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Sample records for systemic bovine aspergillosis

  1. Development of murine monoclonal antibodies for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of systemic bovine aspergillosis

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    Jensen, H.E.; Aalbaek, B.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    ) in immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays. In immunohistochemical assays, all MAbs raised against WSSA cross-reacted heavily with a number of other fungal species. All 4 MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1-4) raised against the WF reacted strongly with hyphae of Aspergillus spp.; hyphae of Scedosporium apiospermum were also......), the MAb-WF-AF-1 and the polyclonal anti-Aspergillus antibodies reacted in a similar pattern, i.e., positively in 41 aspergillosis lesions and negatively in 92 zygomycotic lesions. Hyphae in 3 of 12 lesions that were not stained by the polyclonal antibodies reacted with the specific MAb-WF-AF-1; i...

  2. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

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    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  3. Sino-orbital aspergillosis with central nervous system complication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A central nervous system (CNS) complication (cerebral abscess) was diagnosed following seizures in the patient. The patient died a few days later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of aspergillosis of the orbit was only made from fungal culture after the patient's death. It requires a high index of suspicion to make a diagnosis of ...

  4. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Ali; Gluckman, Eliane; Tabti, Bachir; Miaux, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  5. Invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus-dermatomyositis overlap syndrome.

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    Sada, Mitsuru; Saraya, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yasutaka; Sato, Shinji; Wakayama, Megumi; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a 3-month history of dyspnea, polyarthralgia, myalgia and weight loss. He was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus/dermatomyositis overlap syndrome with lung involvement, which presented as organizing pneumonia. However, a bronchoscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple plaque-like white lesions with ulcers on the bronchial membrane, located mainly in the central airway. The pathological specimens obtained from bronchoscopy showed numerous filamentous fungal hyphae that were aggressively invading the bronchial walls, suggesting a diagnosis of invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis. The present case, along with a review of the literature, demonstrates that invasive tracheobronchial aspergillosis can occur in patients who do not appear to be immunosuppressed. This case of aspergillosis should thus be recognized as an extremely rare presentation of an Aspergillus infection.

  6. An Important Finding of Systemic Aspergillosis: Skin Involvement and Amphotericin B Resistance in an Adolescent

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    Aslinur Ozkaya-Parlakay

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening infectious complication in immunocompromised patients, especially with malignancy, and in some cases, it causes extensive tissue destruction and subsequent systemic illness, leading to multiorgan failure and death. Skin involvement and amphotericin B resistance are very rare findings of aspergillosis. Herein, we report the case of a primary hemophagocytic syndrome patient who developed subcutaneous nodules in the 3rd month of bone marrow transplantation from which Aspergillus fumigatus was cultivated despite the fact that she was under antifungal therapy. In immunocompromised patients with prolonged fever, atypical presentations of invasive mycosis should be kept in mind, and early appropriate therapy should be initiated promptly to decrease morbidity and mortality.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections

  8. Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strepetova, T.N.; Solov'eva, T.N.

    1993-01-01

    Case histories of 510 patients operated on for chronic destructive puimonary tuberculosis and mycetoma are analyzed, as are the findings of examinations of 56 patients with cavitary forms of lung involvement. X-ray and tomographic examinations were carried out according to the routine methods. Blood serum IgC antibodies to aspergillosis antigen were determined in the enzyme immunoassay. An X-ray symptom of the foamy nuclear (septal) structure of pulmonary shifts was revealed, that represents a sort of a pathologic tissue response in one of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis forms

  9. Pulmonary aspergillosis and central nervous system hemorrhage as complications of autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with corticosteroids.

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    Cleri, Dennis J; Moser, Robert L; Villota, Francisco J; Wang, Yue; Husain, Syed A; Nadeem, Shahzinah; Anjari, Tarek; Sajed, Mohammad

    2003-06-01

    Warm, active antibody adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia is the most common form of hemolytic anemia not related to drug therapy. Mortality in adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia is related to the inability to successfully treat patients' underlying disease, or the infectious complications of splenectomy and prolonged steroid therapy. Predisposing factors for invasive aspergillosis are neutropenia and steroid therapy. We present a fatal case of aspergillosis complicating a nonneutropenic case of warm active antibody adult autoimmune hemolytic anemia treated with prolonged steroid therapy.

  10. Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Liver Transplantation Complicated by Systemic Aspergillosis with Pancarditis

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    Joseph Romagnuolo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is a common complication after bone marrow transplantation, with characteristic rash and diarrhea being the most common features. After liver transplantation, however, this phenomenon is very rare. Most transplant patients are on a variety of medications, including immunosuppressants; therefore, the differential diagnosis of skin rash or diarrhea is broad. A 37-year-old man who underwent liver transplantation for primary biliary cirrhosis, and developed a rash and watery diarrhea, is presented. Skin and colonic biopsies confirmed acute GVHD. A pulse of intravenous steroids was given. The skin rash improved, but he developed pancytopenia. His course was complicated by central line infection, jugular and subclavian vein thrombosis, pseudomembranous colitis, recurrent bacteremia, cholestasis on total parenteral nutrition and cytomegalovirus infection. After the onset of pleuritic chest pain and clinical sepsis, spiral computed tomography scan of his chest and abdomen revealed septic infarcts in multiple organs. Despite empirical treatment with amphotericin B, he died of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome within 72 h. Autopsy revealed systemic aspergillosis with pancarditis, endocardial vegetations, and septic pulmonary, splenic, hepatic and renal infarcts. The pathogenesis and experience with this rare, but often fatal, complication of liver transplantation are reviewed. In contrast to GVHD after bone marrow transplantation, pancytopenia is common and liver dysfunction is rare. One should have a high level of suspicion in the liver transplant recipient presenting with rash and/or diarrhea.

  11. Immunodiagnosis of systemic aspergillosis. I. Antigenemia detected by radioimmunoassay in experimental infection. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

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    Weiner, M.H.; Coats-Stephen, M.

    1979-01-01

    Because systemic aspergillosis is difficult to diagnose ante mortem, a study to improve immunodiagnosis was undertaken in a rabbit model of disseminated infection. We found that the predominant humoral response of infected animals was directed against four Aspergillus antigens identified by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. One of these antigens, a cell-wall carbohydrate, was purified by gel-filtration chromatography and was used to develop a radiommunoassay. The sensitivity of this assay was increased by testing for serum-bound antigen as well as for free antigen. When the sensitivity of the RIA was evaluated in the animal model, antigenemia was detected in 78% of 51 rabbits with disseminated infection and ante mortem in 86% of 42 rabbits with lethal infection. By contrast, with immunoprecipitin analysis only eight of 51 rabbits were positive for antigen, and six of 51 rabbits were positive for Aspergillus antibody. The specificity of the RIA was also tested. Negative controls for antigen included sera from 76 normal rabbits and sera from 25 rabbits with systemic candidiasis. The Candida control group is pertinent because 48% of these rabbits had specific Candida antigenemia detected by a mannan RIA. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus antigenemia occurs during the course of experimental disseminated aspergillosis and illustrates the potential of an Aspergillus antigen RIA for sensitive, specific immunodiagnosis of human infections.

  12. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

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    Juan Carlos Fernández de Córdova-Aguirre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a slowly progressive disease, caused by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity when it is found in the airway. It usually affects asthmatics and patients with cystic brosis. We report the case of a 20-year-old male patient, student, farmer and rancher with chronic respiratory disease. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis was made on the basis of the clinical symptoms and complementary studies.

  13. Invasive aspergillosis in near drowning nonneutropenic patient.

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    Munta, Kartik; Gopal, Palepu B N; Vigg, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed people has been well documented, but to diagnose and treat in an immunocompetent individual after near drowning, it requires early suspicion and proper empirical treatment. We report a case diagnosed to have invasive aspergillosis with systemic dissemination of the infection to the brain, gluteal muscles, and kidneys after a fall in a chemical tank of a paper manufacturing company. He was ventilated for acute respiratory distress syndrome and managed with antibiotics and vasopressors. Due to nonresolving pneumonia and positive serum galactomannan, trans-tracheal biopsy was performed which confirmed invasive aspergillosis and was treated with antifungals. With the availability of galactomannan assay and better radiological investigative modalities, occurrence of such invasive fungal infections in cases of drowning patients should be considered early in such patients and treated with appropriate antifungals.

  14. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

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    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  15. Invasive aspergillosis in paediatric oncology patients.

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    Muda, Z; Ibrahim, H; Abdulrahman, E J; Menon, B S; Zahari, Z; Zaleha, A M; Talib, A

    2008-12-01

    Invasive aspergillosis predominantly occurs in immunocompromised patients and is often resistant to different therapeutically strategies. However, mortality significantly increases if the central nervous system is affected. In this report we describe two cases of invasive aspergilosis, one with kidney involvement with a successful treatment while the other with pulmonary and cerebral involvement with a grave outcome.

  16. Closed system for bovine oocyte vitrification

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    Helena Ševelová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a vitrification carrier for bovine oocyte cryopreservation. The carrier was to be cheap enough, elementary in its construction and meet contemporary requirements for a safe closed system. In a closed system, a cell is prevented from direct exposure to liquid nitrogen, thus minimizing the risk of cross-contamination. Furthermore, two questions regarding the proper vitrification technique were resolved: if it is necessary to partially denude the oocytes before the vitrification process or whether intact cumulus oocyte complexes should be frozen; and if it is more advantageous to preheat the vitrification solutions to female body temperature (39 °C or to keep them at room temperature. Our results show that it is better to partially denude the oocytes prior to vitrification because cryopreserved intact cumulus oocyte complexes often proved dark, non-homogeneous or fragmented cytoplasm after warming, with many of them having visibly widened perivitelline spaces or fractured zonae pellucidae as a result of extensive damage during vitrification. Consequently, intact cumulus oocyte complexes showed significantly lower numbers of cleavage stage embryos on Day 3 compared to partially denuded oocytes (7.4% and 26%, respectively. On the other hand, the survival rate and following development of fertilized oocytes in preheated vitrification solution were equal to results reached at room temperature conditions. In conclusion, results achieved with the newly developed carrier were comparable to previously published studies and therefore they could be recommended for common use.

  17. CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Man Chung

    1995-01-01

    The fungus aspergillus can cause a variety of pulmonary disorders. Aspergilloma is a noninvasive aspergillus colonization of virtually any type of preexisting pulmonary cavity or cystic space. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is serious, usually fatal infection in patients being treated with immunosuppressants or who have chronic debilitating disease. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized clinically by asthma, blood and sputum eosinophilia and positive immunologic reaction to aspergillus antigen. Awareness of the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis is important in making the diagnosis of aspergillus-caused pulmonary disorders. In this pictorial essay, we illustrated various radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis focused on CT findings correlated with gross pathologic specimens

  18. [Invasive nosocomial pulmonary aspergillosis].

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    Germaud, P; Haloun, A

    2001-04-01

    Immunodepressed patients, particularly those with neutropenia or bone marrow or organ grafts, are at risk of developing nosocomial invasive pulmonary aspergilosis. The favoring factors, early diagnostic criteria and curative treatment protocols are well known. Prognosis remains however quite severe with a death rate above 50%. Preventive measures are required for the treatment of these high-risk patients and epidemiology surveillance is needed in case of aspergillosis acquired in the hospital.

  19. ASPERGILLOSIS OF MANDIBLE : A RARE CASE OF OSTEOMYELITIS

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Nurdan; ERSOY, Burak; SÖNMEZ, Ahmet; ÇELEBİLER, Özhan; NUMANOĞLU, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus species are saprophyticus fungi which may be the cause of infection predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Aspergillosis is usually manifested in the respiratory system and bone involvement is rarely encountered. Osteomyelitis of the mandible with aspergillus species has been reported in only two cases in the literature. Treatment mainly consists of antimicrobial therapy in combination with surgery. We report a case of aspergillosis of the mandible in a patient who was under im...

  20. Necrotizing Liver Granuloma/Abscess and Constrictive Aspergillosis Pericarditis with Central Nervous System Involvement: Different Remarkable Phenotypes in Different Chronic Granulomatous Disease Genotypes

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    Sanem Eren Akarcan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a primary immune deficiency causing predisposition to infections with specific microorganisms, Aspergillus species and Staphylococcus aureus being the most common ones. A 16-year-old boy with a mutation in CYBB gene coding gp91phox protein (X-linked disease developed a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to medical therapy, surgical treatment was necessary for the management of the disease. A 30-month-old girl with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease (CYBA gene mutation affecting p22phox protein had invasive aspergillosis causing pericarditis, pulmonary abscess, and central nervous system involvement. The devastating course of disease regardless of the mutation emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and intervention of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as soon as possible in children with CGD.

  1. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

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    Michael C. Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, a progressive fungal allergic lung disease, is a common complication of asthma or cystic fibrosis. Although ABPA has been recognized since the 1950s, recent research has underscored the importance of Th2 immune deviation and granulocyte activation in its pathogenesis. There is also strong evidence of widespread under-diagnosis due to the complexity and lack of standardization of diagnostic criteria. Treatment has long focused on downregulation of the inflammatory response with prolonged courses of oral glucocorticosteroids, but more recently concerns with steroid toxicity and availability of new treatment modalities has led to trials of oral azoles, inhaled amphotericin, pulse intravenous steroids, and subcutaneously-injected anti-IgE monoclonal antibody omalizumab, all of which show evidence of efficacy and reduced toxicity.

  2. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis].

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    Blanchard, E; Gabriel, F; Jeanne-Leroyer, C; Servant, V; Dumas, P-Y

    2018-02-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of patients. Early recognition and diagnosis have become a major focus in improving the management and outcomes of this life-threatening disease. IPA typically occurs during a period of severe and prolonged neutropenia. However, solid organ transplant recipients, patients under immunosuppressive therapy or hospitalized in intensive care units are also at risk. The diagnosis is suspected in the presence of a combination of clinical, biological and CT scan evidence. The microbiological diagnostic strategy should be adapted to the patient's profile. Conventional methods with culture and species identification remain the standard but early diagnosis has been improved by the use of biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen in serum or in bronchoalveolar lavage. The epidemiology of IPA should change with the increased use of antifungal prophylactic regimens and the arrival of targeted therapies. Other microbiological tools, such as PCR and other biomarkers, are currently being assessed. IPA must be considered in a wide range of patients. Its prognosis remains poor despite progress in the microbiological diagnosis and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2018 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

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    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  4. Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus.

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    Miglets, A W; Saunders, W H; Ayers, L

    1978-01-01

    Three of the four previously described patients with isolated aspergilosis of the sphenois sinus died, owing to intracranial extension of the infection. The case reports of two patients with sphenoid aspergillosis are presented in which surgical exteriorization and aeration of the involved sinus was curative.

  5. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

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    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  6. Radiologic aspects in invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feger, C.; Kerviler, E. de; Zagdanski, A.M.; Attal, P.; Cyna-Gorse, F.; Frija, J.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1994-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening illness, whose diagnosis is difficult: clinical signs are indeed not specific, and biological and mycological exams are not always conclusive. Radiological exams are essential for the diagnosis of this disease allowing to start an early intensive appropriate therapy. According to the literature and to their own experience the authors report the main radiological patterns with emphasis on the pulmonary and cerebral affections. (authors). 26 refs., 5 figs

  7. Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematological Patients.

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    Kimura, Shun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hematological patients, although its outcome has been improving. Prolonged and profound neutropenia in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia and stem cell transplantation is a major risk factor for IA. Allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease and corticosteroid use are also at high risk. Management in a protective environment with high efficiency particular air (HEPA) filter is generally recommended to prevent aspergillosis in patients with prolonged and profound neutropenia. Antifungal prophylaxis against Aspergillus species should be considered in patients with past history of aspergillosis or colonization of Aspergillus species, at facilities with high incidence of IA and those without a protective environment. Early diagnosis and prompt antifungal treatment is important to improve outcome. Imaging studies such as computed tomography and biomarkers such as galactomannan antigen and β-D-glucan are useful for early diagnosis. Empirical antifungal treatment based on persistent or recurrent fever during neutropenia despite broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is generally recommended in high-risk patients. Alternatively, a preemptive treatment strategy has recently been proposed in the context of progress in the early diagnosis of IA based on the results of imaging studies and biomarkers. Voriconazole is recommended for initial therapy for IA. Liposomal amphotericin B is considered as alternative initial therapy. Combination antifungal therapy of echinocandin with voriconazole or liposomal amphotericin B could be a choice for refractory cases.

  8. Clinical utility and development of biomarkers in invasive aspergillosis.

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    Patterson, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains very difficult, and there are limited treatment options for the disease. Pre-clinical models have been used to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of Aspergillus infection and to assess the pathogenicity and virulence of the organism. Extensive efforts in Aspergillus research have significantly expanded the genomic information about this microorganism. The standardization of animal models of invasive aspergillosis can be used to enhance the evaluation of genomic information about the organism to improve the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis. One approach to this process has been the award of a contract by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health to establish and standardize animal models of invasive aspergillosis for the development of new diagnostic technologies for both pulmonary and disseminated Aspergillus infection. This work utilizes molecular approaches for the genetic manipulation of Aspergillus strains that can be tested in animal-model systems to establish new diagnostic targets and tools. Studies have evaluated the performance characteristics of assays for cell-wall antigens of Aspergillus including galactomannan and beta-D-glucan, as well as for DNA targets in the organism, through PCR. New targets, such as proteomic and genomic approaches, and novel detection methods, such as point-of-care lateral-flow devices, have also been evaluated. The goal of this paper is to provide a framework for evaluating genomic targets in animal models to improve the diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis toward ultimately improving the outcomes for patients with this frequently fatal infection.

  9. Role of inhaled amphotericin in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

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    I S Sehgal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by immune reactions mounted against the ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease clinically manifests with poorly controlled asthma, hemoptysis, systemic manifestations like fever, anorexia and weight loss, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. The natural course of the disease is characterized by repeated episodes of exacerbations. Almost 30-40% of the patients require prolonged therapy, which currently consists of corticosteroids and anti-fungal azoles; both these agents have significant adverse reactions. Amphotericin B administered via the inhaled route can achieve a high concentration in the small airways with minimal systemic side-effects. Nebulized amphotericin B has been used in the management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The aim of this review is to study the utility of inhaled amphotericin in ABPA.

  10. Nasal Aspergillosis in a Dog: A Case Report

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    Camilo Padilla Peñuela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasal aspergillosis is a major chronic disease affecting the nostrils in dogs. Clinical sinology is typical in every chronic nasal disease. Epistaxis and occasional pain occurs. Rhinoscopic assessment of the area evidences findings associated with the pathology and allows collecting samples for cytology and culture. Systemic therapy with oral antifungals has had variable utility, but now it has been replaced by direct topical medication to the affected area. This article describes the case of a 4-years-old male dog, submitted to consultation by unilateral muco-bloody nasal discharge with a week of evolution. The patient was treated by another vet center with cyclonamine and vitamin K for a possible clotting disorder. After a series of tests that included rhinoscopy and fungal culture, nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed. Intranasal clotrimazole was applied twice and it allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.

  11. Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  12. Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. Your doctor might do a variety of tests to make the diagnosis, including a chest x-ray, CT scan of the lungs, and an examination of tissues for signs of the fungus. Treatment is with antifungal drugs. If you have ABPA, you may also take ...

  13. Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  14. TOO MANY MOULDY JOINTS – MARIJUANA AND CHRONIC PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Gargani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a progressive debilitating disease with multiple underlying pulmonary diseases described. Here we report the association of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and long term marijuana smoking in 2 patients and review the literature related to invasive and allergic aspergillosis

  15. TOO MANY MOULDY JOINTS – MARIJUANA AND CHRONIC PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Gargani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a progressive debilitating disease with multiple underlying pulmonary diseases described. Here we report the association of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and long term marijuana smoking in 2 patients and review the literature related to invasive and allergic aspergillosis

  16. Early invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with fatal outcome in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, M.; Poczova, M.; Sladekova, M.; Drgona, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this publication is to highlight the complexity of the issue of care for patients with hemato-oncological disease, with a focus on infectious complication - invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Case: We present a case report of a 49-year-old patient treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the early post-transplant period, in spite of combined antimicrobial treatment, an onset of fever and dyspnoea occurred. Because of the clinical condition of our immunosuppressed patient, as well as radiological finding of suspected inflammatory changes in the lung, antibiotic and antifungal therapy was changed. Respiratory symptoms progressed and the state extorted artificial ventilation. Realized bronchoscopy showed structural changes in bronchial mucosa. The results of laboratory analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage testified to fungal infection - pulmonary aspergillosis, with the cultures of Aspergillus flavus. Despite intensive complex treatment, the patient's condition led to multiple organ failure and on the Day D +27 after transplantation physicians stated exitus letalis. Autopsy confirmed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Conclusion: Acute leukemia and its treatment is an increased risk of systemic fungal infections in those patients - especially invasive aspergillosis. The fatality rate for invasive aspergillosis in this risk group represents on average 50 %. With this in mind, it is necessary for life-saving to diagnose the infection in time and treat it appropriately. (author)

  17. Immunoproteome of Aspergillus fumigatus Using Sera of Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylli D. Virginio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection caused by the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and patients with hematological malignances or who have been submitted to stem cell transplantation are at high risk. Despite the current use of Platelia™ Aspergillus as a diagnostic test, the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a major challenge in improving the prognosis of the disease. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to identify proteins that could be putative candidates for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Antigenic proteins expressed in the first steps of A. fumigatus germination occurring in a human host were revealed using 2-D Western immunoblots with the serum of patients who had previously been classified as probable and proven for invasive aspergillosis. Forty antigenic proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS/MS. A BLAST analysis revealed that two of these proteins showed low homology with proteins of either the human host or etiological agents of other invasive fungal infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing specific antigenic proteins of A. fumigatus germlings that are recognized by sera of patients with confirmed invasive aspergillosis who were from two separate hospital units.

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: An update on immune interactions and molecular diagnostics in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, A; Romain, T; Ranque, S; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Dubus, J-C; Mège, J-L; Vitte, J

    2017-11-01

    A wide spectrum of pathological conditions may result from the interaction of Aspergillus fumigatus and the immune system of its human host. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is one of the most severe A. fumigatus-related diseases due to possible evolution toward pleuropulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in cystic fibrosis or asthmatic patients. An estimated 8%-10% of patients with cystic fibrosis experience this condition. The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis relies on criteria first established in 1977. Progress in the understanding of host-pathogen interactions in A. fumigatus and patients with cystic fibrosis and the ongoing validation of novel laboratory tools concur to update and improve the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  19. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Khan, Ajmal; Garg, Mandeep; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2011-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT) of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S). The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB) as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM), encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild), ABPA-CB (moderate), and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe), as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses

  20. Pictorial essay: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is the best-known allergic manifestation of Aspergillus-related hypersensitivity pulmonary disorders. Most patients present with poorly controlled asthma, and the diagnosis can be made on the basis of a combination of clinical, immunological, and radiological findings. The chest radiographic findings are generally nonspecific, although the manifestations of mucoid impaction of the bronchi suggest a diagnosis of ABPA. High-resolution CT scan (HRCT of the chest has replaced bronchography as the initial investigation of choice in ABPA. HRCT of the chest can be normal in almost one-third of the patients, and at this stage it is referred to as serologic ABPA (ABPA-S. The importance of central bronchiectasis (CB as a specific finding in ABPA is debatable, as almost 40% of the lobes are involved by peripheral bronchiectasis. High-attenuation mucus (HAM, encountered in 20% of patients with ABPA, is pathognomonic of ABPA. ABPA should be classified based on the presence or absence of HAM as ABPA-S (mild, ABPA-CB (moderate, and ABPA-CB-HAM (severe, as this classification not only reflects immunological severity but also predicts the risk of recurrent relapses.

  1. Invasive Aspergillosis Mimicking Metastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J. E. G. W. Vanfleteren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with a medical history of cancer, the most probable diagnosis of an 18FDG-avid pulmonary mass combined with intracranial abnormalities on brain imaging is metastasized cancer. However, sometimes a differential diagnosis with an infectious cause such as aspergillosis can be very challenging as both cancer and infection are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Pulmonary aspergillosis can present as an infectious pseudotumour with clinical and imaging characteristics mimicking lung cancer. Even in the presence of cerebral lesions, radiological appearance of abscesses can look like brain metastasis. These similarities can cause significant diagnostic difficulties with a subsequent therapeutic delay and a potential adverse outcome. Awareness of this infectious disease that can mimic lung cancer, even in an immunocompetent patient, is important. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with pulmonary aspergillosis disseminated to the brain mimicking metastatic lung cancer.

  2. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne-Christine; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the ...

  3. [The different manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis: multidetector computed tomography findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren Fernández, L; Alonso Charterina, S; Alcalá-Galiano Rubio, A; Sánchez Nistal, M A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a fungal infection usually caused by inhaling Aspergillus fumigatus spores. However, when we talk about aspergillosis, we normally refer to the spectrum of clinical and radiological findings that depend directly on the patient's immune status, on the prior existence of lung disease, and on the virulence of the infective organism. There are four types of pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergilloma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive aspergillosis), and each type has its own distinct radiologic findings. We review the signs of pulmonary aspergillosis on multidetector computed tomography and we correlate them with patients' symptoms and immune responses. Likewise, we discuss the differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Excellent outcome of Aspergillous endophthalmitis in a case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While invasive aspergillosis occurs typically in severely immunocompromised patients, cases of surgical site infections have been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The purpose is to report an eye with post-operative Aspergillus endophthalmitis, which achieved a good visual outcome following early and aggressive treatment. A young patient, known case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presented to us with post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis. He was treated with pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal voriconazole and systemic itraconazole. The patient regained a vision of 20/30 with follow up of 2 years.

  5. Radiography of osseous lesions of the bovine locomotor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blond, L.; Beauregard, G.; Mulon, P.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography is the ancillary test of choice for lameness in cattle. Osseous lesions due to osteoporosis, osteitis or osteomyelitis and sequestrae can be visualised. Radiography is the only ancillary examination that provides a thorough investigation of the lesion affecting a bovine presented with a non-weight bearing suspected fracture and limb inflammation associated with soft tissue crepitation. Radiography is the only method to ensure that the fracture is not open. It facilitates follow-up of healing of osseous lesions. The period of time required for immobilisation can be adjusted depending on the type of lesions [it

  6. [Invasive aspergillosis after near-drowning: case reports and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Cao, E-hong; Zhao, Bei-lei; Sun, Hui-ming; Li, Miao-miao; Xu, Jin; Song, Yong; Shi, Yi

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical presentations and disease courses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients after near-drowning. The clinical data of 3 cases of invasive aspergillosis after near-drowning from Oct. 2005 to Aug. 2010 in this hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the related literature was reviewed. There were 1 male and 2 female patients, aged from 18 to 72 years. All of them had been immunocompetent before drowning. Two patients drowned because of traffic accident, and 1 fell in sewage by accident. All of the 3 patients were intubated because of acute respiratory failure, and received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. One had transient leucopenia, and 2 patients received glucocorticoid therapy. The condition of the 3 cases deteriorated 9 to 11 days after near-drowning. Aspergillus was isolated from sputum samples of 2 patients at the same time. Thoracic CT findings included multiple nodules, consolidation and cavity formation. Multiple abscesses in cerebral parenchyma were found in 1 patient with invasive cerebral aspergillosis. One patient died, whose lungs, cerebral parenchyma, myocardium and kidney were all infected by aspergillus. The other 2 patients, whose infection limited to the lungs, had a positive prognosis. Using the terms "aspergillosis" and "near-drowning" a PUBMED search yielded 7 articles, published between 1984 and 2010. Using the terms "invasive pulmonary aspergillosis" and "near-drowning", searching Wangfang data and CHED data, encompass 1 article, published in 2009. In all of the 8 articles, there are 5 final diagnosis cases and 3 clinical diagnosis cases. IA was very rare in immunocompetent hosts but had been reported in previously healthy individuals after near-drowning. Aspergillosis might develop 1 to 2 weeks after near-drowning, and the prognosis was poor in patients with central nervous system involvement.

  7. Ibrutinib in PCNSL: The Curious Cases of Clinical Responses and Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommes, Christian; Younes, Anas

    2017-06-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Lionakis et al. demonstrate that the combination of temozolomide, etoposide, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, rituximab, and the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib induced frequent responses in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma but was associated with significant toxicity, including pulmonary and cerebral aspergillosis infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Semiinvasive Aspergillosis Case Coexisting to Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kilic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA is defined as an cavity or mass lesion in the lung due to invasion of lung tissue by a fungus of the Aspergillosis species. It was described also as semiinvasive aspergillosis. Semiinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis is generally seen in patients with primer immunocompromised and it can be fatal in the event of late diagnose. We present 60 years old patient who had had renal cell cancer admitted to hospital with metastatic nodules in his chest X-ray and Thorax computed tomography. We have seen yellow colour of bronchial secretion in his bronchoscopy. Multipl mantar hyphae by A. Fumigatus was detected in his bronchial lavage cytology. Itrakonazol was administred to this patient. We review to this cases due to a semiinvasive aspergillosis was detected randomly when this case who had not both symptomatic and clinical sign by Aspergillosis is investigated.

  9. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis. (orig.) [de

  10. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis.

  11. Influence of human and bovine substrate on the microleakage of two adhesive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Guará Brusaca Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the marginal sealing of two adhesive systems and to analyze the influence of human and bovine substrates on marginal microleakage in enamel. Rectangular-shaped class V cavities (4 mm wide x 2 mm high x 2 mm deep were made as follows: 8 cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of the human teeth with margins located on enamel and 16 cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of the bovine teeth. The cavities were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 8 cavities according to the adhesive system and substrate: G1 - Prime & Bond 2.1 (Dentsply/human substrate; G2 - Adhese (Ivoclar/Vivadent/human substrate; G3 - Prime & Bond 2.1 (Dentsply/bovine substrate; G4 - Adhese (Ivoclar/Vivadent/bovine substrate. The cavities were filled with microhybrid composite resin (Fillmagic and after polishing/finishing procedures, the teeth were subjected to a thermocycling regimen of 500 cycles with 1-min immersions in water at 55° ±2°C and 5° ± 2°C. Next, the teeth were coated with two layers of nail polish to within 1 mm of the margin, submerged in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 2 h, rinsed thoroughly in running tap and immersed in developing solution for 8 h. The restorations were bisected resulting in 16 specimens. Microleakage was observed under a stereomicroscope at x25 and recorded using four-point (0-3 scoring system. The data were analyzed statistically by the Mann Whitney U-test at 5% significance level. Leakage was present in all specimens and there was statistically significant difference between the adhesive systems. Adhese self-etching system showed significantly more leakage in both substrates (human - p= 0.0001 and bovine - p= 0.0031. There was no statistically significant difference between human and bovine substrates for either of the adhesive systems based on different bonding mechanisms (Prime & Bond 2.1 - p= 0.6923 and Adhese - p= 0.6109. Neither of the adhesive systems was

  12. The radiological spectrum of invasive aspergillosis in children: a 10-year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Veys, Paul A.; Novelli, Vas; Costoli, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is an uncommon but life-threatening event in the immunocompromised child. Attempts at fungal isolation are often unrewarding and a high index of radiological suspicion is essential in the early diagnosis of infected children. To document the radiological spectrum of disease in invasive aspergillosis in the paediatric population. A retrospective review of the imaging performed in 27 consecutive patients (age 7 months to 18 years) with documented invasive Aspergillosis encountered over a 10-year period at a single institution. Radiographic findings of pulmonary disease (20 patients) included segmental and multilobar consolidation, perihilar infiltrates, multiple small nodules, peripheral nodular masses and pleural effusions. No cavitating lesions were seen on CXR. Small cavitating nodules were present on CT in two of eight children. Chest wall disease was particularly associated with underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Disseminated disease manifested as osteomyelitis (n=5), cerebral (n=3), oesophageal (n=1), hepatic (n=2), renal (n=2) and cutaneous (n=5) involvement. Imaging findings are discussed. Twelve patients (44%) subsequently died from Aspergillus-related complications. Invasive aspergillosis presents with a wide variety of radiographic findings involving multiple organ systems. Respiratory findings are varied but often non-specific, and a high index of suspicion is necessary in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to adult disease, the incidence of cavitation of pulmonary lesions appears low. (orig.)

  13. The radiological spectrum of invasive aspergillosis in children: a 10-year review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London (United Kingdom); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto M5G 1X8 (Canada); Owens, Catherine M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London (United Kingdom); Veys, Paul A.; Novelli, Vas; Costoli, Vera [Host Defence Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is an uncommon but life-threatening event in the immunocompromised child. Attempts at fungal isolation are often unrewarding and a high index of radiological suspicion is essential in the early diagnosis of infected children. To document the radiological spectrum of disease in invasive aspergillosis in the paediatric population. A retrospective review of the imaging performed in 27 consecutive patients (age 7 months to 18 years) with documented invasive Aspergillosis encountered over a 10-year period at a single institution. Radiographic findings of pulmonary disease (20 patients) included segmental and multilobar consolidation, perihilar infiltrates, multiple small nodules, peripheral nodular masses and pleural effusions. No cavitating lesions were seen on CXR. Small cavitating nodules were present on CT in two of eight children. Chest wall disease was particularly associated with underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Disseminated disease manifested as osteomyelitis (n=5), cerebral (n=3), oesophageal (n=1), hepatic (n=2), renal (n=2) and cutaneous (n=5) involvement. Imaging findings are discussed. Twelve patients (44%) subsequently died from Aspergillus-related complications. Invasive aspergillosis presents with a wide variety of radiographic findings involving multiple organ systems. Respiratory findings are varied but often non-specific, and a high index of suspicion is necessary in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to adult disease, the incidence of cavitation of pulmonary lesions appears low. (orig.)

  14. CT findings in rhinocerebral mucormycosis and aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Kyu Chang

    1986-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses involving the cranial cavity is termed rhinocerebral mycosis, which is often difficult to differentiate from malignancy. Prognosis of rhinocerebral mycosis is disastrous and usually fatal. The authors herein report 6 cases of rhinocerebral mycosis; two of them were mucormycosis and four were aspergillosis histopathologically. Main CT features are nodular mucosal thickening in the multiple sites of the paranasal sinuses that extend to orbital apex or cavernous sinus through focal destruction of bony wall. In spite of their invasiveness beyond bony boundary, destruction is not so remarkable and it is always accompanied by bony sclerosis. Awareness of these disease and CT patterns discussed in this report should be helpful in leading to early biopsy and treatment.

  15. Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicating Bronchial Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen O. Al-Qadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial atresia is a rare pulmonary developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of a focal obliteration of a segmental or lobar bronchial lumen. The lung distal to the atretic bronchus is typically emphysematous along with the presence of mucus filled ectatic bronchi (mucoceles. BA is usually asymptomatic but pulmonary infections can rarely develop in the emphysematous lung distal to the atretic bronchus. We present a unique case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA in a patient with BA with no evidence of immune dysfunction. The patient was treated initially with voriconazole and subsequently underwent surgical excision of the involved area. On follow-up, she has done extremely well with no evidence for recurrence. In summary, we describe the first case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with bronchial atresia.

  16. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.

  17. Assessing the mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France using unilist capture-recapture approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bronner

    Full Text Available The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.

  18. Cutaneous Aspergillosis at the site of ulceration from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Fumiko; Okabe, Tomohiro.

    1979-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with cutaneous aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus nidulans was observed. The infection developed at the site of ulceration from radiation, which occurred after operation and radiotherapy for breast cancer. In cases of cutaneous aspergillosis, saprophytic lesions can be seen. (Nishio, M.)

  19. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  20. Disseminated Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Ergene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Many cases of pulmonary, cutaneous, cerebral, and paranasal sinus aspergillosis in immunocompetent patient were defined in literature but disseminated aspergillosis is very rare. Here we present an immunocompetent case with extrapulmonary disseminated aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger, totally recovered after effective antifungal treatment with voriconazole.

  1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis treated successfully for one year with omalizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Collins,1 Gabriele deVos,2 Golda Hudes,2 David Rosenstreich21New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, New York, NY, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USABackground: Current therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA uses oral corticosteroids, exposing patients to the adverse effects of these agents. There are reports of the steroid-sparing effect of anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab for ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, but there is little information on its efficacy against ABPA in patients with bronchial asthma without CF.Objective: To examine the effects of omalizumab, measured by asthma control, blood eosinophilia, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE, oral corticosteroid requirements, and forced expiratory volume spirometry in patients with ABPA and bronchial asthma.Methods: A retrospective review of charts from 2004–2006 of patients treated with omalizumab at an academic allergy and immunology practice in the Bronx, New York were examined for systemic steroid and rescue inhaler usage, serum immunoglobulin E levels, blood eosinophil counts, and asthma symptoms, as measured by the Asthma Control Test (ACT.Results: A total of 21 charts were screened for the diagnosis of ABPA and bronchial asthma. Four patients with ABPA were identified; two of these patients were male. The median monthly systemic corticosteroid use at 6 months and 12 months decreased from baseline usage. Total serum IgE decreased in all patients at 12 months of therapy. Pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory vital capacity at one second (FEV1 was variable at 1 year of treatment. There was an improvement in Asthma Control Test (ACT symptom scores for both daytime and nighttime symptoms.Conclusions: Treatment with omalizumab creates a steroid-sparing effect, reduces systemic inflammatory markers, and results in improvement in ACT scores in patients with ABPA.Keywords: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

  2. A rare disease mimics postoperative bile leakage: Invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Urfalıoğlu, Aykut; Boran, Ömer Faruk; Sayar, Hamide; Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Emre, Arif; Cengiz, Emrah; Bülbüloğlu, Ertan

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus fungi can cause serious infections, including intra-abdominal infection, particularly in patients with compromised immune system. Described in the present report is case of 46-year-old female patient who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) at another healthcare facility. In early postoperative period, she had increasing complaints of swelling, nausea, and vomiting. On postoperative 19th day, she was referred to our clinic with diagnosis of acute abdomen. Surgery was performed with suspected possibility of bile leakage. However, pathological examination of soft, yellow-green mass found in subhepatic space determined it was fungus ball caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Patient was diagnosed postoperative intra-abdominal aspergillosis (IAA).

  3. CT in childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Bhagat, R.; Panchal, N.; Pant, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    CT of the thorax done during acute severe asthma in two paediatric patients demonstrated central bronchiectasis, a sine qua non for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchography, regarded as the gold standard, was done subsequently on recovery. A comparative segmental analysis revealed that CT was able to identify immediately 24 of 27 segments which showed central bronchiectasis on bronchography. Early diagnosis with the aid of CT enabled immediate intervention which may have helped to prevent further lung damage in the paediatric patients. (orig.)

  4. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

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    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  5. Primary aspergillosis of vocal cord: Long-term inhalational steroid use can be the miscreant

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    Arpita Saha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary laryngeal aspergillosis is extremely rare, especially in an immunocompetent host. It is commonly found as a part of systemic infection in immunocompromised patients. A case of vocal cord aspergillosis with no systemic extension in an immunocompetent patient on long-term steroid metered dose inhaler (MDI is presented here, because of its rarity. The present case is a 28-year-old asthmatic female who was on inhalational steroid for 8 years, presented with sudden onset of severe dysphonia for 5 days. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy demonstrated whitish plaque involving right vocal cord, clinically suggestive of fungal laryngitis. Microlaryngeal laser surgery was performed with stripping of the plaque. Histopathology demonstrated ulcerated hyperplastic squamous epithelium with masses of fungal hyphae, which was confirmed to be Aspergillus species on fungal culture. This rare but serious adverse effect of long-term steroid MDI use must be kept in mind while treating an asthmatic patient. We also present a brief review of literature of laryngeal aspergillosis.

  6. Short communication: ELISA system for screening of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Sato, Ayano; Sobukawa, Hideto; Sato, Yuko; Ito, Takaaki; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Prototheca zopfii is an achlorophyllic alga that causes bovine mastitis, resulting in a reduction in milk production and the secretion of thin, watery milk with white flakes. This study evaluated the use of an ELISA system for distinguishing cows with mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2 from healthy cows and cows with chronic candidal mastitis. We also investigated the transitional changes of specific antibody titers in healthy cows injected with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. The ELISA system exhibited the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (100%) for chronic protothecal mastitis when the positive cutoff value was set at 43.4 ELISA units. Anti-protothecal IgG titers were positive in all cows after they were inoculated with inactivated P. zopfii genotype 2 cells. These results indicated that ELISA detection of anti-protothecal IgG in serum provided specificity and sensitivity sufficient for diagnosing protothecal mastitis. Thus, an ELISA system incorporating this specific antiserum is expected to be valuable for definitive field-based diagnosis of bovine mastitis due to P. zopfii genotype 2. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of four indirect ELISA systems for the detection of trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Yomo, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Four indirect-ELISA systems developed by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division for the detection of trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum were evaluated in the field. Internal quality control data obtained were good showing that pre-coating plates with antigen increase the robustness of the assay and contribute to its standardisation. ELISA systems derived from Trypanosoma vivax antigen lysates gave a better performance than ELISA systems using T. congolense antigens. Sensitivity and specificity corresponding to the highest accuracy were 86-87% and 83-85% respectively. When comparing the two ELISA systems utilising T. vivax antigens, there was no significant difference between native and denatured antigens and diagnostic threshold was higher for denatured antigens. (author)

  8. Treatment of refractory sino-nasal aspergillosis with posaconazole and terbinafine in 10 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J; Bianco, D

    2017-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of posaconazole and terbinafine for the treatment of naturally occurring sino-nasal aspergillosis in dogs refractory to conventional topical and systemic treatment. Ten client-owned dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis and not responsive to conventional treatments were prospectively enrolled to receive a dose of 5 mg/kg posaconazole orally every 12 hours for six months. All dogs were concurrently treated with doses of 30 mg/kg terbinafine orally every 12 hours and 5 mg/kg doxycycline orally every 12 hours for 6 to 18 months. All 10 enrolled dogs completed the study. The treatment response was defined as complete clinical remission (n=7) or partial clinical remission (n=3). Two dogs relapsed after cessation of combination therapy. All dogs lived more than one year after starting combination therapy and eight dogs are alive at the time of writing. No clinically relevant adverse reactions or increases in hepatic enzyme activity occurred during the combination therapy. The results of this study suggest that this combination therapy appears safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of refractory sino-nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Long-term survival is possible with prolonged treatment, but relapse is possible. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further evaluate these preliminary findings. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Allergic Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis Complicated by Nocardiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 70-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma who presented with increasing breathlessness for 5 months. He was diagnosed to have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA by serological and radiographic criteria. He was treated with steroids and itraconazole. After initial improvement, he developed fever with cough and mucopurulent sputum. X-ray chest revealed multiple cavities with air fluid level. Patient was treated with antibiotics without any response. Sputum was negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB. Sputum culture for bacteria and fungus did not reveal any significant growth; however a delayed growth of Nocardia was noted on fungal plates. Modified Ziehl Nelsen stain was positive for AFB. Patient was treated with cotrimoxazole. We discuss the serological and radiological criteria of ABPA, presentation and treatment of nocardia pulmonary infection and other possible causes of necrotizing pneumonia in immunocompromised settings.

  10. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in bovine reproductive system during estrous cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several reports suggest the participation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in progesterone signaling in the reproductive system. This study aimed at investigating the presence and localization of PGRMC1 in bovine ovary, oviduct and uterus, during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. In the ovary, PGRMC1 has been detected in surface germinal epithelium, granulosa cells, theca cells and in the germinal vesicle of the oocytesat all stages of folliculogenesis. In the corpus luteum the expression of PGRMC1 was influenced by the stage of the estrous cycle. In the oviducts and in the uterus horns, PGRMC1 was immunolocalized in the luminal epithelium, in the muscle layer cells and in the endothelial cells. In the uterus, PGRMC1 was intensely localized also in the glandular endometrium. However, in the oviducts and in the uterus horns, the localization of PGRMC1 was independent on the stage of the estrous cycle and on whether evaluating the ipsilateral or the contralateral organ. In conclusion, the present immunohistochemical study showed that PGRMC1 is located in various compartments of the bovine female reproductive organs. With the exception of the corpora lutea, PGRMC1 localization showed similar pattern during different stage of the estrous cycle.

  11. Validation of indirect ELISA systems for the serodiagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis in endemic areas of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Mwangi, J.M.; Mdachi, R.; Njiru, Z.K.; Ndung'u, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was aimed at validating the performance of four indirect ELISA systems developed for the detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in bovine serum. The assay systems employ the use of either native or denatured crude lysate antigens prepared from Trypanosoma congolense (Tc) and Trypanosoma vivax (Tv). Assay systems were designated as TcAGd, TcAGn, TvAGd or TvAGn depending on the trypanosome species from which the antigen was prepared (Tc or Tv) and whether the antigen was denatured (AGd) or native (AGn). The microtitre plates used were precoated with the above antigen preparations at the International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories in Vienna, Austria and shipped to Kenya. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were assessed using both known infected and uninfected bovine sera, respectively. All the positive samples were collected from cattle kept in trypanosomosis endemic areas of Galana and Ukunda in Coast province and Mfangano Island in Nyanza province of Kenya. Known negative sera were obtained from animals kept in a non-trypanosomosis endemic area in Muguga, near Nairobi, Kenya. Assay sensitivity ranged from 86% to 97%, while specificity was between 82% and 100% depending on the assay system used. Systems employing denatured antigens had slightly higher, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The study has demonstrated that antigen precoated plates are useful in circumventing the problem of antigen instability. However, further studies need to be undertaken using a larger sample size to determine if there are any significant differences between plates pre-coated with native and denatured antigens. The present version of indirect ELISA is a useful epidemiological tool and can be incorporated in mapping out the extent of disease. (author)

  12. Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor-Trypsin Complex as a Detection System for Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Jimo; Nathans, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) binds to trypsin and anhydrotrypsin (an enzymatically inactive derivative of trypsin) with affinities of 6 x 10-14 and 1.1 x 10-13 M, respectively. We have taken advantage of the high affinity and specificity of this binding reaction to develop a protein tagging system in which biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin is used as the reagent to detect recombinant fusion proteins into which BPTI has been inserted. Two proteins, opsin and growth hormone, were used as targets for insertional mutagenesis with BPTI. In each case, both domains of the fusion protein appear to be correctly folded. The fusion proteins can be specifically and efficiently detected by biotinylated trypsin or biotinylated anhydrotrypsin, as demonstrated by staining of transfected cells, protein blotting, affinity purification, and a mobility shift assay in SDS/polyacrylamide gels.

  13. Oil-free culture system for in vitro bovine embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo B.D. Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of oil to avoid water evaporation from cell culture has several disadvantages, amongst which there is the migration of compounds from media to oil and from oil to media. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osmolality of a culture system using four-well plates with water in the central hole as an alternative to in vitro bovine embryo production (IVP. In addition, the osmolality changes of the oocyte washing medium were assessed in 35mm dishes with or without 2 mL of silicon oil overlay. Osmolality of oocyte washing medium changed a great deal over time after 60 minutes on a 39°C heated plate (291 mOsm kg-1, which was not detected when the medium was overlaid with silicon oil (280 mOsm kg-1; P0.05. Blastocyst rates were higher when embryos were cultured in presence of water or oil (29.7 and 29.9% for water and 33% in oil conventional microdrop system, except in the group that oocytes were washed in hyperosmotic washing medium (15.1%; P<0.05. Groups cultured in absence of water in the central hole had lower blastocyst rates (P<0.05 independently of exposure (15.5% or not (16.2 and 16.8% to hyperosmotic washing medium. In conclusion, four-well plates with water in the central hole can be an alternative to replace oil overlay for bovine IVP, maintaining stable osmolality and embryo development rates.

