têtes de bovins a été réalisée. En utilisant les méthodes d'analyse factorielle des correspondances multiples (AFCM) et de classification hiérarchique ...

  1. Omalizumab Treatment for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Dogru, Deniz; Tugcu, Gokcen Dilsa; Yalcin, Ebru; Kiper, Nural; Ozcelik, Ugur

    2016-03-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by destructive changes in the airways. Long-term treatment with oral corticosteroids is often required for repeated exacerbations. Because elevated total IgE is a cardinal abnormality of ABPA, omalizumab has been used sporadically to decrease corticosteroid dose or totally replace corticosteroids. The aim of this report is to describe our experience with omalizumab treatment in patients with CF and ABPA. We conducted a review of 6 CF patients with ABPA receiving omalizumab. All patients were treated with oral prednisolone and itraconazole. Omalizumab was started if the patient was not responding to steroid treatment, which was determined according to serum IgE levels and/or clinical findings or depending on if there were side effects caused by steroid treatment. The mean age of patients at the beginning of omalizumab treatment was 16.1 years. One patient had a new diagnosis of ABPA; however, the others had the first to third exacerbation when treated with omalizumab. The mean duration of ABPA by the time that treatment with omalizumab started was 13 ± 12.4 months (range = 2-29 months). With omalizumab treatment, IgE levels were decreased in all patients, and Aspergillus-specific IgE levels were decreased in 4 patients; however, FEV1(% predicted) improved only in 2 patients who had mild disease. Corticosteroids were reduced in the first, second, and third months of omalizumab treatment in 2, 1, and 3 patients, respectively. In 2 patients, steroid treatment was stopped. None of the patients suffered from side effects of omalizumab. The mean duration of omalizumab treatment was 12.5 months (range = 6-18 months). This study showed steroid-sparing effect, decreasing IgE levels, and improvement in respiratory symptoms in 6 CF patients with omalizumab treatment. Although this is a small sample of the population, omalizumab may be an alternative therapy for ABPA in CF patients who fail

  2. High-level expression of biologically active recombinant bovine follicle stimulating hormone in a baculovirus system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Rijn, van P.A.; Meloen, R.H.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Superovulation treatment of cows can benefit from the application of very pure recombinant bovine FSH (rbFSH), which is produced in nonmammalian cells. rbFSH is completely free of LH, and therefore can possibly reduce the variability in the results of superovulation. Furthermore, it does not contain

  3. AN EFFICIENT SYSTEM FOR ACTIVE BOVINE PANCREATIC RIBONUCLEASE EXPRESSION IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OKOROKOV, AL; PANOV, KI; POELE, RHT; BREUKELMAN, HJ; FURIA, A; KARPEISKY, MY; BEINTEMA, JJ

    Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) is a member of a homologous group of extensively studied proteins, It is a small, basic protein, containing 124 amino acid residues and four stabilizing disulfide bridges. Ribonuclease A catalyzes the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bonds in ribonucleic

  4. Model systems to analyze the role of miRNAs and commensal microflora in bovine mucosal immune system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo; Griebel, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Information is rapidly accumulating regarding the role of miRNAs as key regulators of immune system development and function. It is also increasingly evident that miRNAs play an important role in host-pathogen interactions through regulation of both innate and acquired immune responses. Little is known, however, about the specific role of miRNAs in regulating normal development of the mucosal immune system, especially during the neonatal period. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge regarding the possible role the commensal microbiome may play in regulating mucosal miRNAs expression, although evidence is emerging that a variety of enteric pathogens influence miRNA expression. The current review focuses on recent information that miRNAs play an important role in regulating early development of the bovine mucosal immune system. A possible role for the commensal microbiome in regulating mucosal development by altering miRNA expression is also discussed. Finally, we explore the potential advantages of using the newborn calf as a model to determine how interactions between developmental programming, maternal factors in colostrum, and colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by commensal bacteria may alter mucosal miRNA expression and immune development. Identifying the key factors that regulate mucosal miRNA expression is critical for understanding how the balance between protective immunity and inflammation is maintained to ensure optimal gastrointestinal tract function and health of the whole organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspergillosis in a Patient Receiving Temozolomide for the Treatment of Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramella Munhoz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leukopenia and selective CD4+ lymphopenia represent major adverse events associated with the use of temozolomide (TMZ, an oral alkylating agent incorporated in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM. The increased risk of opportunistic infections, including those caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci and cytomegalovirus, has been previously described in the literature. Here we report the case, the first to our knowledge, of a patient with pulmonary invasive aspergillosis immediately after the completion of chemoradiation with TMZ for GBM. Diagnosis was confirmed through a CT-guided lung biopsy, and the patient had excellent response to systemic voriconazole. This case illustrates that TMZ can be associated with severe opportunistic infections, presumably associated with T lymphocyte immune dysfunction, and patients exposed to this agent should be carefully monitored.

  6. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Sickle Cell Patient Transplant Recipient: A Successful Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Paciaroni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA is the most common inherited blood disorder and is associated with severe morbidity and decreased survival. Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT is the only curative approach. Nevertheless the decision to perform a marrow transplant includes the risk of major complications  and mortality transplant related. The infections represent the main cause of mortality for SCA patients undergoing transplant. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA is a devastating opportunistic infection and remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HSCT recipients. Data regarding IPA in the setting of SCA are lacking. In the present report,  we describe a patient with SCA who developed IPA after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. The fungal infection was treated by systemic antifungal therapy in addition to the surgery, despite  mild chronic GVHD and with continuing immunosuppression therapy. This case shows that IPA occurring in bone marrow recipient with SCA can be successful treated

  7. Evaluating the use of PCR for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheidt, Dieter; Reinwald, Mark; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Boch, Tobias; Spiess, Birgit

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus species, primarily Aspergillus fumigatus, are still the most emerging fungal pathogens. Within recent years, novel molecular methods have been developed to improve the diagnosis of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in high risk patients. Especially patients with malignant hematological diseases undergoing intensive chemotherapy are at risk and mortality rates are exceptionally high, in part due to difficulties and delays in establishing a microbiologic diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for an adequate therapeutical management, but, however, are hardly achieved in the clinical setting because most of the current conventional diagnostic tools either lack specificity or acceptable sensitivity at the critical early phase of the infection. Areas covered: To review the clinical value, advantages and problems as well as drawbacks of molecular approaches, especially polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to detect genomic DNA of Aspergillus species in clinical samples of immunocompromised, especially hematological patients at high risk for IA, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed and expert opinion was expressed. Expert commentary: The results of numerous attempts to diagnose invasive aspergillosis by PCR-based detection of fungal genome in clinical samples highlight the potential of the PCR technique to improve early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies during intensive antineoplastic treatment, combined with imaging surveillance and serologic diagnostic tools. Further comparative validation of reliable assays in prospective multicenter studies is mandatory and urgently needed in order to establish a harmonization and standardization, so that 'gold standard assays' may be incorporated into diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms that improve the prognosis of patients with life-threatening infections caused by Aspergillus species.

  8. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P meal interval were associated with a decreased BRD hazard up

  9. Respective influence of veterinarians and local institutional stakeholders on the event-driven surveillance system for bovine brucellosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier

    2015-08-01

    The event-driven surveillance system for bovine brucellosis implemented in France aims to ensure the early detection of cases of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It consists of mandatory notification of bovine abortions by farmers and veterinarians. However, as underlined by a previous qualitative study, several factors influence the decision-making process of actors in the field. This process is particularly influenced by the level of cooperation between institutional stakeholders in their département (a French département being an administrative and territorial unit), veterinarians and farmers. In this context, the objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the respective influence of veterinarians and all local institutional stakeholders on the proportion of notifying farmers and identify which actors have most influence on farmers' decisions; 2) to analyse whether the influence of veterinarians is correlated with that of local institutional stakeholders. In addition to factors relating to the farm itself (production type and herd size), the proportion of notifying farmers was influenced by the number of veterinarians per practice and the veterinary practice's membership of a technical association. This proportion was also influenced by unknown factors relating to the veterinary practice and, to a lesser extent, the département in which the farm was located. There was no correlation between variability in the proportion of notifying farmers among veterinary practices per département and the effect of the département itself. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the influence of veterinarians and local institutional stakeholders on the notification process for a mandatory disease. In addition to carrying out regulatory interventions, veterinarians play a major role in encouraging farmers to participate in the surveillance systems. The results of this study, combined with a previous

  10. Development of bovine embryos cultured in CR1aa and IVD101 media using different oxygen tensions and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimise the culture conditions for the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The development of in vitro fertilised bovine oocytes in CR1aa supplemented with 5% calf serum and IVD101 culture media were compared using traditional microdrops and Well of the Well (WOW) culture systems either under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. After 7 days of culture, a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate was obtained for embryos cultured in CR1aa medium compared to those cultured in IVD101, irrespective of O2 tensions and culture systems. The blastocyst formation in IVD101 was suppressed under 20% O2 compared to 5% O2 . Despite their similar total cell numbers, higher rates of inner cell mass (ICM) cells were observed in blastocysts developed in IVD101 medium than in those developed in CR1aa, irrespective of O2 tensions. There was no significant difference in blastocyst formation, total, ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers between embryos obtained by microdrop and WOW culture systems irrespective of the culture media and O2 tensions used. In conclusion, CR1aa resulted in higher blastocyst formation rates irrespective of O2 tension, whereas IVD101 supported blastocyst formation only under low O2 levels but enhanced the proliferation of ICM cells.

  11. Improved cloning efficiency and developmental potential in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer with the oosight imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Noh, Eun Ji; Noh, Eun Hyung; Park, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2012-08-01

    In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures, exquisite enucleation of the recipient oocyte is critical to cloning efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two enucleation systems, Hoechst staining and UV irradiation (hereafter, irradiation group) and Oosight imaging (hereafter, Oosight group), on the in vitro production of bovine SCNT embryos. In the Oosight group, the apoptotic index (2.8 ± 0.5 vs. 7.3 ± 1.2) was lower, and the fusion rate (75.6% vs. 62.9%), cleavage rate (78.0% vs. 63.7%), blastocyst rate (40.2% vs. 29.2%), and total cell number (128.3±4.8 vs. 112.2 ± 7.6) were higher than those in the irradiation group (all p<0.05). The overall efficiency after SCNT was twice as high in the Oosight group as that in the irradiation group (p<0.05). The relative mRNA expression levels of Oct4, Nanog, Interferon-tau, and Dnmt3A were higher and those of Caspase-3 and Hsp70 were lower in the Oosight group compared with the irradiation group (p<0.05). This is the first report to show the positive effect of the Oosight imaging system on molecular gene expression in the SCNT embryo. The Oosight imaging system may become the preferred choice for enucleation because it is less detrimental to the developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos.

  12. Aspergillosis of Maxillary Sinus in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Barthunia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections affecting the paranasal sinuses are common. They can affect normal as well as immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillosis and mucormycoses are the most common fungal infections involving maxillary sinus. They can manifest in two forms – noninvasive or invasive infection. These infections when properly diagnosed can be treated at the earliest without causing much tissue damage. Here, a noninvasive form of aspergillosis in an uncontrolled diabetic, elderly female patient is presented. This article also explains the etiopathogenesis, clinical and radiological features, as well as the management of aspergillosis.

  13. Orphan drugs for the treatment of aspergillosis: focus on isavuconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs SE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Samantha E Jacobs,1 Vidmantas Petraitis,1 Catherine B Small,1 Thomas J Walsh1–3 1Transplantation-Oncology Infectious Diseases Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a particularly devastating manifestation of Aspergillus infection affecting profoundly immunocompromised patients. Voriconazole has been approved as first-line therapy for IA since 2003; however, nonlinear pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug–drug interactions at time hinder its use. Isavuconazole is a new broad-spectrum triazole with potent activity against Aspergillus species. In animal models and clinical trials in humans, isavuconazole has shown comparable efficacy to that of voriconazole in the treatment of IA. Advantages of isavuconazole include a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile and fewer adverse events. This review summarizes the pharmacologic characteristics, in vitro activity, and clinical data supporting the use of isavuconazole as an emerging alternative therapy for IA. Keywords: isavuconazole, invasive aspergillosis, antifungal therapy, fungal infection 

  14. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.

  15. Aspergillosis of a dog genital tract-Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, Marta J; Skarzynski, Dariusz J; Kozdrowski, Roland

    2009-05-01

    The information about aspergillosis locations in the reproductive organ is scarce. This short paper deals with aspergillosis in the dog genital tract with hyphae present in semen. There are two therapy schemes used in visceral mycoses, non-invasive treatment and surgical intervention. Considering the future reproductive career of the dog, we decided on antifungal drugs administration. Based on the microbiological results, we administered amoxycillin with clavulonate (Synulox 500mg, twice daily) orally. Itraconazole was used as an antimycological agent (Orungal, 100mg, twice daily) every other week. In 8th week of therapy no Aspergillus spp. growth was noted, yet slight Penicillium growth was observed. After 12 weeks of treatment, no fungus growth was present. Neither spores or hyphae were seen in the microscopic examination. Three months after the termination of the therapy, the dog mated with two females. In one case, unifetal pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound examination on day 42 after mating. Due to purulent discharge on day 45 after mating, the owner decided to terminate the pregnancy. In the other case, severe pyometra appeared 12 days after the second mating and the owner decided to put the female to sleep. The pathogen eradication from the ejaculates may be treated as a serious success, yet the lack of litters after mating calls for an explanation and consequences of Aspergillus spp. infection need to be considered.

  16. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with aspergillus sinusitis-′9′ year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pratima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis with Aspergillus Sinusitis was diagnosed in a nine year old boy after clinical and immunological investigations. He responded well after treatment with steroid and itraconazol.

  17. Falciparum malaria infection with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent host – case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an extraordinary rare in the immunocompetent host. Falciparum malaria contributes to high morbidity and mortality of malaria infection cases in the world. The impairments of both humoral and cellular immunity could be the reason of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in falciparum malaria infection. Forty-nine years old patient came with fever, jaundice, pain in the right abdomen, after visiting a remote area in Africa about one month before admission. Blood films and rapid test were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. After malaria therapy in five days, consciousness was altered into somnolence and intubated with respiratory deterioration. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after falciparum malaria infection is life-threatening. There should be awareness of physicians of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in falciparum malaria infection.

  18. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  19. Investigation of the binding affinity in vitamin B12-Bovine serum albumin system using various spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    The binding affinity between vitamin B12 (VitB12) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, employing UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative effects noted for BSA intrinsic fluorescence resulting from the interactions with VitB12 confirm the formation of π-π stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in the system VitB12-BSA. All the determined parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants (of the order of 104 L mol- 1, 103 L mol- 1 and 1011 L mol- 1 s- 1, respectively), as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters validate the mechanism of static quenching. The interaction with VitB12 induces folding of the polypeptide chains around Trp residues of BSA, resulting in a more hydrophobic surrounding. Presented outcomes suggest that the addition of VitB12 can lead to the more organized BSA conformation and its more folded tertiary structure, what could influence the physiological functions of bovine serum albumin, notably in case of its overuse or abnormal metabolism.

  20. Direct molecular diagnosis of aspergillosis and CYP51A profiling from respiratory samples of French patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yanan Zhao; Cécile Garnaud; Cécile Garnaud; Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart; Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart; Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand; Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand; Christel Saint-Raymond; Boubou Camara; Rebecca Hamidfar-Roy; Odile Cognet; Danièle Maubon; Danièle Maubon; Muriel Cornet; Muriel Cornet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive...

  1. Direct Molecular Diagnosis of Aspergillosis and CYP51A Profiling from Respiratory Samples of French Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanan; Garnaud, C?cile; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Thi?baut-Bertrand, Anne; Saint-Raymond, Christel; Camara, Boubou; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Cognet, Odile; Maubon, Dani?le; Cornet, Muriel; Perlin, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invas...

  2. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhenbo; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  3. Detection of antibiotic residues in bovine milk by a voltammetric electronic tongue system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zhenbo [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang University, Department of Bio-Systems Engineering, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2011-05-23

    A voltammetric electronic tongue (VE-tongue) was developed to detect antibiotic residues in bovine milk. Six antibiotics (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Kanamycin sulfate, Neomycin sulfate, Streptomycin sulfate and Tetracycline HCl) spiked at four different concentration levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 maximum residue limits (MRLs)) were classified based on VE-tongue by two pattern recognition methods: principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The VE-tongue was composed of five working electrodes (gold, silver, platinum, palladium, and titanium) positioned in a standard three-electrode configuration. The Multi-frequency large amplitude pulse voltammetry (MLAPV) which consisted of four segments (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz and 1000 Hz) was applied as potential waveform. The six antibiotics at the MRLs could not be separated from bovine milk completely by PCA, but all the samples were demarcated clearly by DFA. Three regression models: Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCR), Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), and Least Squares-Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM) were used for concentrations of antibiotics prediction. All the regression models performed well, and PCR had the most stable results.

  4. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an adult with Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-06

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder resulting from immune responses directed against inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. It manifests with poorly controlled asthma, fleeting pulmonary opacities and structural lung damage in the form of bronchiectasis. Initially defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, it has also been described in patients with other structural lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Kartagener syndrome is a manifestation of primary ciliary dyskinesia characterised by the presence of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. We report a case of ABPA in an adult suffering from Kartagener syndrome. We also performed a systematic review of the literature on the association between Kartagener syndrome and ABPA. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Radiological diagnosis of maxillary sinus aspergillosis. Radiologische Diagnostik der Kieferhoehlenaspergillose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, B.; Beyer, D. (Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Porz (Germany). Radiologische Abt.)

    1992-11-01

    Aspergillosis of the maxillary sinuses shows an increasing incidence in even otherwise healthy patients. Next to inhalation as the mode of infection, a dental root canal filling with an orosinusal fistula can be the cause. As most infections remain initially undetected or underestimated as common sinusitis, early diagnosis must be achieved. Standard X-ray of the paranasal sinuses, conventional tomography as well as CT scans are of major importance. Centrally located hyperdense opacifications are a good criterion and can be best seen in CT. Even when the case has not progressed too much, radical surgery combined with Amphotericin B therapy is still the treatment of choice since the infection may progress rapidly. (orig.).

  6. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  7. Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage with conventional treatment in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Kanwal Fatima

    2015-05-01

    To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Aquasi-experimental study. Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCTchest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BALgroup. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Around 78 (59.1%) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, serum in terms of IgE level reduction.

  8. Intraherd correlation coefficients and design effects for bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in cow-calf system herds in North-eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, J C; Domínguez-Díaz, D; Avalos-Ramírez, R; Argaez-Sosa, J

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge of the intraherd correlation coefficient (ICC) and design (D) effect for infectious diseases could be of interest in sample size calculation and to provide the correct standard errors of prevalence estimates in cluster or two-stage samplings surveys. Information on 813 animals from 48 non-vaccinated cow-calf herds from North-eastern Mexico was used. The ICC for the bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), leptospirosis and neosporosis diseases were calculated using a Bayesian approach adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests. The ICC and D values for BVD, IBR, leptospirosis and neosporosis were 0.31 and 5.91, 0.18 and 3.88, 0.22 and 4.53, and 0.11 and 2.68, respectively. The ICC and D values were different from 0 and D greater than 1, therefore large sample sizes are required to obtain the same precision in prevalence estimates than for a random simple sampling design. The report of ICC and D values is of great help in planning and designing two-stage sampling studies. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Systemic bovine tuberculosis: a case report/ Tuberculose bovina sistêmica: um relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Gross and histopathological lesions associated with Mycobacterium bovis in an ox are described. Differential diagnoses of frequently occurring gross lesions in cattle that could be easily confused with bovine tuberculosis are discussed, and a comparative analysis of M. bovis induced tuberculosis lesions in wildlife is made.Alterações macroscópicas e histopatológicas associadas a Mycobacterium bovis são descritas em um bovino. O diagnóstico diferencial de lesões macroscópicas mais freqüentemente encontradas em bovinos que podem ser confundidas com a tuberculose bovina é discutida. Uma análise comparativa de lesões induzidas por M. bovis em animais silvestres foi realizada.

  10. [Development of immunochromatographic test system for the rapid detection of lipopolysaccharide antigen and cells of causative agent of bovine brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzova, N A; Zherdev, A V; Eskendirova, S Z; Baltin, K K; Unysheva, G B; Mukanov, K K; Ramankulov, E M; Dzantiev, B B

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for detection of the surface lipopolysaccharide antigen and the cells of the causative agent of bovine brucellosis was developed. The method represents a sandwich format immunochromatographic assay. The contact between the sample and the test strip with immobilized immunoreagents initiates the fluid movement along the membrane components of the test strip, immunochemical reactions, and the formation of colored bands. The novel method requires 10 minutes to determine the lipopolysaccharide antigen of the cell wall of the brucellosis causative agent at concentrations down to 10 ng/mL and the Brucella abortus cells at concentrations down to 10(6) cells/mL (5 x 10(4) cells in the sample). The specificity of the immunodetection was confirmed. The designed test system can be used for the rapid field diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle.

  11. Hyperostosis of the maxillary sinus wall in aspergillosis: is it a characteristic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Woo Ho; Kim, Joung Sook; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kim, Young Hoon; Woo, Hoon Young [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To determine whether the wall thickening of the maxillary sinus is a characteristic finding in aspergillosis. In 103 patients, including 26 with aspergillosis, 21 with inverted papilloma (IP), and 56 with unilateral chronic sinusitis, the thickness of the maxillary sinus wall was determined by CT scanning. All cases were proven pathologically, and patients with a history of previous surgery of bone destruction were excluded. Two neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed the CT scans using bone window settings for sinus wall hyperostosis and the presence of intrasinus calcification. Thickening of the maxillary sinus wall was assessed visually in a semiquantitative manner, and graded as 'none' (absence of thickening), 'mild' (thickening of up to 1.5 times), or moderate ot severe(over 1.5 times thicker than normal contralateral sinus wall at its thickest point). Moderate to severe wall thickening was found only in patients with aspergillosis (21/26, 80.8%). Mild wall thickening was seen in two patients with aspergillosis (2/26, 7.7%), in 12 of 21 with IP (57.1%), and in 5 of 56 with chronic maxillary sinusitis (8.9%). Most cases of chronic maxillary sinusits( 51/56,91.1%), 9/21 IP cases (42.9%), and 3/26 cases of aspergillosis (11.5%) showed no thickening of the maxillary sinus wall. Calcifications were found in 18 patients with aspergillosis (69.2%), in no patient with IP (0%), and in one with chronic maxillary sinusitis (1.8%). We suggest that 'moderate to severe' wall thickening of the maxillary sinus is the characteristic finding of aspergillosis. Although various sinonasal diseases can cause bone change, CT findings of hyperostosis of the maxillary sinus and intrasinus calcification are very helpful in differentiating fungal sinusitis from other types of chronic inflammatory lesions.

  12. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Bunskoek (Paulien); S. Seyedmousavi (Seyedmojtaba); S. Gans (Steven); van Vierzen, P.B.J. (Peter B.J.); W.J. Melchers (Willem); C.E. van Elk; J.W. Mouton (Johan); P.E. Verweij (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractInvasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded,

  13. Costo-efficacia dell’amfotericina B liposomiale nella terapia dell’aspergillosi invasiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infectious complication of immune system depression. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (AMB-d has been considered standard therapy for IA for over 40 years, despite the fact that success rates rarely exceed 40% and adverse effects are quite common. At present two more recent pharmacological agents are available for the treatment of IA: liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB and voriconazole (VOR. In this article, we present a pharmaco-economical study comparing the relative costeffectiveness of 5 alternative strategies in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, analysed from the point of view of the Italian hospital: administration of L-AMB as first line therapy, followed by no rescue treatment in case of failure (L-AMB I°; administration of L-AMB as first line therapy, followed by VOR in case of failure (LAMB I° + VOR rescue; AMB-d as first line, followed by L-AMB in case of failure (L-AMB rescue; AMB-d as first line, followed by other antifungals as needed (AMB-d I° and VOR as first line, followed by rescue treatments in case of failure (VOR I°. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using decision tree modelling techniques: efficacy data were obtained from published clinical trials; costs parameters were fitted on the Italian setting. The results indicate that two strategies, L-AMB rescue and VOR I°, are dominated, i.e. induce higher costs and lower success rates than the alternatives. The three remaining strategies are neither dominated nor dominate the others, but are associated with different clinical and economical outcomes: AMB-d I° has the lowest total cost, but also the highest cost-effectiveness ratio and the lowest overall efficacy; L-AMB I° has the best cost-effectiveness, but requires the willingness to pay 2,100 euro for each additional success; L-AMB I° + VOR rescue is the most effective treatment, but this choice is associated with incremental costs of 17,200 euro

  14. Therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage with Conventional Treatment in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Study Design: Aquasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. Methodology: The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCT chest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BAL group. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Results: Around 78 (59.1 percentage) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p < 0.00) and 6 months (p < 0.001) of follow-up in BALas compared to conventional group. There was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence rate in both the groups (p=0.078 at 3 and 0.343 at 6 months respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary

  15. Economic considerations in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a review of voriconazole pharmacoeconomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kem P Krueger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kem P Krueger, A Christie NelsonSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USAAbstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection predominately affecting immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of inpatient-treated aspergillosis cases in the US is estimated to be between 3.02 and 3.80 per 10,000 hospitalized patients. The estimated difference in hospital costs of patients with an aspergillosis infection is US$36,867 to US$59,356 higher than those of patients without the infection. Voriconazole is a synthetic, broad spectrum triazole antifungal agent, with FDA-approved indications for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, candidemia in nonneutropenic patients, invasive candidiasis, and infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium species in patients refractory to or intolerant of other therapy. Eight cost-effectiveness analyses, one cost-minimization analysis, and one cost analysis were identified from a Medline search. The 10 pharmacoeconomic analyses were conducted in six different countries comparing voriconazole to conventional amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, itraconazole, and caspofungin. All the cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses identified voriconazole as the most cost-effective therapy. The cost analysis demonstrated voriconazole cost-savings. While the acquisition costs of voriconazole are higher than those of conventional amphotericin B, the toxicity profile and rate of treatment success associated with voriconazole result in lower total treatment costs per successfully treated patient.Keywords: voriconazole, antifungal agents, invasive aspergillosis, pharmacoeconomics 

  16. Antiviral effects of bovine interferons on bovine respiratory tract viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, R W; Downing, M M; Cummins, J M

    1984-01-01

    The antiviral effects of bovine interferons on the replication of bovine respiratory tract viruses were studied. Bovine turbinate monolayer cultures were treated with bovine interferons and challenged with several bovine herpesvirus 1 strains, bovine viral diarrhea virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, goat respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or vesicular stomatitis virus. Treatment with bovine interferons reduced viral yield for each of the...

  17. Lipofection of siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shuntaro; Sugimoto, Miki; Kume, Shinichi

    2018-04-13

    Bovine preimplantation embryos exhibit dramatic biological changes between before and after the 8-16-cell stage. Here we report a simple lipofection method to transfect siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well (WOW) culture system. Bovine one-cell embryos produced in vitro were freed from the zona pellucida and cultured up to the 8-16-cell stage in WOW dishes. The 8-16-cell embryos were lipofected with siRNA and the transfection efficiency was assessed at 48 h of transfection. Lipofection with a red fluorescent non-targeting siRNA revealed the importance of zona removal for transfection of siRNA into embryos. Using this method, we knocked down the methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) gene, achieving a significant reduction in MAT2A expression (P < 0.05) concomitant with the marked inhibition of blastocyst development. Our proposed method, tentatively named 'Octo-lipofection', may be useful to analyze gene functions in bovine preimplantation embryos without expensive equipment and skill-intensive techniques.

  18. Fulminant Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis After a Near-Drowning Accident in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratermann, Kelley L; Ereshefsky, Benjamin J; Fleishaker, Elise L; Thornton, Alice C; Buch, Ketan P; Martin, Craig A

    2014-09-01

    To report on invasive aspergillosis infection in an immunocompetent adult after a near-drowning event, which allowed this pathogen to easily gain access to the human respiratory system and result in rapid, severe infection. A 51-year-old female developed severe pneumonia after a near-drowning accident. Two days after admission, a bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. After a 30-day hospital course, multiple antifungals, and various routes of administration, the patient expired. Pneumonia is particularly common because of the aspiration of contaminated water. Whereas pneumococci, staphylococci, and Gram-negative bacteria are all common pathogens for this type of infection, fungi such as Aspergillus spp can also be involved and may be life threatening. Typically, these cases are reported in individuals with an immunodeficiency such as from receipt of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, or lung transplants. Despite initiation of an appropriate empirical antifungal regimen, the rapid recovery of A fumigatus from pulmonary alveolar lavage and BAL samples as well as extremely elevated levels of galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D glucan may have indicated an invasive fungal infection (IFI). IFIs are uncommon in immunocompetent adults, but in the event of a near-drowning accident, environmental fungi can gain access to the human respiratory system and result in rapid, severe infection. Based on this case and the others described, it appears that near-drowning patients need an early initial evaluation for IFI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Sero-positivity and associated risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia under two cattle production systems in North Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, Nma Bida; Babalobi, Olutayo Olajide

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 765 cattle in 125 nomadic and 375 cattle in 125 sedentary herds was conducted to investigate prevalence and risk factors for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the two production systems of Niger State in North Central Nigeria, between January and August 2013. Data on herd characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires administered on herd owners. Serological analysis was conducted using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) test. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted with OpenEpi version 2.3.1 software. Statistical significance was held at P production systems was 14.0 % (CI 12.1-16.1). Age and agro-ecological zones were significantly (P production. Agro-ecological zone C had the highest sero-prevalence (25.3 %, CI 20.2-31.0). No significant cattle factors were detected in sedentary production. Factors significantly associated with CBPP occurrence at herd-level were contacts with other herds during grazing (P production systems. Sero-diagnosis and risk factor identification should be institutionalized as elements of epidemio-surveillance and control strategies for CBPP, especially in resource-poor pastoralists' settlements in Nigeria.

  20. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study on surveillance of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas under intensive system of production was carried out by milk-ELISA. Various risk factors were identified having significant association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas. Materials and Methods: Five randomly selected peri-uban areas of six cities of Gujarat were included in the present study. Five randomly selected dairy herds under intensive system of production from each selected peri-urban area were included for further investigation. In total, 199 bulk and 582 individual milk samples were screened by milk-ELISA. Forty three different risk factors were identified and grouped into four major categories as general characteristics of farms, introduction of infection to farms, management systems of farms and exposure of disease. Further, their distribution and association with prevalence of bovine brucellosis was studied. Results: The overall herd and animal prevalence in peri-urban areas was 33.70 and 11.90%, respectively. Out of 11 risk factors on general characteristics of dairy farms, only five (herd size, type of animals, type of breed, age of owner and knowledge gained by owners showed significant (p<0.05 association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis. None of risk factors on introduction of infection to farms (n=6 and management systems of farms (n=11 was found significantly associated with occurrence of brucellosis. Among risk factors on exposure of disease (n=15, history of abortion, retention of placenta, still birth and metritis/endometritis showed significant (p<0.05 association with prevalence of bovine brucellosis. Conclusion: It was concluded that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds under intensive system of production in peri-urban areas of Gujarat was comparatively higher than reported overall prevalence of brucellosis. Risk factors like larger herd in close confinement without adequate sheds

  1. Chronic invasive sinus aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts: a geographic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brandon J; Vikram, Holenarasipur R

    2010-12-01

    To investigate potential differences in clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcomes of chronic invasive sinus aspergillosis (CISA) based on geographic region and species of Aspergillus isolated. A retrospective analysis of published cases of CISA with a comparison of North American and worldwide cases comprised a systematic search of the English language literature. Thirty-four articles were identified detailing 15 North American and 76 global cases of CISA with cranio-cerebral extension in clinically immunocompetent patients. North American patients with CISA were older, had a more rapidly progressive course, and appeared to have higher rates of treatment failure and mortality. Anatomic distribution and presenting symptoms were similar between the two groups. North American cases were mostly due to A. fumigatus, while A. flavus was the predominant pathogen worldwide. While granulomatous inflammation was a rare observation in North American cases, it was seen in the majority of cases worldwide. CISA due to A. fumigatus was encountered in older adults, was associated with a chronic inflammatory response, an accelerated clinical course, and a trend toward treatment failure and higher mortality. Patients with A. flavus were younger, demonstrated granulomatous inflammation, and pursued an indolent, clinically responsive course. Observed differences in clinical presentation, histopathology, and outcome might involve a complex interplay between the human host, Aspergillus species, and local climatic conditions.

  2. [Pharmacology of the antifungals used in the treatment of aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, José Ramón; Sádaba, Belén; Gómez-Guíu, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of invasive aspergillosis requires the use of drugs that characteristically have complex pharmacokinetic properties, the knowledge of which is essential to achieve maximum efficacy with minimal risk to the patient. The lipid-based amphotericin B formulations vary significantly in their pharmacokinetic behaviour, with very high plasma concentrations of the liposomal form, probably related to the presence of cholesterol in their structure. Azoles have a variable absorption profile, particularly in the case of itraconazole and posaconazole, with the latter very dependent on multiple factors. This may also lead to variations in voriconazole, which requires considering the possibility of monitoring plasma concentrations. The aim of this article is to review some of the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of the antifungals used in the prophylaxis and treatment of the Aspergillus infection. For this reason, it includes the most relevant features of some of the azoles normally prescribed in this infection (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole) and the amphotericin B formulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  3. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, José; Mensa, José

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common infection in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies or allogenic stem cell transplantation, and is less frequent in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucociliary activity impairment, immunosuppression due to the inhibition of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils by steroids, and receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, play a role in the development of IPA in COPD patients. Colonized patients or those with IPA are older, with severe CODP stage (GOLD≥III), and have a higher number of comorbidities. The mortality rate is high due to the fact that having a definitive diagnosis of IPA in COPD patients is often difficult. The main clinical and radiological signs of IPA in these types of patients are non-specific, and tissue samples for definitive diagnosis are often difficult to obtain. The poor prognosis of IPA in COPD patients could perhaps be improved by faster diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal treatment. Some tools, such as scales and algorithms based on risk factors of IPA, may be useful for its early diagnosis in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Concomitant orbital aspergillosis and mucormycosis in a 17 months old immunocompetent child

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    Fatima A. Habroosh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated multiple orbital fungal infection (aspergillosis & mucormycosis is extremely rare disease in immunocompetent individuals and especially in children. Placement of prosthetic device during the surgery could be one of the risk factors. The presentation is usually masquerading other entities which make early diagnosis a challengeable. This case presenting a 17 months old immunocompetent child who is diagnosed with isolated multiple orbital fungal infection: aspergillosis & mucormycosis. The presentation was mimicking orbital cellulitis and chronic dacryocystitis. The definitive diagnosis was made by tissue biopsy. The child was managed by surgical debridement and IV amphotericin B liposomal. High index of suspicion to fungal infection should be considered after surgical intervention with insertion prosthetic materials. To the best of our knowledge, orbital aspergillosis in immunocompetent young children is exceptionally rare.

  5. Etiologic Agents and Diseases Found Associated with Clinical Aspergillosis in Falcons

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    Walter Tarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94 clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64 cases, causing either single (=36 or multiple coinfections (=28. Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS (=29, Caryospora sp. (=16, Serratospiculum seurati infestation (=14, cestodiasis (=6, bumblefoot (=5, trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (=5, trichomoniasis (=4, Babesia shortti (=4, Mannheimia (Pastorella haemolytica (=4, interstitial hepatitis (=4, Escherichia coli (=3, and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (=2. Compared with a control group of 2000 diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis.

  6. Invasive aspergillosis in a user of inhaled cocaine: rhinosinusitis with bone and cartilage destruction

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    Luna Azulay-Abulafia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome.

  7. Speciation of native cations and added radionuclides in raw bovine milk. I. membraneless dialysis in aqueous biphasic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.; Malovikova, A.; Celkova, A.

    1996-01-01

    Partition of native sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and radioisotopes of cesium, strontium and europium was investigated in the aqueous liquid-liquid systems formed after agitation of fresh pasteurized skim bovine milk with 4% w/w water solution of pectin of various degree of esterification (60-93%). The partition of the ions in the 'membraneless dialysis' was described by Donnan equilibria and ion-exchange in the macro-and microheterogenous systems and, within uncertainty of results, does not depend on the degree of esterification. Strong negative non-ideality of Sr and Eu in milk phase is attributed to binding with proteins, casein particles in particular, and complexation with low molecular ligands. Separation factor α = D(Sr)/D(Ca) is 0.70 ±0.06, in favor of strontium concentration in pectin phase. While>96% of cesium is diffusible to pectin phase, only 43-56% (depending on physico-chemical model of dialysis) of strontium behaves in that way, and in original milk phase the percent of strontium cationic from may be as low as 13%. (author). 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. A CONSORT analysis of randomised controlled trials for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian L; Richardson, Malcolm D; Ingram, Patricia M; Agrawal, Samir G

    2017-08-01

    There is no assessment of the reporting quality of antifungal randomized, controlled trials (RCT), upon which guidelines for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancy are based. Trial reports were identified through Trip, Cochrane, Medline, and Embase database searches. Report quality was assessed using the 25-item CONSORT checklist and a rating scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). The primary endpoint was quality as assessed by mean group-scores among papers published at the time of the most recent IA treatment guidelines. Seven RCTs were identified for analysis. Overall mean group-score for all seven papers was 2.44 (out of a total of four). There were significant differences between publications regarding overall reporting quality (P CONSORT analysis into the evidence-based grading systems in North American (IDSA), European (ECIL and ESCMID) IA guidelines could alter the value placed on these RCTs, thereby impacting on clinical recommendations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. First line of defense: Innate cell-mediated control of pulmonary Aspergillosis

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    Vanessa eEspinosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic infections and their effect on the human condition have been widely overlooked and poorly surveilled by many health organizations even though mortality rates have increased in recent years. The increased usage of immunosuppressive and myeloablative therapies for the treatment of malignant as well as non-malignant diseases has contributed significantly to the increased incidence of fungal infections. Invasive fungal infections have been found to be responsible for at least 1.5 million deaths worldwide. About 90% of these deaths can be attributed to Cryptococcus, Candida, Aspergillus, and Pneumocystis. A better understanding of how the host immune system contains fungal infection is likely to facilitate the development of much needed novel antifungal therapies. Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition and containment of fungal infections and have been found to play essential roles in defense against multiple fungal pathogens. In this review we summarize our current understanding of host-fungi interactions with a focus on mechanisms of innate cell-mediated recognition and control of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  10. Direct molecular diagnosis of aspergillosis and CYP51A profiling from respiratory samples of French patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL, bronchial aspirates (BA, tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive aspergillosis (n=12, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n=3, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (n=7 or colonization (n=11 and 28 controls. Each specimen was evaluated by culture, pan-Aspergillus qPCR, and CYP51A PCR and sequencing. Results: One A. flavus and 19 A. fumigatus with one multiazole resistant strain (5.3% were cultured from 20 samples. Culture positivity was 62.5%, 75%, 42.9%, and 15.8% in ABPA, CPA, IA and colonized patients, respectively. Aspergillus detection rate was significantly higher by pan-Aspergillus qPCR than by culture in IA (90.5% vs 42.9%; P<0.05 and colonization group (73.7% vs 15.8%; P<0.05. The CYP51A PCR found one TR34/L98H along with 5 novel cyp51A mutations (4 non-synonymous and 1 promoter mutations, yet no association can be established currently between these novel mutations and azole resistance. The analysis of 11 matched pairs of BA and BAL samples found that 9/11 BA carried greater fungal load than BAL and CYP51A detection was more sensitive in BA than in BAL. Conclusion: Direct molecular detection of Aspergillus spp. and azole resistance markers are useful adjunct tools for comprehensive aspergillosis diagnosis. The observed superior diagnostic value of BAs to BAL fluids warrants more in-depth study.

  11. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Effect of Human and Bovine Serum Albumin on kinetic Chemiluminescence of Mn (III-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl Porphyrin-Luminol-Hydrogen Peroxide System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Yahya Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with an attempt to study the effect of human and bovine serum albumin on kinetic parameters of chemiluminescence of luminol-hydrogen peroxide system catalyzed by manganese tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (MnTSPP. The investigated parameters involved pseudo-first-order rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, maximum level intensity, time to reach maximum intensity, total light yield, and values of the intensity at maximum CL which were evaluated by nonlinear least square program KINFIT. Because of interaction of metalloporphyrin with proteins, the CL parameters are drastically affected. The systems resulted in Stern-Volmer plots with values of 3.17×105 and 3.7×105M−1 in the quencher concentration range of 1.5×10−6 to 1.5×10−5 M for human serum albumin (HSA and bovine serum albumin (BSA, respectively.

  13. Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwarda, Radosław Łukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk

    2013-10-18

    Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5μmol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  15. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  16. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  17. Role of itraconazole in the management of aspergillosis in treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Gupta P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sputum/ bronchial washings of 445 patients with residual tubercular cavitation were subjected to smear and culture examination to isolate fungi. Patients suffering from aspergillosis were put on oral itraconazole daily for 6 months and monitored clinicoradiologically during and after therapy. About half of the patients of aspergilloma and 85% of the patients of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis improved by 3 months of therapy. Nausea and headache observed during therapy in 8 and 4 patients respectively were mild and self limiting. Relapses were seen in 8 out of the 37 patients who had completed 6 months therapy and available for follow-up.

  18. Acute aspergillosis in mallards at Oahe seep near Pierre, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W.C.; Simpson, S.G.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aspergillosis was diagnosed at the cause of death of 158 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in January and February 1985 and 11 mallards in December 1985 near Pierre, SD. Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from carcass tissues confirmed the diagnosis. The sex ratio of mallards dead from aspergillosis in January and February 1985 was significantly different from the sex ratio in the local population at that time. The source of the fungus was not determined, but severe weather caused physiologically stressed mallards to feeds on corn stored in open piles on the ground, a likely source of the Aspergillus fungus.

  19. Multiple cavities with halo sign in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis during therapy for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo Ikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome was admitted for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS caused by salazosulfapyridine. Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 variant B was strongly positive on peripheral blood. Multiple cavities with ground grass opacities rapidly emerged predominantly in the upper and middle lobes. She was diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA, and was treated successfully with antifungal agents. Therapeutic systemic corticosteroids, emphysematous change in the lungs, and the worsening of the patient's general condition due to DIHS were considered major contributing factor leading to IPA. HHV-6 reactivation could have an effect on clinical course of IPA. Cavities with halo sign would provide an early clue to IPA in non-neutropenic and immunosuppressive patients.

  20. Short communication: Detection of stx2 and elt genes in bovine milk by using a multiplex PCR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, R D S; Campos, A C; Puño-Sarmiento, J J; Maluta, R P; Rocha, S P D; Kobayashi, R K T; Nakazato, G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect 2 important toxin genes from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in bovine milk using a new multiplex PCR. To standardize the multiplex PCR, the stx2 and elt genes were investigated for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), respectively. The DNA template was prepared with a thermal procedure (boiling) and a commercial kit. Samples consisted of UHT and pasteurized milk, both skimmed, and STEC and ETEC were tested in concentrations between 10 1 and 10 9 cfu/mL. With the thermal procedure, the multiplex PCR system detected both pathotypes of E. coli at 10 9 cfu/mL in UHT and pasteurized milk. When the commercial kit was used for template preparation, STEC and ETEC could be detected at concentrations as low as 10 4 cfu/mL in UHT and pasteurized milk. Negative controls (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Escherichia coli strain APEC 13) were not amplified with the multiplex PCR. These results indicate that the multiplex PCR was a rapid (less than 6 h) and efficient method to detect STEC and ETEC in milk using different methods for DNA preparation; however, the commercial kit was more sensitive than the thermal procedure. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel systems pharmacology platform to dissect action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines for bovine viral diarrhea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Pei, Tianli; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xuetong; Bai, Yaofei; Xue, Jun; Wu, Ziyin; Mu, Jiexin; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-10-30

    Due to the large direct and indirect productivity losses in the livestock industry caused by bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and the lack of effective pharmacological therapies, developing an efficient treatment is extremely urgent. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that simultaneously address multiple targets have been proven to be effective therapies for BVD. However, the potential molecular action mechanisms of TCMs have not yet been systematically explored. In this work, take the example of a herbal remedy Huangqin Zhizi (HQZZ) for BVD treatment in China, a systems pharmacology approach combining with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics evaluation was developed to screen out the active ingredients, predict the targets and analyze the networks and pathways. Results show that 212 active compounds were identified. Utilizing these lead compounds as probes, we predicted 122 BVD related-targets. And in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the reliability of some vital active compounds and targets. Network and pathway analysis displayed that HQZZ was effective in the treatment of BVD by inhibiting inflammation, enhancing immune responses in hosts toward virus infection. In summary, the analysis of the complete profile of the pharmacological activities, as well as the elucidation of targets, networks and pathways can further elucidate the underlying anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune regulation mechanisms of HQZZ against BVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-04-24

    Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests that early detection may be

  3. Enhanced extraction of bovine serum albumin with aqueous biphasic systems of phosphonium- and ammonium-based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M.; Pedro, Sónia N.; Quental, Maria V.; Lima, Álvaro S.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Novel aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs), combined with a buffered aqueous solution of potassium citrate/citric acid (pH=7.0), were investigated for the extraction of proteins. For that purpose, the phase diagrams, tie-lines and tie-line lengths were determined at 25ºC, and the performance of these ABS for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then evaluated. The obtained results reveal that, with the exception of the more hydrophobic ILs, most of the systems investigated allow the complete extraction of BSA for the IL-rich phase in a single-step. These remarkable extraction efficiencies are far superior to those afforded by more conventional extraction systems previously reported. The composition of the biphasic systems, i.e., the amount of phase-forming components, was also investigated aiming at reducing the overall costs of the process without losing efficiency on the protein extraction. It is shown that the extraction efficiencies of BSA are maintained at 100% up to high protein concentrations (at least up to 10 g.L-1). The recovery of the BSA from the IL-rich phase by dialysis is also shown in addition to the demonstration of the IL recyclability and reusability, at least for 3 times. In the sequential three-step extractions (BSA recovery/IL reusability), the extraction efficiencies of BSA for the IL-rich phase were maintained at 100%. For the improved ABS, the preservation of the protein native conformation was confirmed by Size Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (used also as the quantification method) and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy. According to the results herein reported, ABS composed of phosphonium- or ammonium-based ILs and a biodegradable organic salt represent an alternative and remarkable platform for the extraction of BSA and may be extended to other proteins of interest. PMID:25865275

  4. Detection of Gliotoxin in Patients with Pulmonary Aspergillosis

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    Baheeja A.Hmood

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to detection of gliotoxin in patients with pulmonary Aspergillosis . Method: A total of 100 samples (sputum and blood were selected from 100 outpatients who attended to Al-Qadissiyia Centre of Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases, , during the period from 2014 to May 2015. All patients had clinical manifestation in addition to 100 sample (sputum and blood as control group. Results: All patients infected with fungi and three different genus isolated from sputum of patients ,these genus are Aspergillus sp. 60 Isolates( 60%with three species were A.fumigatus (50% A.flavus(33.3% and A.niger (16.6% Cryptococcus neoformans (20% Penicillum sp.(14% and Rhizopus sp.(6%. Seventy nine (79% from patients had gliotoxin distributed in their sputum and serum by ratio (71% and 5 (5% had GT in their serum while 3 (3% of them had GT in their sputum.. So this toxin was found in50(5% in control group distributed in sputum and serum by (40% , 6(6%in sputum and 4(4%in serum. The concentration of GT in sputum of patients was (40-63µg/kg and in sputum of control group was (16-23µg/kg and in serum of patients was (33-47µg/kg and (10-21µg/kg in serum of control group. and all A.fumigatus isolates 30 (100 %were have gliz gene. Conclusion: Several species of Aspergillus and other fungi as well as possibly yeast, produced gliotoxin both in vitro and in vivo. More attention should be paid to this mycotoxin because of its multi-faceted toxic properties.

  5. Clinical and Pathological Correlation in Pediatric Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattachai Anantasit

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionInvasive’ pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA has been one of the major causes of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The gold standard method for a diagnosis of IPA is histopathological examination of the lung tissue; however, post-procedural bleeding limits the feasibility of lung biopsy. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG defined IPA. The objective of this study was to validate the EORTC/MSG 2008 definition of IPA, compared with histopathology in the pediatric population.MethodsHistopathological examinations of lung tissues of children aged 1 month–18 years with respiratory tract infection at the time of obtaining biopsy were retrieved. Retrospective chart reviews for clinical characteristics were performed. IPA diagnosis was classified according to the EORTC/MSG 2008 definition.ResultsDuring the 10-year period, there were 256 lung tissues, of which 58 specimens were suspected to have pulmonary infection. Fourteen patients (24% were noted to have IPA. Seven patients (50% with proven IPA were classified as probable, while the remaining 50% were classified as possible, and none were classified as no IPA, by using EORTC/MSG 2008 definition. Other 44 specimens demonstrated 14 (32%, 14 (32%, and 16 (36% were classified as probable, possible, and no IPA, respectively. When comparing probable or possible IPA with no IPA, we found that the EORTC/MSG 2008 definition had 100% sensitivity, 36% specificity, 33% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value in diagnosis of IPA.ConclusionOur study illustrated that the EORTC/MSG 2008 definition provided an excellent sensitivity but low specificity for diagnosing IPA.

  6. Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, A. K.; Chudgar, S. M.; Norton, B. L.; Tong, B. C.; Stout, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolidation with cavitation in the right upper lobe of the lung. Induced bacterial sputum cultures, and acid-fast smears and cultures were negative. Fungal sputum cultures grew A. niger. The patient clinically improved on a combination therapy of empiric antibacterials and voriconazole, followed by voriconazole monotherapy. After 4 weeks of voriconazole therapy, however, repeat chest computed tomography scanning showed a significant progression of the infection and near-complete necrosis of the right upper lobe of the lung. Serum voriconazole levels were low–normal (1.0 μg ml−1, normal range for the assay 0.5–6.0 μg ml−1). A. niger was again recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. A right upper lobectomy was performed, and lung tissue cultures grew A. niger. Furthermore, the lung histopathology showed acute and organizing pneumonia, fungal hyphae and oxalate crystallosis, confirming the diagnosis of invasive A. niger infection. A. niger, unlike A. fumigatus and A. flavus, is less commonly considered a cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The finding of calcium oxalate crystals in histopathology specimens is classic for A. niger infection and can be helpful in making a diagnosis even in the absence of conidia. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in optimizing the treatment of IA given the wide variations in the oral bioavailability of voriconazole. PMID:20299503

  7. Efficacy and pharmacodynamic of voriconazole combined with anidulafungin in azole resistant invasive aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousav, S.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.; Mouton, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Azole resistance is an emerging problem in the treatment of Aspergillus fumigatus infections. Combination therapy may be an alternative approach to improve therapeutic outcome in azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis (IA). The in vivo efficacy of voriconazole and anidulafungin was

  8. Invasive aspergillosis: epidemiology and environmental study in haematology patients (Sfax, Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrich, I; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Bouaziz, H; Hdiji, S; Elloumi, M; Ayadi, A

    2010-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major opportunistic infection in haematology patients. Preventive measures are important to control IA because diagnosis is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. We prospectively examined the environmental contamination by Aspergillus and other fungal species and evaluated the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis in the protect unit of haematology. A three-year prospective study (December 2004-September 2007) was carried out in the department of haematology of Hedi Chaker Hospital. Suspected invasive aspergillosis cases were reviewed and classified as proven, probable and possible invasive aspergillosis using the EORTC criteria. During the study period, we collected weekly environmental samples (patient's rooms, tables and acclimatisers) and clinical samples from each patient (nasal, expectoration and auricular). Among 105 neutropenic patients, 16 had probable and 13 had possible IA. A total of 1680 clinical samples were collected and A. flavus was most frequently isolated (79.2%). Analysis of 690 environmental samples revealed that Penicillium (44%) was the most frequent followed by Cladosporium (20%), Aspergillus spp. (18%) and Alternaria (13%). The PCR-sequencing of 30 A. flavus isolates detected from clinical and environmental samples confirmed the mycological identification. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance and strict application of preventive measures.

  9. A case of invasive Aspergillosis in a patient with no identifiable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient had a mass-like lesion in the neuroimaging with soft tissue shadowing in the chest x-ray leading to initial diagnosis of tuberculosis. The brain biopsy showed changes consistent with a diagnosis of aspergillosis. The source of the aspergillus infection was not clear. Aspergillus infection should be considered in ...

  10. [Molecular markers: an important tool in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-de León, María Guadalupe; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Martínez-Hernández, José Enrique; Martínez-Rivera, María de Los Ángeles; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the incidence of invasive aspergillosis has represented a difficult problem for management of patients with this infection due to its high rate of mortality, limited knowledge concerning its diagnosis, and therapeutic practice. The difficulty in management of patients with aspergillosis initiates with detection of the fungus in the specimens of immunosuppressed patients infected with Aspergillus fumigatus; in addition, difficulty exists in terms of the development of resistance to antifungals as a consequence of their indiscriminate use in prophylactic and therapeutic practice and to ignorance concerning the epidemiological data of aspergillosis. With the aim of resolving these problems, molecular markers is employed at present with specific and accurate results. However, in Mexico, the use of molecular markers has not yet been implemented in the routine of intrahospital laboratories; despite the fact that these molecular markers has been widely referred in the literature, it is necessary for it to validated and standardized to ensure that the results obtained in any laboratory would be reliable and comparable. In the present review, we present an update on the usefulness of molecular markers in accurate identification of A. fumigatus, detection of resistance to antifugal triazoles, and epidemiological studies for establishing the necessary measures for prevention and control of aspergillosis.

  11. Distribution of bovine alpha-herpesviruses and expression of toll-like receptors in the respiratory system of experimentally infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, M S; Quintana, S; Leunda, M R; Odeón, A C; Pérez, S E

    2016-04-01

    This study provides an initial analysis of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) that might be implicated in alpha-herpesvirus infection of the bovine respiratory system. A significant variation in the expression of TLR3 and TLRs 7-9 during bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) acute infections and particularly an up-regulation during viral reactivation in respiratory tissues has been demonstrated. Furthermore, viral distribution in the respiratory tract of BoHV-1- and BoHV-5-infected calves at different stages of the infectious cycle was analysed. The wide distribution of BoHV DNA in the respiratory tract during acute infection was restricted during latent infection and the subsequent reactivation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Overall, the findings presented here contribute to the knowledge on the replication and dissemination of bovine alpha-herpesviruses. Furthermore, some of the immune factors triggered in the host that determine the different outcomes of infection by two closely related pathogens of cattle have been elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  13. Radiological and clinical findings of pulmonary aspergillosis following solid organ transplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.S. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Seo, J.B. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: seojb@amc.seoul.kr; Lee, Y.K. [Department of Radiology, Bundang CHA Hospital, University of Pocheon Jungmoon College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Do, K.H.; Lee, J.S.; Song, J.-W.; Song, K.S. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To evaluate the radiological and clinical findings in patients with pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation. Materials and methods: This study included 13 consecutive patients (five liver, four kidney, and four heart transplant; 10 male and three female; median age 54 years; range 13-63 years) with histologically confirmed pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation at a tertiary referral hospital. Chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for diagnosis were available in all patients. Radiological findings, such as lesion characteristics, location, and associated findings, were assessed retrospectively by two radiologists. The changes in radiological findings and clinical response after treatment were also assessed. Clinical findings, such as time of onset, initial symptoms, clinical course, and laboratory findings, were reviewed. Results: The most common radiographic and CT findings were pulmonary nodules or masses (n = 12). The number of nodules or masses was less than 10 in eight patients. Associated findings were surrounding ground-glass opacity (n = 4), central low density (n = 8), central air cavity (n = 5), and air bronchogram (n = 3). Follow-up radiographs and/or CT after treatment showed improvement in eight patients, persistence in two, and deterioration in three. The onset time of pulmonary aspergillosis was a median of 32 days (range 15-165 days). The most common symptom at diagnosis was fever (n = 6). Ten of 13 patients did not have leucopaenia. There were two aspergillosis-associated deaths during the follow-up period. Conclusion: The most common radiological finding of pulmonary aspergillosis after solid organ transplantation is multiple nodules or masses, which commonly appear within 1 month following transplantation.

  14. Implementation of different histochemical methods in diagnostics of brain Aspergillosis in turkey chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is a frequent fungal disease in different species of birds and mammals caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. It is characterized by inflammatory changes primarily in the respiratory system, even though it sometimes takes on a generalized form when several organ systems are affected. Mucotic-granulomatous meningoencephalitis with a predominant localization in the cerebellum has been described in turkeys, ducks and geese. Within this paper, examinations have been performed on a flock of broiler turkeys aged 12 days who had sustained evident neurological disorders in the form of ataxy, torticollis, paresis, and paralysis of the hind extremities and wings. In three of the ten autopsied chicks the macroscopic findings indicated granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebellum. A white-coloured granuloma, around 3mm in diameter, was situated cranioventrally and was clearly visible on the sagital section of the cerebellum. Mucological examinations of the cerebellum lesion resulted in the isolation of the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE, Grocott and PAS methods were used for the evaluation of histopathological changes and proving Aspergillus fumigatusa hyphae. The microscopic examination of brain tissue sections stained with the HE method revealed the existence of a granuloma with a centrally placed necrotic area. The necrotic area was infiltrated with heterophilic granulocytes and surrounded by macrophage, giant cells and lymphocytes. A connective tissue capsule was located on the periphery of the granuloma. The fungi hyphae, as integral parts of the granuloma, were difficult to observe, and in some samples stained using the HE method they could not be seen at all. On the other hand, sections stanied using the Grocott and PAS methods showed prominent septed and branched hyphae in different parts of the granuloma. With the objective of making an etiological diagnosis of mucotic diseases, it is necessary to apply several

  15. Innate immune response to a bovine mastitis pathogen profiled in milk and blood monocytes using a systems biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland which leads to reduced milk yield and increased milk somatic cell counts (SCC) resulting in an estimated annual cost to the dairy industry worldwide of ~ 2 billion euros. Mastitis has a complex etiology, with pathogenic, host and envi...

  16. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Results Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. Conclusions In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests

  17. Increasing Total Serum IgE, Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis, and Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Florian; Kappler, Matthias; Griese, Matthias

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity disorder contributing to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and challenging to diagnose. This study analyzed the predictive value of increasing total IgE (t-IgE) levels in a CF cohort alongside with clinical and serologic data. A total of 387 children and young adults were followed from 2000 to 2006 and retrospectively classified into 6 groups. Patients with t-IgE levels IgE were classified as "Naïve," those with Af-specific IgE (Af-sIgE) as "Sensitized." Patients with elevated t-IgE at entrance and Af-sIgE were labeled "Former ABPA," and those without, as "High t-IgE." Patients whose t-IgE values started normal and exceeded the 95th percentile during the study were labeled either "ABPA at risk" if Af-sIgE-positive or "Rising t-IgE" if not. Courses of t-IgE over time were divided into episodes with increasing IgE (ΔIgE) and related to pulmonary outcome. A total of 125 patients were classified Naïve (32%), 64 Sensitized (17%), 49 ABPA at risk (13%), 32 Rising t-IgE (8%), 102 Former ABPA (26%), and 15 High t-IgE (4%). A total of 874 ΔIgE episodes were accompanied by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) declines (r = -0.21, P IgE levels at least doubled within 3 months and exceeded the 95th age-specific percentile (P IgE levels may be helpful in diagnosing treatment requiring ABPA and predicts the effect of systemic steroid treatment on pulmonary outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of invasive aspergillosis in bone marrow transplant recipients using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nabili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The invasive aspergillosis (IA is a serious opportunistic infection caused by various species of Aspergillus in immunocompromised individuals. Basically, rapid and early diagnosis prevents IA progression. In this study we performed a Real Time PCR/ Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET for diagnosis of IA in hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant recipients. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients with hematologic malignancies and marrow transplant recipients were evaluated for IA in Sari and Tehran from 2009 to 2010. The primer and hybridization probe were designed to amplify the specific sequence of 18S rRNA genes using Light Cycler system and FRET. Galactomannan (GM assay was performed on serums which obtained from selected patients using the Platelia Aspergillus kit. Results: According to the criteria defined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG for IA, 18 (29% patients out of 62 patients were stratified into probable and possible groups. The female-to-male ratio was 1:2; the mean age of the patients was 36 years. The most common malignancies in these patients were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (38.9%. The minimum detection limit was 10 conidia (10 1 CFU/ml equivalents (100 fg per PCR reaction. GM assay was positive in 20.9% and real-time PCR probe set assay were positive in 17.7% patients who had clinical signs and host factor according to the mentioned criteria. Conclusion: Using the Real-Time PCR/FRET assay in whole blood specimens seems to be a promising method for diagnosis of IA, especially when used in combination with the GM detection test.

  19. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Reveals S100B as Biomarker for Invasive Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Andreas; Czakai, Kristin; Springer, Jan; Fliesser, Mirjam; Bonin, Michael; Guthke, Reinhard; Schmitt, Anna L.; Einsele, Hermann; Linde, Jörg; Löffler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a devastating opportunistic infection and its treatment constitutes a considerable burden for the health care system. Immunocompromised patients are at an increased risk for IA, which is mainly caused by the species Aspergillus fumigatus. An early and reliable diagnosis is required to initiate the appropriate antifungal therapy. However, diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy still needs to be improved, which can be achieved at least partly by the definition of new biomarkers. Besides the direct detection of the pathogen by the current diagnostic methods, the analysis of the host response is a promising strategy toward this aim. Following this approach, we sought to identify new biomarkers for IA. For this purpose, we analyzed gene expression profiles of hematological patients and compared profiles of patients suffering from IA with non-IA patients. Based on microarray data, we applied a comprehensive feature selection using a random forest classifier. We identified the transcript coding for the S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) as a potential new biomarker for the diagnosis of IA. Considering the expression of this gene, we were able to classify samples from patients with IA with 82.3% sensitivity and 74.6% specificity. Moreover, we validated the expression of S100B in a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and we also found a down-regulation of S100B in A. fumigatus stimulated DCs. An influence on the IL1B and CXCL1 downstream levels was demonstrated by this S100B knockdown. In conclusion, this study covers an effective feature selection revealing a key regulator of the human immune response during IA. S100B may represent an additional diagnostic marker that in combination with the established techniques may improve the accuracy of IA diagnosis. PMID:27047454

  20. Risk mapping of bovine hypodermosis using geographical information system (GIS) in cattle of subtropical region, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mobushir Riaz; Ahmed, Haroon; Panadero-Fontan, Rosario; Lopez-Sandez, Ceferino; Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Asif, Saira; Mustafa, Irfan; Ali, Muhammad Isthiaq; Raza, Hamid; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-08-29

    Hypodermosis is an ectoparasitic disease of cattle caused by Hypoderma lineatum and Hypoderma bovis. It is an important health problem of cattle, leading to considerable economic losses. There are various factors that are involved in the spread of this disease such as herd size, location, temperature, humidity, and precipitation. Blood samples from 112 herds were collected to determine the presence of Hypoderma spp. infestation. For these herds, size and location were determined; temperature, humidity, and precipitation data were obtained from meteorological stations; and topographic features were obtained from existing maps and through field work. A regression analysis was then used to generate a risk factor analysis profile for hypodermosis and geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the risks. The GIS map developed showed the degree of infestation in different geographical locations at district and village levels. Cluster analysis demonstrated that hypodermosis prevalence varied within zones and across zones. The regression analysis showed that the temperature in the months of January, February, March, August, and November, and the precipitation in September and October had significant results (p globe. The present study might be used to control and eradicate the hypodermosis across the globe.

  1. Hot spot mapping of protein surfaces with TEMPOL: Bovine pancreatic RNase A as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Neri; Morandi, Edoardo; Gardini, Simone; Costabile, Valentino; Spadaccini, Roberta; Crescenzi, Orlando; Picone, Delia; Spiga, Ottavia; Bernini, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    TEMPOL spin-label has been used to identify surface exposure of protein nuclei from NMR analysis of the induced paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PRE). The absence of linear dependence between atom depths and observed PRE reveals that specific mechanisms drive the approach of the paramagnet to the protein surface. RNase A represents a unique protein system to explore the fine details of the information offered by TEMPOL induced PRE, due to the abundance of previous results, obtained in solution and in the crystal, dealing with surface dynamics behavior of this protein. MD simulations in explicit solvent have been performed, also in the presence of TEMPOL, in order to delineate the role of intermolecular hydrogen bonds (HB) on PRE extents. Comparison of our results with the ones obtained from multiple solvent crystal structure (MSCS) studies yields information on the specificities that these two techniques have for characterizing protein-ligand interactions, a fundamental step in the development of reliable surface druggability predictors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana R; Walia, Dinesh K; Khairwa, Anju

    2018-03-18

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with an approximate prevalence of 1 in 3500 live births. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease caused by aspergillus-induced hypersensitivity with a prevalence of 2% to 15% in people with cystic fibrosis. The mainstay of treatment includes corticosteroids and itraconazole. The treatment with corticosteroids for prolonged periods of time, or repeatedly for exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, may lead to many adverse effects. The monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab, has improved asthma control in severely allergic asthmatics. The drug is given as a subcutaneous injection every two to four weeks. Since allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is also a condition resulting from hypersensitivity to specific allergens, as in asthma, it may be a candidate for therapy using anti-IgE antibodies. Therefore, anti-IgE therapy, using agents like omalizumab, may be a potential therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an updated version of the review. To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Last search: 29 September 2017.We searched two ongoing trial registries (Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO trials platform). Date of latest search: 24 January 2018. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing anti-IgE therapy to placebo or other therapies for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included study. They planned to perform data analysis using Review Manager. Only one

  3. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus sign and underlying lung disease: CT findings and histopathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients has been described as a saprophytic infection with pre-existing lung lesions showing an air-meniscus sign on chest radiograph or CT scans. There have been rare articles dealing with pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without pre-existing lung lesions. Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus and underlying lung disease and to correlate the CT findings and pathologic features of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients. Material and Methods: A total of seven surgically proven pulmonary aspergillosis found in immunocompetent patients without an air-meniscus and underlying lung disease (M:F = 1:6; mean age 63.4 years) were included. On CT, the lesion shape, margin, type, location, diameter, presence of satellite nodules, presence of CT halo sign or hypodense sign, and interval growth were evaluated. Histopathologic features of each lesion were classified as one of the following; primary aspergilloma, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Correlation between CT findings and pathological features was performed. Results: All lesions presented as a nodule or mass unable to differentiate from malignancy. Most lesions had well-defined margins (n = 4), appeared as solid lesions (n = 7), and were located in the upper lobe (n = 5). Mean diameter of lesions was 2.3 cm. Satellite nodules (n = 2), CT halo sign (n = 1), and hypodense sign (n = 4) were found. Only one lesion increased in size during follow-up. Lesions were pathologically classified as primary aspergilloma (n = 3) and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 4). The hypodense sign on CT was pathologically proved as dense fungal hyphae filled in bronchus and CT halo sign as parenchymal hemorrhage. Conclusion: Pulmonary aspergillosis predominantly presented as a nodule or mass mimicking malignancy in the upper lobes

  4. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, A.; Lonjedo, E.; Agramunt, M.; Martinez-Rodrigo, J. J.; Palomero, J.

    2001-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a serious complications that occurs in immunocompromised patients. We need a rapid and effective treatment both to treat the aspergillosis as well as to be able to continue, as soon as possible, treatment of the baseline disease. We present a case of a percutaneous treatment of the pulmonary lesions in a 55 year old male with IPA in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With Computerized Tomography (CT) control and using a fine needle, we injected intralesionally a solution of Amphotericin B (AB) (5 mg/cc of 5% glucose solution). We evaluated the complications and efficacy in relationship to the clinical improvement and reduction in lesion size. (Author) 18 refs

  5. Patho-radiologic correlation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the compromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, D P; Myerowitz, R L; Dubois, P J

    1978-05-01

    The autopsy findings and antemortem radiographic abnormalities were correlated in 20 patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis to define typical radiographic patterns, their progression and anatomic basis. Sixteen (80%) patients had radiographic abnormalities due to aspergillosis. Fifty-nine percent of the specific radiographic abnormalities seen in these patients were caused by anatomic lesions of asperigillosis and 67% of such anatomic lesions were radiographically definable. The most common initial radiographic pattern was a patchy density (single or multifocal) or a well defined nodule. The densities remained stable in half the patients but progressed, over several weeks to either diffuse consolidation or cavitation in the others. Most anatomic lesions were categorized as either nodular ("target") lesions (1-3 cm in diameter) or hemorrhagic infarctions (5-10 cm in diameter), both due to vascular invasion causing thrombosis and ischemic necrosis. Unlike pulmonary candidiasis, which is usually radiographically undetectable, invasive pulmonary asperigillosis frequently caused radiographically visible lesions.

  6. Donor-derived aspergillosis from use of a solid organ recipient as a multiorgan donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N J; Weisser, M; Fehr, T; Wüthrich, R P; Müllhaupt, B; Lehmann, R; Imhof, A; Aubert, J-D; Genoni, M; Kunz, R; Weber, M; Steiger, J

    2010-02-01

    The growing need for organs and the scarcity of donors has resulted in an increased use of extended criteria donors. We report a case where a recipient of a cardiac graft was used as an organ donor. Death of the recipient occurred 9 days after transplantation and was attributed to presumed cerebral hemorrhage, which post mortem was diagnosed as invasive aspergillosis of the brain. One recipient of a kidney transplant lost the graft due to infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, whereas prompt initiation of therapy successfully prevented disseminated aspergillosis in the other recipients. Despite the pressure to extend the use of organs by lowering the acceptance criteria, organs should only be accepted if the cause of death of the donors is unequivocally explained.

  7. Pulmonary carcinosarcoma initially presenting as invasive aspergillosis: a case report of previously unreported combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the lung is a malignant tumor composed of a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma elements. The carcinomatous component is most commonly squamous followed by adenocarcinoma. The sarcomatous component commonly comprises the bulk of the tumor and shows poorly differentiated spindle cell features. Foci of differentiated sarcomatous elements such as chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma may be seen. Aspergillus pneumonia is the most common form of invasive aspergillosis and occurs mainly in patients with malignancy, immunocompromizing or debilitating diseases. Patients with Aspergillus pneumonia present with fever, cough, chest pain and occasionally hemoptysis. Tissue examination is the most reliable method for diagnosis, and mortality rate is high. We describe a case of primary carcinosarcoma of the lung concurrently occurring with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a 66-year old patient. PMID:20181054

  8. Pulmonary carcinosarcoma initially presenting as invasive aspergillosis: a case report of previously unreported combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carcinosarcoma of the lung is a malignant tumor composed of a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma elements. The carcinomatous component is most commonly squamous followed by adenocarcinoma. The sarcomatous component commonly comprises the bulk of the tumor and shows poorly differentiated spindle cell features. Foci of differentiated sarcomatous elements such as chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma may be seen. Aspergillus pneumonia is the most common form of invasive aspergillosis and occurs mainly in patients with malignancy, immunocompromizing or debilitating diseases. Patients with Aspergillus pneumonia present with fever, cough, chest pain and occasionally hemoptysis. Tissue examination is the most reliable method for diagnosis, and mortality rate is high. We describe a case of primary carcinosarcoma of the lung concurrently occurring with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a 66-year old patient.

  9. Invasive aspergillosis osteomyelitis in children - a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterstein, Anton R.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Vollert, Kurt [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Wagner, Theodor [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Pathology, Augsburg (Germany); Gnekow, Astrid [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Pediatrics, Augsburg (Germany); Roemer, Frank W. [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of secondary infection associated with high morbidity. In children these complications include fungal osteomyelitis due to continuous infiltration or hematogenous spread. The case of a 4-year-old boy is presented who developed lumbalgia and thigh pain during ongoing chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukemia. MRI revealed infarct-like lesions in the femur and L5 vertebra, which were biopsied. The histologic diagnosis was consistent with angioinvasive aspergillosis. A multifocal osseous presentation has rarely been described in children and an overview of the literature is presented. Invasive aspergillosis is a rare complication to be considered in children with MRI-detected bony lesions of infarct-like appearance. (orig.)

  10. Invasive aspergillosis osteomyelitis in children - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterstein, Anton R.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Vollert, Kurt; Wagner, Theodor; Gnekow, Astrid; Roemer, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of secondary infection associated with high morbidity. In children these complications include fungal osteomyelitis due to continuous infiltration or hematogenous spread. The case of a 4-year-old boy is presented who developed lumbalgia and thigh pain during ongoing chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukemia. MRI revealed infarct-like lesions in the femur and L5 vertebra, which were biopsied. The histologic diagnosis was consistent with angioinvasive aspergillosis. A multifocal osseous presentation has rarely been described in children and an overview of the literature is presented. Invasive aspergillosis is a rare complication to be considered in children with MRI-detected bony lesions of infarct-like appearance. (orig.)