  14. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, F.A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gow, K.; Davidoff, A. [Dept. of Surgery, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Flynn, P.M. [Dept. of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  15. Accuracy of percutaneous lung biopsy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffer, F.A.; Gow, K.; Davidoff, A.; Flynn, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is fulminant and often fatal in immunosuppressed patients. Percutaneous biopsy may select patients who could benefit from surgical resection. Objective. We sought to determine the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy for pediatric invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed 28 imaging-guided percutaneous biopsies of the lungs of 24 children with suspected pulmonary aspergillosis. Twenty-two were being treated for malignancy and two for congenital immunodeficiency; 15 had received bone-marrow transplants. The accuracy of the percutaneous lung biopsy was determined by subsequent surgical resection, autopsy, or clinical course. Results. Histopathological studies showed ten biopsy specimens with septate hyphae, indicating a mold, and seven with Aspergillus flavus colonies in culture. The remaining 18 biopsies revealed no fungi. No patient had progressive aspergillosis after negative biopsy. Invasive pulmonary mold was detected by percutaneous biopsy with 100 % (10/10) sensitivity and 100 % (18/18) specificity. Percutaneous biopsy results influenced the surgical decision in 86 % (24 of 28) of the cases. Bleeding complicated the biopsy in 46 % (13/28) and hastened one death. Conclusion. Percutaneous biopsy of the lung is an accurate technique for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and correctly determines which immunosuppressed pediatric patients would benefit from therapeutic pulmonary resection. (orig.)

  16. Inflammation in aspergillosis: the good, the bad, and the therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Agostinho; Cunha, Cristina; Iannitti, Rossana G; De Luca, Antonella; Giovannini, Gloria; Bistoni, Francesco; Romani, Luigina

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillosis includes a spectrum of diseases caused by different Aspergillus spp. New insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of resistance and immune tolerance to the fungus in infection and allergy have been obtained in experimental settings. The fact that virulence factors, traditionally viewed as fungal attributes, are contingent upon microbial adaptation to various environmental stresses encountered in the human host implies that the host and fungus are jointly responsible for pathogenicity. Ultimately, despite the occurrence of severe aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients, clinical evidence indicates that aspergillosis also occurs in the setting of a heightened inflammatory response, in which immunity occurs at the expense of host damage and pathogen eradication. Thus, targeting pathogenicity rather than microbial growth, tolerance rather than resistance mechanisms of defense may pave the way to targeted anti-inflammatory strategies in difficult-to-treat patients. The challenge now is to translate promising results from experimental models to the clinic. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poynard Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunistic invasive fungal infections are increasingly frequent in intensive care patients. Their clinical spectrum goes beyond the patients with malignancies, and for example invasive pulmonary aspergillosis has recently been described in critically ill patients without such condition. Liver failure has been suspected to be a risk factor for aspergillosis. Case presentation We describe three cases of adult respiratory distress syndrome with sepsis, shock and multiple organ failure in patients with severe liver failure among whom two had positive Aspergillus antigenemia and one had a positive Aspergillus serology. In all cases bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. Outcome was fatal in all cases despite treatment with voriconazole and agressive symptomatic treatment. Conclusion Invasive aspergillosis should be among rapidly raised hypothesis in cirrhotic patients developing acute respiratory symptoms and alveolar opacities.

  18. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed Janahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA is a pulmonary disorder that often occurs in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF and is characterized by a hypersensitivity response to the allergens of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In patients with CF, growth of A. fumigatus hyphae within the bronchial lumen triggers an immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response that results in airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and bronchiectasis. In most published studies, the prevalence of ABPA is about 8.9% in patients with CF. Since the clinical features of this condition overlap significantly with that of CF, ABPA is challenging to diagnose and remains underdiagnosed in many patients. Diagnosis of ABPA in CF patients should be sought in those with evidence of clinical and radiologic deterioration that is not attributable to another etiology, a markedly elevated total serum IgE level (while off steroid therapy and evidence of A. fumigatus sensitization. Management of ABPA involves the use of systemic steroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response. In patients who do not respond to steroids or cannot tolerate them, antifungal agents should be used to reduce the burden of A. fumigatus allergens. Recent studies suggest that omalizumab may be an effective option to reduce the frequency of ABPA exacerbations in patients with CF. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to better establish the efficacy of omalizumab in managing patients with CF and ABPA.

  19. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R L; Pamphilon, D H; Prentice, A G

    1986-06-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with haematological malignancies is becoming more common. Predisposing factors are powerful immunosuppressive chemotherapy, neutropenia and synergistic combinations of antibiotics of great potency and wide spectrum of activity. Clinical and radiological signs are heterogeneous, sometimes misleading and often absent. Treatment is often empirical on suspicion alone. Amphotericin B is the only effective drug but it has marked toxicity, mainly renal. Infection is usually fatal without adequate treatment. This paper describes eight cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis seen in one centre in two years, reviews the literature and assesses associated problems.

  20. Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus simulating a pituitary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larranaga, J.; Fandino, J.; Gomez-Bueno, J.; Botana, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Gonzalez-Carrero, J.

    1989-09-01

    Sphenoidal aspergillosis is an unusual cause of sella turcica enlargement. Pituitary abscess secondary to Aspergillus had been reported. In the present case, a woman with sphenoid sinus aspergillosis mimiced a pituitary tumor. This patient survived her infection with intact pituitary function following a transsphenoidal approach. No postoperative amphotericine-B and 5-fluorocytosine were necessary. CT scan revealed a mass occupying the sphenoid sinus extending to the sella turcica. Factors that should alert the clinican to the presence of a sphenoidal and pituitary abscess in a patient with sella turcica enlargement are prior episodes of sinusitis, meningitis and immunosuppression and, as in the present case, hyperglycemia. (orig.).

  1. Prevalence of aspergillosis in chronic lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty eight patients of chronic lung diseases (CLD attending TB and Chest department of J.N. Medical college Hospital were studied to find out the prevalence of Aspergillus in Broncho-alveolar Lavage (BAL and anti- aspergillus antibodies in their sera. Direct microscopy and fungal culture of BAL was done. Antibodies were studied by immunodiffusion (ID and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Dot blot assay for anti-aspergillus antibodies was also performed in sera of patients which were either positive by ID or by ELISA. Aspergillus was isolated in culture from 13(14.7% cases of CLD, while, 30.6% cases showed anti-aspergillus antibodies by serological methods. Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated. 17(19.3% cases of CLD showed antibody against Aspergillus by ID, 22(25% by ELISA, while 19 of 27 seropositive cases also showed positive results by Dot Blot assay. In cases of bronchogenic carcinoma and pulmonary tuberculosis, anti-aspergillus antibodies were detected equally by ID and ELISA in 21.42% and 21.05% cases respectively. In bronchial asthma, the antibodies could be detected in 60% cases by ELISA, while, in only 10% cases by ID. ELISA was found more sensitive than ID for detection of anti-aspergillus antibodies. The sensitivity of Dot Blot lies some what between ID and ELISA. It is concluded that prevalence of Aspergillosis is quite high in chronic lung diseases, culture and serological test should be performed in conjunction and more than one type of serological tests should be performed to establish the diagnosis.

  2. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis-mimicking Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Kim, Mi Young; Hong, Sun In; Jung, Jiwon; Lee, Hyun Joo; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee

    2015-07-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is occasionally confused with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in transplant recipients, since clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and IPA rely heavily on imaging modes such as computed tomography (CT). We therefore investigated IPA-mimicking tuberculosis in transplant recipients. All adult transplant recipients who developed tuberculosis or IPA at a tertiary hospital in an intermediate tuberculosis-burden country during a 6-year period were enrolled. First, we tested whether experienced radiologists could differentiate pulmonary tuberculosis from IPA. Second, we determined which radiologic findings could help us differentiate them. During the study period, 28 transplant recipients developed pulmonary tuberculosis after transplantation, and 80 patients developed IPA after transplantation. Two experienced radiologists scored blindly 28 tuberculosis and 50 randomly selected IPA cases. The sensitivities of radiologists A and B for IPA were 78% and 68%, respectively (poor agreement, kappa value = 0.25). The sensitivities of radiologists A and B for tuberculosis were 64% and 61%, respectively (excellent agreement, kappa value = 0.77). We then compared the CT findings of the 28 patients with tuberculosis and 80 patients with IPA. Infarct-shaped consolidations and smooth bronchial wall thickening were more frequent in IPA, and mass-shaped consolidations and centrilobular nodules (tuberculosis. Certain CT findings appear to be helpful in differentiating between IPA and tuberculosis. Nevertheless, the CT findings of about one-third of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in transplant recipients are very close to those of IPA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Chest radiographic staging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: relationship with immunological findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, J L

    2012-02-03

    The question of whether a chest radiographic severity staging system could be correlated with standard blood\\/serum diagnostic indices in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was addressed in 41 patients. Asthma and positive Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) serology were considered essential diagnostic inclusion criteria. Eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and immediate skin hypersensitivity were also tested to grade patients as "definite" or "likely" ABPA. Definite cases had all five of these factors present, whereas likely cases had three or more. Chest radiographs were examined by experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data. The six-stage radiographic score (0-5) was based on the severity and duration of changes seen: stage 0: normal; stage 1: transient hyperinflation; stage 2: transient minor changes; stage 3: transient major changes; stage 4: permanent minor changes; and stage 5: permanent major changes. Significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were observed between peak AF titres (expressed as an index), peak eosinophil count and radiographic severity stage. When considered as subgroups, these correlations approached, but did not reach, significance for the group with "likely" ABPA (n=28), but in the group with definite ABPA (n=13), there was a high correlation between radiographic score and peak AF index (r=0.59), as well as peak eosinophil count (r=0.62). This study suggests that the peak Aspergillus fumigatus index and eosinophil counts correlate best with the severity of radiographic stages in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This chest radiographic staging system may be useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, particularly in those patients with more severe radiographic stages.

  4. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Arthurs, MD; Kathy Wunderle, MD; Maylee Hsu, MD; Suil Kim, MD, PhD

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus. Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  5. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Arthurs, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus. Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  6. Invasive aspergillosis related to ibrutinib therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Benjamin; Wunderle, Kathy; Hsu, Maylee; Kim, Suil

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient taking ibrutinib, a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor used to treat refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We hypothesize that ibrutinib promoted this infection by suppressing innate immune responses against Aspergillus . Clinicians should be aware of potential Aspergillus infections in patients treated with this drug.

  7. Diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Koch, C; Reimert, C M

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be difficult to establish because ABPA shares many characteristics with coexisting atopy or other lung infections in these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity...

  8. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as a cause of bronchial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) occurs in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. When aspergillus fumigatus spores are inhaled they grow in bronchial mucous as hyphae. It occurs in non immunocompromised patients and belongs to the hypersensitivity disorders induced by Aspergillus.

  9. Bronchopulmonary allergic aspergillosis Aspergilosis broncopulmonar alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A series of well defined entitles associated with colonization or invasion by fungi of the genus Aspergillus are grouped under the term Aspergillosis; there are various modalities of pulmonary involvement, namely, extrinsec asthma, extrinsec allergic alveolitis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and an invasive form in debilitated terminal patients; besldes there exists a form of food poisoning. We report on the case of a 45 year-old asthmatic woman suffering from allerglc bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sum. maryze the clinical and laboratory features of the different pulmonary forms of aspergillosis.

    El término Aspergllosis reúne una serle de entidades bien definidas, causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus. En este artículo se presenta el caso de una mujer de 45 años con aspergllosis broncopulmonar alérgica, atendida en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín y se hace una somera revisión clínico-patológica de las diferentes formas de aspergllosis pulmonar.

  10. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Patel; P. R. Patel; M. G. Prajapati; A. N. Kanani; K. K. Tyagi; A. B. Fulsoundar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A study on surveillance of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas under intensive system of production was carried out by milk-ELISA. Various risk factors were identified having significant association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas. Materials and Methods: Five randomly selected peri-uban areas of six cities of Gujarat were included in the present study. Five randomly selected dairy herds under intensive system of production fro...

  11. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  12. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of bovine serum albumin partitioning behaviors in polymer-salt aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yin Hui; Yap, Yee Jiun; Tan, Chin Ping; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Show, Pau Loke; Ariff, Arbakariya Bin; Ng, Eng-Poh; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a linear relationship is proposed relating the natural logarithm of partition coefficient, ln K for protein partitioning in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to the square of tie-line length (TLL(2)). This relationship provides good fits (r(2) > 0.98) to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PEG (1450 g/mol, 2000 g/mol, 3350 g/mol, and 4000 g/mol)-phosphate ATPS with TLL of 25.0-50.0% (w/w) at pH 7.0. Results also showed that the plot of ln K against pH for BSA partitioning in the ATPS containing 33.0% (w/w) PEG1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate with varied working pH between 6.0 and 9.0 exhibited a linear relationship which is in good agreement (r(2) = 0.94) with the proposed relationship, ln K = α' pH + β'. These results suggested that both the relationships proposed could be applied to correlate and elucidate the partition behavior of biomolecules in the polymer-salt ATPS. The influence of other system parameters on the partition behavior of BSA was also investigated. An optimum BSA yield of 90.80% in the top phase and K of 2.40 was achieved in an ATPS constituted with 33.0% (w/w) PEG 1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate in the presence of 8.5% (w/w) sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 9.0 for 0.3% (w/w) BSA load. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Typologie des systemes d'elevage bovin de la commune de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afin de caractériser les systèmes d'élevage bovin de la commune de Gogounou au nord-est du Bénin, une enquête concernant 102 élevages ayant un effectif total de 7.769 têtes de bovins a été réalisée. En utilisant les méthodes d'analyse factorielle des correspondances multiples (AFCM) et de classification hiérarchique ...

  15. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Growth of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D and Monolayer Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been showed transfer of aflatoxins, toxins produced by Aspergillus flvaus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, into milk. These toxins are transferred into the milk through digestive system by eating contaminated food. Due to the toxicity of these materials, it seems that it has side effects on the growth of mammary cells. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate possible toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on bovine mammary epithelial cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Specimens of the mammary tissue of bovine were sized out in size 2×2 cm in slaughterhouse. After disinfection and washing in sterile PBS, primary cell culture was performed by enzymatic digestion of tissue with collagenase. When proper numbers of cells were achieved in monolayer culture, cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, the concentrations of 15, 25 and 35 µL of AFB1 were added to the culture in quadruplicate and incubated for 8 hours. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay and finally, any change in the morphology of the cells was studied by microscopic technique. Microscopic investigations showed necrosis of the AFB1-exposed cells compared to the control cells. Also, bovine mammary epithelial cells were significantly affected by AFB1 in dose and time dependent manner in cell viability assays. According to the results, it seems that AFB1 can induce cytotoxicity and necrosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

  16. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Growth of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D and Monolayer Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Qasemi-Panahi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many studies have been showed transfer of aflatoxins, toxins produced by Aspergillus flvaus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, into milk. These toxins are transferred into the milk through digestive system by eating contaminated food. Due to the toxicity of these materials, it seems that it has side effects on the growth of mammary cells. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate possible toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on bovine mammary epithelial cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Methods: Specimens of the mammary tissue of bovine were sized out in size 2×2 cm in slaughterhouse. After disinfection and washing in sterile PBS, primary cell culture was performed by enzymatic digestion of tissue with collagenase. When proper numbers of cells were achieved in monolayer culture, cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, the concentrations of 15, 25 and 35 μL of AFB1 were added to the culture in quadruplicate and incubated for 8 hours. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay and finally, any change in the morphology of the cells was studied by microscopic technique. Results: Microscopic investigations showed necrosis of the AFB1-exposed cells compared to the control cells. Also, bovine mammary epithelial cells were significantly affected by AFB1 in dose and time dependent manner in cell viability assays. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that AFB1 can induce cytotoxicity and necrosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

  17. Performance of Aspergillus PCR in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, S; Brossas, J-Y; Palous, M; Joly, I; Meyer, I; Fekkar, A

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare but often fatal form of invasive aspergillosis that remains difficult to diagnose. The literature has shown the value of Aspergillus PCR in blood-derived samples for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis but provides far less information for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in cerebral aspergillosis. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus PCR assay performed on CSF for the diagnosis of cerebral aspergillosis. This retrospective study involved 72 patients with suspected cerebral aspergillosis for a total of 88 CSF samples in whom CSF Aspergillus PCR was performed. Seventeen patients had proven/probable invasive aspergillosis according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group criteria, including 12 cases of proven/probable cerebral aspergillosis. Aspergillus PCR in CSF was positive in nine of the twelve patients with cerebral aspergillosis, i.e. 75% sensitivity. In contrast, CSF culture was positive for Aspergillus in only two patients. In the non-cerebral aspergillosis group (60 patients), PCR was positive in one patient, i.e. 98.3% specificity. In this particular population of high-risk patients with suspicion of cerebral aspergillosis, the disease incidence was 16.7%. Therefore, the positive and negative predictive values of PCR were 90% and 95.2%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that Aspergillus PCR in CSF is an interesting tool that may eliminate the need for cerebral biopsy in patients with suspected cerebral aspergillosis. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aspergillosis in the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina: isolation of waterborne hyphae and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Victoria J; Sammarco, Paul W; Caruso, John H

    2014-07-03

    The octocoral disease aspergillosis is caused by the terrestrial fungus Aspergillus sydowii. The possibility of secondary (horizontal) transmission of aspergillosis among common sea fans Gorgonia ventalina would require waterborne transmission of hyphae and/or spores. A laboratory filtration experiment confirmed that fungal hyphae and spores were shed into the water by infected fans. This suggests that secondary infection might be possible in this species. It remains to be determined whether healthy fans actually develop aspergillosis after contact with hyphae-laden water.

  19. Imaging features of gastric invasive aspergillosis: A report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong Jin; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Ji Yeol; Lee, Yil Gi [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Invasive aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. Although there are a few rare reports of isolated invasive aspergillosis affecting the small intestine, isolated or disseminated gastric invasive aspergillosis is extremely rare. Herein, we report 2 cases of gastric invasive aspergillosis in a 72 year old woman and a 43 year old man; the woman had been recovering from ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which presented as emphysematous gastritis and the man from acute subdural haemorrhage in the intensive care unit, which presented as a pseudoaneurysm on CT imaging.

  20. [Posttraumatic primary cutaneous aspergillosis with Candida guilliermondii infection in a healthy host].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkşen, Zeynep; Yağcı, Server; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap; Tezer, Ayla; Taner, Omer Faruk; Tekin, Fatih; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2010-10-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections are usually seen in immunocompromised patients. While Candida is the most prevalent agent in such infections, Aspergillus is at the second order. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is most common in immunocompromised patients but can rarely be seen in healthy hosts as well. We report a case of posttraumatic primary cutaneous aspergillosis and Candida guilliermondii coinfection in a 70-years-old healthy man. The patient had an ulcerous lesion which developed in the site of a trauma on the middle finger of the right hand. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimens revealed septate hyphae with dichotomous branching small circular blastospores. The cultures of the biopsy specimen yielded yellow-green colored, granular mold colonies and creamy white yeast colonies. Microscopic examination of the lactophenol cotton blue stained mold colonies indicated long conidiophores with vesicles surrounded by uniseriate phialides, compatible with Aspergillus flavus. Yeast colonies were identified as Candida guilliermondii by ID32C (BioMerieux, France) and by their microscopical morphology detected in corn meal-Tween 80 agar incubated at 25°C for 72 hours. The patient was treated properly with surgical debridement and itraconazole therapy. Since the immune system is compressed as a consequence of aging, cutaneous opportunistic fungal infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of posttraumatic necrotic ulcers and black eschar in aged patients.

  1. Comparison of topical administration of clotrimazole through surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters for treatment of nasal aspergillosis in dogs: 60 cases (1990-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, K.G.; Davidson, A.P.; Koblik, P.D.; Richardson, E.F.; Komtebedde, J.; Pappagianis, D.; Hector, R.F.; Kass, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the clinical response to topical administration of clotrimazole in dogs with nasal aspergillosis, to compare effect of surgically placed versus nonsurgically placed catheters used for administration on outcome, and to examine whether subjective scoring of computed tomographic images can predict outcome. Retrospective case series. 60 dogs with nasal aspergillosis. Information including signalment, history, diagnostics, treatment method, and outcome was retrieved from medical records of dogs with nasal aspergillosis treated between 1990 and 1996 at the University of California School of Veterinary Medicine or cooperating referral practices. Final outcome was determined by telephone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians. Images obtained before treatment were subjectively assessed to develop an algorithm for predicting outcome. Clotrimazole solution (1%) was infused during a 1-hour period via catheters surgically placed in the frontal sinus and nose (27 dogs) and via nonsurgically placed catheters in the nose (18). An additional 15 dogs received 2 to 4 infusions by either route. Topical administration of clotrimazole resulted in resolution of clinical disease in 65% of dogs after 1 treatment and 87% of dogs after one or more treatments. The scoring system correctly classified dogs with unfavorable and favorable responses 71 to 78% and 79 to 93% of the time, respectively. Topical administration of clotrimazole, using either technique, was an effective treatment for nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Use of non-invasive intranasal infusion of clotrimazole eliminated the need for surgical trephination of frontal sinuses in many dogs and was associated with fewer complications

  2. Model systems to analyze the role of miRNAs and commensal microflora in bovine mucosal immune system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo; Griebel, Philip

    2015-07-01

    Information is rapidly accumulating regarding the role of miRNAs as key regulators of immune system development and function. It is also increasingly evident that miRNAs play an important role in host-pathogen interactions through regulation of both innate and acquired immune responses. Little is known, however, about the specific role of miRNAs in regulating normal development of the mucosal immune system, especially during the neonatal period. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge regarding the possible role the commensal microbiome may play in regulating mucosal miRNAs expression, although evidence is emerging that a variety of enteric pathogens influence miRNA expression. The current review focuses on recent information that miRNAs play an important role in regulating early development of the bovine mucosal immune system. A possible role for the commensal microbiome in regulating mucosal development by altering miRNA expression is also discussed. Finally, we explore the potential advantages of using the newborn calf as a model to determine how interactions between developmental programming, maternal factors in colostrum, and colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by commensal bacteria may alter mucosal miRNA expression and immune development. Identifying the key factors that regulate mucosal miRNA expression is critical for understanding how the balance between protective immunity and inflammation is maintained to ensure optimal gastrointestinal tract function and health of the whole organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspergillosis in Larus cachinnans micaellis: survey of eight cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoni, Simona; Ceccherelli, Renato; Rossi, Giacomo; Mancianti, Francesca

    2006-05-01

    Avian aspergillosis is reported in several avian species, with Aspergillus fumigatus as the main aetiological agent. Predisposing factors such as starvation, thermal stress, migratory stress, primary infectious disease or toxicosis may play a role. Eight cases of disseminated aspergillosis in free ranging seagulls sheltered at C.R.U.M.A. (Centro Recupero Uccelli Marini e Acquatici, Livorno, Italy) with different clinical histories are presented. The infection was demonstrated by cultural and histological methods from lesions of all birds, and the presence of airborne A. fumigatus viable elements ranging from 450 to 525 CFU/m(3) inside and outside the shelter by means of a surface air sampler (SAS) Super-90 was also assessed. The role of this fungal species as an opportunistic factor in the captivity of seagulls is considered and some control measures, such as a clean and stress free environment and the use of antifungal drugs are suggested.

  4. Chronic aspergillosis of the lungs: Unravelling the terminology and radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Hedayati, V.; Patel, K. [King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, The Department of Radiology, King' s Health Partners, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, D.M. [The Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    The propensity for Aspergillus spp. to cause lung disease has long been recognised but the satisfactory classification of these disorders is challenging. The problems caused by invasive disease in severely neutropenic patients, saprophytic infection of pre-existing fibrotic cavities and allergic reactions to Aspergillus are well documented. In contrast, a more chronic form of Aspergillus-related lung disease that has the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality is under-reported. The symptoms of this form of Aspergillus infection may be non-specific and the radiologist may be the first to suspect a diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The current review considers the classification conundrums in diseases caused by Aspergillus spp. and discusses the typical clinical and radiological profile of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. (orig.)

  5. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis successfully treated with mepolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Takeshi; Shinozaki, Taro; Iwami, Eri; Nakajima, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Tatsu

    2018-03-27

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an allergic pulmonary disease comprising a complex hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus. Clinical features of ABPA are wheezing, mucoid impaction, and pulmonary infiltrates. Oral corticosteroids and anti-fungal agents are standard therapy for ABPA, but long-term use of systemic corticosteroids often causes serious side effects. A 64-year-old woman was diagnosed with ABPA based on a history of bronchial asthma (from 40 years of age), elevated total IgE, the presence of serum precipitating antibodies and elevated specific IgE antibody to A. fumigatus, and pulmonary infiltration. Bronchoscopy showed eosinophilic mucoid impaction. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was initiated, and her symptoms disappeared. Peripheral eosinophilia and pulmonary infiltration recurred five months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment. Systemic corticosteroids were re-initiated and itraconazole was added as an anti-fungal agent. The patient was free of corticosteroids, aside from treatment with a short course of systemic corticosteroids for asthma exacerbation, and clinically stable with itraconazole and asthma treatments for 3 years. In 2017, she experienced significant deterioration. Laboratory examination revealed marked eosinophilia (3017/μL) and a chest computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated pulmonary infiltration in the left upper lobe and mucoid impaction in both lower lobes. The patient was treated with high-dose inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting beta-agonist, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, and theophylline; spirometry revealed a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) of 1.01 L. An uncontrolled asthma state was indicated by an Asthma Control Test (ACT) score of 18. Mepolizumab, 100 mg every 4 weeks, was initiated for the treatment of severe bronchial asthma with ABPA exacerbation. Bronchial asthma symptoms dramatically improved, and ACT score increased to 24

  6. Skin aspergillosis induced in the region of radiation ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Yumiko; Nakauchi, Yohichi; Ushijima, Tsugako

    1980-01-01

    A case of skin aspergillosis in the region of radiation ulcer which was caused by Aspergillus fumigatus was reported. The patient was a 51 year-old man. This fungal infection was probably induced by a local factor, that is, chronic radiation ulcer. Histological findings suggested that Aspergillus fumigatus which increased saprophytically at the beginning possessed parasitic nature gradually, invaded into connective tissues in the deep layer of true skin, and made radiation ulcer more intractable. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  8. Beware of the devastating pulmonary aspergillosis syndromes In certain environments

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooblall, M

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays with more stem cell transplants and immunosuppressive therapies there has been a rise in pulmonary aspergillosis syndromes. The following illustrates such a case. A 49 year old man had a past history of ankylosing spondylitis with a bilateral hip replacement. He was also on surveillance for a superficial bladder tumour since 2007. His chest x-ray in 2008 was normal. In 2010 his CXR showed patchy opacification in the right apex. CT thorax confirm fibrotic changes.

  9. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of β-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  10. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P increased mean mealtime, frequency, and mean inter

  11. Respective influence of veterinarians and local institutional stakeholders on the event-driven surveillance system for bovine brucellosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier

    2015-08-01

    The event-driven surveillance system for bovine brucellosis implemented in France aims to ensure the early detection of cases of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It consists of mandatory notification of bovine abortions by farmers and veterinarians. However, as underlined by a previous qualitative study, several factors influence the decision-making process of actors in the field. This process is particularly influenced by the level of cooperation between institutional stakeholders in their département (a French département being an administrative and territorial unit), veterinarians and farmers. In this context, the objectives of this study were 1) to quantify the respective influence of veterinarians and all local institutional stakeholders on the proportion of notifying farmers and identify which actors have most influence on farmers' decisions; 2) to analyse whether the influence of veterinarians is correlated with that of local institutional stakeholders. In addition to factors relating to the farm itself (production type and herd size), the proportion of notifying farmers was influenced by the number of veterinarians per practice and the veterinary practice's membership of a technical association. This proportion was also influenced by unknown factors relating to the veterinary practice and, to a lesser extent, the département in which the farm was located. There was no correlation between variability in the proportion of notifying farmers among veterinary practices per département and the effect of the département itself. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the influence of veterinarians and local institutional stakeholders on the notification process for a mandatory disease. In addition to carrying out regulatory interventions, veterinarians play a major role in encouraging farmers to participate in the surveillance systems. The results of this study, combined with a previous

  12. Improved cloning efficiency and developmental potential in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer with the oosight imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Noh, Eun Ji; Noh, Eun Hyung; Park, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2012-08-01

    In somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) procedures, exquisite enucleation of the recipient oocyte is critical to cloning efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two enucleation systems, Hoechst staining and UV irradiation (hereafter, irradiation group) and Oosight imaging (hereafter, Oosight group), on the in vitro production of bovine SCNT embryos. In the Oosight group, the apoptotic index (2.8 ± 0.5 vs. 7.3 ± 1.2) was lower, and the fusion rate (75.6% vs. 62.9%), cleavage rate (78.0% vs. 63.7%), blastocyst rate (40.2% vs. 29.2%), and total cell number (128.3±4.8 vs. 112.2 ± 7.6) were higher than those in the irradiation group (all p<0.05). The overall efficiency after SCNT was twice as high in the Oosight group as that in the irradiation group (p<0.05). The relative mRNA expression levels of Oct4, Nanog, Interferon-tau, and Dnmt3A were higher and those of Caspase-3 and Hsp70 were lower in the Oosight group compared with the irradiation group (p<0.05). This is the first report to show the positive effect of the Oosight imaging system on molecular gene expression in the SCNT embryo. The Oosight imaging system may become the preferred choice for enucleation because it is less detrimental to the developmental potential of bovine SCNT embryos.

  13. Development of bovine embryos cultured in CR1aa and IVD101 media using different oxygen tensions and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimise the culture conditions for the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The development of in vitro fertilised bovine oocytes in CR1aa supplemented with 5% calf serum and IVD101 culture media were compared using traditional microdrops and Well of the Well (WOW) culture systems either under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. After 7 days of culture, a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate was obtained for embryos cultured in CR1aa medium compared to those cultured in IVD101, irrespective of O2 tensions and culture systems. The blastocyst formation in IVD101 was suppressed under 20% O2 compared to 5% O2 . Despite their similar total cell numbers, higher rates of inner cell mass (ICM) cells were observed in blastocysts developed in IVD101 medium than in those developed in CR1aa, irrespective of O2 tensions. There was no significant difference in blastocyst formation, total, ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers between embryos obtained by microdrop and WOW culture systems irrespective of the culture media and O2 tensions used. In conclusion, CR1aa resulted in higher blastocyst formation rates irrespective of O2 tension, whereas IVD101 supported blastocyst formation only under low O2 levels but enhanced the proliferation of ICM cells.

  14. Resolution of orbitocerebral aspergillosis during combination treatment with voriconazole and amphotericin plus adjunctive cytokine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Delia; Hall, Georgina; Goodman, T Robin; Klein, Nigel; Pollard, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Orbitocerebral aspergillosis has a very high fatality rate and cure is unusual. We describe the successful management of a child with cereberal aspergillosis who had a dramatic response to therapy with a combination of liposomal amphotericin and voriconazole with adjunctive cytokine therapy during immunosuppresive chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

  15. Aspergillus felis sp nov., an Emerging Agent of Invasive Aspergillosis in Humans, Cats, and Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrs, Vanessa R.; van Doorn, Tineke M.; Houbraken, Jos; Kidd, Sarah E.; Martin, Patricia; Pinheiro, Maria Dolores; Richardson, Malcolm; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph) isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a

  16. Omalizumab Treatment for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Dogru, Deniz; Tugcu, Gokcen Dilsa; Yalcin, Ebru; Kiper, Nural; Ozcelik, Ugur

    2016-03-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by destructive changes in the airways. Long-term treatment with oral corticosteroids is often required for repeated exacerbations. Because elevated total IgE is a cardinal abnormality of ABPA, omalizumab has been used sporadically to decrease corticosteroid dose or totally replace corticosteroids. The aim of this report is to describe our experience with omalizumab treatment in patients with CF and ABPA. We conducted a review of 6 CF patients with ABPA receiving omalizumab. All patients were treated with oral prednisolone and itraconazole. Omalizumab was started if the patient was not responding to steroid treatment, which was determined according to serum IgE levels and/or clinical findings or depending on if there were side effects caused by steroid treatment. The mean age of patients at the beginning of omalizumab treatment was 16.1 years. One patient had a new diagnosis of ABPA; however, the others had the first to third exacerbation when treated with omalizumab. The mean duration of ABPA by the time that treatment with omalizumab started was 13 ± 12.4 months (range = 2-29 months). With omalizumab treatment, IgE levels were decreased in all patients, and Aspergillus-specific IgE levels were decreased in 4 patients; however, FEV1(% predicted) improved only in 2 patients who had mild disease. Corticosteroids were reduced in the first, second, and third months of omalizumab treatment in 2, 1, and 3 patients, respectively. In 2 patients, steroid treatment was stopped. None of the patients suffered from side effects of omalizumab. The mean duration of omalizumab treatment was 12.5 months (range = 6-18 months). This study showed steroid-sparing effect, decreasing IgE levels, and improvement in respiratory symptoms in 6 CF patients with omalizumab treatment. Although this is a small sample of the population, omalizumab may be an alternative therapy for ABPA in CF patients who fail

  17. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  18. Investigation of the binding affinity in vitamin B12-Bovine serum albumin system using various spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    The binding affinity between vitamin B12 (VitB12) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated in aqueous solution at pH = 7.4, employing UV-vis absorption and steady-state, synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. Representative effects noted for BSA intrinsic fluorescence resulting from the interactions with VitB12 confirm the formation of π-π stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes in the system VitB12-BSA. All the determined parameters, the binding, fluorescence quenching and bimolecular quenching rate constants (of the order of 104 L mol- 1, 103 L mol- 1 and 1011 L mol- 1 s- 1, respectively), as well as Förster resonance energy transfer parameters validate the mechanism of static quenching. The interaction with VitB12 induces folding of the polypeptide chains around Trp residues of BSA, resulting in a more hydrophobic surrounding. Presented outcomes suggest that the addition of VitB12 can lead to the more organized BSA conformation and its more folded tertiary structure, what could influence the physiological functions of bovine serum albumin, notably in case of its overuse or abnormal metabolism.

  19. A Case Of Invasive Aspergillosis In A Patient With No identifiable Immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey MP

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections usually affect patients with immunodeficiencies and very rarely patients with no known or identifiable risk factors. Diagnosis could be delayed in patients without previously known immunodeficiencies due to a low index of suspicion, leading to a delay in treatment and a potential poor outcome. We report a case of a postpartum woman with no history of immuno-compromised disease who developed left hemiparesis with evidence of invasive aspergollosis affecting the nervous system, and leading to fatal outcome. The patient had a mass-like lesion in the neuroimaging with soft tissue shadowing in the chest x-ray leading to initial diagnosis of tuberculosis. The brain biopsy showed changes consistent with a diagnosis of aspergillosis. The source of the aspergillus infection was not clear. Aspergillus infection should be considered in patients with no identifiable immunodeficiencies who have abnormal brain imaging and chest x-ray, as early treatment may alter the outcome.

  20. Amphotericin B releasing topical nanoemulsion for the treatment of candidiasis and aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Lilian; Clares, Beatriz; Alvarado, Helen L; Bozal, Nuria; Domenech, Oscar; Calpena, Ana C

    2017-10-01

    The present study was designed to develop a nanoemulsion formulation of Amphotericin B (AmB) for the treatment of skin candidiasis and aspergillosis. Several ingredients were selected on the basis of AmB solubility and compatibility with skin. The formulation that exhibited the best properties was selected from the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. After physicochemical characterization its stability was assessed. Drug release and skin permeation studies were also accomplished. The antifungal efficacy and skin tolerability of developed AmB nanoemulsion was demonstrated. Finally, our results showed that the developed AmB formulation could provide an effective local antifungal effect without theoretical systemic absorption, based on its skin retention capacity, which might avoid related side effect. These results suggested that the nanoemulsion may be an optimal therapeutic alternative for the treatment of skin fungal infections with AmB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Sickle Cell Patient Transplant Recipient: A Successful Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Paciaroni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA is the most common inherited blood disorder and is associated with severe morbidity and decreased survival. Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT is the only curative approach. Nevertheless the decision to perform a marrow transplant includes the risk of major complications  and mortality transplant related. The infections represent the main cause of mortality for SCA patients undergoing transplant. Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis (IPA is a devastating opportunistic infection and remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in HSCT recipients. Data regarding IPA in the setting of SCA are lacking. In the present report,  we describe a patient with SCA who developed IPA after allogeneic bone marrow transplant. The fungal infection was treated by systemic antifungal therapy in addition to the surgery, despite  mild chronic GVHD and with continuing immunosuppression therapy. This case shows that IPA occurring in bone marrow recipient with SCA can be successful treated

  2. Scrotal granulomatous aspergillosis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Peano, Andrea; Piga, Sara

    2017-01-01

    a firm consistency and was painful at palpation. Histopathology revealed dermal granulomatous inflammation with a necrotic centre, surrounded by plasma cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and sparse fungal hyphae characterised by parallel cell walls, distinct septa, and dichotomous branching. Fungal culture...... was not performed, but a panel of mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera identified the hyphae as Aspergillus sp. Conclusions The occurrence of subcutaneous lesions is a rare manifestation of aspergillosis in animals, and this appears to be the first case reported in the dromedary...

  3. The urokinase plasminogen activator system components are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor D in bovine oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniela C; Russo-Maenza, Agostina; Miceli, Dora C; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Roldán-Olarte, Mariela

    2018-06-08

    SummaryThe mammalian oviduct plays a pivotal role in the success of early reproductive events. The urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) is present in the bovine oviduct and is involved in extracellular matrix remodelling through plasmin generation. This system can be regulated by several members of the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors. In this study, the VEGF-D effect on the regulation of uPAS was evaluated. First, RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were used to evidence the expression of VEGF-D and its receptors in oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC). VEGF-D, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 transcripts were found in ex vivo and in vitro BOEC, while only VEGFR2 mRNA was present after in vitro conditions. VEGF-D showed a regulatory effect on uPAS gene expression in a dose-dependent manner, inducing an increase in the expression of both uPA and its receptor (uPAR) at 24 h post-induction and decreases in the expression of its inhibitor (PAI-1). In addition, the regulation of cell migration induced by VEGF-D and uPA in BOEC monolayer cultures was analyzed. The wound areas of monolayer cultures incubated with VEGF-D 10 ng/ml or uPA 10 nM were modified and significant differences were found at 24 h for both stimulations. These results indicated that uPAS and VEGF-D systems can modify the arrangement of the bovine oviductal epithelium and contribute to the correct maintenance of the oviductal microenvironment.

  4. Improved bovine embryo production in an oviduct-on-a-chip system : prevention of poly-spermic fertilization and parthenogenic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraz, Marcia A.M.M.; Henning, Heiko H.W.; Costa, Pedro F.; Malda, Jos; Melchels, Ferry P.W.; Wubbolts, Richard; Stout, Tom A.E.; Vos, Peter L.A.M.; Gadella, Bart M.

    2017-01-01

    The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to

  5. Improved bovine embryo production in an oviduct-on-a-chip system: prevention of poly-spermic fertilization and parthenogenic activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida Monteiro Melo Ferraz, M.; Henning, H.H.W.; Ferreira da Costa, Pedro; Malda, J.; Melchels, F P W; Wubbolts, R.W.; Stout, T.A.E.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Gadella, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The oviduct provides the natural micro-environment for gamete interaction, fertilization and early embryo development in mammals, such as the cow. In conventional culture systems, bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) undergo a rapid loss of essential differentiated cell properties; we aimed to

  6. Isavuconazole in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelley MA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monica A Donnelley,1,2 Elizabeth S Zhu,1 George R Thompson 3rd3 1Department of Inpatient Pharmacy, University of California – Davis, Sacramento, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Touro University College of Pharmacy, Vallejo, 3Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California – Davis, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: We have a limited arsenal with which to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Mucorales. The morbidity and mortality for both pathogens remains high. A triazole antifungal, isavuconazole, was recently granted approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. A randomized double-blind comparison trial for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis found isavuconazole noninferior to voriconazole. A separate, open-label study evaluating the efficacy of isavuconazole in the treatment of mucormycosis found comparable response rates to amphotericin B and posaconazole treated historical controls. The prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate is commercially available in both an oral and intravenous formulation and is generally well tolerated. Isavuconazole’s broad spectrum of activity, limited side effect profile, and favorable pharmacokinetics will likely solidify its place in therapy. Keywords: isavuconazonium, antifungal, zygomycosis, mucor, mould infection, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, therapy, new agent

  7. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a rare cause of pleural effusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most ubiquitous of the airborne saprophytic fungi. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a syndrome seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis, and is characterized by hypersensitivity to chronic colonization of the airways with A. fumigatus. We report the case of a patient with ABPA presenting with pleural effusion. A 27-year-old male was referred with recurrent right pleural effusion. Past medical history was remarkable for asthma, allergic sinusitis, and recurrent pleurisy. Investigations revealed peripheral eosinophilia with elevated serum immunoglobulin E and bilateral pleural effusions with bilateral upper lobe proximal bronchiectasis. Precipitating serum antibodies to A. fumigatus were positive and the A. fumigatus immediate skin test yielded a positive reaction. A diagnosis of ABPA associated with bilateral pleural effusions was made and the patient was commenced on prednisolone. At review, the patient\\'s symptoms had considerably improved and his pleural effusions had resolved. ABPA may present with diverse atypical syndromes, including paratracheal and hilar adenopathy, obstructive lung collapse, pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula, and allergic sinusitis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a rare cause of pleural effusion and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a pleural effusion, in particular those with a history of asthma.

  8. Mycological and serological study of pulmonary aspergillosis in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurhade A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and predisposing factors of Aspergillus infection and correlate microscopic, culture and serological findings along with drug sensitivity. METHODS: Sputum samples from 123 patients of pulmonary disease with clinical suspicion of having fungal, especially Aspergillus infections, were examined microscopically and for culture. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of itraconazole was tested against the isolates. Serum samples from these patients were tested for precipitin against Aspergillus antigen using immunodiffusion (ID technique. RESULTS: Aspergillus species were isolated in 20 (16.26% cases and Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated in 16 (80% cases. Precipitins were detected in 29 (23.58% cases. Serum samples collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as controls showed no precipitin against Aspergillus antigen galactomannan. This fungus was found to be sensitive to itraconazole with MIC range 0.125-1µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Serological tests have an edge over routine smear and culture methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis. Itraconazole is more effective than amphotericin B and fluconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis.

  9. Primary Cutaneous Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are the lungs, central nervous system (CNS), and sinuses, however, the rare cutaneous infection is usually associated with immunodeficiency. Primary cutaneous infection, especially in immunocompetent patients, is extremely rare, but an increase in prevalence has been noted in the last. 20 years. The predisposing factors ...

  10. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with aspergillus sinusitis-′9′ year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Pratima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Broncho Pulmonary Aspergillosis with Aspergillus Sinusitis was diagnosed in a nine year old boy after clinical and immunological investigations. He responded well after treatment with steroid and itraconazol.

  11. Falciparum malaria infection with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent host – case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an extraordinary rare in the immunocompetent host. Falciparum malaria contributes to high morbidity and mortality of malaria infection cases in the world. The impairments of both humoral and cellular immunity could be the reason of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in falciparum malaria infection. Forty-nine years old patient came with fever, jaundice, pain in the right abdomen, after visiting a remote area in Africa about one month before admission. Blood films and rapid test were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. After malaria therapy in five days, consciousness was altered into somnolence and intubated with respiratory deterioration. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after falciparum malaria infection is life-threatening. There should be awareness of physicians of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in falciparum malaria infection.

  12. Direct molecular diagnosis of aspergillosis and CYP51A profiling from respiratory samples of French patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yanan Zhao; Cécile Garnaud; Cécile Garnaud; Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart; Marie-Pierre Brenier-Pinchart; Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand; Anne Thiébaut-Bertrand; Christel Saint-Raymond; Boubou Camara; Rebecca Hamidfar-Roy; Odile Cognet; Danièle Maubon; Danièle Maubon; Muriel Cornet; Muriel Cornet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive...

  13. Direct Molecular Diagnosis of Aspergillosis and CYP51A Profiling from Respiratory Samples of French Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanan; Garnaud, C?cile; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Thi?baut-Bertrand, Anne; Saint-Raymond, Christel; Camara, Boubou; Hamidfar, Rebecca; Cognet, Odile; Maubon, Dani?le; Cornet, Muriel; Perlin, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL), bronchial aspirates (BA), tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invas...

  14. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-06-21

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we considered the possibility of using the SVANOVIR ELISA, as this test has been shown to detect BVD-positive herds earlier than the blocking ELISA in BTM tests. Information from data (2010) and outputs from two published stochastic models were fed into a stochastic scenario tree to estimate the TemSSe. For that purpose we considered: the risk of BVD introduction into the dairy population, the ELISA used and the high risk period (HRP) from BVD introduction to testing (at 90 or 365 days). The effect of introducing one persistently infected (PI) calf or one transiently infected (TI) milking cow into 1 (or 8) dairy herd(s) was investigated. Additionally we estimated the confidence in low (PLow) herd prevalence (tree methodology, could be applied to optimize early warning surveillance systems of different animal diseases.

  15. Lipofection of siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shuntaro; Sugimoto, Miki; Kume, Shinichi

    2018-04-13

    Bovine preimplantation embryos exhibit dramatic biological changes between before and after the 8-16-cell stage. Here we report a simple lipofection method to transfect siRNA into bovine 8-16-cell stage embryos using zona removal and the well-of-the-well (WOW) culture system. Bovine one-cell embryos produced in vitro were freed from the zona pellucida and cultured up to the 8-16-cell stage in WOW dishes. The 8-16-cell embryos were lipofected with siRNA and the transfection efficiency was assessed at 48 h of transfection. Lipofection with a red fluorescent non-targeting siRNA revealed the importance of zona removal for transfection of siRNA into embryos. Using this method, we knocked down the methionine adenosyltransferase 2A (MAT2A) gene, achieving a significant reduction in MAT2A expression (P lipofection', may be useful to analyze gene functions in bovine preimplantation embryos without expensive equipment and skill-intensive techniques.

  16. 77 FR 29914 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This action will allow interested... importation of live bovines and products derived from bovines with regard to bovine spongiform encephalopathy...