  11. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  12. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  13. Aspergillosis in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients: epidemiology and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddley John W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available regarding the epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis (IA in ICU patients. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiology and economic outcomes (length of stay, hospital costs among ICU patients with IA who lack traditional risk factors for IA, such as cancer, transplants, neutropenia or HIV infection. Methods Retrospective cohort study using Premier Inc. Perspective™ US administrative hospital database (2005–2008. Adults with ICU stays and aspergillosis (ICD-9 117.3 plus 484.6 who received initial antifungal therapy (AF in the ICU were included. Patients with traditional risk factors (cancer, transplant, neutropenia, HIV/AIDS were excluded. The relationship of antifungal therapy and co-morbidities to economic outcomes were examined using Generalized linear models. Results From 6,424 aspergillosis patients in the database, 412 (6.4% ICU patients with IA were identified. Mean age was 63.9 years and 53% were male. Frequent co-morbidities included steroid use (77%, acute respiratory failure (76% and acute renal failure (41%. In-hospital mortality was 46%. The most frequently used AF was voriconazole (71% received at least once. Mean length of stay (LOS was 26.9 days and mean total hospital cost was $76,235. Each 1 day lag before initiating AF therapy was associated with 1.28 days longer hospital stay and 3.5% increase in costs (p  Conclusions Invasive aspergillosis in ICU patients is associated with high mortality and hospital costs. Antifungal timing impacts economic outcomes. These findings underscore the importance of timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and consideration of Aspergillus as a potential etiology in ICU patients.

  14. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  15. Fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus niger after bilateral lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enora Atchade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is usually considered to be a low virulence fungus, not commonly reported to cause invasive infections. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger was diagnosed in a 43-year-old woman following bilateral lung transplantation. Intravenous voriconazole failed to control progression of the disease. Despite salvage therapy with a combination of voriconazole and caspofungin for 23 days, the patient developed massive hemoptysis leading to death. The authors report the clinical features and treatment of this case.

  16. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

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    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  17. Erythropoietin combined with liposomal amphotericin b improves outcome during disseminated aspergillosis in mice

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    nathalie erousseau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated aspergillosis is responsible for a high mortality rate despite the use of antifungal drugs. Adjuvant therapies are urgently needed to improve the outcome. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the cytoprotective effect of erythropoietin combined to amphotericin b can reduce the mortality rate in a murine model of disseminated aspergillosis. After infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, neutropenic mice were randomized to receive vehicle or 7,5 mg/Kg of Liposomal Amphotericin B (LAmB or 7,5 mg/Kg of LAmB combined with 1000 IU/Kg of EPO (16 mice per group. Aspergillus galactomannan and organ cultures were performed to evaluate fungal burden at day 5. Cumulative long-term survival was analyzed at day 12 post-infection according to the Kaplan-Meier method. At day 5, fungal burden was similar between non-treated and treated groups. At day 12, mortality rates were 75 %, 62.5 % and 31 % in control group, LAmB group and EPO/LAmB group, respectively. We observed a significant decreased in mortality using EPO/LAmB combination compared to control group (p < 0.01. LAmB single treatment did not improve the survival rate compared to control group (p = 0.155.Our results provided the first evidence that erythropoietin improved the outcome of mice presenting disseminated aspergillosis when combined with amphotericin b.

  18. Performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis in febrile, neutropenic patients: a multi-state model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis expectedly depends on the timing of test results relative to the empirical administration of antifungal therapy during neutropenia, although a dynamic evaluation framework is lacking.We developed a multi-state model describing simultaneously the likelihood of empirical antifungal therapy and the risk of invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia. We evaluated whether the first positive test result with a biomarker is an independent predictor of invasive aspergillosis when both diagnostic information used to treat and risk factors of developing invasive aspergillosis are taken into account over time. We applied the multi-state model to a homogeneous cohort of 185 high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were prospectively screened for galactomannan antigenemia twice a week for immediate treatment decision; 2,214 serum samples were collected on the same days and blindly assessed for (1->3- β-D-glucan antigenemia and a quantitative PCR assay targeting a mitochondrial locus.The usual evaluation framework of biomarker performance was unable to distinguish clinical benefits of β-glucan or PCR assays. The multi-state model evidenced that the risk of invasive aspergillosis is a complex time function of neutropenia duration and risk management. The quantitative PCR assay accelerated the early detection of invasive aspergillosis (P = .010, independently of other diagnostic information used to treat, while β-glucan assay did not (P = .53.The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis is better apprehended by the evaluation of time-varying predictors in a multi-state model. Our results provide strong rationale for prospective studies testing a preemptive antifungal therapy, guided by clinical, radiological, and bi-weekly blood screening with galactomannan antigenemia and a standardized quantitative PCR assay.

  19. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran N. Kilcawley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very

  20. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Hope; Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very little quantitative

  1. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Schares, G

    2006-08-31

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle. The diagnosis of neosporosis-associated mortality and abortion in cattle is difficult. In the present paper we review histologic, serologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods for dignosis of bovine neosporosis. Although not a routine method of diagnosis, methods to isolate viable N. caninum from bovine tissues are also reviewed.

  2. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  3. Analysis of the cellular Aspergillus fumigatus proteome that reacts with sera from rabbits developing an acquired immunity after experimental aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Amstrong, Victor W; Gross, Uwe; Reichard, Utz

    2010-06-01

    Invasive aspergillosis caused by the mould Aspergillus fumigatus is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection in the immunocompromised host. In this study, a protective immune response against the disease was achieved in two infected rabbits, and the cellular fungal antigenic proteome that mediated such a response was investigated against the background of vaccine development efforts. Altogether, 59 different Aspergillus proteins were found becoming reactive in the course of the developing immunity, many of which are described in this context for the first time. These included proteins related to oxidative stress management, glycolysis and other metabolic pathways. As oxidative stress is suspected to be one of the major defense mechanisms, the results may indicate at least in part a continuous response of the pathogen to evade the host's immune system. In addition, proteins with suspected cell surface association or crucial function for fungal cell development were identified. As these antigens are newly recognized during the process of the developing immunoprotection, they may not only represent valuable infection markers but also importantly broaden the list of possible vaccine candidates.

  4. A challenging case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after near-drowning: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Jeffrey D; Preziosi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Near-drowning, a relatively common event, is often complicated by subsequent pneumonia. While endogenous and exogenous bacteria are typical pathogens, rarely fungi are as well. We report a complicated case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a 30-year-old man after a near-drowning event. We also review the medical literature for similar cases. All cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after near-drowning reported in the literature involve Aspergillus fumigatus . The majority of cases involved submersion in stagnant water after a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Treatment varied considerably, with amphotericin B used in the majority of cases. Morbidity was considerable with prolonged hospitalization occurring in every case, and mortality occurring in fifty percent of the reported cases. Although a rare complication of near-drowning, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can occur and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. After near-drowning A. fumigatus isolated from the respiratory tract should be assumed to be a true pathogen and treated accordingly.

  5. Acute disseminated aspergillosis during the neonatal period. Report of an instance in a 14-day-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Crussi, F; Mirkin, L D; Wyllie, R M; Escobedo, M

    1979-03-01

    We describe an infant who died with extensive lesions of disseminated aspergillosis on the 18th day of postnatal life. Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered from blood cultures. Initial clinical manifestations were suggestive of hepatitis, and steroids and antibiotics were used in the treatment. This therapy may have fostered the onset of an opportunistic mycosis. Advanced multisystemic aspergillotic lesions were seen at autopsy, especially prominent in lungs and gastrointestinal tract. The extent and magnitude of the lesions observed suggest inception of the disease very early in life, although no case of human aspergillosis has been known to be congenital. Neonatal aspergillosis is poorly characterized. Only four previously reported cases came to our notice in which the disease could be diagnosed in the first month of life. The ubiquitous nature of pathogenic Aspergillus, joined to aggresive treatments designed to achieve increased survivals in neonatology, could potentially result in greater numbers of cases of this and other uncommon mycoses.

  6. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  7. Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytokines as Biomarkers for Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in At-Risk Patients

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    Samuel M. Gonçalves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an infection that primarily affects immunocompromised hosts, including hematological patients and stem-cell transplant recipients. The diagnosis of IPA remains challenging, making desirable the availability of new specific biomarkers. High-throughput methods now allow us to interrogate the immune system for multiple markers of inflammation with enhanced resolution.Methods: To determine whether a signature of alveolar cytokines could be associated with the development of IPA and used as a diagnostic biomarker, we performed a nested case-control study involving 113 patients at-risk.Results: Among the 32 analytes tested, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-23, and TNFα were significantly increased among patients with IPA, defining two clusters able to accurately differentiate cases of infection from controls. Genetic variants previously reported to confer increased risk of IPA compromised the production of specific cytokines and impaired their discriminatory potential toward infection. Collectively, our data indicated that IL-8 was the best performing cytokine, with alveolar levels ≥904 pg/mL predicting IPA with elevated sensitivity (90%, specificity (73%, and negative predictive value (88%.Conclusions: These findings highlight the existence of a specific profile of alveolar cytokines, with IL-8 being the dominant discriminator, which might be useful in supporting current diagnostic approaches for IPA.

  8. Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytokines as Biomarkers for Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in At-Risk Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Samuel M.; Lagrou, Katrien; Rodrigues, Cláudia S.; Campos, Cláudia F.; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Rodrigues, Fernando; Silvestre, Ricardo; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Maertens, Johan A.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2017-01-01

    Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection that primarily affects immunocompromised hosts, including hematological patients and stem-cell transplant recipients. The diagnosis of IPA remains challenging, making desirable the availability of new specific biomarkers. High-throughput methods now allow us to interrogate the immune system for multiple markers of inflammation with enhanced resolution. Methods: To determine whether a signature of alveolar cytokines could be associated with the development of IPA and used as a diagnostic biomarker, we performed a nested case-control study involving 113 patients at-risk. Results: Among the 32 analytes tested, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-23, and TNFα were significantly increased among patients with IPA, defining two clusters able to accurately differentiate cases of infection from controls. Genetic variants previously reported to confer increased risk of IPA compromised the production of specific cytokines and impaired their discriminatory potential toward infection. Collectively, our data indicated that IL-8 was the best performing cytokine, with alveolar levels ≥904 pg/mL predicting IPA with elevated sensitivity (90%), specificity (73%), and negative predictive value (88%). Conclusions: These findings highlight the existence of a specific profile of alveolar cytokines, with IL-8 being the dominant discriminator, which might be useful in supporting current diagnostic approaches for IPA. PMID:29238334

  9. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien E. Bunskoek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded, high dose posaconazole was initiated aimed at achieving trough levels exceeding 3 mg/l. Posaconazole serum levels of 3–9.5 mg/l were achieved without significant side-effects. Follow-up bronchoscopy and computed tomography showed complete resolution of the lesions.

  10. Spatial Patterns and Impacts of Environmental and Climatic Factors on Canine Sinonasal Aspergillosis in Northern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monise Magro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA causes chronic nasal discharge in dogs and has a worldwide distribution, although most reports of SNA in North America originate from the western USA. SNA is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous saprophytic filamentous fungus. Infection is thought to follow inhalation of spores. SNA is a disease of the nasal cavity and/or sinuses with variable degrees of local invasion and destruction. While some host factors appear to predispose to SNA (such as belonging to a dolichocephalic breed, environmental risk factors have been scarcely studied. Because A. fumigatus is also the main cause of invasive aspergillosis in humans, unraveling the distribution and the environmental and climatic risk factors for this agent in dogs would be of great benefit for public health studies, advancing understanding of both distribution and risk factors in humans. In this study, we reviewed electronic medical records of 250 dogs diagnosed with SNA between 1990 and 2014 at the University of California Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH. A 145-mile radius catchment area around the VMTH was selected. Data were aggregated by zip code and incorporated into a multivariate logistic regression model. The logistic regression model was compared to an autologistic regression model to evaluate the effect of spatial autocorrelation. Traffic density, active composting sites, and environmental and climatic factors related with wind and temperature were significantly associated with increase in disease occurrence in dogs. Results provide valuable information about the risk factors and spatial distribution of SNA in dogs in Northern California. Our ultimate goal is to utilize the results to investigate risk-based interventions, promote awareness, and serve as a model for further studies of aspergillosis in humans.

  11. Galactomannan and Real-Time PCR in the diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pedrotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is notoriously difficult. The standard culture-based methods have shown considerable limitations in performance. For this reason, non-culture methods have been increasingly employed for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, and, among them, the methods based on Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study we assess the contribution in lowering diagnosis errors provided by the RT-PCR method when run alongside other methods. We analyzed 23 biological samples, 14 serum samples, and 9 bronchoalveolar lavage samples (BAL from 10 immunocompromised patients who were selected according to EORTC/MSG criteria (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group. On the serum sample we searched the galactomannan (GM (Platelia Aspergillus® and the fungal genome (MycAssayTMAspergillus; the BAL samples were subjected also to the culture tests. In 11 serum samples the results showed concordance between GM and RT–PCR tests, while in 3 samples we report discordance: 2 results were GM positive and RT-PCR negative, and 1 results GM negative and RT-PCR indeterminate. In 5 BAL samples the results showed concordance between the two methods, while 4 were GM positive and RT-PCR negative. The data, although still preliminary, suggest an increased accuracy in the diagnosis of suspected invasive aspergillosis when employing both RT-PCR and GM tests given that the RT-PCR test eliminates the false positive results of the GM test. The PCR methods require, however, further applications of this type of diagnostic because of the severe limit given by the lack of standardization.

  12. Voriconazole in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glackin, L

    2009-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) can cause a significant clinical deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis. There is very little research in the current literature with regard to alternatives for treatment, apart from long courses of steroids. We conducted a retrospective review of all our patients with ABPA treated with the antifungal voriconazole and found there was a significant drop in IgE levels post treatment as well as a decrease in steroid dosing. The improvement in FEV was not statistically significant; however there was a very wide variation in pre-treatment levels.

  13. Post-influenzal triazole-resistant aspergillosis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, Alida Fe; Dunne, Katie; Murphy, Niamh; O'Connell, Brian; Chan, Grace; Joyce, Eimear Ann; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Fahy, Ruauri; Bacon, Larry; Vandenberge, Elisabeth; Rogers, Thomas R

    2018-03-23

    Influenza virus infection is now recognised as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Delays in diagnosis contribute to delayed commencement of antifungal therapy. Additionally, the emergence of resistance to first-line triazole antifungal agents puts emphasis on early detection to prevent adverse outcomes. We present 2 allogeneic stem cell transplant patients who developed IPA due to triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus following influenza infection. We underline the challenges faced in the management of these cases, the importance of early diagnosis and need for surveillance given the emergence of triazole-resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare entity, usually caused by A. fumigatus and A. flavus . Here, we present such a case, manifested by ulceration due to A. niger, which remained undiagnosed for a prolonged period. The immunological status was intact, although the patient had associated severe fungal infection. Recurrence of the lesion occurred despite repeated anti-fungal therapies. Anti fungal testing was done based on the broth dilution (M-38A, NCCLS, USA method. The culture isolate was found to be sensitive to fluconazole and amphotericin B. Continuation of antifungal therapy improved the symptoms, reducing the size of the lesion.

  15. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density.

  16. Evaluation of PCR for Detection of DNA Specific for Aspergillus Species in Sera of Patients with Various Forms of Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakami, Yuriko; Hashimoto, Atsuro; Yamagata, Eiji; Kamberi, Perparim; Karashima, Reiko; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is classified into invasive, saprophytic, and allergic forms. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of PCR for differentiating between different forms of aspergillosis or in monitoring disease activity during treatment by detecting DNA specific for Aspergillus species in the serum. Nested PCR was used to detect Aspergillus DNA in the sera of 30 patients with various forms of pulmonary aspergillosis. The results were compared with those of latex agglutination tests for detecting galactomannan antigen. We also examined the serial changes in the results of nested PCR during and after treatment of a subgroup of patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with amphotericin B. The highest proportion of positive nested PCR results were in patients with invasive aspergillosis (10 of 12; 83%), while patients with pulmonary aspergilloma had the lowest frequency of positive tests (1 of 9; 11%). These results suggested that the sensitivity of the nested PCR depends on the extent of invasion by Aspergillus species. Serial assays showed that the results of nested PCR became negative shortly after commencement of antifungal treatment and that such changes did not correlate with clinical responsiveness to treatment. Our results indicate the potential usefulness of nested PCR with serum samples for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and the detection of a shift in the status of infection from a noninvasive type to invasive aspergillosis. However, the results of the nested PCR did not correlate with the response to antifungal treatment. PMID:9817884

  17. Preclinical evaluation of an MR-compatible microwave ablation system and comparison with a standard microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Rempp, Hansjörg

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of a newly developed MR-compatible microwave ablation system with focus on ablation performance and comparison with a corresponding standard microwave ablation system. A total of 52 ablations were performed with a non-cooled microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model using the following settings: [A] 16G-standard antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [B] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [C] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable; and [D] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 4 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable. Ablation durations were 3, 5 and 10 min, and additionally 15 min for [D]. Ablations zones were measured for short-axis diameter (SA) and long-axis diameter (LA). Settings [A]-[C] were compared regarding SA, volume (V) and generator energy output (E) with analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. Ablation performance of the MR-compatible settings [C] and [D] were compared regarding SA, V, E and sphericity index (SA/LA) with unpaired t-test. p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. No significant differences were found between [A], [B] and [C] regarding SA and V (10 min; SA[A] = 25.8 ± 2.4 mm, SA[B] = 25.3 ± 1.9 mm, SA[C] = 25.0 ± 2.0 mm, p = 0.88; V[A] = 17.8 ± 4.4 cm³, V[B] = 16.6 ± 3.0 cm³, V[C] = 17.8 ± 2.7 cm³, p = 0.85); however, the highest energy output was measured for setting [C] (10 min; [A]: 9.9 ± 0.5 kJ, [B]: 10.1 ± 0.5 kJ, [C]: 13.1 ± 0.3 kJ, p < 0.001). SA, V and E were significantly larger with setting [D] than [C] with 10 min ablations (SA[C] = 25.0 ± 2.0 mm, SA[D] = 34.0 ± 2.9 mm, p = 0.003; V[C] = 17.8 ± 2.7 cm³, V[D] = 39.4 ± 7.5 cm³, p = 0.007; E[C] = 13.1 ± 0.3 kJ, E[D] = 16.7 ± 0.8 kJ, p = 0.002) without significant difference in sphericity

  18. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can stil...

  19. A novel polyaminocarboxylate compound to treat murine pulmonary aspergillosis by interfering with zinc metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Paris; Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Helynck, Olivier; Jouvion, Grégory; Calera, José Antonio; du Merle, Laurence; Suzenet, Franck; Buron, Frédéric; Alves de Sousa, Rodolphe; Mansuy, Daniel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima

    2018-04-09

    Aspergillus fumigatus can cause pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients and is associated with a high mortality rate due to the lack of reliable treatment options. This opportunistic pathogen requires zinc in order to grow and cause disease. Novel compounds that interfere with fungal zinc metabolism may therefore be of therapeutic interest. We screened chemical libraries containing 59223 small molecules using a resazurin assay that compared their effects on an A. fumigatus wild type strain grown under zinc-limiting conditions and on a zinc transporter knockout strain grown under zinc-replete conditions to identify compounds affecting zinc metabolism. After a first screen 116 molecules were selected whose inhibitory effect on fungal growth was further tested by using luminescence assays and hyphal length measurements to confirm their activity, as well as to toxicity assays on HeLa cells and mice. Six compounds were selected following a re-screening, two of which were pyrazolones, two were porphyrins and two were polyaminocarboxylates. All three groups showed good in vitro activity but only one of the polyaminocarboxylates was able to significantly improve the survival of immunosuppressed mice suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis. This two-tier screening approach led us to the identification of a novel small molecule with in vivo fungicidal effects and low murine toxicity that may lead to the development of new treatment options for fungal infections either by administration of this compound as a monotherapy or as part of a combination therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive Aspergillosis according to primary disease: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2011-04-28

    Aspergilli, less susceptible to antifungals emerge and resistance to azoles have been found mainly in Aspergillus fumigatus; this has launched a new phase in handling aspergillosis. Resistant strains have currently been reported from Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Norway, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK and the USA. Centres in the UK (Manchester) and The Netherlands (Nijmegen) have described particularly high frequencies (15 and 10% respectively), and a significant increase in azole resistance in recent years. The reason of this high incidence may be due to long term azole therapy in patients with chronic aspergillosis in Manchester, and due to high use of agricultural azoles in Nijmegen. The primary underlying mechanism of resistance is as a result of alterations in the cyp51A target gene, with a variety of mutations found in clinical isolates and one genotype identified in the environmental (LH98). Reports on well documented in vitro and in vivo resistance to echinocandins are rare for Aspergillus species and resistance may be under-diagnosed as susceptibility testing is less frequently performed due to technical reasons.

  1. [Economical evaluation of the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in pediatric oncology patients. Santiago. Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Claudia; del Valle, Gladys; Coria, Paulina

    2010-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Transplant recipients and patients with cancer represent the highest risk group. The antifungal treatment involves prolonged hospitalization and high economic resources. to estimate costs represented by IA as an intercurrent complication of oncologic treatment. Retrospective case-control study. Estimation of the cost of treatment in pediatric oncologic patients with IA in the Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna during the years 2007-2008 was done. A control for each case of IA paired by sex, age, number of diagnosis and clinical department was selected. There were 13 patients during the observation period. The attributable cost of treatment of aspergillosis was US $23,600 and the cost for each indicator was: hospital days US $16,500; antifungal therapy US $7,000; and serum galactomannan US $100. In this study, the cost of treating IA is mainly due to hospitalization and antifungal medications. Three patients acquired IA in spite of staying in a protected environment.

  2. Invasive orbital aspergillosis in an apparently immunocompetent host without evidence of sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Primeggia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is uncommon in healthy individuals. We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus orbital cellulitiswith intracranial extension in an apparently immunocompetent patient with a history of benign lymphoid hyperplasiaof the lacrimal gland. A 68 year-old man with no significant past medical history underwent orbitotomy and biopsy of alacrimal gland mass. Pathology showed benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the lacrimal gland and he completed radiationtherapy. Three months after orbitotomy and one month after completion of radiation therapy, he presented with orbitalcellulitis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated invasion into the frontal lobe. Clinical and radiographicfindings failed to improve with prolonged antibiotic therapy; transcranial orbitotomy with right frontal craniotomy forabscess drainage and orbit washout was performed. Intraoperative cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus. The patientcompleted a six month course of therapy with oral voriconazole and has remained free from relapse with long-termfollow-up. Efficacy of voriconazole was guided by serial imaging and voriconazole trough levels. Aspergillus may causeinvasive disease in immunocompetent hosts, even without evidence of sinusitis, and should be considered in the differentialdiagnosis when patients do not demonstrate clinical improvement with antibiotic therapy. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 113-116Key words: Aspergillosis, orbital cellulitis, brain abscess

  3. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking organizing pneumonia after mTOR inhibitor therapy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Iijima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man presented to the hospital with complaints of fever and cough. He had a past medical history of renal cell carcinoma and had just started treatment with temsirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor. A 1-week course of antibiotics did not have any effect on his symptoms. A chest computed tomography (CT scan showed the reversed halo sign (RHS. Organizing pneumonia induced by mTOR inhibitor treatment was initially considered. However, transbronchial biopsy revealed clusters of fungal organisms, suggesting infection with Aspergillus spp. Within just 2 weeks, a CT scan showed drastic enlargement of the cavitary lesion, with multiple newly formed consolidations. The patient was diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Concomitant treatment with voriconazole and micafungin was started. Two weeks after the initiation of treatment, he became afebrile with gradual regression of the cavitary lesion and consolidations. Keywords: mTOR inhibitor, Organizing pneumonia, Reversed halo sign, Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Immunocompromise

  4. Immunochemical analysis of fumigaclavine mycotoxins in respiratory tissues and in blood serum of birds with confirmed aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hadri; Gross, Madeleine; Fischer, Dominik; Lierz, Michael; Usleber, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The ergoline alkaloid fumigaclavine A (FuA) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, the main causative fungal agent of avian aspergillosis. To study in situ production of FuA, post-mortem respiratory tissues of various avian species, as well as blood samples of falcons (Falco sp.), were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). At a detection limit of 1.5 ng/ml, FuA EIA positive results were obtained for tissue samples from seven (64%) out of 11 birds with confirmed aspergillosis, with a maximum concentration of 38 ng/g, while all controls (n = 7) were negative. No FuA could be detected in blood serum (detection limit 0.7 ng/ml) of 15 falcons, experimentally inoculated with A. fumigatus conidia. Fungal mycelium material from tissue of clinical aspergillosis cases, cultured on malt extract agar, was highly positive in the FuA EIA in milligrams per gram range. Chromatographic analysis of mycelium extracts revealed the co-presence of FuA and the structurally related fumigaclavine C (FuC). Alkaline hydrolysis of FuA and FuC yielded the corresponding deacetylation products, FuB and FuE. This is the first report showing that fumigaclavine alkaloids are produced by A. fumigatus in situ during the course of clinical aspergillosis in birds; however, the role of these compounds in the pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown.

  5. Lipid peroxidation in bovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawra, R K; Sharma, O P; Makkar, H P

    1983-01-01

    Bovine whole semen, spermatozoa, and seminal plasma did not undergo lipid peroxidation when aerobically incubated. However, lipid peroxidation was induced in washed spermatozoa in the presence of iron or iron plus sodium ascorbate, whereas heating, sonication, or treatment with proteolytic enzymes did not have any effect. The time required for formation of optimum concentration of lipid peroxides in washed spermatozoa is very short as compared to other systems. Lipid peroxides are entirely contributed by the lipid fraction of spermatozoa. Formation of lipid peroxides is completely inhibited by the presence of seminal plasma in incubation mixture.

  6. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  7. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    Bovine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of Taenia saginata and has a global distribution. This zoonosis usually causes only mild disease in humans, but has an important economic impact on the meat sector as bovine carcasses that are found to be infected are either condemned or undergo...... in order to confirm their sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Additionally, new methods that can be routinely used should be developed. Preferably, these measures would be validated and in place prior to implementation of the new meat safety assurance system, in a move towards effective, risk-based control...

  8. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Calba

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders' perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool ('analysis tool for surveillance systems'.For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3.Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the added value of the participatory approach was

  9. Aspergilosis: una patología a considerar Aspergillosis: a phatology to be considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Guillermo Oxilia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La aspergilosis pulmonar es una infección micótica causada por el Aspergillus fumigatus, saprófito del esputo humano normal. Se estudiaron cinco casos de pacientes con aspergilosis, cuatro de ellos adultos, tres del sexo femenino y uno masculino, todos de presentación no invasiva, y uno, pediátrico, sexo masculino, del tipo invasiva. Fueron estudiados con radiología convencional, tomografía computada (TC helicoidal, TC multislice y video cápsula endoscópica. Afecta 3:1 a los hombres en relación con las mujeres. Hay tres formas de presentación: a invasiva: en los pacientes neutropénicos, donde predomina la afectación pulmonar, con diseminación a cerebro, corazón, riñón, tracto gastrointestinal, hígado, tiroides y bazo; tiene mal pronóstico y la mortalidad es muy elevada; b semiinvasiva: compromete fundamentalmente a pacientes con patología pulmonar preexistente; c no invasiva: afecta cavidades preexistentes, cavernas TBC ( tuberculosis o quistes, donde coloniza el hongo, y se denomina aspergiloma o micetoma.Pulmonary aspergillosis is a mycotic infection caused by the Aspergillus fumigatus, saprophyte of the normal human sputum. Five patients with non invasive aspergillosis were studied, of whom 4 were adults (3 women, 1 man and one, pediatric, with invasive aspergillosis. All of them were studied by conventional X-ray, spiral CT, multislice CT and video capsule endoscopy. The presentation is predominant among men (3 to 1. There are three forms of presentation: a invasive: in neutropenic patients it prevails the lung affectation; the brain, heart, kidney gastrointestinal tract, liver, thyroid and spleen spreading has a bad prognosis and mortality rate is very high; b semiinvasive: it mainly compromises patients with pre-existing pulmonary pathology; c non invasive: affects pre-existing cavities, TBC caverns or cysts where the fungus establishes; it is called aspergilloma or mycetoma.

  10. Successful management of invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole and amphotericin B therapy in a patient with Acute Mycloid Leukemia (AML-M2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, N.F.; Azim, S.; Fadoo, Z.

    2010-01-01

    An eleven year old boy presented with one month's history of fever and weight loss. He was diagnosed with Acute Mycloid Leukemia (AML-M2). During treatment he developed recurrent infections with neutropenia requiring prolonged antibiotics and subsequently developed invasive aspergillosis. He was treated with amphotericin B and Voriconazole. This case shows the efficacy and safety of combined antifungal therapy, including voriconazole, for invasive aspergillosis complicating AML. (author)

  11. Successful Off-Label Use of Recombinant Factor VIIa and Coil Embolization in an Adolescent with Massive Hemoptysis Due to Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Gürlek Gökçebay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections have turned out to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients with malignant disorders. Massive hemoptysis, a rare complication of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, may threaten the lives of patients, usually during the resolution of neutropenia. In this report, we describe a patient with massive hemoptysis due to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis whose bleeding was controlled successfully with off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa and subsequent coil embolization of the right pulmonary artery.

  12. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  13. The regulation of glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lily; Jiang, Li; Ding, Xiang-dong; Liu, Jian-feng; Zhang, Qin

    2015-09-11

    Glucose as one of the nutrition factors plays a vital role in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a vital proteolytic pathway in all eukaryotic cells through timely marking, recognizing and degrading the poly-ubiquitinated protein substrates. Previous studies indicated that UPS plays a considerable role in controlling the triglyceride (TG) synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to confirm the link between high-glucose and UPS and its regulation mechanism on milk fat synthesis in BMEC (bovine mammary epithelial cells). We incubated BMEC with normal (17.5 mm/L) and high-glucose (25 mm/L) with and without proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin and found that, compared with the control (normal glucose and without proteasome inhibitor), both high-glucose concentration and proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin could increase the accumulation of TG and poly-ubiquitinated proteins, and reduce significantly three proteasome activities (chymotrypsin-like, caspase-like, and trypsin-like). In addition, high-glucose concentration combined with proteasome inhibitor further enhanced the increase of the poly-ubiquitinated protein level and the decrease of proteasome activities. Our results suggest that the regulation of high-glucose on milk fat synthesis is mediated by UPS in BMEC, and high-glucose exposure could lead to a hypersensitization of BMEC to UPS inhibition which in turn results in increased milk fat synthesis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Seroprevalence Study Of Bovine Brucellosis In Extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of bovine brucellosis was measured in cross sectional study in Jimma zone, Western Ethiopia using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBT) and CFT from October 2003 to April 2004. The study animals consisted of 1305 local breed found in extensive system in five districts of in the zone. The overall individual animal ...

  15. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result is infection and malnutrition (22). On the other hand, there also consistent with previous reports (16,18) which .... formulation of livestock breeding policy. In proc. 5th. Britton S. Bovine tuberculosis: A cross-sectional and ... Ankara: Turkish-German Health. 1996: 343-349. Information Project, General Directorate of.

  16. Intervet Symposium: bovine neosporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schetters, T.; Dubey, J.P.; Adrianarivo, A.; Frankena, K.; Romero, J.J.; Pérez, E.; Heuer, C.; Nicholson, C.; Russell, D.; Weston, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises the most relevant data of presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on bovine neosporosis. The

  17. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute leukemia: Contribution of CT to early diagnosis and aggressive management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Burch, P.A.; Merz, W.G.; Meziane, M.A.; Khouri, N.F.; Karp, J.E.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    More than 80% of patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) who received antileukemic chemotherapy survived the infection as a result of early diagnosis and aggressive therapy. CT helped to establish the early diagnosis of IPA in these patients. Since first describing the CT findings of IPA, the authors have added ten new cases, each subsequently confirmed. The CT ''halo sign,'' a zone of lower attenuation surrounding a pulmonary mass, was seen in eight of nine patients on early scans obtained during aplasia. A characteristic progression from multiple fluffy masses to cavitation suggested IPA in five of seven patients. CT findings affected patient management in seven of ten patients and were one criterion for increasing antifungal therapy. The CT appearance of healing IPA resembled that of resolving pulmonary infarcts, and was used to monitor disease activity in the long term

  18. Case Report Associated with Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfection in Himalayan Griffons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a death which occurred in four Himalayan griffons housed in Beijing zoo, China. Based on pathogen identification and the pathological changes observed, we did characterize the fungi and Hepatitis E virus (HEV in four dead Himalayan griffons. Pathological changes were severe. Membranous-like material was observed on the surface of the internal organs. Spleen was necrotic. Focal lymphocyte infiltration in the liver and many sunflower-like fungi nodules were evident in the tissues, especially in the kidney. PCR was used to identify the pathogen. Based on the 18SrRNA genomic sequence of known fungi, the results confirmed that all four dead Himalayan griffons were infected with Aspergillus. At the same time the detection of HEV also showed positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this work appears to be the first report of concurrent presence of Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E virus in rare avian species.

  19. Multiple bronchoceles in a non-asthmatic patient with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Umar; Mahmood, Rabia

    2008-09-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction due to a fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus. It is typically seen in patients with long-standing asthma. Our patient was a non-asthmatic 18 years old male who presented with chronic cough for 2 years. Peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated scrum IgE were observed. His x-ray chest revealed v-shaped opacity in the left upper lobe close to the hilum. High resolution computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed multiple dilated bronchi filled with mucous (bronchoceles) and central bronchiectasis (CB) involving main segmental bronchi. Central bronchiectasis (CB) was typical of ABPA but bronchocele formation was a rare manifestation of the disease. The patient was managed with oral prednisolone and was relieved of his symptoms. Occurrence of ABPA in non-asthmatics is very rare and deserves reporting.

  20. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis: current evidence, safety, efficacy, and clinical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesan SK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suganthini Krishnan Natesan,1,2 Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, 2John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles. Polyenes including lipid formulations pose a problem with infusion-related side effects, electrolyte imbalance, and nephrotoxicity. Echinocandins are ineffective against mucorales and are approved as salvage therapy for refractory IA. Given that all available antifungal agents have limitations, there has been an unmet need for a broad-spectrum anti-mold agent with a favorable profile. Following phase III clinical trials that started in 2006, isavuconazole (ISZ seems to fit this profile. It is the first novel triazole agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of both IA and mucormycosis. This review provides a brief overview of the salient features of ISZ, its favorable profile with regard to spectrum of antifungal activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, drug interactions and tolerability, clinical efficacy, and side effects. Keywords: isavuconazole, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, efficacy, antifungal therapy, novel azole, tolerability, drug interactions

  2. Therapy of Murine Pulmonary Aspergillosis with Antibody-Alliinase Conjugates and Alliin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Elena; Vallon-Eberhard, Alexandra; Rabinkov, Aharon; Brenner, Ori; Shin, Irina; Sasson, Keren; Shadkchan, Yona; Osherov, Nir; Jung, Steffen; Mirelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. The high morbidity and mortality rates as well as the poor efficacy of antifungal agents remain major clinical concerns. Allicin (diallyl-dithiosulfinate), which is produced by the garlic enzyme alliinase from the harmless substrate alliin, has been shown to have wide-range antifungal specificity. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against A. fumigatus was produced and chemically ligated to the enzyme alliinase. The purified antibody-alliinase conjugate bound to conidia and hyphae of A. fumigatus at nanomolar concentrations. In the presence of alliin, the conjugate produced cytotoxic allicin molecules, which killed the fungus. In vivo testing of the therapeutical potential of the conjugate was carried out in immunosuppressed mice infected intranasally with conidia of A. fumigatus. Intratracheal (i.t.) instillation of the conjugate and alliin (four treatments) resulted in 80 to 85% animal survival (36 days), with almost complete fungal clearance. Repetitive intratracheal administration of the conjugate and alliin was also effective when treatments were initiated at a more advanced stage of infection (50 h). The fungi were killed specifically without causing damage to the lung tissue or overt discomfort to the animals. Intratracheal instillation of the conjugate without alliin or of the unconjugated monoclonal antibody significantly delayed the death of the infected mice, but only 20% of the animals survived. A limitation of this study is that the demonstration was achieved in a constrained setting. Other routes of drug delivery will be investigated for the treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary aspergillosis. PMID:19949059

  3. Estimation of the burden of chronic and allergic pulmonary aspergillosis in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    Full Text Available It would be of considerable interest to clinicians if the burden of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA in India were known. Herein, we estimate the burden of CPA following pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, and ABPA (and severe asthma with fungal sensitization [SAFS] complicating asthma.We used the population estimates for India from the 2011 census data. The burden of asthma was estimated using three different methods (Global Initiative against Asthma [GINA] report statement, World Health Survey [WHS] estimates, Indian study on the epidemiology of asthma and chronic bronchitis [INSEARCH]. Global and India-specific figures were used for calculating the prevalence of ABPA and SAFS. The World Health Organization estimates were used for calculating PTB rates while the frequency of CPA was assessed from a previously published scoping review. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the burden in various scenarios.The total Indian population in 2011 was 1.2 billion. The asthma prevalence in adults was estimated at about 27.6 (range, 17-30 million. The burden of ABPA ranged from 0.12-6.09 million with different assumptions (best estimate, 1.38 [range, 0.86-1.52] million. The prevalence of SAFS was approximated at about 0.52-1.21 million (best estimate, 0.96 [range, 0.6-1.06] million. The incident TB cases were about 2.1 million while the annual incidence of CPA varied 27,000-0.17 million cases, with different estimates. If the mortality of CPA is estimated as 15% annually, the 5-year prevalence of CPA was placed at 290,147 cases with 5-year prevalence rate being 24 per 100,000.There is a significant burden of ABPA, SAFS and CPA in India. Prospective community-based studies are required to accurately determine the prevalence of these disorders.

  4. Comparison of Nonculture Blood-Based Tests for Diagnosing Invasive Aspergillosis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Loeffler, Juergen; Najvar, Laura K; Melchers, Willem; Herrera, Monica; Bretagne, Stephane; Wickes, Brian; Kirkpatrick, William R; Barnes, Rosemary A; Donnelly, J Peter; Patterson, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    The EuropeanAspergillusPCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has provided recommendations for the PCR testing of whole blood (WB) and serum/plasma. It is important to test these recommended protocols on nonsimulated "in vivo" specimens before full clinical evaluation. The testing of an animal model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) overcomes the low incidence of disease and provides experimental design and control that is not possible in the clinical setting. Inadequate performance of the recommended protocols at this stage would require reassessment of methods before clinical trials are performed and utility assessed. The manuscript describes the performance of EAPCRI protocols in an animal model of invasive aspergillosis. Blood samples taken from a guinea pig model of IA were used for WB and serum PCR. Galactomannan and β-d-glucan detection were evaluated, with particular focus on the timing of positivity and on the interpretation of combination testing. The overall sensitivities for WB PCR, serum PCR, galactomannan, and β-d-glucan were 73%, 65%, 68%, and 46%, respectively. The corresponding specificities were 92%, 79%, 80%, and 100%, respectively. PCR provided the earliest indicator of IA, and increasing galactomannan and β-d-glucan values were indicators of disease progression. The combination of WB PCR with galactomannan and β-d-glucan proved optimal (area under the curve [AUC], 0.95), and IA was confidently diagnosed or excluded. The EAPRCI-recommended PCR protocols provide performance comparable to commercial antigen tests, and clinical trials are warranted. By combining multiple tests, IA can be excluded or confirmed, highlighting the need for a combined diagnostic strategy. However, this approach must be balanced against the practicality and cost of using multiple tests. Copyright © 2016 White et al.

  5. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers.

  6. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    human and bovine monocyte subsets are also reflected in their different clinical relevance for distinct diseases. In opposite to the human system, where higher blood cell number of non-classical monocytes was widely correlated with several human infectious and non-infectious diseases, higher counts of bovine intermediate monocytes are suggested as a potential biomarker for inflammatory responses postpartum.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Galactomannan Antigen Test in Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Samples from Patients with Nonneutropenic Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongxing; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Mei; He, Qian; Li, Pei; Zhang, Fang; Shi, Yi; Su, Xin

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of galactomannan (GM) detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples from nonneutropenic patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and determine the optimal BALF GM cutoff value for pulmonary aspergillosis. GM detection in BALF and serum samples was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 128 patients with clinically suspected nonneutropenic pulmonary aspergillosis between June 2014 and June 2016. On the basis of the clinical and pathological diagnoses, 8 patients were excluded because their diagnosis was uncertain. The remaining 120 patients were diagnosed with either IPA ( n = 37), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP; n = 59), noninfectious diseases ( n = 19), or tuberculosis ( n = 5). At a cutoff optical density index (ODI) value of ≥0.5, the sensitivity of BALF GM detection was much higher than that of serum GM detection (75.68% versus 37.84%; P = 0.001), but there was no significant difference between their specificities (80.72% versus 87.14%; P = 0.286). At a cutoff value of ≥1.0, the sensitivity of BALF GM detection was still much higher than that of serum GM detection (64.86% versus 24.32%; P < 0.001), and their specificities were similar (90.36% versus 95.71%; P = 0.202). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that when the BALF GM detection cutoff value was 0.7, its diagnostic value for pulmonary aspergillosis was optimized, and the sensitivity and specificity reached 72.97% and 89.16%, respectively. BALF GM detection was valuable for the diagnosis of IPA in nonneutropenic patients, and its diagnostic value was superior to that of serum GM detection. The optimal BALF GM cutoff value was 0.7. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John A

    2010-11-01

    Bovine parainfluenza-3 virus (bPI(3)V) is a long-recognized, currently underappreciated, endemic infection in cattle populations. Clinical disease is most common in calves with poor passive transfer or decayed maternal antibodies. It is usually mild, consisting of fever, nasal discharge, and dry cough. Caused at least partly by local immunosuppressive effects, bPI(3)V infection is often complicated by coinfection with other respiratory viruses and bacteria, and is therefore an important component of enzootic pneumonia in calves and bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot cattle. Active infection can be diagnosed by virus isolation from nasal swabs, or IF testing on smears made from nasal swabs. Timing of sampling is critical in obtaining definitive diagnostic test results. Parenteral and intranasal modified live vaccine combination vaccines are available. Priming early in calfhood with intranasal vaccine, followed by boosting with parenteral vaccine, may be the best immunoprophylactic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Kass, Philip H; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized "BRD positive" if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to

  10. Genetics of bovine vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Richard Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Infectious disease is an important issue for animal breeders, farmers and governments. Solutions to control infectious disease are needed and research focused on the genetic loci determining variation in immune-related traits has the potential to deliver solutions. The primary aim of this thesis is to discover regions of the bovine genome which influence the immune response post immunisation. To accomplish this two types of immunising agents, a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMD...

  11. Fatal Case of Probable Invasive Aspergillosis after Five Years of Heart Transplant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufik Mahfood Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are very common in solid organ transplants and occur most frequently in the first three months after transplant. A 49-year-old female with a history of two remote heart transplants with the most recent one occurring 5 years ago was admitted for increasing shortness of breath, cough, and fever. Computerized tomography (CT scan of the chest showed left lower lung ground-glass and tree-in-bud opacities. She was started on broad spectrum antibiotics along with ganciclovir and micafungin. Ganciclovir was added due to the patient’s past history of CMV infection and empiric fungal coverage with micafungin. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was performed as her respiratory status worsened and voriconazole was added for possible aspergillosis in combination therapy with micafungin. BAL galactomannan returned positive which was suggestive of aspergillosis. Patient worsened clinically and subsequently succumbed to cardiorespiratory arrest despite our best efforts. It is important to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for invasive aspergillosis in transplant patients even many years after transplant and initiate aggressive therapy due to poor outcomes.

  12. Prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis with caspofungin during construction works in patient with acute lymphoblasic leukemia treated with vincristin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Modic

    2012-12-01

    Case presentation: A 59-year old woman with common ALL relapsed after 22 years (normal cytogenetics. She was treated according to the UKALL XII regimen and achieved complete second remission. She received four cycles of vincristine 2 mg i.v. In a retrospective cohort study, prolonged neutropenia, use of steroids, nursing unit without laminar air flow during a period of construction works were associated with an increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis in patients who did not receive primary antifungal prophylaxis. Intravenous caspofungin was administered to the patient as primary aspergillosis prophylaxis on the first day of chemotherapy. Galactomannan antigen tests were negative during the period of neutropenia. There was no infection in the period of prolonged neutropenia. Conclusions: The author discusses primary prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis with caspofungin during construction works in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with vincristine. Because of non-conventional unit without laminar air flow during induction chemotherapy treatment, which leads to an increased risk of invasive fungal infection with Aspergillus, caspofungin prophylaxis is recommended at least until upgrade to laminar flow or cessation of construction works.

  13. A Comparison of the Anorexic Effects of Chicken, Porcine, Human and Bovine Insulin on the Central Nervous System of Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to determine if some naturally-occurring substitutions of amino acid residues of insulin could act differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of neonatal chicks to control ingestive behavior. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of chicken insuli...

  14. The burden and spatial distribution of bovine African trypanosomes in small holder crop-livestock production systems in Tororo District, south-eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Dennis; Picozzi, Kim; Hattendorf, Jan; Thrusfield, Michael; Kabasa, John David; Waiswa, Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2014-12-23

    African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) is considered to be one of the greatest constraints to livestock production and livestock-crop integration in most African countries. South-eastern Uganda has suffered for more than two decades from outbreaks of zoonotic Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), adding to the burden faced by communities from AAT. There is insufficient AAT and HAT data available (in the animal reservoir) to guide and prioritize AAT control programs that has been generated using contemporary, sensitive and specific molecular techniques. This study was undertaken to evaluate the burden that AAT presents to the small-scale cattle production systems in south-eastern Uganda. Randomised cluster sampling was used to select 14% (57/401) of all cattle containing villages across Tororo District. Blood samples were taken from all cattle in the selected villages between September-December 2011; preserved on FTA cards and analysed for different trypanosomes using a suite of molecular techniques. Generalized estimating equation and Rogen-Gladen estimator models were used to calculate apparent and true prevalences of different trypanosomes while intra cluster correlations were estimated using a 1-way mixed effect analysis of variance (ANOVA) in R statistical software version 3.0.2. The prevalence of all trypanosome species in cattle was 15.3% (95% CI; 12.2-19.1) while herd level trypanosome species prevalence varied greatly between 0-43%. Trypanosoma vivax (17.4%, 95% CI; 10.6-16.8) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (0.03%) were respectively, the most, and least prevalent trypanosome species identified. The prevalence of bovine trypanosomes in this study indicates that AAT remains a significant constraint to livestock health and livestock production. There is need to implement tsetse and trypanosomiasis control efforts across Tororo District by employing effective, cheap and sustainable tsetse and trypanosomiasis control methods that could be integrated in the

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P  0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, G J; van der Poel, W H M; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-08-02

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or parainfluenza 3 virus-induced clinical mastitis, while an intramammary inoculation of foot-and-mouth disease virus resulted in necrosis of the mammary gland. Subclinical mastitis has been induced after a simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4. Bovine leukaemia virus has been detected in mammary tissue of cows with subclinical mastitis, but whether this virus was able to induce bovine mastitis has not been reported. Bovine herpesvirus 2, vaccinia, cowpox, pseudocowpox, vesicular stomatitis, foot-and-mouth disease viruses, and bovine papillomaviruses can play an indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. These viruses can induce teat lesions, for instance in the ductus papillaris, which result in a reduction of the natural defence mechanisms of the udder and indirectly in bovine mastitis due to bacterial pathogens. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine immunodeficiency virus, and bovine leukaemia virus infections may play an indirect role in bovine mastitis, due to their immunosuppressive properties. But, more research is warranted to underline their indirect role in bovine mastitis. We conclude that viral infections can play a direct or indirect role in the aetiology of bovine mastitis; therefore, their importance in the aetiology of bovine mastitis and their economical impact needs further attention.

  17. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aspergilose orbitária: relato de caso Ocular aspergillosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ioschpe Gus

    2005-02-01

    inicia-se o manejo, segundo o quadro de sintomas.Presence of fungus in the conjunctiva is a constant threat to the eyes, because these microorganisms, defined as opportunistic, may provoke severe ocular infections, in situations as low organic resistance, use of immunosuppressants, antibiotics and epithelial alteration. Our goal here is to report a case of ocular aspergillosis in an immunosupressed patient where paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria was diagnosed. A 51-year-old immunosupressed, thrombocytopenic patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. On examination, she had a visual acuity of 20/40 in the right eye (RE and light perception in the left (LE. She presented hyposphagma, bilateral conjunctival edema on biomicroscopy and had some multiple and circumscribed conjunctival abscesses in both eyes; clear cornea in both eyes. Fundoscopy of the RE did show any particularity, in the LE there was a smear hemorrhage. Computed tomograph showed a fat periocular infiltration. Magnetic resonance lead to the same finding, compatible with orbital cellulitis. Hemoculture showed Aspergillus growth and direct smears of conjunctival material was negative. There was great improvement while treating her with amphotericin B, but there was complete remission after using 5% natamicyn eye drops. Orbital infections caused by Aspergillus are uncommon, usually appearing in immunosuppressed patients. Frequently they progress insidiously, and can be confounded with other orbital processes. Immunological impairment can inhibit the expression of local and systemic symptoms, resulting in diagnostic confusion. The diagnosis is established by laboratory tests, but culture can be negative in spite of the classical presentation, making the beginning of treatment difficult. In these cases management starts according to the symptoms.

  19. Management of invasive aspergillosis in patients with COPD: rational use of voriconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Ader

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Florence Ader1, Anne-Lise Bienvenu2, Blandine Rammaert3, Saad Nseir41Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales; 2Service de Parasitologie et Mycologie Médicale, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de La Croixrousse, Lyon, France; 3Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Université Paris Descartes, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Centre d’infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Paris, France; 4Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital A. Calmette, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Lille, FranceAbstract: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an important cause of mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. The reported incidence of IPA in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD seems to increase. Approximately 1%–2% of overall fatal cases of IPA occur in COPD patients. The combination of factors such as lung immune imbalance, long-term corticosteroid use, increasing rate of bacterial exacerbations over time, and malnutrition are responsible for the emergence of IPA in these patients. The diagnosis of IPA is difficult to establish, which explains the delay in implementing accurate antifungal therapy and the high mortality rate. Persistent pneumonia nonresponsive to appropriate antibiotic treatment raises the concern of an invasive fungal infection. Definite diagnosis is obtained from tissue biopsy evidencing Aspergillus spp. on microscopic examination or in culture. Culture and microscopy of respiratory tract samples have a sensitivity and specificity of around 50%. Other diagnostic tools can be useful in documenting IPA: computed tomography (CT scan, nonculture-based tests in serum and/or in bronchoalveolar lavage such as antibody/antigen tests for Aspergillus spp. More recent tools such as polymerase chain reaction or [1→3]-β-D-glucan have predictive values that need to be further investigated in COPD patients. Antifungal monotherapy using azole

  20. Alum Activates the Bovine NLRP3 Inflammasome

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    Ciaran Harte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a move away from vaccines composed of whole or inactivated antigens toward subunit-based vaccines, which although safe, provide less immunological protection. As a result, the use of adjuvants to enhance and direct adaptive immune responses has become the focus of much targeted bovine vaccine research. However, the mechanisms by which adjuvants work to enhance immunological protection in many cases remains unclear, although this knowledge is critical to the rational design of effective next generation vaccines. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which alum, a commonly used adjuvant in bovine vaccines, enhances IL-1β secretion in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Unlike the case with human PBMCs, alum promoted IL-1β secretion in a subset of bovine PBMCs without priming with a toll-like receptor agonist. This suggests that PBMCs from some cattle are primed to produce this potent inflammatory cytokine and western blotting confirmed the presence of preexisting pro-IL-1β in PBMCs from a subset of 8-month-old cattle. To address the mechanism underlying alum-induced IL-1β secretion, specific inhibitors identified that alum mediates lysosomal disruption which subsequently activates the assembly of an NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and potentially caspase-8 containing complex. These components form an inflammasome, which mediates alum-induced IL-1β secretion in bovine PBMCs. Given the demonstrated role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in regulating adaptive immunity in murine systems, these results will inform further targeted research into the potential of inflammasome activation for rational vaccine design in cattle.

  1. Proteomic demonstration of the recurrent presence of inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain during aspergillosis induced in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Valera, Lionel; Jardin, Bénédicte; Hem, Sonia; Caille, Agnès; Cormier, Bénédicte; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Bailly, Éric; Diot, Patrice; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains a matter of great concern in oncology/haematology, intensive care units and organ transplantation departments. Despite the availability of various diagnostic tools with attractive features, new markers of infection are required for better medical care. We therefore looked for potential pulmonary biomarkers of aspergillosis, by carrying out two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis comparing the proteomes of bronchial-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from infected rats and from control rats presenting non-specific inflammation, both immunocompromised. A bioinformatic analysis of the 2D-maps revealed significant differences in the abundance of 20 protein spots (ANOVA P-valuevalue0.8). One of these proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, was considered of potential interest: inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain (ITIH4), characterised for the first time in this infectious context. Western blotting confirmed its overabundance in all infected BALF, particularly at early stages of murine aspergillosis. Further investigations were carried on rat serum, and confirmed that ITIH4 levels increased during experimental aspergillosis. Preliminary results in human samples strengthened this trend. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the involvement of ITIH4 in aspergillosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Systems Biology Analysis of Temporal In vivo Brucella melitensis and Bovine Transcriptomes Predicts host:Pathogen Protein–Protein Interactions

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    Carlos A. Rossetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, fewer than 200 gene-products have been identified as Brucella virulence factors, and most were characterized individually without considering how they are temporally and coordinately expressed or secreted during the infection process. Here, we describe and analyze the in vivo temporal transcriptional profile of Brucella melitensis during the initial 4 h interaction with cattle. Pathway analysis revealed an activation of the “Two component system” providing evidence that the in vivo Brucella sense and actively regulate their metabolism through the transition to an intracellular lifestyle. Contrarily, other Brucella pathways involved in virulence such as “ABC transporters” and “T4SS system” were repressed suggesting a silencing strategy to avoid stimulation of the host innate immune response very early in the infection process. Also, three flagellum-encoded loci (BMEII0150-0168, BMEII1080-1089, and BMEII1105-1114, the “flagellar assembly” pathway and the cell components “bacterial-type flagellum hook” and “bacterial-type flagellum” were repressed in the tissue-associated B. melitensis, while RopE1 sigma factor, a flagellar repressor, was activated throughout the experiment. These results support the idea that Brucella employ a stealthy strategy at the onset of the infection of susceptible hosts. Further, through systems-level in silico host:pathogen protein–protein interactions simulation and correlation of pathogen gene expression with the host gene perturbations, we identified unanticipated interactions such as VirB11::MAPK8IP1; BtaE::NFKBIA, and 22 kDa OMP precursor::BAD and MAP2K3. These findings are suggestive of new virulence factors and mechanisms responsible for Brucella evasion of the host's protective immune response and the capability to maintain a dormant state. The predicted protein–protein interactions and the points of disruption provide novel insights that will stimulate advanced hypothesis

  3. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd

  4. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  5. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  6. Second-Hand Smoke Increases Bronchial Hyperreactivity and Eosinophilia in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. P. Seymour

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke has been shown to aggravate the allergic response. Antibodies to fungal antigens such as Aspergillus fumigatus (Af cause an allergic lung disease in humans. This study was carried out to determine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS on a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA. BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke to simulate 'second-hand smoke'. The concentration was consistent with that achieved in enclosed public areas or households where multiple people smoke. During exposure, mice were sensitized to Af antigen intranasally. Mice that were sensitized to Af antigen and exposed to ETS developed significantly greater airway hyperreactivity than did mice similarly sensitized to Af but housed in ambient air. The effective concentration of aerosolized acetylcholine needed to double pulmonary flow resistance was significantly lower in Af + ETS mice compared to the Af + AIR mice. Immunological data that supports this exacerbation of airway hyperresponsiveness being mediated by an enhanced type 1 hypersensitivity response include: eosinophilia in peripheral blood and lung sections. All Af sensitized mice produced elevated levels of IL4, IL5 and IL10 but no IFN-γ indicating a polarized Th2 response. Thus, ETS can cause exacerbation of asthma in ABPA as demonstrated by functional airway hyperresponsiveness and elevated levels of blood eosinophilia.

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: benefits of intensive care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulpa, P A; Dive, A M; Garrino, M G; Delos, M A; Gonzalez, M R; Evrard, P A; Glupczynski, Y; Installé, E J

    2001-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is increasingly recognized as a cause of acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated with corticosteroids. For these patients admission in intensive care unit (ICU) is often required for life-support and mechanical ventilation. Whether this approach improves outcome is unknown. Retrospective study in a university hospital intensive care unit. Between November 1993 and December 1997, 23 COPD patients were admitted in our ICU and received antifungal agents for possible IPA. None. The clinical features and the outcome were reviewed. Diagnosis of IPA was classified as confirmed (positive lung tissue biopsy and/or autopsy) or probable (repeated isolation of Aspergillus from the airways with consistent clinical and radiological findings). Among the 23 patients treated for Aspergillus, 16 fulfilling these criteria for IPA were studied. Steroids had been administered at home to all patients but one and were increased during hospitalization in all. Twelve patients suffered a worsening of their bronchospasm precipitating acute respiratory failure. During ICU stay all patients required mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Although amphotericin B deoxycholate was started when IPA was suspected (0.5-1.5 mg/kg per day), all patients died in septic shock (n = 5) or in multiple-organ failure. The poor prognosis of intubated COPD patients with IPA, in spite of antifungal treatment suggests that further studies are required to define the limits and indications for ICU management of these patients.

  8. Autoinduction of voriconazole metabolism in a child with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alice Jenh; Dabb, Alix; Arav-Boger, Ravit

    2015-04-01

    Inter- and intra-patient variability in voriconazole pharmacokinetics has been described in children as the result of age-specific differences in hepatic metabolism, saturable nonlinear pharmacokinetics, CYP450 2C19 polymorphisms, decreased bioavailability compared with adults, and drug-drug interactions. We introduce dose-dependent autoinduction of metabolism as another cause for altered voriconazole pharmacokinetics in children and summarize previously published literature on this phenomenon. A 10-year-old girl with severe aplastic anemia developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after high-dose cyclophosphamide therapy and required high doses of voriconazole for longer than 2 months. She initially achieved a therapeutic trough of 1.4 μg/ml on voriconazole 11 mg/kg/dose orally every 12 hours but required dose escalations to 9.3 mg/kg/dose orally every 8 hours to maintain a trough above 1 μg/ml. Because there were no changes in concomitant medications, route of administration, adherence, or oral intake, we conclude that the only plausible explanation for the precipitous drop in voriconazole troughs was autoinduction of metabolism, a phenomenon previously reported in adults receiving higher than usual doses or prolonged courses (longer than 2 months). These data highlight the need for continued therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole after initial therapeutic troughs are achieved because autoinduction of metabolism can lead to significant declines in subsequent voriconazole troughs, potentially leading to treatment failure. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Breakthrough invasive fungal diseases during voriconazole treatment for aspergillosis: A 5-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-04-01

    Breakthrough invasive fungal diseases (bIFDs) during voriconazole treatment are concerning, as they are associated with high rates of mortality and pathogen distribution. To evaluate the prevalence, incidence, patient characteristics, including IFD events, and overall mortality of bIFDs during voriconazole treatment for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of consecutive patients who had undergone voriconazole treatment for IA and who had bIFD events between January 2011 and December 2015. Eleven bIFD events occurred in 9 patients. The prevalence and incidence of bIFDs were 2.25% (9/368) and 0.22 cases per year, respectively. Overall mortality was 44.4% (4/9). The severity of the illness and persistence of immunodeficiency, mixed infection, and low concentration of the treatment drug at the site of infection were identified as possible causes of bIFDs. Seven of 11 events (63.6%) required continued voriconazole treatment with drug level monitoring. In 4 (36.3%) cases, the treatment was changed to liposomal amphotericin B. Two cases resulted in surgical resection (18.2%). Clinicians should be aware that bIFDs during voriconazole treatment for IA can occur, and active therapeutic approaches are required in these cases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.

  10. Galactomannan and 1,3-β-d-Glucan Testing for the Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Lamoth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a severe complication among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients or patients with hematological malignancies and neutropenia following anti-cancer therapy. Moreover, IA is increasingly observed in other populations, such as solid-organ transplant recipients, patients with solid tumors or auto-immune diseases, and among intensive care unit patients. Frequent delay in diagnosis is associated with high mortality rates. Cultures from clinical specimens remain sterile in many cases and the diagnosis of IA often only relies on non-specific radiological signs in the presence of host risk factors. Tests for detection of galactomannan- (GM and 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG are useful adjunctive tools for the early diagnosis of IA and may have a role in monitoring response to therapy. However, the sensitivity and specificity of these fungal biomarkers are not optimal and variations between patient populations are observed. This review discusses the role and interpretation of GM and BDG testing for the diagnosis of IA in different clinical samples (serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and different groups of patients (onco-hematological patients, solid-organ transplant recipients, other patients at risk of IA.

  11. Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in non-hematological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortún, J; Martín-Dávila, P; Gomez Garcia de la Pedrosa, E; Silva, J T; Garcia-Rodríguez, J; Benito, D; Venanzi, E; Castaño, F; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Lazaro, F; García-Luján, R; Quiles, I; Cabanillas, J J; Moreno, S; Aguado, J M

    2016-06-01

    The role of galactomannan (GM) in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has been extensively evaluated in hematological patients, however its performance in non-hematological patients is not well established. We performed a multicenter retrospective study in 3 university hospitals in Madrid, Spain between 2010 and 2014. The study population comprised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and patients with immunosuppressive conditions in whom IPA was suspected and for whom BALF GM was available. Patients with hematological disorders were excluded. A total of 188 patients (35 with COPD and 153 with immunosuppressive conditions) were analyzed, and 31 cases of IPA (proven or probable) were identified. The global sensitivity of BALF GM (optical density index [ODI] ≥ 1.0) was 77.4%; sensitivity was higher in patients with immunosuppressive conditions than in patients with COPD (81.8% vs 66.7%; p: 0.38). In COPD patients, the best performance was obtained for BALF GM (ODI ≥ 0.5), although sensitivity (88.9%) was similar to that of BALF fungal culture (88.9%). The sensitivity of GM in serum was very poor in both populations (36.4% and 11.6%, respectively). In the present series, the diagnostic performance of BALF GM was good for IPA in non-hematological patients, especially in patients with immunosuppressive conditions. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beneficial effects of Omalizumab therapy in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: A synthesis review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xiong; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Man-Hui; Cao, Wei-Jun; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized mAb that binds to IgE, has been an effective therapy for patients with severe allergic asthma; however, there are few clinical trials examining the efficacy of Omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) except some case reports. To assess the clinical and immunological effects of Omalizumab in ABPA patients, we made a synthesis review of 102 cases from 30 published literature, analyzed the effects of Omalizumab therapy in ABPA and conducted subgroup analyses to determine factors that influenced the therapy endpoints. We found that Omalizumab treatment not only provided a clinically important reduction in serum IgE, exacerbation rates and steroid requirement, but also showed attenuated asthma symptoms and improved pulmonary function parameters in patients with ABPA. Moreover, further discussion was made when interpretating the results. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and safety of this novel therapeutic intervention for ABPA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The iron chelator deferasirox enhances liposomal amphotericin B efficacy in treating murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; French, Samuel W.; Edwards, John E.; Spellberg, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Increased bone marrow iron levels in patients with haematological malignancies is an independent risk factor for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), suggesting an important role for iron uptake in the pathogenesis of IPA. We sought to determine the potential for combination therapy with the iron chelator deferasirox + liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) to improve the outcome of murine IPA compared with LAmB monotherapy. Methods In vitro MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of the iron chelator, deferasirox, for Aspergillus fumigatus were determined by microdilution assay. In addition, we studied the efficacy of deferasirox alone or combined with LAmB in treating immunocompromised mice infected with A. fumigatus via inhalation. Results Deferasirox was cidal in vitro against A. fumigatus, with an MIC and MFC of 25 and 50 mg/L, respectively. Deferasirox monotherapy modestly prolonged survival of mice with IPA. Combination deferasirox + LAmB therapy synergistically improved survival and reduced lung fungal burden compared with either monotherapy alone. Conclusions Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox alone or in combination with LAmB is effective in treating experimental IPA. Further study of deferasirox is warranted as adjunctive therapy for IPA infections. PMID:19942619

  15. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  16. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B of mycotic lung lesions from invasive aspergillosis: results in 10 immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, A.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Bartoli, G.; Martina, M.C.; Galli, J. [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, DiUniv. Torino (Italy); Regge, D. [Servizio di Radiodiagnostica, Istituto di Ricerca e Cura per il Cancro, Ordine Mauriziano, Candiolo (Italy); Bertini, M. [U.O.A. Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Torino (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous treatment of pulmonary lesions from invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. From 1992 to 1998, ten patients (seven men and three women; mean age 56 years) affected by hematological neoplasms (8 acute myeloid leukemias, 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and post-chemotherapy prolonged neutropenia developed pulmonary lesions from invasive aspergillosis. A total of 13 lesions (diameter 2-7 cm, median 5 cm) were treated percutaneously due to insufficiency of the high-dose i. v. therapy; under CT guidance, a median of 10 cm{sup 3} per session of a 1 mg/cm{sup 3} diluted solution of amphotericin B was injected through a fine needle (21-22 G); 45 sessions overall were performed (one to five per lesion, median four), according to the volume of the nodules, tolerance, and complications. The results were retrospectively evaluated either radiologically or clinically. Complications were cough, mild hemoptysis, and small pneumothorax and/or pleural effusion. No major complications occurred. One month after the beginning of treatment, 8 lesions completely resolved, 4 greatly improved, and 1 was not significantly reduced. In all ten patients symptoms improved (eight of ten could restart chemotherapy as scheduled). After antiblastic retreatment, 1 patient had mycotic recurrence. In our experience transthoracic topical treatment with amphotericin B of single or few lung lesions from invasive aspergillosis was effective, affording a rapid improvement of the lesions and symptoms, and allowing continuation of chemotherapy as scheduled, thereby reducing the risk of recurrences. (orig.)

  17. Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Kelling, Clayton L; Ambagala, Aruna

    2007-12-01

    Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. Viruses that play prominent roles in causing the bovine respiratory disease complex include bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus and parinfluenza-3 virus. Bacteria that play prominent roles in this disease complex are Mannheimia haemolytica and Mycoplasma bovis. Other bacteria that infect the bovine respiratory tract of cattle are Histophilus (Haemophilus) somni and Pasteurella multocida. Frequently, severe respiratory tract disease in cattle is associated with concurrent infections of these pathogens. Like other pathogens, the viral and bacterial pathogens of this disease complex have co-evolved with their hosts over millions of years. As much as the hosts have diversified and fine-tuned the components of their immune system, the pathogens have also evolved diverse and sophisticated strategies to evade the host immune responses. These pathogens have developed intricate mechanisms to thwart both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses of their hosts. This review presents an overview of the strategies by which the pathogens suppress host immune responses, as well as the strategies by which the pathogens modify themselves or their locations in the host to evade host immune responses. These immune evasion strategies likely contribute to the failure of currently-available vaccines to provide complete protection to cattle against these pathogens.

  18. Initial CT manifestations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 45 non-HIV immunocompromised patients: association with patient outcome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horger, Marius [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)]. E-mail: mshorger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Hebart, Holger [Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Ottfried-Mueller-Str. 5, 72070 Tuebingen (Germany); Einsele, Hermann [Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Ottfried-Mueller-Str. 5, 72070 Tuebingen (Germany); Lengerke, Claudia [Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Ottfried-Mueller-Str. 5, 72070 Tuebingen (Germany); Claussen, C.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Vonthein, Reinhard [Department of Medical Biometry, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Westbahnhofstrasse 55, 72070 Tuebingen (Germany); Pfannenberg, Christina [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To assess early high-resolution computer tomographic (CT) signs of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-HIV immunosuppressed patients and their potential association with patient's outcome, including frequency and severity of pulmonary hemorrhage, taking also in consideration the impact of other known risk factors contributory to IPA. Material and methods: A retrospective review of serial CT scans was performed in 45 immunocompromised patients with a total of 46 episodes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. All patients underwent CT beginning with the day they showed clinical or laboratory signs of infection. Serial follow-up CT included more than two, up to 12 CT examinations. Patient's outcome was judged by clinical and radiological follow-up and classified as survival, death by IPA, or death unrelated to IPA. The influence of patient's age, underlying disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutropenia, graft versus host disease, and antifungal therapy onset was also statistically considered. Results: Three main CT findings were identified: small nodules (<1 cm) 43% (20/46), large nodules 21% (10/46) and consolidations, either in patchy {+-} segmental 26% (12/46), or peribronchial distribution {+-} tree in bud 9% (4/46). In 11 patients (24%) we found a combination of two or more of these signs: 9 (19%) patients presented concurrent small nodules accompanied by reticulation, tree in bud or peribronchial infiltrates, while 2 (4%) patients showed large pulmonary nodules accompanied by large consolidations. An accompanying 'halo' sign was observed in 38 patients (82%). Crescent sign followed by cavitation was encountered in 29 patients (63%). Two patients succumbed to massive pulmonary bleeding caused by IPA. Twenty-one patients (15/46) deceased in this series, 12 of them succumbed to IPA, 1 died from cerebral invasive aspergillosis, while in 9 patients the cause of death was not primarily IPA. Manifest pulmonary

  19. Initial CT manifestations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 45 non-HIV immunocompromised patients: association with patient outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horger, Marius; Hebart, Holger; Einsele, Hermann; Lengerke, Claudia; Claussen, C.D.; Vonthein, Reinhard; Pfannenberg, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess early high-resolution computer tomographic (CT) signs of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-HIV immunosuppressed patients and their potential association with patient's outcome, including frequency and severity of pulmonary hemorrhage, taking also in consideration the impact of other known risk factors contributory to IPA. Material and methods: A retrospective review of serial CT scans was performed in 45 immunocompromised patients with a total of 46 episodes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. All patients underwent CT beginning with the day they showed clinical or laboratory signs of infection. Serial follow-up CT included more than two, up to 12 CT examinations. Patient's outcome was judged by clinical and radiological follow-up and classified as survival, death by IPA, or death unrelated to IPA. The influence of patient's age, underlying disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutropenia, graft versus host disease, and antifungal therapy onset was also statistically considered. Results: Three main CT findings were identified: small nodules (<1 cm) 43% (20/46), large nodules 21% (10/46) and consolidations, either in patchy ± segmental 26% (12/46), or peribronchial distribution ± tree in bud 9% (4/46). In 11 patients (24%) we found a combination of two or more of these signs: 9 (19%) patients presented concurrent small nodules accompanied by reticulation, tree in bud or peribronchial infiltrates, while 2 (4%) patients showed large pulmonary nodules accompanied by large consolidations. An accompanying 'halo' sign was observed in 38 patients (82%). Crescent sign followed by cavitation was encountered in 29 patients (63%). Two patients succumbed to massive pulmonary bleeding caused by IPA. Twenty-one patients (15/46) deceased in this series, 12 of them succumbed to IPA, 1 died from cerebral invasive aspergillosis, while in 9 patients the cause of death was not primarily IPA. Manifest pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 19% (9

  20. Pathogenesis of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Buxton, D; Wouda, W

    2006-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs, being a significant cause of abortion in cattle in many countries. It is one of the most efficiently transmitted parasites, with up to 90% of cattle infected in some herds. The pathogenesis of abortion due to Neospora is complex and only partially understood. Losses occur after a primary infection during pregnancy but more commonly as the result of recrudescence of a persistent infection during pregnancy. Parasitaemia is followed by invasion of the placenta and fetus. It is suggested that abortion occurs when primary parasite-induced placental damage jeopardises fetal survival directly or causes release of maternal prostaglandins that in turn cause luteolysis and abortion. Fetal damage may also occur due to primary tissue damage caused by the multiplication of N. caninum in the fetus or due to insufficient oxygen/nutrition, secondary to placental damage. In addition, maternal immune expulsion of the fetus may occur associated with maternal placental inflammation and the release of maternal pro-inflammatory cytokines in the placenta. Thus N. caninum is a primary pathogen capable of causing abortion either through maternal placental inflammation, maternal and fetal placental necrosis, fetal damage, or a combination of all three. The question of how N. caninum kills the fetus exposes the complex and finely balanced biological processes that have evolved to permit bovine and other mammalian pregnancies to occur. Defining these immunological mechanisms will shed light on potential methods of control of bovine neosporosis and enrich our understanding of the continuity of mammalian and protozoal survival.

  1. Antigenic and anticorpal diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and candidosis in immunocompromised host

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    Marco Machetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA and candidemia are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, but diagnostic procedures are often hampered by critical patients conditions. In recent years, non-culture methods have reached a standardization level suitable to be marketed and widely employed. A method for a panfungal antigenic diagnosis, is the detection in serum of (1→3-ß-D-Glucan (BDG, a polisaccaridic component of fungal cell wall. Best results can be obtained in Aspergillus, Candida and Fusarium infections, while the test performs poorly with Cryptococcus and in zygomycosis. The use of this method are limited by the high costs and by the need of disposable materials certified as glucan-free, in order to avoid false positive results. Galactomannan (GM antigen detection is a method for non-invasive diagnosis of IA. The assay, in latex agglutination (LA and enzymeimmunoassay (EIA format, detect GM in serum, whose presence correlates with IA. Sensitivity and specificity strongly fluctuate (50-100% and 81-98% respectively depending on the time of sampling, the positivity cut-off employed, the concomitant administration of antifungal drugs and of some antibiotics. Nevertheless the method is a very useful and widely employed tool for the diagnosis of IA. For the diagnosis of candidemia, two Candida antigens may be detected in serum: the 56°C heat-labile antigen in LA format, and the mannan antigen, in LA and EIA format. Both the methods perform quite well, but sensitivities and specificities are not so good to allow a routinely and useful use in clinical practice.