  17. Prevalence and risk factor's analysis of bovine brucellosis in peri-urban areas under intensive system of production in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Patel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A study on surveillance of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas under intensive system of production was carried out by milk-ELISA. Various risk factors were identified having significant association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds of peri-urban areas. Materials and Methods: Five randomly selected peri-uban areas of six cities of Gujarat were included in the present study. Five randomly selected dairy herds under intensive system of production from each selected peri-urban area were included for further investigation. In total, 199 bulk and 582 individual milk samples were screened by milk-ELISA. Forty three different risk factors were identified and grouped into four major categories as general characteristics of farms, introduction of infection to farms, management systems of farms and exposure of disease. Further, their distribution and association with prevalence of bovine brucellosis was studied. Results: The overall herd and animal prevalence in peri-urban areas was 33.70 and 11.90%, respectively. Out of 11 risk factors on general characteristics of dairy farms, only five (herd size, type of animals, type of breed, age of owner and knowledge gained by owners showed significant (p<0.05 association with occurrence of bovine brucellosis. None of risk factors on introduction of infection to farms (n=6 and management systems of farms (n=11 was found significantly associated with occurrence of brucellosis. Among risk factors on exposure of disease (n=15, history of abortion, retention of placenta, still birth and metritis/endometritis showed significant (p<0.05 association with prevalence of bovine brucellosis. Conclusion: It was concluded that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairy herds under intensive system of production in peri-urban areas of Gujarat was comparatively higher than reported overall prevalence of brucellosis. Risk factors like larger herd in close confinement without adequate sheds

  18. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in an adult with Kartagener syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Bal, Amanjit; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-08-06

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a pulmonary disorder resulting from immune responses directed against inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. It manifests with poorly controlled asthma, fleeting pulmonary opacities and structural lung damage in the form of bronchiectasis. Initially defined in individuals suffering from bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis, it has also been described in patients with other structural lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, idiopathic bronchiectasis and others. Kartagener syndrome is a manifestation of primary ciliary dyskinesia characterised by the presence of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis. We report a case of ABPA in an adult suffering from Kartagener syndrome. We also performed a systematic review of the literature on the association between Kartagener syndrome and ABPA. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Radiological diagnosis of maxillary sinus aspergillosis. Radiologische Diagnostik der Kieferhoehlenaspergillose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, B.; Beyer, D. (Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Porz (Germany). Radiologische Abt.)

    1992-11-01

    Aspergillosis of the maxillary sinuses shows an increasing incidence in even otherwise healthy patients. Next to inhalation as the mode of infection, a dental root canal filling with an orosinusal fistula can be the cause. As most infections remain initially undetected or underestimated as common sinusitis, early diagnosis must be achieved. Standard X-ray of the paranasal sinuses, conventional tomography as well as CT scans are of major importance. Centrally located hyperdense opacifications are a good criterion and can be best seen in CT. Even when the case has not progressed too much, radical surgery combined with Amphotericin B therapy is still the treatment of choice since the infection may progress rapidly. (orig.).

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibition as an alternative strategy against invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening infection due to Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. Drugs targeting the fungal cell membrane (triazoles, amphotericin B or cell wall (echinocandins are currently the sole therapeutic options against IA. Their limited efficacy and the emergence of resistance warrant the identification of new antifungal targets. Histone deacetylases (HDACs are enzymes responsible of the deacetylation of lysine residues of core histones, thus controlling chromatin remodeling and transcriptional activation. HDACs also control the acetylation and activation status of multiple non-histone proteins, including the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, an essential molecular chaperone for fungal virulence and antifungal resistance. This review provides an overview of the different HDACs in Aspergillus spp. as well as their respective contribution to total HDAC activity, fungal growth, stress responses, and virulence. The potential of HDAC inhibitors, currently under development for cancer therapy, as novel alternative antifungal agents against IA is discussed.

  1. Allergic aspergillosis and the antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bharat; Singh, Seema; Asif, Abdul R; Oellerich, Michael; Sharma, Gainda L

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of fungal infections has increased alarmingly in past few decades. Of the fungal pathogens, the Aspergillus fumigatus has been a major cause of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) which has five main stages--the acute, remission, exacerbation, glucocorticoid dependent and fibrotic stage. The diagnosis of ABPA remains difficult due to its overlapping clinical and radiological features with tuberculosis and cystic fibrosis. From past few decades, the crude fractions of A. fumigatus have been used for immunodiagnosis of ABPA. Most of the detection kits based on crude fractions of A. fumigatus are quite sensitive but have low specificity. Till date 21 known and 25 predicted allergens of A. fumigatus have been identified. Of these allergens, only five recombinants (rAsp f1-f4 and f6) are commercially used for diagnosis of allergic aspergillosis. Remaining allergens of A. fumigatus have been restricted for use in specific diagnosis of ABPA, due to sharing of common antigenic epitopes with other allergens. Complete sequencing of A. fumigatus genome identified 9926 genes and the reports on the proteome of A. fumigatus have shown the presence of large number of their corresponding proteins in the pathogen. The analysis of immunoproteomes developed from crude fractions of A. fumigatus by IgG/IgE reactivity with ABPA patients and animal sera have identified the panel of new antigens. A brief description on the current status of A. fumigatus antigens is provided in this review. The implementation of advance recombinant expression and peptidomic approaches on the A. fumigatus antigens may help in the selection of appropriate molecules for the development of tools for more specific early diagnosis of ABPA, and desensitization therapies for patients of allergic disorders.

  2. Functional protease profiling for laboratory based diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Bassel; Costina, Victor; Buchheidt, Dieter; Reinwald, Mark; Neumaier, Michael; Findeisen, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains difficult to diagnose in immunocompromised patients, because diagnostic criteria according to EORTC/MSG guidelines are often not met and have low sensitivity. Hence there is an urgent need to improve diagnostic procedures by developing novel approaches. In the present study, we present a proof of concept experiment for the monitoring of Aspergillus associated protease activity in serum specimens for diagnostic purpose. Synthetic peptides that are selectively cleaved by proteases secreted from Aspergillus species were selected from our own experiments and published data. These so called reporter peptides (RP, n=5) were added to serum specimens from healthy controls (HC, n=101) and patients with proven (IA, n=9) and possible (PIA, n=144) invasive aspergillosis. Spiked samples were incubated ex vivo under strictly standardized conditions. Proteolytic fragments were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Spiked specimens of IA patients had highest concentrations of RP-fragments followed by PIA and HC. The median signal intensity was 116.546 (SD, 53.063) for IA and 5.009 (SD, 8.432) for HC. A cut-off >36.910 was chosen that performed with 100% specificity and sensitivity. Patients with PIA had either values above [53% (76/144)] or below [47% (67/144)] this chosen cut-off. The detection of respective reporter peptide fragments can easily be performed by MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. In this proof of concept study we were able to demonstrate that serum specimens of patients with IA have increased proteolytic activity towards selected reporter peptides. However, the diagnostic value of functional protease profiling has to be validated in further prospective studies. It is likely that a combination of existing and new methods will be required to achieve optimal performance for diagnosis of IA in the future.

  3. Speciation of native cations and added radionuclides in raw bovine milk. I. membraneless dialysis in aqueous biphasic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macasek, F.; Gerhart, P.; Malovikova, A.; Celkova, A.

    1996-01-01

    Partition of native sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and radioisotopes of cesium, strontium and europium was investigated in the aqueous liquid-liquid systems formed after agitation of fresh pasteurized skim bovine milk with 4% w/w water solution of pectin of various degree of esterification (60-93%). The partition of the ions in the 'membraneless dialysis' was described by Donnan equilibria and ion-exchange in the macro-and microheterogenous systems and, within uncertainty of results, does not depend on the degree of esterification. Strong negative non-ideality of Sr and Eu in milk phase is attributed to binding with proteins, casein particles in particular, and complexation with low molecular ligands. Separation factor α = D(Sr)/D(Ca) is 0.70 ±0.06, in favor of strontium concentration in pectin phase. While>96% of cesium is diffusible to pectin phase, only 43-56% (depending on physico-chemical model of dialysis) of strontium behaves in that way, and in original milk phase the percent of strontium cationic from may be as low as 13%. (author). 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Effect of Human and Bovine Serum Albumin on kinetic Chemiluminescence of Mn (III-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl Porphyrin-Luminol-Hydrogen Peroxide System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Yahya Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with an attempt to study the effect of human and bovine serum albumin on kinetic parameters of chemiluminescence of luminol-hydrogen peroxide system catalyzed by manganese tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (MnTSPP. The investigated parameters involved pseudo-first-order rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, maximum level intensity, time to reach maximum intensity, total light yield, and values of the intensity at maximum CL which were evaluated by nonlinear least square program KINFIT. Because of interaction of metalloporphyrin with proteins, the CL parameters are drastically affected. The systems resulted in Stern-Volmer plots with values of 3.17×105 and 3.7×105M−1 in the quencher concentration range of 1.5×10−6 to 1.5×10−5 M for human serum albumin (HSA and bovine serum albumin (BSA, respectively.

  5. Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwarda, Radosław Łukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk

    2013-10-18

    Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5μmol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  7. Perceptions and acceptability of some stakeholders about the bovine tuberculosis surveillance system for wildlife (Sylvatub) in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example. We report here the first assessment of stakeholders’ perceptions of the Sylvatub system and its acceptability, based on 20 individual semi-structured interviews with three types of stakeholder (collectors, coordinators, officers) in areas with different rates of bTB infection. With the caveat that these findings cannot be assumed to be representative of the national situation, we found that the Sylvatub system was considered useful by all the stakeholders interviewed. Those from the world of hunting participate in surveillance mostly to help livestock farmers, who are not systematically involved in bTB surveillance in wildlife. Many practical and regulatory constraints were raised, which could be offset by recognition of the work done by the “hunting community”, to maintain the willingness of these individuals to participate. We also identified a need for improvements in communication and information. Qualitative information, such as that collected here, is essential to improve our understanding of the reasons favoring and disfavoring participation in surveillance, and should be taken into account in the evaluation process. These results are relevant to hunters and to veterinary authorities wishing to identify the determinants of participation in the Sylvatub system. They could provide support for decision

  8. Bovine cysticercosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blagojevic, Bojan; Robertson, Lucy J.; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2017-01-01

    -only inspection of slaughtered cattle in order to reduce the potential for cross-contamination with bacteria that are of greatest public health risk, is expected in the European Union in the near future. With this system, the detection sensitivity for bovine cysticercosis that is already low with the current meat...... of bovine cysticercosis in the European Union....

  9. A Bovine Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier as Pump Prime for Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Reduced Systemic Lactic Acidosis and Improved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Low-flow in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    1 A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral...2010 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2007 - November 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen...carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral oxygen metabolism during low-flow in a

  10. A novel systems pharmacology platform to dissect action mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines for bovine viral diarrhea disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Pei, Tianli; Huang, Chao; Chen, Xuetong; Bai, Yaofei; Xue, Jun; Wu, Ziyin; Mu, Jiexin; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-10-30

    Due to the large direct and indirect productivity losses in the livestock industry caused by bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and the lack of effective pharmacological therapies, developing an efficient treatment is extremely urgent. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) that simultaneously address multiple targets have been proven to be effective therapies for BVD. However, the potential molecular action mechanisms of TCMs have not yet been systematically explored. In this work, take the example of a herbal remedy Huangqin Zhizi (HQZZ) for BVD treatment in China, a systems pharmacology approach combining with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics evaluation was developed to screen out the active ingredients, predict the targets and analyze the networks and pathways. Results show that 212 active compounds were identified. Utilizing these lead compounds as probes, we predicted 122 BVD related-targets. And in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the reliability of some vital active compounds and targets. Network and pathway analysis displayed that HQZZ was effective in the treatment of BVD by inhibiting inflammation, enhancing immune responses in hosts toward virus infection. In summary, the analysis of the complete profile of the pharmacological activities, as well as the elucidation of targets, networks and pathways can further elucidate the underlying anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune regulation mechanisms of HQZZ against BVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-04-24

    Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests that early detection may be

  12. CD154 costimulated ovine primary B cells, a cell culture system that supports productive infection by bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeke, A; Cleuter, Y; Beskorwayne, T; Kerkhofs, P; Szynal, M; Bagnis, C; Burny, A; Griebel, P

    2001-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is closely associated with the development of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma in cattle. BLV infection has also been studied extensively in an in vivo ovine model that provides a unique system for studying B-cell leukemogenesis. There is no evidence that BLV can directly infect ovine B cells in vitro, and there are no direct data regarding the oncogenic potential of the viral Tax transactivator in B cells. Therefore, we developed ovine B-cell culture systems to study the interaction between BLV and its natural target, the B cell. In this study, we used murine CD154 (CD40 ligand) and gamma-chain-common cytokines to support the growth of B cells isolated from ovine lymphoid tissues. Integrated provirus, extrachromosomal forms, and viral transcripts were detected in BLV-exposed populations of immature, rapidly dividing surface immunoglobulin M-positive B cells from sheep ileal Peyer's patches and also in activated mature B cells isolated from blood. Conclusive evidence of direct B-cell infection by BLV was obtained through the use of cloned B cells derived from sheep jejunal Peyer's patches. Finally, inoculation of sheep with BLV-infected cultures proved that infectious virus was shed from in vitro-infected B cells. Collectively, these data confirm that a variety of ovine B-cell populations can support productive infection by BLV. The development of ovine B-cell cultures permissive for BLV infection provides a controlled system for investigating B-cell leukemogenic processes and the pathogenesis of BLV infection.

  13. Therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage with Conventional Treatment in Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the role of therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage in addition to conventional treatment among two groups, with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in terms of regression in serum IgE levels and clinical recurrence at 3 and 6 months of follow-up. Study Design: Aquasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July 2010 to December 2013. Methodology: The study was carried out on 132 patients who fulfilled the Greenberger and Patterson criteria and underwent a chest X-ray, an HRCT chest and classified radiologically as with Central Bronchiectasis (CB), High Attenuation Mucus (HAM) or Other Radiological Features (ORF). Baseline serum IgE levels were noted. All patients were given treatment including prednisolone and antifungal agent itraconazole for 4 months. Patients with ORF on HRCT chest and just received the medical treatment were labeled as conventional group. Those patients who had CB or HAM radiological features also underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), labeled as BAL group. Clinical recurrence and serum IgE levels were noted at 3 and 6 months. Values were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests respectively. Results: Around 78 (59.1 percentage) of patients underwent bronchoscopy with therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage to remove the mucus plugs. The mean serum IgE levels at baseline were 3312.04 ± 2526.217 and 3486.15 ± 2528.324 IU/ml in the BAL and conventional groups respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in the mean serum IgE levels at 3 (p < 0.00) and 6 months (p < 0.001) of follow-up in BALas compared to conventional group. There was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence rate in both the groups (p=0.078 at 3 and 0.343 at 6 months respectively). Conclusion: Therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage may be a useful adjunct to treatment in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary

  14. Costo-efficacia dell’amfotericina B liposomiale nella terapia dell’aspergillosi invasiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eandi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infectious complication of immune system depression. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (AMB-d has been considered standard therapy for IA for over 40 years, despite the fact that success rates rarely exceed 40% and adverse effects are quite common. At present two more recent pharmacological agents are available for the treatment of IA: liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB and voriconazole (VOR. In this article, we present a pharmaco-economical study comparing the relative costeffectiveness of 5 alternative strategies in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, analysed from the point of view of the Italian hospital: administration of L-AMB as first line therapy, followed by no rescue treatment in case of failure (L-AMB I°; administration of L-AMB as first line therapy, followed by VOR in case of failure (LAMB I° + VOR rescue; AMB-d as first line, followed by L-AMB in case of failure (L-AMB rescue; AMB-d as first line, followed by other antifungals as needed (AMB-d I° and VOR as first line, followed by rescue treatments in case of failure (VOR I°. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using decision tree modelling techniques: efficacy data were obtained from published clinical trials; costs parameters were fitted on the Italian setting. The results indicate that two strategies, L-AMB rescue and VOR I°, are dominated, i.e. induce higher costs and lower success rates than the alternatives. The three remaining strategies are neither dominated nor dominate the others, but are associated with different clinical and economical outcomes: AMB-d I° has the lowest total cost, but also the highest cost-effectiveness ratio and the lowest overall efficacy; L-AMB I° has the best cost-effectiveness, but requires the willingness to pay 2,100 euro for each additional success; L-AMB I° + VOR rescue is the most effective treatment, but this choice is associated with incremental costs of 17,200 euro

  15. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Bunskoek (Paulien); S. Seyedmousavi (Seyedmojtaba); S. Gans (Steven); van Vierzen, P.B.J. (Peter B.J.); W.J. Melchers (Willem); C.E. van Elk; J.W. Mouton (Johan); P.E. Verweij (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractInvasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded,

  16. Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis presenting as bilateral pleural effusion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalingham Sakthiswary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis is an uncommon subacute form of Aspergillus infection. It typically occurs in immunocompromised individuals and in those with underlying lung disease. This interesting case highlights the occurrence of this entity of aspergillosis in an immunocompetent middle-aged woman with atypical radiological findings. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis presenting with pleural effusion. Case presentation Our patient was a 64-year-old Malay woman with a background history of epilepsy but no other comorbidities. She was a lifelong non-smoker. She presented to our facility with a six-month history of productive cough and three episodes of hemoptysis. An initial chest radiograph showed bilateral pleural effusion with bibasal consolidation. Bronchoscopy revealed a white-coated endobronchial tree and bronchoalveolar lavage culture grew Aspergillus niger. A diagnosis of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis was made based on the clinical presentation and microbiological results. She responded well to treatment with oral itraconazole. Conclusions The radiological findings in chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis can be very diverse. This case illustrates that this condition can be a rare cause of bilateral pleural effusion.

  17. Economic considerations in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a review of voriconazole pharmacoeconomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kem P Krueger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kem P Krueger, A Christie NelsonSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USAAbstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection predominately affecting immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of inpatient-treated aspergillosis cases in the US is estimated to be between 3.02 and 3.80 per 10,000 hospitalized patients. The estimated difference in hospital costs of patients with an aspergillosis infection is US$36,867 to US$59,356 higher than those of patients without the infection. Voriconazole is a synthetic, broad spectrum triazole antifungal agent, with FDA-approved indications for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, candidemia in nonneutropenic patients, invasive candidiasis, and infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium species in patients refractory to or intolerant of other therapy. Eight cost-effectiveness analyses, one cost-minimization analysis, and one cost analysis were identified from a Medline search. The 10 pharmacoeconomic analyses were conducted in six different countries comparing voriconazole to conventional amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, itraconazole, and caspofungin. All the cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses identified voriconazole as the most cost-effective therapy. The cost analysis demonstrated voriconazole cost-savings. While the acquisition costs of voriconazole are higher than those of conventional amphotericin B, the toxicity profile and rate of treatment success associated with voriconazole result in lower total treatment costs per successfully treated patient.Keywords: voriconazole, antifungal agents, invasive aspergillosis, pharmacoeconomics 

  18. Fulminant Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis After a Near-Drowning Accident in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratermann, Kelley L; Ereshefsky, Benjamin J; Fleishaker, Elise L; Thornton, Alice C; Buch, Ketan P; Martin, Craig A

    2014-09-01

    To report on invasive aspergillosis infection in an immunocompetent adult after a near-drowning event, which allowed this pathogen to easily gain access to the human respiratory system and result in rapid, severe infection. A 51-year-old female developed severe pneumonia after a near-drowning accident. Two days after admission, a bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and was positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. After a 30-day hospital course, multiple antifungals, and various routes of administration, the patient expired. Pneumonia is particularly common because of the aspiration of contaminated water. Whereas pneumococci, staphylococci, and Gram-negative bacteria are all common pathogens for this type of infection, fungi such as Aspergillus spp can also be involved and may be life threatening. Typically, these cases are reported in individuals with an immunodeficiency such as from receipt of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, bone marrow transplants, or lung transplants. Despite initiation of an appropriate empirical antifungal regimen, the rapid recovery of A fumigatus from pulmonary alveolar lavage and BAL samples as well as extremely elevated levels of galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D glucan may have indicated an invasive fungal infection (IFI). IFIs are uncommon in immunocompetent adults, but in the event of a near-drowning accident, environmental fungi can gain access to the human respiratory system and result in rapid, severe infection. Based on this case and the others described, it appears that near-drowning patients need an early initial evaluation for IFI. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Invasive aspergillosis in severely neutropenic patients over 18 years: impact of intranasal amphotericin B and HEPA filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withington, S; Chambers, S T; Beard, M E; Inder, A; Allen, J R; Ikram, R B; Schousboe, M I; Heaton, D C; Spearing, R I; Hart, D N

    1998-01-01

    The impact of intranasal amphotericin B and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration on the incidence of invasive aspergillosis was reviewed in patients from 1977 to 1994 undergoing intensive chemotherapy. Overall, the incidence of proven invasive aspergillosis was reduced from 24.4% (1977-1984) to 7.1% (1985-1991) (P < 0.001) following the introduction of intranasal prophylaxis, but when probable cases of aspergillosis were included and lymphoma cases excluded, there was no change in incidence. Following the introduction of HEPA filtration, patient exposure to aspergillus spores as measured by air sampling was markedly reduced and there were no new cases of invasive aspergillosis. HEPA filtration proved effective in reducing invasive aspergillosis and has allowed increasingly aggressive treatment regimens to be introduced.

  20. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Conclusion Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows. PMID:25653501

  1. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5-8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21-35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%). Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

  2. Physicochemical study of mixed systems composed by bovine caseinate and the galactomannan from Gleditsia amorphoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Débora N; Galante, Micaela; Alvarez, Estela M; Risso, Patricia H; Boeris, Valeria

    2017-10-01

    Model systems formed by sodium caseinate (NaCAS) and espina corona gum (ECG) were studied. There was no evidence of attractive interactions between NaCAS and ECG macromolecules. Aqueous mixtures of NaCAS and ECG phase-separate segregatively over a wide range of concentrations. According to the images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, NaCAS particles form larger protein aggregates when ECG is present in the system. An increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NaCAS particles, as a result of ECG addition, was also observed by light scattering in diluted systems. A depletion-flocculation phenomenon, in which ECG is excluded from NaCAS surface, is proposed to occur in the concentrated mixed systems, resulting in NaCAS aggregation. ECG raises the viscosity of NaCAS dispersions without affecting the Newtonian flow behaviour of NaCAS. These results contribute to improve the knowledge of a barely-studied hydrocolloid which may be useful in the development of innovative food systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immune-compromised children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.S.; Jakaki, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a potentially lethal complication of prolonged neutropenia occurring most commonly in patients with leukemia or aplastic anemia. Early diagnosis is important for prompt therapy but may prove difficult. This paper assesses the role of CT in the early diagnosis and follow-up of IPA in children. Nine proved cases and 2 cases clinically consistent with IPA were the group for both retrospective and prospective analysis. Medical records, chest radiographs, and CT scans were reviewed. Eight children had acute leukemia, and 3 had aplastic anemia. five patients died; 2 underwent lobectomy. Typical CT findings included multiple found parenchymal nodules, larger confluent masslike infiltrates, and peripheral pleural-based nodules/infiltrates resembling infarcts. No adenopathy or pleural effusions occurred. Some lesions later cavitated or developed an air crescent. CT clearly depicted several unusual complications, including involvement of bronchus (resulting in luminal narrowing, unilateral pulmonary overinflation, and air leak) and mycotic thrombosis or aneurysim of the pulmonary artery. Resolution of lesions with therapy was also documented by CT

  4. [Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, José; Mensa, José

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common infection in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies or allogenic stem cell transplantation, and is less frequent in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucociliary activity impairment, immunosuppression due to the inhibition of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils by steroids, and receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, play a role in the development of IPA in COPD patients. Colonized patients or those with IPA are older, with severe CODP stage (GOLD≥III), and have a higher number of comorbidities. The mortality rate is high due to the fact that having a definitive diagnosis of IPA in COPD patients is often difficult. The main clinical and radiological signs of IPA in these types of patients are non-specific, and tissue samples for definitive diagnosis are often difficult to obtain. The poor prognosis of IPA in COPD patients could perhaps be improved by faster diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal treatment. Some tools, such as scales and algorithms based on risk factors of IPA, may be useful for its early diagnosis in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. [Pharmacology of the antifungals used in the treatment of aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, José Ramón; Sádaba, Belén; Gómez-Guíu, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of invasive aspergillosis requires the use of drugs that characteristically have complex pharmacokinetic properties, the knowledge of which is essential to achieve maximum efficacy with minimal risk to the patient. The lipid-based amphotericin B formulations vary significantly in their pharmacokinetic behaviour, with very high plasma concentrations of the liposomal form, probably related to the presence of cholesterol in their structure. Azoles have a variable absorption profile, particularly in the case of itraconazole and posaconazole, with the latter very dependent on multiple factors. This may also lead to variations in voriconazole, which requires considering the possibility of monitoring plasma concentrations. The aim of this article is to review some of the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of the antifungals used in the prophylaxis and treatment of the Aspergillus infection. For this reason, it includes the most relevant features of some of the azoles normally prescribed in this infection (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole) and the amphotericin B formulations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. Evaluation of a Computer-aided Lung Auscultation System for Diagnosis of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, A V; Buczinski, S; Booker, C W; Timsit, E

    2015-01-01

    A computer-aided lung auscultation (CALA) system was recently developed to diagnose bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in feedlot cattle. To determine, in a case-control study, the level of agreement between CALA and veterinary lung auscultation and to evaluate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of CALA to diagnose BRD in feedlot cattle. A total of 561 Angus cross-steers (initial body weight = 246 ± 45 kg) were observed during the first 50 day after entry to a feedlot. Case-control study. Steers with visual signs of BRD identified by pen checkers were examined by a veterinarian, including lung auscultation using a conventional stethoscope and CALA that produced a lung score from 1 (normal) to 5 (chronic). For each steer examined for BRD, 1 apparently healthy steer was selected as control and similarly examined. Agreement between CALA and veterinary auscultation was assessed by kappa statistic. CALA's Se and Sp were estimated using Bayesian latent class analysis. Of the 561 steers, 35 were identified with visual signs of BRD and 35 were selected as controls. Comparison of veterinary auscultation and CALA (using a CALA score ≥2 as a cut off) revealed a substantial agreement (kappa = 0.77). Using latent class analysis, CALA had a relatively high Se (92.9%; 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.71-0.99) and Sp (89.6%; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99) for diagnosing BRD compared with pen checking. CALA had good diagnostic accuracy (albeit with a relatively wide CI). Its use in feedlots could increase the proportion of cattle accurately diagnosed with BRD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Separation of porcine parvovirus from bovine serum albumin using PEG-salt aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaragavan, K Saagar; Zahid, Amna; Young, Jonathan W; Heldt, Caryn L

    2014-09-15

    Vaccine production faces a challenge in adopting conventional downstream processing steps that can efficiently purify large viral particles. Some major issues that plague vaccine purification are purity, potency, and quality. The industry currently considers 30% as an acceptable virus recovery for a vaccine purification process, including all downstream processes, whereas antibody recovery from CHO cell culture is generally around 80-85%. A platform technology with an improved virus recovery would revolutionize vaccine production. In a quest to fulfill this goal, we have been exploring aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) as an optional mechanism to purify virus. ATPS has been unable to gain wide implementation mainly due to loss of virus infectivity, co-purification of proteins, and difficulty of polymer recycling. Non-enveloped viruses are chemically resistant enough to withstand the high polymer and salt concentrations that are required for effective ATPS separations. We used infectious porcine parvovirus (PPV), a non-enveloped, DNA virus as a model virus to test and develop an ATPS separation method. We successfully tackled two of the three main disadvantages of ATPS previously stated; we achieved a high infectious yield of 64% in a PEG-citrate ATPS process while separating out the main contaminate protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). The most dominant forces in the separation were biomolecule charge, virus surface hydrophobicity, and the ATPS surface tension. Highly hydrophobic viruses are likely to benefit from the discovered ATPS for high-purity vaccine production and ease of implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Etiologic Agents and Diseases Found Associated with Clinical Aspergillosis in Falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tarello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94 clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64 cases, causing either single (=36 or multiple coinfections (=28. Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS (=29, Caryospora sp. (=16, Serratospiculum seurati infestation (=14, cestodiasis (=6, bumblefoot (=5, trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (=5, trichomoniasis (=4, Babesia shortti (=4, Mannheimia (Pastorella haemolytica (=4, interstitial hepatitis (=4, Escherichia coli (=3, and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (=2. Compared with a control group of 2000 diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis.

  9. Invasive aspergillosis in a user of inhaled cocaine: rhinosinusitis with bone and cartilage destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Azulay-Abulafia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is an infection caused by saprophytic fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which typically occurs in immunosuppressed individuals, but has also been reported in immunocompetent patients. The main routes of entry are the respiratory tract, skin, cornea, and ear, and the infection may be localized or disseminated by contiguity or vascular invasion. We report a severe case of rhinosinusitis with cutaneous involvement, caused by invasive aspergillosis, in an immunocompetent user of inhaled cocaine. Invasive aspergillosis related to cocaine abuse has not yet been reported in the literature. After itraconazole treatment and surgical debridement, complete clinical remission was achieved. Nasal reconstruction with a skin graft over a silicone prosthesis resulted in a satisfactory esthetic outcome.

  10. [Localized invasive intracranial aspergillosis with multiple cranial nerve failure -- case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, F; Seelos, K; Hempel, J M; Pfister, H-W

    2002-12-01

    Contrary to the more frequent hematogenously spread cerebral aspergillosis, localized invasive intracranial aspergillosis is a fungal infection that can also occur in patients who are not severely immunosuppressed. This illness can be effectively treated in some of these patients by early and rigorous therapy. Localized invasion of the fungus, generally from one of the nasal sinuses, causes intracranial growth mainly along the base of the skull and larger vessels,where fibrous, granulomatous tissue develops. This generally leads to damage of the cranial nerves (primarily I-VI) as well as localized pain syndromes. We report on the clinical course documented by MRI of a patient with localized invasive intracranial aspergillosis who had multiple failure of cranial nerves following surgery for an aspergilloma of the maxillary sinus. Clinical course, imaging findings, and treatment of the illness are discussed with a review of the relevant literature.

  11. Direct molecular diagnosis of aspergillosis and CYP51A profiling from respiratory samples of French patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological diagnosis of aspergillosis and triazole resistance is limited by poor culture yield. To better estimate this shortcoming, we compared culture and molecular detection of A. fumigatus in respiratory samples from French patients at risk for aspergillosis. Methods: A total of 97 respiratory samples including bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL, bronchial aspirates (BA, tracheal aspirates, sputa, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy were collected from 33 patients having invasive aspergillosis (n=12, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n=3, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (n=7 or colonization (n=11 and 28 controls. Each specimen was evaluated by culture, pan-Aspergillus qPCR, and CYP51A PCR and sequencing. Results: One A. flavus and 19 A. fumigatus with one multiazole resistant strain (5.3% were cultured from 20 samples. Culture positivity was 62.5%, 75%, 42.9%, and 15.8% in ABPA, CPA, IA and colonized patients, respectively. Aspergillus detection rate was significantly higher by pan-Aspergillus qPCR than by culture in IA (90.5% vs 42.9%; P<0.05 and colonization group (73.7% vs 15.8%; P<0.05. The CYP51A PCR found one TR34/L98H along with 5 novel cyp51A mutations (4 non-synonymous and 1 promoter mutations, yet no association can be established currently between these novel mutations and azole resistance. The analysis of 11 matched pairs of BA and BAL samples found that 9/11 BA carried greater fungal load than BAL and CYP51A detection was more sensitive in BA than in BAL. Conclusion: Direct molecular detection of Aspergillus spp. and azole resistance markers are useful adjunct tools for comprehensive aspergillosis diagnosis. The observed superior diagnostic value of BAs to BAL fluids warrants more in-depth study.

  12. Radiodense concretions in maxillary sinus aspergillosis: pathogenesis and the role of CT densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Krennmair, G.; Mueller-Schelken, H.; Artmann, W.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by CT the origin of radiodense maxillary sinus concretions and whether CT densitometry is effective in the prediction of maxillary sinus aspergillosis and in the differentiation of the origin of these concretions. In a prospective study in 21 patients with radiodense maxillary sinus concretions detected by radiography, a preoperative CT study of the paranasal sinuses and the concretions was undertaken. Additional scans of the upper alveolar ridge were also performed. Radiological findings were compared with clinical symptoms and with CT findings, especially CT densitometry of the sinus concretions and dental root-filling material. All patients underwent a functional Caldwell-Luc operation; histological and microbiological examinations were performed. Fifteen of the 21 patients (71.4%) with radiodense concretions had a histological and microbiological diagnosis of sinus aspergillosis. The sinus concretions had CT densities higher than 2000 HU (Housfield units) in 15 patients and lower than 2000 HU in 6. Fourteen of 15 patients (93.3%) with concretions ahving CT densities higher than 2000 HU had a postoperative diagnosis of maxillary sinus aspergillosis. The mean CT density of the sinus concretions in patients with maxillary sinus aspergillosis was 2868 HU (range 1870-3070 HU), and in patients without aspergiollosis was 778 HU (range 228-2644 HU). The mean CT density of the dental root-filling material was 2866 HU (range 2156-3070 HU). Paranasal sinus CT with CT densitometry of a sinus concretion has a higher accuracy than standard radiogrpahy and clinical findings in the prediction of maxillary sinus aspergillosis (93.3% vs 71.4%). CT densitometry helps to confirm the dental origin of maxillary sinus concretions and to explain a possible dental pathogenesis of maxillary sinus aspergillosis. (orig.)

  13. Acute aspergillosis in mallards at Oahe seep near Pierre, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, W.C.; Simpson, S.G.; Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Aspergillosis was diagnosed at the cause of death of 158 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in January and February 1985 and 11 mallards in December 1985 near Pierre, SD. Isolation of Aspergillus fumigatus from carcass tissues confirmed the diagnosis. The sex ratio of mallards dead from aspergillosis in January and February 1985 was significantly different from the sex ratio in the local population at that time. The source of the fungus was not determined, but severe weather caused physiologically stressed mallards to feeds on corn stored in open piles on the ground, a likely source of the Aspergillus fungus.

  14. Multiple cavities with halo sign in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis during therapy for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo Ikari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old female with rheumatoid arthritis and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome was admitted for drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS caused by salazosulfapyridine. Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6 variant B was strongly positive on peripheral blood. Multiple cavities with ground grass opacities rapidly emerged predominantly in the upper and middle lobes. She was diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA, and was treated successfully with antifungal agents. Therapeutic systemic corticosteroids, emphysematous change in the lungs, and the worsening of the patient's general condition due to DIHS were considered major contributing factor leading to IPA. HHV-6 reactivation could have an effect on clinical course of IPA. Cavities with halo sign would provide an early clue to IPA in non-neutropenic and immunosuppressive patients.

  15. Prions spread via the autonomic nervous system from the gut to the central nervous system in cattle incubating bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christine; Ziegler, Ute; Buschmann, Anne; Weber, Artur; Kupfer, Leila; Oelschlegel, Anja; Hammerschmidt, Baerbel; Groschup, Martin H

    2007-03-01

    To elucidate the still-unknown pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), an oral BSE challenge and sequential kill study was carried out on 56 calves. Relevant tissues belonging to the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as to the lymphoreticular tract, from necropsied animals were analysed by highly sensitive immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting techniques to reveal the presence of BSE-associated pathological prion protein (PrPSc) depositions. Our results demonstrate two routes involving the autonomic nervous system through which BSE prions spread by anterograde pathways from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the central nervous system (CNS): (i) via the coeliac and mesenteric ganglion complex, splanchnic nerves and the lumbal/caudal thoracic spinal cord (representing the sympathetic GIT innervation); and (ii) via the Nervus vagus (parasympathetic GIT innervation). The dorsal root ganglia seem to be subsequently affected, so it is likely that BSE prion invasion of the non-autonomic peripheral nervous system (e.g. sciatic nerve) is a secondary retrograde event following prion replication in the CNS. Moreover, BSE-associated PrPSc was already detected in the brainstem of an animal 24 months post-infection, which is 8 months earlier than reported previously. These findings are important for the understanding of BSE pathogenesis and for the development of new diagnostic strategies for this infectious disease.

  16. Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, A. K.; Chudgar, S. M.; Norton, B. L.; Tong, B. C.; Stout, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolidation with cavitation in the right upper lobe of the lung. Induced bacterial sputum cultures, and acid-fast smears and cultures were negative. Fungal sputum cultures grew A. niger. The patient clinically improved on a combination therapy of empiric antibacterials and voriconazole, followed by voriconazole monotherapy. After 4 weeks of voriconazole therapy, however, repeat chest computed tomography scanning showed a significant progression of the infection and near-complete necrosis of the right upper lobe of the lung. Serum voriconazole levels were low–normal (1.0 μg ml−1, normal range for the assay 0.5–6.0 μg ml−1). A. niger was again recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. A right upper lobectomy was performed, and lung tissue cultures grew A. niger. Furthermore, the lung histopathology showed acute and organizing pneumonia, fungal hyphae and oxalate crystallosis, confirming the diagnosis of invasive A. niger infection. A. niger, unlike A. fumigatus and A. flavus, is less commonly considered a cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA). The finding of calcium oxalate crystals in histopathology specimens is classic for A. niger infection and can be helpful in making a diagnosis even in the absence of conidia. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be useful in optimizing the treatment of IA given the wide variations in the oral bioavailability of voriconazole. PMID:20299503

  17. CD4+ T Cells Mediate Aspergillosis Vaccine Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Arevalo, Diana; Kalkum, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive effector CD4 + T cells play essential roles in the defense against fungal infections, especially against invasive aspergillosis (IA). Such protective CD4 + T cells can be generated through immunization with specialized antifungal vaccines, as has been demonstrated for pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infections in mouse experiments. Adaptive transfer of fungal antigen-specific CD4 + T cells conferred protection onto non-immunized naive mice, an experimental approach that could potentially become a future treatment option for immunosuppressed IA patients, focusing on the ultimate goal to improve their otherwise dim chances for survival. Here, we describe the different techniques to analyze CD4 + T cell immune responses after immunization with a recombinant fungal protein. We present three major methods that are used to analyze the role of CD4 + T cells in protection against A. fumigatus challenge. They include (1) transplantation of CD4 + T cells from vaccinated mice into immunosuppressed naive mice, observing increasing protection of the cell recipients, (2) depletion of CD4 + T cells from vaccinated mice, which abolishes vaccine protection, and (3) T cell proliferation studies following stimulation with overlapping synthetic peptides or an intact protein vaccine. The latter can be used to validate immunization status and to identify protective T cell epitopes in vaccine antigens. In the methods detailed here, we used versions of the well-studied Asp f3 protein expressed in a bacterial host, either as the intact full length protein or its N-terminally truncated version, comprised of residues 15-168. However, these methods are generally applicable and can well be adapted to study other protein-based subunit vaccines.

  18. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebach, H.; Uckert, W.; Micheel, B.

    1982-01-01

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle. (author)

  19. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebach, H.; Uckert, W.; Micheel, B. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung)

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  20. Effect of CLA and other C18 unsaturated fatty acids on DGAT in bovine milk fat biosynthetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Brent M; Chris Kazala, E; Murdoch, Gordon K; Keating, Aileen F; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Wegner, Jochen; Kennelly, John J; Okine, Erasmus K; Weselake, Randall J

    2008-10-01

    Production of dairy products with increased amounts of nutraceutic FA such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) represents a recent approach for dairy producers and processors to increase the value of their products. The effect of CLA and other FA on the expression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) and DGAT-2, and DGAT activity were investigated in bovine mammary gland epithelial (MAC-T) cells. DGAT gene expression analyses were also conducted using bovine mammary gland tissue from dairy cows. In the studies with MAC-T cells, there were no significant effects of CLA isomers or other FA on DGAT1 expression, whereas all FA tested showed enhanced DGAT2 expression (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), with alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-18:3) having the greatest effect. Additionally, DGAT2 expression was co-ordinated with expression of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), an observation that was also apparent in mammary gland from lactating dairy cows. In contrast, treatment of MAC-T cells with trans-10, cis-12 18:2 or alpha-18:3 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in overall DGAT enzyme activity, although the mechanisms resulting in these effects are unclear. Competition assays using microsomes from bovine mammary gland tissue and 1-[(14)C]oleoyl-CoA suggested that DGAT activity was more selective for oleoyl (cis-9 18:1)-CoA than cis-9, trans-11 18:2-, trans-10, cis-12 18:2- or cis-9, cis-12 18:2-CoA. Collectively, the results suggest the relationship between trans-10, cis-12 18:2 and reduced TAG production in bovine milk is not linked to the production of DGAT1 or DGAT2 transcripts, but probably involves effects of this CLA isomer at events beyond transcription, such as post-translational and/or enzyme activity effects.

  1. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for addit...

  2. [Molecular markers: an important tool in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-de León, María Guadalupe; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Duarte-Escalante, Esperanza; Martínez-Hernández, José Enrique; Martínez-Rivera, María de Los Ángeles; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío

    2014-01-01

    Increase in the incidence of invasive aspergillosis has represented a difficult problem for management of patients with this infection due to its high rate of mortality, limited knowledge concerning its diagnosis, and therapeutic practice. The difficulty in management of patients with aspergillosis initiates with detection of the fungus in the specimens of immunosuppressed patients infected with Aspergillus fumigatus; in addition, difficulty exists in terms of the development of resistance to antifungals as a consequence of their indiscriminate use in prophylactic and therapeutic practice and to ignorance concerning the epidemiological data of aspergillosis. With the aim of resolving these problems, molecular markers is employed at present with specific and accurate results. However, in Mexico, the use of molecular markers has not yet been implemented in the routine of intrahospital laboratories; despite the fact that these molecular markers has been widely referred in the literature, it is necessary for it to validated and standardized to ensure that the results obtained in any laboratory would be reliable and comparable. In the present review, we present an update on the usefulness of molecular markers in accurate identification of A. fumigatus, detection of resistance to antifugal triazoles, and epidemiological studies for establishing the necessary measures for prevention and control of aspergillosis.

  3. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1 Yunmei Song,1 Kiro Petrovski,2 Patricia Eats,2 Darren J Trott,2 Hui San Wong,2 Stephen W Page,3 Jeanette Perry,2 Sanjay Garg11School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.Results: Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 µg/mL. The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than

  4. Implementation of different histochemical methods in diagnostics of brain Aspergillosis in turkey chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureljušić Branislav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is a frequent fungal disease in different species of birds and mammals caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. It is characterized by inflammatory changes primarily in the respiratory system, even though it sometimes takes on a generalized form when several organ systems are affected. Mucotic-granulomatous meningoencephalitis with a predominant localization in the cerebellum has been described in turkeys, ducks and geese. Within this paper, examinations have been performed on a flock of broiler turkeys aged 12 days who had sustained evident neurological disorders in the form of ataxy, torticollis, paresis, and paralysis of the hind extremities and wings. In three of the ten autopsied chicks the macroscopic findings indicated granulomatous encephalitis of the cerebellum. A white-coloured granuloma, around 3mm in diameter, was situated cranioventrally and was clearly visible on the sagital section of the cerebellum. Mucological examinations of the cerebellum lesion resulted in the isolation of the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus. Haematoxylin-eosin (HE, Grocott and PAS methods were used for the evaluation of histopathological changes and proving Aspergillus fumigatusa hyphae. The microscopic examination of brain tissue sections stained with the HE method revealed the existence of a granuloma with a centrally placed necrotic area. The necrotic area was infiltrated with heterophilic granulocytes and surrounded by macrophage, giant cells and lymphocytes. A connective tissue capsule was located on the periphery of the granuloma. The fungi hyphae, as integral parts of the granuloma, were difficult to observe, and in some samples stained using the HE method they could not be seen at all. On the other hand, sections stanied using the Grocott and PAS methods showed prominent septed and branched hyphae in different parts of the granuloma. With the objective of making an etiological diagnosis of mucotic diseases, it is necessary to apply several

  5. Clinical and economic analysis of voriconazole using for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ignatieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Based on clinical studies data voriconazole is recommended as the drug of choice for treatment of invasive aspergillosis (IA – a widespread infectious complications occurring in immunocompromised patients and is characterized by severe clinical course and high mortality.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of voriconazole compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice for the treatment of IA in adult patients.Materials and methods. The authors constructed a «decision tree» type of model, which compared the three treatment alternatives for the IA in adult patients, depending on the drug in first-line therapy: 1 voriconazole, 2, caspofungin, or 3 amphotericin B lipid complex (LC. Efficacy was assessed as the probability of patient survival within 14 weeks of starting treatment. We took into account the drugs cost and an increase in the hospitalization duration due to the development of serious adverse events. The model parameters were determined on the basis of the published results of clinical studies, the costs were calculated on the basis of medicines prices in the public procurement and the average bed-day cost in system of obligatory health insurance. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed.Results. It has been shown that the use of voriconazole for treatment of IA is the dominant strategy compared to the use of caspofungin and amphotericin B LC, providing cost reduction while achieving maximum effect. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (1000 simulations showed stability of the revealed pattern.Conclusion. The use of voriconazole in the treatment of IA allows to save the greatest number of lives at minimal cost compared to other preparations recommended in the Russian practice.

  6. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Hope; Clarke, Holly J.; O’Sullivan, Maurice G.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very little quantitative

  7. Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran N. Kilcawley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very

  8. Prevalence and fungal profile of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients of a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Ved, Mishra Prem P, Verma Shashi K, Sinha Shivani, Sharma Mahendra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus is a fungus which may present an array of pulmonary manifestations, depending on the patient’s immunological and physiological state. Although the incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis occurs primarily in immunocompromised patients but the incidence is also rising in immunocompetent individuals, especially in developing countries. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of pulmonary aspergillosis along with species identi...