  2. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Voriconazole and Anidulafungin in Adult Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Diane R.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of voriconazole and anidulafungin in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) in comparison with other populations, sparse PK data were obtained for 305 adults from a prospective phase 3 study comparing voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination versus voriconazole monotherapy (voriconazole, 6 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 12 h [q12h] for 24 h followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, switched to 300 mg orally q12h as appropriate; with placebo or anidulafungin IV, a 200-mg loading dose followed by 100 mg q24h). Voriconazole PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and time-dependent nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination; anidulafungin PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. For voriconazole, the normal inverse Wishart prior approach was implemented to stabilize the model. Compared to previous models, no new covariates were identified for voriconazole or anidulafungin. PK parameter estimates of voriconazole and anidulafungin are in agreement with those reported previously except for voriconazole clearance (the nonlinear clearance component became minimal). At a 4-mg/kg IV dose, voriconazole exposure tended to increase slightly as age, weight, or body mass index increased, but the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Estimated voriconazole exposures in IA patients at 4 mg/kg IV were higher than those reported for healthy adults (e.g., the average area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval [AUC0–12] at steady state was 46% higher); while it is not definitive, age and concomitant medications may impact this difference. Estimated anidulafungin exposures in IA patients were comparable to those reported for the general patient population. This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards or ethics committees and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479). PMID:24913161

  3. Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Voriconazole and Anidulafungin in Adult Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Diane R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the exposure-response relationships for efficacy and safety of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA), a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis was performed with data from a phase 3, prospective, double-blind, comparative study evaluating voriconazole and anidulafungin combination therapy versus voriconazole (and placebo) monotherapy. Anidulafungin/placebo treatment duration was 2 to 4 weeks, and voriconazole treatment duration was 6 weeks. Efficacy (6-week all-causality mortality and 6-week global response [n = 176]) and safety (hepatic [n = 238], visual [n = 199], and psychiatric [n = 183] adverse events [AEs]) endpoints were analyzed separately using a binary logistic regression model. In IA patients receiving voriconazole monotherapy, no positive associations between voriconazole exposure and efficacy or safety were identified. In IA patients receiving combination therapy, no positive associations between voriconazole or anidulafungin exposures and efficacy were identified. The 6-week survival rate tended to increase as anidulafungin treatment duration increased; this finding should be considered with caution. Additionally, in IA patients receiving combination therapy, a positive association between voriconazole and anidulafungin exposures (area under the curve [AUC] and trough concentration [Cmin]) and hepatic AEs was established; a weak positive association between voriconazole exposure (AUC and Cmin) and psychiatric AEs was also established, but no association between voriconazole exposure and visual AEs was identified. Besides the drug exposures, no other covariates (i.e., CYP2C19 genotype status, age, weight, body mass index, sex, race, or neutropenia status) were identified as significant predictors of the efficacy and safety endpoints in IA patients. This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479). PMID:24914120

  4. Causes of death in a contemporary cohort of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia-Vidal

    Full Text Available Information regarding the processes leading to death in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA is lacking. We sought to determine the causes of death in these patients, the role that IA played in the cause, and the timing of death. The factors associated with IA-related mortality are also analyzed. We conducted a multicenter study (2008-2011 of cases of proven and probable IA. The causes of death and whether mortality was judged to be IA-related or IA-unrelated were determined by consensus using a six-member review panel. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors for IA-related death. Of 152 patients with IA, 92 (60.5% died. Mortality was judged to be IA-related in 62 cases and IA-unrelated in 30. The most common cause of IA-related death was respiratory failure (50/62 patients, caused primarily by Aspergillus infection, although also by concomitant infections or severe comorbidities. Progression of underlying disease and bacteremic shock were the most frequent causes of IA-unrelated death. IA-related mortality accounted for 98% and 87% of deaths within the first 14 and 21 days, respectively. Liver disease (HR 4.54; 95% CI, 1.69-12.23 was independently associated with IA-related mortality, whereas voriconazole treatment was associated with reduced risk of death (HR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.93. In conclusion, better management of lung injury after IA diagnosis is the main challenge for physicians to improve IA outcomes. There are significant differences in causes and timing between IA-related and IA-unrelated mortality and these should be considered in future research to assess the quality of IA care.

  5. Serial assessment of pulmonary lesion volume by computed tomography allows survival prediction in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehreschild, J.J.; Vehreschild, M.J.G.T. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); German Centre for Infection Research, Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Chest Clinic at University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Groll, A.H. [University Children' s Hospital, Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Silling, G. [University of Muenster, Department of Medicine A, Haematology/Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Wuerthwein, G. [University Hospital Muenster, Centre for Clinical Trials, ZKS Muenster (Germany); Brecht, M. [Chest Clinic at University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Cornely, O.A. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Clinical Trials Center Cologne, ZKS Koeln (BMBF 01KN1106), Cologne (Germany); Center for Integrated Oncology CIO Koeln Bonn, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Cologne (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Serial chest CT is the standard of care to establish treatment success in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Data are lacking how response should be defined. Digital CT images from a clinical trial on treatment of IPA were re-evaluated and compared with available biomarkers. Total volume of pneumonia was added up after manual measurement of each lesion, followed by statistical analysis. One-hundred and ninety CT scans and 309 follow-up datasets from 40 patients were available for analysis. Thirty-one were neutropenic. Baseline galactomannan (OR 4.06, 95%CI: 1.08-15.31) and lesion volume (OR 3.14, 95%CI: 0.73-13.52) were predictive of death. Lesion volume at d7 and trend between d7 and d14 were strong predictors of death (OR 20.01, 95%CI: 1.42-282.00 and OR 15.97, 95%CI: 1.62-157.32) and treatment being rated as unsuccessful (OR 4.75, 95%CI: 0.94-24.05 and OR 40.69, 95%CI: 2.55-649.03), which was confirmed by a Cox proportional hazards model using time-dependent covariates. Any increase in CT lesion volume between day 7 and day 14 was a sensitive marker of a lethal outcome (>50%), supporting a CT rescan each one and 2 weeks after initial detection of IPA. The predictive value exceeded all other biomarkers. Further CT follow-up after response at day 14 was of low additional value. (orig.)

  6. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in the Intensive Care Unit: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Yazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an infection rarely seen in intensive care units (ICU. We aimed to discuss the case of IPA found in a patient followed up in our ICU due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A 58-year old patient diagnosed with COPD has been admitted to our ICU due to respiratory failure. There were not any other diseases except from COPD. In his radiological imaging there were diffuse bilateral infiltrates in the chest X-ray and diffuse infiltration in the thorax tomography. Aspergillus spp was isolated in the bronchoalveolar lavage sample from patient and caspofungin was added to the treatment. On the 12th day of the treatment, it was observed that the results of the control radiological imaging became normal and there was no isolation in the control cultures. In recent years, fungal infections have been determined at an increasing rate in the patients who are not immunosuppressed and hospitalized in ICU. In the IPA cases, it has been shown that such underlying causes as diabetes, malnutrition, use of steroid, uremia, cirrhosis and COPD may create risk. Our patient did not have other disease except from COPD and there was a story of prolonged using of steroid. Steroids are quite frequently used in the ICUs. In the patients with chronic pulmonary diseases, even if it is low dose and short-term, the treatment of steroid is accepted as a risk factor in terms of IPA. Since signs and symptoms are atypical in this group of patients, it is rather difficult to diagnose IPA in the short term. The isolation of aspergillus in our patient’s tracheal aspirate taken earlier enabled us to start the treatment early. Although there are not comprehensive studies, it should be kept in mind that İPA may develop in the patients who is using long-term steroid, is admitted to the ICUs due to COPD exacerbations without any other disease.

  7. The importance of risk factors for the prediction of patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Kaya

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a major challenge in the management of immunocompromised patients. Despite all the advances in diagnosis, it remains a problem. The purpose of our study was to investigate the risk factors associated with IPA seen in patients with hematological malignancies. Method: A total of 152 febrile neutropenia (FEN patients with hematological malignancies aged over 18 years and receiving high-dose chemotherapy or stem cell transplant between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012 were included in the study. Sixty-five (65 cases with IPA according to the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group criteria were enrolled as the case group, while 87 patients without IPA development during concomitant monitoring were enrolled as the control group. Incidence of IPA was 21.4% (3/14 in patients receiving bone marrow transplant (allogeneic 2, autologous 1 and those cases were also added into the case group. The two groups were compared in terms of demographic, clinical and laboratory findings and risk factors associated with IPA investigated retrospectively. Results: Presence of relapse of primary disease, neutropenia for more than 3 weeks, presence of bacterial infection, and non-administration of antifungal prophylaxis were identified as risk factors associated with IPA. Conclusion: It may be possible to reduce the incidence of the disease by eliminating preventable risk factors. Predicting those risks would, per se, enable early diagnosis and treatment and, thus, the mortality rate of these patients would unquestionably decline.

  8. Omalizumab in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: One center's experience with 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ömür; Sözener, Zeynep Çelebi; Soyyiğit, Şadan; Kendirlinan, Reşat; Gençtürk, Zeynep; Mısırlıgil, Zeynep; Mungan, Dilşad; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Çelik, Gülfem Elif; Bavbek, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Omalizumab has been a valuable option for patients with severe allergic asthma, but there are only case reports regarding effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). To evaluate the clinical and functional effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with asthma and ABPA in long-term follow-up. The study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of patients with ABPA who were treated with omalizumab injections between December 2008 and June 2014. Once treatment with omalizumab was started, data were collected at three time points: at baseline, after 1 year, and, in June 2014, at the last follow-up. Fourteen patients with ABPA (seven women and seven men; mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age, 44.21 ± 13.01 years) were included. The treatment period was 31.5 ± 3.99 months (mean ± SD). The difference between the baseline and the last evaluation of the mean percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was significant (p = 0.02). The mean asthma control test score was increased at all-time points compared with the basal score (p = 0.001). After omalizumab treatment was initiated, the patients' mean oral corticosteroid dosage significantly decreased (p = 0.001). The baseline exacerbation rate was 2.7 ± 1.5/y (mean ± SD), and the hospitalization rate was 1.4/y, and both were zero at the last assessment (p = 0.001). Eleven of the patients (78.6%) responded perfectly, and three (21.4%) partially responded to treatment. The patients who had a total immunoglobulin E level of 1000 IU/mL (p = 0.05). Omalizumab provided a clinically important reduction in exacerbations and steroid requirement, and improved asthma symptoms and pulmonary function parameters in patients with asthma and ABPA who had previously shown an unsatisfactory response to Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment.

  9. Clinical efficacy and immunologic effects of omalizumab in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskamp, Astrid L; Gillman, Andrew; Symons, Karen; Sandrini, Alessandra; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Douglass, Jo A

    2015-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) often presents with persistently uncontrolled asthma despite the use of corticosteroids and antifungal therapy. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody currently used to treat severe asthma. The aim was to assess the clinical and immunologic effects of omalizumab in ABPA in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with chronic ABPA were randomized to 4-month treatment with omalizumab (750 mg monthly) or placebo followed by a 3-month washout period in a cross-over design. The main endpoint was number of exacerbations. Other clinical endpoints included lung function, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), quality of life and symptoms. In vitro basophil activation to Aspergillus fumigatus extract and basophil FcεR1 and surface-bound IgE levels were assessed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were recruited with mean total IgE 2314 ± 2125 IU/mL. Exacerbations occurred less frequently during the active treatment phase compared with the placebo period (2 vs 12 events, P = .048). Mean FeNO decreased from 30.5 to 17.1 ppb during omalizumab treatment (P = .03). Basophil sensitivity to A. fumigatus and surface-bound IgE and FcεR1 levels decreased significantly after omalizumab but not after placebo. Omalizumab can be used safely to treat ABPA, despite high serum IgE levels. Clinical improvement was accompanied by decreased basophil reactivity to A. fumigatus and FcεR1 and surface-bound IgE levels. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Case series of omalizumab for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nové-Josserand, Raphaële; Grard, Soazic; Auzou, Lila; Reix, Philippe; Murris-Espin, Marlène; Brémont, François; Mammar, Benyebka; Mely, Laurent; Hubert, Dominique; Durieu, Isabelle; Burgel, Pierre-Régis

    2017-02-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects up to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Corticosteroids are used as first-line therapy, but relapse and adverse effects commonly occur. Case reports have suggested the efficacy of the anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody omalizumab. A retrospective multicenter observational French study retrieved 32 CF patients (11 children and 21 adults) who have received omalizumab for more than 3 months in the context of ABPA. Clinical characteristics, concomitant medications (inhaled and oral corticosteroids, antifungal drugs), lung function, body mass index (BMI), and serum IgE were compared at the start and during the first year of omalizumab therapy. Omalizumab-related adverse effects and costs were also evaluated. No significant difference with omalizumab could be demonstrated with regard to lung function, BMI, or the number of patients receiving oral corticosteroids. At the time of initiation of omalizumab, 56% of patients were receiving oral corticosteroids. Five patients were able to discontinue corticosteroids during follow-up and nine patients were able to reduce their daily dose. A total of 78% of the patients had received antifungal therapy at the time of the initiation of omalizumab. Treatment tolerance was good (12.5% of patients experienced side effects). The median cost of omalizumab treatment was €3,620 per patient per month. Omalizumab may represent a steroid-sparing therapy in CF patients with ABPA. A randomized-controlled trial is urgently required to provide higher level of evidence regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of omalizumab in CF patients with ABPA. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:190-197. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Posaconazole in Neutropenic Murine Models of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nathaniel D.

    2014-01-01

    We used two established neutropenic murine models of pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis to explore the association between the posaconazole area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)-to-MIC ratio (AUC/MIC) and treatment outcome. Posaconazole serum pharmacokinetics were verified in infected mice to ensure that the studied doses reflected human exposures with the oral suspension, delayed-release tablet, and intravenous formulations of posaconazole. Sinopulmonary infections were then induced in groups of neutropenic mice with Aspergillus fumigatus strain 293 (posaconazole MIC, 0.5 mg/liter) or Rhizopus oryzae strain 969 (posaconazole MIC, 2 mg/liter) and treated with escalating daily dosages of oral posaconazole, which was designed to achieve AUCs ranging from 1.10 to 392 mg · h/liter. After 5 days of treatment, lung fungal burden was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationships of the total drug AUC/MIC and the treatment response were similar in both models, with 90% effective concentrations (EC90s) corresponding to an AUC/MIC threshold of 76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 46 to 102) for strain 293 versus 87 (95% CI, 66 to 101) for strain 969. Using a provisional AUC/MIC target of >100, these exposures correlated with minimum serum posaconazole concentrations (Cmins) of 1.25 mg/liter for strain 293 and 4.0 mg/liter for strain 969. The addition of deferasirox, but not liposomal amphotericin or caspofungin, improved the activity of a suboptimal posaconazole regimen (AUC/MIC, 33) in animals with pulmonary mucormycosis. However, no combination was as effective as the high-dose posaconazole monotherapy regimen (AUC/MIC, 184). Our analysis suggests that posaconazole pharmacodynamics are similar for A. fumigatus and R. oryzae when indexed to pathogen MICs. PMID:25182639

  12. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is associated with pet ownership in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronicke, Anja; Heger, Nikola; Antweiler, Elisabeth; Krannich, Alexander; Roehmel, Jobst; Brandt, Claudia; Staab, Doris; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Schwarz, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Late diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is associated with significant lung function decline and morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The association of ABPA and domestic pet ownership in patients with CF has not been elucidated yet. Our objective was to determine the association of ABPA with pet ownership in patients with CF. Clinical and microbiological data from certified local patient registry were analyzed for 109 patients with CF aged 1-64 years: 55 pet owner and 54 non-pet owners. The primary outcome of the retrospective observational study was the occurrence of ABPA in pet owners and non-pet owners with CF. The free statistical software R was utilized to investigate logistic regression models for association factors. Of the 109 patients included in the study, 61 (56%) were female. The mean age of the total group was 25.4 ± 13.2 years. Adjusted analysis revealed that ABPA (OR 5.0227, 95% CI: 1.182-21.340, p = 0.029) was associated with pet ownership in patients with CF. Furthermore, ABPA in pet owners with CF was associated with an increased number of exacerbations (OR 6.446, 95% CI: 1.057-39.328, p = 0.043). Other outcomes did not significantly differ. Owning a pet was associated with ABPA in patients with CF. Future prospective multicenter longitudinal studies are needed to investigate chronological causality between pet ownership, ABPA development, and pulmonary exacerbations and to determine whether these estimates are generalizable for ABPA susceptible patients beyond CF (asthma, bronchiectasis). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA target for real-time PCR diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, L; Grenouillet, F; Legrand, F; Loewert, S; Bellanger, A P; Gbaguidi-Haore, H; Scherer, E; Henon, T; Rohrlich, P; Deconinck, E

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a combination of two quantitative Aspergillus PCR assays, targeting a mitochondrial and a ribosomal target, in patients with risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (IA) and positive galactomannan (GM) antigen. Forty-four patients with hematological malignancies and risk factors for IA according to revised European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group criteria (EORTC/MSG) criteria and presenting at least two sequential GM-positive sera were included in the study. Mitochondrial PCR was carried out prospectively on all GM-positive serum samples. Ribosomal PCR was carried out retrospectively on frozen stored sera. The sensitivities of mitochondrial and ribosomal PCRs were 58% and 50%, respectively. The diagnostic test performance was improved by using a combination of both PCR assays and by considering a patient PCR positive when at least two positive results were obtained. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 65%, 94%, and 11.8 and 0.37, respectively. A significant association between fatal outcome at 90 days and positive results of ribosomal PCR assays was observed (adjusted hazard ratio = 8.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 65.8; P = 0.048). Our results showed that the combination of two PCR assays targeting mitochondrial and ribosomal Aspergillus DNA improves the sensitivity of PCR in the diagnosis of IA in hematological patients with risk factors and positive GM results. This study also confirms that a positive PCR result is associated with a poor prognosis in these patients and should lead to specific antifungal therapy being introduced immediately.

  14. Common genetic polymorphisms within NFκB-related genes and the risk of developing invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Belén Lupiañez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Aspergillosis (IA is an opportunistic infection caused by Aspergillus, a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mould. A growing number of studies suggest a major host genetic component in disease susceptibility. Here, we evaluated whether 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within NFκB1, NFκB2, RelA, RelB, Rel and IRF4 genes influence the risk of IA in a population of 834 high-risk patients (157 IA and 677 non-IA recruited through a collaborative effort involving the aspBIOmics consortium and four European clinical institutions. No significant overall associations between selected SNPs and the risk of IA were found in this large cohort. Although a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT-stratified analysis revealed that carriers of the IRF4rs12203592T/T genotype had a 6-fold increased risk of developing the infection when compared with those carrying the C allele (OR-Rec=6.24, 95%CI 1.25-31.2, P=0.026, the association of this variant with IA risk did not reach significance at experiment-wide significant threshold. In addition, we found an association of the IRF4AATC and IRF4GGTC haplotypes (not including the IRF4rs12203592T risk allele with a decreased risk of IA but the magnitude of the association was similar to the one observed in the single-SNP analysis, which indicated that the haplotypic effect on IA risk was likely due to the IRF4rs12203592 SNP. Finally, no evidence of significant interactions among the genetic markers tested and the risk of IA was found. These results suggest that the SNPs on the studied genes do not have a clinically relevant impact on the risk of developing IA.

  15. Common Genetic Polymorphisms within NFκB-Related Genes and the Risk of Developing Invasive Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiañez, Carmen B.; Villaescusa, María T.; Carvalho, Agostinho; Springer, Jan; Lackner, Michaela; Sánchez-Maldonado, José M.; Canet, Luz M.; Cunha, Cristina; Segura-Catena, Juana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Solano, Carlos; Fianchi, Luana; Pagano, Livio; Potenza, Leonardo; Aguado, José M.; Luppi, Mario; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Einsele, Hermann; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ríos-Tamayo, Rafael; Loeffler, Jurgen; Jurado, Manuel; Sainz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is an opportunistic infection caused by Aspergillus, a ubiquitously present airborne pathogenic mold. A growing number of studies suggest a major host genetic component in disease susceptibility. Here, we evaluated whether 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within NFκB1, NFκB2, RelA, RelB, Rel, and IRF4 genes influence the risk of IA in a population of 834 high-risk patients (157 IA and 677 non-IA) recruited through a collaborative effort involving the aspBIOmics consortium and four European clinical institutions. No significant overall associations between selected SNPs and the risk of IA were found in this large cohort. Although a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)-stratified analysis revealed that carriers of the IRF4rs12203592T/T genotype had a six-fold increased risk of developing the infection when compared with those carrying the C allele (ORREC = 6.24, 95%CI 1.25–31.2, P = 0.026), the association of this variant with IA risk did not reach significance at experiment-wide significant threshold. In addition, we found an association of the IRF4AATC and IRF4GGTC haplotypes (not including the IRF4rs12203592T risk allele) with a decreased risk of IA but the magnitude of the association was similar to the one observed in the single-SNP analysis, which indicated that the haplotypic effect on IA risk was likely due to the IRF4rs12203592 SNP. Finally, no evidence of significant interactions among the genetic markers tested and the risk of IA was found. These results suggest that the SNPs on the studied genes do not have a clinically relevant impact on the risk of developing IA. PMID:27570521

  16. Prospective Biomarker Screening for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis in High-Risk Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Julia; Mengoli, Carlo; Wirth, Clemens; Heussel, Claus Peter; Löffler, Claudia; White, P. Lewis; Ullmann, Andrew J.; Michel, Denise; Wiegering, Verena; Wölfl, Matthias; Schlegel, Paul Gerhardt; Einsele, Hermann; Springer, Jan; Eyrich, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Combined biomarker screening is increasingly used to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk patients. In adults, the combination of galactomannan (GM) and fungal DNA detection has proven to be beneficial in the diagnosis of IA. Data in purely pediatric cohorts are scarce. Here, we monitored 39 children shortly before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation twice weekly by use of a commercial GM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a PCR assay based on amplification of the pan-Aspergillus ITS1/5.8S ribosomal operon. In addition, clinical data were recorded and classification of IA was performed according to the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria. Among the 39 high-risk children, we identified 4 patients (10.3%) with probable and 2 (5.1%) with possible IA. All patients with probable IA were repeatedly positive for both tests (means of 9.5 and 6.8 positive GM and PCR samples, respectively), whereas both possible IA cases were detected by PCR. The sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 67% and 89% for GM and 100% and 63% for PCR. Positive and negative predictive values were, respectively, 50% and 100% for GM and 27% and 100% for PCR. For the combined testing approach, both values were 100%. The number of positive samples seemed to be lower in patients undergoing antifungal therapy. Sporadically positive tests occurred in 12% (GM) and 42% (PCR) of unclassified patients. In summary, our data show that combined monitoring for GM and fungal DNA also results in a high diagnostic accuracy in pediatric patients. Future studies have to determine whether combined testing is suitable for early detection of subclinical disease and how antifungal prophylaxis impacts assay performance. PMID:27795339

  17. Potential Anticarcinogenic Peptides from Bovine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk possesses a protein system constituted by two major families of proteins: caseins (insoluble and whey proteins (soluble. Caseins (αS1, αS2, β, and κ are the predominant phosphoproteins in the milk of ruminants, accounting for about 80% of total protein, while the whey proteins, representing approximately 20% of milk protein fraction, include β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins, bovine serum albumin, bovine lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, together with other minor components. Different bioactivities have been associated with these proteins. In many cases, caseins and whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are released, in the body, by enzymatic proteolysis during gastrointestinal digestion or during food processing. The biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play physiological roles, including opioid-like features, as well as immunomodulant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant activities. In recent years, research has focused its attention on the ability of these molecules to provide a prevention against the development of cancer. This paper presents an overview of antitumor activity of caseins and whey proteins and derived peptides.

  18. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of voriconazole prophylaxis for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Julius; Gordon Burroughs, Sherilyn; Boktour, Maha; Patel, Samir; Saharia, Ashish; Ochoa, Robert A; McFadden, Robert; Victor, David W; Ankoma-Sey, Victor; Galati, Joseph; Monsour, Howard P; Fainstein, Victor; Li, Xian C; Grimes, Kevin A; Gaber, A Osama; Aloia, Thomas; Ghobrial, R Mark

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus infection remains a significant and deadly complication after liver transplantation (LT). We sought to determine whether the antifungal prophylactic use of voriconazole reduces the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk LT recipients without prohibitively increasing cost. During the study era (April 2008 to April 2014), 339 deceased donor LTs were performed. Of those patients, 174 high-risk recipients were administered antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole. The median biological Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score at the time of LT was 33 (range, 18-49) with 56% requiring continuous renal replacement therapy and 50% requiring ventilatory support immediately before transplantation. Diagnosis of IA was stratified as proven, probable, or possible according to previously published definitions. No IA was documented in patients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. At 90 days after LT, the institutional cost of prophylaxis was $5324 or 5.6% of the predicted cost associated with post-LT aspergillosis. There was no documentation of resistant strains isolated from any recipient who received voriconazole. In conclusion, these data suggest that voriconazole prophylaxis is safe, clinically effective, and cost-effective in high-risk LT recipients. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Analysis of viability for implantation of a natural gas cogeneration system in a bovine slaughterhouse in expansion; Analise da viabilidade da implantacao de um systema de cobracao de energia a gas natural em um frigorifico bovni em expansao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Alessandro T.; Dib, Fernando H.; Romao Junior, Ricardo A.; Campitelli, Flavio M.; Ramos, Ricardo A.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work the use of natural gas as fuel in a tri generation system proposed for a bovine slaughterhouse is analyzed. Traditionally, great part of the slaughterhouses uses firewood, and eventually oil, as fuel to supply the thermal energy and purchases electric energy from a concessionaire. The configuration proposed will allow the simultaneous generation of electricity, vapor for the processes and refrigeration to the slaughterhouse consumption, as well as generation of electricity surplus for commercialization. For evaluation of the plants performances, energetic and exegetic analyses are carried out for the plant expanded by conventional mode and by means of the tri generation system. Finally, thermo economical analyses, for evaluation of reflexes of the costs of capital investment and of fuel on the composition of products costs, are accomplished for each case considered. (author)

  20. Outcome and medical costs of patients with invasive aspergillosis and acute myelogenous leukemia-myelodysplastic syndrome treated with intensive chemotherapy: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Slobbe (Lennert); S. Polinder (Suzanne); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of mortality in patients with acute leukemia. Management of IA is expensive, which makes prevention desirable. Because hospital resources are limited, prevention costs have to be compared with treatment costs and outcome.

  1. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Transcriptomic microarray analysis of BoMac cells after infection with bovine foamy virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rola-Luszczak, M.; Materniak, M.; Pluta, A.; Hulst, M.M.; Kuz'mak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in

  3. Clinical features and risk factors for patients with liver failure complicated by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAO Erhui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features and risk factors for patients with liver failure complicated by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA, and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment. MethodsThe clinical data of 477 patients with liver failure who were diagnosed and treated in Henan Provincial People′s Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014 were collected, and the clinical features, laboratory markers, and results of imaging examinations of patients with IPA were retrospectively analyzed. Another 49 patients with liver failure who were hospitalized within the same period, had similar ages, and were not complicated by pulmonary infection were randomly selected as controls. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test were used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the risk factors for liver failure complicated by IPA. ResultsAmong the 447 patients with liver failure, 43(96% were complicated by IPA. Age (P=0.023, hepatic encephalopathy (P=0.021, long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (P=0.007, use of hormone (P=0.016, and deep venous catheterization (P<0.001 were independent risk factors for the development of IPA. Clinical manifestations of liver failure patients with IPA lacked specificity. Lung CT scan showed multiple nodules, masses, and wedge-shaped consolidation near the pleura in both lungs, but typical halo sign and air crescent sign were rarely seen. Among the 35 patients who received antifungal therapy, 30 were improved or cured, 3 died of digestive tract bleeding, 2 clied of plumonary infection, and all the other patients who did not receive therapy also died. ConclusionPatients with liver failure have various risk factors for the development of IPA, and the clinical manifestations are not typical, with high incidence

  4. Correlation between Circulating Fungal Biomarkers and Clinical Outcome in Invasive Aspergillosis.

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    Dionysios Neofytos

    Full Text Available Objective means are needed to predict and assess clinical response in patients treated for invasive aspergillosis (IA. We examined whether early changes in serum galactomannan (GM and/or β-D-glucan (BDG can predict clinical outcomes. Patients with proven or probable IA were prospectively enrolled, and serial GM and BDG levels and GM optical density indices (GMI were calculated twice weekly for 6 weeks following initiation of standard-of-care antifungal therapy. Changes in these biomarkers during the first 2 and 6 weeks of treatment were analyzed for associations with clinical response and survival at weeks 6 and 12. Among 47 patients with IA, 53.2% (25/47 and 65.9% (27/41 had clinical response by weeks 6 and 12, respectively. Changes in biomarkers during the first 2 weeks were associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GMI, P = 0.03 and 12 weeks (GM+BDG composite, P = 0.05; GM, P = 0.04; GMI, P = 0.02. Changes in biomarkers during the first 6 weeks were also associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GM, P = 0.05; GMI, P = 0.03 and 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.02; GM, P = 0.02; GMI, P = 0.01. Overall survival rates at 6 weeks and 12 weeks were 87.2% (41/47 and 79.1% (34/43, respectively. Decreasing biomarkers in the first 2 weeks were associated with survival at 6 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.03; BDG, P = 0.01; GM, P = 0.03 and at 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.01; BDG, P = 0.03; GM, P = 0.01; GMI, P = 0.007. Similar correlations occurred for biomarkers measured over 6 weeks. Patients with negative baseline GMI and/or persistently negative GMI during the first 2 weeks were more likely to have CR and survival. These results suggest that changes of biomarkers may be informative to predict and/or assess response to therapy and survival in patients treated for IA.

  5. Immunodiagnosis of opportunistic mycoses: detection of fungal antigenemia by radioimmunoassays in systemic candidiasis and aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have developed radioimmunoassays to the Candida carbohydrate, mannan, and to an Aspergillus cell wall carbohydrate. They evaluate these radioimmunoassays with sera from rabbit models of disseminated mycoses, and further evaluate the radioimmunoassays for their diagnostic usefulness in a panel of patient sera. (Auth.)

  6. Infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from caprine lungs by viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Keil, Günther M; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Ganter, Martin; Herrler, Georg

    2014-05-14

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are important pathogens associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Non-bovine ruminants such as goats may also be infected and serve as a virus reservoir to be considered in the development of control strategies. To evaluate the susceptibility of caprine airway epithelial cells to infection by viruses of BRDC, we established a culture system for differentiated caprine epithelial cells. For this purpose, we generated precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), in which cells are retained in their original structural configuration and remain viable for more than a week. The three bovine viruses were found to preferentially infect different cell types. Ciliated epithelial cells were the major target cells of BPIV3, whereas BHV-1 preferred basal cells. Cells infected by BRSV were detected in submucosal cell layers. This spectrum of susceptible cells is the same as that reported recently for infected bovine PCLS. While infection of caprine cells by BRSV and BPIV3 was as efficient as that reported for bovine cells, infection of caprine cells by BHV-1 required a tenfold higher dose of infectious virus as compared to infection of bovine airway cells. These results support the notion that non-bovine ruminants may serve as a reservoir for viruses of BRDC and introduce a culture system to analyze virus infection of differentiated airway epithelial cells from the caprine lung. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-05-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object.

  8. Combination antifungal therapy and surgery for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Toffolutti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year old boy, affected by severe aplastic anemia, developed a probable pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA early after a second unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. He was treated promptly with the combination of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin. Despite the initial stabilization, the patient deteriorated and the antifungal therapy was switched to voriconazole and caspofungin. The patient gradually improved and was discharged home on day +29 post-HSCT on oral voriconazole. On day +119, a sudden episode of hemoptysis occurred and a right superior lobectomy was decided to remove the residual aspergilloma. The patient is now alive and well more than 24 months from HSCT. This case demonstrated that antifungal combination therapy and surgery are valid options to cure pulmonary IA even in patients at high-risk and severely immunosuppressed.

  9. Status of aspergillosis and sea fan populations in Curaçao ten years after the 1995 Caribbean epizootic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M Nugues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, a survey of sea fan corals was conducted in Curaçao during a Caribbean-wide outbreak of the sea fan disease aspergillosis. The survey was repeated in 2005 using the same methodology and identical sites to examine changes in sea fan populations 10 years after the initial epizootic. Necrotic lesions typical of aspergillosis were present on as many sea fans in 2005 as in 1995 (mean ± SE: 52 ± 6 vs 43 ± 10%. The disease also showed no significant variation in virulence (9.6 ± 1.2 vs 8.8 ± 1.0% tissue loss per diseased colony. However, the average number of sea fan colonies per 10 m² decreased from 2.7 ± 1.1 to 0.7 ± 0.2 over the 10-year period, a decline of almost 75%. This decrease occurred for all colony sizes, but was more pronounced among small colonies, resulting in an overall trend of domination by large colonies. These results support that aspergillosis can have a significant, long-term impact on sea fan population size and structure. The continued presence of the disease in 2005 could be contributing to reduced recruitment and/or selective mortality among the smallest colonies. This study provides no indication that host resistance against aspergillosis could reverse the decline of Caribbean sea fan corals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 153-160. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.En 1995, se realizó un sondeo de los abanicos de mar durante un brote de aspergilosis, una enfermedad de abanicos de mar extendida en todo el Caribe. En el año 2005 se repitió el sondeo utilizando exactamente la misma metodología y los mismos sitios para examinar cambios en las poblaciones tras 10 años del inicio del brote. Se presentaron lesiones necróticas típicas de la aspergilosis en tantos abanicos en el 2005, como en 1995 (promedio ± ES: 52 ± 6 vs 43 ± 10%. La enfermedad tampoco mostró variaciones significativas en la virulencia (9.6 ± 1.2 vs 8.8 ± 1.0%, pérdida de tejido por colonia enferma. Sin embargo, el número promedio de colonias de

  10. Invasive maxillary aspergillosis masquerading as malignancy in two cases: Utility of cytology as a rapid diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have emerged as important etiological agents for chronic sinusitis. Invasive aspergillosis has been reported in immunocompromised individuals or diabetics; however, it is uncommonly seen in immunocompetent patients. Definitive diagnosis of these lesions is based on histological examination and fungal culture. We report two cases of invasive maxillary lesions in immunocompetent patients, clinically suspected of malignancy; however, fine needle aspiration cytology showed fungal hyphae, morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus, which was later confirmed on histopathology. Aspiration cytology thus plays a crucial role in the early and definitive diagnosis of fungal sinusitis in cases clinico-radiologically suspected of malignancy. An early diagnosis will help the clinician for early and appropriate management and follow-up in order to decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated with it.

  11. Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis | Salm | Bulletin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... 350 cattle over 24 weeks were sampled for seroepidemiological survey and assessing endemic stability (100 from sporadic field cases and small holders randomly selected and 250 from intensive system farms).

  12. Comparative survival and cost of antifungal therapy: posaconazole versus standard antifungals in the treatment of refractory invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Raoul; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Danna, Robert; Papadopoulos, George

    2010-10-01

    Refractory invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening condition. Cost of treatment, although secondary, is important if newer drugs are to be widely accepted. Posaconazole has been shown to have activity against aspergillosis. Analyses were conducted to compare the effectiveness and cost of posaconazole 800 mg/day with those of standard antifungal therapy, using Walsh et al. 2007 data. All-cause mortality and total drug costs were analyzed for three patient groups: All Refractory, Refractory Non-neutropenic, and Refractory Neutropenic IA Patients. Comparative survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier estimates after censoring data at 28, 42, 84, 182, and 365 days and Cox proportional hazard method was used to estimate hazard rates after controlling for difference in baseline neutropenia. For cost analysis, only antifungal drug acquisition cost was used. Significantly more of the 94 patients treated with posaconazole remained alive at every time point compared with the 68 external control patients within the All Refractory group (p = 0.0001). Similar results were obtained for the other two groups. For the posaconazole-treated patients mean total drug costs were $11846 (±$12406), $12642 (±$11811), and $8903 (±$14345), and for the external controls total drug costs were $35537 (±$73059), $48097 (±$88702), and $13556 (±$16324) for the All Refractory, Refractory Non-neutropenic, and Neutropenic IA groups, respectively. Key limitations of the study included noninclusion of hospitalization or other drug costs, low patient numbers beyond 84 days, and the fact that the Walsh et al. 2007 study was completed before other newer antifungal agents (such as voriconazole and caspofungin) were available. Posaconazole appears to confer a survival benefit and reduced total drug cost compared with standard antifungal therapy, such as amphotericin B (lipid and nonlipid formulations), itraconazole, or both, to treat patients with probable or proven refractory IA.