  9. Anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana R; Walia, Dinesh K; Khairwa, Anju

    2018-03-18

    Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with an approximate prevalence of 1 in 3500 live births. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease caused by aspergillus-induced hypersensitivity with a prevalence of 2% to 15% in people with cystic fibrosis. The mainstay of treatment includes corticosteroids and itraconazole. The treatment with corticosteroids for prolonged periods of time, or repeatedly for exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, may lead to many adverse effects. The monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, omalizumab, has improved asthma control in severely allergic asthmatics. The drug is given as a subcutaneous injection every two to four weeks. Since allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is also a condition resulting from hypersensitivity to specific allergens, as in asthma, it may be a candidate for therapy using anti-IgE antibodies. Therefore, anti-IgE therapy, using agents like omalizumab, may be a potential therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an updated version of the review. To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of anti-IgE therapy for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Last search: 29 September 2017.We searched two ongoing trial registries (Clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO trials platform). Date of latest search: 24 January 2018. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing anti-IgE therapy to placebo or other therapies for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in people with cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included study. They planned to perform data analysis using Review Manager. Only one

  10. Actualización en Aspergilosis con énfasis en Aspergilosis invasora Aspergillosis update with focus in invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Isabel Cuervo-Maldonado

    2010-12-01

    fungus in the form of invasive aspergillosis (IA. The IA presents diagnostic difficulties in non-immunocompetent hosts; therefore using non-invasive diagnosis methods for this group of patients offers therapeutic approach guidance. Antifungal drugs such as azoles (voriconazole and echinocandins (caspofungin, that have improved the AI group results, are available nowadays. This article updates the literature on AI diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 infections and bovine mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Gerardus Johannus

    2002-01-01

    Mastitis is an often occurring disease in dairy cattle with an enormous economic impact for milk producers worldwide. Despite intensive research, which is historically based on the detection of bacterial udder pathogens, still around 20-35% of clinical cases of bovine mastitis have an unknown

  12. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus sign and underlying lung disease: CT findings and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: rosaceci@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2011-09-15

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients has been described as a saprophytic infection with pre-existing lung lesions showing an air-meniscus sign on chest radiograph or CT scans. There have been rare articles dealing with pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without pre-existing lung lesions. Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus and underlying lung disease and to correlate the CT findings and pathologic features of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients. Material and Methods: A total of seven surgically proven pulmonary aspergillosis found in immunocompetent patients without an air-meniscus and underlying lung disease (M:F = 1:6; mean age 63.4 years) were included. On CT, the lesion shape, margin, type, location, diameter, presence of satellite nodules, presence of CT halo sign or hypodense sign, and interval growth were evaluated. Histopathologic features of each lesion were classified as one of the following; primary aspergilloma, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Correlation between CT findings and pathological features was performed. Results: All lesions presented as a nodule or mass unable to differentiate from malignancy. Most lesions had well-defined margins (n = 4), appeared as solid lesions (n = 7), and were located in the upper lobe (n = 5). Mean diameter of lesions was 2.3 cm. Satellite nodules (n = 2), CT halo sign (n = 1), and hypodense sign (n = 4) were found. Only one lesion increased in size during follow-up. Lesions were pathologically classified as primary aspergilloma (n = 3) and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 4). The hypodense sign on CT was pathologically proved as dense fungal hyphae filled in bronchus and CT halo sign as parenchymal hemorrhage. Conclusion: Pulmonary aspergillosis predominantly presented as a nodule or mass mimicking malignancy in the upper lobes

  13. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus sign and underlying lung disease: CT findings and histopathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients has been described as a saprophytic infection with pre-existing lung lesions showing an air-meniscus sign on chest radiograph or CT scans. There have been rare articles dealing with pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without pre-existing lung lesions. Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus and underlying lung disease and to correlate the CT findings and pathologic features of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients. Material and Methods: A total of seven surgically proven pulmonary aspergillosis found in immunocompetent patients without an air-meniscus and underlying lung disease (M:F = 1:6; mean age 63.4 years) were included. On CT, the lesion shape, margin, type, location, diameter, presence of satellite nodules, presence of CT halo sign or hypodense sign, and interval growth were evaluated. Histopathologic features of each lesion were classified as one of the following; primary aspergilloma, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Correlation between CT findings and pathological features was performed. Results: All lesions presented as a nodule or mass unable to differentiate from malignancy. Most lesions had well-defined margins (n = 4), appeared as solid lesions (n = 7), and were located in the upper lobe (n = 5). Mean diameter of lesions was 2.3 cm. Satellite nodules (n = 2), CT halo sign (n = 1), and hypodense sign (n = 4) were found. Only one lesion increased in size during follow-up. Lesions were pathologically classified as primary aspergilloma (n = 3) and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 4). The hypodense sign on CT was pathologically proved as dense fungal hyphae filled in bronchus and CT halo sign as parenchymal hemorrhage. Conclusion: Pulmonary aspergillosis predominantly presented as a nodule or mass mimicking malignancy in the upper lobes

  14. Differential Effect of Medium on the Ratio of ICM/TE of Bovine Embryos in a Co-culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Forouzanfar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to investigate the efficiency of two differentembryo somatic cell co-culture conditions, tissue culture medium 199 (TCM199–vero cellsand Menezo B2 (B2-vero cells, for the in vitro developmental quantity and quality of bovineembryos.Materials and Methods: Bovine oocytes were allowed to mature and subsequently undergofertilization in vitro. Their presumptive zygotes were cultured in either TCM199 or B2 culturemedia in conjunction with vero cells for up to nine days. The culture media were refreshedevery two days and the proportion of embryos that cleaved and further developed to themorula and blastocyst (early, expand and hatched stages were recorded. Hatched blastocystsunderwent differential staining in order to determine the numbers of inner cell mass (ICMand tropho ectoderm (TE and total cell number (TCN.Results: Of the two groups, no significant difference was seen between the proportions ofthe presumptive zygotes cleaved, those which developed to 8-16 cells, morula and reacheddays 7or 8 blastocyst stage or hatched. However, the values for TCN and TE of the TCM199-vero embryos were significantly greater than those of B2-vero embryos. The values for ICM/TCN and ICM/TE were significantly greater in the B2-vero group versus the TCM199-verogroup.Conclusion: Both TCM199 and B2 culture media in conjunction with vero cells were ofthe same efficiency when used for in vitro development of bovine presumptive zygotes.However, TCM199 was superior in providing embryos with more embryo cell numbers,whereas B2 medium was superior in providing embryos with greater ICM/TE and ICM/TCN ratios.

  15. Pulmonary carcinosarcoma initially presenting as invasive aspergillosis: a case report of previously unreported combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carcinosarcoma of the lung is a malignant tumor composed of a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma elements. The carcinomatous component is most commonly squamous followed by adenocarcinoma. The sarcomatous component commonly comprises the bulk of the tumor and shows poorly differentiated spindle cell features. Foci of differentiated sarcomatous elements such as chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma may be seen. Aspergillus pneumonia is the most common form of invasive aspergillosis and occurs mainly in patients with malignancy, immunocompromizing or debilitating diseases. Patients with Aspergillus pneumonia present with fever, cough, chest pain and occasionally hemoptysis. Tissue examination is the most reliable method for diagnosis, and mortality rate is high. We describe a case of primary carcinosarcoma of the lung concurrently occurring with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a 66-year old patient.

  16. Invasive aspergillosis osteomyelitis in children - a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterstein, Anton R.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Vollert, Kurt [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Wagner, Theodor [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Pathology, Augsburg (Germany); Gnekow, Astrid [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Pediatrics, Augsburg (Germany); Roemer, Frank W. [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of secondary infection associated with high morbidity. In children these complications include fungal osteomyelitis due to continuous infiltration or hematogenous spread. The case of a 4-year-old boy is presented who developed lumbalgia and thigh pain during ongoing chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukemia. MRI revealed infarct-like lesions in the femur and L5 vertebra, which were biopsied. The histologic diagnosis was consistent with angioinvasive aspergillosis. A multifocal osseous presentation has rarely been described in children and an overview of the literature is presented. Invasive aspergillosis is a rare complication to be considered in children with MRI-detected bony lesions of infarct-like appearance. (orig.)

  17. Patho-radiologic correlation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the compromised host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, D P; Myerowitz, R L; Dubois, P J

    1978-05-01

    The autopsy findings and antemortem radiographic abnormalities were correlated in 20 patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis to define typical radiographic patterns, their progression and anatomic basis. Sixteen (80%) patients had radiographic abnormalities due to aspergillosis. Fifty-nine percent of the specific radiographic abnormalities seen in these patients were caused by anatomic lesions of asperigillosis and 67% of such anatomic lesions were radiographically definable. The most common initial radiographic pattern was a patchy density (single or multifocal) or a well defined nodule. The densities remained stable in half the patients but progressed, over several weeks to either diffuse consolidation or cavitation in the others. Most anatomic lesions were categorized as either nodular ("target") lesions (1-3 cm in diameter) or hemorrhagic infarctions (5-10 cm in diameter), both due to vascular invasion causing thrombosis and ischemic necrosis. Unlike pulmonary candidiasis, which is usually radiographically undetectable, invasive pulmonary asperigillosis frequently caused radiographically visible lesions.

  18. Donor-derived aspergillosis from use of a solid organ recipient as a multiorgan donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N J; Weisser, M; Fehr, T; Wüthrich, R P; Müllhaupt, B; Lehmann, R; Imhof, A; Aubert, J-D; Genoni, M; Kunz, R; Weber, M; Steiger, J

    2010-02-01

    The growing need for organs and the scarcity of donors has resulted in an increased use of extended criteria donors. We report a case where a recipient of a cardiac graft was used as an organ donor. Death of the recipient occurred 9 days after transplantation and was attributed to presumed cerebral hemorrhage, which post mortem was diagnosed as invasive aspergillosis of the brain. One recipient of a kidney transplant lost the graft due to infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, whereas prompt initiation of therapy successfully prevented disseminated aspergillosis in the other recipients. Despite the pressure to extend the use of organs by lowering the acceptance criteria, organs should only be accepted if the cause of death of the donors is unequivocally explained.

  19. Invasive aspergillosis osteomyelitis in children - a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterstein, Anton R.; Bohndorf, Klaus; Vollert, Kurt; Wagner, Theodor; Gnekow, Astrid; Roemer, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of secondary infection associated with high morbidity. In children these complications include fungal osteomyelitis due to continuous infiltration or hematogenous spread. The case of a 4-year-old boy is presented who developed lumbalgia and thigh pain during ongoing chemotherapy for acute lymphatic leukemia. MRI revealed infarct-like lesions in the femur and L5 vertebra, which were biopsied. The histologic diagnosis was consistent with angioinvasive aspergillosis. A multifocal osseous presentation has rarely been described in children and an overview of the literature is presented. Invasive aspergillosis is a rare complication to be considered in children with MRI-detected bony lesions of infarct-like appearance. (orig.)

  20. Causative Agents of Aspergillosis Including Cryptic Aspergillus Species and A. fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyotome, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. The causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus, of which A. fumigatus is the most prevalent. Cryptic Aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each Aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. Most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, from those representative species. On the other hand, azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in clinical specimens and in the environment have been reported. Therefore, it is imperative to precisely identify the species, including cryptic Aspergillus spp., and evaluate the susceptibility of isolates.In this manuscript, some of the causative cryptic Aspergillus spp. are briefly reviewed. In addition, the exometabolome of Aspergillus section Fumigati is described. Finally, azole resistance of A. fumigatus is also discussed, in reference to several studies from Japan.

  1. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, A.; Lonjedo, E.; Agramunt, M.; Martinez-Rodrigo, J. J.; Palomero, J.

    2001-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a serious complications that occurs in immunocompromised patients. We need a rapid and effective treatment both to treat the aspergillosis as well as to be able to continue, as soon as possible, treatment of the baseline disease. We present a case of a percutaneous treatment of the pulmonary lesions in a 55 year old male with IPA in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With Computerized Tomography (CT) control and using a fine needle, we injected intralesionally a solution of Amphotericin B (AB) (5 mg/cc of 5% glucose solution). We evaluated the complications and efficacy in relationship to the clinical improvement and reduction in lesion size. (Author) 18 refs

  2. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    408 heads of cattle to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and assess its public health implications. A comparative ..... (78.6%) of the respondents consume raw and poorly heat ... compromises related to certain stress factors.

  3. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  4. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Reischies, Frederike M. J.; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with...

  5. Long-term outcome in dogs with sinonasal aspergillosis treated with intranasal infusions of enilconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Schuller, S.; Clercx, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    Long-term outcomes (mean 38+/-17 months) were evaluated in 27 dogs with sinonasal aspergillosis after successful medical treatment using intranasal infusions of 1% or 2% enilconazole (1%, n=15; 2%, n=12). Long-term outcomes with both treatment protocols were good, with half of the dogs being asymptomatic throughout the follow-up period. The remaining dogs showed mild clinical signs compatible with chronic rhinitis/sinusitis. These clinical signs were interpreted as chronic lymphoplasmacytic r...

  6. The Diagnosis of Invasive and Noninvasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Galactomannan Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA are rising, particularly in critically ill patients and patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Noninvasive aspergillosis occurring in these patients requires special attention because of the possibility of developing subsequent IPA, given the poor health and worsened immune state of these patients. We compared the performance of the Platelia galactomannan (GM enzyme immunoassay in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum. The sensitivity, and specificity of BALF-GM were 85.4% and 62.4%, and those of serum-GM were 67.9% and 93.5% at the cutoff index of 0.5. As the cutoff index increased, the specificity of BALF-GM detection was increased with the detriment of sensitivity. The area under the ROC curves was 0.817 (95% CI: 0.718–0.916 for BALF-GM and 0.819 (95% CI: 0.712–0.926 for serum-GM. The optimal cutoff index was 1.19 for BALF-GM, and the sensitivity and specificity were 67.9% and 89.2%. The BALF-GM assay is more sensitive in detecting pulmonary aspergillosis than serum-GM assay and fungal cultures. However, BALF-GM assay has a high false-positive rate at the cutoff index of 0.5. Hence, the diagnostic cutoff index of the BALF-GM assay should be improved to avoid the overdiagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in clinic.

  7. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  8. Aspergillosis in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients: epidemiology and economic outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddley John W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available regarding the epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis (IA in ICU patients. The aim of this study was to examine epidemiology and economic outcomes (length of stay, hospital costs among ICU patients with IA who lack traditional risk factors for IA, such as cancer, transplants, neutropenia or HIV infection. Methods Retrospective cohort study using Premier Inc. Perspective™ US administrative hospital database (2005–2008. Adults with ICU stays and aspergillosis (ICD-9 117.3 plus 484.6 who received initial antifungal therapy (AF in the ICU were included. Patients with traditional risk factors (cancer, transplant, neutropenia, HIV/AIDS were excluded. The relationship of antifungal therapy and co-morbidities to economic outcomes were examined using Generalized linear models. Results From 6,424 aspergillosis patients in the database, 412 (6.4% ICU patients with IA were identified. Mean age was 63.9 years and 53% were male. Frequent co-morbidities included steroid use (77%, acute respiratory failure (76% and acute renal failure (41%. In-hospital mortality was 46%. The most frequently used AF was voriconazole (71% received at least once. Mean length of stay (LOS was 26.9 days and mean total hospital cost was $76,235. Each 1 day lag before initiating AF therapy was associated with 1.28 days longer hospital stay and 3.5% increase in costs (p  Conclusions Invasive aspergillosis in ICU patients is associated with high mortality and hospital costs. Antifungal timing impacts economic outcomes. These findings underscore the importance of timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and consideration of Aspergillus as a potential etiology in ICU patients.

  9. Aspergillus felis sp. nov., an emerging agent of invasive aspergillosis in humans, cats, and dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R Barrs

    Full Text Available We describe a novel heterothallic species in Aspergillus section Fumigati, namely A. felis (neosartorya-morph isolated from three host species with invasive aspergillosis including a human patient with chronic invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, domestic cats with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and a dog with disseminated invasive aspergillosis. Disease in all host species was often refractory to aggressive antifungal therapeutic regimens. Four other human isolates previously reported as A. viridinutans were identified as A. felis on comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin and/or calmodulin genes. A. felis is a heterothallic mold with a fully functioning reproductive cycle, as confirmed by mating-type analysis, induction of teleomorphs within 7 to 10 days in vitro and ascospore germination. Phenotypic analyses show that A. felis can be distinguished from the related species A. viridinutans by its ability to grow at 45°C and from A. fumigatus by its inability to grow at 50°C. Itraconazole and voriconazole cross-resistance was common in vitro.

  10. Erythropoietin combined with liposomal amphotericin b improves outcome during disseminated aspergillosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nathalie erousseau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated aspergillosis is responsible for a high mortality rate despite the use of antifungal drugs. Adjuvant therapies are urgently needed to improve the outcome. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the cytoprotective effect of erythropoietin combined to amphotericin b can reduce the mortality rate in a murine model of disseminated aspergillosis. After infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, neutropenic mice were randomized to receive vehicle or 7,5 mg/Kg of Liposomal Amphotericin B (LAmB or 7,5 mg/Kg of LAmB combined with 1000 IU/Kg of EPO (16 mice per group. Aspergillus galactomannan and organ cultures were performed to evaluate fungal burden at day 5. Cumulative long-term survival was analyzed at day 12 post-infection according to the Kaplan-Meier method. At day 5, fungal burden was similar between non-treated and treated groups. At day 12, mortality rates were 75 %, 62.5 % and 31 % in control group, LAmB group and EPO/LAmB group, respectively. We observed a significant decreased in mortality using EPO/LAmB combination compared to control group (p < 0.01. LAmB single treatment did not improve the survival rate compared to control group (p = 0.155.Our results provided the first evidence that erythropoietin improved the outcome of mice presenting disseminated aspergillosis when combined with amphotericin b.

  11. The accuracy of serum galactomannan assay in diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Shokooh Azam; Hoseinpoor Rafati, Ali; Ardalan, Maryam; Mansouri, Davood; Tabarsi, Payam; Pourpak, Zahra

    2010-09-01

    Galactomannan (GM) antigen is an aspergillus specific antigen that is released during the growth phase of invasive aspergillosis. We aimed to find the optimum cutoff and accuracy of serum Galactomannan assay in immunocompromised patients. Immunocompromised patients diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG) with three levels of certainty proven, probable and possible, referred for GM antigen measurement at Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute (IAARI) from 2006 to 2009 and if they met the criteria were enrolled in this study. Totally 49 patients with IPA were enrolled in our study. According to EORTC/MSG, patients categorized into three levels of certainty: They were diagnosed as 'proven' invasive pulmonary aspergillosis 16(32.7%), 'probable' 18(36.7%) and 'possible' 15(30.6%). The most common host risk factor was solid tumors 17(34.7%). The accuracy of Galactomannan assay increased from 0.5 to 2 cutoffs. The optimum sensitivity and specificity obtained at the index cutoff of ≥1.5 for diagnosis of "proven" IPA; which were respectively, 69.2% and 72.2%. Other cutoffs had high variance between sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of IPA. The calculated cutoff gained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for detecting proven IPA was 1.5. Intermediate accuracy of serum GM test in conjunct with clinical findings would help early IPA detection among immunocompromised patients.

  12. Performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis in febrile, neutropenic patients: a multi-state model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis expectedly depends on the timing of test results relative to the empirical administration of antifungal therapy during neutropenia, although a dynamic evaluation framework is lacking.We developed a multi-state model describing simultaneously the likelihood of empirical antifungal therapy and the risk of invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia. We evaluated whether the first positive test result with a biomarker is an independent predictor of invasive aspergillosis when both diagnostic information used to treat and risk factors of developing invasive aspergillosis are taken into account over time. We applied the multi-state model to a homogeneous cohort of 185 high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were prospectively screened for galactomannan antigenemia twice a week for immediate treatment decision; 2,214 serum samples were collected on the same days and blindly assessed for (1->3- β-D-glucan antigenemia and a quantitative PCR assay targeting a mitochondrial locus.The usual evaluation framework of biomarker performance was unable to distinguish clinical benefits of β-glucan or PCR assays. The multi-state model evidenced that the risk of invasive aspergillosis is a complex time function of neutropenia duration and risk management. The quantitative PCR assay accelerated the early detection of invasive aspergillosis (P = .010, independently of other diagnostic information used to treat, while β-glucan assay did not (P = .53.The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis is better apprehended by the evaluation of time-varying predictors in a multi-state model. Our results provide strong rationale for prospective studies testing a preemptive antifungal therapy, guided by clinical, radiological, and bi-weekly blood screening with galactomannan antigenemia and a standardized quantitative PCR assay.

  13. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density.

  14. Anti-Bovine Programmed Death-1 Rat–Bovine Chimeric Antibody for Immunotherapy of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Cattle

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    Tomohiro Okagawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of immunoinhibitory molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1, is a promising strategy for reinvigorating exhausted T cells and preventing disease progression in a variety of chronic infections. Application of this therapeutic strategy to cattle requires bovinized chimeric antibody targeting immunoinhibitory molecules. In this study, anti-bovine PD-1 rat–bovine chimeric monoclonal antibody 5D2 (Boch5D2 was constructed with mammalian expression systems, and its biochemical function and antiviral effect were characterized in vitro and in vivo using cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV. Purified Boch5D2 was capable of detecting bovine PD-1 molecules expressed on cell membranes in flow cytometric analysis. In particular, Biacore analysis determined that the binding affinity of Boch5D2 to bovine PD-1 protein was similar to that of the original anti-bovine PD-1 rat monoclonal antibody 5D2. Boch5D2 was also capable of blocking PD-1/PD-L1 binding at the same level as 5D2. The immunomodulatory and therapeutic effects of Boch5D2 were evaluated by in vivo administration of the antibody to a BLV-infected calf. Inoculated Boch5D2 was sustained in the serum for a longer period. Boch5D2 inoculation resulted in activation of the proliferation of BLV-specific CD4+ T cells and decrease in the proviral load of BLV in the peripheral blood. This study demonstrates that Boch5D2 retains an equivalent biochemical function to that of the original antibody 5D2 and is a candidate therapeutic agent for regulating antiviral immune response in vivo. Clinical efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade awaits further experimentation with a large number of animals.

  15. Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of biological nanoparticles from bovine serum albumin for drug delivery. ... Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used for generation of nanoparticles in a drug delivery system. ... The impact of protein concentration and additional rate of organic solvent (i.e. ethanol) upon the particle ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Sucrose/bovine serum albumin mediated biomimetic crystallization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the role of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin system in the biomineralization process, we have tested the influence of different concentration of the sucrose/bovine serum albumin (BSA) on calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. The CaCO3 crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscope ...

  17. A challenging case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after near-drowning: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Jeffrey D; Preziosi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Near-drowning, a relatively common event, is often complicated by subsequent pneumonia. While endogenous and exogenous bacteria are typical pathogens, rarely fungi are as well. We report a complicated case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a 30-year-old man after a near-drowning event. We also review the medical literature for similar cases. All cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after near-drowning reported in the literature involve Aspergillus fumigatus . The majority of cases involved submersion in stagnant water after a motor vehicle accident (MVA). Treatment varied considerably, with amphotericin B used in the majority of cases. Morbidity was considerable with prolonged hospitalization occurring in every case, and mortality occurring in fifty percent of the reported cases. Although a rare complication of near-drowning, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can occur and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. After near-drowning A. fumigatus isolated from the respiratory tract should be assumed to be a true pathogen and treated accordingly.

  18. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  19. Evaluation of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytokines as Biomarkers for Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in At-Risk Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Samuel M.; Lagrou, Katrien; Rodrigues, Cláudia S.; Campos, Cláudia F.; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Rodrigues, Fernando; Silvestre, Ricardo; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Maertens, Johan A.; Cunha, Cristina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2017-01-01

    Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an infection that primarily affects immunocompromised hosts, including hematological patients and stem-cell transplant recipients. The diagnosis of IPA remains challenging, making desirable the availability of new specific biomarkers. High-throughput methods now allow us to interrogate the immune system for multiple markers of inflammation with enhanced resolution. Methods: To determine whether a signature of alveolar cytokines could be associated with the development of IPA and used as a diagnostic biomarker, we performed a nested case-control study involving 113 patients at-risk. Results: Among the 32 analytes tested, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-23, and TNFα were significantly increased among patients with IPA, defining two clusters able to accurately differentiate cases of infection from controls. Genetic variants previously reported to confer increased risk of IPA compromised the production of specific cytokines and impaired their discriminatory potential toward infection. Collectively, our data indicated that IL-8 was the best performing cytokine, with alveolar levels ≥904 pg/mL predicting IPA with elevated sensitivity (90%), specificity (73%), and negative predictive value (88%). Conclusions: These findings highlight the existence of a specific profile of alveolar cytokines, with IL-8 being the dominant discriminator, which might be useful in supporting current diagnostic approaches for IPA. PMID:29238334

  20. Successful treatment of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a bottlenose dolphin with high-dose posaconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien E. Bunskoek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is difficult to manage. We describe a case of azole-resistant invasive aspergillosis in a female bottlenose dolphin, who failed to respond to voriconazole and posaconazole therapy. As intravenous therapy was precluded, high dose posaconazole was initiated aimed at achieving trough levels exceeding 3 mg/l. Posaconazole serum levels of 3–9.5 mg/l were achieved without significant side-effects. Follow-up bronchoscopy and computed tomography showed complete resolution of the lesions.

  1. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  2. Galactomannan and Real-Time PCR in the diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pedrotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is notoriously difficult. The standard culture-based methods have shown considerable limitations in performance. For this reason, non-culture methods have been increasingly employed for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, and, among them, the methods based on Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study we assess the contribution in lowering diagnosis errors provided by the RT-PCR method when run alongside other methods. We analyzed 23 biological samples, 14 serum samples, and 9 bronchoalveolar lavage samples (BAL from 10 immunocompromised patients who were selected according to EORTC/MSG criteria (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group. On the serum sample we searched the galactomannan (GM (Platelia Aspergillus® and the fungal genome (MycAssayTMAspergillus; the BAL samples were subjected also to the culture tests. In 11 serum samples the results showed concordance between GM and RT–PCR tests, while in 3 samples we report discordance: 2 results were GM positive and RT-PCR negative, and 1 results GM negative and RT-PCR indeterminate. In 5 BAL samples the results showed concordance between the two methods, while 4 were GM positive and RT-PCR negative. The data, although still preliminary, suggest an increased accuracy in the diagnosis of suspected invasive aspergillosis when employing both RT-PCR and GM tests given that the RT-PCR test eliminates the false positive results of the GM test. The PCR methods require, however, further applications of this type of diagnostic because of the severe limit given by the lack of standardization.

  3. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare entity, usually caused by A. fumigatus and A. flavus . Here, we present such a case, manifested by ulceration due to A. niger, which remained undiagnosed for a prolonged period. The immunological status was intact, although the patient had associated severe fungal infection. Recurrence of the lesion occurred despite repeated anti-fungal therapies. Anti fungal testing was done based on the broth dilution (M-38A, NCCLS, USA method. The culture isolate was found to be sensitive to fluconazole and amphotericin B. Continuation of antifungal therapy improved the symptoms, reducing the size of the lesion.

  4. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with hematological malignancies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Voriconazole in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glackin, L

    2009-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) can cause a significant clinical deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis. There is very little research in the current literature with regard to alternatives for treatment, apart from long courses of steroids. We conducted a retrospective review of all our patients with ABPA treated with the antifungal voriconazole and found there was a significant drop in IgE levels post treatment as well as a decrease in steroid dosing. The improvement in FEV was not statistically significant; however there was a very wide variation in pre-treatment levels.

  6. Progression of hepatic aspergillosis following second renal transplantation in a patient with recurrent glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan L Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a serious complication in renal transplant recipients. Hepatic involvement, although seen in liver transplant recipients, has not been reported following renal transplantation. We describe here an interesting occurrence of hepatic Aspergillus infection in a renal transplant recipient. The infection responded to anti-fungal therapy, but there was re-activation following a second renal transplant. In addition, the patient had recurrence of the underlying membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis following both transplants. The relevant existing literature relating to these problems has been reviewed.

  7. Tumor shape pulmonary mucormycosis associated with sinonasal aspergillosis in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Point

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare and life-threatening fungal infection of the Mucorales order occurring mainly in immunosuppressed patients. The most common forms are rhinocerebral but pulmonary or disseminated forms may occur. We report the case of a 61-year-old patient in whom pulmonary mucormycosis was diagnosed during his first-ever episode of diabetic ketoacidosis. While receiving liposomal amphotericin B, a sinusal aspergillosis due to Aspergillus fumigatus occurred. Evolution was slowly favorable under antifungal tritherapy by liposomal amphotericin B, posaconazole and caspofungin.

  8. Post-influenzal triazole-resistant aspergillosis following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento, Alida Fe; Dunne, Katie; Murphy, Niamh; O'Connell, Brian; Chan, Grace; Joyce, Eimear Ann; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Fahy, Ruauri; Bacon, Larry; Vandenberge, Elisabeth; Rogers, Thomas R

    2018-03-23

    Influenza virus infection is now recognised as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Delays in diagnosis contribute to delayed commencement of antifungal therapy. Additionally, the emergence of resistance to first-line triazole antifungal agents puts emphasis on early detection to prevent adverse outcomes. We present 2 allogeneic stem cell transplant patients who developed IPA due to triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus following influenza infection. We underline the challenges faced in the management of these cases, the importance of early diagnosis and need for surveillance given the emergence of triazole-resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6 disturb the antioxidant enzyme system in bovine chondrocytes: a possible explanation for oxidative stress generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathy-Hartert, M; Hogge, L; Sanchez, C; Deby-Dupont, G; Crielaard, J M; Henrotin, Y

    2008-07-01

    Beside matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the main biochemical factors of cartilage degradation. To prevent ROS toxicity, chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system formed principally by superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). This work was designed to assess the effects of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 on the enzymatic activity and gene expression of SODs, CAT and GPX in bovine chondrocytes. Bovine chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer for 4-96 h in the absence or in the presence of IL-1beta (0.018-1.8ng/ml) or IL-6 (10-100 ng/ml). To study signal transduction pathway, inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (PD98059, SB203580 and SP600125) (5-20 microM) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB inhibitors [BAY11-7082 (1-10 microM) and MG132 (0.1-10 microM)] were used. SODs, CAT and GPX enzymatic activities were evaluated in cellular extract by using colorimetric enzymatic assays. Mn SODs, Cu/Zn SOD, extracellular SOD (EC SOD), CAT and GPX gene expressions were quantified by real-time and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mn SOD and GPX activities were dose and time-dependently increased by IL-1beta. In parallel, IL-1beta markedly enhanced Mn SOD and GPX gene expressions, but decreased Cu/Zn SOD, EC SOD and CAT gene expressions. Induction of SOD enzymatic activity and Mn SOD mRNA expression were inhibited by NF-kappaB inhibitors but not by MAPK inhibitors. IL-6 effects were similar but weaker than those of IL-1beta. In conclusion, IL-1beta, and to a lesser extend IL-6, dysregulates enzymatic antioxidant defenses in chondrocyte. These changes could lead to a transient accumulation of H(2)O(2) in mitochondria, and consequently to mitochondria damage. These changes contribute to explain the mitochondrial dysfunction observed in osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

  10. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Context and Objective Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool (‘analysis tool for surveillance systems’). Methods For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Results and Conclusion Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the

  11. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    human and bovine monocyte subsets are also reflected in their different clinical relevance for distinct diseases. In opposite to the human system, where higher blood cell number of non-classical monocytes was widely correlated with several human infectious and non-infectious diseases, higher counts of bovine intermediate monocytes are suggested as a potential biomarker for inflammatory responses postpartum.

  12. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Computed tomography in the assessment of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Renata Carneiro [Clinica Radiologica Luiz Felippe Mattoso, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: edmarchiori@bol.com.br; Rodrigues, Rosana [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Escuissato, Dante L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2006-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the main findings of computed tomography in patients presenting acute leukemia complicated by angio invasive aspergillosis. Materials and methods: computed tomography images of 19 patients were retrospectively studied for the presence of consolidations, nodules and masses, with or without presentation of halo sign, cavitation and air crescent sign. Results: consolidation was the most frequent finding, occurring in 12 of the 19 cases, most of them presenting the halo sign; cavitation was found in 5 of 12 cases, one of them with air crescent sign. Nodules and masses occurred respectively in six and four cases, most of them with halo sign. Cavitation was found in only one case of mass. Other findings observed were: crazy-paving pattern (two cases), patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation opacity (three cases) and pleural involvement (seven cases) under the form of effusion or thickening. Conclusion: areas of consolidation, mass or nodule, even a solitary one, presenting halo sign on CT images evaluated in an appropriate clinical context are highly suggestive of angio invasive aspergillosis. (author)

  14. [Studies on usefullness of imidasol preparations for treatment of pulmonary and air sacks aspergillosis in geese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisz, A; Balicka-Ramisz, A

    2001-01-01

    The studies were carried out in two geese farms with a total number of 11.143 - 4 weeks old birds. Two imidazol preparations--5 per cent Miconazole powder and 2 Clotrimazole solution were used in these studies. Miconazole was applied as feed additive for 200 with aspergillosis infected geese, in a dosis of 10 mg of active substance on one kg of body weight. Clotrimazole was administered in a form of inhalation in a dose of 1,5 1 of 2 per cent solution per geese house of 3000 m3. Spraying was performed using gas-pipes of steam ganerator joined to the air compressor of the type 3 JW - 60 (6hp). In this way 5 - 10 microm partiches were obtained. The preparation was sprayed twice ad 2 - 4 days intervals. After Miconazole administration the recovery of sick birds and inhibition of the disease in geese were observed. The Clotrimazole preparations may be also administered prophylactically in geese houses, were stationary aspergillosis has been observed.

  15. [Economical evaluation of the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in pediatric oncology patients. Santiago. Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Claudia; del Valle, Gladys; Coria, Paulina

    2010-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Transplant recipients and patients with cancer represent the highest risk group. The antifungal treatment involves prolonged hospitalization and high economic resources. to estimate costs represented by IA as an intercurrent complication of oncologic treatment. Retrospective case-control study. Estimation of the cost of treatment in pediatric oncologic patients with IA in the Hospital Luis Calvo Mackenna during the years 2007-2008 was done. A control for each case of IA paired by sex, age, number of diagnosis and clinical department was selected. There were 13 patients during the observation period. The attributable cost of treatment of aspergillosis was US $23,600 and the cost for each indicator was: hospital days US $16,500; antifungal therapy US $7,000; and serum galactomannan US $100. In this study, the cost of treating IA is mainly due to hospitalization and antifungal medications. Three patients acquired IA in spite of staying in a protected environment.

  16. Invasive orbital aspergillosis in an apparently immunocompetent host without evidence of sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Primeggia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is uncommon in healthy individuals. We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus orbital cellulitiswith intracranial extension in an apparently immunocompetent patient with a history of benign lymphoid hyperplasiaof the lacrimal gland. A 68 year-old man with no significant past medical history underwent orbitotomy and biopsy of alacrimal gland mass. Pathology showed benign lymphoid hyperplasia of the lacrimal gland and he completed radiationtherapy. Three months after orbitotomy and one month after completion of radiation therapy, he presented with orbitalcellulitis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated invasion into the frontal lobe. Clinical and radiographicfindings failed to improve with prolonged antibiotic therapy; transcranial orbitotomy with right frontal craniotomy forabscess drainage and orbit washout was performed. Intraoperative cultures grew Aspergillus fumigatus. The patientcompleted a six month course of therapy with oral voriconazole and has remained free from relapse with long-termfollow-up. Efficacy of voriconazole was guided by serial imaging and voriconazole trough levels. Aspergillus may causeinvasive disease in immunocompetent hosts, even without evidence of sinusitis, and should be considered in the differentialdiagnosis when patients do not demonstrate clinical improvement with antibiotic therapy. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 113-116Key words: Aspergillosis, orbital cellulitis, brain abscess

  17. A Novel Polyaminocarboxylate Compound To Treat Murine Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Interfering with Zinc Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Paris; Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Helynck, Olivier; Jouvion, Grégory; Calera, José Antonio; du Merle, Laurence; Suzenet, Franck; Buron, Frédéric; de Sousa, Rodolphe Alves; Mansuy, Daniel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima

    2018-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus can cause pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients and is associated with a high mortality rate due to a lack of reliable treatment options. This opportunistic pathogen requires zinc in order to grow and cause disease. Novel compounds that interfere with fungal zinc metabolism may therefore be of therapeutic interest. We screened chemical libraries containing 59,223 small molecules using a resazurin assay that compared their effects on an A. fumigatus wild-type strain grown under zinc-limiting conditions and on a zinc transporter knockout strain grown under zinc-replete conditions to identify compounds affecting zinc metabolism. After a first screen, 116 molecules were selected whose inhibitory effects on fungal growth were further tested by using luminescence assays and hyphal length measurements to confirm their activity, as well as by toxicity assays on HeLa cells and mice. Six compounds were selected following a rescreening, of which two were pyrazolones, two were porphyrins, and two were polyaminocarboxylates. All three groups showed good in vitro activity, but only one of the polyaminocarboxylates was able to significantly improve the survival of immunosuppressed mice suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis. This two-tier screening approach led us to the identification of a novel small molecule with in vivo fungicidal effects and low murine toxicity that may lead to the development of new treatment options for fungal infections by administration of this compound either as a monotherapy or as part of a combination therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis mimicking organizing pneumonia after mTOR inhibitor therapy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Iijima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man presented to the hospital with complaints of fever and cough. He had a past medical history of renal cell carcinoma and had just started treatment with temsirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor. A 1-week course of antibiotics did not have any effect on his symptoms. A chest computed tomography (CT scan showed the reversed halo sign (RHS. Organizing pneumonia induced by mTOR inhibitor treatment was initially considered. However, transbronchial biopsy revealed clusters of fungal organisms, suggesting infection with Aspergillus spp. Within just 2 weeks, a CT scan showed drastic enlargement of the cavitary lesion, with multiple newly formed consolidations. The patient was diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Concomitant treatment with voriconazole and micafungin was started. Two weeks after the initiation of treatment, he became afebrile with gradual regression of the cavitary lesion and consolidations. Keywords: mTOR inhibitor, Organizing pneumonia, Reversed halo sign, Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Immunocompromise

  19. History of treated pulmonary tuberculosis will also be an underlying symptom of opportunistic aspergillosis by Aspergillus flavus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hossein Nejad

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The importance of tuberculosis (TB in the development of aspergillosis, even after treatment, has been highlighted by multiple studies. Microbiological and molecular evaluation are needed to detect PA quickly and accurately. The WHO reported about 8.8 million new cases of TB in 2010. Therefore, it is essential to focus more on monitoring of diagnosis and treatment of PA.

  20. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm; Mølgaard, Anne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro

    2013-01-01

    chymosin. Both enzymes possess local positively charged patches on their surface that can play a role in interactions with the overall negatively charged C-terminus of κ-casein. Camel chymosin contains two additional positive patches that favour interaction with the substrate. The improved electrostatic......Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  1. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers.

  2. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1,PARAINFLUENZA-3,BOVINE ROTAVIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA, BOVINE ADENOVIRUS-7,BOVINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS AND BLUETONGUE VIRUS ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    SUZAN, Victor M.; ONUMA, Misao; AGUILAR, Romero E.; MURAKAMI, Yosuke

    1983-01-01

    Sera were collected from dairy and beef cattle in 19 different states of Mexico. These sera were tested for bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), bovine rotavirus (BRV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), bovine adenovirus-7 (BAV-7), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seropositive rates for each virus for dairy cattle tested were 158/277(57.0%) for BHV-1,217/286(75.0%) for PIV-3,541/1498(36.1%) for BLV, 134/144(93.1%) for BRV, 39/90(43.3%) for BTV,...

  3. A proteomic analysis of the regulon of the NarP two-component regulatory system response regulator in the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamoto Ichiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of the NarQP two-component signal transduction system regulon in response to the presence of nitrate for the bovine pathogen Mannheimia haemolytica A1 was investigated by proteomic analysis. Total proteins from a narP mutant and the parent SH1217 grown with or without NaNO3 supplement were examined by ISO-DALT 2D electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Seventeen proteins were differentially expressed in the parent strain SH1217 in response to the addition of NaNO3 to the growth media. These responses were absent in the narP mutant, indicating that the altered production of these proteins is mediated by NarPMh. Interestingly, NarPMh mediated the increased production of some proteins which are not generally associated with nitrate respiration, such as the iron transporters FbpA and YfeA. The increased production of proteins such as superoxide dismutase, SodA, and GAPDH were also observed. The increased production of these iron-regulated proteins by NarPMh is thought to enhance the swift establishment of the nitrate respiration mechanism of M. haemolytica during pathogenesis. Conclusion The data suggested NarPMh acts as an important regulator which regulates the expression of a small set of proteins in response to nitrate availability. This may contribute to the prevalence of M. haemolytica A1 in its host during pathogenesis of BPP, through enhancing the effectiveness of nitrate respiration either directly or indirectly.

  4. A Comparison of the Anorexic Effects of Chicken, Porcine, Human and Bovine Insulin on the Central Nervous System of Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to determine if some naturally-occurring substitutions of amino acid residues of insulin could act differentially within the central nervous system (CNS) of neonatal chicks to control ingestive behavior. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of chicken insuli...

  5. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucello...

  6. Complexes of lutein with bovine and caprine caseins and their impact on lutein chemical stability in emulsion systems: Effect of arabinogalactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Gutierrez, A; Attaie, R; Núñez de González, M T; Jung, Y; Woldesenbet, S; Marquez, S A

    2018-01-01

    Lutein is an important xanthophyll carotenoid with many benefits to human health. Factors affecting the application of lutein as a functional ingredient in low-fat dairy-like beverages (pH 6.0-7.0) are not well understood. The interactions of bovine and caprine caseins with hydrophobic lutein were studied using UV/visible spectroscopy as well as fluorescence. Our studies confirmed that the aqueous solubility of lutein is improved after binding with bovine and caprine caseins. The rates of lutein solubilization by the binding to bovine and caprine caseins were as follows: caprine α S1 -II-casein 34%, caprine α S1 -I-casein 10%, and bovine casein 7% at 100 μM lutein. Fluorescence of the protein was quenched on binding supporting complex formation. The fluorescence experiments showed that the binding involves tryptophan residues and some nonspecific interactions. Scatchard plots of lutein binding to the caseins demonstrated competitive binding between the caseins and their sites of interaction with lutein. Competition experiments suggest that caprine α S1 -II casein will bind a larger number of lutein molecules with higher affinity than other caseins. The chemical stability of lutein was largely dependent on casein type and significant increases occurred in the chemical stability of lutein with the following pattern: caprine α S1 -II-casein > caprine α S1 -I-casein > bovine casein. Addition of arabinogalactan to lutein-enriched emulsions increases the chemical stability of lutein-casein complexes during storage under accelerated photo-oxidation conditions at 25°C. Therefore, caprine α S1 -II-casein alone and in combination with arabinogalactan can have important applications in the beverage industry as carrier of this xanthophyll carotenoid (lutein). Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Nucleolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amrutlal K.Patel; Doug Olson; Suresh K. Tikoo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolus is the most prominent subnuclear structure, which performs a wide variety of functions in the eu-karyotic cellular processes. In order to understand the structural and functional role of the nucleoli in bovine cells,we analyzed the proteomie composition of the bovine nueleoli. The nucleoli were isolated from Madin Darby bo-vine kidney cells and subjected to proteomie analysis by LC-MS/MS after fractionation by SDS-PAGE and strongcation exchange chromatography. Analysis of the data using the Mascot database search and the GPM databasesearch identified 311 proteins in the bovine nucleoli, which contained 22 proteins previously not identified in theproteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Analysis of the identified proteins using the GoMiner software suggestedthat the bovine nueleoli contained proteins involved in ribosomal biogenesis, cell cycle control, transcriptional,translational and post-translational regulation, transport, and structural organization.

  9. Combined Churg-Strauss syndrome and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis - case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of combined Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was presented. A 41-year-old woman was diagnosed with CSS based upon asthma, eosinophilia (23%), chest radiographic findings, paranasal sinusitis, peripheral neuropathy and positive p- anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA). The diagnosis of ABPA was established on the pathological findings of allegic mucin impaction and fungal hyphae on lung biopsy. It was further proved by positive serum IgE and IgG antibodies specific to afumigatus. The clinical investigation features were reviewed in the patients with combined CSS and ABPA. All patients had the time sequence of the development of CSS after ABPA uniformly, suggesting immunopathogenesis involving the emergence of CSS. The role of lung biopsy in the diagnosis of the condition was emphasized. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Case Report Associated with Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfection in Himalayan Griffons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a death which occurred in four Himalayan griffons housed in Beijing zoo, China. Based on pathogen identification and the pathological changes observed, we did characterize the fungi and Hepatitis E virus (HEV in four dead Himalayan griffons. Pathological changes were severe. Membranous-like material was observed on the surface of the internal organs. Spleen was necrotic. Focal lymphocyte infiltration in the liver and many sunflower-like fungi nodules were evident in the tissues, especially in the kidney. PCR was used to identify the pathogen. Based on the 18SrRNA genomic sequence of known fungi, the results confirmed that all four dead Himalayan griffons were infected with Aspergillus. At the same time the detection of HEV also showed positive results. To the best of our knowledge, this work appears to be the first report of concurrent presence of Aspergillosis and Hepatitis E virus in rare avian species.

  11. Estimation of the burden of chronic and allergic pulmonary aspergillosis in India.

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    Ritesh Agarwal

    Full Text Available It would be of considerable interest to clinicians if the burden of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA in India were known. Herein, we estimate the burden of CPA following pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, and ABPA (and severe asthma with fungal sensitization [SAFS] complicating asthma.We used the population estimates for India from the 2011 census data. The burden of asthma was estimated using three different methods (Global Initiative against Asthma [GINA] report statement, World Health Survey [WHS] estimates, Indian study on the epidemiology of asthma and chronic bronchitis [INSEARCH]. Global and India-specific figures were used for calculating the prevalence of ABPA and SAFS. The World Health Organization estimates were used for calculating PTB rates while the frequency of CPA was assessed from a previously published scoping review. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the burden in various scenarios.The total Indian population in 2011 was 1.2 billion. The asthma prevalence in adults was estimated at about 27.6 (range, 17-30 million. The burden of ABPA ranged from 0.12-6.09 million with different assumptions (best estimate, 1.38 [range, 0.86-1.52] million. The prevalence of SAFS was approximated at about 0.52-1.21 million (best estimate, 0.96 [range, 0.6-1.06] million. The incident TB cases were about 2.1 million while the annual incidence of CPA varied 27,000-0.17 million cases, with different estimates. If the mortality of CPA is estimated as 15% annually, the 5-year prevalence of CPA was placed at 290,147 cases with 5-year prevalence rate being 24 per 100,000.There is a significant burden of ABPA, SAFS and CPA in India. Prospective community-based studies are required to accurately determine the prevalence of these disorders.

  12. Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice

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    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds. So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups (20 mice/group. The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected, the 2nd group was treated with ink (200 mg/kg and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg and the 4th group was treated with ink plus amphotericin B (Ink 200 mg/kg and AMB 150 mg/kg. Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation and was administered for 3 consecutive days. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compared with IPA group; IE-treated, AMB-treated, and AMB + IE-treated animals had a 67.80%, 83.41%, and 72.68% reduction in the pulmonary fungal burden, respectively. Treatment with IE and/or AMB for one and three days significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissues as compared with the infected untreated group. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress.

  13. Isavuconazole for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis: current evidence, safety, efficacy, and clinical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natesan SK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Suganthini Krishnan Natesan,1,2 Pranatharthi H Chandrasekar1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wayne State University, 2John D Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: The majority of invasive mold infections diagnosed in immunocompromised cancer patients include invasive aspergillosis (IA and mucormycosis. Despite timely and effective therapy, mortality remains considerable. Antifungal agents currently available for the management of these serious infections include triazoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Until recently, posaconazole has been the only triazole with a broad spectrum of anti-mold activity against both Aspergillus sp. and mucorales. Other clinically available triazoles voriconazole and itraconazole, with poor activity against mucorales, have significant drug interactions in addition to a side effect profile inherent for all triazoles. Polyenes including lipid formulations pose a problem with infusion-related side effects, electrolyte imbalance, and nephrotoxicity. Echinocandins are ineffective against mucorales and are approved as salvage therapy for refractory IA. Given that all available antifungal agents have limitations, there has been an unmet need for a broad-spectrum anti-mold agent with a favorable profile. Following phase III clinical trials that started in 2006, isavuconazole (ISZ seems to fit this profile. It is the first novel triazole agent recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of both IA and mucormycosis. This review provides a brief overview of the salient features of ISZ, its favorable profile with regard to spectrum of antifungal activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, drug interactions and tolerability, clinical efficacy, and side effects. Keywords: isavuconazole, aspergillosis, mucormycosis, efficacy, antifungal therapy, novel azole, tolerability, drug interactions

  14. Disseminated aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with detectable bis(methylthio)gliotoxin and negative galactomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-García, Matxalen; Sánchez-Chueca, Pilar; Domingo, María Pilar; Ballester, Carlos; Roc, Lourdes; Ferrer, Isabel; Revillo, María José; Pardo, Julián; Gálvez, Eva María; Rezusta, Antonio

    Disseminated invasive aspergillosis is an exceptional finding in immunocompetent hosts. As in immunocompromised patients, it has high mortality rates. Early diagnostic methods are required in order to properly manage the patient. Bis(methylthio)gliotoxin (bmGT) is a novel biomarker, useful in onco-hematological patients. A 70-year-old male, with non-insulin dependent type II diabetes mellitus and a past surgery history of aortic valve replacement with coronary by-pass five years ago, was seen in the emergency department with blurred vision. Three days later, endogen endophthalmitis was diagnosed in the ophthalmology clinic. During admission for the vitrectomy, he suffered an ischemia of the right lower limb. A thoracic computed tomography revealed a mycotic aneurysm of the ascending thoracic aorta and parietal thrombus. The ascending aorta was replaced and abundant brittle material of infectious appearance, found between the aortic valve graft and the aneurysm, was removed. Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto grew in both vitreous and aorta cultures. BmGT was detected in two serum samples obtained prior to intravenous antifungal treatment, which was then reduced after voriconazole treatment was started. Disseminated invasive aspergillosis is a severe disease regardless of the immune status of the patient. This case report suggests that bmGT could be a suitable early diagnostic biomarker, not only in neutropenic patients, but also in immunocompetent hosts. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  16. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eThompson-Crispi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the High Immune Response (HIR technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+TM sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favourable production levels to feed a growing

  17. Systems Biology Analysis of Temporal In vivo Brucella melitensis and Bovine Transcriptomes Predicts host:Pathogen Protein–Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Rossetti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, fewer than 200 gene-products have been identified as Brucella virulence factors, and most were characterized individually without considering how they are temporally and coordinately expressed or secreted during the infection process. Here, we describe and analyze the in vivo temporal transcriptional profile of Brucella melitensis during the initial 4 h interaction with cattle. Pathway analysis revealed an activation of the “Two component system” providing evidence that the in vivo Brucella sense and actively regulate their metabolism through the transition to an intracellular lifestyle. Contrarily, other Brucella pathways involved in virulence such as “ABC transporters” and “T4SS system” were repressed suggesting a silencing strategy to avoid stimulation of the host innate immune response very early in the infection process. Also, three flagellum-encoded loci (BMEII0150-0168, BMEII1080-1089, and BMEII1105-1114, the “flagellar assembly” pathway and the cell components “bacterial-type flagellum hook” and “bacterial-type flagellum” were repressed in the tissue-associated B. melitensis, while RopE1 sigma factor, a flagellar repressor, was activated throughout the experiment. These results support the idea that Brucella employ a stealthy strategy at the onset of the infection of susceptible hosts. Further, through systems-level in silico host:pathogen protein–protein interactions simulation and correlation of pathogen gene expression with the host gene perturbations, we identified unanticipated interactions such as VirB11::MAPK8IP1; BtaE::NFKBIA, and 22 kDa OMP precursor::BAD and MAP2K3. These findings are suggestive of new virulence factors and mechanisms responsible for Brucella evasion of the host's protective immune response and the capability to maintain a dormant state. The predicted protein–protein interactions and the points of disruption provide novel insights that will stimulate advanced hypothesis

  18. Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    This review deals with the role of viruses in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Bovine herpesvirus 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, foot-and-mouth disease virus, and parainfluenza 3 virus have been isolated from milk from cows with clinical mastitis. Intramammary inoculations of bovine herpesvirus 1 or

  19. Prevalence and fungal profile of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Ved, Mishra Prem P, Verma Shashi K, Sinha Shivani, Sharma Mahendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus is a fungus which may present an array of pulmonary manifestations, depending on the patient’s immunological and physiological state. Although the incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis occurs primarily in immunocompromised patients but the incidence is also rising in immunocompetent individuals, especially in developing countries. Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and predisposing factors of pulmonary aspergillosis along with species identification. Materials and Methods: One hundred and three patients admitted to the Department of Chest and Tuberculosis and in the Department of Medicine from Jan 2012 to Jan 2013 were included in this study. The patients were epitomized on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms, physical examination, chest radiography, CT scans, histopathological examination, bronchoscopy and fungal examination including potassium hydroxide mount, fungal culture of sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage. Species identification was done by colony characteristics, slide culture and Lactophenol Cotton blue mount. Results: Out of the 103 patients, (63 males and 40 females Aspergillus species has been isolated from 17 (16.5% males and 07 (6.79% females. Various predisposing factors of pulmonary aspergillosis have been identified in which pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic smoking and environmental exposure to asbestos, cement its tops the list. Many of the patients had multiple predisposing factors. Aspergillus species were isolated in 24 (23.3% cases. Aspergillus fumigatus was the predominant species isolated in 13 (54.16% cases followed by Aspergillus flavus in 07 (29.16% cases, Aspergillus niger in 03 (12.5 % and Aspergillus terrus in 1 (4.16% cases. Conclusion: It is concluded that the prevalence of pulmonary Aspergillosis is quite high in immunocompromised individuals and low in immunocompetent individuals. An adequate and efficient evaluation of the etiological agents has a

  20. Performance of two Aspergillus IgG EIA assays compared with the precipitin test in chronic and allergic aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C G; Denning, D W; Jones, A M; Todd, A; Moore, C B; Richardson, M D

    2013-04-01

    Detection of Aspergillus IgG antibodies is important in the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Immunoprecipitation techniques to detect these antibodies appear to lack sensitivity and accurate quantitation compared with enzyme immunoassays (EIA). This study assessed the performance of two commercial EIAs compared with counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). This was a prospective cohort study of 175 adult patients with chronic or allergic pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus IgG antibodies were detected using CIE, Phadia ImmunoCap Aspergillus IgG and Bio-Rad Platelia Aspergillus IgG. Inter-assay reproducibility was determined for each method and 25 patients had two serum samples analysed within a 6-month interval. When compared with CIE, both ImmunoCap and Platelia Aspergillus IgG had good sensitivity (97 and 93%, respectively) for detection of Aspergillus IgG antibodies. The level of agreement between the two EIAs for positive results was good, but the concentration of antibodies was not correlated between the tests or with CIE titre. ImmunoCap IgG inter-assay coefficient of variation was 5%, whereas Platelia IgG was 33%. Median ImmunoCap IgG values for CPA and allergic aspergillosis were 95 and 32 mg/L, respectively, whereas Platelia IgG values were >80 and 6 AU/mL. The direction of CIE titre change over 6 months was mirrored by ImmunoCap IgG levels in 92% of patients, and by Platelia IgG in 72% of patients. Both ImmunoCap and Platelia Aspergillus IgG EIAs are sensitive measures of Aspergillus IgG antibodies compared with CIE. However, ImmunoCap appears to have better reproducibility and may be more suitable for monitoring patient disease. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  1. Angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: clinical and high-resolution computed tomography findings in 12 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparetto, Emerson L.; Souza, Carolina A.; Tazoniero, Priscilla; Davaus, Taisa; Escuissato, Dante L.; Marchiori, Edson

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the clinical and high-resolution CT scan findings of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis (APA) in 12 patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The CT scans were reviewed by three chest radiologists who assessed the pattern and distribution of findings by consent. There were 7 (58%) female and 5 (42%) male patients, with aging between 5 and 50 years (average of 26 years). All patients were submitted to BMT for the treatment of h...

  2. Prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis with caspofungin during construction works in patient with acute lymphoblasic leukemia treated with vincristin

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    Mojca Modic

    2012-12-01

    Case presentation: A 59-year old woman with common ALL relapsed after 22 years (normal cytogenetics. She was treated according to the UKALL XII regimen and achieved complete second remission. She received four cycles of vincristine 2 mg i.v. In a retrospective cohort study, prolonged neutropenia, use of steroids, nursing unit without laminar air flow during a period of construction works were associated with an increased incidence of invasive aspergillosis in patients who did not receive primary antifungal prophylaxis. Intravenous caspofungin was administered to the patient as primary aspergillosis prophylaxis on the first day of chemotherapy. Galactomannan antigen tests were negative during the period of neutropenia. There was no infection in the period of prolonged neutropenia. Conclusions: The author discusses primary prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis with caspofungin during construction works in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with vincristine. Because of non-conventional unit without laminar air flow during induction chemotherapy treatment, which leads to an increased risk of invasive fungal infection with Aspergillus, caspofungin prophylaxis is recommended at least until upgrade to laminar flow or cessation of construction works.

  3. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B of mycotic lung lesions from invasive aspergillosis: results in 10 immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltri, A.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Bartoli, G.; Martina, M.C.; Galli, J.; Regge, D.; Bertini, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous treatment of pulmonary lesions from invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. From 1992 to 1998, ten patients (seven men and three women; mean age 56 years) affected by hematological neoplasms (8 acute myeloid leukemias, 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and post-chemotherapy prolonged neutropenia developed pulmonary lesions from invasive aspergillosis. A total of 13 lesions (diameter 2-7 cm, median 5 cm) were treated percutaneously due to insufficiency of the high-dose i. v. therapy; under CT guidance, a median of 10 cm 3 per session of a 1 mg/cm 3 diluted solution of amphotericin B was injected through a fine needle (21-22 G); 45 sessions overall were performed (one to five per lesion, median four), according to the volume of the nodules, tolerance, and complications. The results were retrospectively evaluated either radiologically or clinically. Complications were cough, mild hemoptysis, and small pneumothorax and/or pleural effusion. No major complications occurred. One month after the beginning of treatment, 8 lesions completely resolved, 4 greatly improved, and 1 was not significantly reduced. In all ten patients symptoms improved (eight of ten could restart chemotherapy as scheduled). After antiblastic retreatment, 1 patient had mycotic recurrence. In our experience transthoracic topical treatment with amphotericin B of single or few lung lesions from invasive aspergillosis was effective, affording a rapid improvement of the lesions and symptoms, and allowing continuation of chemotherapy as scheduled, thereby reducing the risk of recurrences. (orig.)

  4. Management of invasive aspergillosis in patients with COPD: rational use of voriconazole

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    Florence Ader

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Florence Ader1, Anne-Lise Bienvenu2, Blandine Rammaert3, Saad Nseir41Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales; 2Service de Parasitologie et Mycologie Médicale, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital de La Croixrousse, Lyon, France; 3Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Université Paris Descartes, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Centre d’infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Paris, France; 4Service de Réanimation Médicale, Hôpital A. Calmette, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Lille, FranceAbstract: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an important cause of mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies. The reported incidence of IPA in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD seems to increase. Approximately 1%–2% of overall fatal cases of IPA occur in COPD patients. The combination of factors such as lung immune imbalance, long-term corticosteroid use, increasing rate of bacterial exacerbations over time, and malnutrition are responsible for the emergence of IPA in these patients. The diagnosis of IPA is difficult to establish, which explains the delay in implementing accurate antifungal therapy and the high mortality rate. Persistent pneumonia nonresponsive to appropriate antibiotic treatment raises the concern of an invasive fungal infection. Definite diagnosis is obtained from tissue biopsy evidencing Aspergillus spp. on microscopic examination or in culture. Culture and microscopy of respiratory tract samples have a sensitivity and specificity of around 50%. Other diagnostic tools can be useful in documenting IPA: computed tomography (CT scan, nonculture-based tests in serum and/or in bronchoalveolar lavage such as antibody/antigen tests for Aspergillus spp. More recent tools such as polymerase chain reaction or [1→3]-β-D-glucan have predictive values that need to be further investigated in COPD patients. Antifungal monotherapy using azole

  5. Proteomic demonstration of the recurrent presence of inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain during aspergillosis induced in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Valera, Lionel; Jardin, Bénédicte; Hem, Sonia; Caille, Agnès; Cormier, Bénédicte; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Bailly, Éric; Diot, Patrice; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains a matter of great concern in oncology/haematology, intensive care units and organ transplantation departments. Despite the availability of various diagnostic tools with attractive features, new markers of infection are required for better medical care. We therefore looked for potential pulmonary biomarkers of aspergillosis, by carrying out two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis comparing the proteomes of bronchial-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from infected rats and from control rats presenting non-specific inflammation, both immunocompromised. A bioinformatic analysis of the 2D-maps revealed significant differences in the abundance of 20 protein spots (ANOVA P-valuevalue0.8). One of these proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, was considered of potential interest: inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain (ITIH4), characterised for the first time in this infectious context. Western blotting confirmed its overabundance in all infected BALF, particularly at early stages of murine aspergillosis. Further investigations were carried on rat serum, and confirmed that ITIH4 levels increased during experimental aspergillosis. Preliminary results in human samples strengthened this trend. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the involvement of ITIH4 in aspergillosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of bluetongue virus by using bovine endothelial cells and embryonated chicken eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wechsler, S J; Luedke, A J

    1991-01-01

    Two systems, inoculation of bovine endothelial cells and of embryonated chicken eggs, were compared for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood specimens from experimentally inoculated sheep. For all BTV serotypes tested, embryonated chicken eggs detected longer periods of viremia than did bovine endothelial cells, primarily by detecting BTV in samples containing lower virus concentrations.

  7. Bovine Tuberculosis, A Zoonotic Disease

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    Tarmudji

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis (M. bovis. This species is one of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, can infect wide range of hosts: cattle and other domesticated animals, wild mammals and humans (zoonotic. M. bovis bacterium from infected hosts can be transmitted to other susceptible animals and humans through respiratory excretes and secretion materials. Humans can be infected with M. bovis by ingested M. bovis contaminated animal products, unpasteurised milk from tuberculosis cows or through respiratory route of contaminated aerosol. Bovine tuberculosis at the first stage does not show any clinical sign but as the disease progress in the next stage which may take several months or years, clinical signs may arise, suh as: fluctuative body temperature, anorexia, lost body weight, coughing, oedema of lymph nodes, increased respiratory frequencies. Pathological lesion of bovine tuberculosis is characterised by the formation of granulomas (tubercles, in which bacterial cells have been localised, most in lymph nodes and pulmonum, but can occur in other organs. The granulomas usually arise in small nodules or tubercles appear yellowish either caseus, caseo-calcareus or calcified. In Indonesia, bovine tuberculosis occurred in dairy cattle since 1905 through the imported dairy cows from Holland and Australian. It was unfortunate that until recently, there were not many research and surveilances of bovine tuberculosis conducted in this country, so the distribution of bovine tuberculosis is unknown. Early serological diagnosis can be done on live cattle by means of tuberculin tests under field conditions. Confirmation can be done by isolation and identification of excreted and secreted samples from the slaughter house. Antibiotic treatment and vaccination were uneffective, therefore the effective control of bovine tuberculosis is suggested by tuberculin tests and by slaughtering the selected

  8. Successful non-standard approaches to massive hemoptysis in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

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    Mitrović Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IA is the most frequent invasive fungal infection in patients with hematological malignancies. Massive hemoptysis (MH with blood loss more than 300- 600 ml in 24 hours is a rare (5-10% of IA patients but frequently fatal complication. Standard treatment of MH, such as oxygenation, a semi-sitting position with the bleeding site down, bronchoscopical suctioning, antifungal therapy, transfusion support and surgical resection might be either ineffective or not feasible in some cases. Outline of Cases. We report two patients with life threatening, non-controlled, massive hemoptysis who were successfully managed by non-standard measures. A 61-year-old male with acute myeloid leukemia developed pulmonary IA and massive hemoptysis after consolidation cure by chemotherapy. The bleeding site was localized in the VI lung segment by bronchoscopy. Local application of fibrinogen-thrombin concentrate (fibrin glue stopped the bleeding. A 22-year-old female patient with the diagnosis of severe aplastic anemia developed IA and massive hemoptysis early after application of immunosuppressive therapy (antilymphocyte globulin, cyclosporine and corticosteroids. Conventional transfusion therapy, desmopresine and antifibrinolytics were ineffective. This urgent condition was successfully treated with human activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®. Conclusion. Our experience together with data from the available literature suggests a potential benefit of fibrinogen-thrombin concentrate and rFVIIa in the treatment of refractory critical bleeding in hematooncological patients.

  9. Early-onset invasive aspergillosis and other fungal infections in patients treated with ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, David; Calleja, Anne; Protin, Caroline; Baron, Marine; Ledoux, Marie-Pierre; Damaj, Gandhi; Dupont, Mathieu; Dreyfus, Brigitte; Ferrant, Emmanuelle; Herbaux, Charles; Laribi, Kamel; Le Calloch, Ronan; Malphettes, Marion; Paul, Franciane; Souchet, Laetitia; Truchan-Graczyk, Malgorzata; Delavigne, Karen; Dartigeas, Caroline; Ysebaert, Loïc

    2018-04-26

    Ibrutinib has revolutionized the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is now being increasingly used. Although considered to be less immunosuppressive than conventional immunochemotherapy, the observation of a few cases of invasive fungal infections in patients treated with ibrutinib prompted us to conduct a retrospective survey. We identified 33 cases of invasive fungal infections in patients receiving ibrutinib alone or in combination. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) was overrepresented (27/33) and was associated with cerebral localizations in 40% of the cases. Remarkably, most cases of invasive fungal infections occurred with a median of 3 months after starting ibrutinib. In 18/33 cases, other conditions that could have contributed to decreased antifungal responses, such as corticosteroids, neutropenia, or combined immunochemotherapy, were present. These observations indicate that ibrutinib may be associated with early-onset invasive fungal infections, in particular IA with frequent cerebral involvement, and that patients on ibrutinib should be closely monitored in particular when other risk factors of fungal infections are present. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Two year follow-up of a garbage collector with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmers, H; Huber, H; Baur, X

    2000-04-01

    Separate collection of biodegradable garbage and recyclable waste is expected to become mandatory in some western countries. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and separation might become endangered by high loads of bacteria and fungi. Case history and examination A 29 year old garbage collector involved in emptying so-called biological garbage complained of dyspnea, fever, and flu-like symptoms during work beginning in the summer of 1992. Chest x-ray showed streaky shadows near both hili reaching into the upper regions. IgE- and IgG-antibodies (CAP, Pharmacia, Sweden) were strongly positive for Aspergillus fumigatus with 90.5 kU/L and 186%, respectively. Total-IgE was also strongly elevated with 5430 kU/L. Bronchial challenge testing with commercially available Aspergillus fumigatus extract resulted in an immediate-type asthmatic reaction. Two years later he was still symptomatic and antibodies persisted at lower levels. Our diagnosis was allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) including asthmatic responses as well as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) due to exposure to moldy household waste. A growing number of persons engaged in garbage collection and handling are exposed and at risk to develop sensitization to fungi due to exposure to dust of biodegradable waste. Further studies are necessary to show if separate collection of biodegradable waste increases the health risks due to exposure to bacteria and fungi in comparison to waste collection without separation. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Second-Hand Smoke Increases Bronchial Hyperreactivity and Eosinophilia in a Murine Model of Allergic Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. P. Seymour

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary inhalation of tobacco smoke has been shown to aggravate the allergic response. Antibodies to fungal antigens such as Aspergillus fumigatus (Af cause an allergic lung disease in humans. This study was carried out to determine the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS on a murine model of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA. BALB/c mice were exposed to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke to simulate 'second-hand smoke'. The concentration was consistent with that achieved in enclosed public areas or households where multiple people smoke. During exposure, mice were sensitized to Af antigen intranasally. Mice that were sensitized to Af antigen and exposed to ETS developed significantly greater airway hyperreactivity than did mice similarly sensitized to Af but housed in ambient air. The effective concentration of aerosolized acetylcholine needed to double pulmonary flow resistance was significantly lower in Af + ETS mice compared to the Af + AIR mice. Immunological data that supports this exacerbation of airway hyperresponsiveness being mediated by an enhanced type 1 hypersensitivity response include: eosinophilia in peripheral blood and lung sections. All Af sensitized mice produced elevated levels of IL4, IL5 and IL10 but no IFN-γ indicating a polarized Th2 response. Thus, ETS can cause exacerbation of asthma in ABPA as demonstrated by functional airway hyperresponsiveness and elevated levels of blood eosinophilia.

  12. Epidemiology of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with liver failure: Clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Meifang; Hu, Jianhua; Zhao, Hong; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-02-01

    Objective Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe and often lethal infection. The possible risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment of patients with simultaneous liver failure and IPA have received little attention in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of IPA in patients with liver failure in an effort to reduce patient mortality. Methods The patients with liver failure (including acute liver failure , sub-acute liver failure , acute-on-chronic liver failure and chronic liver failure) were recruited from 2011 to 2016. The clinical data of these patients were retrieved for the study. Results In total, 1077 patients with liver failure were included in this study. Of the 1077 patients, 53 (4.9%) had IPA. Forty-four (83%) patients with IPA died. Independent risk factors for IPA were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.542), hepatorenal syndrome (HR = 2.463), antibiotic use (HR = 4.631), and steroid exposure (HR = 18.615). Conclusions IPA is a fatal complication in patients with liver failure. Male sex, hepatorenal syndrome, antibiotic use, and steroid exposure were independent risk factors for IPA. When patients with liver failure have these risk factors and symptoms of pneumonia such as cough or hemoptysis, clinicians should be cautious about the possibility of IPA.

  13. Beneficial effects of Omalizumab therapy in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: A synthesis review of published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Xiong; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Man-Hui; Cao, Wei-Jun; Xu, Jin-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized mAb that binds to IgE, has been an effective therapy for patients with severe allergic asthma; however, there are few clinical trials examining the efficacy of Omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) except some case reports. To assess the clinical and immunological effects of Omalizumab in ABPA patients, we made a synthesis review of 102 cases from 30 published literature, analyzed the effects of Omalizumab therapy in ABPA and conducted subgroup analyses to determine factors that influenced the therapy endpoints. We found that Omalizumab treatment not only provided a clinically important reduction in serum IgE, exacerbation rates and steroid requirement, but also showed attenuated asthma symptoms and improved pulmonary function parameters in patients with ABPA. Moreover, further discussion was made when interpretating the results. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are necessary to establish the efficacy and safety of this novel therapeutic intervention for ABPA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of urinary excreted fungal galactomannan-like antigens for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Dufresne

    Full Text Available Mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis (IA remains high, partly because of delayed diagnosis. Detection of microbial exoantigens, released in serum and other body fluids during infection, may help timely diagnosis. In course of IA, Aspergillus galactomannan (GM, a well established polysaccharide biomarker, is released in body fluids including urine. Urine is an abundant, safely collected specimen, well-suited for point-of-care (POC testing, which could play an increasing role in screening for early disease. Our main objective was to demonstrate GM antigenuria as a clinically relevant biological phenomenon in IA and establish proof-of-concept that it could be translated to POC diagnosis. Utilizing a novel IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb476 that recognizes GM-like antigens from Aspergillus and other molds, we demonstrated antigenuria in an experimental animal IA model (guinea pig, as well as in human patients. In addition, we investigated the chemical nature of the urinary excreted antigen in human samples, characterized antigen detection in urine by immunoassays, described a putative assay inhibitor in urine, and indicated means of alleviation of the inhibition. We also designed and used a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to detect urinary excreted antigen in a limited number of IA patient urine samples. In this study, we establish that POC diagnosis of IA based on urinary GM detection is feasible. Prospective studies will be necessary to establish the performance characteristics of an optimized device and define its optimal clinical use.

  15. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis - CT findings in context with the clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfarth, H.J.; Winkler, J.; Wirtz, H.; Nenoff, P.; Krahl, R.; Kloeppel, R.; Borte, G.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of chest radiographs and CT in patients suffering from invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) compared to the clinical course. Patients and Methods: Twenty-three patients with confirmed diagnosis of IPA between January 1996 and September 1999 were included in this study. Signs of inflammatory infiltrates on chest radiographs and CT were retrospectively evaluated in relation to the onset of the clinical symptoms. Infiltrates on CT were analyzed in detail with respect to number, morphology, and localization. Results: Seventy-six infiltrates were found on the CT of 22 patients; one patient had diffuse areas of lung infiltrates. Both lungs were affected by infiltrates in 14 patients. Pleural effusions were confirmed in 12 patients. Twelve patients had typically round foci with halo and nine patients crescent air signs. The preferred localization of lung infiltrates was segment 6. The median interval between the onset of clinical symptoms and the first radiographic changes was 5.5 days, with an additional interval of 4.5 days until confirmation by CT. Localization, number of infiltrates, and clinical course were not related. Conclusion: In immune-compromised patients with fever, a CT of the chest should be carried out as soon as possible to detect signs indicative of IPA. Morphological changes on CT like a round focus with halo and crescent air sign support the diagnosis of IPA. In this context, special attention should be directed to pulmonary segment 6. (orig.) [de

  16. Cerebral aspergillosis: comparison of radiological and neuropathologic findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, U. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Gilead Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Hettmann, M.; Schwechheimer, K. [Dept. of Neuropathology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Maschke, M. [Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Thirty-six lesions in six patients who died from cerebral Aspergillus infection after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were studied with regard to signal intensity, contrast enhancement, size, and location. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by autopsy. Retrospective correlation of histopathological and radiological findings was possible for 14 lesions. Most of the lesions (22/36) had isointense to low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Histopathologically, hemorrhagic necrosis was determined in three of them. Areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) were related to gross hemorrhage. Two infarctions showed intravascular accumulation of fungal hyphae with secondary thrombosis of the vessel. The remaining 12 lesions had high signal intensity on T2WI and low on T1WI. Histopathologically, four were infectious and four were unspecific demyelinated lesions. In conclusion, cerebral aspergillosis typically presented with large lesions showing isointense to low signal intensity on T2WI that could have areas of high signal on T1WI. Contrast enhancement was only visible in 15 lesions, and the predominant locations were the subcortical white matter, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. Small lesions with high signal on T2WI and low signal on T1WI could not necessarily be related to Aspergillus infection. (orig.)

  17. Cerebral aspergillosis: comparison of radiological and neuropathologic findings in patients with bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, U.; Hettmann, M.; Schwechheimer, K.; Maschke, M.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-six lesions in six patients who died from cerebral Aspergillus infection after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were studied with regard to signal intensity, contrast enhancement, size, and location. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by autopsy. Retrospective correlation of histopathological and radiological findings was possible for 14 lesions. Most of the lesions (22/36) had isointense to low signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Histopathologically, hemorrhagic necrosis was determined in three of them. Areas of high signal intensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) were related to gross hemorrhage. Two infarctions showed intravascular accumulation of fungal hyphae with secondary thrombosis of the vessel. The remaining 12 lesions had high signal intensity on T2WI and low on T1WI. Histopathologically, four were infectious and four were unspecific demyelinated lesions. In conclusion, cerebral aspergillosis typically presented with large lesions showing isointense to low signal intensity on T2WI that could have areas of high signal on T1WI. Contrast enhancement was only visible in 15 lesions, and the predominant locations were the subcortical white matter, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. Small lesions with high signal on T2WI and low signal on T1WI could not necessarily be related to Aspergillus infection. (orig.)

  18. Proteomic Profiling of Serological Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens in Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Janka; Simon, Svenja; Lother, Jasmin; Springer, Jan; Hortschansky, Peter; Morton, C Oliver; Löffler, Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Conneally, Eibhlin; Rogers, Thomas R; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2016-05-06

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the species that most commonly causes the opportunistic infection invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients being treated for hematological malignancies. Little is known about the A. fumigatus proteins that trigger the production of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies during the course of IA. To characterize the serological response to A. fumigatus protein antigens, mycelial proteins were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The gels were immunoblotted with sera from patients with probable and proven IA and control patients without IA. We identified 49 different fungal proteins, which gave a positive IgG antibody signal. Most of these antigens play a role in primary metabolism and stress responses. Overall, our analysis identified 18 novel protein antigens from A. fumigatus. To determine whether these antigens can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers or exhibit a protective activity, we employed supervised machine learning with decision trees. We identified two candidates for further analysis, the protein antigens CpcB and Shm2. Heterologously produced Shm2 induced a strongly proinflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vitro stimulation. In contrast, CpcB did not activate the immune response of PBMCs. These findings could serve as the basis for the development of an immunotherapy of IA.

  19. In vitro production of bovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroebech, L.; Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2015-01-01

    be improved, and aspects related to the oocyte donor, oocyte maturation and the recipients are addressed in the following. Also, some of the future aspects of genomic selection and systems biology are addressed with particular focus on the Brazilian-Danish collaboration in the so-called GIFT-project.......In vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has become a widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. The implementation of genomic selection and systems biology adds great dimensions to the impact of bovine IVP. The physical procedures included in the IVP process can still...

  20. Antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole in allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients who had prior invasive aspergillosis with subsequent complete resolution by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Yu; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Tamaki, Masaharu; Harada, Naonori; Kusuda, Machiko; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-01

    Consensus has yet to be reached regarding secondary prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with a complete resolution of invasive aspergillosis (IA) confirmed by chest computed tomography (CT). We retrospectively evaluated the feasibility of antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole in allogeneic HSCT recipients who had previously developed IA which showed complete resolution as confirmed by chest CT before HSCT. Consecutive adult patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT at our institution and who had received fluconazole as systemic antifungal prophylaxis from June 2007 to January 2015 were included. We compared the clinical outcomes between patients with a past history of IA who showed a complete resolution of chest CT abnormalities (n = 13) and those without a previous history of IA (n = 137). The cumulative incidence of proven or probable IA was 8.8% in the group without a past history of IA and 0.0% in the group with a past history of IA (p = .268). The cumulative incidence of proven or probable invasive fungal disease (IFD) within 100 days after allogeneic HSCT was 10.9% in the group without a past history of IA and 15.4% in the group with a past history of IA (p = .647). Fluconazole was switched to anti-mould agents in two-thirds of the patients in each group by day 100 after HSCT. Fluconazole was confirmed to be an acceptable prophylactic agent early after allogeneic HSCT in appropriately selected patients.

  1. Cytokine and transcription factor expression by Aspergillus fumigatus-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanherberghen, M; Bureau, F; Peters, I R; Day, M J; Lynch, A; Fievez, L; Billen, F; Clercx, C; Peeters, D

    2013-08-15

    The causal agent of sino-nasal aspergillosis is usually Aspergillus fumigatus, which is a saprophytic and ubiquitous fungus that causes a severe rhinosinusitis in apparent healthy dogs. Affected dogs do not have systemic immuno-suppression. It has been shown previously that dogs affected by this disease have local over-expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and Th1 cytokines in nasal mucosal tissue. The aim of the present study was to assess the response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from affected and unaffected dogs to antigen-specific stimulation with heat-inactivated Aspergillus spp. conidia, by quantifying gene expression for specific Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cytokines and their related transcription factors. Quantification of IL-4 and IFN-γ protein in culture supernatant was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PBMC from dogs with SNA produced adequate mRNA encoding IFN-γ and IFN-γ protein. The expression of IL-17A mRNA was significantly greater in PBMC of affected compared with unaffected dogs. The amount of IL-10 mRNA in PBMC from affected dogs decreased after antigen-specific challenge. These results suggest that the incapacity of affected dogs to clear these fungal infections is not related to a defect in Th1 immunity or to an overwhelming regulatory reaction, but rather to an uncontrolled pro-inflammatory reaction driven by Th17 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B of mycotic lung lesions from invasive aspergillosis: results in 10 immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, A.; Anselmetti, G.C.; Bartoli, G.; Martina, M.C.; Galli, J. [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, DiUniv. Torino (Italy); Regge, D. [Servizio di Radiodiagnostica, Istituto di Ricerca e Cura per il Cancro, Ordine Mauriziano, Candiolo (Italy); Bertini, M. [U.O.A. Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Torino (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous treatment of pulmonary lesions from invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. From 1992 to 1998, ten patients (seven men and three women; mean age 56 years) affected by hematological neoplasms (8 acute myeloid leukemias, 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and post-chemotherapy prolonged neutropenia developed pulmonary lesions from invasive aspergillosis. A total of 13 lesions (diameter 2-7 cm, median 5 cm) were treated percutaneously due to insufficiency of the high-dose i. v. therapy; under CT guidance, a median of 10 cm{sup 3} per session of a 1 mg/cm{sup 3} diluted solution of amphotericin B was injected through a fine needle (21-22 G); 45 sessions overall were performed (one to five per lesion, median four), according to the volume of the nodules, tolerance, and complications. The results were retrospectively evaluated either radiologically or clinically. Complications were cough, mild hemoptysis, and small pneumothorax and/or pleural effusion. No major complications occurred. One month after the beginning of treatment, 8 lesions completely resolved, 4 greatly improved, and 1 was not significantly reduced. In all ten patients symptoms improved (eight of ten could restart chemotherapy as scheduled). After antiblastic retreatment, 1 patient had mycotic recurrence. In our experience transthoracic topical treatment with amphotericin B of single or few lung lesions from invasive aspergillosis was effective, affording a rapid improvement of the lesions and symptoms, and allowing continuation of chemotherapy as scheduled, thereby reducing the risk of recurrences. (orig.)

  3. Diagnostic potential of nested PCR, galactomannan EIA, and beta-D-glucan for invasive aspergillosis in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Karimi, Mahammad; Pourabbas, Bahman; Haddadi, Pedram; Mardaneh, Jalal; Moieni, Mahsa

    2012-04-13

    Limited specific data and investigations are available for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in pediatric patients. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of three noninvasive tests including the Platelia Aspergillus EIA kit for using galactomannan antigen, (1,3)-β-D-glucan Detection Reagent Kit, and nested-PCR for Aspergillus DNA in sera. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of three noninvasive tests including EIA for galactomannan antigen  (Platelia Aspergillus), nested  PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA and test for (1→3)-β-D-glucan (Glucatell assay Kit). All pediatric patients treated at the hematology/oncology unit who were at increased risk of developing invasive aspergillosis were enrolled. Clinical samples were examined for Aspergillus infections by mycological methods. Serial blood samples were collected twice weekly and evaluated by noninvasive tests. We analyzed 230 consecutive blood samples from 62 pediatric patients. The incidence rate of invasive aspergillosis in the patients was found to be 27.4%, and the etiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus spp.  The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios for positive and negative results of galactomannan in patients with proven and probable IA were 90%, 92%, 81.8%, 96%, 11.25, and 0.1; for beta-D-glucan they were 50%, 46%, 26%, 70.6%, 0.9, 0.9; and for nested-PCR they were 80%, 96.2%, 88.9%, 92.6%, 21, and 0.2, respectively. The conventional methods are not able to detect IA, due to the lack of valid and proper sampling. Galactomannan and nested-PCR tests in serum, with enough accuracy and reliability, can serve as noninvasive methods for the detection of IA in pediatric patients. However, the beta-D-glucan test cannot serve as an efficient diagnostic tool in those with hematologic disorders. 

  4. Initial CT manifestations of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in 45 non-HIV immunocompromised patients: association with patient outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horger, Marius; Hebart, Holger; Einsele, Hermann; Lengerke, Claudia; Claussen, C.D.; Vonthein, Reinhard; Pfannenberg, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess early high-resolution computer tomographic (CT) signs of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-HIV immunosuppressed patients and their potential association with patient's outcome, including frequency and severity of pulmonary hemorrhage, taking also in consideration the impact of other known risk factors contributory to IPA. Material and methods: A retrospective review of serial CT scans was performed in 45 immunocompromised patients with a total of 46 episodes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. All patients underwent CT beginning with the day they showed clinical or laboratory signs of infection. Serial follow-up CT included more than two, up to 12 CT examinations. Patient's outcome was judged by clinical and radiological follow-up and classified as survival, death by IPA, or death unrelated to IPA. The influence of patient's age, underlying disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutropenia, graft versus host disease, and antifungal therapy onset was also statistically considered. Results: Three main CT findings were identified: small nodules (<1 cm) 43% (20/46), large nodules 21% (10/46) and consolidations, either in patchy ± segmental 26% (12/46), or peribronchial distribution ± tree in bud 9% (4/46). In 11 patients (24%) we found a combination of two or more of these signs: 9 (19%) patients presented concurrent small nodules accompanied by reticulation, tree in bud or peribronchial infiltrates, while 2 (4%) patients showed large pulmonary nodules accompanied by large consolidations. An accompanying 'halo' sign was observed in 38 patients (82%). Crescent sign followed by cavitation was encountered in 29 patients (63%). Two patients succumbed to massive pulmonary bleeding caused by IPA. Twenty-one patients (15/46) deceased in this series, 12 of them succumbed to IPA, 1 died from cerebral invasive aspergillosis, while in 9 patients the cause of death was not primarily IPA. Manifest pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 19% (9

  5. [Invasive aspergillosis of sphenoidal sinus in a patient in Djibouti, revealed by palsy of cranial nerves: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crambert, A; Gauthier, J; Vignal, R; Conessa, C; Lombard, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report a case of invasive aspergillosis of a sphenoid sinus mucocele revealed in a patient with diabetes in Djibouti by homolateral palsy of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th nerves. This rare condition occurs preferentially in immunodeficient subjects. Because of its clinical polymorphism, its diagnosis is difficult and is often not made until complications develop. Endonasal surgery with anatomopathological and mycological examination is both a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. It must be performed early, to avoid functional or even life-threatening complications.

  6. Processed bovine cartilage: an improved biosynthetic implant for contour defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersek, R.A.; Hart, W.G. Jr.; Greer, D.; Beisang, A.A.; Flynn, P.J.; Denton, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated human cartilage has been found to be a superior implant material for correction of contour defects; however, availability problems have prevented this material from gaining wide acceptance. Implantation of processed irradiated bovine cartilage in primates and rabbits, as described here, provides strong evidence that this material performs like irradiated allograft cartilage antigenically and has certain cosmetic advantages over allograft cartilage. Our studies in primates have shown that there is no systemically measurable antibody-antigen reaction, either cellular or noncellular, to irradiated processed bovine cartilage. Neither primary nor second-set provocative implantations produced any measurable rejection. In rabbits, composite grafts of two pieces of irradiated bovine cartilage adjacent to each other were also well tolerated, with no measurable absorption and with capsule formation typical of a foreign body reaction to an inert object

  7. Cryo-gamma radiation inactivation of bovine herpesvirus type-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Smolko, E. E.; Lombardo, J. H.

    1999-07-01

    The radioresistance of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), suspended in free serum Glasgow-MEM medium and frozen at -78°C was studied. The number of surviving virus at a given dose of gamma-radiation was determined by a plaque assay system. D 10 values were calculated before and after removal of cell debris. The D 10 values obtained were 4.72 kGy and 7.31 kGy before and after removal of cell debris, respectively. Our results indicate that the inactivated viral particles could be used for vaccine preparation or diagnostic reagents.

  8. Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay and Quantitative PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis with Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher, Benjamin; Fredricks, David; Leisenring, Wendy; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Smith, Caitlin; Marr, Kieren A.

    2004-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is frequent and often fatal in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Diagnosis requires microbiological or histopathologic demonstration of the organism in tissues; however, cultivation of Aspergillus species from respiratory secretions has low diagnostic sensitivity. Assays to detect Aspergillus antigen or DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid could facilitate earlier diagnosis, thereby guiding optimal therapy and obviating the need for additional costly and potentially morbid diagnostic evaluation. We evaluated the performance of a galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM EIA; Bio-Rad) by using a range of index cutoffs to define positivity and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection of Aspergillus species from BAL samples of patients with proven and probable IPA (case patients; n = 49) and without IPA (control patients; n = 50). The sensitivity of the GM EIA was 61% with an index cutoff of 1.0 and 76% with an index cutoff of 0.5; the corresponding specificities were 98 and 94%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of qPCR assay were 67 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity with 22 culture-negative BAL specimens from patients with IPA was 41% for GM EIA with an index cutoff of 1.0, 59% for GM EIA with an index cutoff of 0.5, and 36% for qPCR assay. GM EIA indices and DNA quantities corresponded to BAL fungal burdens, with culture-positive samples having larger amounts of antigen and DNA compared to culture-negative samples. GM EIA and qPCR assay add to the sensitivity of BAL for diagnosing IPA in high-risk patients, with excellent specificity. Adjunctive use of these tests may reduce dependence on invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:15583275

  9. Antigenic and anticorpal diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and candidosis in immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Machetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA and candidemia are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, but diagnostic procedures are often hampered by critical patients conditions. In recent years, non-culture methods have reached a standardization level suitable to be marketed and widely employed. A method for a panfungal antigenic diagnosis, is the detection in serum of (1→3-ß-D-Glucan (BDG, a polisaccaridic component of fungal cell wall. Best results can be obtained in Aspergillus, Candida and Fusarium infections, while the test performs poorly with Cryptococcus and in zygomycosis. The use of this method are limited by the high costs and by the need of disposable materials certified as glucan-free, in order to avoid false positive results. Galactomannan (GM antigen detection is a method for non-invasive diagnosis of IA. The assay, in latex agglutination (LA and enzymeimmunoassay (EIA format, detect GM in serum, whose presence correlates with IA. Sensitivity and specificity strongly fluctuate (50-100% and 81-98% respectively depending on the time of sampling, the positivity cut-off employed, the concomitant administration of antifungal drugs and of some antibiotics. Nevertheless the method is a very useful and widely employed tool for the diagnosis of IA. For the diagnosis of candidemia, two Candida antigens may be detected in serum: the 56°C heat-labile antigen in LA format, and the mannan antigen, in LA and EIA format. Both the methods perform quite well, but sensitivities and specificities are not so good to allow a routinely and useful use in clinical practice.

  10. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ANATOMY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPIRATORY ASPERGILLOSIS IN JUVENILE WHOOPING CRANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Tobias; Kelley, Cristin; Pinkerton, Marie E; Hartup, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in captivity reared, endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana). Objectives of this retrospective, case series, cross-sectional study were to describe computed tomography (CT) respiratory anatomy in a juvenile whooping crane without respiratory disease, compare CT characteristics with gross pathologic characteristics in a group of juvenile whooping cranes with respiratory aspergillosis, and test associations between the number of CT tracheal bends and bird sex and age. A total of 10 juvenile whooping cranes (one control, nine affected) were included. Seven affected cranes had CT characteristics of unilateral extrapulmonary bronchial occlusion or wall thickening, and seven cranes had luminal occlusion of the intrapulmonary primary or secondary bronchi. Air sac membrane thickening was observed in three cranes in the cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs, and air sac diverticulum opacification was observed in four cranes. Necropsy lesions consisted of severe, subacute to chronic, focally extensive granulomatous pathology of the trachea, primary bronchi, lungs, or air sacs. No false positive CT scan results were documented. Seven instances of false negative CT scan results occurred; six of these consisted of subtle, mild air sacculitis including membrane opacification or thickening, or the presence of small plaques found at necropsy. The number of CT tracheal bends was associated with bird age but not sex. Findings supported the use of CT as a diagnostic test for avian species with respiratory disease and tracheal coiling or elongated tracheae where endoscopic evaluation is impractical. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Omalizumab in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: One center's experience with 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Ömür; Sözener, Zeynep Çelebi; Soyyiğit, Şadan; Kendirlinan, Reşat; Gençtürk, Zeynep; Mısırlıgil, Zeynep; Mungan, Dilşad; Sin, Betül Ayşe; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Çelik, Gülfem Elif; Bavbek, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Omalizumab has been a valuable option for patients with severe allergic asthma, but there are only case reports regarding effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). To evaluate the clinical and functional effectiveness of omalizumab in patients with asthma and ABPA in long-term follow-up. The study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of patients with ABPA who were treated with omalizumab injections between December 2008 and June 2014. Once treatment with omalizumab was started, data were collected at three time points: at baseline, after 1 year, and, in June 2014, at the last follow-up. Fourteen patients with ABPA (seven women and seven men; mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age, 44.21 ± 13.01 years) were included. The treatment period was 31.5 ± 3.99 months (mean ± SD). The difference between the baseline and the last evaluation of the mean percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was significant (p = 0.02). The mean asthma control test score was increased at all-time points compared with the basal score (p = 0.001). After omalizumab treatment was initiated, the patients' mean oral corticosteroid dosage significantly decreased (p = 0.001). The baseline exacerbation rate was 2.7 ± 1.5/y (mean ± SD), and the hospitalization rate was 1.4/y, and both were zero at the last assessment (p = 0.001). Eleven of the patients (78.6%) responded perfectly, and three (21.4%) partially responded to treatment. The patients who had a total immunoglobulin E level of 1000 IU/mL (p = 0.05). Omalizumab provided a clinically important reduction in exacerbations and steroid requirement, and improved asthma symptoms and pulmonary function parameters in patients with asthma and ABPA who had previously shown an unsatisfactory response to Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment.

  12. Clinical efficacy and immunologic effects of omalizumab in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskamp, Astrid L; Gillman, Andrew; Symons, Karen; Sandrini, Alessandra; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Douglass, Jo A

    2015-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) often presents with persistently uncontrolled asthma despite the use of corticosteroids and antifungal therapy. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody currently used to treat severe asthma. The aim was to assess the clinical and immunologic effects of omalizumab in ABPA in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with chronic ABPA were randomized to 4-month treatment with omalizumab (750 mg monthly) or placebo followed by a 3-month washout period in a cross-over design. The main endpoint was number of exacerbations. Other clinical endpoints included lung function, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), quality of life and symptoms. In vitro basophil activation to Aspergillus fumigatus extract and basophil FcεR1 and surface-bound IgE levels were assessed by flow cytometry. Thirteen patients were recruited with mean total IgE 2314 ± 2125 IU/mL. Exacerbations occurred less frequently during the active treatment phase compared with the placebo period (2 vs 12 events, P = .048). Mean FeNO decreased from 30.5 to 17.1 ppb during omalizumab treatment (P = .03). Basophil sensitivity to A. fumigatus and surface-bound IgE and FcεR1 levels decreased significantly after omalizumab but not after placebo. Omalizumab can be used safely to treat ABPA, despite high serum IgE levels. Clinical improvement was accompanied by decreased basophil reactivity to A. fumigatus and FcεR1 and surface-bound IgE levels. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Case series of omalizumab for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nové-Josserand, Raphaële; Grard, Soazic; Auzou, Lila; Reix, Philippe; Murris-Espin, Marlène; Brémont, François; Mammar, Benyebka; Mely, Laurent; Hubert, Dominique; Durieu, Isabelle; Burgel, Pierre-Régis

    2017-02-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) affects up to 15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Corticosteroids are used as first-line therapy, but relapse and adverse effects commonly occur. Case reports have suggested the efficacy of the anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody omalizumab. A retrospective multicenter observational French study retrieved 32 CF patients (11 children and 21 adults) who have received omalizumab for more than 3 months in the context of ABPA. Clinical characteristics, concomitant medications (inhaled and oral corticosteroids, antifungal drugs), lung function, body mass index (BMI), and serum IgE were compared at the start and during the first year of omalizumab therapy. Omalizumab-related adverse effects and costs were also evaluated. No significant difference with omalizumab could be demonstrated with regard to lung function, BMI, or the number of patients receiving oral corticosteroids. At the time of initiation of omalizumab, 56% of patients were receiving oral corticosteroids. Five patients were able to discontinue corticosteroids during follow-up and nine patients were able to reduce their daily dose. A total of 78% of the patients had received antifungal therapy at the time of the initiation of omalizumab. Treatment tolerance was good (12.5% of patients experienced side effects). The median cost of omalizumab treatment was €3,620 per patient per month. Omalizumab may represent a steroid-sparing therapy in CF patients with ABPA. A randomized-controlled trial is urgently required to provide higher level of evidence regarding the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of omalizumab in CF patients with ABPA. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:190-197. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Personalized Medicine for Chronic Respiratory Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis, Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Diseases, and Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Helmut J F; Wassilew, Nasstasja; Köhler, Niklas; Olaru, Ioana D; Günther, Gunar; Herzmann, Christian; Kalsdorf, Barbara; Sanchez-Carballo, Patricia; Terhalle, Elena; Rolling, Thierry; Lange, Christoph; Heyckendorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infectious diseases are causing high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tuberculosis, a major cause of chronic pulmonary infection, is currently responsible for approximately 1.5 million deaths per year. Although important advances in the fight against tuberculosis have been made, the progress towards eradication of this disease is being challenged by the dramatic increase in multidrug-resistant bacilli. Nontuberculous mycobacteria causing pulmonary disease and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are emerging infectious diseases. In contrast to other infectious diseases, chronic respiratory infections share the trait of having highly variable treatment outcomes despite longstanding antimicrobial therapy. Recent scientific progress indicates that medicine is presently at a transition stage from programmatic to personalized management. We explain current state-of-the-art management concepts of chronic pulmonary infectious diseases as well as the underlying methods for therapeutic decisions and their implications for personalized medicine. Furthermore, we describe promising biomarkers and techniques with the potential to serve future individual treatment concepts in this field of difficult-to-treat patients. These include candidate markers to improve individual risk assessment for disease development, the design of tailor-made drug therapy regimens, and individualized biomarker-guided therapy duration to achieve relapse-free cure. In addition, the use of therapeutic drug monitoring to reach optimal drug dosing with the smallest rate of adverse events as well as candidate agents for future host-directed therapies are described. Taken together, personalized medicine will provide opportunities to substantially improve the management and treatment outcome of difficult-to-treat patients with chronic respiratory infections. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Serial assessment of pulmonary lesion volume by computed tomography allows survival prediction in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehreschild, J.J.; Vehreschild, M.J.G.T. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); German Centre for Infection Research, Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Chest Clinic at University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Heidelberg (Germany); Groll, A.H. [University Children' s Hospital, Infectious Disease Research Program, Department of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Silling, G. [University of Muenster, Department of Medicine A, Haematology/Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Wuerthwein, G. [University Hospital Muenster, Centre for Clinical Trials, ZKS Muenster (Germany); Brecht, M. [Chest Clinic at University Hospital Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Cornely, O.A. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Clinical Trials Center Cologne, ZKS Koeln (BMBF 01KN1106), Cologne (Germany); Center for Integrated Oncology CIO Koeln Bonn, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), Cologne (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Serial chest CT is the standard of care to establish treatment success in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Data are lacking how response should be defined. Digital CT images from a clinical trial on treatment of IPA were re-evaluated and compared with available biomarkers. Total volume of pneumonia was added up after manual measurement of each lesion, followed by statistical analysis. One-hundred and ninety CT scans and 309 follow-up datasets from 40 patients were available for analysis. Thirty-one were neutropenic. Baseline galactomannan (OR 4.06, 95%CI: 1.08-15.31) and lesion volume (OR 3.14, 95%CI: 0.73-13.52) were predictive of death. Lesion volume at d7 and trend between d7 and d14 were strong predictors of death (OR 20.01, 95%CI: 1.42-282.00 and OR 15.97, 95%CI: 1.62-157.32) and treatment being rated as unsuccessful (OR 4.75, 95%CI: 0.94-24.05 and OR 40.69, 95%CI: 2.55-649.03), which was confirmed by a Cox proportional hazards model using time-dependent covariates. Any increase in CT lesion volume between day 7 and day 14 was a sensitive marker of a lethal outcome (>50%), supporting a CT rescan each one and 2 weeks after initial detection of IPA. The predictive value exceeded all other biomarkers. Further CT follow-up after response at day 14 was of low additional value. (orig.)