  13. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  14. [Expression and differential diagnostic value of serum microRNA for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z N; Ling, Z G; Huang, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To explore the expression and the clinical diagnostic value of serum miR-21 for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Methods: Outpatients and inpatients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were included in the study during June 2014 to September 2015. The IPA group had 40 patients, male 22, female 18, aged 55-68 years (mean 60 ), while the control groups included 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [male 23, female 27, aged 50-62 years (mean 55 )], 50 patients with lung cancer [male 30, female 20, aged 55-70 years (mean 62)], and 50 healthy controls [male 25, female 25, aged 50-67 years (mean 60) ]. Serum were obtained and the levels of miR-21 and galactomannan (GM test) and (1, 3)-beta-D-glucan (G test) were measured. The related indexes were analyzed by logistic regression and ROC curves. Results: The serum miR-21 expression in IPA and lung cancer patients were increased, the median values ( P (25) and P (75)) being 0.42(0.31, 0.62)and 0.80(0.65, 0.94) respectively, both of which were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls [ 0.09(0.04, 0.15)] and the tuberculosis cases [ 0.08(0.03, 0.16)], P tuberculosis cases and lung cancer cases were 0.914, 0.897 and 0.863 respectively, with the Youden index being 0.780, 0.700 and 0.605 respectively. The serum levels of miR-21 in between 0.198 and 0.723 had preferable diagnostic accuracy. ROC analysis for miR-21 in IPA compared to healthy controls showed that the AUCs of miR-21 combined with G test or GM test were 0.992 and 0.966 respectively, the sensitivity being 95% (38/40) and 93% (37/40) respectively, the specificity being 98% (49/50) and 96% (48/50) respectively, and the Youden index being 0.930 and 0.885 respectively. If miR-21 was combined with G test and GM test, the AUC was 0.994, the sensitivity and the specificity being 98% (38/40) and 96% (48/50) respectively, and the Youden index increased to 0.935. ROC analysis for miR-21 in IPA compared to

  15. Bovine explant model of degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sarit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many new treatments for degeneration of the intervertebral disc are being developed which can be delivered through a needle. These require testing in model systems before being used in human patients. Unfortunately, because of differences in anatomy, there are no ideal animal models of disc degeneration. Bovine explant model systems have many advantages but it is not possible to inject any significant volume into an intact disc. Therefore we have attempted to mimic disc degeneration in an explant bovine model via enzymatic digestion. Methods Bovine coccygeal discs were incubated with different concentrations of the proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and papain, and maintained in culture for up to 3 weeks. A radio-opaque solution was injected to visualise cavities generated. Degenerative features were monitored histologically and biochemically (water and glycosaminoglycan content, via dimethylmethylene blue. Results and Conclusion The central region of both papain and trypsin treated discs was macro- and microscopically fragmented, with severe loss of metachromasia. The integrity of the surrounding tissue was mostly in tact with cells in the outer annulus appearing viable. Biochemical analysis demonstrated greatly reduced glycosaminoglycan content in these compared to untreated discs. We have shown that bovine coccygeal discs, treated with proteolytic enzymes can provide a useful in vitro model system for developing and testing potential new treatments of disc degeneration, such as injectable implants or biological therapies.

  16. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; Tratamiento percutaneo con anfotericina B en un caso de aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, A.; Lonjedo, E.; Agramunt, M.; Martinez-Rodrigo, J. J.; Palomero, J. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a serious complications that occurs in immunocompromised patients. We need a rapid and effective treatment both to treat the aspergillosis as well as to be able to continue, as soon as possible, treatment of the baseline disease. We present a case of a percutaneous treatment of the pulmonary lesions in a 55 year old male with IPA in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With Computerized Tomography (CT) control and using a fine needle, we injected intralesionally a solution of Amphotericin B (AB) (5 mg/cc of 5% glucose solution). We evaluated the complications and efficacy in relationship to the clinical improvement and reduction in lesion size. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. Efficacy of Oral E1210, a New Broad-Spectrum Antifungal with a Novel Mechanism of Action, in Murine Models of Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, and Fusariosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Katsura; Horii, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Okubo, Miyuki; Sonoda, Jiro; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class, broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action—inhibition of fungal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. In this study, the efficacies of E1210 and reference antifungals were evaluated in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. Oral E1210 demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in infections caused by Candida species, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium solani. In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, E1210 and fluconazole each caused a significantly greater reduction in the number of oral CFU than the control treatment (P candidiasis model, mice treated with E1210, fluconazole, caspofungin, or liposomal amphotericin B showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. A 24-h delay in treatment onset minimally affected the efficacy outcome of E1210 in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis. In the Aspergillus flavus pulmonary aspergillosis model, mice treated with E1210, voriconazole, or caspofungin showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. These data suggest that further studies to determine E1210's potential for the treatment of disseminated fungal infections are indicated. PMID:21788462

  18. Efficacy of oral E1210, a new broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action, in murine models of candidiasis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Katsura; Horii, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Watanabe, Nao-Aki; Okubo, Miyuki; Sonoda, Jiro; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-10-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class, broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action-inhibition of fungal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. In this study, the efficacies of E1210 and reference antifungals were evaluated in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. Oral E1210 demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in infections caused by Candida species, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium solani. In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, E1210 and fluconazole each caused a significantly greater reduction in the number of oral CFU than the control treatment (P candidiasis model, mice treated with E1210, fluconazole, caspofungin, or liposomal amphotericin B showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. A 24-h delay in treatment onset minimally affected the efficacy outcome of E1210 in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis. In the Aspergillus flavus pulmonary aspergillosis model, mice treated with E1210, voriconazole, or caspofungin showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. These data suggest that further studies to determine E1210's potential for the treatment of disseminated fungal infections are indicated.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, P.; Becka, S.; Krejci, P.; Chrpova, M.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunological method for quantitative determination of bovine growth hormone in blood plasma or serum for routine use was worked out. The antibody is also suitable for radioimmunoassay of bovine growth hormone. The chloramin T and lactoperoxidase methods were used. Standard b-STH isolated by one of the authors was labelled with I-125(Na 125 I, carrier free, Amersham). The I-125-hormone was separated on Sephadex G-50 or G-100 and stored in 0.05M phosphate pH 7.5 with 1% of human serum albumine at 25 deg C. The method was checked on 2500 samples. Rabbit antiserum to b-STH was prepared in sufficient amount to serve also for other laboratories interested in the method. (author)

  20. Comparison of microtensile bond strength to enamel and dentin of human, bovine, and porcine teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, AF; Giannini, M; Kavaguchi, A; Soares, CJ; Line, SRP

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the bond strengths promoted by an adhesive system to human, bovine, and porcine enamel and dentin, and compare their etched micromorphology by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Thirty sound freshly extracted teeth were used in this study: ten human third molars, ten bovine incisors, and ten porcine molars. The crowns of human (H), bovine (B), and porcine (P) teeth were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose either enamel (E) or mid-depth dentin (D) s...

  1. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  2. Short Time Exposure (STE) test in conjunction with Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay including histopathology to evaluate correspondence with the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation classification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Ducas, Rafael do Nascimento; Teixeira, Gabriel Campos; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Valadares, Marize Campos

    2015-09-01

    Eye irritation evaluation is mandatory for predicting health risks in consumers exposed to textile dyes. The two dyes, Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19) are classified as Category 2A (irritating to eyes) based on the UN Globally Harmonized System for classification (UN GHS), according to the Draize test. On the other hand, animal welfare considerations and the enforcement of a new regulation in the EU are drawing much attention in reducing or replacing animal experiments with alternative methods. This study evaluated the eye irritation of the two dyes RO16 and RG19 by combining the Short Time Exposure (STE) and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assays and then comparing them with in vivo data from the GHS classification. The STE test (first level screening) categorized both dyes as GHS Category 1 (severe irritant). In the BCOP, dye RG19 was also classified as GHS Category 1 while dye RO16 was classified as GHS no prediction can be made. Both dyes caused damage to the corneal tissue as confirmed by histopathological analysis. Our findings demonstrated that the STE test did not contribute to arriving at a better conclusion about the eye irritation potential of the dyes when used in conjunction with the BCOP test. Adding the histopathology to the BCOP test could be an appropriate tool for a more meaningful prediction of the eye irritation potential of dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  4. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  5. GROWTH, GAS EXCHANGE AND YIELD OF CORN WHEN FERTIGATED WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    THALES VINÍCIUS DE ARAÚJO VIANA; JOÃO GUILHERME ARAÚJO LIMA; GEOCLEBER GOMES DE SOUSA; LUIS GONZAGA PINHEIRO NETO; BENITO MOREIRA DE AZEVEDO

    2014-01-01

    The bovine biofertilizer applied through irrigation water in the soil (bio fertigation), can be a viable organic source to maintain fertility levels in agricultural production systems. So, this work was aimed at evaluating the effects of different concentrations of bovine biofertilizer applied by fertigation on corn growth, gas exchange and yield. The experiment was conducted under full sun exposure, in Fortaleza, Ceara, in 100 liter (100 L) vessels. The experimental design was that of random...

  6. Bifunctional role of ephrin A1-Eph system in stimulating cell proliferation and protecting cells from cell death through the attenuation of ER stress and inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Jeong, Wooyoung; Bae, Hyocheol; Lim, Whasun; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2018-03-01

    Structural and functional development of the mammary gland is constant in the mammary gland life cycle. Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, control events through cell-to-cell interactions during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis; however, little information on participation of ephrin A1, a representative ligand of the Eph receptor, in the development and function of normal mammary glands is known. In this study, we demonstrated functional effects of the ephrin A1-Eph system and mechanisms of its action on bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. The in vitro cultured MAC-T cells expressed the ephrin A1 ligand and EphA1, A2, A4, A7, and A8 among the eight members of the Eph A family. Our results revealed that ephrin A1 induced MAC-T cell cycle progression and stimulated cell proliferation with abundant expression of nucleic PCNA and cyclin D1 proteins. Additionally, ephrin A1 induced activation of intracellular signaling molecules involved in PI3 K/AKT and MAPK signaling, and the proliferation-stimulating effect of ephrin A1 was mediated by activation of these pathways. Furthermore, ephrin A1 influenced expression and activation of various ER stress-related proteins and protected MAC-T cells from stress-induced cell death. Finally, ephrin A1 alleviated LPS-induced cell death through down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the Eph A-ephrin A1 system is a positive factor in the increase and maintenance of epithelial cells in mammary glands of cows; the signaling system contributes to development, remodeling, and functionality of normal mammary glands and could overcome mastitis in cows and other mammals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. LPS from bovine serum albumin drives TNF-α release during ex-vivo placenta perfusion experiments, contaminates the perfusion system but can be effectively removed by oxidative cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthan, T; Rochow, N; Mian, F; Codini, T; DeFrance, B; Fusch, G; Samiee-Zafarghandy, S; Fusch, C

    2014-12-01

    The dual ex-vivo perfusion of human placental tissue is useful to study inflammatory pathways. We found significant TNF-α release in negative controls similar in concentration to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated placentas. The aim of the current study was to (i) identify sources driving TNF-α release and (ii) develop an approach to control for it. (i) To determine sources leading to TNF-α release, solutions frequently circulated through the perfusion system and perfusion media with different bovine serum albumin (BSA) quality were exposed to mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7) and subsequently measured for TNF-α expression. (ii) To assess memory effects and validate cleaning procedures, sham perfusion experiments were conducted either in the presence or absence of exogenous LPS, in new tubing that was contaminated, cleaned and analyzed for the effectiveness of LPS removal. Oxidative and acid-base cleaning were tested for their effectiveness to reduce LPS contamination. TNF-α release, observed in negative control experiments, was attributed to the use of LPS-contaminated BSA as well as inadequate cleaning of the perfusion system. Once introduced in the perfusion system, LPS accumulated and created a memory effect. Oxidative but not acid-base depyrogenation effectively reduced LPS levels to concentrations that were in accordance with FDA guidelines (placenta perfusion model could have confounding effects on experimental outcomes leading to misinterpretation of data. To circumvent LPS contamination LPS-free BSA and oxidative depyrogenation cleaning techniques should be implemented in future placental perfusion studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phototoxicity, Pseudoporphyria, and Photo-onycholysis Due to Voriconazole in a Pediatric Patient With Leukemia and Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Zachary I; Boyd, Alan S; Di Pentima, M Cecilia

    2015-06-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal agent superior to amphotericin B in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. It is generally well tolerated and has excellent oral bioavailability, providing significant benefit in the treatment of invasive fungal infections. There have been numerous reports of dermatologic reactions to this agent, including erythroderma, cheilitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, discoid lupus erythematosus, pseudoporphyria, squamous cell carcinoma, and photosensitivity reactions. Pseudoporphyria, a dermatologic condition mimicking porphyria cutanea tarda, has been described as an adverse effect of voriconazole use. Clinical findings include photosensitivity, vesicles, bullae, milia, and scarring in sun-exposed areas. Photo-onycholysis is a phenomenon of nail discoloration and onycholysis that has been described in the setting of a phototoxic drug reaction and pseudoporphyria. Implicated drugs have most commonly been tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and psoralens; others have been reported as well. We report a case of a pediatric patient with leukemia who developed symptoms consistent with pseudoporphyria and later photo-onycholysis while being treated with voriconazole. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pseudoporphyria due to voriconazole in a pediatric patient and the first reported case of photo-onycholysis as a consequence of voriconazole use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for prevention of invasive aspergillosis among leukemia patients during hospital construction activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combariza, Juan F; Toro, Luis F; Orozco, John J; Arango, Marcos

    2018-02-01

    Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) is a serious problem among hematological patients and it is associated with high mortality. This situation can worsen at times of hospital construction, however there are several preventive measures available. This work aims to define the cost-effectiveness of some of these interventions. A decision tree model was used, it was divided into four arms according to each 1 of the interventions performed. A cost-effectiveness incremental analysis comparing environmental control measures, high efficiency particulate absorption (HEPA) filter installation and prophylaxis with posaconazole was done. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Among 86 patients with 175 hospitalization episodes, the incidence of IA with environmental protection measures, antifungal prophylaxis and hospitalization in rooms with HEPA filters was 14.4%, 6.3% and 0%, respectively. An Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio analysis was performed and it was found that HEPA filtered rooms and environmental protection measures are cost saving interventions when compared with posaconazole prophylaxis (-$2665 vs -$4073 vs $42 531 US dollars, respectively) for IA episode prevented. The isolation of inpatients with acute leukemia during hospital construction periods in HEPA filtered rooms could reduce the incidence of IA and might be a cost-effective prevention strategy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: Prevalence and percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccetti, Giovanni; Procopio, Elena; Marianelli, Lore; Campana, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is difficult to determine because the data in the literature are not homogeneous or comparable. ABPA and CF have similar clinical symptoms which make diagnosis difficult and underestimate the real dimensions of the problem. We conducted an epidemiological study on 3089 Italian CF patients to determine the prevalence of ABPA in Italy and verify the percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria. Our results indicate that the prevalence of ABPA in Italian CF patients is 6.18%, mainly in adolescents and young adults. ABPA is diagnosed using clinical symptoms (presence of episodic bronchial obstructions or typical radiographic features) and on the basis of other criteria which can only be partially fulfilled in paediatric patients. Among the diagnostic tests the most sensitive are the total IgE (84.5%), specific IgE anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (81.6%) and the prick test (68.3%). In the absence of clinical symptoms and gold standard diagnostic tests, serological positivity and/or the skin test are not sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of ABPA

  11. Bronchocele density in cystic fibrosis as an indicator of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Aurélie; Soize, Sébastien; Ranc, Caroline; Giovannini-Chami, Lisa; Bailly, Carole; Leloutre, Béatrice; Boyer, Corinne; Baque-Juston, Marie

    2017-08-01

    Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a severe and under-diagnosed complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the study was to determine whether the mucus content of bronchoceles in cystic fibrosis complicated with ABPA reveals a higher density than the mucus content of non-ABPA cystic fibrosis. We studied retrospectively 43 computed tomography scans (CT scans) of a pediatric population of cystic fibrosis patients. We measured the mucus attenuation in Hounsfield Units (HU) of all bronchoceles >5mm in diameter. We found bronchoceles >5mm in 13/43 patients. 5/13 patients had a positive diagnosis of ABPA. The median HU value of bronchoceles was higher in patients with than without ABPA [98 HU (26-135) vs 28 HU (10-36); P=0,02]. Moreover, all patients with a bronchocele density >36HU were ABPA positive. CF complicated with ABPA shows higher attenuation bronchoceles on CT scans of the chest. Systematic density measurements of bronchoceles could help to raise the difficult diagnosis of ABPA in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Larger series could confirm a threshold in HU which could become a new imaging criterion for the diagnosis of ABPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of real-time PCR to process the first galactomannan-positive serum sample in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Laurence; Piarroux, Renaud; Deconinck, Eric; Bulabois, Claude-Eric; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Rohrlich, Pierre; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2005-10-01

    Positive galactomannan (GM) anti-genemias are included as a microbiological item in the diagnosis of probable or possible invasive aspergillosis (IA). Because false-positive GM results frequently occur, at least two positive results on two different samples are required. Waiting for clinical specimens can delay the initiation of treatment. As an alternative, we wondered whether detection of circulating Aspergillus DNA on the first positive GM serum sample could aid in diagnosing IA. Therefore, we retrospectively screened the first GM-positive serum samples from 29 patients from our hematology unit for Aspergillus DNA using real-time PCR. We compared the real-time PCR results with the final classification of proven, probable, and possible IA according to consensual criteria. No clear correlation between PCR results and the classification with the medical files could be shown. However, a positive PCR result was associated with a poor prognosis (Fisher's test; P=0.01). Our preliminary data suggest that a positive PCR result could indicate a more advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, concomitant positive PCR and GM results may justify the initiation of antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients. In contrast, a negative PCR on the first positive GM sample may argue for postponing costly antifungal administration until additional arguments for the diagnosis of IA are presented.

  13. Serum galactomannan antigen as a prognostic and diagnostic marker for invasive aspergillosis in heterogeneous medicine ICU patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Yubhisha; Mohan, Anant; Xess, Immaculata

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to get a complete clinical and mycological picture of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in respiratory medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. From the cohort of 235 patients only one had proven IA. Based on AspICU algorithm, 21 had putative IA (8.9%), 12 were colonised (5.1%). Adjusting the confounding factors, significant risk factors for IA were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), temperature of ≥38°C, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The best predictor of IA was AspICU algorithm (AUC, 1) followed by serum galactomannan antigen (GM) cut-off (≥1.24) calculated based on AspICU algorithm (AUC, 0.822). For 37% of patients, IA diagnoses was made earlier with serum GM than radiology. There were 70/235 (29.8%) deaths within 30 days of enrolment in the study. Aspergillus culture positivity (34/235, 14.5%) was associated with very high mortality (27/34, 79.4%), (p<0.05). The best predictor of mortality was GM cut-off (≥1.24) calculated based on AspICU algorithm (AUC, 0.835). This study imparts the focus on relatively underestimated Aspergillus infections prevalent in ICUs. The AspICU algorithm was found to be useful over others for IA diagnosis. The prognostic usefulness of serum GM antigen detection test highlighted overlooking the same may not be rewarding for the outcome of IA suspected ICU subpopulation.

  14. Multivariate Analysis As a Support for Diagnostic Flowcharts in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vitte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular-based allergy diagnosis yields multiple biomarker datasets. The classical diagnostic score for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a severe disease usually occurring in asthmatic patients and people with cystic fibrosis, comprises succinct immunological criteria formulated in 1977: total IgE, anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (Af IgE, anti-Af “precipitins,” and anti-Af IgG. Progress achieved over the last four decades led to multiple IgE and IgG(4 Af biomarkers available with quantitative, standardized, molecular-level reports. These newly available biomarkers have not been included in the current diagnostic criteria, either individually or in algorithms, despite persistent underdiagnosis of ABPA. Large numbers of individual biomarkers may hinder their use in clinical practice. Conversely, multivariate analysis using new tools may bring about a better chance of less diagnostic mistakes. We report here a proof-of-concept work consisting of a three-step multivariate analysis of Af IgE, IgG, and IgG4 biomarkers through a combination of principal component analysis, hierarchical ascendant classification, and classification and regression tree multivariate analysis. The resulting diagnostic algorithms might show the way for novel criteria and improved diagnostic efficiency in Af-sensitized patients at risk for ABPA.

  15. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin during the periparturient period on innate and adaptive immune responses, systemic inflammation, and metabolism of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P R B; Machado, K S; Da Silva, D N Lobão; Moraes, J G N; Keisler, D H; Chebel, R C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine effects of treating peripartum dairy cows with body condition score ≥3.75 with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on immune, inflammatory, and metabolic responses. Holstein cows (253±1d of gestation) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: untreated control (n=53), rbST87.5 (n=56; 87.5mg of rbST), and rbST125 (n=57; 125mg of rbST). Cows in the rbST87.5 and rbST125 treatments received rbST weekly from -21 to 28d relative to calving. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, haptoglobin, tumor necrosis factor α, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations were determined weekly from -21 to 21d relative to calving. Blood sampled weekly from -14 to 21d relative to calving was used for hemogram and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) expression of adhesion molecules, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst. Cows were vaccinated with ovalbumin at -21, -7, and 7d relative to calving, and blood was collected weekly from -21 to 21d relative to calving to determine IgG anti-ovalbumin concentrations. A subsample of cows had liver biopsied -21, -7, and 7d relative to calving to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and glycogen content. Growth hormone concentrations prepartum (control=11.0±1.2, rbST87.5=14.1±1.2, rbST125=15.1±1.3ng/mL) and postpartum (control=14.4±1.1, rbST87.5=17.8±1.2, rbST125=21.8±1.1ng/mL) were highest for rbST125 cows. Cows treated with rbST had higher insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations than control cows (control=110.5±4.5, rbST87.5=126.2±4.5, rbST125=127.2±4.5ng/mL) only prepartum. Intensity of L-selectin expression was higher for rbST125 than for control and rbST87.5 cows [control=3,590±270, rbST87.5=3,279±271, rbST125=4,371±279 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)] in the prepartum period. The PMNL intensities of phagocytosis (control=3,131±130, rbST87.5=3,391±133, rbST125=3,673±137 GMFI) and oxidative burst (control=9,588±746

  16. (Npro) protein of bovine viral d

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep, and causes significant respiratory and reproductive disease worldwide. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2 along with the border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belong to the genus ...

  17. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  18. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  19. Impact of the intensity of the pretransplantation conditioning regimen in patients with prior invasive aspergillosis undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A retrospective survey of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Rodrigo; Parody, Rocio; Fukuda, Takahiro; Maertens, Johan; Theunissen, Koen; Ho, Aloysius; Mufti, Ghulam J; Kroger, Nicolaus; Zander, Arnold R; Heim, Dominik; Paluszewska, Monika; Selleslag, Dominik; Steinerova, Katerina; Ljungman, Per; Cesaro, Simone; Nihtinen, Anna; Cordonnier, Catherine; Vazquez, Lourdes; López-Duarte, Monica; Lopez, Javier; Cabrera, Rafael; Rovira, Montserrat; Neuburger, Stefan; Cornely, Oliver; Hunter, Ann E; Marr, Kieren A; Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann

    2006-11-01

    In this retrospective study, we analyzed the outcomes of 129 patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and had a history of probable or proven invasive aspergillosis (IA), of whom 57 (44%) received a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Overall, 27 patients with IA progressed after the allo-HSCT (cumulative incidence [CumInc] at 2 years, 22%). The variables that increased the 2-year CumInc of IA progression were (1) longer duration of neutropenia after transplantation; (2) advanced status of the underlying disease; and (3) less than 6 weeks from start of systemic anti-Aspergillus therapy and the allo-HSCT. In addition, (4) conventional myeloablative conditioning increased the risk of progression early after transplantation (before day 30) only, while 3 variables increased the risk beyond day 30 were (5) cytomegalovirus disease; (6) bone marrow or cord blood as source of stem cells; and (7) grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A risk model for progression was generated, defined as low (0-1 risk factors, 6% incidence), intermediate (2-3 risk factors, 27% incidence), or high risk (> or = 3 risk factors, 72% incidence [P < .001]). These findings may help in the interpretation and design of future studies on secondary prophylaxis of IA after an allo-HSCT.

  20. Updating of the bovine neosporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martínez Contreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the fields of Medicine and bovine production, there is a wide variety of diseases affecting reproduction, in relation to the number of live births, the interval between births and open days, among others. Some of these diseases produce abortions and embryonic death, which explain the alteration of reproductive parameters. Many of these diseases have an infectious origin, such as parasites, bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are transmitted among animals. Besides, some of them have zoonotic features that generate problems to human health. Among these agents, the Neospora caninum, protozoan stands out. Its life cycle is fulfilled in several species of animals like the dog and the coyote. These two act as its definitive hosts and the cattle as its intermediary host. The Neospora caninum causes in the infected animals, reproductive disorders, clinical manifestations and decreased production which affects productivity of small, medium and large producers. Because of this, diagnostic techniques that allow understanding the epidemiological behavior of this disease have been developed. However in spite of being a major agent in the bovine reproductive health, few studies have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of this agent around the world. Therefore, the objective of this review was to collect updated information on the behavior of this parasite, targeting its epidemiology, its symptoms, its impact on production and the methods of its control and prevention.

  1. Bovine papillomavirus isolation by ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Giovanni, D N S; Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J; Sant'Ana, T A; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2014-11-01

    The bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiological agent of bovine papillomatosis, which causes significant economic losses to livestock, characterized by the presence of papillomas that regress spontaneously or persist and progress to malignancy. Currently, there are 13 types of BPVs described in the literature as well as 32 putative new types. This study aimed to isolate viral particles of BPV from skin papillomas, using a novel viral isolation method. The virus types were previously identified with new primers designed. 77 cutaneous papilloma samples of 27 animals, Simmental breed, were surgically removed. The DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR using Delta-Epsilon and Xi primers. The bands were purified and sequenced. The sequences were analyzed using software and compared to the GenBank database, by BLAST tool. The viral typing showed a prevalence of BPV-2 in 81.81% of samples. It was also detected the presence of the putative new virus type BR/UEL2 in one sample. Virus isolation was performed by ultracentrifugation in a single density of cesium chloride. The method of virus isolation is less laborious than those previously described, allowing the isolation of complete virus particles of BPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lyophilized bovine bone biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of bone grafts in orthopedic, maxillofacial and dental surgery has been growing. Nevertheless, both fresh autografts and frozen allografts have limitations, and therefore, alternative synthetic or natural biomaterials, such as processed and lyophilized bovine bone graft have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of lyophilized bovine bone manufactured in a semi-industrial scale, according to a modifical protocol developed by the authors. METHODS: Samples of bovine cancellous bone were processed according to a protocol developed by Kakiuchi et al., and modified to process samples of bovine cancellous bone. The following trials were performed: in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo acute systemic toxicity, in vivo oral irritation potential, in vitro pyrogenic reaction, and bioburden. RESULTS: The in vitro evaluation of lyophilized bovine cancellous bone revealed an absence of cytotoxicity in 100% of the samples. Regarding in vivo evaluation of acute systemic toxicity, neither macroscopic abnormalities nor deaths were noted in the animals. Pyrogenicity was not greater than 0.125 UE/ml in any of the samples. The bioburden revealed negative results for microbial growth before sterilization. Regarding the oral irritation potential, in vivo evaluation at 24 and 72 hours showed that the animals had no edema or erythema on the oral mucosa. CONCLUSION: The protocol changes established by the authors to prepare lyophilized bovine cancellous bone at a semi-industrial scale is reproducible and yielded a product with excellent biocompatibility.

  3. Bacterial Ghosts of Escherichia coli Drive Efficient Maturation of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Dar, Pervaiz Ahmad; Appavoo, Elamurugan; Kishore, Subodh; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Ganesh, Kondabattula

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They not only represent a potential platform for development of novel vaccines but also provide a tool for efficient adjuvant and antigen delivery system. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between BGs of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). MoDCs are highly potent antigen-presenting cells and have the potential to act as a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system. We generated bovine MoDCs in vitro from blood monocytes using E. coli expressed bovine GM-CSF and IL-4 cytokines. These MoDCs displayed typical morphology and functions similar to DCs. We further investigated the E. coli BGs to induce maturation of bovine MoDCs in comparison to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We observed the maturation marker molecules such as MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 were induced early and at higher levels in BG stimulated MoDCs as compared to the LPS stimulated MoDCs. BG mediated stimulation induced significantly higher levels of cytokine expression in bovine MoDCs than LPS. Both pro-inflammatory (IL-12 and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines were induced in MoDCs after BGs stimulation. We further analysed the effects of BGs on the bovine MoDCs in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We found the BG-treated bovine MoDCs had significantly (pBGs induce a strong activation and maturation of bovine MoDCs.

  4. Bacterial Ghosts of Escherichia coli Drive Efficient Maturation of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ahmed Hajam

    Full Text Available Bacterial ghosts (BGs are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They not only represent a potential platform for development of novel vaccines but also provide a tool for efficient adjuvant and antigen delivery system. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between BGs of Escherichia coli (E. coli and bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs. MoDCs are highly potent antigen-presenting cells and have the potential to act as a powerful tool for manipulating the immune system. We generated bovine MoDCs in vitro from blood monocytes using E. coli expressed bovine GM-CSF and IL-4 cytokines. These MoDCs displayed typical morphology and functions similar to DCs. We further investigated the E. coli BGs to induce maturation of bovine MoDCs in comparison to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We observed the maturation marker molecules such as MHC-II, CD80 and CD86 were induced early and at higher levels in BG stimulated MoDCs as compared to the LPS stimulated MoDCs. BG mediated stimulation induced significantly higher levels of cytokine expression in bovine MoDCs than LPS. Both pro-inflammatory (IL-12 and TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines were induced in MoDCs after BGs stimulation. We further analysed the effects of BGs on the bovine MoDCs in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR. We found the BG-treated bovine MoDCs had significantly (p<0.05 higher capacity to stimulate allogenic T cell proliferation in MLR as compared to the LPS. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the E. coli BGs induce a strong activation and maturation of bovine MoDCs.

  5. Investigation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Attachment onto Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) Using Combinatorial Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hanh T. M.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Rodenhausen, Keith B.; Schubert, Mathias; Bartz, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption kinetics to surfaces is of importance for various environmental and biomedical applications. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin to various self-assembled monolayer surfaces including neutral and charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was investigated using in-situ combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin varied as a function of surface properties, bovine serum albumin concentration and pH value. Charged surfaces exhibited a greater quantity of bovine serum albumin adsorption, a larger bovine serum albumin layer thickness, and increased density of bovine serum albumin protein compared to neutral surfaces at neutral pH value. The quantity of adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein increased with increasing bovine serum albumin concentration. After equilibrium sorption was reached at pH 7.0, desorption of bovine serum albumin occurred when pH was lowered to 2.0, which is below the isoelectric point of bovine serum albumin. Our data provide further evidence that combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry is a sensitive analytical tool to evaluate attachment and detachment of adsorbed proteins in systems with environmental implications. PMID:26505481

  6. Investigation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA Attachment onto Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs Using Combinatorial Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanh T M Phan

    Full Text Available Understanding protein adsorption kinetics to surfaces is of importance for various environmental and biomedical applications. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin to various self-assembled monolayer surfaces including neutral and charged hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was investigated using in-situ combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin varied as a function of surface properties, bovine serum albumin concentration and pH value. Charged surfaces exhibited a greater quantity of bovine serum albumin adsorption, a larger bovine serum albumin layer thickness, and increased density of bovine serum albumin protein compared to neutral surfaces at neutral pH value. The quantity of adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein increased with increasing bovine serum albumin concentration. After equilibrium sorption was reached at pH 7.0, desorption of bovine serum albumin occurred when pH was lowered to 2.0, which is below the isoelectric point of bovine serum albumin. Our data provide further evidence that combinatorial quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and spectroscopic ellipsometry is a sensitive analytical tool to evaluate attachment and detachment of adsorbed proteins in systems with environmental implications.

  7. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  8. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  9. [Program optimization for bovine somatic cells nuclear transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Anmin; Ma, Xiaoling; Gao, Zhimin; Hu, Yongce; Sui, Jinqiang; Huang, Weiwei; Zan, Linsen; Dou, Zhongying

    2009-09-01

    To optimize program of bovine somatic nuclear transfer, we used two different enucleation procedures (by Spindle-view system & Hoechst 33342 staining), two different procedures to introduce donor nuclei (by ooplasm microinjection & electrofusion), and three different group electrofusion parameters (group 1: 1.9 kV/cm, 10 micros, two; group 2: 1.5 kV/cm, 25 micros, two; group 3: 0.6 kV/cm, 100 micros, one) to reconstruct bovine cloned embryos. The cleavation rates and blastocyst development rates of cloned embryos were used to assess the efficiency of different operational procedure. Finally, the best combination of operational procedure, that the spindle-viewer system was used for oocytes enucleating, and donor cell was electrofused into ooplasm by electrical pulse (1.9 kV/cm, 10 micros, two) to reconstruct bovine cloned embryos. Then the excellent blastocysts were transferred to fosters for producing cloned cattle 80 high-quality cloned blastocysts were transferred into 33 fosters, two cloned calves were produced. According to the results, the optimized program could be used to produce cloned cattle.

  10. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Maurício; Oliveira, Rosângela C; Cortez, Beatriz A; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia M; Assumpção, Mayra Eo; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-10-27

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  11. Influência dos sistemas de pastagem e confinamento na contaminação microbiana de carcaças bovinas Influence of pasture and feedlot systems in microbial contamination of bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B.B. Jardim

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contaminação microbiana do couro e da superfície de carcaças bovinas, provenientes de bovinos em diferentes sistemas de engorda: extensiva em pastagem e intensiva em confinamento. Foram utilizados 40 bovinos sadios, da raça nelore, sendo metade proveniente de pastagem e a outra metade de confinamento, que foram abatidos em matadouro-frigorífico sob Serviço de Inspeção Federal, localizado no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A coleta das amostras realizou-se pela técnica de esfregaço de superfície nas carcaças utilizando-se de suabe. As contagens médias (log10 UFC/cm² de aeróbios mesófilos e anaeróbios facultativos, coliformes totais e E. coli foram: antes da esfola, 3,72, 1,27 e 0,86; após a esfola, 1,89, 0,40 e 0,40, e após a lavagem, 2,19, 0,55 e 0,42, respectivamente, para os bovinos de pastagem; antes da esfola, 3,31, 0,65 e 0,64; após a esfola, 1,78, 0,40 e 0,40, e após a lavagem, 1,82, 0,41 e 0,40 para os bovinos de confinamento. Evidenciou-se, pela análise microbiológica, que as amostras provenientes de bovinos em pastagem apresentaram contagens médias superiores, e no caso do couro, essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas. Essa constatação foi confirmada pela observação visual de que os animais de confinamento apresentavam o couro "mais limpo" no momento do abate.The objective of this research work was to evaluate the microbial contamination of hide and surface from bovine carcasses coming from cattle under two different feeding systems: extensive, in pasture, and intensive, in feedlot. Forty healthy bovine animals from nelore breed were selected, the one-half being from pasture and the other one-half from feedlot. They were slaughtered under the Federal Inspection Service, in the slaughterhouse located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample collection was carried out through the surface smear technique by using swab on carcasses. The average

  12. Evaluation of envelope glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus as antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and atypical bovine pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Liu, Lihong; Belák, Sándor

    2012-11-01

    Atypical bovine pestiviruses are related antigenically and phylogenetically to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), and may cause the same clinical manifestations in animals. Glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant E(rns) protein was used as an antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against BVDV-1 and atypical bovine pestivirus. The diagnostic performance of the new method was evaluated by testing a total of 596 serum samples, and the assay was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on the negative/positive cut-off median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 2800, the microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% compared to ELISA. The immunoassay was able to detect antibodies against both BVDV-1 and the atypical pestivirus. This novel microsphere immunoassay has the potential to be multiplexed for simultaneous detection of antibodies against different bovine pathogens in a high-throughput and economical way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    OpenAIRE

    Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Briggs, Robert E.; Tatum, Fred M.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activi...

  15. Safety, Efficacy, and Exposure-Response of Voriconazole in Pediatric Patients With Invasive Aspergillosis, Invasive Candidiasis or Esophageal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Judith M; Macias-Parra, Mercedes; Mudry, Peter; Conte, Umberto; Yan, Jean L; Liu, Ping; Capparella, M Rita; Aram, Jalal A

    2017-01-01

    Data on safety and efficacy of voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive candidiasis/esophageal candidiasis (IC/EC) in pediatric patients are limited. Patients aged 2-<18 years with IA and IC/EC were enrolled in 2 prospective open-label, non-comparative studies of voriconazole. Patients followed dosing regimens based on age, weight and indication, with adjustments permitted. Treatment duration was 6-12 weeks for IA patients, ≥14 days after last positive Candida culture for IC patients and ≥7 days after signs/symptoms resolution for EC patients. Primary analysis for both the studies was safety and tolerability of voriconazole. Secondary end points included global response success at week 6 and end of treatment (EOT), all-causality mortality and time to death. Voriconazole exposure-response relationship was explored. Of 53 voriconazole-treated pediatric patients (31 IA; 22 IC/EC), 14 had proven/probable IA, 7 had confirmed IC and 10 had confirmed EC. Treatment-related hepatic and visual adverse events, respectively, were reported in 22.6% and 16.1% of IA patients, and 22.7% and 27.3% of IC/EC patients. All-causality mortality in IA patients was 14.3% at week 6; no deaths were attributed to voriconazole. No deaths were reported for IC/EC patients. Global response success rate was 64.3% (week 6 and EOT) in IA patients and 76.5% (EOT) in IC/EC patients. There was no association between voriconazole exposure and efficacy; however, a slight positive association between voriconazole exposure and hepatic adverse events was established. Safety and efficacy outcomes in pediatric patients with IA and IC/EC were consistent with previous findings in adult patients.