  16. Staphylococcus aureus septic pulmonary emboli presenting as angioinvasive aspergillosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKerlie, I. [Montreal General Hospital, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bloom, C. [Jewish General Hospital, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kreisman, H. [Jewish General Hospital, Pulmonary Div., Dept. of Medicine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2001-12-01

    Septic pulmonary emboli (SPE) have a wide spectrum of radiologic and clinical presentations. The characteristic chest radiographic findings of SPE have been well documented in the literature, but a significant number of patients present with nonspecific or equivocal infiltrates that are not definitive for septic emboli. Studies comparing computed tomographic (CT) scans and chest radiographs of patients with documented SPE suggest that CT provides a more characteristic and recognizable pattern of parenchymal involvement than can be routinely identified on plain radiographs. These findings include multiple peripheral nodules ranging in size from 0.5 cm to 3.5 cm, a feeding vessel sign, cavitation, wedge-shaped peripheral lesions abutting the pleura, air bronchograms within the nodules and extension into the pleural space. Patients with leukemia or lymphoma and prolonged bone marrow suppression are at high risk for developing opportunistic infections of the lung. Angioinvasive aspergillosis (AIA) can occur in any severely immunocompromised or chronically debilitated patient. By far, the most common clinical setting is the patient with prolonged granulocytopenia during treatment for acute leukemia. On CT images, AIA presents as round soft-tissue lung masses surrounded by a 'halo' of ground-glass attenuation. This appearance was once considered pathognomonic of AIA but is now known to be associated with a wide variety of hemorrhagic and vasculitic pulmonary processes. We report a case of SPE presenting radiographically as multiple lung nodules with surrounding halos, thus mimicking the diagnosis of AIA. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have not been reported in the literature. (author)

  17. Causes of death in a contemporary cohort of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia-Vidal

    Full Text Available Information regarding the processes leading to death in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA is lacking. We sought to determine the causes of death in these patients, the role that IA played in the cause, and the timing of death. The factors associated with IA-related mortality are also analyzed. We conducted a multicenter study (2008-2011 of cases of proven and probable IA. The causes of death and whether mortality was judged to be IA-related or IA-unrelated were determined by consensus using a six-member review panel. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine risk factors for IA-related death. Of 152 patients with IA, 92 (60.5% died. Mortality was judged to be IA-related in 62 cases and IA-unrelated in 30. The most common cause of IA-related death was respiratory failure (50/62 patients, caused primarily by Aspergillus infection, although also by concomitant infections or severe comorbidities. Progression of underlying disease and bacteremic shock were the most frequent causes of IA-unrelated death. IA-related mortality accounted for 98% and 87% of deaths within the first 14 and 21 days, respectively. Liver disease (HR 4.54; 95% CI, 1.69-12.23 was independently associated with IA-related mortality, whereas voriconazole treatment was associated with reduced risk of death (HR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.93. In conclusion, better management of lung injury after IA diagnosis is the main challenge for physicians to improve IA outcomes. There are significant differences in causes and timing between IA-related and IA-unrelated mortality and these should be considered in future research to assess the quality of IA care.

  18. Nebulised amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle prophylaxis prevents invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, Khojasteh; Teo, Ian; Armstrong-James, Darius; Shaunak, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Aspergillus species are the major life threatening fungal pathogens in transplant patients. Germination of inhaled fungal spores initiates infection, causes severe pneumonia, and has a mortality of >50%. This is leading to the consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent infection. We made a very low MWt amphotericin B-polymethacrylic acid nanoparticle. It was not toxic to lung epithelial cells or monocyte-derived-macrophages in-vitro, or in an in-vivo transplant immuno-suppression mouse model of life threatening invasive aspergillosis. Three days of nebuliser based prophylaxis delivered the nanoparticle effectively to lung and prevented both fungal growth and lung inflammation. Protection from disease was associated with >99% killing of the Aspergillus and a 90% reduction in lung TNF-α; the primary driver of tissue destructive immuno-pathology. This study provides in-vivo proof-of-principle that very small and cost-effective nanoparticles can be made simply, and delivered safely and effectively to lung by the aerosol route to prevent fungal infections. Aspergillus is an opportunistic pathogen, which affects immunocompromised patients. One novel way to help fight against this infection is pre-exposure prophylaxis. The authors here made PMA based anionic hydrogels carrying amphotericin B, with mucoadhesive behavior. They showed that aerosol route of the drug was very effective in protecting against the disease in an in-vivo model and should provide a stepping-stone towards clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Isavuconazole vs. Voriconazole as First-Line Treatment for Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rachel; Lee, Edward; Yang, Hongbo; Wei, Jin; Messali, Andrew; Azie, Nkechi; Wu, Eric Q; Spalding, James

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is associated with a significant clinical and economic burden. The phase III SECURE trial demonstrated non-inferiority in clinical efficacy between isavuconazole and voriconazole. No studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole compared to voriconazole. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole for the first-line treatment of IA from the US hospital perspective. An economic model was developed to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of isavuconazole vs. voriconazole in hospitalized patients with IA. The time horizon was the duration of hospitalization. Length of stay for the initial admission, incidence of readmission, clinical response, overall survival rates, and experience of adverse events (AEs) came from the SECURE trial. Unit costs were from the literature. Total costs per patient were estimated, composed of drug costs, costs of AEs, and costs of hospitalizations. Incremental costs per death avoided and per additional clinical responders were reported. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (DSA and PSA) were conducted. Base case analysis showed that isavuconazole was associated with a $7418 lower total cost per patient than voriconazole. In both incremental costs per death avoided and incremental costs per additional clinical responder, isavuconazole dominated voriconazole. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis. Isavuconazole was cost saving and dominant vs. voriconazole in most DSA. In PSA, isavuconazole was cost saving in 80.2% of the simulations and cost-effective in 82.0% of the simulations at the $50,000 willingness to pay threshold per additional outcome. Isavuconazole is a cost-effective option for the treatment of IA among hospitalized patients. Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc.

  20. Bone suppression increases the visibility of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in chest radiographs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Schalekamp

    Full Text Available Chest radiographs (CXR are an important diagnostic tool for the detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA in critically ill patients, but their diagnostic value is limited by a poor sensitivity. By using advanced image processing, the aim of this study was to increase the value of chest radiographs in the diagnostic work up of neutropenic patients who are suspected of IPA.The frontal CXRs of 105 suspected cases of IPA were collected from four institutions. Radiographs could contain single or multiple sites of infection. CT was used as reference standard. Five radiologists and two residents participated in an observer study for the detection of IPA on CXRs with and without bone suppressed images (ClearRead BSI 3.2; Riverain Technologies. The evaluation was performed separately for the right and left lung, resulting in 78 diseased cases (or lungs and 132 normal cases (or lungs. For each image, observers scored the likelihood of focal infectious lesions being present on a continuous scale (0-100. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC served as the performance measure. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by considering only the lungs with a suspiciousness score of greater than 50 to be positive.The average AUC for only CXRs was 0.815. Performance significantly increased, to 0.853, when evaluation was aided with BSI (p = 0.01. Sensitivity increased from 49% to 66% with BSI, while specificity decreased from 95% to 90%.The detection of IPA in CXRs can be improved when their evaluation is aided by bone suppressed images. BSI improved the sensitivity of the CXR examination, outweighing a small loss in specificity.

  1. Blood Aspergillus RNA is a promising alternative biomarker for invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanan; Paderu, Padmaja; Railkar, Radha; Douglas, Cameron; Iannone, Robert; Shire, Norah; Perlin, David S

    2016-11-01

    A critical challenge for the successful application of antifungal therapies for invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a lack of reliable biomarkers to assess early treatment response. Patients with proven or probable IA were prospectively enrolled, and serial blood samples were collected at 8 specified time points during 12-week antifungal therapy. Total nucleic acid was extracted from 2.5 ml blood and tested for Aspergillus-specific RNA by a pan-Aspergillus real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay. Serum 1, 3-β-D-glucan (BG) and galactomannan (GM) were measured in parallel. Clinical outcome was evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks. Overall, 48/328 (14.6%) blood samples from 29/46 (63%) patients had positive NASBA detection at baseline and/or some point during the study. Positive NASBA results during the first 4 and 6 weeks of treatment are significantly associated with the 12-week outcome. Blood RNA load change during weeks 4-6 may be informative to predict outcome at 12 weeks. While independent of serum GM, the kinetic change of circulating Aspergillus RNA appears to be well correlated with that of BG on some patient individuals. Monitoring blood Aspergillus RNA during the first 4-6 weeks of antifungal treatment may help assess therapeutic response. Combination of circulating Aspergillus RNA and BG may be a useful adjunct to assess response. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Evidence for possible involvement of an elastolytic serine protease in aspergillosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolattukudy, P E; Lee, J D; Rogers, L M; Zimmerman, P; Ceselski, S; Fox, B; Stein, B; Copelan, E A

    1993-01-01

    A number of isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from the hospital environment produced extracellular elastolytic activity. This activity was found to be catalyzed by a single 33-kDa protein which was purified and characterized to be a serine protease. A. fumigatus, when grown on the insoluble structural material obtained from murine and bovine lung, produced the same extracellular 33-kDa elastolytic protease, indicating that this enzyme is likely to be produced when the organism infect...

  3. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.T. Rotta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  4. Diprosopia em bovino Bovine diprosopus

    OpenAIRE

    I.T. Rotta; M.B.A.M. Torres; R.G. Motta

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a malformation in one newborn female bovine, with two faces and two skull fused, showing one single head. Duplications of the nasal and oral structures, tetraofthalmy, two brains, one single cerebellum, and pons were observed. The right thyroid was hypertrophic and the other organs had normal morphology. Every change observed in this case was compatibles with diprosopus.

  5. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern. Ethiopia. ... animals and herds given the extensive production system prevailing in the area which may allow contact ... due to abortion, infertility and reduction in milk production. In addition, the ..... Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen, K.

  6. Outcome and medical costs of patients with invasive aspergillosis and acute myelogenous leukemia-myelodysplastic syndrome treated with intensive chemotherapy: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Slobbe (Lennert); S. Polinder (Suzanne); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading cause of mortality in patients with acute leukemia. Management of IA is expensive, which makes prevention desirable. Because hospital resources are limited, prevention costs have to be compared with treatment costs and outcome.

  7. Cavitating lung disease due to concomitant drug resistant tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis in a post-partum patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animesh; Suri, J C; Sen, M K; Chakrabarti, S; Gupta, Ayush; Capoor, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Many disorders can present as cavitating lesions in the lung. In this case report, a case of mixed infection with drug resistant tuberculosis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a post-partum patient has been presented. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bovine and human lactoferricin peptides: chimeras and new cyclic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; McDonald, Lindsey J; Haney, Evan F; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G M; Vogel, Hans J

    2014-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important antimicrobial and immune regulatory protein present in neutrophils and most exocrine secretions of mammals. The antimicrobial activity of LF has been related to the presence of an antimicrobial peptide sequence, called lactoferricin (LFcin), located in the N-terminal region of the protein. The antimicrobial activity of bovine LFcin is considerably stronger than the human version. In this work, chimera peptides combining segments of bovine and human LFcin were generated in order to study their antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action. In addition, the relevance of the conserved disulfide bridge and the resulting cyclic structure of both LFcins were analyzed by using "click chemistry" and sortase A-catalyzed cyclization of the peptides. The N-terminal region of bovine LFcin (residues 17-25 of bovine LF) proved to be very important for the antimicrobial activity of the chimera peptides against E. coli, when combined with the C-terminal region of human LFcin. Similarly the cyclic bovine LFcin analogs generated by "click chemistry" and sortase A preserved the antimicrobial activity of the original peptide, showing the significance of these two techniques in the design of cyclic antimicrobial peptides. The mechanism of action of bovine LFcin and its active derived peptides was strongly correlated with membrane leakage in E. coli and up to some extent with the ability to induce vesicle aggregation. This mechanism was also preserved under conditions of high ionic strength (150 mM NaCl) illustrating the importance of these peptides in a more physiologically relevant system.

  9. Correlation between Circulating Fungal Biomarkers and Clinical Outcome in Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios Neofytos

    Full Text Available Objective means are needed to predict and assess clinical response in patients treated for invasive aspergillosis (IA. We examined whether early changes in serum galactomannan (GM and/or β-D-glucan (BDG can predict clinical outcomes. Patients with proven or probable IA were prospectively enrolled, and serial GM and BDG levels and GM optical density indices (GMI were calculated twice weekly for 6 weeks following initiation of standard-of-care antifungal therapy. Changes in these biomarkers during the first 2 and 6 weeks of treatment were analyzed for associations with clinical response and survival at weeks 6 and 12. Among 47 patients with IA, 53.2% (25/47 and 65.9% (27/41 had clinical response by weeks 6 and 12, respectively. Changes in biomarkers during the first 2 weeks were associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GMI, P = 0.03 and 12 weeks (GM+BDG composite, P = 0.05; GM, P = 0.04; GMI, P = 0.02. Changes in biomarkers during the first 6 weeks were also associated with clinical response at 6 weeks (GM, P = 0.05; GMI, P = 0.03 and 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.02; GM, P = 0.02; GMI, P = 0.01. Overall survival rates at 6 weeks and 12 weeks were 87.2% (41/47 and 79.1% (34/43, respectively. Decreasing biomarkers in the first 2 weeks were associated with survival at 6 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.03; BDG, P = 0.01; GM, P = 0.03 and at 12 weeks (BDG+GM, P = 0.01; BDG, P = 0.03; GM, P = 0.01; GMI, P = 0.007. Similar correlations occurred for biomarkers measured over 6 weeks. Patients with negative baseline GMI and/or persistently negative GMI during the first 2 weeks were more likely to have CR and survival. These results suggest that changes of biomarkers may be informative to predict and/or assess response to therapy and survival in patients treated for IA.

  10. Immunodiagnosis of opportunistic mycoses: detection of fungal antigenemia by radioimmunoassays in systemic candidiasis and aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The authors have developed radioimmunoassays to the Candida carbohydrate, mannan, and to an Aspergillus cell wall carbohydrate. They evaluate these radioimmunoassays with sera from rabbit models of disseminated mycoses, and further evaluate the radioimmunoassays for their diagnostic usefulness in a panel of patient sera. (Auth.)

  11. Bovine cysticercosis situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Augusto Marques Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The taeniasis-cysticercosis complex is a long known zoonotic parasitosis characteristic of underdeveloped countries. In addition to its public health significance, this parasitosis is cause of economic losses to the beef production chain, and synonymous of technical inadequacy in relation to the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices. The occurrences of both human teniasis and bovine cysticercosis could and should be controlled with basic sanitary measures. However, there is much variation in the occurrence of the disease in cattle, characterizing a low rate of technical development as well as problems related to the adoption of basic sanitation measures. This review describes, in details, the causative agent and its epidemiological chain, besides raising current information about the occurrence of bovine cysticercosis in different regions of Brazil, aiming at the adoption of prophylactic measures by different segments responsible.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of combination antifungal therapy with voriconazole and anidulafungin versus voriconazole monotherapy for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Grau,1 Jose Ramon Azanza,2 Isabel Ruiz,3 Carlos Vallejo,4 Josep Mensa,5 Johan Maertens,6 Werner J Heinz,7 Jon Andoni Barrueta,8 Carmen Peral,9 Francisco Jesús Mesa,8 Miguel Barrado,10 Claudie Charbonneau,11 Darío Rubio-Rodríguez,12 Carlos Rubio-Terrés12 1Pharmacy Department, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Clinical Pharmacology Department, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, 3Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, 4Hematology Department, Hospital Universitario Donostia, San Sebastián, 5Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 6Hematology Department, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium; 7Hematology/Oncology Department, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, Universitätsklinikum, Würzburg, Germany; 8Medical Department, 9Economics and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer S.L.U, Alcobendas, 10Clinical Trials Department, Trial Form Support, Madrid, Spain; 11Pharmacoeconomics Department, Pfizer International Operations, Paris, France; 12Pharmacoeconomics Department, Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: According to a recent randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the combination of voriconazole and anidulafungin (VOR+ANI with VOR monotherapy for invasive aspergillosis (IA in patients with hematologic disease or with hematopoietic stem cell transplant, mortality was lower after 6 weeks with VOR+ANI than with VOR monotherapy in a post hoc analysis of patients with galactomannan-based IA. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of VOR+ANI with VOR, from the perspective of hospitals in the Spanish National Health System.Methods: An economic model with deterministic and probabilistic analyses was used to determine costs per life-year gained (LYG for VOR+ANI versus VOR in patients with galactomannan-based IA. Mortality, adverse event rates, and life expectancy were

  13. Combination antifungal therapy and surgery for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Toffolutti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year old boy, affected by severe aplastic anemia, developed a probable pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA early after a second unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. He was treated promptly with the combination of liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin. Despite the initial stabilization, the patient deteriorated and the antifungal therapy was switched to voriconazole and caspofungin. The patient gradually improved and was discharged home on day +29 post-HSCT on oral voriconazole. On day +119, a sudden episode of hemoptysis occurred and a right superior lobectomy was decided to remove the residual aspergilloma. The patient is now alive and well more than 24 months from HSCT. This case demonstrated that antifungal combination therapy and surgery are valid options to cure pulmonary IA even in patients at high-risk and severely immunosuppressed.

  14. Invasive maxillary aspergillosis masquerading as malignancy in two cases: Utility of cytology as a rapid diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have emerged as important etiological agents for chronic sinusitis. Invasive aspergillosis has been reported in immunocompromised individuals or diabetics; however, it is uncommonly seen in immunocompetent patients. Definitive diagnosis of these lesions is based on histological examination and fungal culture. We report two cases of invasive maxillary lesions in immunocompetent patients, clinically suspected of malignancy; however, fine needle aspiration cytology showed fungal hyphae, morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus, which was later confirmed on histopathology. Aspiration cytology thus plays a crucial role in the early and definitive diagnosis of fungal sinusitis in cases clinico-radiologically suspected of malignancy. An early diagnosis will help the clinician for early and appropriate management and follow-up in order to decrease the high morbidity and mortality associated with it.

  15. Status of aspergillosis and sea fan populations in Curaçao ten years after the 1995 Caribbean epizootic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M Nugues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, a survey of sea fan corals was conducted in Curaçao during a Caribbean-wide outbreak of the sea fan disease aspergillosis. The survey was repeated in 2005 using the same methodology and identical sites to examine changes in sea fan populations 10 years after the initial epizootic. Necrotic lesions typical of aspergillosis were present on as many sea fans in 2005 as in 1995 (mean ± SE: 52 ± 6 vs 43 ± 10%. The disease also showed no significant variation in virulence (9.6 ± 1.2 vs 8.8 ± 1.0% tissue loss per diseased colony. However, the average number of sea fan colonies per 10 m² decreased from 2.7 ± 1.1 to 0.7 ± 0.2 over the 10-year period, a decline of almost 75%. This decrease occurred for all colony sizes, but was more pronounced among small colonies, resulting in an overall trend of domination by large colonies. These results support that aspergillosis can have a significant, long-term impact on sea fan population size and structure. The continued presence of the disease in 2005 could be contributing to reduced recruitment and/or selective mortality among the smallest colonies. This study provides no indication that host resistance against aspergillosis could reverse the decline of Caribbean sea fan corals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 153-160. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.En 1995, se realizó un sondeo de los abanicos de mar durante un brote de aspergilosis, una enfermedad de abanicos de mar extendida en todo el Caribe. En el año 2005 se repitió el sondeo utilizando exactamente la misma metodología y los mismos sitios para examinar cambios en las poblaciones tras 10 años del inicio del brote. Se presentaron lesiones necróticas típicas de la aspergilosis en tantos abanicos en el 2005, como en 1995 (promedio ± ES: 52 ± 6 vs 43 ± 10%. La enfermedad tampoco mostró variaciones significativas en la virulencia (9.6 ± 1.2 vs 8.8 ± 1.0%, pérdida de tejido por colonia enferma. Sin embargo, el número promedio de colonias de

  16. Immunoproteomics based identification of thioredoxin reductase GliT and novel Aspergillus fumigatus antigens for serologic diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-ning; Li, Fang-qiu; Huang, Mei; Lu, Jing-fen; Kong, Xiao-xiang; Wang, Shi-qin; Shao, Hai-feng

    2012-01-18

    There has been a rising incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in critically ill patients, even in the absence of an apparent predisposing immunodeficiency. The diagnosis of IA is difficult because clinical signs are not sensitive and specific, and serum galactomannan has relatively low sensitivity in this group of patients. Therefore, more prompt and accurate disease markers for early diagnosis are needed. To establish disease markers demands a thorough knowledge of fungal antigens which may be detected in the serum or other body fluids of patients. Herein we report novel immunodominant antigens identified from extracellular proteins of Aspergillus fumigatus. Extracellular proteins of A. fumigatus were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and probed with the sera from critically ill patients with proven IA. The immunoreactive protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF -MS). Forty spots from 2DE gels were detected and 17 different proteins were identified as immunogenic in humans. Function annotation revealed that most of these proteins were metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and energy metabolism. One of the proteins, thioredoxin reductase GliT (TR), which showed the best immunoactivity, was analyzed further for secretory signals, protein localization, and homology. The results indicated that TR is a secretory protein with a signal sequence exhibiting a high probability for secretion. Furthermore, TR did not match any human proteins, and had low homology with most other fungi. The recombinant TR was recognized by the sera of all proven IA patients with different underlying diseases in this study. The immunoreactive proteins identified in this study may be helpful for the diagnosis of IA in critically ill patients. Our results indicate that TR and other immunodominant antigens have potential as biomarkers for the serologic diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

  17. Immunoproteomics based identification of thioredoxin reductase GliT and novel Aspergillus fumigatus antigens for serologic diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Li-ning

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a rising incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA in critically ill patients, even in the absence of an apparent predisposing immunodeficiency. The diagnosis of IA is difficult because clinical signs are not sensitive and specific, and serum galactomannan has relatively low sensitivity in this group of patients. Therefore, more prompt and accurate disease markers for early diagnosis are needed. To establish disease markers demands a thorough knowledge of fungal antigens which may be detected in the serum or other body fluids of patients. Herein we report novel immunodominant antigens identified from extracellular proteins of Aspergillus fumigatus. Results Extracellular proteins of A. fumigatus were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and probed with the sera from critically ill patients with proven IA. The immunoreactive protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF -MS. Forty spots from 2DE gels were detected and 17 different proteins were identified as immunogenic in humans. Function annotation revealed that most of these proteins were metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and energy metabolism. One of the proteins, thioredoxin reductase GliT (TR, which showed the best immunoactivity, was analyzed further for secretory signals, protein localization, and homology. The results indicated that TR is a secretory protein with a signal sequence exhibiting a high probability for secretion. Furthermore, TR did not match any human proteins, and had low homology with most other fungi. The recombinant TR was recognized by the sera of all proven IA patients with different underlying diseases in this study. Conclusions The immunoreactive proteins identified in this study may be helpful for the diagnosis of IA in critically ill patients. Our results indicate that TR and other immunodominant antigens have potential as biomarkers for the serologic diagnosis

  18. Angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: clinical and high-resolution computed tomography findings in 12 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson L. Gasparetto

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the clinical and high-resolution CT scan findings of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis (APA in 12 patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT. The CT scans were reviewed by three chest radiologists who assessed the pattern and distribution of findings by consent. There were 7 (58% female and 5 (42% male patients, with aging between 5 and 50 years (average of 26 years. All patients were submitted to BMT for the treatment of hematological conditions. The diagnosis of APA was defined between 5 and 373 days after BMT, with average of 111 days. Three cases (25% were diagnosed in the neutropenic phase after the BMT, five (42% in the early phase and four patients in the late phase post-BMT. Regarding high-resolution CT (HRCT scan findings, nodules were found in 75% of the cases (9/12, most of the cases with more than 10 lesions (7/9 and of centrilobular localization (6/9. Consolidations were identified in seven patients (58%, being single in six, and commonly presenting ill defined borders (n=3 and subsegmental localization (n=5. Ground glass attenuation was found in six patients (50%. The halo sign was observed in nine cases (75%. Cavitations were seen in two air-space consolidations and one large nodule (2.5 cm. Patients submitted to BMT presenting respiratory symptoms and nodules or consolidations with halo sign at HRCT scan need to have the diagnosis of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis included in all the post BMT phases.

  19. Angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: clinical and high-resolution computed tomography findings in 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Emerson L; Souza, Carolina A; Tazoniero, Priscilla; Davaus, Taisa; Escuissato, Dante L; Marchiori, Edson

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to present the clinical and high-resolution CT scan findings of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis (APA) in 12 patients who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The CT scans were reviewed by three chest radiologists who assessed the pattern and distribution of findings by consent. There were 7 (58%) female and 5 (42%) male patients, with aging between 5 and 50 years (average of 26 years). All patients were submitted to BMT for the treatment of hematological conditions. The diagnosis of APA was defined between 5 and 373 days after BMT, with average of 111 days. Three cases (25%) were diagnosed in the neutropenic phase after the BMT, five (42%) in the early phase and four patients in the late phase post-BMT. Regarding high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan findings, nodules were found in 75% of the cases (9/12), most of the cases with more than 10 lesions (7/9) and of centrilobular localization (6/9). Consolidations were identified in seven patients (58%), being single in six, and commonly presenting ill defined borders (n=3) and subsegmental localization (n=5). Ground glass attenuation was found in six patients (50%). The halo sign was observed in nine cases (75%). Cavitations were seen in two air-space consolidations and one large nodule (2.5 cm). Patients submitted to BMT presenting respiratory symptoms and nodules or consolidations with halo sign at HRCT scan need to have the diagnosis of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis included in all the post BMT phases.

  20. Clinical characteristics of patients with Aspergillus species isolation from respiratory samples: Comparison of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Sayaka; Tazawa, Yoko; Tanai, Chiharu; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Noda, Hiromichi; Horiuchi, Hajime; Usui, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    With advancements in anti-fungal drugs, it has become more important to correctly diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA); however, it is not easy to distinguish CPA from colonization when Aspergillus species are isolated from respiratory samples. The aim of the study was to clarify the particular clinical characteristics of patients with CPA vs. those with colonization. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 110 patients with Aspergillus species isolation from respiratory samples, to analyze and compare the differences between CPA and colonization of the Aspergillus species. The median age of all analyzed was 71 years (range: 31-92 years); 64 were female (58%). The most frequently cultured Aspergillus species was Aspergillus fumigatus (48.3%), followed by A. niger (29.2%). Thirty patients (27.4%) were diagnosed with CPA, vs. 75 (68.2%) with colonization and 5 (4.5%) with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Compared with the colonization group, the CPA group included more males (CPA vs. colonization: 49.3% vs. 13.3%) and subjects with a low body mass index (18.45 kg/m2 vs. 21.09 kg/m2). As for the underlying pulmonary diseases, the patients with CPA showed a significantly higher prevalence of sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis (40% vs. 8%) and a history of thoracic surgery (43% vs. 13%) than those with colonization. Asthma was less frequent in the CPA group than in the colonization group (0% vs. 20%). We found no significantly important underlying extrapulmonary diseases. Patients with CPA display clinical characteristics distinct from those seen in subjects with colonization. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  2. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  3. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  4. The Effect of Bovine Milk on the Growth of Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Konala, Niharika; Abburi, Praveena; Bovilla, Venugopal Reddy; Mamillapalli, Anitha

    2013-01-01

    Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a well-studied Lepidopteran model system because of its morphology, life cycle, and economic importance. Many scientists have placed importance on enhancing the economic traits of B. mori because it's larvae, silkworms, are vital in the production of silk. In this study, the effect of bovine milk on B. mori growth was tested. Bovine milk contains several components that aid in healthy growth. The treatment was given to fifth instar B. mori larvae be...

  5. GROWTH, GAS EXCHANGE AND YIELD OF CORN WHEN FERTIGATED WITH BOVINE BIOFERTILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    THALES VINÍCIUS DE ARAÚJO VIANA; JOÃO GUILHERME ARAÚJO LIMA; GEOCLEBER GOMES DE SOUSA; LUIS GONZAGA PINHEIRO NETO; BENITO MOREIRA DE AZEVEDO

    2014-01-01

    The bovine biofertilizer applied through irrigation water in the soil (bio fertigation), can be a viable organic source to maintain fertility levels in agricultural production systems. So, this work was aimed at evaluating the effects of different concentrations of bovine biofertilizer applied by fertigation on corn growth, gas exchange and yield. The experiment was conducted under full sun exposure, in Fortaleza, Ceara, in 100 liter (100 L) vessels. The experimental design was that of random...

  6. [Expression and differential diagnostic value of serum microRNA for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z N; Ling, Z G; Huang, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To explore the expression and the clinical diagnostic value of serum miR-21 for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Methods: Outpatients and inpatients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were included in the study during June 2014 to September 2015. The IPA group had 40 patients, male 22, female 18, aged 55-68 years (mean 60 ), while the control groups included 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [male 23, female 27, aged 50-62 years (mean 55 )], 50 patients with lung cancer [male 30, female 20, aged 55-70 years (mean 62)], and 50 healthy controls [male 25, female 25, aged 50-67 years (mean 60) ]. Serum were obtained and the levels of miR-21 and galactomannan (GM test) and (1, 3)-beta-D-glucan (G test) were measured. The related indexes were analyzed by logistic regression and ROC curves. Results: The serum miR-21 expression in IPA and lung cancer patients were increased, the median values ( P (25) and P (75)) being 0.42(0.31, 0.62)and 0.80(0.65, 0.94) respectively, both of which were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls [ 0.09(0.04, 0.15)] and the tuberculosis cases [ 0.08(0.03, 0.16)], P tuberculosis cases and lung cancer cases were 0.914, 0.897 and 0.863 respectively, with the Youden index being 0.780, 0.700 and 0.605 respectively. The serum levels of miR-21 in between 0.198 and 0.723 had preferable diagnostic accuracy. ROC analysis for miR-21 in IPA compared to healthy controls showed that the AUCs of miR-21 combined with G test or GM test were 0.992 and 0.966 respectively, the sensitivity being 95% (38/40) and 93% (37/40) respectively, the specificity being 98% (49/50) and 96% (48/50) respectively, and the Youden index being 0.930 and 0.885 respectively. If miR-21 was combined with G test and GM test, the AUC was 0.994, the sensitivity and the specificity being 98% (38/40) and 96% (48/50) respectively, and the Youden index increased to 0.935. ROC analysis for miR-21 in IPA compared to

  7. Bovine Necrotic Vulvovaginitis Associated with Porphyromonas levii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedgut, Orly; Alpert, Nir; Stram, Yehuda; Lahav, Dan; Tiomkin, Doron; Avramson, Miriam; Grinberg, Kalia; Bernstein, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis associated with Porphyromonas levii, an emerging animal and human pathogen, affected 32 cows on a dairy farm in the northeast of Israel. Five animals had to be culled. This report appears to be the first that associates P. levii with bovine necrotic vulvovagnitis. PMID:15109423

  8. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum, the first milk that cows produce after parturition, contains high levels of growth factors and immunomodulatory components. Some healthy and diseased individuals may gain health benefits by consuming bovine colostrum as a food supplement. This review provides a systematic...... to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation...

  9. Bifunctional role of ephrin A1-Eph system in stimulating cell proliferation and protecting cells from cell death through the attenuation of ER stress and inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minkyung; Jeong, Wooyoung; Bae, Hyocheol; Lim, Whasun; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2018-03-01

    Structural and functional development of the mammary gland is constant in the mammary gland life cycle. Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, control events through cell-to-cell interactions during embryonic development, and adult tissue homeostasis; however, little information on participation of ephrin A1, a representative ligand of the Eph receptor, in the development and function of normal mammary glands is known. In this study, we demonstrated functional effects of the ephrin A1-Eph system and mechanisms of its action on bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells. The in vitro cultured MAC-T cells expressed the ephrin A1 ligand and EphA1, A2, A4, A7, and A8 among the eight members of the Eph A family. Our results revealed that ephrin A1 induced MAC-T cell cycle progression and stimulated cell proliferation with abundant expression of nucleic PCNA and cyclin D1 proteins. Additionally, ephrin A1 induced activation of intracellular signaling molecules involved in PI3 K/AKT and MAPK signaling, and the proliferation-stimulating effect of ephrin A1 was mediated by activation of these pathways. Furthermore, ephrin A1 influenced expression and activation of various ER stress-related proteins and protected MAC-T cells from stress-induced cell death. Finally, ephrin A1 alleviated LPS-induced cell death through down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the Eph A-ephrin A1 system is a positive factor in the increase and maintenance of epithelial cells in mammary glands of cows; the signaling system contributes to development, remodeling, and functionality of normal mammary glands and could overcome mastitis in cows and other mammals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Percutaneous treatment with amphotericin B in a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; Tratamiento percutaneo con anfotericina B en un caso de aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, A; Lonjedo, E; Agramunt, M; Martinez-Rodrigo, J J; Palomero, J [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a serious complications that occurs in immunocompromised patients. We need a rapid and effective treatment both to treat the aspergillosis as well as to be able to continue, as soon as possible, treatment of the baseline disease. We present a case of a percutaneous treatment of the pulmonary lesions in a 55 year old male with IPA in the context of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With Computerized Tomography (CT) control and using a fine needle, we injected intralesionally a solution of Amphotericin B (AB) (5 mg/cc of 5% glucose solution). We evaluated the complications and efficacy in relationship to the clinical improvement and reduction in lesion size. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for bovine milk: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Valicheski, R.; Pereira, R. M.; Paterno, A. S.

    2010-04-01

    This work reports the investigation and analysis of bovine milk quality by using biological impedance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The samples were distinguished by a first chemical analysis using Fourier transform midinfrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow citometry. A set of milk samples (100ml each) obtained from 17 different cows in lactation with and without mastitis were analyzed with the proposed technique using EIS. The samples were adulterated by adding distilled water and hydrogen peroxide in a controlled manner. FTIR spectroscopy and flow cytometry were performed, and impedance measurements were made in a frequency range from 500Hz up to 1MHz with an implemented EIS system. The system's phase shift was compensated by measuring saline solutions. It was possible to show that the results obtained with the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) technique may detect changes in the milk caused by mastitis and the presence of water and hydrogen peroxide in the bovine milk.

  12. Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin during the periparturient period on innate and adaptive immune responses, systemic inflammation, and metabolism of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P R B; Machado, K S; Da Silva, D N Lobão; Moraes, J G N; Keisler, D H; Chebel, R C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine effects of treating peripartum dairy cows with body condition score ≥3.75 with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on immune, inflammatory, and metabolic responses. Holstein cows (253±1d of gestation) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: untreated control (n=53), rbST87.5 (n=56; 87.5mg of rbST), and rbST125 (n=57; 125mg of rbST). Cows in the rbST87.5 and rbST125 treatments received rbST weekly from -21 to 28d relative to calving. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, haptoglobin, tumor necrosis factor α, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations were determined weekly from -21 to 21d relative to calving. Blood sampled weekly from -14 to 21d relative to calving was used for hemogram and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) expression of adhesion molecules, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst. Cows were vaccinated with ovalbumin at -21, -7, and 7d relative to calving, and blood was collected weekly from -21 to 21d relative to calving to determine IgG anti-ovalbumin concentrations. A subsample of cows had liver biopsied -21, -7, and 7d relative to calving to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and glycogen content. Growth hormone concentrations prepartum (control=11.0±1.2, rbST87.5=14.1±1.2, rbST125=15.1±1.3ng/mL) and postpartum (control=14.4±1.1, rbST87.5=17.8±1.2, rbST125=21.8±1.1ng/mL) were highest for rbST125 cows. Cows treated with rbST had higher insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations than control cows (control=110.5±4.5, rbST87.5=126.2±4.5, rbST125=127.2±4.5ng/mL) only prepartum. Intensity of L-selectin expression was higher for rbST125 than for control and rbST87.5 cows [control=3,590±270, rbST87.5=3,279±271, rbST125=4,371±279 geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI)] in the prepartum period. The PMNL intensities of phagocytosis (control=3,131±130, rbST87.5=3,391±133, rbST125=3,673±137 GMFI) and oxidative burst (control=9,588±746

  13. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes.

  14. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, L J M; Vromans, M E W; Dolstra, C H; Bossers, A; van Zijderveld, F G

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrP(Sc) was detected after 6 months in the tonsil and the ileal Peyer's patches. At 9 months postinfection, PrP(Sc) accumulation involved all gut-associated lymphoid tissues and lymph nodes as well as the spleen. At this time point, PrP(Sc) accumulation in the peripheral neural tissues was first seen in the enteric nervous system of the caudal jejunum and ileum and in the coeliac-mesenteric ganglion. In the central nervous system, PrP(Sc) was first detected in the dorsal motor nucleus of the nervus Vagus in the medulla oblongata and in the intermediolateral column in the spinal cord segments T7-L1. At subsequent time points, PrP(Sc) was seen to spread within the lymphoid system to also involve all non-gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In the enteric nervous system, further spread of PrP(Sc) involved the neural plexi along the entire gastrointestinal tract and in the CNS the complete neuraxis. These findings indicate a spread of the BSE agent in sheep from the enteric nervous system through parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord.

  15. Efficacy of oral E1210, a new broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action, in murine models of candidiasis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Katsura; Horii, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Watanabe, Nao-Aki; Okubo, Miyuki; Sonoda, Jiro; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-10-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class, broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action-inhibition of fungal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. In this study, the efficacies of E1210 and reference antifungals were evaluated in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. Oral E1210 demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in infections caused by Candida species, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium solani. In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, E1210 and fluconazole each caused a significantly greater reduction in the number of oral CFU than the control treatment (P candidiasis model, mice treated with E1210, fluconazole, caspofungin, or liposomal amphotericin B showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. A 24-h delay in treatment onset minimally affected the efficacy outcome of E1210 in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis. In the Aspergillus flavus pulmonary aspergillosis model, mice treated with E1210, voriconazole, or caspofungin showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. These data suggest that further studies to determine E1210's potential for the treatment of disseminated fungal infections are indicated.

  16. Efficacy of Oral E1210, a New Broad-Spectrum Antifungal with a Novel Mechanism of Action, in Murine Models of Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, and Fusariosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Katsura; Horii, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Okubo, Miyuki; Sonoda, Jiro; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class, broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action—inhibition of fungal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. In this study, the efficacies of E1210 and reference antifungals were evaluated in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. Oral E1210 demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in infections caused by Candida species, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium solani. In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, E1210 and fluconazole each caused a significantly greater reduction in the number of oral CFU than the control treatment (P candidiasis model, mice treated with E1210, fluconazole, caspofungin, or liposomal amphotericin B showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis. A 24-h delay in treatment onset minimally affected the efficacy outcome of E1210 in the treatment of disseminated candidiasis. In the Aspergillus flavus pulmonary aspergillosis model, mice treated with E1210, voriconazole, or caspofungin showed significantly higher survival rates than the control mice (P candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. These data suggest that further studies to determine E1210's potential for the treatment of disseminated fungal infections are indicated. PMID:21788462

  17. Usefulness of molecular biology performed with formaldehyde-fixed paraffin embedded tissue for the diagnosis of combined pulmonary invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vénissac Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunocompromised patients who develop invasive filamentous mycotic infections can be efficiently treated if rapid identification of the causative fungus is obtained. We report a case of fatal necrotic pneumonia caused by combined pulmonary invasive mucormycosis and aspergillosis in a 66 year-old renal transplant recipient. Aspergillus was first identified during the course of the disease by cytological examination and culture (A. fumigatus of bronchoalveolar fluid. Hyphae of Mucorales (Rhizopus microsporus were subsequently identified by culture of a tissue specimen taken from the left inferior pulmonary lobe, which was surgically resected two days before the patient died. Histological analysis of the lung parenchyma showed the association of two different filamentous mycoses for which the morphological features were evocative of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. However, the definitive identification of the associative infection was made by polymerase chain reaction (PCR performed on deparaffinized tissue sections using specific primers for aspergillosis and mucormycosis. This case demonstrates that discrepancies between histological, cytological and mycological analyses can occur in cases of combined mycotic infection. In this regard, it shows that PCR on selected paraffin blocks is a very powerful method for making or confirming the association of different filamentous mycoses and that this method should be made available to pathology laboratories.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  19. 76 FR 38602 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Program Framework AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. This... proposed revisions to its programs regarding bovine tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United...

  20. bovine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Radio-irnmunologiese bepalingsmetode vir luteihiserende hormoon (LH) in bloed van die bees is ontwikkel duer die gebruik van buisies bestryk met teeliggame. .... proportion (%) of labelled LH bound by unadsorb- ed antisera in a double ... the location of the "protein" (elution volume 10-20 rnI) and "free iodine" (elution ...

  1. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  2. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of envelope glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus as antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and atypical bovine pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Liu, Lihong; Belák, Sándor

    2012-11-01

    Atypical bovine pestiviruses are related antigenically and phylogenetically to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), and may cause the same clinical manifestations in animals. Glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant E(rns) protein was used as an antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against BVDV-1 and atypical bovine pestivirus. The diagnostic performance of the new method was evaluated by testing a total of 596 serum samples, and the assay was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on the negative/positive cut-off median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 2800, the microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% compared to ELISA. The immunoassay was able to detect antibodies against both BVDV-1 and the atypical pestivirus. This novel microsphere immunoassay has the potential to be multiplexed for simultaneous detection of antibodies against different bovine pathogens in a high-throughput and economical way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human and Bovine Dentin Composition and Its Hybridization Mechanism Assessed by FT-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. S. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the human and bovine dentin and their interactions with adhesive systems. Ten human (H molars and ten bovine (B teeth were prepared exposing the dentin and then each specimen was divided into two parts. The resulted forty dentin segments were treated either with the total-etch one bottle adhesive (Prime & Bond 2.1, PB or with the single-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno III, X and divided into four groups: HPB (control, HX, BPB, and BX. Each group was analyzed by FT-Raman spectroscopy before and after the adhesive treatment. Six regions of the Raman spectrum were analyzed and the integrated areas of organic and inorganic peaks were calculated. Bovine untreated specimens showed higher peak area of PO4 3−ν2  content than in human specimens. Human untreated specimens had higher peak areas of PO4 3−ν4 and CO3 2−ν1  contents than in bovine specimens. The peak areas of amide III, CH2, and amide I contents were higher in human than in bovine specimens (before treatments. Treated dentin showed no significant statistical differences between the adhesives for both inorganic and organic contents considering the same substrate. However, the differences found between human and bovine specimens after adhesives application show a reduced accuracy of these substrates as a substitute to the human specimens.

  5. Bovine bone for white ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.L. de; Harima, E.; Leite, J.I.P.; Monteiro, F.M.; Bezerra, M.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    The porcelain is composed of feldspar, kaolin and about 50% for bovine bone ashes. This work aims to analyze the properties acquired by the substitution of kaolin by its waste. For characterization of raw materials chemical analyzes were made by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and mineralogical analysis by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Four formulations were produced varying the percentage of waste materials of kaolin and bone ashes of 25 and 55% by weight. The samples were sintered at temperatures of 1150, 1200 and 1250 deg C. The technological tests realized were: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), apparent density (AD) and linear retraction (LR). Improvement in the physical-mechanical properties of the samples with increasing temperature were observed, and 1250 deg C obtained 0.69% of WA, 1.22% AP, 2.26 g / cm3 AD, and 0.52% LR

  6. [Invasive aspergillosis in hematooncological patients: advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods, treatment options and financial costs of therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácil, Z; Mayer, J; Kocmanová, I; Wagnerová, B; Winterová, J; Folber, F; Lengerová, M; Moulis, M; Zácková, D; Smardová, L; Janíková, A; Navrátil, M; Dvoráková, D; Vorlícek, J

    2008-02-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading invasive fungal infection in hematooncological patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, diagnostic procedures and treatment of IA in hematooncological department in large hospital in the Czech Republic. A retrospective analysis of medical and laboratory records from patients hospitalised in our department with proven/probable IA between January 2000 and December 2006 was performed. 52 cases of IA in 51 patients were identified (17.3% proven IA/82.7% probable IA). Number of IA cases notably increased during study period (1 case of IA in 2000 vs 21 cases of IA in 2006) and majority of them was of nosocomial origin (61.5%). Pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in 46 cases (88.5%). Patients treated for acute leukemia or undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation represent the group at the highest risk of IA (in total 52% of cases). Fever and signs of pulmonary involvement were the most common clinical signs of infection (presented in 92.3% and 69.2 cases respectively). Conventional diagnostic methods including autopsy were able to diagnose only 15 cases of IA (28.8%). In all other cases (71.2%) the diagnosis was done by detection of galactomannan (GM) in serum. Introduction of GM monitoring enabled erlier initiation of antifungal treatment by 4 days. Initial therapy of IA led to the treatment response (partial and complete) in 18 (34.6%) of infections--the highest percentage of response has been seen in voriconazole monotherapy group (42%) and when combination of voriconazole and caspofungin has been used (83%). Salvage therapy was initiated due to the failure of initial treatment in 21 (40.3%) of cases. Patients were treated mostly with combination ofvoriconazole and caspofungin and/or monotherapy with voriconazole has been used with treatment response 55% and 50% respectively. Introduction of new antifungal drugs together with increased number of patients with IA led to the marked increase of total

  7. Spectroscopic study of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghraby, Ahmed Mohamed; Ali, Maha Anwar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of ionizing radiation of Cs-137 and Co-60 from 4.95 to 743.14 Gy and from 40 Gy to 300 kGy, respectively, on some bovine hemoglobin characteristics were studied. Such an effect was evaluated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. Bovine hemoglobin EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed before and after irradiation and changes were explained in detail. IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated Bovine hemoglobin were recorded and analyzed also. It was found that ionizing radiation may lead to the increase of free radicals production, the decrease in α-helices contents, which reflects the degradation of hemoglobin molecular structure, or at least its incomplete performance. Results also show that the combined application of EPR and FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for determining structural modification of bovine hemoglobin samples exposed to gamma irradiation

  8. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS AT THE IBADAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ismail

    Bovine fasciolosis is a parasitic disease of cattle caused by trematodes usually. Fasciola gigantic ... and impaired fertility [6,7]. The value of the .... especially males with good body condition, are transported to these cities with higher population ...

  9. Beneficial effect of two culture systems with small groups of embryos on the development and quality of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian-Serrano, A; Salvador, I; Silvestre, M A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, in vitro-produced embryos derived by ovum pick up (OPU) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies represent approximately one-third of the embryos worldwide in cattle. Nevertheless, the culture of small groups of embryos from an individual egg donor is an issue that OPU-IVF laboratories have to face. In this work, we tested whether the development and quality of the preimplantation embryos in vitro cultured in low numbers (five embryos) could be improved by the addition of epidermal growth factor, insulin, transferrin and selenium (EGF-ITS) or by the WOW system. With this aim, immature oocytes recovered from slaughtered heifers were in vitro matured and in vitro fertilized. Presumptive zygotes were then randomly cultured in four culture conditions: one large group (LG) (50 embryos/500 μl medium) and three smaller groups [five embryos/50 μl medium without (control) or with EGF-ITS (EGF-ITS) and five embryos per microwell in the WOW system (WOW)]. Embryos cultured in LG showed a greater ability to develop to blastocyst stage than embryos cultured in smaller groups, while the blastocyst rate of WOW group was significantly higher than in control. The number of cells/blastocyst in LG was higher than control or WOW, whereas the apoptosis rate per blastocyst was lower. On the other hand, the addition of EGF-ITS significantly improved both parameters compared to the control and resulted in similar embryo quality to LG. In conclusion, the WOW system improved embryo development, while the addition of EGF-ITS improved the embryo quality when smaller groups of embryos were cultured. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Advances in lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories. The main categories are fluctuations in the lactoferrin concentration of milk, lactoferrin activity against mastitis pathogens, elucidation of the processes underlying the onset of mastitis, participation of lactoferrin in the immune system, and utilization of lactoferrin in mastitis treatment and prevention. This minireview describes lactoferrin research concerning bovine mastitis. In the 1970s, many researchers reported that the lactoferrin concentration fluctuates in milk from cows with mastitis. From the late 1980s, many studies clarified the infection-defense mechanism in the udder and the contribution of lactoferrin to the immune system. After the year 2000, the processes underlying the onset of mastitis were elucidated in vivo and in vitro, and lactoferrin was applied for the treatment and prevention of mastitis.

  12. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum galactomannan antigen as a prognostic and diagnostic marker for invasive aspergillosis in heterogeneous medicine ICU patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Yubhisha; Mohan, Anant; Xess, Immaculata

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to get a complete clinical and mycological picture of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in respiratory medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. From the cohort of 235 patients only one had proven IA. Based on AspICU algorithm, 21 had putative IA (8.9%), 12 were colonised (5.1%). Adjusting the confounding factors, significant risk factors for IA were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), temperature of ≥38°C, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The best predictor of IA was AspICU algorithm (AUC, 1) followed by serum galactomannan antigen (GM) cut-off (≥1.24) calculated based on AspICU algorithm (AUC, 0.822). For 37% of patients, IA diagnoses was made earlier with serum GM than radiology. There were 70/235 (29.8%) deaths within 30 days of enrolment in the study. Aspergillus culture positivity (34/235, 14.5%) was associated with very high mortality (27/34, 79.4%), (p<0.05). The best predictor of mortality was GM cut-off (≥1.24) calculated based on AspICU algorithm (AUC, 0.835). This study imparts the focus on relatively underestimated Aspergillus infections prevalent in ICUs. The AspICU algorithm was found to be useful over others for IA diagnosis. The prognostic usefulness of serum GM antigen detection test highlighted overlooking the same may not be rewarding for the outcome of IA suspected ICU subpopulation.

  14. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in Italian cystic fibrosis patients: Prevalence and percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccetti, Giovanni; Procopio, Elena; Marianelli, Lore; Campana, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is difficult to determine because the data in the literature are not homogeneous or comparable. ABPA and CF have similar clinical symptoms which make diagnosis difficult and underestimate the real dimensions of the problem. We conducted an epidemiological study on 3089 Italian CF patients to determine the prevalence of ABPA in Italy and verify the percentage of positive tests in the employed diagnostic criteria. Our results indicate that the prevalence of ABPA in Italian CF patients is 6.18%, mainly in adolescents and young adults. ABPA is diagnosed using clinical symptoms (presence of episodic bronchial obstructions or typical radiographic features) and on the basis of other criteria which can only be partially fulfilled in paediatric patients. Among the diagnostic tests the most sensitive are the total IgE (84.5%), specific IgE anti-Aspergillus fumigatus (81.6%) and the prick test (68.3%). In the absence of clinical symptoms and gold standard diagnostic tests, serological positivity and/or the skin test are not sufficient evidence to confirm the presence of ABPA

  15. Bronchocele density in cystic fibrosis as an indicator of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Aurélie; Soize, Sébastien; Ranc, Caroline; Giovannini-Chami, Lisa; Bailly, Carole; Leloutre, Béatrice; Boyer, Corinne; Baque-Juston, Marie

    2017-08-01

    Allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a severe and under-diagnosed complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the study was to determine whether the mucus content of bronchoceles in cystic fibrosis complicated with ABPA reveals a higher density than the mucus content of non-ABPA cystic fibrosis. We studied retrospectively 43 computed tomography scans (CT scans) of a pediatric population of cystic fibrosis patients. We measured the mucus attenuation in Hounsfield Units (HU) of all bronchoceles >5mm in diameter. We found bronchoceles >5mm in 13/43 patients. 5/13 patients had a positive diagnosis of ABPA. The median HU value of bronchoceles was higher in patients with than without ABPA [98 HU (26-135) vs 28 HU (10-36); P=0,02]. Moreover, all patients with a bronchocele density >36HU were ABPA positive. CF complicated with ABPA shows higher attenuation bronchoceles on CT scans of the chest. Systematic density measurements of bronchoceles could help to raise the difficult diagnosis of ABPA in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Larger series could confirm a threshold in HU which could become a new imaging criterion for the diagnosis of ABPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all t...

  17. Bone Regeneration Is Promoted by Orally Administered Bovine Lactoferrin in a Rabbit Tibial Distraction Osteogenesis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyang; Zhu, Songsong; Hu, Jing

    2015-07-01

    -PCR and immunohistochemical analyses suggested that bovine lactoferrin treatment induced a lower receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (RANK) ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio in the distracted callus. The results of our study suggest that bovine lactoferrin treatment could promote bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit. The results indicate that the OPG/RANKL/RANK system might be a major mechanism for increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption in distraction osteogenesis with bovine lactoferrin treatment. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin may provide a feasible approach for promoting osteogenesis during distraction osteogenesis.

  18. Bovine herpesvirus 1 interferes with TAP-dependent peptide transport and intracellular trafficking of MHC class I molecules in human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppers-Lalic, D.; Rychlowski, M.; Leeuwen, D.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Ressing, M.E.; Neefjes, J.J.; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K.; Wiertz, E.

    2003-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), the cause of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle, establishes a lifelong infection, despite the presence of antiviral immunity in the host. BoHV-1 has been shown to elude the host immune system, but the viral gene products

  19. Bovine reproduction in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Lopez, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this document it has met relating data to the reproduction of bovine and their handling for the man that it can serve as norms to judge reproductive efficiency but always view in the aspect of the nutritious, climatic circumstances and of handling under which met. Under the previous description one can say that the fertility is the resultant of the interaction among the inheritance, the means and the handling, they vary in particular for each region and property. The fertility can be good, regulate or bad in the measure in that the factors that intervene. The environmental effect on the reproductive processes of the cow represents 80 percent of the variation factors and they include climate, effect of the light, effect of the temperature, effect of the nutritious contribution, effect of psychological factors: the loss of the tendency to the seasonal reproduction is in fact an answer from the animals to its association with the man. The influence of the environment and the feeding of the animals are more intense in the females than in the males, being evidenced that the reproduction control is under the influence hormonal joint with the nutrition. An appropriate nutrition is prerequisite for the beginning of the sexual maturation with an appropriate weight and corporal condition. It is also described the effect and the relationship of the energy contribution about the fertility, the restart of the ovarian activity, its cause of the continuation of the interval childbirth-conception, silent ovulation, organic ancestry and interval among childbirths

  20. Bovine petechial fever (Ondiri disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G

    1993-02-01

    Bovine petechial fever is a Rickettsial disease of cattle, which has been diagnosed, only in Kenya, East Africa. Other countries in the region share some of the biotopes in which the disease occurs, and may well have the infection. The disease is characterised by widespread petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the mucosal surfaces, and throughout the serosal and subserosal surfaces of the body organs and cavities. It may be fatal in up to 50% of untreated cases. The causal organism may be demonstrated most readily in the cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear granulocytes of the peripheral blood, as well as other leucocytes, and has been classified as Cytoecetes ondirii, a member of the tribe Ehrlichiae. Circumstantial and other evidence suggests that the disease is transmitted by an arthropod vector, which has yet to be identified. The blood of a naturally infected wild ruminant, the bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus has been shown to remain infective for at least 2 years, and other species such as the African buffalo, Syncercus caffer for at least 5 weeks. These and possibly other species, may serve as the amplifying and reservoir hosts.

  1. Lipoprotein receptors in cultured bovine endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfer, A.E.M.

    1983-07-01

    In this study, receptors that may be involved in the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and low density lipoproteins which have been modified by acetylation (AcLDL), were characterized. Aortic epithelial cells were used and a cell culture system which closely resembled the in vivo monolayer was established. Endothelial cell and lipoprotein interactions were examined by incubating the cells with 125 l-labelled lipoproteins under various conditions. The receptor affinity of bovine aortic endothelial cells was higher for AcLDL than that for LDL. Competition studies demonstrated that there were two distinct receptors for LDL and AcLDL on the endothelial cells. AcLDL did not compete with LDL for the LDL receptor, and conversely LDL did not compete with AcLDL for the AcLDL receptor. The receptor activities for LDL and AcLDL were examined as a function of culture age. Whereas the LDL receptor could be regulated, the AcLDL receptor was not as susceptible to regulation. Upon exposing endothelial cells for 72 h to either LDL or AcLDL, it was found that the total amount of cellular cholesterol increased by about 50%. However, the increase of total cholesterol was largely in the form of free cholesterol. This is in contrast to macrophages, where the increase in total cholesterol upon exposure to AcLDL is largely in the form cholesteryl esters

  2. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangueiro, Liliana T.; Vilar, Rui; Botelho do Rego, Ana M.; Muralha, Vania S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We study the surface topographical, structural, and compositional modifications induced in bovine cortical bone by femtosecond laser ablation. The tests are performed in air, with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (500 fs, 1030 nm) at fluences ranging from 0.55 to 2.24 J/cm2. The ablation process is monitored by acoustic emission measurements. The topography of the laser-treated surfaces is studied by scanning electron microscopy, and their constitution is characterized by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation allows removing bone without melting, carbonization, or cracking. The structure and composition of the remaining tissue are essentially preserved, the only constitutional changes observed being a reduction of the organic material content and a partial recrystallization of hydroxyapatite in the most superficial region of samples. The results suggest that, within this fluence range, ablation occurs by a combination of thermal and electrostatic mechanisms, with the first type of mechanism predominating at lower fluences. The associated thermal effects explain the constitutional changes observed. We show that femtosecond lasers are a promising tool for delicate orthopaedic surgeries, where small amounts of bone must be cut with negligible damage, thus minimizing surgical trauma.

  6. Differential role of gpaB and sidA gene expressions in relation to virulence in Aspergillus species from patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Nayereh; Falahati, Mehraban; Roudbary, Maryam; Farahyar, Shirin; Shamaei, Masoud; Pourabdollah, Mahin; Seif, Farhad

    2018-02-03

    The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct examination and culture on Czapek Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media were performed for 600 BAL specimens isolated from patients with possible aspergillosis. A Galactomannan ELISA assay was also carried out. The expression levels of the gpaB and sidA genes in isolates were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We identified 2 species, including Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in 25 positive samples for invasive aspergillosis as validated using GM-ELISA. A. flavus is the main pathogen threatening transplant recipients and cancer patients worldwide. In this study, A. flavus had low levels of the gpaB gene expression compared to A. fumigatus (p=0.006). The highest sidA expression was detected in transplant recipients (p=0.05). There was no significant correlation between sidA expression and underlying disease (p=0.15). The sidA and gpaB gene expression patterns may provide evidence that these virulence genes play important roles in the pathogenicity of Aspergillus isolates; however, there are several regulatory genes responsible for the unexpressed sidA and gpaB genes in the isolates. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer tomography in pulmonary invasive aspergillosis in hematological patients with neutropenia: An useful tool for diagnosis and assessment of outcome in clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillot, Denis, E-mail: denis.caillot@chu-dijon.f [Dijon University Hospital Center, Dijon (France); Latrabe, Valerie [Bordeaux University Hospital Center, Bordeaux (France); Thiebaut, Anne [Lyon University Hospital Center, Lyon (France); Herbrecht, Raoul [Strasbourg Regional University Hospital Center, Strasbourg (France); De Botton, Stephane [Lille Regional University Hospital Center, Lille (France); Pigneux, Arnaud [Bordeaux University Hospital Center, Bordeaux (France); Monchecourt, Francoise; Mahi, Lamine [Gilead Sciences, Paris (France); Alfandari, Serge [Lille Regional University Hospital Center, Lille (France); Couaillier, Jean-Francois [Dijon University Hospital Center, Dijon (France)

    2010-06-15

    Background and objective: The exact timing of the evolution of lesion volumes of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) on CT scan images could be helpful in the management of hematological patients but has never been evaluated in a prospective study. We analyzed the CT scan data from the prospective Combistrat trial. Design and methods: Volumes of aspergillosis lesions from 30 patients (including 24 acute myeloid leukaemia) with probable (n = 26) or proven (n = 4) IPA according to the EORTC-MSG modified criteria, were measured prospectively on the thoracic CT scans at the enrolment in the study on day 0 (D0), D7, D14 and end of treatment (EOT). Results: For the overall population, the volume of pulmonary aspergillosis lesions increased significantly from D0 to D7 (1.6 fold; p = 0.003). Then this volume decreased significantly from D7 to D14 (1.36 fold at D14 with p = 0.003 for D14 vs. D7, but with p = 0.56 for D14 vs. D0). At EOT (= D17, median value), the volume of lesions was significantly lower than D14 (0.76 fold the initial volume; p < 0.001) but it was not significantly different when compared to D0 (p = 0.11). Conclusions: The results of this prospective study suggest that the sequential analysis of CT scan in neutropenic patients with IPA depicts more precisely the evolution of lesion volumes than comparison to baseline images. Moreover, the systematic use of chest CT appears to be a useful tool for diagnosis and outcome evaluation of IPA in clinical trials.

  8. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sul Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of bovine heart protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, N.; Rosen, O.M.; Reichlin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Immunization of guinea pigs with bovine cardiac cAMP-dependent protein kinase (ATP : protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) resulted in the development of precipitating antibodies to the cAMP-binding subunit of the enzyme. Both the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated cAMP-binding protein of the protein kinase reacted with the antiserum. A radioimmunoassay was developed that detects 10 ng of holoenzyme and permits measurement of enzyme concentrations in bovine cardiac muscle. Bovine liver, kidney, brain, and skeletal muscle contain protein kinases which are immunologically identical to those found in bovine cardiac muscle. However, the proportion of immunoreactive enzyme activity differed for each tissue. All of the immunologically nonreactive enzyme in skeletal muscle and heart was separable from immunoreactive enzyme by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Rat tissues and pig heart contained protein kinase activity that cross reacted immunologically in a nonparallel fashion with bovine cardiac enzyme. These results indicate that cAMP-dependent protein kinases within and between species are immunologically heterogeneous

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROCONTROLLED TEMPERATURE MONITORING SYSTEM AND EVALUATION OF THE SENSOR ELEMENT IMPLANT IN BOVINES DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM SISTEMA MICROCONTROLADO DE MONITORAÇÃO DA TEMPERATURA E AVALIAÇÃO DO IMPLANTE DO ELEMENTO SENSOR DIGITAL EM BOVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernane José Xavier Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    this paper presents a complete system for tempe-rature monitoring. the system was developed to speed up bovine behavior studies under temperature exposure. the equipment uses digital technology with custom setup ca-pability by means of computer program and the sensor can be implanted in to animal. results obtained show that the developed system is able to monitor bovine temperatures with a sample rate of five minutes during 30 days with accuracy of 0.0625 oc.

    KEY-WORDS: Heat stress sensors, optical, temperature, transceptor.

    um sistema completo de instrumentação para monitoração de temperatura é apresentado neste artigo. o sistema foi desenvolvido para auxiliar estudo de estresse térmico em bovinos. neste equipamento, o elemento sensor pode ser implantado no animal. o equipamento consiste de tecnologia digital e óptica com capacidade de configuração através de programa de computador. os resultados obtidos mostram que o sistema desenvolvido é capaz de monitorar a temperatura de bovinos a cada cinco minutos durante trinta dias com resolução de 0.0625 oc.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: estresse térmico sensores, óptico, temperatura, transceptor.  

  11. Effects of different feeder layers on culture of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shan; Cao, Guifang; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-12-01

    To find a suitable feeder layer is important for successful culture conditions of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells. In this study, expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG in bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers at 1-5 passages were monitored in order to identify the possible reason that bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells could not continue growth and passage. Here, we developed two novel feeder layers, mixed embryonic fibroblast feeder layers of mouse and bovine embryonic fibroblast at different ratios and sources including mouse fibroblast cell lines. The bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells generated in our study displayed typical stem cell morphology and expressed specific markers such as OCT4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 and 4, alkaline phosphatase, SOX2, and NANOG mRNA levels. When feeder layers and cell growth factors were removed, the bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells formed embryoid bodies in a suspension culture. Furthermore, we compared the expression of the pluripotent markers during bovine embryonic stem cell-like cell in culture on mixed embryonic fibroblast feeder layers, including mouse fibroblast cell lines feeder layers and mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results suggested that mixed embryonic fibroblast and sources including mouse fibroblast cell lines feeder layers were more suitable for long-term culture and growth of bovine embryonic stem cell-like cells than mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers. The findings may provide useful experimental data for the establishment of an appropriate culture system for bovine embryonic stem cell lines.

  12. Expression of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus glycoprotein D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) belongs to the genus of ... through vaccination with recombinant vaccines of thymidine kinase, manufacturing and applying ..... Resistance to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) induced in.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Wharton’s jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bovine umbilical cord and maintained in a defined serum-free three-dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Tereza C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM. The three-dimensional (3D cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (UC-WJ cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. Results Bovine-derived UC-WJ cells, collected individually from 5 different umbilical cords sources, were successfully cultured under serum-free conditions and were capable to support 60 consecutive passages using commercial Stemline® mesenchymal stem cells expansion medium. Moreover, the UC-WJ cells were differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural-like cells and cultured separately. Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105+, CD29+, CD73+ and CD90+ in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. Morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like spindle shape presenting the same viability and number. These characteristics were not affected during passages. There were 60 chromosomes at the metaphase, with acrocentric morphology and intense telomerase activity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when

  14. Interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells and Leptospira species; innate responses in the natural bovine reservoir host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Wilson-Welder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and L. interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2 was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of

  15. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Fedák, András; Baska, Ferenc; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Basso, Walter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. FINDINGS: Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region re...

  16. Correlation between high-resolution computed tomography and galactomannan antigenemia in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, A.; Parody, R.; Martino, R.; Sanchez, F.; Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Blancas, C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse the predominant radiological pattern of pulmonary lesions in adult hematologic patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) together with the results of serial serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing (GM). Material and methods: In a prospective study for patients at high risk of aspergillus pulmonary infection, serum GM were performed 2-3 times per week during the periods of high risk for IA and high-resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in case of abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and/or persistent fever after 5 days of antibiotic treatment. Changes on HRCT scan were classified as airway IA and angioinvasive IA. IA was classified as proven or probable in accordance with the definitions stated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC-MS). Positive GM testing was not considered as microbiological criterion. Results: 38 hematological patients were diagnosed of probable (n = 28) or proven (n = 10) IA. 55% patients had a neutrophil count less than 500 mm -3 (n = 21), and 37% patients ≥2 risk factors for IA. All probable IA were diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Proven IA was reached by positive histopathologic and culture results of samples obtained by autopsy (n = 4), percutaneous (n = 3) or transbronchial biopsy (n = 3). 18 patients had airway IA, and 60% had a GM level ≥1.5. 20 patients were diagnosed of angioinvasive IA from which 80% had a GM level ≥1.5. Conclusion: Serum GM levels may be lower in patients with airway IA than in those with an angioinvasive form. HRCT and serum GM are complementary tests in the diagnosis of IA.

  17. Safety, Efficacy, and Exposure-Response of Voriconazole in Pediatric Patients With Invasive Aspergillosis, Invasive Candidiasis or Esophageal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Judith M; Macias-Parra, Mercedes; Mudry, Peter; Conte, Umberto; Yan, Jean L; Liu, Ping; Capparella, M Rita; Aram, Jalal A

    2017-01-01

    Data on safety and efficacy of voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis (IA) and invasive candidiasis/esophageal candidiasis (IC/EC) in pediatric patients are limited. Patients aged 2-<18 years with IA and IC/EC were enrolled in 2 prospective open-label, non-comparative studies of voriconazole. Patients followed dosing regimens based on age, weight and indication, with adjustments permitted. Treatment duration was 6-12 weeks for IA patients, ≥14 days after last positive Candida culture for IC patients and ≥7 days after signs/symptoms resolution for EC patients. Primary analysis for both the studies was safety and tolerability of voriconazole. Secondary end points included global response success at week 6 and end of treatment (EOT), all-causality mortality and time to death. Voriconazole exposure-response relationship was explored. Of 53 voriconazole-treated pediatric patients (31 IA; 22 IC/EC), 14 had proven/probable IA, 7 had confirmed IC and 10 had confirmed EC. Treatment-related hepatic and visual adverse events, respectively, were reported in 22.6% and 16.1% of IA patients, and 22.7% and 27.3% of IC/EC patients. All-causality mortality in IA patients was 14.3% at week 6; no deaths were attributed to voriconazole. No deaths were reported for IC/EC patients. Global response success rate was 64.3% (week 6 and EOT) in IA patients and 76.5% (EOT) in IC/EC patients. There was no association between voriconazole exposure and efficacy; however, a slight positive association between voriconazole exposure and hepatic adverse events was established. Safety and efficacy outcomes in pediatric patients with IA and IC/EC were consistent with previous findings in adult patients.

  18. Improved Detection of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Arising during Leukemia Treatment Using a Panel of Host Response Proteins and Fungal Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R Brasier

    Full Text Available Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is an opportunistic fungal infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or other forms of immunosuppression. In this group, Aspergillus infections account for the majority of deaths due to mold pathogens. Although early detection is associated with improved outcomes, current diagnostic regimens lack sensitivity and specificity. Patients undergoing chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and lung transplantation were enrolled in a multi-site prospective observational trial. Proven and probable IPA cases and matched controls were subjected to discovery proteomics analyses using a biofluid analysis platform, fractionating plasma into reproducible protein and peptide pools. From 556 spots identified by 2D gel electrophoresis, 66 differentially expressed post-translationally modified plasma proteins were identified in the leukemic subgroup only. This protein group was rich in complement components, acute-phase reactants and coagulation factors. Low molecular weight peptides corresponding to abundant plasma proteins were identified. A candidate marker panel of host response (9 plasma proteins, 4 peptides, fungal polysaccharides (galactomannan, and cell wall components (β-D glucan were selected by statistical filtering for patients with leukemia as a primary underlying diagnosis. Quantitative measurements were developed to qualify the differential expression of the candidate host response proteins using selective reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays, and then applied to a separate cohort of 57 patients with leukemia. In this verification cohort, a machine learning ensemble-based algorithm, generalized pathseeker (GPS produced a greater case classification accuracy than galactomannan (GM or host proteins alone. In conclusion, Integration of host response proteins with GM improves the diagnostic detection of probable IPA in patients

  19. Evaluation of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis depending on the underlying lung diseases: Emphysema vs prior tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Junko; Kawashima, Masahiro; Okuda, Kenichi; Sato, Ryota; Suzukawa, Maho; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Ohta, Ken

    2015-11-01

    There have been scarce data evaluating the differences of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depending on underlying pulmonary diseases. We tried to clarify them in CPA patients who had pulmonary emphysema or previous pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed and evaluated CPA patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 with pulmonary emphysema (PE group; n = 29), with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (PT group; n = 47) and with combination of these 2 underlying conditions (CTE group; n = 24). In CT findings, fungus balls were rare in PE group (7% in PE group and 36% in PT group; p = 0.006). Compared with PT group, PE group patients exhibited more frequent preceding antibiotics administration (45% vs 11%; p = 0.002) and fever (52% vs 17%; p = 0.002), less frequent hemosputum (24% vs 57%; p = 0.008), and more frequent consolidations in imaging (79% vs 38%; p = 0.001) and respiratory failure (34% vs 13%; p = 0.020), possibly suggesting more acute clinical manifestations of CPA in emphysematous patients. Trend of the differences between PT and PE group was not changed when patients with fungal balls were excluded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of risks for all-cause mortality revealed age (HR, 1.079; p = 0.002) and emphysema (HR, 2.45; p = 0.040) as risk factors. Assessment of underlying lung diseases is needed when we estimate prognosis and consider treatment of CPA patients. Particularly, emphysematous patients can be presented as refractory pneumonia and show poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of bovine mastitis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E; Petrovski, Kiro R; Petzer, Inge-Marie; Thekisoe, Oriel; Tsilo, Toi J

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent. Therefore, intensive research efforts will help determine the continent-wide economic impacts and advance careful monitoring of disease prevalence and epidemiology. Here, published cases supporting the occurrence and importance of bovine mastitis in certain regions of Africa are outlined.

  1. Bovine herpes virus infections in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj; Manohar, M; Chauhan, R S

    2009-06-01

    Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) is primarily associated with clinical syndromes such as rhinotracheitis, pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis, abortion, infertility, conjunctivitis and encephalitis in bovine species. The main sources of infection are the nasal exudates and the respiratory droplets, genital secretions, semen, fetal fluids and tissues. The BHV-1 virus can become latent following a primary infection with a field isolate or vaccination with an attenuated strain. The viral genomic DNA has been demonstrated in the sensory ganglia of the trigeminal nerve in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and in sacral spinal ganglia in pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis cases. BHV-1 infections can be diagnosed by detection of virus or virus components and antibody by serological tests or by detection of genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nucleic acid hybridization and sequencing. Inactivated vaccines and modified live virus vaccines are used for prevention of BHV-1 infections in cattle; subunit vaccines and marker vaccines are under investigation.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro bovine lens proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Mastro, N.L. del.

    1988-07-01

    The radiosensitivity of the ocular lens manifested by cataract formation has been of considerable interest in the study on the biological efects of radiations. Cataract can ben produced by different causes and also for the normal process of ageing. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro system similar to in vivo cataract formation. It was used an aqueous solution of bovine lenses. The lenses after surgical removal mechanical and ultrasonic disrupted. The suspension was centrifuged and the supernatant was dialyzed and irradiated with different doses of 60 Co radiation. The opacification extent was measured in an spectrophotometer. (author) [pt

  3. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Bovine Foot Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, David C

    2017-07-01

    Bovine foot rot (BFR) is an infectious disease of the interdigital skin and subcutaneous tissues of beef and dairy cattle that occurs under a variety of management and environmental settings. The anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, and Prevotella intermedia are commonly isolated from lesions. A multitude of host, agent, and environmental factors contribute to the development of BFR. Initiation of systemic antimicrobial therapy early in the course of disease commonly leads to resolution. Delays in treatment may result in extension of infection into deeper bone, synovial structures, or ligamentous structures, and the prognosis for recovery is reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  5. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  6. Effect of melatonin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vs 17.67, 15.68, 16.53). In conclusion in this experiment, melatonin cannot improve cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation of bovine oocytes. When concentrations is high, melatonin may affect bovine oocytes meiotic maturation at metaphase-1 stage, but it is improbable melatonin be toxic for bovine oocytes.

  7. Sexing bovine pre-implantation embryos using the polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims to present a bovine model for human embryo sexing. Cows were super-ovulated, artificially inseminated and embryos were recovered 7 days later. Embryo biopsy was performed; DNA was extracted from blastomeres and amplified using bovine-specific and bovine-Y-chromosomespecific primers, followed ...

  8. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2011-0044] Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings AGENCY... bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The meetings are being organized by... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to partnering...

  9. A PiggyBac mediated approach for lactoferricin gene transfer in bovine mammary epithelial stem cells for management of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelesh; Huynh, Do Luong; Kim, Sung Woo; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kim, Nam Eun; Lee, Sung Jin; Hussain, Kafil; Oh, Sung Jong; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-11-28

    The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferricin have been ascribed to its ability to sequester essential iron. The objective of the study was to clone bovine lactoferricin ( LFcinB ) gene into PiggyBac Transposon vector, expression study in the bovine mammary epithelial stem cells (bMESCs) and also to determine the antimicrobial property of recombinant LFcinB against bovine mastitis-causing organisms. The PiggyBac-LFcinB was transfected into bMESCs by electroporation and a three fold of LFcinB secretion was observed in the transfected bMESCs medium by ELISA assay. Furthermore, the assessment of antimicrobial activity against mastitis causing pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli demonstrated convincing evidence to prove strong antibacterial activity of LFcinB with 14.0±1.0 mm and 18.0±1.5 mm zone of inhibition against both organisms, respectively. The present study provides the convincing evidence to suggest the potential of PiggyBac transposon system to transfer antibacterial peptide into bMESCs or cow mammary gland and also pave the way to use bovine mammary gland as the bioreactors. Simultaneously, it also suggest toward commercial utilization of LFcinB bioreactor system in pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  11. Radiography of the bovine cranioventral abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, B.P.; Biller, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This study consists of a review of 115 consecutively accrued bovine cranial abdomial radiographs. The sensitivity and specificity of radiography in detecting traumatic reticuloperitonitis or pericarditis was 83% and 90%, respectively. Increased reticular size was associated with vagal indigestion. Increased reticulo-diaphragmatic separation did not correlate with a specific disease process, 25/35 (71%) cattle presented for radiographic examination with a 1 cm or longer metallic reticular foreign body unattached to a magnet had traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Standing lateral abdominal radiographs were determined to be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of cranial abdominal disorders in the bovine

  12. Mapping and polymorphism of bovine ghreline gene

    OpenAIRE

    Colinet, Frédéric; Eggen, André; Halleux, Caroline; Arnould, Valérie; Portetelle, Daniel; Renaville, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Bovine ghrelin, a 27-amino-acid peptide has been identified in bovine oxyntic glands of the abomasum. It is an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue. Total mRNA was extracted from abomasum and complete ghrelin mRNA was sequenced by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene contains five exons and four introns with a short noncoding first exon of 17 bp similar to mouse and human ghrelin gene. Using a radiation hybrid panel, the gene was mapped to chromosome 22 near microsat...

  13. Bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine development in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Jagdish K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Desai, Sajjad A; Sabale, Rajendra N; Naik, Sameer P; Dhere, Rajeev M

    2014-08-11

    A bovine rotavirus pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV) containing rotavirus human-bovine (UK) reassortant strains of serotype G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9 has been developed by the Serum Institute of India Ltd, in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA. The vaccine underwent animal toxicity studies and Phase I and II studies in adults, toddlers and infants. It has been found safe and immunogenic and will undergo a large Phase III study to assess efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE HERPES VIRUS - 1 IN ORGANIZED FARMS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis, caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1 maintains latency in trigeminal nerve ganglia of bovine. The sero-positive bull infected with BoHV-1 secretes the virus through semen intermittently, when the immune system is compromised. Sera from bulls housed at different bull stations were analyzed using gE protein specific IDEXX Kit, which showed 78.69% positivity. Each batch of semen from sero-positive bull was investigated further for presence of virus in semen by Real Time-PCR technique for validation of presence of virus in the frozen semen doses using gB specific primers and probe, which showed 0.968 % semen batches positive. This study showed that despite high sero prevalence in bull, the semen excretes very negligible amount of the virus indicating the subtypes circulating in farms of West Bengal, India is assumed to be respiratory type.

  15. Histophilus somni biofilm formation in cardiopulmonary tissue of the bovine host following respiratory challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Indra; Shao, Jian Q.; Annadata, Satish

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms form in a variety of host sites following infection with many bacterial species. However, the study of biofilms in a host is hindered due to the lack of protocols for the proper experimental investigation of biofilms in vivo. Histophilus somni is an agent of respiratory and systemic...... diseases in bovines, and readily forms biofilms in vitro. In the present study the capability of H. somni to form biofilms in cardiopulmonary tissue following experimental respiratory infection in the bovine host was examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy...... haemagglutinin (FHA), predicted to be involved in attachment. Thus, this investigation demonstrated that H. somni is capable of forming a biofilm in its natural host, that such a biofilm may be capable of harboring other bovine respiratory disease pathogens, and that the genes responsible for biofilm formation...

  16. Aspects of the regulation of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Factors involved in regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation were examined using liver slices. Fatty acid oxidation was measured as the conversion of l-[ 14 C] palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C] acid-soluble metabolites. Extended (5 to 7 d) fasting of Holstein cows had relatively little effect on palmitate oxidation to acid-soluble metabolites by liver slices, although oxidation to CO 2 was decreased. Feeding a restricted roughage, high concentrate ration to lactating cows resulted in inhibition of palmitate oxidation. Insulin, glucose, and acetate inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. The authors suggest the regulation of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation may be less dependent on hormonally induced alterations in enzyme activity as observed in rat liver and more dependent upon action of rumen fermentation products or their metabolites on enzyme systems involved in fatty acid oxidation

  17. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  18. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, S.R.; Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K.; Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  19. Effect Of Storage And Disinfection Methods Of Extracted Bovine Teeth On Bond Strength To Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Humel M.M.C.; Oliveira M.T.; Cavalli V.; Giannini M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage and disinfection methods (SDM) on bond strength (BS) to bovine dentin, using two adhesive systems. Adper Single Bond and Clearfil Protect Bond. Method: Extracted bovine teeth were assigned to the following SDM: 100% Humidity (HU); Gamma Radiation (GR); Autoclave (AU): 0.10g/mL Thymol (TH); 10% Formatin (FO); Frozen (FR); 0.2% Sodium Azide (SA) and 0.5% Chloramine T (CT) (n=10). The GR and AU groups were submitted to sterilization met...

  20. Effectiveness of environmental control measures to decrease the risk of invasive aspergillosis in acute leukaemia patients during hospital building work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combariza, J F; Toro, L F; Orozco, J J

    2017-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant problem in acute leukaemia patients. Construction work near hospital wards caring for immunocompromised patients is one of the main risk factors for developing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). To assess the impact of environmental control measures used during hospital construction for the prevention of IA in acute leukaemia patients. A retrospective cohort study was developed to evaluate the IA incidence in acute leukaemia patients with different environmental control measures employed during hospital construction. We used European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criterial diagnosis parameters for definition of IA. A total of 175 episodes of inpatient care were evaluated, 62 of which did not have any environmental control measures (when an outbreak occurred), and 113 that were subject to environmental control measures directed to preventing IA. The study showed an IA incidence of 25.8% for the group without environmental control measures vs 12.4% for those who did receive environmental control measures (P=0.024). The relative risk for IA was 0.595 (95% confidence interval: 0.394-0.897) for the group with environmental control measures. The current study suggests that the implementation of environmental control measures during a hospital construction has a positive impact for prevention of IA in patients hospitalized with acute leukaemia. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Evelyn Santos; Lee, Chrono K; Specht, Charles A; Yadav, Bhawna; Huang, Haibin; Akalin, Ali; Huh, Jun R; Mueller, Christian; Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with conidia. All of these functions underscore a potential protective role for eosinophils in acute aspergillosis. Given the postulated role for IL-17 in asthma pathogenesis, we assessed whether eosinophils could act as sources of IL-23 and IL-17 in models where mice were sensitized to either A. fumigatus antigens or ovalbumin (OVA). We found IL-23p19+ IL-17AF+ eosinophils in both allergic models. Moreover, close to 95% of IL-23p19+ cells and >90% of IL-17AF+ cells were identified as eosinophils. These data establish a new paradigm in acute and allergic aspergillosis whereby eosinophils act not only as effector cells but also as immunomodulatory cells driving the IL-23/IL-17 axis and contributing to inflammatory cell recruitment.

  2. Aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica com imagem radiológica em "dedo de luva" Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting a glove-finger shadow in radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elizabeth Kalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica é uma doença pulmonar que ocorre em pacientes com asma ou fibrose cística, desencadeada pela reação de hipersensibilidade à presença do fungo Aspergilus fumigatus nas vias aéreas. Relatamos aqui um caso em que uma paciente com quadro clínico sugestivo de asma apresentou critérios clínicos, laboratoriais e radiológicos compatíveis com o diagnóstico de aspergilose broncopulmonar alérgica. A importância de tais achados deve-se ao fato de que quanto mais precocemente for feito o diagnóstico, menores serão os riscos de agravamento do quadro respiratório e de aparecimento de fibrose.Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a lung disease occurring in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis, triggered by a hypersensitivity reaction to the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways. We report herein the case of a patient presenting a clinical profile suggestive of asthma and meeting the clinical, laboratory testing and radiological criteria for a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The importance of such findings is that early diagnosis can reduce the risk of respiratory exacerbations and fibrosis.

  3. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  4. Control of bovine hepatic fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesse, B.W.; Emery, R.S.; Thomas, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation by bovine liver slices and mitochondria was examined to determine potential regulatory sites of fatty acid oxidation. Conversion of 1-[ 14 C]palmitate to 14 CO 2 and total [ 14 C]acid-soluble metabolites was used to measure fatty acid oxidation. Oxidation of palmitate (1 mM) was linear in both liver slice weight and incubation time. Carnitine stimulated palmitate oxidation; 2 mM dl-carnitine produced maximal stimulation of palmitate oxidation to both CO 2 and acid-soluble metabolites. Propionate (10 mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation by bovine liver slices. Propionate (.5 to 10 mM) had no effect on palmitate oxidation by mitochondria, but malonyl Coenzyme A, the first committed intermediate of fatty acid synthesis, inhibited mitochondrial palmitate oxidation (inhibition constant = .3 μM). Liver mitochonndrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase exhibited Michaelis constants for palmitoyl Coenzyme A and l-carnitine of 11.5 μM and .59 mM, respectively. Long-chain fatty acid oxidation in bovine liver is regulated by mechanisms similar to those in rats but adapted to the unique digestive physiology of the bovine

  5. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  6. Pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Dolstra, C.H.; Bossers, A.; Zijderveld, van F.G.

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in sheep was studied by immunohistochemical detection of scrapie-associated prion protein (PrPSc) in the gastrointestinal, lymphoid and neural tissues following oral inoculation with BSE brain homogenate. First accumulation of PrPSc was

  7. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  8. diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in Kenyan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 55 cattle divided into two groups of experimentally (n =30) and naturally ... sensitive than meat inspection in the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis, detecting .... The second group of 15 calves was ... ined for the presence of C. bovis. .... variable and pour ' ..... appropriate intermediate host is dependent on:- the state.

  9. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  10. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  11. Chemotherapy of experimental bovine petechial fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, D R

    1976-01-01

    A dithiosemicarbazone was compared with two tetracycline formulations in the treatment of bovine petechial fever (BPF) in experimentally infected sheep, and was then used to treat the disease in experimental cattle. The dithiosemicarbazone was found to be more efficacious than either of the other two drugs in treating ovine BPF, and also to be effective against BPF in cattle.

  12. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  13. Risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejene, Sintayehu W.; Heitkonig, Ignas; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Lemma, Fitsum A.; Mekonnen, Daniel A.; Alemu, Zelalem E.; Kelkay, Tessema Z.; Boer, de Fred

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife - including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the

  14. Closed genomes of seven histophilus somni isolates from beef calves with bovine respiratory disease complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histophilus somni is a fastidious gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic Pasteurellacea that affects multiple organ systems and is one of the principle bacterial species contributing to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feed yard cattle. Here we present seven closed genomes isolated from...

  15. Gene expression and apoptosis in bovine embryos during in vitro culture and in vivo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijn, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    The first attempts to fertilise in vitro bovine oocytes were done in the late sixties but only in 1982 the first calf was born after transplantation of a complete in vitro produced embryo. Since then the in vitro production system improved a lot but it is still impossible to mimic the in vivo

  16. Analysis of the ligand binding properties of recombinant bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolf, B; Oudenampsen-Krüger, E; Börchers, T

    1995-01-01

    The coding part of the cDNA for bovine liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has been amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and used for the construction of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system. The recombinant protein made up to 25% of the soluble E. coli proteins and could be isolated...

  17. Measuring bovine gamma delta T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine gamma delta T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/gamma delta T cell co-culture system to eluc...

  18. Development of a Radioimmunoassay for Bovine Chymosin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borceux, JP.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to develop and validate a specific radioimmunoassay system for measurement of bovine chymosin B (bChyB concentrations in plasma samples. Bovine ChyB was used for immunization of rabbits and as standard and tracer. Chymosin B concentrations were measured in plasma samples from two groups of calves (Group 1: calves sampled from birth to 24 hours; Group 2: calves sampled from Day 1 to 21 after birth and from one cow during the peri-partum period. Detection limit of the assay was 9.0 ng/ml. Recovery was higher than 89.3%. Repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 1.52% to 5.23% and from 1.52% to 12.57% respectively. No cross-reaction was found with pepsinogen A from bovine, porcine or human origins. In Group 1, bChyB concentrations increased from 47.3 ± 45.1 ng/ml (5 min after birth to 325.5 ± 161.2 ng/ml (12 hours after birth, then no significant change was observed till 24 hours after birth (293.0 ± 161.5 ng/ml. In Group 2, concentrations decreased from Day 1 (455.3 ± 191.1 ng/ml to Day 21 (117.9 ± 85.1 ng/ml. In adult cow, mean concentration was 136.0 ± 32.3 ng/ml. In conclusion, bChyB is able to cross the stomach basal membrane and to reach the blood circulation at detectable levels in both young calves and adult cows.