  16. Application of a low molecular weight antifungal protein from Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) to treat pulmonary aspergillosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palicz, Zoltán; Gáll, Tamás; Leiter, Éva; Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona; Miszti-Blasius, Kornél; Pócsi, István; Csernoch, László; Szentesi, Péter

    2016-11-09

    PAF, a small antifungal protein from Penicillium chrysogenum, inhibits the growth of several pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus genus. PAF has been proven to have no toxic effects in vivo in mice by intranasal application. To test its efficacy against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), experiments were carried out in mice suffering from IPA. Adult mice were immunosuppressed and then infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. After stable infection, the animals were inoculated with PAF intranasally at a concentration of 2.7 mg/kg twice per day. At this concentration-which is highly toxic in vitro to A. fumigatus-the mortality of the animals was slightly delayed but finally all animals died. Histological examinations revealed massive fungal infections in the lungs of both PAF-treated and untreated animal groups. Because intranasally administered PAF was unable to overcome IPA, modified and combined therapies were introduced. The intraperitoneal application of PAF in animals with IPA prolonged the survival of the animals only 1 day. Similar results were obtained with amphotericin B (AMB), with PAF and AMB being equally effective. Combined therapy with AMB and PAF-which are synergistic in vitro-was found to be more effective than either AMB or PAF treatment alone. As no toxic effects of PAF in mammals have been described thus far, and, moreover, there are so far no A. fumigatus strains with reported inherent or acquired PAF resistance, it is worth carrying out further studies to introduce PAF as a potential antifungal drug in human therapy.

  17. Voriconazole Exposure and Risk of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Aspergillus Colonization, Invasive Aspergillosis and Death in Lung Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, M; Binstock, M; Williams, K; Hafeez, F; Kim, J; Glidden, D; Boettger, R; Hays, S; Kukreja, J; Golden, J; Asgari, M M; Chin-Hong, P; Singer, J P; Arron, S T

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal used to prevent and treat invasive fungal infections after lung transplantation, but it has been associated with an increased risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Despite widespread use, there are no clear guidelines for optimal prophylactic regimens that balance the competing risks and benefits. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all lung transplant recipients at the University of California, San Francisco, who were transplanted between October 1991 and December 2012 (n = 455) to investigate whether voriconazole exposure affected development of SCC, Aspergillus colonization, invasive aspergillosis and all-cause mortality. Voriconazole exposure was associated with a 73% increased risk of developing SCC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.88; p = 0.03), with each additional 30-day exposure at the standard dose increasing the risk by 3.0% (HR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.04; p Voriconazole exposure reduced risk of Aspergillus colonization by 50% (HR 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34-0.72; p Voriconazole exposure significantly reduced all-cause mortality among subjects who developed Aspergillus colonization (HR 0.34; 95% CI: 0.13-0.91; p = 0.03) but had no significant impact on those without colonization. Physicians should consider patient-specific factors that modify the potential risks and benefits of voriconazole for the care of lung transplant recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Safety, Efficacy, and Exposure–Response of Voriconazole in Pediatric Patients With Invasive Aspergillosis, Invasive Candidiasis or Esophageal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Parra, Mercedes; Mudry, Peter; Conte, Umberto; Yan, Jean L.; Liu, Ping; Capparella, M. Rita; Aram, Jalal A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Data on safety and efficacy of voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive candidiasis/esophageal candidiasis (IC/EC) in pediatric patients are limited. Methods: Patients aged 2–voriconazole. Patients followed dosing regimens based on age, weight and indication, with adjustments permitted. Treatment duration was 6–12 weeks for IA patients, ≥14 days after last positive Candida culture for IC patients and ≥7 days after signs/symptoms resolution for EC patients. Primary analysis for both the studies was safety and tolerability of voriconazole. Secondary end points included global response success at week 6 and end of treatment (EOT), all-causality mortality and time to death. Voriconazole exposure–response relationship was explored. Results: Of 53 voriconazole-treated pediatric patients (31 IA; 22 IC/EC), 14 had proven/probable IA, 7 had confirmed IC and 10 had confirmed EC. Treatment-related hepatic and visual adverse events, respectively, were reported in 22.6% and 16.1% of IA patients, and 22.7% and 27.3% of IC/EC patients. All-causality mortality in IA patients was 14.3% at week 6; no deaths were attributed to voriconazole. No deaths were reported for IC/EC patients. Global response success rate was 64.3% (week 6 and EOT) in IA patients and 76.5% (EOT) in IC/EC patients. There was no association between voriconazole exposure and efficacy; however, a slight positive association between voriconazole exposure and hepatic adverse events was established. Conclusions: Safety and efficacy outcomes in pediatric patients with IA and IC/EC were consistent with previous findings in adult patients. PMID:27636722

  19. Increasing incidence of invasive aspergillosis in pediatric hematology oncology patients over the last decade: a retrospective single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Pedro M; Sevilla, Julián; González-Vicent, Marta; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Díaz, Miguel A; Riesco, Susana; Madero, Luis

    2009-09-01

    There is scanty information about invasive aspergillosis (IA) in the pediatric population. A review of IA at Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús between 1996 and 2006 was undertaken to analyze incidence, risk factors, and treatment response. Twenty patients were diagnosed with probable or proven IA during the study period, with a cumulative incidence of 1.96%. Incidence was higher in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients: 2.26% (3.5% in allogeneic HSCT and 1.2% in autologous HSCT). A significative increase in IA incidence was observed along the study period (P=0.013), although this increase did not reach signification if only proven cases were compared (P=0.058). Most patients presented multiple risk factors for IA (87% more than 1, and 47% more than 3). The most frequently described risk factor was chemotherapy (90%), after by long-term neutropenia (90%), and corticotherapy (75%). Main locations of the infection were pulmonary (8 patients), cutaneous (3 patients) and intestinal (3 patients). Six patients presented disseminated IA. Initial response to treatment was 55%, although 3 of these cases had a subsequent episode. Global antifungal response, at the end of the follow-up, was 45%. IA-related mortality was 55%. Global mortality was 90%. Only 2 patients (isolated cutaneous IA cases) survived. Seven patients died due to their underlying malignant disease without active fungal disease. Incidence of IA in oncology children is increasing, and in adults. In our experience, IA is a marker of poor outcome even for patients who initially respond to antifungal treatment.

  20. Evaluation of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis depending on the underlying lung diseases: Emphysema vs prior tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Junko; Kawashima, Masahiro; Okuda, Kenichi; Sato, Ryota; Suzukawa, Maho; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Ohta, Ken

    2015-11-01

    There have been scarce data evaluating the differences of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depending on underlying pulmonary diseases. We tried to clarify them in CPA patients who had pulmonary emphysema or previous pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed and evaluated CPA patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 with pulmonary emphysema (PE group; n = 29), with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (PT group; n = 47) and with combination of these 2 underlying conditions (CTE group; n = 24). In CT findings, fungus balls were rare in PE group (7% in PE group and 36% in PT group; p = 0.006). Compared with PT group, PE group patients exhibited more frequent preceding antibiotics administration (45% vs 11%; p = 0.002) and fever (52% vs 17%; p = 0.002), less frequent hemosputum (24% vs 57%; p = 0.008), and more frequent consolidations in imaging (79% vs 38%; p = 0.001) and respiratory failure (34% vs 13%; p = 0.020), possibly suggesting more acute clinical manifestations of CPA in emphysematous patients. Trend of the differences between PT and PE group was not changed when patients with fungal balls were excluded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of risks for all-cause mortality revealed age (HR, 1.079; p = 0.002) and emphysema (HR, 2.45; p = 0.040) as risk factors. Assessment of underlying lung diseases is needed when we estimate prognosis and consider treatment of CPA patients. Particularly, emphysematous patients can be presented as refractory pneumonia and show poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Germany: results of a pre-planned subanalysis of an international registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egerer Gerlinde

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is a pre-planned country-specific subanalysis of results in Germany from a multinational multicenter registry to prospectively assess real-world experience with caspofungin administered for treatment of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis (IA. Methods Data from patients treated with caspofungin for a single episode of IA were collected. Effectiveness was determined by the local investigator as favorable (complete or partial response or unfavorable (stable disease, failure or death at the end of caspofungin therapy. Descriptive statistics with binomial exact confidence intervals were employed. Results Forty-two consecutive patients were identified in three German centers. Three patients (7% had proven IA and 39/42 (93% had probable IA (modified European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG criteria. Forty-one patients had pulmonary IA and one had tracheal IA. Caspofungin monotherapy was received by 36/42 patients (86%; of these, 26/36 (72% received salvage therapy. A favorable response was observed in 29/42 patients (69%; 95% CI 53 to 82%; of these, 21/29 (72% had a complete and 8/29 (28% a partial response. Favorable response rate was 69% in patients with monotherapy (95% CI 52% to 84%; 25/36 patients, and 67% in patients receiving combination therapy (95% CI 22% to 96%; 4/6 patients. Favorable response rate in patients with first line therapy was 64% (95% CI 31% to 89%; 7/11 patients, and 73% in patients with second line therapy (95% CI 54% to 88%; 20/30 patients. No adverse events were reported. In total, 35/42 patients (83%; 95% CI 69 to 93% survived seven days after completion of caspofungin therapy. Conclusions These real-life findings in Germany are consistent with the international findings from this registry and with findings from randomized studies.

  2. Correlation between high-resolution computed tomography and galactomannan antigenemia in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, A.; Parody, R.; Martino, R.; Sanchez, F.; Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Blancas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the predominant radiological pattern of pulmonary lesions in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) together with the results of serial serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing (GM). Material and methods: In a prospective study for patients at high risk of aspergillus pulmonary infection, serum GM were performed 2-3 times per week during the periods of high risk for IA and high-resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in case of abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and/or persistent fever after 5 days of antibiotic treatment. Changes on HRCT scan were classified as airway IA and angioinvasive IA. IA was classified as proven or probable in accordance with the definitions stated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC-MS). Positive GM testing was not considered as microbiological criterion. Results: 38 hematological patients were diagnosed of probable (n = 28) or proven (n = 10) IA. 55% patients had a neutrophil count less than 500 mm -3 (n = 21), and 37% patients ≥2 risk factors for IA. All probable IA were diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Proven IA was reached by positive histopathologic and culture results of samples obtained by autopsy (n = 4), percutaneous (n = 3) or transbronchial biopsy (n = 3). 18 patients had airway IA, and 60% had a GM level ≥1.5. 20 patients were diagnosed of angioinvasive IA from which 80% had a GM level ≥1.5. Conclusion: Serum GM levels may be lower in patients with airway IA than in those with an angioinvasive form. HRCT and serum GM are complementary tests in the diagnosis of IA.

  3. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  4. Efficiency of N2 Gas Flushing Compared to the Lactoperoxidase System at Controlling Bacterial Growth in Bovine Raw Milk Stored at Mild Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Quintyn, Romanie; De Man, Ingrid; Alatossava, Tapani; Gauchi, Jean-Pierrre

    2016-01-01

    To prevent excessive bacterial growth in raw milk, the FAO recommends two options: either cold storage or activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPs/HT) in milk with the addition of two chemical preservatives, hydrogen peroxide (H) and thiocyanate (T). N2 gas flushing of raw milk has shown great potential to control bacterial growth in a temperature range of 6–12°C without promoting undesired side effects. Here, the effect of N2 gas (N) was tested as a single treatment and in combination with the lactoperoxidase system (NHT) on seven raw milk samples stored at 15 or 25°C. For the ratio defined as bacterial counts from a certain treatment/counts on the corresponding control, a classical Analyse of Variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ). Altogether, the growth inhibition was slightly but significantly higher at 25°C than at 15°C. Except for one sample, all ratios were lower for HT than for N alone; however, these differences were not judged to be significant for five samples by the REGWQ test; in the remaining two samples, N was more effective than HT in one case and less effective in the other case. This study shows that N2 gas flushing, which inhibited bacterial growth in raw milk at 15 and 25°C for 24 and 12 h, respectively, could constitute an alternative to LPs where no cold storage facilities exist, especially as a replacement for adulterating substances. PMID:27313575

  5. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  6. Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis (Bovine Tuberculosis) in Humans What is Mycobacterium bovis ? In the United States, the majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in people are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is ...

  7. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome, and the differences in specific protein abundance, were observed among four cows. One third of the quantified proteins showed a significant decrease in concentration over the first 9 days after calving, especially in the immune proteins (as much as 40 fold). Three relative high abundant enzymes (XDH, LPL, and RNASE1) and cell division and proliferation protein (CREG1) may be involved in the maturation of the gastro-intestinal tract. In addition, high correlations between proteins involved in complement and blood coagulation cascades illustrates the complex nature of biological interrelationships between milk proteins. The linear decrease of protease inhibitors and proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune system implies a protective role for protease inhibitor against degradation. In conclusion, the results found in this study not only improve our understanding of the role of colostrum in both host defense and development of the newborn calf but also provides guidance for the improvement of infant formula through better understanding of the complex interactions between milk proteins.

  8. Bovine milk proteome in the first 9 days: protein interactions in maturation of the immune and digestive system of the newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome, and the differences in specific protein abundance, were observed among four cows. One third of the quantified proteins showed a significant decrease in concentration over the first 9 days after calving, especially in the immune proteins (as much as 40 fold. Three relative high abundant enzymes (XDH, LPL, and RNASE1 and cell division and proliferation protein (CREG1 may be involved in the maturation of the gastro-intestinal tract. In addition, high correlations between proteins involved in complement and blood coagulation cascades illustrates the complex nature of biological interrelationships between milk proteins. The linear decrease of protease inhibitors and proteins involved in innate and adaptive immune system implies a protective role for protease inhibitor against degradation. In conclusion, the results found in this study not only improve our understanding of the role of colostrum in both host defense and development of the newborn calf but also provides guidance for the improvement of infant formula through better understanding of the complex interactions between milk proteins.

  9. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  10. Assessment of the viability and fertilizing potential of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa using dual fluorescent staining and two-flow cytometric systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, S A; Garner, D L; Redelman, D; Ahmad, K

    1989-04-01

    A dual fluorescent staining system utilizing 5 (and-6)-carboxy-4',5'-dimethyl fluorescein diacetate (CDMFDA) and Hydroethidine (HED) was developed to provide quantifiable information reflective of spermatozoal viability and fertilizing potential. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from ten bulls on which there was fertilizing capacity information were incubated for 1.5, and 3 hr at 39 degrees C prior to fluorogenic staining. Spermatozoa were analyzed using both a FACS Analyzer and an EPICS V flow cytometer to determine if a particular fluorescence pattern was due to an instrumental artifact or cellular processes. Five fluorescent cellular populations were identified by the FACS Analyzer and three populations by the EPICS V. Spermatozoa were quantified after each incubation time for red (HED) and green (CDMFDA) fluorescence. Viable spermatozoa retained the greatest amount of both green and red fluorescence. Dead or moribund spermatozoa had a decrease in over-all fluorescence. The number of viable cells at 0 hr plus the number of dead or morbid cells at any time period were identified by the FACS Analyzer as important in estimating the potential fertility of a bull. The EPICS V identified the number of dead or moribund cells as being related to nonreturn rates. Incubation of samples decreased cellular viability, which resulted in reduced levels of both green and red fluorescence. Similarities between data obtained with both flow cytometers illustrated that cellular processes, not instrumental artifacts, were responsible for the decrease in over-all fluorescence when viability declined, the relationship between the number of cells with specific fluorescence levels and nonreturn rates, and the incubative-induced changes in fluorescence patterns.

  11. Hot topic: Ceramide inhibits insulin sensitivity in primary bovine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Myers, W A; Laub, D J; Davis, A N; Zeng, Q; McFadden, J W

    2018-04-01

    In nonruminants, the sphingolipid ceramide inhibits insulin sensitivity by inactivating protein kinase B (AKT) within the insulin-signaling pathway. We have established that ceramide accrual develops with impaired systemic insulin action in ruminants during the transition from gestation to lactation, dietary palmitic acid supplementation, or controlled nutrient restriction. We hypothesized that ceramide promotes AKT inactivation and antagonizes insulin sensitivity in primary bovine adipocytes. Stromal-vascular cells were grown from bovine adipose tissue explants and cultured in differentiation media. To modify ceramide supply, we treated differentiated adipocytes with (1) myriocin, an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, or (2) cell-permeable C2:0-ceramide. Insulin-stimulated AKT activation (i.e., phosphorylation) and 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]-glucose (2DOG) uptake were measured. Treatment of adipocytes with myriocin consistently decreased concentrations of ceramide, monohexosylceramide, and lactosylceramide. The insulin-stimulated ratio of phosphorylated AKT to total AKT was increased with myriocin but decreased with C2:0-ceramide. Moreover, adipocyte insulin-stimulated 2DOG uptake was decreased with C2:0-ceramide and increased with myriocin. We conclude that ceramide inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by downregulating AKT activation in primary bovine adipocytes. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Inactivation of viral agents in bovine serum by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, C; House, J A; Yedloutschnig, R J

    1990-10-01

    Cell culture origin or suckling mouse brain origin viruses of Akabane disease, Aino, bovine ephemeral fever, swine vesicular disease, hog cholera, bluetongue, and minute virus of mice were each suspended in bovine serum. Aliquots (1 mL) were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source while at -68 degrees C. Aliquots (100-mL) of serum from a steer experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus were similarly irradiated. The samples were assayed for infectivity in cell culture systems before and after irradiation, and the data points were analyzed by linear regression. The irradiation doses (in megarads) necessary to inactivate one log10 of viral infectivity (D10) was calculated for each virus. D10 is otherwise known as the slope of the regression line. The r2 value, a measure of association with 1.0 = perfect fit, was also calculated for each regression line. The values (D10, r2) for each virus were as follows: Akabane, 0.25, 0.998; Aino, 0.35, 0.997; bovine ephemeral fever, 0.29, 0.961; swine vesicular disease, 0.50, 0.969; foot-and-mouth disease, 0.53, 0.978; hog cholera, 0.55, 0.974; bluetongue, 0.83, 0.958; and minute virus of mice, 1.07, 0.935.

  13. Aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica com imagem radiológica em "dedo de luva" Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting a glove-finger shadow in radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elizabeth Kalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica é uma doença pulmonar que ocorre em pacientes com asma ou fibrose cística, desencadeada pela reação de hipersensibilidade à presença do fungo Aspergilus fumigatus nas vias aéreas. Relatamos aqui um caso em que uma paciente com quadro clínico sugestivo de asma apresentou critérios clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos compatíveis com o diagnóstico de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica. A importância de tais achados deve-se ao fato de que quanto mais precocemente for feito o diagnóstico, menores serão os riscos de agravamento do quadro respiratório e de aparecimento de fibrose.Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease occurring in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, triggered by a hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways. We report herein the case of a patient presenting a clinical profile suggestive of asthma and meeting the clinical, laboratory testing and radiological criteria for a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The importance of such findings is that early diagnosis can reduce the risk of respiratory exacerbations and fibrosis.

  14. Effectiveness of environmental control measures to decrease the risk of invasive aspergillosis in acute leukaemia patients during hospital building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combariza, J F; Toro, L F; Orozco, J J

    2017-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant problem in acute leukaemia patients. Construction work near hospital wards caring for immunocompromised patients is one of the main risk factors for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). To assess the impact of environmental control measures used during hospital construction for the prevention of IA in acute leukaemia patients. A retrospective cohort study was developed to evaluate the IA incidence in acute leukaemia patients with different environmental control measures employed during hospital construction. We used European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criterial diagnosis parameters for definition of IA. A total of 175 episodes of inpatient care were evaluated, 62 of which did not have any environmental control measures (when an outbreak occurred), and 113 that were subject to environmental control measures directed to preventing IA. The study showed an IA incidence of 25.8% for the group without environmental control measures vs 12.4% for those who did receive environmental control measures (P=0.024). The relative risk for IA was 0.595 (95% confidence interval: 0.394-0.897) for the group with environmental control measures. The current study suggests that the implementation of environmental control measures during a hospital construction has a positive impact for prevention of IA in patients hospitalized with acute leukaemia. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  16. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin.......The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...... a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium...

  17. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bovine herpesvirus 1 interferes with TAP-dependent peptide transport and intracellular trafficking of MHC class I molecules in human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppers-Lalic, D.; Rychlowski, M.; Leeuwen, D.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Ressing, M.E.; Neefjes, J.J.; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K.; Wiertz, E.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), the cause of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle, establishes a lifelong infection, despite the presence of antiviral immunity in the host. BoHV-1 has been shown to elude the host immune system, but the viral gene products

  19. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  20. Lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfer, A.E.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, receptors that may be involved in the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and low density lipoproteins which have been modified by acetylation (AcLDL), were characterized. Aortic epithelial cells were used and a cell culture system which closely resembled the in vivo monolayer was established. Endothelial cell and lipoprotein interactions were examined by incubating the cells with 125 l-labelled lipoproteins under various conditions. The receptor affinity of bovine aortic endothelial cells was higher for AcLDL than that for LDL. Competition studies demonstrated that there were two distinct receptors for LDL and AcLDL on the endothelial cells. AcLDL did not compete with LDL for the LDL receptor, and conversely LDL did not compete with AcLDL for the AcLDL receptor. The receptor activities for LDL and AcLDL were examined as a function of culture age. Whereas the LDL receptor could be regulated, the AcLDL receptor was not as susceptible to regulation. Upon exposing endothelial cells for 72 h to either LDL or AcLDL, it was found that the total amount of cellular cholesterol increased by about 50%. However, the increase of total cholesterol was largely in the form of free cholesterol. This is in contrast to macrophages, where the increase in total cholesterol upon exposure to AcLDL is largely in the form cholesteryl esters

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  2. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  3. Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes.

  4. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis: MR Imaging of Airway Mucus Contrasts as a Tool for Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dournes, Gaël; Berger, Patrick; Refait, John; Macey, Julie; Bui, Stephanie; Delhaes, Laurence; Montaudon, Michel; Corneloup, Olivier; Chateil, Jean-François; Marthan, Roger; Fayon, Michaël; Laurent, François

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of mucus contrast characterization by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to discriminate allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee, and all patients or their parents gave written informed consent. One hundred ten consecutive patients with CF were screened between January 2014 and July 2015. All patients underwent a non-contrast material-enhanced MR protocol that included routine T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. The presence of mucus with both high T1 and low T2 signal intensities and the so-called inverted mucoid impaction signal (IMIS) sign was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by two physicians who were blinded to all other data. The reference standard for a diagnosis of ABPA was the criteria of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference. ABPA status was followed up for 1 year. Reproducibility was assessed by using the κ test, correlation was assessed by using the Spearman coefficient, and diagnostic accuracy was assessed by calculating the sensitivity and specificity of IMIS. Results One hundred eight patients with CF were included (mean age, 20 years ± 11 [standard deviation]; range, 6-53 years): 18 patients with ABPA and 90 patients without ABPA. At the lobar level, inter- and intrareader reproducibility were very good (κ > 0.90). IMIS had 94% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 73%, 99%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 96%, 100%) for the diagnosis of ABPA. A complete resolution of IMIS was observed in patients with ABPA after 3 months of specific treatment that was significantly correlated with decrease in total immunoglobulin E level (ρ = 0.47; P = .04). Conclusion The IMIS sign was both specific and sensitive for the diagnosis of ABPA in CF. Allergic fungal inflammation appears to induce characteristic modifications of mucus contrasts that are assessable by using a noninvasive

  5. Detection of galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage of the intensive care unit patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Khodavaysi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Invasive aspergillosis (IA is one of the most common life-threatening fungal infections among the critically ill patients including intensive care unit (ICU patients. Delayed diagnosis and therapy may lead to poor outcomes. Diagnosis may be facilitated by a test for molecular biomarkers, i.e. detection of galactomannan (GM antigen based on enzyme immunoassay, which is of increasing interest in the clinical settings for the diagnosis of IA. In the present study, we assessed GM testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid as a tool for early diagnosis of IA among ICU patients who were at risk for developing IA. Material and Methods: A prospective study was performed in ICU patients with underlying predisposing conditions for IA between August 2010 and September 2011. BAL samples for direct microscopic examination, culture, and GM detection were obtained once or twice weekly. GM in BAL levels was measured using the Platellia Aspergillus EIA test kit. According to modified European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer/ Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG criteria, patients were classified as having probable or possible IA. Results: Out of 43 suspected patients to IA, 13 (30.2% cases showed IA. According to the criteria presented by EORTC/MSG, they were categorized as: 4 cases (30.8% of possible IA and 9 (69.2% of probable IA. Out of 21 BAL samples from patients with IA, 11 (52.4% had at least one positive BAL GM index. Using a cutoff index of 0.5, the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of GM detection in BAL fluid were 100%, 85.7%, 65.7% and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity was 73% and 92.7% at cutoff ≥1.0, respectively. In 6 of 13 IA cases, BAL culture or direct microscopic examination remained negative, whereas GM in BAL was positive. Conclusion: Our data have revealed that the sensitivity of GM detection in BAL was better than that of conventional tests. It

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROCONTROLLED TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM AND EVALUATION OF THE SENSOR ELEMENT IMPLANT IN BOVINES DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM SISTEMA MICROCONTROLADO DE MONITORAÇÃO DA TEMPERATURA E AVALIAÇÃO DO IMPLANTE DO ELEMENTO SENSOR DIGITAL EM BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernane José Xavier Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    this paper presents a complete system for tempe-rature monitoring. the system was developed to speed up bovine behavior studies under temperature exposure. the equipment uses digital technology with custom setup ca-pability by means of computer program and the sensor can be implanted in to animal. results obtained show that the developed system is able to monitor bovine temperatures with a sample rate of five minutes during 30 days with accuracy of 0.0625 oc.

    KEY-WORDS: Heat stress sensors, optical, temperature, transceptor.

    um sistema completo de instrumentação para monitoração de temperatura é apresentado neste artigo. o sistema foi desenvolvido para auxiliar estudo de estresse térmico em bovinos. neste equipamento, o elemento sensor pode ser implantado no animal. o equipamento consiste de tecnologia digital e óptica com capacidade de configuração através de programa de computador. os resultados obtidos mostram que o sistema desenvolvido é capaz de monitorar a temperatura de bovinos a cada cinco minutos durante trinta dias com resolução de 0.0625 oc.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: estresse térmico sensores, óptico, temperatura, transceptor.  

  7. Eradication of bovine brucellosis in the 10th Region de Los Lagos, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S Alejandro; Ramírez, M Cristina; Lopetegui, I Patricia

    2002-12-20

    The process of Bovine Brucellosis Eradication that began in 1996 in the 10th Region de Los Lagos of Chile will be reviewed. The region comprises the most important dairy area of the country and it has the largest concentration of brucellosis infected herds. Based on the information gathered by an epidemiological surveillance system, the results of the eradication process for the years 1996 till 2001 are presented as rates of Milk Ring Test (MRT) positive dairies, rates of brucellosis reactors (bovines) in livestock markets and slaughterhouses, and the annual incidence and prevalence of brucellosis infected herds. During the period the rates of positive dairies, bovine reactors in livestock markets and slaughterhouses, and the annual incidence and prevalence of infected herds have experienced a decrease, while the rate of bovine reactors in slaughterhouses has remained stable. Data on the preventive measures taken, such as vaccination of female bovines and Certification of Brucellosis Free Herds, are also shown. The surveillance system has allowed the detection of infected herds, while the measures of prevention and cleaning of infected herds have allowed a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of the infection by Brucella abortus. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M; Herrler, Georg

    2014-02-18

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this purpose, two culture systems for well-differentiated BAEC were used: the air-liquid interface (ALI) system, where filter-grown BAEC differentiate into a pseudostratified respiratory epithelium and precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) where BAEC are maintained in the original tissue organisation. Comparative infection studies demonstrated that entry and release of BPIV3 occurred specifically via the apical membrane with ciliated cells being the major target cells. By contrast, airway epithelial cells were largely resistant to infection by BHV-1. When the epithelial barrier was abolished by opening tight junctions or by injuring the cell monolayer, BHV-1 infected mainly basal cells. Respiratory epithelial cells were also refractory to infection by BRSV. However, this virus infected neither differentiated epithelial cells nor basal cells when the integrity of the epithelial barrier was destroyed. In contrast to cells of the airway epithelium, subepithelial cells were susceptible to infection by BRSV. Altogether, these results indicate that the three viruses of the same disease complex follow different strategies to interact with the airway epithelium. Possible entry mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Wharton’s jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bovine umbilical cord and maintained in a defined serum-free three-dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Tereza C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM. The three-dimensional (3D cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (UC-WJ cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. Results Bovine-derived UC-WJ cells, collected individually from 5 different umbilical cords sources, were successfully cultured under serum-free conditions and were capable to support 60 consecutive passages using commercial Stemline® mesenchymal stem cells expansion medium. Moreover, the UC-WJ cells were differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural-like cells and cultured separately. Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105+, CD29+, CD73+ and CD90+ in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. Morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like spindle shape presenting the same viability and number. These characteristics were not affected during passages. There were 60 chromosomes at the metaphase, with acrocentric morphology and intense telomerase activity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when

  10. Serological responses in calves to vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhoea and parainfluenza-3 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollis, M; Di Trani, L; Cordioli, P; Vignolo, E; Di Pasquale, I

    1996-01-01

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Italy, is in charge of assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines before and after licensing. To evaluate the relative potency of several vaccines against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), the serological responses in vaccinated calves were studied. Vaccination with any of the vaccines under study induced specific antibody titres against the different viral antigens. The differences of the mean antibody titres within and among the test group vaccines were statistically significant. The results confirm and support those obtained by other authors in similar studies, suggesting that serological responses in vaccinated calves can be used as a helpful means of assessing the relative potency of vaccines against viral respiratory diseases of cattle. The criteria allowing such an evaluation are discussed.

  11. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  12. Unraveling the genetic background of bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genomic regions, and preferably individual genes, responsible for genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition enhances the understanding of biological pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis and is expected to increase opportunities for changing bovine milk fat

  13. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  14. Characterization of novel bovine gastrointestinal tract Treponema isolates and comparison with bovine digital dermatitis treponemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas J; Brown, Jennifer M; Murray, Richard D; Getty, Brian; Birtles, Richard J; Hart, C Anthony; Carter, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate and characterize treponemes present in the bovine gastrointestinal (GI) tract and compare them with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) treponemes. Seven spirochete isolates were obtained from the bovine GI tract, which, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, clustered within the genus Treponema as four novel phylotypes. One phylotype was isolated from several different GI tract regions, including the omasum, colon, rumen, and rectum. These four phylotypes could be divided into two phylotype pairs that clustered closest with each other and then with different, previously reported rumen treponemes. The treponemes displayed great genotypic and phenotypic diversity between phylotypes and differed considerably from named treponeme species and those recently reported by metagenomic studies of the bovine GI tract. Phylogenetic inference, based on comparisons of 16S rRNA sequences from only bovine treponemes, suggested a marked divergence between two important groups. The dendrogram formed two major clusters, with one cluster containing GI tract treponemes and the other containing BDD treponemes. This division among the bovine treponemes is likely the result of adaptation to different niches. To further differentiate the bovine GI and BDD strains, we designed a degenerate PCR for a gene encoding a putative virulence factor, tlyC, which gave a positive reaction only for treponemes from the BDD cluster.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro bovine lens proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The radiosensitivity of the ocular lens manifested by cataract formation has been of considerable interest in the study on the biological efects of radiations. Cataract can ben produced by different causes and also for the normal process of ageing. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro system similar to in vivo cataract formation. It was used an aqueous solution of bovine lenses. The lenses after surgical removal mechanical and ultrasonic disrupted. The suspension was centrifuged and the supernatant was dialyzed and irradiated with different doses of 60 Co radiation. The opacification extent was measured in an spectrophotometer. (author) [pt

  16. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timenetsky Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min of infection. The gentamicin resistance assay confirmed the intracellularity and survival of U. diversum in bovine spermatozoids. Conclusions The intracellular nature of bovine ureaplasma identifies a new difficulty to control the reproductive of these animals.

  17. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  18. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosome-.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine... a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC 1.11.1.6...

  20. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  1. 9 CFR 113.309 - Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. 113.309... Virus Vaccines § 113.309 Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine. Bovine Parainfluenza3 Vaccine shall be produced..., and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All...

  2. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  3. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  4. Modulatory role of endogenous androgens on airway smooth muscle tone in isolated guinea-pig and bovine trachea; involvement of beta2-adrenoceptors, the polyamine system and external calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordallo, Javier; de Boto, María José García; Meana, Clara; Velasco, Lucía; Bordallo, Carmen; Suárez, Lorena; Cantabrana, Begoña; Sánchez, Manuel

    2008-12-28

    Androgens relax several smooth muscles, including the airways. They also contract ileum and myocardium via nongenomic mechanisms. To find out whether androgens modulate airway smooth muscles in different species and further assess their mechanism of action, regarding the role of beta-adrenoceptors, polyamines and extracellular Ca(2+), and the modulation of contraction, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone were used. A preliminary study was performed to evaluate the effect of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, a non-aromatisable derivate of testosterone, in isolated guinea-pig trachea and a more exhaustive characterisation was followed in bovine trachea, to also characterise the effect of testosterone and 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone. The androgens elicited a nongenomic epithelium-independent relaxation of the trachea which had been precontracted. In the bovine trachea, the order of potency was: testosterone>5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone=5 beta-dihydrotestosterone. This effect was inversely proportional to the magnitude of carbachol-raised tone and was independent of beta(2)-adrenoceptors, since the beta-blockers, propranolol and ICI-118,551, and beta(2)-adrenoceptor desensitisation did not modify 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone-elicited relaxation. 5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone was unable to displace the radiolabel, [(3)H]dihydroalprenolol, from these receptors in the binding assay. Polyamine synthesis was not involved in this androgen effect, since an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, was ineffective. The androgens were more effective relaxing bovine trachea precontracted by KCl (80 mM), suggesting a calcium entry blockade, as reported for several smooth muscles. This mechanism might be involved in the observed 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone facilitation of salbutamol-relaxation. Androgens facilitated carbachol-elicited contraction independently of polyamine synthesis, contrary to what has been reported in the ileum

  5. Histophilus somni biofilm formation in cardiopulmonary tissue of the bovine host following respiratory challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Indra; Shao, Jian Q.; Annadata, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms form in a variety of host sites following infection with many bacterial species. However, the study of biofilms in a host is hindered due to the lack of protocols for the proper experimental investigation of biofilms in vivo. Histophilus somni is an agent of respiratory and systemic...... diseases in bovines, and readily forms biofilms in vitro. In the present study the capability of H. somni to form biofilms in cardiopulmonary tissue following experimental respiratory infection in the bovine host was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy...... haemagglutinin (FHA), predicted to be involved in attachment. Thus, this investigation demonstrated that H. somni is capable of forming a biofilm in its natural host, that such a biofilm may be capable of harboring other bovine respiratory disease pathogens, and that the genes responsible for biofilm formation...

  6. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  7. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  8. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohana P Dassanayake

    Full Text Available Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni. Four, 30-mer peptides corresponding to the functional region of NK-lysin helices 2 and 3 were synthesized and assessed for antibacterial activity on four bovine pneumonic H. somni isolates. Although there were some differences in the efficiency of bactericidal activity among the NK-lysin peptides at lower concentrations (2-5 μM, all four peptides effectively killed most H. somni isolates at higher concentrations (10-30 μM as determined by a bacterial killing assay. Confocal microscopic and flow cytometric analysis of Live/Dead Baclight stained H. somni (which were preincubated with NK-lysin peptides were consistent with the killing assay findings and suggest NK-lysin peptides are bactericidal for H. somni. Among the four peptides, NK2A-derived peptide consistently showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all four H. somni isolates. Electron microscopic examination of H. somni following incubation with NK-lysin revealed extensive cell membrane damage, protrusions of outer membranes, and cytoplasmic content leakage. Taken together, the findings from this study clearly demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of all four bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides against bovine H. somni isolates.