  19. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  20. Gamma scintigraphy imaging of murine invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a {sup 111}In-labeled cyclic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhi [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wen Xiaoxia; Xiong Chiyi; Zhang Rui [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Albert, Nathaniel D. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Li Chun [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Infection Control and Employee Health, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: cli@mdanderson.org

    2009-04-15

    Introduction: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a leading cause of infection-associated death in immunosuppressed patients. Early detection and early administration of antifungal therapy are critical factors in improving outcome for patients with IPA. Here, we evaluated the imaging properties of a {sup 111}In-labeled cyclic peptide targeted to Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunosuppressed murine model of IPA. Methods: A cyclic peptide c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} was labeled with {sup 111}In by means of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Two days after intranasal inoculation of 17.5x10{sup 6} conidia of A. fumigatus, mice were injected {sup 111}In-DTPA-c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} intravenously. Biodistribution data were obtained at 2 h, and {gamma}-images were acquired at 10 min and 2 h after radiotracer injection. Healthy mice were used as controls. In addition, a group of infected mice were co-injected with the radiotracer and unlabeled c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} to evaluate the inhibition of radiotracer's binding to infected lungs. Autoradiographs of lungs from infected and healthy mice were compared with corresponding photographs of transaxial sections of the lung tissues stained for A. fumigatus hyphae. Results: The labeling efficiency was >98%, with specific radioactivity of up to 74 MBq/nmol peptide. Significantly higher uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-c(CGGRLGPFC)-NH{sub 2} was observed in the lungs of mice infected with A. fumigatus than in those of healthy mice (0.37{+-}0.06 %ID/g vs. 0.14{+-}0.02 %ID/g, P=.00044). Simultaneous injection with unlabeled peptide reduced radioactivity in the infected lungs by 41% (P=.0037). Increased radioactivity in the lungs of infected mice was visible in {gamma} images at both 10 min and 2 h after radiotracer injection. Moreover, autoradiography confirmed radiotracer uptake in infected lungs, but not in the lungs of healthy mice or infected mice co-injected with unlabeled peptide. Conclusions: {gamma}-Imaging with {sup

  1. Characterization of Specific Immune Responses to Different Aspergillus Antigens during the Course of Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematologic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; Candoni, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Zanetti, Eleonora; Quadrelli, Chiara; Codeluppi, Mauro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pagano, Livio; Caira, Morena; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Maccaferri, Monica; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Tazzioli, Giovanni; Girardis, Massimo; Delia, Mario; Specchia, Giorgina; Longo, Giuseppe; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Merli, Francesco; Imovilli, Annalisa; Apolone, Giovanni; Carvalho, Agostinho; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Latgè, Jean Paul; Luppi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in mouse model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and in healthy donors have shown that different Aspergillus antigens may stimulate different adaptive immune responses. However, the occurrence of Aspergillus-specific T cells have not yet been reported in patients with the disease. In patients with IA, we have investigated during the infection: a) whether and how specific T-cell responses to different Aspergillus antigens occur and develop; b) which antigens elicit the highest frequencies of protective immune responses and, c) whether such protective T cells could be expanded ex-vivo. Forty hematologic patients have been studied, including 22 patients with IA and 18 controls. Specific T cells producing IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17A have been characterized through enzyme linked immunospot and cytokine secretion assays on 88 peripheral blood (PB) samples, by using the following recombinant antigens: GEL1p, CRF1p, PEP1p, SOD1p, α1–3glucan, β1–3glucan, galactomannan. Specific T cells were expanded through short term culture. Aspergillus-specific T cells producing non-protective interleukin-10 (IL-10) and protective interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) have been detected to all the antigens only in IA patients. Lower numbers of specific T cells producing IL-4 and IL-17A have also been shown. Protective T cells targeted predominantly Aspergillus cell wall antigens, tended to increase during the IA course and to be associated with a better clinical outcome. Aspergillus-specific T cells could be successfully generated from the PB of 8 out of 8 patients with IA and included cytotoxic subsets able to lyse Aspergillus hyphae. Aspergillus specific T-cell responses contribute to the clearance of the pathogen in immunosuppressed patients with IA and Aspergillus cell wall antigens are those mainly targeted by protective immune responses. Cytotoxic specific T cells can be expanded from immunosuppressed patients even during the infection by using the above mentioned

  2. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyral-Castel Stéphanie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8 M-induced GC proliferation (P Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

  3. Novel Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR) for rapid visual detection of Bovine Herpesvirus 1 genomic DNA from aborted bovine fetus and semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Javed Ahmed; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Gupta, Vikas; Chander, Vishal; Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Qureshi, Salauddin; Mishra, Adhiraj; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2018-02-20

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) is a major viral pathogen affecting bovines leading to various clinical manifestations and causes significant economic impediment in modern livestock production system. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 infection at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds remains a priority for control of BHV-1 spread to susceptible population. Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR), a novel addition in the gamut of isothermal techniques, has been successfully implemented in initial optimization for detection of BHV-1 genomic DNA and further validated in clinical samples. The developed PSR assay has been validated for detection of BHV-1 from bovine semen (n=99), a major source of transmission of BHV-1 from breeding bulls to susceptible dams in artificial insemination programs. The technique has also been used for screening of BHV-1 DNA from suspected aborted fetal tissues (n=25). The developed PSR technique is 100 fold more sensitive than conventional PCR and comparable to real-time PCR. The PSR technique has been successful in detecting 13 samples positive for BHV-1 DNA in bovine semen, 4 samples more than conventional PCR. The aborted fetal tissues were negative for presence of BHV-1 DNA. The presence of BHV-1 in bovine semen samples raises a pertinent concern for extensively screening of semen from breeding bulls before been used for artificial insemination process. PSR has all the attributes for becoming a method of choice for rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of BHV-1 DNA at frozen semen stations or at dairy herds in resource constrained settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an antibody to bovine IL-2 reveals multifunctional CD4 T(EM) cells in cattle naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Adam O; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hogarth, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the T cell mechanisms underlying natural immunity to bovine tuberculosis would help to identify immune correlates of disease progression and facilitate the rational design of improved vaccine and diagnostic strategies. CD4 T cells play an established central role in immunity to TB, and recent interest has focussed on the potential role of multifunctional CD4 T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Until now, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of these multifunctional CD4 T cells in cattle due to the lack of reagents to detect bovine IL-2 (bIL-2). Using recombinant phage display technology, we have identified an antibody that recognises biologically active bIL-2. Using this antibody, we have developed a polychromatic flow cytometric staining panel that has allowed the investigation of multifunctional CD4 T-cells responses in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis. Assessment of the frequency of antigen specific CD4 T cell subsets reveals a dominant IFN-γ(+)IL-2(+)TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) TNF-α(+) response in naturally infected cattle. These multifunctional CD4 T cells express a CD44(hi)CD45RO(+)CD62L(lo) T-effector memory (T(EM)) phenotype and display higher cytokine median fluorescence intensities than single cytokine producers, consistent with an enhanced 'quality of response' as reported for multifunctional cells in human and murine systems. Through our development of these novel immunological bovine tools, we provide the first description of multifunctional T(EM) cells in cattle. Application of these tools will improve our understanding of protective immunity in bovine TB and allow more direct comparisons of the complex T cell mediated immune responses between murine models, human clinical studies and bovine TB models in the future. © 2011 Whelan et al.

  5. Development of an antibody to bovine IL-2 reveals multifunctional CD4 T(EM cells in cattle naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Whelan

    Full Text Available Gaining a better understanding of the T cell mechanisms underlying natural immunity to bovine tuberculosis would help to identify immune correlates of disease progression and facilitate the rational design of improved vaccine and diagnostic strategies. CD4 T cells play an established central role in immunity to TB, and recent interest has focussed on the potential role of multifunctional CD4 T cells expressing IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Until now, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of these multifunctional CD4 T cells in cattle due to the lack of reagents to detect bovine IL-2 (bIL-2. Using recombinant phage display technology, we have identified an antibody that recognises biologically active bIL-2. Using this antibody, we have developed a polychromatic flow cytometric staining panel that has allowed the investigation of multifunctional CD4 T-cells responses in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis. Assessment of the frequency of antigen specific CD4 T cell subsets reveals a dominant IFN-γ(+IL-2(+TNF-α(+ and IFN-γ(+ TNF-α(+ response in naturally infected cattle. These multifunctional CD4 T cells express a CD44(hiCD45RO(+CD62L(lo T-effector memory (T(EM phenotype and display higher cytokine median fluorescence intensities than single cytokine producers, consistent with an enhanced 'quality of response' as reported for multifunctional cells in human and murine systems. Through our development of these novel immunological bovine tools, we provide the first description of multifunctional T(EM cells in cattle. Application of these tools will improve our understanding of protective immunity in bovine TB and allow more direct comparisons of the complex T cell mediated immune responses between murine models, human clinical studies and bovine TB models in the future.

  6. Cost estimate of bovine tuberculosis to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Rea; Hattendorf, Jan; Roth, Felix; Choudhury, Adnan Ali Khan; Choudhoury, Adnan; Shaw, Alexandra; Aseffa, Abraham; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates

  7. Assessment of carvacrol for control of avian aspergillosis in intratracheally challenged chickens in comparison to voriconazole with a reference on economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartor, Y H; Hassan, F A M

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of essential oils as an alternative prophylaxis and treatment for avian aspergillosis. The in vitro susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus strains to antifungal drugs and carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, thymoquinone and cinnamon was determined using the macrodiffusion and microdilution methods. Carvacrol has antifungal activity in comparison to voriconazole (VCZ) (MIC 0·5, 0·25 μg ml -1 respectively). While cinnamon, euganol, thymol and thymoquinone displayed moderate to weak inhibitory activity. For the efficacy study, five groups of 10-day-old chicks (n = 48) were infected intratracheally either with A. fumigatus conidia or saline (negative control). Chicks in carvacrol prophylactic and treatment (CRPT) group were fed for 10 days beginning from hatch with carvacrol (200 mg kg -1 per diet) supplemented diets. VCZ (VCZT:20 mg kg -1 body weight (BW)), carvacrol treatment (CRT, CRPT) was started upon appearance of the first clinical signs and continued for 10 days. Birds were monitored for an additional 15 days following treatment. Fungal burden and therapeutic efficacy were assessed by survival, BW, quantitative (q) culture (CFU), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and histopathological changes at several time points. Serum biochemical changes were also assessed. VCZT, CRPT, CRT in comparison to the sham-treated (SHAM) group have prolonged survival (87·5, 83·4, 79·2, 41·7% respectively). In VCZT and CRPT, a significant reduction in clinical signs, lesions, CFU and qPCR counts to the limit of detection were observed. CRPT has the lowest BW reduction, economic losses and significant low total cholesterol levels. Carvacrol has a promising potential to be used as a prophylactic and treatment against A. fumigatus. Prognosis of avian aspergillosis is often poor due to delayed diagnosis and treatment failure. However, the widespread uses of azole prophylaxis in birds are thought to be the major driver of

  8. Bovine and human insulin adsorption at lipid monolayers: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Sergio; Pandey, Ravindra; Rzeznicka, Izabela; Lu, Hao; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Insulin is a widely used peptide in protein research and it is utilised as a model peptide to understand the mechanics of fibril formation, which is believed to be the cause of diseases such as Alzheimer and Creutzfeld-Jakob syndrome. Insulin has been used as a model system due to its biomedical relevance, small size and relatively simple tertiary structure. The adsorption of insu lin on a variety of surfaces has become the focus of numerous studies lately. These works have helped in elucidating the consequence of surface/protein hydrophilic/hydrophobic interaction in terms of protein refolding and aggregation. Unfortunately, such model surfaces differ significantly from physiological surfaces. Here we spectroscopically investigate the adsorption of insulin at lipid monolayers, to further our understanding of the interaction of insulin with biological surfaces. In particular we study the effect of minor mutations of insulin’s primary amino acid sequence on its interaction with 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) model lipid layers. We probe the structure of bovine and human insulin at the lipid/water interface using sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG). The SFG experiments are complemented with XPS analysis of Langmuir-Schaefer deposited lipid/insulin films. We find that bovine and human insulin, even though very similar in sequence, show a substantially different behavior when interacting with lipid films.

  9. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.

    2001-01-01

    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  10. Cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycock, J.W.; Browning, M.D.; Greengard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Chromaffin cells were isolated from bovine adrenal medullae and maintained in primary culture. After prelabeling with 32 PO 4 , exposure of the chromaffin cells to acetylcholine increased the phosphorylation of a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein and a M/sub r/ ≅ 60,000 protein (tyrosine hydroxylase), visualized after separation of total cellular proteins in NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gels. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies to three known phosphoproteins (100-kDa, 87-kDa, and protein III) revealed an acetylcholine-dependent phosphorylation of these proteins. These three proteins were also shown to be present in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by immunolabeling techniques. 100-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 100,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, 87-kDa is a M/sub r/ ≅ 87,000 protein selectively phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and protein III is a phosphoprotein doublet of M/sub r/ ≅ 74,000 (IIIa) and M/sub r/ ≅ 55,000 (IIIb) phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. The data demonstrate that cholinergic activation of chromaffin cells increases the phosphorylation of several proteins and that several protein kinase systems may be involved in these effects

  11. Pericardial Parietal Mesothelial Cells: Source of the Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme of the Bovine Pericardial Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsione Ribeiro de Sousa Filho

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II, the primary effector hormone of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, acts systemically or locally, being produced by the action of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE on angiotensin I. Although several tissue RASs, such as cardiac RAS, have been described, little is known about the presence of an RAS in the pericardial fluid and its possible sources. Locally produced Ang II has paracrine and autocrine effects, inducing left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, heart failure and cardiac dysfunction. Because of the difficulties inherent in human pericardial fluid collection, appropriate experimental models are useful to obtain data regarding the characteristics of the pericardial fluid and surrounding tissues. Objectives: To evidence the presence of constituents of the Ang II production paths in bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium. Methods: Albumin-free crude extracts of bovine pericardial fluid, immunoprecipitated with anti-ACE antibody, were submitted to electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gels stained with coomassie blue. Duplicates of gels were probed with anti-ACE antibody. In the pericardial membranes, ACE was detected by use of immunofluorescence. Results: Immunodetection on nitrocellulose membranes showed a 146-KDa ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid. On the pericardial membrane sections, ACE was immunolocalized in the mesothelial layer. Conclusions: The ACE isoform in the bovine pericardial fluid and parietal pericardium should account at least partially for the production of Ang II in the pericardial space, and should be considered when assessing the cardiac RAS.

  12. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  13. Random laser action in bovine semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, J.; Hampl, J.; Svoboda, I.; Granatova, M.; Hofirek, B.; Skrobak, F.

    1986-01-01

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test. (author)

  15. Radioimmunoassay of bovine leukosis virus antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, J; Hampl, J; Svoboda, I; Granatova, M; Hofirek, B; Skrobak, F

    1986-08-01

    A RIA method was developed for identifying the presence of serum antibodies to the bovine leukosis virus. The chosen procedure uses the ability of the virus antigen to bind to the solid phase of a polystyrene carrier. The method was compared with the ELISA method and with the pseudoneutralization and immunodiffusion tests. A high level of agreement was achieved between the RIA and the ELISA methods (95%). By its accuracy the RIA method proves superior to the immunodiffusion test.

  16. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  17. Morphoquantitative description of bovine digital cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The digital cushion is characterized as a modified subcutaneous tissue that absorbs the shock during gait, assists venous return of the hoof and supports a considerable part of body weight. Digital cushions have particular importance in the pathogenesis of the hoof, since they need to properly work in order to prevent compression and traumas in soft tissues. This study aimed to measure and determine how is the arrangement of these structures, and for this it was established the proportions of connective, adipose, vascular tissues and collagen fibers and collagen types found in palmar and plantar digital cushion of bovine using fore and hindlimbs of twelve adult zebu cattle of both sexes, 11 male and one female, with 269kg average carcass weight and without limb disorders. Fragments of cushions were subjected to conventional histology, cut to a thickness of 4µm and stained with Red Picrosirius. With digital optical microscope, the quantification of the connective tissue and differentiation of types of collagen used the Image Pro Plus® software, and of adipose and vascular tissue, the test point system. The mean and standard error were estimated with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software, and then data were subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Student's t-test with significance level set at 5% for determining the amount of different tissues between fore and hindlimbs of studied animals. In forelimbs the mean and standard error of the connective tissue proportion was 50.10%+1.54, of the adipose tissue was 21.34%+1.44, and of vascular tissue was 3.43%+0.28. Hindlimbs presented a proportion of connective tissue of 61.61%+1.47, 20.66%+1.53 of adipose tissue, and 3.06%+0.20 of vascular tissue. A significant difference (p<0.001 was detected in the connective tissue proportion between fore and hindlimbs. Types I and II collagen fibers have presented, respectively, a proportion of 31.89% and 3.9% in forelimbs and 34.05% and 1.78% in

  18. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay and quantitative Real Time PCR as tools to evaluate the exposure and response in a rat model of aspergillosis after posaconazole prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendejas-Bueno, Emilio; Forastiero, Agustina; Ruiz, Isabel; Mellado, Emilia; Buitrago, María José; Gavaldà, Joan; Gomez-Lopez, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    A steroid-immunosuppressed rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was use to examine the usefulness of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GM) and quantitative real time PCR (RT-PCR) in evaluating the association between response and exposure after a high dose of prophylactic posaconazole. Two different strains of Aspergillus fumigatus with different in vitro posaconazole susceptibility were used. Serum concentrations demonstrated similar posaconazole exposure for all treated animals. However, response to posaconazole relied on the in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain. After prophylaxis, galactomannan index and fungal burden only decreased in those animals infected with the most susceptible strain. This study demonstrated that both biomarkers may be useful tools for predicting efficacy of antifungal compounds in prophylaxis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk......-containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65...

  20. Successful treatment of cerebral aspergillosis: case report of a patient with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Amin T; Rashidi-Alavijeh, Jassin; Dürig, Jan; Gerken, Guido; Rath, Peter-Michael; Witzke, Oliver

    2017-12-28

    Invasive aspergillosis involving patients with neutropenia or severe immunosuppression, such as patients with hematologic malignancies is associated with high mortality. Patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL) on the other hand are considered to be less vulnerable for severe opportunistic fungal infection as their course of disease is chronic and marked by less violent cytopenia then in e.g. Aplastic Anemia. Only neutropenia is regarded as independent risk factor for severe opportunistic infection in T-LGL patients. We report a case of a 53 year old patient with T-LGL, Immune-Thrombocytopenia (ITP) and combined antibody deficiency, who presented with fever and reduced general condition. The patient revealed a complicated infection involving the lungs and later the brain, with the presentation of vomiting and seizures. Broad microbiological testing of blood-, lung- and cerebrospinal fluid samples was inconclusive. In the absence of mycological proof, Aspergillus infection was confirmed by pathological examination of a brain specimen and finally successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole, adopting a long-term treatment scheme. Beyond typical problems in the clinical practice involving fungal infections and hematologic malignancies, this case of invasive aspergillosis in a patient with T-LGL illustrates caveats in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. Our data support careful ambulatory monitoring for patients with T-LGL, even in the absence of neutropenia. Especially those patients with combined hematologic malignancies and immune defects are at risk. Long-term treatment adhesion for 12 months with sufficient drug levels was necessary for sustained clearance from infection.

  1. Characteristics of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematologic diseases: Comparison between Aspergillus fumigatus and non-fumigatus Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jae-Ki; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Si-Hyun; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Park, Yeon-Joon; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-12-01

    While the epidemiology and clinical differences of various Candida spp. has been relatively well-identified, data regarding invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by different Aspergillus spp. are insufficient.We aimed to determine the epidemiology of culture-positive invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and to compare the characteristics and outcomes of Aspergillus fumigatus IPA with those of non-fumigatus IPA in patients with hematologic diseases. All consecutive cases of IPA from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively.There were 430 proven/probable IPA and 76 culture-positive proven/probable IPA. Excluding cases of multiple species of fungi or cases having difficulties in species-level identification, 41 A fumigatus and 22 non-fumigatus IPA (Aspergillus flavus [n = 11], Aspergillus niger [n = 6], and Aspergillus terreus [n = 5]) were compared. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. However, disseminated IA was more common in non-fumigatus IPA (2.4% vs 18.2%; P = .046). Paranasal sinus (PNS) involvement was more common in non-fumigatus IPA. There was a trend towards higher peak serum galactomannan values in non-fumigatus IPA than in A fumigatus IPA group (median 1.33 [interquartile 0.98-3.29] vs 0.97 [0.66-1.97]; P = .084). Clinical response and mortality did not differ between groups.The culture-positive rate of proven/probable IPA was 17.7%, of which non-fumigatus Aspergillus accounted for about one-third. Disseminated IA, especially involving the PNS, was more frequent in non-fumigatus IPA than in A fumigatus IPA.

  2. Incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis and correlation of conventional diagnostic methods with nested PCR and real-time PCR assay using BAL fluid in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinfar, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Khodadadi, Hossein; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Although the incidence of invasive aspergillosis in the intensive care unit (ICU) is scarce, it has emerged as major problems in critically ill patients. In this study, the incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) in ICU patients has evaluated and direct microscopy and culture has compared with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR for detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of the patients. Thirty BAL samples obtained from ICU patients during a 16-month period were subjected to direct examinations on 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on two culture media. Nested PCR targeting internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA and TaqMan real-time PCR assay targeting β-tubulin gene were used for the detection of A. fumigatus and A. flavus. Of 30 patients, 60% were men and 40% were women. The diagnosis of invasive PA was probable in 1 (3%), possible in 11 (37%), and not IPA in 18 (60%). Nine samples were positive in nested PCR including seven samples by A. flavus and two by A. fumigatus specific primers. The lowest amount of DNA that TaqMan real-time PCR could detect was ≥40 copy numbers. Only one of the samples had a positive result of A. flavus real-time PCR with Ct value of 37.5. Although a significant number of specimens were positive in nested PCR, results of this study showed that establishment of a correlation between the conventional methods with nested PCR and real-time PCR needs more data confirmed by a prospective study with a larger sample group. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Damien S; Seridan, Bianca; Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M E; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  4. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien S Bouchard

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation; inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC; and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  5. Microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel in roselle extract solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, M. T.; Noerdin, A.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of roselle extract solution on the microstructure and hardness of bovine enamel. Ten bovine teeth and a 5% concentration of roselle extract solution were prepared. Immersions of each bovine tooth in roselle extract solution were conducted up to 60 minutes. The bovine enamel surface was characterized in hardness and microscopy. It was apparent that the initial hardness was 328 KHN, and after immersion in 15 and 60 min, the values decrease to 57.4 KHN and 11 KHN, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changes in enamel rods after immersion in the roselle extract solution.

  6. Analysis of the spectroscopic characteristics on the binding interaction between tosufloxacin and bovine lactoferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ming; Zhang Luying; Lue Weijun; Cao Huaru

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between tosufloxacin (TELX) and bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in aqueous solution was analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectra. The binding parameters and energy-transfer efficiency parameters were determined and the mechanism of interaction was discussed. The effect of tosufloxacin acting on the BLF's conformation was detected and the unfolding procedure of BLF induced by tosufloxacin was explored by 'fluorescence phase diagram'. Following experimental data of fluorescence polarization values P and r, the saturation characteristic of such kind of binding reaction was observed for the first time. The interaction between tosufloxacin and BLF influenced by Ni 2+ and Co 2+ were also preliminarily explored in this work. - Research Highlights: →In this paper, a new saturation spectroscopic characteristic of non-covalent binding reaction is proposed. The saturated character of interaction of tosufloxacin binding with bovine lactoferrin is firstly observed by fluorescence polarization spectroscopy. →The unfolding procedure of bovine lactoferrin induced by drug ligand is analyzed by 'fluorescence phase diagram', and it is quantitatively characterized. →The binding parameters and energy-transfer efficiency parameters of bovine lactoferrin-tosufloxacin/tosufloxacin-Co 2+ (Ni 2+ ) system are determined and the mechanism of interaction is discussed.

  7. Determination of luteinizing hormone in bovine blood by radioligand receptor assay and comparison with radioimmunological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schams, D.; Menzer, C.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioligand receptor assay (RRA) using rat testis homogenate as the receptor source is described for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in bovine blood. Interfering and nonspecific substances in blood were removed by means of ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50. Criteria of validation such as recovery of added LH to plasma or serum, reproducibility, and specificity gave good results. Inhibition curves obtained with bovine plasma and serum were parallel to those obtained with the bovine standard preparation. The range of the dose-response curve was between 0.5-20 ng of bovine LH. The pattern of LH concentrations in purified serum samples under different physiological conditions such as during the oestrous cycle and after administration of GnRH showed a very close correlattion whether measured by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) or receptor assay. Values of RRA-LH were consistently higher than those of RIA-LH. Thus the lower the RIA-LH levels, the more pronounced were the discrepancies between results of both assay systems. The mean ratio of RRA-LH/RIA-LH for basal levels (less than 1 ng RIA-LH/ml plasma) was 17.8 as compared to a mean ratio for higher peak values (more than 20 ng RIA-LH/ml plasma) of only 1.2. (author)

  8. Immunobiotics for the Bovine Host: Their Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Their Effect on Antiviral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community has reported several cases of microbes that exhibit elevated rates of antibiotic resistance in different regions of the planet. Due to this emergence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms, the use of antibiotics as promoters of livestock animals’ growth is being banned in most countries around the world. One of the challenges of agricultural immunology therefore is to find alternatives by modulating the immune system of animals in drug-independent safe food production systems. In this regard, in an effort to supplant antibiotics from bovine feeds, several alternatives were proposed including the use of immunomodulatory probiotics (immunobiotics. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the status of the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity of the bovine host by immunobiotics, and the beneficial impact of immunobiotics on viral infections, focused on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs. The results of our group, which demonstrate the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulate Toll-like receptor 3-triggered immune responses in bovine IECs and improve the resistance to viral infections, are highlighted. This review provides comprehensive information on the innate immune response of bovine IECs against virus, which can be further investigated for the development of strategies aimed to improve defenses in the bovine host.

  9. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  10. Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  11. Multiple forms of tropoelastin produced by RNA from bovine ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, W.C.; Wrenn, D.S.; Mecham, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Tropoelastin is the monomeric precursor protein of elastin, a major connective tissue component. Whether elastin is the product of one of multiple forms of tropoelastin is unknown. Here they provide evidence for three forms of tropoelastin that are the products of unique RNAs. Total RNA was isolated from fetal bovine ligamentum nuchae and used as substrate for cell-free translation in a reticulocyte lysate system. Translated products were immunoprecipitated by a specific monoclonal antibody. Immunoprepitates were analyzed by PAGE-SDS electrophoresis followed by fluorography. When ligament RNA was translated with either [ 3 H] leucine or [ 35 S] cysteine three bands that migrated at 71, 68.7 and 65.2 KD, respectively, were detected. These observations suggest that there are multiple forms of tropoelastin mRNA. Whether these RNA, are the products of different genes or the result of gene splicing remains to be demonstrated

  12. Novel endogenous retrovirus-derived transcript expressed in the bovine placenta is regulated by WNT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, So; Bai, Hanako; Bai, Rulan; Kusama, Kazuya; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Iga, Kosuke; Yasuda, Jiro; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-10

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are involved in placentation; perhaps, the most well-known ERV s are the syncytins, actively transcribed env genes involved in cell-cell fusion and possible morphological variations. However, ERVs other than syncytins that play an important role in placental development have not been well characterized. To identify ERV genes expressed during the onset of placentation in the bovine species, we characterized the expression profiles of bovine conceptus transcripts during the peri-attachment period using RNA-seq analysis, and confirming some candidates through real-time PCR. Using in silico and PCR analyses, we identified a novel ERV proviral sequence derived from a gag region, designated bovine endogenous retroviruses (BERV)-K3, containing Gag _p10 and Gag _p24, zinc finger domain. Initial expression of this ERV in bovine conceptuses was on day 20 (day 0 = day of estrus), soon after conceptus attachment to the endometrial epithelium, and its high placental expression was maintained up to the middle of pregnancy. The BERV-K3 transcript was also found in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia, liver, kidney, intestine, and skin. BERV-K3 is located on chromosome 7 and integrated within LOC100848658 , from which noncoding RNA could be transcribed. Furthermore, the expression of endogenous BERV-K3 in bovine trophoblast cell lines was induced by a WNT agonist, a signaling system common to genes expressed in placentas. These data support the argument that during the evolutionary process, mammals incorporated not only similar ERV sequences, but also ERV s unique to individual species. BERV-K3 is in the latter case, likely providing functions unique to ruminant gestation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Seroepidemiological study of parainfluenza 3 virus in bovines with reproductive failure, from monteria-colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Betancur Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The virus of the bovine Para influenza 3 is known to be a part of the bovine respiratory complex, along with another infectious agent as the bovine sincitialrespiratory virus, which has not as yet been diagnosed at the geographical area of this study. This work was carried out at Monteria, Colombia, in bovines from 28 farms, with the aim of finding the serological prevalence of the PI-3 virus. Blood samples were collected from 137 females, with a history of reproductive failure, and from 26 bulls from the same farms. The serological test used was the ELISA test. A descriptive analysis was carried out, recording data from positives and from negatives sera. A Chi-square test was used to test for association between the variables: sex, age, reproductive condition and type of production system, with serological reactivity to the PI-3virus. Concerning the results of the study, the point prevalence for the PI-3 virus found was 13, 5%, and under statistical bases, statistical significance was found between age groups and association was not found for the others variables taken in account for the study. According to the results, it was concluded that the PI-3 virus is present in bovines of Monteria, and that a part of the reproductive failure in females of the region, mostly the return to estrus and abortions, is due to the effect of that pathological entity. Finally, the authors recommend more extensive studies on PI-3 Infection, at the different cattle raising areas of Colombia, a country of 24 million heads.

  14. The major bovine mastitis pathogens have different cell tropisms in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, A.; Vorstenbosch, van C.J.; Erkens, J.H.F.; Smith, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    We previously showed that Staphylococcus aureus cells adhered mainly to an elongated cell type, present in cultures of bovine mammary gland cells. Moreover. we showed that this adhesion was mediated by binding to fibronectin. The same in vitro model was used here, to study adhesion of other

  15. Le virus de la leucémie bovine et l’homéostasie du compartiment lymphocytaire périphérique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Willems

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus and peripheral blood lymphocytes homeostasis. Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the etiological agent of a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. This retrovirus can also be transmitted experimentally to the ovine species, in which pathology is more rapid and more frequent. In this model, infection leads to an increased cell turnover. This accelerated lymphocyte dynamics might be related to viral expression which induces cellular proliferation and host cell destruction by the immune system.

  16. Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2018-06-01

    Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers' names and specifications in the paper.

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  18. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias, M.; Hilchie, A.L.; Haney, E.F.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Hyndman, M.E.; Hancock, R.E.W.; Vogel, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits

  19. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  20. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  1. Mutational and Evolutionary Analyses of Bovine Reprimo Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It can therefore be concluded that bovine RPRM gene contained 4 transition mutations and 5 indels that can be used in marker assisted selection. Evolutionary findings also demonstrated the existence of a divergent evolution between bovine RPRM gene and RPRM gene of fishes and frog. Keywords: Identity, phylogeny ...

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Bovine Tuberculosis and most Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though tuberculosis is endemic in Nigeria, information on the epidemiology of the disease especially bovine tuberculosis is still very scanty. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) was carried out on 113 tissue samples to have an idea of not only the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis but also the most common ...

  3. Prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in a municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12 month cross-sectional study was carried out at Lafenwa Abattoir Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria from July, 2011 to June, 2012. This was to determine the prevalence and economic loss of bovine tuberculosis in this abattoir. A total of 928 cases of bovine tuberculosis out of 52,273 cattle slaughtered during this period ...

  4. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  5. Characterisation of bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Gjørret, Jakob; Schauser, Kirsten Hallundbæk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise bovine epiblast-derived outgrowth colonies (OCs) with respect to the embryonic origin of their cellular components. Epiblasts were isolated mechanically from bovine Day 12 embryos. Epiblasts were cultured on feeder layers of SNL cells (neomycin...

  6. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13...

  8. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  9. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Idhrees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS. On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA. Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

  11. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  12. BIOLOGICAL CLONING OF A BOVINE CORONAVIRUS ISOLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, A; Rodríguez, Edisleidy; Relova, Damarys; Barrera, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    Con el objetivo de obtener un aislado de Coronavirus bovino clonado biológicamente se adaptó el aislado VB73/04 a la multiplicación en la línea celular MDBK. Este aislado indujo la formación de placas, las cuales resultaron homogéneas después del clonaje biológico. La población viral obtenida fue identificada como Coronavirus bovino por RT-PCR y Seroneutralización. In order to obtain a biologically cloned bovine coronavirus isolate, the isolate VB73/04 was adapted to multiplication in MDBK...

  13. A bovine aortic arch in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Arnáiz-García

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA branching pattern termed the “bovine aortic arch”. Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown.

  14. Studies on selenoproteins in bovine kidneys by gel chromatography and neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatt, A.; Jayawickreme, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Selenium at low concentrations has been claimed to be an element which is essential for life and growth. In recent years, selenium attracted increasing interest from researchers around the world because of its possible biological functions in preventing cancer, enhancing the immune system, slowing the aging process, and stimulating sexual activity. In living matter, selenium is mainly incorporated with macromolecules. Much of the metabolic behavior, biological effects, and involvement in homeostatic mechanism of this element may very well depend on the presence of the particular type of selenoproteins in the system. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in conjunction with several bioanalytical techniques can be used to characterize metalloproteins in general. In a recent study, the distribution of trace elements in subcellular fractions of bovine kidney has been reported. The present work deals with the application of NAA together with other techniques to the isolation and characterization of selenoproteins in bovine kidneys with particular emphasis on the NAA method developed.

  15. Studies on selenoproteins in bovine kidneys by gel chromatography and neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Jayawickreme, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Selenium at low concentrations has been claimed to be an element which is essential for life and growth. In recent years, selenium attracted increasing interest from researchers around the world because of its possible biological functions in preventing cancer, enhancing the immune system, slowing the aging process, and stimulating sexual activity. In living matter, selenium is mainly incorporated with macromolecules. Much of the metabolic behavior, biological effects, and involvement in homeostatic mechanism of this element may very well depend on the presence of the particular type of selenoproteins in the system. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in conjunction with several bioanalytical techniques can be used to characterize metalloproteins in general. In a recent study, the distribution of trace elements in subcellular fractions of bovine kidney has been reported. The present work deals with the application of NAA together with other techniques to the isolation and characterization of selenoproteins in bovine kidneys with particular emphasis on the NAA method developed

  16. Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA): Development of a Flow Model for Bovine Livers for Extensive Bench Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubienski, Andreas; Bitsch, Rudi G.; Lubienski, Katrin; Kauffmann, Guenter; Duex, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To develop a flow model for bovine livers for extensive bench testing of technical improvements or procedure-related developments of radiofrequency ablation excluding animal experiments. Methods. The perfusion of bovine livers directly from the slaughterhouse was simulated in a liver perfusion tank developed for the experimental work. The liver perfusion medium used was a Tyrode solution prepared in accordance with physiologic criteria (as for liver transplants) which was oxygenated by an oxygenator and heated to 36.5 deg. C. Portal vein circulation was regulated via a flow- and pressure-controlled pump and arterial circulation using a dialysis machine. Flow rate and pressure were adjusted as for the physiology of a human liver converted to bovine liver conditions. The fluid discharged from the liver was returned into the perfusion system through the vena cava. Extendable precision swivel arms with the radiofrequency probe attached were mounted on the liver perfusion tank. RFA was conducted with the RF3000 generator and a 2 cm LeVeen needle (Boston Scientific, Ratingen, Germany) in a three-dimensional grid for precise localization of the generated thermolesions. Results. Four bovine livers weighing 8.4 ± 0.4 kg each were prepared, connected to the perfusion system, and consecutively perfused for the experiments. Mean arterial flow was 569 ± 43 ml/min, arterial pressure 120 mmHg, portovenous flow 1440 ± 305 ml/min, and portal pressure 10 mmHg. Macroscopic evaluation after the experiments revealed no thrombi within the hepatic vessels. A total of 136 RF thermolesions were generated with an average number of 34 per liver. Mean RF duration was 2:59 ± 2:01 min:sec with an average baseline impedance of 28.2 ± 3.4 ohms. The mean diameter of the thermolesions along the puncture channel was 22.98 ± 4.34 mm and perpendicular to the channel was 23.27 ± 4.82 mm. Conclusion. Extracorporeal perfusion of bovine livers with consecutive standardized RF ablation was

  17. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  18. Exploring the bovine rumen bacterial community from birth to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Elie; Israel, Adi; Kotser, Assaf; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2013-06-01

    The mammalian gut microbiota is essential in shaping many of its host's functional attributes. One such microbiota resides in the bovine digestive tract in a compartment termed as the rumen. The rumen microbiota is necessary for the proper physiological development of the rumen and for the animal's ability to digest and convert plant mass into food products, making it highly significant to humans. The establishment of this microbial population and the changes occurring with the host's age are important for understanding this key microbial community. Despite its importance, little information about colonization of the microbial populations in newborn animals, and the gradual changes occurring thereafter, exists. Here, we characterized the overall bovine ruminal bacterial populations of five age groups, from 1-day-old calves to 2-year-old cows. We describe the changes occurring in the rumen ecosystem after birth, reflected by a decline in aerobic and facultative anaerobic taxa and an increase in anaerobic ones. Some rumen bacteria that are essential for mature rumen function could be detected as early as 1 day after birth, long before the rumen is active or even before ingestion of plant material occurs. The diversity and within-group similarity increased with age, suggesting a more diverse but homogeneous and specific mature community, compared with the more heterogeneous and less diverse primary community. In addition, a convergence toward a mature bacterial arrangement with age was observed. These findings have also been reported for human gut microbiota, suggesting that similar forces drive the establishment of gut microbiotas in these two distinct mammalian digestive systems.

  19. Down-regulation of selected Blood-brain Barrier Specific Genes from Capillaries to Bovine In Vitro Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldeman, Charlotte; Saaby, Lasse; Brodin, Birger

    Cultures of primary bovine brain endothelial cells (BECs) grown, often together with astrocytes, on permeable supports in two-compartment culture systems are commonly used as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While trans-endothelial electrical resistance, restriction...... the in vivo gene expression of brain capillary endothelial cells. Primary bovine endothelial cells and rat astrocytes were cultured in different culture configurations and the mRNA expression of selected genes (vWF, Glut-1, P-gp, claudin-1,-5, occludin, JAM-1, LAT-1, SLC16A1, MRP-1,-4, BCRP, ZO-1, AP, TPA...

  20. Human exposure to bovine polyomavirus: a zoonosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, J V; Gardner, S D

    1986-01-01

    A competitive-type solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the detection of antibody to bovine polyomavirus. Comparison of RIA and counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) results on 273 cattle sera indicated that both techniques were detecting antibody of like specificity. Human sera from 256 blood donors, 219 people recently vaccinated against polio, rubella or rabies, 50 immunosuppressed patients and 472 people with various occupational exposure to cattle were tested for antibody to bovine polyomavirus, the foetal rhesus monkey kidney strain, (anti-FRKV) by RIA. Apart from one blood donor and one of 108 rabies vaccinees only those in close contact with cattle possessed anti-FRKV. Compared with 62 per cent seropositive in the natural hosts, cattle, 71 per cent of veterinary surgeons, 50 per cent of cattle farmers, 40 per cent of abattoir workers, 16 per cent of veterinary institute technical staff and 10 per cent of veterinary students were anti-FRKV positive. Our findings indicate that the theoretical hazard of FRKV infection from undetected contamination of current tissue culture derived vaccines may, in practice, be remote. Proposed wider use of primate kidney cells as substrates for new vaccines may increase this risk.

  1. Retinol improves bovine embryonic development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards J Lannett

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids are recognized as important regulators of vertebrate development, cell differentiation, and tissue function. Previous studies, performed both in vivo and in vitro, indicate that retinoids influence several reproductive events, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. The present study evaluated in vitro effects of retinol addition to media containing maturing bovine oocytes and developing embryos in both a low oxygen atmosphere (7% and under atmospheric oxygen conditions (20%. In the first experiment, abbatoir collected bovine oocytes were matured in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of retinol. After a 22–24 hour maturation period the oocytes were fertilized, denuded 18 hours later and cultured in a modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF in a humidified atmosphere at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2. Cleavage rates did not differ among control and retinol-treated oocytes in all three experiments. Addition of 5 micromolar retinol to the maturation medium (IVM tended (p

  2. Bovine colostral antibodies and selected lactobacilli as means to control gastrointestinal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rokka, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum and specific colostral antibodies, and some lactic acid bacteria on gastrointestinal infections, especially Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis and dental caries caused by Streptococcus mutans. The effect of colostrum on the activity of the complement system in neonatal calves was also studied. It was possible to increase substantially complement and opsonization activities of serum by feeding colostral whey conc...

  3. Comparison of some storage and isolation methods to recover bluetongue virus from bovine blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F C

    1984-01-01

    Bovine blood containing bluetongue virus was stored as whole blood with EDTA (4 degrees C), as washed cellular components (4 degrees C), and as washed cellular components with 10% DMSO (-70 degrees C). Periodic isolation attempts were made over a period of 330 days in four cell lines and embryonating chicken eggs (intravenous inoculation). Bluetongue virus was successfully isolated in all systems from most samples throughout the test period. There appeared to be more variation amongst days of...

  4. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Bovine Coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Mat?as; Victoria, Mat?as; Colina, Rodney; Musto, H?ctor; Cristina, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important economic losses to the beef and dairy industry worldwide. To study the relation of codon usage among viruses and their hosts is essential to understand host-pathogen interaction, evasion from host?s immune system and evolution. Methods We performed a comprehensive analysis of co...

  5. In vitro reactivity to concanavalin A of bovine lymphocytes after cryopreservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, H.

    1984-01-01

    Cryopreservation of bovine peripheral lymphocytes and its effect on the in vitro response to concanavalin A tested in a microculture system is described. Using DMSO as cryoprotectant in the medium, the cells were cooled to −30°C at 1.3°C/minute and further to −80°C at 6°C/minute and then rapidly to

  6. Seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases among the bovines in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Katoch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, brucellosis, and paratuberculosis among bovine of Himachal Pradesh during the year 2013-2015. Materials and Methods: The serum samples were collected from seven districts of state, namely, Bilaspur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi, Sirmour, and Solan. The samples were screened using indirect ELISA kits to measure the seroprevalence of viral and bacterial diseases. Results: The overall seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis was 24.24%, bovine viral diarrhea 1.52%, bovine leukemia 9.09%, bovine parainfluenza 57.58%, bovine respiratory syncytial disease 50%, brucellosis 19.69%, and paratuberculosis 9.09% in Himachal Pradesh. The seroprevalence of bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine leukemia, bovine parainfluenza, bovine respiratory syncytial disease, and paratuberculosis in the state varied significantly (p0.01. Multiple seropositivity has been observed in this study. Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 was observed commonly in mixed infection with almost all viruses and bacteria under study. Conclusion: The viral and bacterial diseases are prevalent in the seven districts of Himachal Pradesh investigated in the study. Therefore, appropriate management practices and routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of these diseases.

  7. Persistent bovine pestivirus infection localized in the testes of an immuno-competent, non-viraemic bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voges, H.; Horner, G.W.; Rowe, S.; Wellenberg, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    A post-pubertal bull on an artificial insemination station was found to be persistently shedding bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in semen over a period of eleven months, while demonstrating no viraemia. Circulating antibodies to BVDV were consistently high, suggesting that the immune system was

  8. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  9. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......% of the total molecular weight, and the molar ratios of the individual sugars to protein of the O-linked glycans were determined. The glycan structures of MUC15 were further studied by enzymatic deglycosylation experiments using different endo- and exoglycosidases as well as a panel of lectins. The N......-linked glycans. By comparing the results of peanut agglutinin lectin binding, enzymatic deglycosylation, and monosaccharide composition analysis, we concluded that bovine MUC15 also contains more complex O-glycans containing high amounts N-acetylglucosamine residues. Furthermore, a small subset of the O...

  10. [Antiviral activity of different drugs in vitro against viruses of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis and bovine diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotov, A G; Glotova, T I; Sergeev, A A; Belkina, T V; Sergeev, A N

    2004-01-01

    In vitro experiments studied the antiviral activity of 11 different drugs against viruses of bovine infective rhinotracheitis (BIRT) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). The 50% inhibiting concentrations of the test agents were determined in the monolayers of MDBK and KCT cell cultures. Only did phosprenyl show a virucidal activity against BIRT virus. All the tested drugs significantly inhibited the reproduction of BIRT virus in the sensitive MDBK cell cultures. Thus, bromuridin, acyclovir, ribavirin and methisazonum inhibited the virus by > or = 100,000 times; liposomal ribavirin, gossypolum, anandinum, polyprenolum, phosprenyl, by 1000-10,000 times; eracond and argovit, by 100 times. In experiments on BVD virus, the cultured KCT cells displayed the antiviral activity of bromuridin, phosprenil, polyprenolum, methisazonum, acyclovir, gossypolum, argovit, and ribavirin (in two variants), which caused a statistically significant (100-10,000-fold) decrease in the productive activity of this virus. Eracond and anandid proved to be ineffective.

  11. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses.

  12. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate h

  13. In vitro evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations with composite resin in bovine teeth. Laser irradiation influences and the adhesive system in the dentin pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Wendell Lima de

    2003-01-01

    Microleakage is one of the most important reasons to restorations failure, it is the responsible for marginal colors changing, new caries, hipersensibility and pulpar diseases. Several techniques and materials have been studied to eliminate or, at least, to decrease microleakage. The cavities preparation with Er:YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive are some of these techniques and materials. This research has the objective to compare, in vitro, microleakage in class V cavities, prepared with high rotation (conventional treatment), Er:YAG laser (Enamel-400 mj/2 Hz/128,38 J/Cm 2 , Dentin 250 mJ/ 2 Hz/ 80,24 J/Cm 2 ) and the treatment made at dentin with autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) using Er:YAG laser (with water or not water) or not using Er:YAG laser. It was used 48 bovines teeth with cavities prepared in vestibular face and gingival wall on cement enamel junction and oclusal wall on enamel. The materials used were autoconditioning adhesive (Clerafil SE Bond) and composite resin Z250. Teeth were divided into four groups of twelve samples each one, according to dentin treatment. Group 1 - Conventional cavity and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 2- Cavity prepared with Er: YAG laser and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 3 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er:YAG laser associated to water and autoconditioning adhesive. Group 4 - Cavity prepared with Er:YAG laser and dentin conditioning with Er: YAG laser without water and associated to autoconditioning adhesive. Teeth were restored and stocked at 37 deg C, thermocycled and placed into a 50% silver nitrate solution. Right after, teeth were sliced and evaluated on a stereo microscopic magnifying glass in order to see microleakage degree trying to follow a score from 0 to 3. The findings were submitted to Fisher, Anderson-Darling tests and to the not parametric Sen and Puri test. The results indicated that in gingival edge, the Group 2 showed less microleakage than others

  14. Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci and the Role of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Jacqueline P.

    2018-01-01

    Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation resear...

  15. Time resolved bovine host reponse to virulence factors mapped in milk by selected reaction monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Stine Lønnerup; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    . In this study, we present a sensitive selected reaction monitoring (SRM) proteomics approach, targeting proteins suggested to play key roles in the bovine host response to mastitis. 17 biomarker candidates related to inflammatory response and mastitis were selected. The 17 candidate proteins were quantified......TIME RESOLVED BOVINE HOST RESPONSE TO VIRULENCE FACTORS, MAPPED IN MILK BY SELECTED REACTION MONITORING S.L. Bislev1, U. Kusebauch2, M.C. Codrea1, R. Moritz2, C.M. Røntved1, E. Bendixen1 1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark; 2...... Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington, USA Mastitis is beyond doubt the largest health problem in modern milk production. Many different pathogens can cause infections in the mammary gland, and give rise to severe toll on animal welfare, economic gain as well as on excessive use of antibiotics...

  16. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.

  17. Heterologous expression of bovine lactoferricin in Pichia methanolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haikuan; Zhao, Xinhuai; Lu, Fuping

    2007-06-01

    According to the bias of codon utilization of Pichia methanolica, a fragment encoding bovine lactoferricin has been cloned and expressed in the P. methanolica under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter, which was followed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide. The alpha-factor signal peptide efficiently directed the secretion of bovine lactoferricin from the recombinant yeast cell. The recombinant bovine lactoferricin appears to be successfully expressed, as it displays antibacterial activity (antibacterial assay). Moreover, the identity of the recombinant product was estimated by Tricine-SDS-PAGE.

  18. Photochemistry of modified proteins benzophenone-containing bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, P.S.; Glover, G.I.; Wilkinson, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of exploratory and mechanistic studies of the photochemistry of poly-p-benzoyl-acetimido-bovine serum albumin, a modified protein containing photoreactive and photosensitizing groups, are reported. Specifically described are recent findings concerning (1) the synthesis and characterization of a modified bovine serum albumin that contains benzophenone-like moieties, (2) the photochemistry of this modified protein which appeared to involve photoreductive coupling of the benzophenone chromophores to the protein backbone, and (3) triplet energy transfer from modified bovine serum albumin to small molecule acceptors resulting in quenching of the photoreaction. (author)

  19. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  20. Expression, purification, and antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrampin-lactoferricin in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang-Shan; Tang, Zhi-Ru; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Feng, Ze-Meng; Zhou, Dong; Li, Tie-Jun; Yin, Yu-Long

    2012-02-01

    Bovine lactoferrampin (LFA) and bovine lactoferricin (LFC) are two antimicrobial peptides located in the N(1) domain of bovine lactoferrin. The bactericidal activity of the fused peptide LFA-LFC is stronger than that of either LFA or LFC. The high cost of peptide production from either native digestion or chemical synthesis limits the clinical application of antimicrobial peptides. The expression of recombinant peptides in yeast may be an effective alternative. In the current study, the expression, purification, and antibacterial activity of LFA-LFC using the Pichia pastoris expression system are reported. The linearized expression vector pPICZaA-LFA-LFC was transformed into P. pastoris KM71 by electroporation, and positive colonies harboring the target genes were screened out and used for fermentation. The recombinant LFA-LFC peptide was purified via two-step column chromatography and identified by tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results indicate that P. pastoris is a suitable system for secreting LFA-LFC. The fermentation supernate and the purified LFA-LFC show high antimicrobial activities. The current study is the first to report on the expression and purification of LFA-LFC in P. pastoris and may have potential practical applications in microbial peptide production.