  10. Bovine papillomavirus type 2 in reproductive tract and gametes of slaughtered bovine females

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Claudemir de; Freitas,Antonio Carlos de; Brunner,Olga; Góes,Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Cavalcante,Andréa Yaguiu; Beçak,Willy; Santos,Rita de Cassia Stocco dos

    2003-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are described selectively infecting epithelial tissues and are associated with many forms of cancer in different species. Considering the widespread dissemination of papillomatosis in livestock, interest is being centred on possible forms of viral transmission and respective mechanisms. In the present study, we report the detection of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) DNA sequences in female reproductive tract tissues, fluids and oocytes from slaughtered bovines not afflicted by cu...

  11. Measuring bovine gamma delta T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine gamma delta T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/gamma delta T cell co-culture system to eluc...

  12. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Boer, de Fred

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the

  13. Three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine LHX3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Keywords. Bovine; genetic variation; LHX3 gene; PCR-SSCP; single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Abbreviations used: ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone; CPHD, combined pituitary hormone deficiency; CNS, central nervous system; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; GH, growth hormone; LH, luteotrophic hormone ...

  14. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  15. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  16. Mad Cow Disease-Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mad Cow Disease - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. Ashutosh ... HP Agricultural University, Palampur 176 662, India. DES (Vety. Sei.) KVK (P A U) Old Gurunanak College Building Hardochhani Road Gurdaspur Punjab 143 521 India.

  17. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  18. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and lung condemnation in Sokoto Metropolitan Abattoir in Nigeria. JE Onu. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol.

  19. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs.

  20. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  1. mediated RNA interference in bovine fibroblast cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a key element in the mechanisms used to regulate both aspects of keeping the balance between energy uptake and energy expenditure. MC4R was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated shRNA expressing plasmids, which were controlled by the U6 promoter in bovine.

  2. Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegaert, T.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
    Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research

  3. Pasteurella multocida and bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, S M; Taylor, J D; Confer, A W

    2007-12-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that has been classified into three subspecies, five capsular serogroups and 16 serotypes. P. multocida serogroup A isolates are bovine nasopharyngeal commensals, bovine pathogens and common isolates from bovine respiratory disease (BRD), both enzootic calf pneumonia of young dairy calves and shipping fever of weaned, stressed beef cattle. P. multocida A:3 is the most common serotype isolated from BRD, and these isolates have limited heterogeneity based on outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles and ribotyping. Development of P. multocida-induced pneumonia is associated with environmental and stress factors such as shipping, co-mingling, and overcrowding as well as concurrent or predisposing viral or bacterial infections. Lung lesions consist of an acute to subacute bronchopneumonia that may or may not have an associated pleuritis. Numerous virulence or potential virulence factors have been described for bovine respiratory isolates including adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide, polysaccharide capsule and a variety of OMPs. Immunity of cattle against respiratory pasteurellosis is poorly understood; however, high serum antibodies to OMPs appear to be important for enhancing resistance to the bacterium. Currently available P. multocida vaccines for use in cattle are predominately traditional bacterins and a live streptomycin-dependent mutant. The field efficacy of these vaccines is not well documented in the literature.

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  5. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative

  6. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  7. Radiographic anatomy of juvenile bovine limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, S E; Biedrzycki, A H; Livesey, M J; Drees, R

    2016-11-26

    Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age. The normal radiographic anatomy of the fore limbs and hindlimbs and the changes over the first 12 months are described. The majority of physes remain open throughout this period, with the exception of the proximal physes of the proximal and middle phalanges, the proximal radial physis, and the proximal humeral physis which close radiographically between 9 months and 12 months of age, and fusion of the fourth and central tarsal bones occurs between 9 months and 12 months of age. The results of this study may aid in differentiating normal and abnormal anatomy in the juvenile bovine limb. British Veterinary Association.

  8. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  9. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total dissection method was used as a gold standard to indicate the absence or prйsence of bovine cysticercosis infection in cattle. The level of agreement between the two methods was, on average, lower in naturally infected animals than in expйrimental calves. This was because in natural infections, there were more li ...

  10. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  11. Developing a vaccine for eradicating contagious bovine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The challenge. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) — also known as lung plague — is a highly contagious bacterial disease of cattle that has serious economic and trade consequences in sub-Saharan Africa. CBPP kills up to 50% of infected animals, when newly introduced into a population, and many cattle.

  12. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  13. Effects of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bovine sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Adriano F P; Maria, Fernanda S; Mendes, Camilla M; Hamilton, Thais R S; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Dreyer, Thiago R; da Silva, Herculano M; Nichi, Marcilio; Milazzotto, Marcella P; Visintin, José A; Assumpção, Mayra E O A

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization rates and subsequent embryo development rely on sperm factors related to semen quality and viability. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is based on emission of electromagnetic waves of a laser optical system that interact with cells and tissues resulting in biological effects. This interaction is mediated by photoacceptors that absorb the electromagnetic energy. Effects are dependent of irradiation parameters, target cell type, and species. In sperm, PBMT improves several features like motility and viability, affecting sperm aerobic metabolism and energy production. The aim of this study was to investigate, under same conditions, how different output powers (5, 7.5, and 10 mW) and time of irradiation (5 and 10 min) of laser (He-Ne laser, 633 nm) may affect frozen/thawed bovine sperm functions. Results showed significant effects depending on power while using 10 min of irradiation on motility parameters and mitochondrial potential. However, no effect was observed using 5 min of irradiation, regardless of power applied. In conclusion, PBMT is effective to modulate bovine sperm function. The effectiveness is dependent on the interaction between power applied and duration of irradiation, showing that these two parameters simultaneously influence sperm function. In this context, when using the same fluency and energy with different combinations of power and time of exposure, we observed distinct effects, revealing that biological effects should be also based on simple parameters rather than only composite parameters such as fluency, irradiance and energy. Laser irradiation of frozen/thawed bovine semen led to an increase on mitochondrial function and motility parameters that could potentially improve fertility rates.

  14. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  15. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  16. Bovine Chymosin: A Computational Study of Recognition and Binding of Bovine κ-Casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, David S.; Christensen, Anders Uhrenholt; Sørensen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformation......) is found to be important for stabilizing the binding pose. The catalytic site (including the catalytic water molecule) is stable in the starting conformation of the previously proposed general acid/base catalytic mechanism for 18 ns of molecular dynamics simulations......Bovine chymosin is an aspartic protease that selectively cleaves the milk protein κ-casein. The enzyme is widely used to promote milk clotting in cheese manufacturing. We have developed models of residues 97-112 of bovine κ-casein complexed with bovine chymosin, using ligand docking, conformational...... search algorithms, and molecular dynamics simulations. In agreement with limited experimental evidence, the model suggests that the substrate binds in an extended conformation with charged residues on either side of the scissile bond playing an important role in stabilizing the binding pose. Lys111...

  17. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  18. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Offit, P A; Clark, H F; Taylor, A H; Hess, R G; Bachmann, P A; Plotkin, S A

    1984-01-01

    Rotavirus-specific antibodies were detected in fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, and human serum albumin by radioimmunoprecipitation with the NCDV strain of bovine rotavirus as the detecting antigen. Fetal bovine sera neutralized bovine rotavirus in a plaque reduction neutralization test to titers of 1:20 or greater. Immunoglobulins purified from fetal bovine serum by protein A-agarose affinity chromatography precipitated rotavirus antigens but did not neutralize bovine rotavirus. Rot...

  19. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us News Blog Chapters Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF ... Cross-infection Follow Us On Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email Find Events Near You With more than ...

  20. Symptoms of Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources en español Definición Síntomas Riesgo y prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y pruebas Tratamiento Profesionales de la salud ... Definición Síntomas Las Personas en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de ...

  1. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ABPA most commonly affects people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Many people with ABPA also suffer from allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), urticaria (hives) , allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and sinusitis . Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms If you have asthma, the first noticeable ...

  2. Viabilidade econômica da adoção e implantação da rastreabilidade em sistemas de produção de bovinos no Estado de Minas Gerais The financial impact of the traceability in production systems of bovines in the State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar o impacto financeiro da implantação de um sistema de rastreabilidade bovina, utilizando brincos plásticos e bótons, nas propriedades rurais do Estado de Minas Gerais. Para estimar a quantidade de animais foram utilizados os dados da Empresa de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural (EMATER, a qual identificou, em maio de 2004, 309.551 propriedades rurais em Minas Gerais, com um total de 20.644.231 bovinos. A média de animais por propriedade foi de 67 bovinos. O custo levantado por esta pesquisa, tomando-se como referência os valores praticados por duas empresas certificadoras, para a implantação de um sistema de rastreabilidade, nas propriedades rurais do Estado, com 67 bovinos, variou entre R$6,39/animal e R$6,43/animal. Considerando que a receita adicional por animal rastreado variou de R$15,00 a R$30,00, pois a maioria dos frigoríficos tem remunerado os pecuaristas em R$1,00 a R$2,00 por arroba, conclui-se que a implantação do sistema de rastreabilidade possui viabilidade econômica, pois as receitas adicionais superam os custos da implantação.This work aimed to analyse the financial impact of the implantation of a bovine traceability system using double plastic earrings, in the rural properties of Minas Gerais State. Data of the Empresa de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural were used, being identified on March, 2004, a total of 309,551 rural properties, with an average of 67 bovines per property. The cost for the implantation of a traceability system in the rural properties of the state, with 67 bovines, varied from R$6,39/animal to R$6,43/animal. Considering that the additional income per traced animal varies from R$15,00 to R$30,00, since the majority of slaughter houses have paid the ranchers from R$0,03 to R$0,07 per per weight unit of meat (pounds, it was concluded that the implantantion of the traceability system has an economical viability, as the additional incomes exceed

  3. Formation of complexes between tannic acid with bovine serum albumin, egg ovalbumin and bovine beta-lactoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyang; Wehling, Randy L; Ciftci, Ozan; Zhang, Yue

    2017-12-01

    Tannic acid (TA) shows strong interactions with proteins and the resulting complexes can be utilized as delivery systems for oral drugs. The complexation of TA with three proteins including bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg ovalbumin (EA) and bovine beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) at pH 7.4 was studied. The tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence of all three proteins was quenched by TA in a static quenching mechanism. BLG showed the highest binding affinity and a smallest binding distance with TA which may suggest that BLG-TA is the most stable complex. The results of circular dichroism, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra suggested that the protein structures have been changed at different levels and helix structure was affected more significant than β-strand. Zeta-potential of all three proteins was more negative after binding with TA, which is favorable for the stabilization of protein based nanoparticles. Information derived from this work could be important to potentially use TA-protein complexes as nanoencapsulation systems for oral drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro infection of bovine monocytes with Mycoplasma bovis delays apoptosis and suppresses production of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha but not interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulongo, Musa; Prysliak, Tracy; Scruten, Erin; Napper, Scott; Perez-Casal, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is one of the major causative pathogens of bovine respiratory complex disease (BRD), which is characterized by enzootic pneumonia, mastitis, pleuritis, and polyarthritis. M. bovis enters and colonizes bovine respiratory epithelial cells through inhalation of aerosol from contaminated air. The nature of the interaction between M. bovis and the bovine innate immune system is not well understood. We hypothesized that M. bovis invades blood monocytes and regulates cellular function to support its persistence and systemic dissemination. We used bovine-specific peptide kinome arrays to identify cellular signaling pathways that could be relevant to M. bovis-monocyte interactions in vitro. We validated these pathways using functional, protein, and gene expression assays. Here, we show that infection of bovine blood monocytes with M. bovis delays spontaneous or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)/staurosporine-driven apoptosis, activates the NF-κB p65 subunit, and inhibits caspase-9 activity. We also report that M. bovis-infected bovine monocytes do not produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and TNF-α, although the level of production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated. Our findings suggest that M. bovis takes over the cellular machinery of bovine monocytes to prolong bacterial survival and to possibly facilitate subsequent systemic distribution.

  5. Development of an antibody to bovine IL-2 reveals multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells in cattle naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Gaining a better understanding of the T cell mechanisms underlying natural immunity to bovine tuberculosis would help to identify immune correlates of disease progression and facilitate the rational design of improved vaccine and diagnostic strategies. CD4 T cells play an established central role in immunity to TB, and recent interest has focussed on the potential role of multifunctional CD4 T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Until now, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of these multifunctional CD4 T cells in cattle due to the lack of reagents to detect bovine IL-2 (bIL-2. Using recombinant phage display technology, we have identified an antibody that recognises biologically active bIL-2. Using this antibody, we have developed a polychromatic flow cytometric staining panel that has allowed the investigation of multifunctional CD4 T-cells responses in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis. Assessment of the frequency of antigen specific CD4 T cell subsets reveals a dominant IFN-γ(+IL-2(+TNF-α(+ and IFN-γ(+ TNF-α(+ response in naturally infected cattle. These multifunctional CD4 T cells express a CD44(hiCD45RO(+CD62L(lo T-effector memory (T(EM phenotype and display higher cytokine median fluorescence intensities than single cytokine producers, consistent with an enhanced 'quality of response' as reported for multifunctional cells in human and murine systems. Through our development of these novel immunological bovine tools, we provide the first description of multifunctional T(EM cells in cattle. Application of these tools will improve our understanding of protective immunity in bovine TB and allow more direct comparisons of the complex T cell mediated immune responses between murine models, human clinical studies and bovine TB models in the future.

  6. Bovine trophectoderm cells induced from bovine fibroblasts with induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Neil C; Sparks, Wendy O; Phillips, Caitlin E; Ealy, Alan D; Powell, Anne M; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M; Donovan, David M; Blomberg, Le Ann

    2017-06-01

    Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either six or eight factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2. At later passages (≥ passage 8), however, immunoblot and antiviral activity assays revealed that more than half of the iBT cell lines had stopped expressing IFNT. Messenger RNAs specific to trophectoderm differentiation and function were found in the iBT cell lines, and 2-dimensional-gel analysis for cellular proteins showed an expression pattern similar to that of trophectoderm cell lines derived from bovine blastocysts. Integration of some of the human reprogramming factors, including POU5F1, KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, and LIN28, were detected by PCR, but their transcription was mostly absent in the iBT cell lines. Gene expression assessment of endogenous bovine reprogramming factor orthologs revealed endogenous bLIN28 and bMYC transcripts in all; bSOX2 and bNANOG in none; and bKLF4 and bPOU5F1 in less than half of the iBT cell lines. These results demonstrate that bovine trophectoderm can be induced via reprogramming factor expression from bovine liver-derived fibroblasts, although other fibroblast populations-e.g., derived from fetal thigh tissue-may produce similar results, albeit at lower frequencies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  8. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  9. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Sergio; Pandey, Ravindra; Rzeznicka, Izabela; Lu, Hao; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces. In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG). The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  10. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eMauri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces.In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG. The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  11. Pericardial Parietal Mesothelial Cells: Source of the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme of the Bovine Pericardial Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsione Ribeiro de Sousa Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II, the primary effector hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, acts systemically or locally, being produced by the action of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE on angiotensin I. Although several tissue RASs, such as cardiac RAS, have been described, little is known about the presence of an RAS in the pericardial fluid and its possible sources. Locally produced Ang II has paracrine and autocrine effects, inducing left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, heart failure and cardiac dysfunction. Because of the difficulties inherent in human pericardial fluid collection, appropriate experimental models are useful to obtain data regarding the characteristics of the pericardial fluid and surrounding tissues. Objectives: To evidence the presence of constituents of the Ang II production paths in bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium. Methods: Albumin-free crude extracts of bovine pericardial fluid, immunoprecipitated with anti-ACE antibody, were submitted to electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gels stained with coomassie blue. Duplicates of gels were probed with anti-ACE antibody. In the pericardial membranes, ACE was detected by use of immunofluorescence. Results: Immunodetection on nitrocellulose membranes showed a 146-KDa ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid. On the pericardial membrane sections, ACE was immunolocalized in the mesothelial layer. Conclusions: The ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium should account at least partially for the production of Ang II in the pericardial space, and should be considered when assessing the cardiac RAS.

  12. Bovine serum albumin: survival and osmolarity effect in bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nang, C F; Osman, K; Budin, S B; Ismail, M I; Jaffar, F H F; Mohamad, S F S; Ibrahim, S F

    2012-05-01

    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P freezing point. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Papillomatosis of the bovine teat (mammary papilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R O; Olson, C; Easterday, B C

    1982-12-01

    A 4th of 667 cattle examined at a Wisconsin abattoir had teat papillomas. Excised teat papillomas were sorted by gross morphologic characteristics into 3 groups: (i) atypical filiform, (ii) atypical flat, and (iii) typical fibropapilloma. Bovine papilloma virus capsid antigen was detected in thin-section slides of the 3 groups of teat papillomas by peroxidase-antiperoxidase assay. The bovine papilloma virus involved with the atypical papillomas could not be characterized by molecular hybridization, because enough pure virus could not be harvested. Homogenates of the 3 groups of teat papillomas were inoculated on 2 ponies and 4 calves. Typical fibropapillomas were produced on the 4 calves, and fibromas, on the 2 ponies. Atypical papillomas were produced only in 2 heifers.

  14. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  15. Humans and Cattle: A Review of Bovine Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Diana M.; Moeller, Robert B.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Infectious disease prevention and control has been among the top public health objectives during the last century. However, controlling disease due to pathogens that move between animals and humans has been challenging. Such zoonotic pathogens have been responsible for the majority of new human disease threats and a number of recent international epidemics. Currently, our surveillance systems often lack the ability to monitor the human–animal interface for emergent pathogens. Identifying and ultimately addressing emergent cross-species infections will require a “One Health” approach in which resources from public veterinary, environmental, and human health function as part of an integrative system. Here we review the epidemiology of bovine zoonoses from a public health perspective. PMID:24341911

  16. Invasion of Ureaplasma diversum in bovine spermatozoids

    OpenAIRE

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Oliveira, Rosângela C.; Cortez, Beatriz de Araujo; Marques, Lucas Miranda; Santelli, Glaucia Maria Machado; Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz D'Avila; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with infertility in cows. In bulls, this mollicute colonizes the prepuce and distal portion of the urethra and may infect sperm cells. The aim of this study is to analyze in vitro interaction of U. diversum isolates and ATCC strains with bovine spermatozoids. The interactions were observed by confocal microscopy and the gentamycin internalization assay. Findings U. diversum were able to adhere to and invade spermatozoids after 30 min...

  17. Development of antiserum against bovine prolactin for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razdan, M.N.; Kaker, M.L.; Galhotra, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Antiserum against bovine prolactin was raised in male rabbits and tested against crossreacting contaminants by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. One sharp precipitin band against prolactin was observed. The antiserum showed a small faint band against bovine growth hormone. No crossreaction was observed against bovine follicle stimulating hormone, bovine luteinizing hormone, bovine thyroid stimulating hormone and normal calf serum. The crossreaction with bovine growth hormone vanished after treating the antiserum with normal calf serum. Antibody titre of the absorbed anti-prolactin serum determined by radioimmunoassay was high, which could bind 31.30% at 1:10,000 final dilution. Maximum binding was not inhibited by the addition of higher amounts of contaminants, suggesting that the absorbed antiserum was immunologically monospecific and could be used for radioimmunoassay work. (author)

  18. Detection of acid diffusion through bovine dentine after adhesive application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, N; Kitasako, Y; Nikaido, T; Foxton, R M; Tagami, J; Nomura, S

    2004-07-01

    Acidic diffusion through bovine dentine was investigated by measuring pH changes on dentine surfaces after applying three adhesive systems. Coronal incisor bovine dentine discs, 0.5 mm thick, were prepared from dentine close to the pulp chamber. A single-bottle adhesive system-Single Bond, a self-etching primer system-Clearfil SE Bond and an 'all-in-one' adhesive system-AQ Bond were used. The labial dentine surfaces were conditioned as follows: Single Bond groups: (SB-1) 35% phosphoric acid etchant was applied and left in place; (SB-2) the etchant was applied for 15 s and rinsed off for 10 s; (SB-3) application of adhesive agent and light curing following step SB-2; Clearfil SE Bond groups: (SE-1) SE primer was applied for 20 s and dried; (SE-2) application of adhesive agent and light curing following step SE-1; AQ Bond groups: (AQ-1) AQ Bond adhesive was applied for 20 s and dried, applied for additional 5 s and dried again; (AQ-2) light curing following step AQ-1. The pH change on the pulpal dentine surface was measured using a pH-imaging microscope. All the Single Bond groups revealed a lower pH on the pulpal surface (pH 6.25, 6.59 and 6.64 for SB-1, SB-2 and SB-3, respectively) compared with intact dentine. Clearfil SE Bond and AQ Bond groups showed no significant deference in pH value from intact dentine. Acid diffusion from phosphoric acid etching was observed when placed on 0.5 mm-thick dentine discs; however, there was only limited evidence of acid diffusion from SE primer and AQ Bond.

  19. 77 FR 15847 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... base importation conditions on the inherent risk of BSE infectivity in specified commodities, as well as on the BSE risk status of the region from which the commodities originate. We are proposing to establish a system for classifying regions as to BSE risk that is consistent with the system employed by the...

  20. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  1. Genetic detection and characterization of atypical bovine pestiviruses in foetal bovine sera claimed to be of Australian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Larska, M; Giammarioli, M; De Mia, G M; Cardeti, G; Zhou, W; Alenius, S; Belák, S; Liu, L

    2013-06-01

    Two European laboratories independently detected atypical bovine pestiviral nucleic acids in three commercial batches of foetal bovine serum (FBS) that was claimed by the producers to be of Australian origin. Additional batches of FBS were obtained directly from Australia to exclude possible contamination of the Australian FBS with that of South American origin during manufacturing/packaging in European countries. RT-PCR amplification of partial 5'untranslated region and the complete N(pro) gene yielded a specific band with expected size, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Bayesian analysis of sequence data demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relation of the newly detected atypical bovine pestiviruses to those of South American origin, which were related to the recognized bovine pestivirus species, bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Taken together, the results indicated the presence of atypical bovine pestiviruses in the Australian FBS, and most likely in Australian Continent. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shailja Katoch; Shweta Dohru; Mandeep Sharma; Vikram Vashist; Rajesh Chahota; Prasenjit Dhar; Aneesh Thakur; Subhash Verma

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The sam...

  3. Combination of Voriconazole and Anidulafungin for Treatment of Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in an In Vitro Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Adam R.; Howard, Susan J.; Al-Nakeeb, Zaid; Goodwin, Joanne; Gregson, Lea; Warn, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Voriconazole is a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Isolates with elevated voriconazole MICs are increasingly being seen, and the optimal treatment regimen is not defined. We investigated whether the combination of voriconazole with anidulafungin may be beneficial for the treatment of A. fumigatus strains with elevated voriconazole MICs. We used an in vitro model of the human alveolus to define the exposure-response relationships for a wild-type strain (voriconazole MIC, 0.5 mg/liter) and strains with defined molecular mechanisms of triazole resistance (MICs, 4 to 16 mg/liter). All strains had anidulafungin minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of 0.0078 mg/liter. Exposure-response relationships were estimated using galactomannan as a biomarker. Concentrations of voriconazole and anidulafungin were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The interaction of voriconazole and anidulafungin was described using the Greco model. Fungal growth was progressively inhibited with higher drug exposures of voriconazole. Strains with elevated voriconazole MICs required proportionally greater voriconazole exposures to achieve a comparable antifungal effect. Galactomannan concentrations were only marginally reduced by anidulafungin monotherapy. An additive effect between voriconazole and anidulafungin was apparent. In conclusion, the addition of anidulafungin does not markedly alter the exposure-response relationship of voriconazole. A rise in serum galactomannan during combination therapy with voriconazole and anidulafungin should be interpreted as treatment failure and not attributed to a paradoxical reaction related to echinocandin treatment. PMID:22825124

  4. Clinical experience of the use of voriconazole, caspofungin or the combination in primary and salvage therapy of invasive aspergillosis in haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Issam I; Zakhem, Aline El; Helou, Gilbert El; Jiang, Ying; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Hachem, Ray

    2015-03-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in severely immunocompromised haematological malignancy patients. In this study, the efficacy and safety of caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination as primary and salvage therapy in patients with IA were compared. The study included 181 patients with haematological malignancies and IA who received primary or salvage therapy with caspofungin, voriconazole or the combination. In total, 138 patients who received treatment for ≥7 days were analysed; 86 underwent primary antifungal therapy (15 with caspofungin, 38 with voriconazole and 33 with both). Among the salvage therapy patients, 17 received caspofungin, 24 received voriconazole and 35 received both. In the primary therapy group, no difference in therapy response was found, but caspofungin was associated with higher IA mortality rates. A multivariate competing risk analysis of primary antifungal therapy revealed that voriconazole was independently associated with lower IA-associated mortality rates than caspofungin (hazard ratio=0.2, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.96; P=0.04). In the salvage therapy group, the three treatment groups had similar responses and IA-associated mortality rates. The combination of voriconazole and caspofungin did not result in better outcomes compared with voriconazole alone, as primary or salvage therapy, in haematological malignancy patients. However, voriconazole was associated with a lower Aspergillus-associated mortality rate compared with caspofungin monotherapy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quantitative Real-Time PCR and Platelia Galactomannan Assay for the Diagnosis of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Performs Better Than Serum in Non-neutropaenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzhen; Wang, Sibu; Wan, Zhe; Que, Chengli; Li, Ruoyu; Yu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is still in challenge in clinical practice, particularly for those patients without an obvious neutropaenia. In this study, a well-validated qPCR method and Platelia galactomannan (GM) assay were compared for their diagnostic performance using paired samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and serum from predominantly non-neutropaenic patients. In the serum samples, qPCR showed a comparable performance with GM assay in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In the BAL samples, qPCR and GM assay both demonstrated a good sensitivity (90 vs. 90 %); however, the specificity of qPCR was higher than that of GM assay (92.5 vs. 68.8 %, P < 0.001) in these samples. A better sensitivity was obtained with BAL compared with serum samples for both GM assay (90 vs. 50 %) and qPCR (90 vs. 60 %). In conclusion, in non-neutropaenic patients, BAL appears to provide improved sensitivity for both GM and qPCR assays. BAL qPCR offers a better diagnostic value for IPA compared with BAL GM assay, significantly increasing the specificity without affecting the sensitivity.

  6. Galactomannan and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Screening for Invasive Aspergillosis Among High-Risk Hematology Patients: A Diagnostic Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Marios; Anagnostou, Theodora; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-10-15

    Screening of high-risk patients for invasive aspergillosis (IA) has the potential to decrease the use of empiric antifungal agents. However, the performance of different screening methods has not been studied. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the diagnostic performance of galactomannan (GM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as weekly screening tests in high-risk populations. The sensitivity and specificity of 6 approaches combining GM and PCR were estimated using the bivariate model. Thirteen studies with 1670 patients met our inclusion criteria. Single positive test results had modest sensitivity and specificity for screening (respectively, 92% and 90% for GM; 84% and 76% for PCR). The screening approach with the highest sensitivity was the one that used at least 1 GM- or PCR-positive result to define a positive episode, achieving a sensitivity of 99%, significantly higher than any single test (P = .0018 compared with GM and P value of 100%, whereas the presence of at least 2 positive results is highly suggestive of an active infection with a positive predictive value of 88%. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  8. Le virus de la leucémie bovine et l’homéostasie du compartiment lymphocytaire périphérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus and peripheral blood lymphocytes homeostasis. Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. This retrovirus can also be transmitted experimentally to the ovine species, in which pathology is more rapid and more frequent. In this model, infection leads to an increased cell turnover. This accelerated lymphocyte dynamics might be related to viral expression which induces cellular proliferation and host cell destruction by the immune system.

  9. Seroepidemiological study of parainfluenza 3 virus in bovines with reproductive failure, from monteria-colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Betancur Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 bulls from the same farms. The serological test used was the ELISA test. A descriptive analysis was carried out, recording data from positives and from negatives sera. A Chi-square test was used to test for association between the variables: sex, age, reproductive condition and type of production system, with serological reactivity to the PI-3virus. Concerning the results of the study, the point prevalence for the PI-3 virus found was 13, 5%, and under statistical bases, statistical significance was found between age groups and association was not found for the others variables taken in account for the study. According to the results, it was concluded that the PI-3 virus is present in bovines of Monteria, and that a part of the reproductive failure in females of the region, mostly the return to estrus and abortions, is due to the effect of that pathological entity. Finally, the authors recommend more extensive studies on PI-3 Infection, at the different cattle raising areas of Colombia, a country of 24 million heads.

  10. Novel endogenous retrovirus-derived transcript expressed in the bovine placenta is regulated by WNT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, So; Bai, Hanako; Bai, Rulan; Kusama, Kazuya; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Iga, Kosuke; Yasuda, Jiro; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-10

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are involved in placentation; perhaps, the most well-known ERV s are the syncytins, actively transcribed env genes involved in cell-cell fusion and possible morphological variations. However, ERVs other than syncytins that play an important role in placental development have not been well characterized. To identify ERV genes expressed during the onset of placentation in the bovine species, we characterized the expression profiles of bovine conceptus transcripts during the peri-attachment period using RNA-seq analysis, and confirming some candidates through real-time PCR. Using in silico and PCR analyses, we identified a novel ERV proviral sequence derived from a gag region, designated bovine endogenous retroviruses (BERV)-K3, containing Gag _p10 and Gag _p24, zinc finger domain. Initial expression of this ERV in bovine conceptuses was on day 20 (day 0 = day of estrus), soon after conceptus attachment to the endometrial epithelium, and its high placental expression was maintained up to the middle of pregnancy. The BERV-K3 transcript was also found in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia, liver, kidney, intestine, and skin. BERV-K3 is located on chromosome 7 and integrated within LOC100848658 , from which noncoding RNA could be transcribed. Furthermore, the expression of endogenous BERV-K3 in bovine trophoblast cell lines was induced by a WNT agonist, a signaling system common to genes expressed in placentas. These data support the argument that during the evolutionary process, mammals incorporated not only similar ERV sequences, but also ERV s unique to individual species. BERV-K3 is in the latter case, likely providing functions unique to ruminant gestation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2018-04-04

    Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers' names and specifications in the paper.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  13. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  14. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  15. Mutational and Evolutionary Analyses of Bovine Reprimo Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can therefore be concluded that bovine RPRM gene contained 4 transition mutations and 5 indels that can be used in marker assisted selection. Evolutionary findings also demonstrated the existence of a divergent evolution between bovine RPRM gene and RPRM gene of fishes and frog. Keywords: Identity, phylogeny ...

  16. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different ... patibility Complex (MHC) of cattle is known as Bovine .... Table 1. Frequencies of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

  17. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the ...

  18. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  19. Study on Seroprevalence of Bovine Brucellosis and Abortion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was carried on bovine brucellosis from November 2008 to March 2009 to determine the sero-prevalence and distribution of bovine brucel osis in selected sites of Jimma zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. A total of 950 animals (541 female and 409 male) were examined serologically by using RBPT as ...

  20. Viral and Bacterial Pathogens in Bovine Respiratory Disease in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soveri T

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens causing bovine respiratory tract disease in Finland were investigated. Eighteen cattle herds with bovine respiratory disease were included. Five diseased calves from each farm were chosen for closer examination and tracheobronchial lavage. Blood samples were taken from the calves at the time of the investigation and from 86 calves 3–4 weeks later. In addition, 6–10 blood samples from animals of different ages were collected from each herd, resulting in 169 samples. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (PIV-3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV, bovine adenovirus-3 (BAV-3 and bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7. About one third of the samples were also tested for antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV with negative results. Bacteria were cultured from lavage fluid and in vitro susceptibility to selected antimicrobials was tested. According to serological findings, PIV-3, BAV-7, BAV-3, BCV and BRSV are common pathogens in Finnish cattle with respiratory problems. A titre rise especially for BAV-7 and BAV-3, the dual growth of Mycoplasma dispar and Pasteurella multocida, were typical findings in diseased calves. Pasteurella sp. strains showed no resistance to tested antimicrobials. Mycoplasma bovis and Mannheimia haemolytica were not found.

  1. Research Article: Food Animal Practice Bovine Papillomatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six cases of bovine papillomatosis were reported to the University of Nairobi veterinary clinic. Diagnosis was based on presented clinical signs and histopathology of affected skin lesions. The histological samples of the warts confirmed the diagnosis of papillomatosis. An autogenous formalin killed bovine specific wart ...

  2. Preliminary study on the impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was conducted on 100 (50 bovine TB positive and 50 negative) dairy cows to determine the effect of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on reproductive efficiency and productivity of Holstein dairy cows. In order to achieve this, five year records of reproductive/ productive variables including age at puberty, age at ...

  3. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study whose objective was to determine epidemiological, clinical and biochemical characteristics of bovine anaplasmosis was carried out into two phases. The first phase was carried out in November 2005 to October 2006 . The prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis was determined using thin blood film and IFT and the ...

  4. Comparison of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 allele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favor the ...

  5. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  6. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  7. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  9. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  10. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  11. Extrachromosomal nucleic acids in bovine babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Hotzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of small extrachromosomal nucleic acid elements were found in the bovine babesias, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. One element with an apparent size of 5.5 kilobase pairs (kbp is a double stranded RNA related to virus like particles. Another molecule is a double stranded DNA with a molecular size of about 6.2 kbp. Southern blot comparison of restriction DNA fragments of the latter molecule, which is present in both B. bovis and B. bigemina is described.

  12. Bovine neosporosis: clinical and practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite with a wide host range but with a preference for cattle and dogs. Since the description of N. caninum as a new genus and species in 1988, bovine neosporosis has become a disease of international concern as it is among the main causes of abortion in cattle. At present there is no effective treatment or vaccine. This review focuses on the epidemiology of the disease and on prospects for its control in cattle. Finally, based on the implications of clinical findings reported to date, a set of recommendations is provided for veterinarians and cattle farmers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lack of Virus-Specific Bacterial Adherence to Bovine Embryonic Lung Cells Infected with Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 †

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Thomas E.; Gates, Connie

    1983-01-01

    Infection of bovine embryonic lung cells with bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 did not induce in vitro, virus-specific, hemadsorption-related adherence of Corynebacterium pyogenes, Haemophilus somnus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Brucella sp., or Salmonella typhimurium.

  14. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  15. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M.A.S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell cultures for virus isolation. In the experimental studies for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, 29/35 specimens were positive by fluorescent antibody technique and 32/35 by cell culture and in the field cases, 22/119 were positive by fluorescent antibody technique and 19/119 by cell culture. In the field cases of bovine viral diarrhea, 28/69 samples were positive by fluorescent antibody technique and 14/69 by cell culture. When fluorescent antibody technique was performed on inoculated cell cultures a total of 24/69 specimens were positive for bovine viral diarrhea. The sensitivity of fluorescent antibody technique was thus comparable to that of cell culture method for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bovine viral diarrhea. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:6299484

  16. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Mat?as; Victoria, Mat?as; Colina, Rodney; Musto, H?ctor; Cristina, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important economic losses to the beef and dairy industry worldwide. To study the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is essential to understand host-pathogen interaction, evasion from host?s immune system and evolution. Methods We performed a comprehensive analysis of co...

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN IRON AND COPPER CONTENT, MOTILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN BOVINE SEMINAL PLASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Tvrdá; Zuzana Kňažická; Jana Lukáčová; Monika Schneidgenová; Peter Massányi; Zofia Goc; Robert Stawarz; Norbert Lukáč1

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) content on basic motility characteristics (motility, progressive motility) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the bovine seminal plasma semen samples were collected from breeding bulls and used in the study. Motility analysis was carried out using the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) system. Subsequently, the samples were centrifuged and seminal plasma was collected. Fe and Cu concentrations were determined by flame absorption ...

  18. In vitro reactivity to concanavalin A of bovine lymphocytes after cryopreservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, H.

    1984-01-01

    Cryopreservation of bovine peripheral lymphocytes and its effect on the in vitro response to concanavalin A tested in a microculture system is described. Using DMSO as cryoprotectant in the medium, the cells were cooled to −30°C at 1.3°C/minute and further to −80°C at 6°C/minute and then rapidly to

  19. Evaluation of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for the diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.W.; Picozzi, K.; Ribera Cuellar, H.; Cuellar Guzman, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Four ELISA systems were evaluated as potential diagnostic tools for bovine trypanosomosis in Bolivia. The assays identified antibody positive animals in three of the four areas sampled with the highest rates in animals in the two areas where Trypanosoma vivax infection had been detected previously by parasitological methods. Further evaluation of these assays is required to establish their ability to differentiate between infections with T. evansi and T. vivax. (author)

  20. Heat inactivation of native plasmin, plasminogen and plasminogen activators in bovine milk: a revisited study

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Thierry; Humbert, Gérard; Gaillard, Jean-Luc

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Thermal inactivation, at temperatures between 60 °C and 140 °C, of native plasmin, plasminogen and plasminogen activators were studied in bovine milk using improved enzymatic assays. While measured heat inactivation kinetic of plasmin and plasminogen were in line with previously reported values, plasminogen activators were, surprisingly, found to be as heat sensitive as plasmin and plasminogen in a milk system containing proteins with free SH groups. Activation energie...