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Sample records for systemic alendronate treatment

  1. Systemic alendronate treatment improves fixation of press-fit implants: a canine study using nonloaded implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B; Bechtold, Joan E; Chen, Xinqian

    2007-01-01

    of alendronate treatment. Bone ongrowth (bone in contact with implant surface) was estimated using the linear intercept technique and shear strength was calculated as the slope on a load-displacement curve. For the press fit implants, alendronate treatment significantly increased bone ongrowth from 24% to 29...... early implant stability is an important predictor of longevity, systemic alendronate treatment could be an important clinical tool to positively influence the early stages of implant incorporation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  2. Alendronate

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    ... have undergone menopause (''change of life,'' end of menstrual periods) and to treat osteoporosis in men. Alendronate ... alendronate.Ask your pharmacist or doctor for a copy of the manufacturer's information for the patient.

  3. Treatment of osteoporosis after alendronate or risedronate

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    Eiken, P; Vestergaard, P

    2016-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN) and risedronate (RIS) are ideal as first-choice therapy options in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. What to do for patients who do not respond adequately to bisphosphonates has not been conclusively determined, but transitioning to other therapies should be considered....... The aim of this article is to describe potential alternatives for patients switching from ALN or RIS to other therapies for osteoporosis. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted to find papers that evaluate the effects of switching therapies on fractures, bone mineral density (BMD), or bone turnover...... markers. Results from 11 studies that prospectively assessed treatment after ALN or RIS in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were reviewed. All studies are of short duration (all 24 months or less) and assess the topic of transitioning therapy from ALN or RIS. None of the studies had the statistical...

  4. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

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    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da; Battaglino, Ricardo; Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha

    2013-01-01

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  5. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

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    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  6. Time trends for alendronate prescription practices in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and women exposed to systemic glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Eiken, P; Eskildsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis. We evaluated alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and exposure to systemic corticosteroids from 1996 to 2008 and showed an increasing targeting...... of alendronate treatment in patients with COPD and patients with systemic corticosteroid exposure. Introduction COPD and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis and fragility fracture, but osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated in these patients. This study...... aims to evaluate alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and/or to exposure to systemic glucocorticoids among Danish women. Methods A total of 388,314 female subjects >50 years old, 64,719 of whom initiated treatment with alendronate, and 323,595 age- and gender-matched controls were...

  7. Impact of generic alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment.

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    Smita Nayak

    Full Text Available Since alendronate became available in generic form in the Unites States in 2008, its price has been decreasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women.Microsimulation cost-effectiveness model of osteoporosis screening and treatment for U.S. women age 65 and older. We assumed screening initiation at age 65 with central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and alendronate treatment for individuals with osteoporosis; with a comparator of "no screening" and treatment only after fracture occurrence. We evaluated annual alendronate costs of $20 through $800; outcome measures included fractures; nursing home admission; medication adverse events; death; costs; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs; and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2010 U.S. dollars per QALY gained. A lifetime time horizon was used, and direct costs were included. Base-case and sensitivity analyses were performed.Base-case analysis results showed that at annual alendronate costs of $200 or less, osteoporosis screening followed by treatment was cost-saving, resulting in lower total costs than no screening as well as more QALYs (10.6 additional quality-adjusted life-days. When assuming alendronate costs of $400 through $800, screening and treatment resulted in greater lifetime costs than no screening but was highly cost-effective, with ICERs ranging from $714 per QALY gained through $13,902 per QALY gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses revealed that the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment was robust to joint input parameter estimate variation at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY at all alendronate costs evaluated.Osteoporosis screening followed by alendronate treatment is effective and highly cost-effective for postmenopausal women across a range of alendronate costs, and may be cost

  8. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of formulated alendronate transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans.

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    Choi, Ahyoung; Gang, Hyesil; Whang, Jiae; Gwak, Hyesun

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the absorption of alendronate from formulated transdermal delivery systems in rats and humans. When alendronate was applied to rats by transdermal delivery systems (7.2 mg) and oral administration (30 mg/kg), a statistically significant difference was found in the amount remaining to be excreted at time t (Ae(t)) and the amount remaining to be excreted at time 0 (Ae(infinity)) (p transdermal delivery systems. There was a linear relationship (r(2) = 0.9854) between the drug loading dose and Ae(infinity). The Ae(infinity) values from the transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid (53.8 mg as alendronate) and an oral product (Fosamax), 70 mg as alendronate) in humans were 127.0 +/- 34.2 microg and 237.2 +/- 56.3 microg, respectively. The dose-adjusted relative Ae(infinity) ratio of the transdermal delivery system to oral product was calculated to be 69.7%. The long half-life of alendronate in the transdermal delivery system (50.6 +/- 6.4 h), compared to that of the oral product (3.5 +/- 1.1 h) could allow less-frequent dosing. In conclusion, this study showed that a transdermal delivery system containing 6% caprylic acid in PG could be a favorable alternative for alendronate administration.

  9. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

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    Imai K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing

  10. Efficacy and safety of alendronic acid in the treatment of osteoporosis in children

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    Alberto Martín Siguero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to describe the efficacy and safety of the off-label use of alendronate in the treatment of osteoporosis in children and adolescents. Method: a retrospective study (2008-2014 of all patients under 18 years who were dispensed alendronate for this indication. The criteria for initiating treatment were: bone mineral density with a Z-score ≤ -2.5 SD, a past history of bone fractures without a previous traumatism, and persistent pain. The variables collected were: demographic, treatment-related, clinical. and safety data. The treatment was considered to be effective when there was an increase in bone mineral density up to a Z-score > -2.5 SD. Results: a total of 12 patients, 8 of them male, with a mean age of 11 years (} 3 SD, were treated with alendronate. After a mean time of treatment of 2.15 years (} 1.2 SD, there was an increase in bone mineral density in all patients, 9 of which achieved a Z-score > -2.5 SD, so the drug was considered effective in 75% of cases. No patient had bone fractures or expressed adverse effects during treatment. Conclusions: alendronate increased bone mineral density and was well tolerated in all patients, therefore it could be considered as a therapeutic option in the treatment of osteoporosis in children.

  11. Effects of short-term alendronate treatment on the three-dimensional microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of dog trabecular bone

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    Hu, J; Ding, Ming; Søballe, K

    2002-01-01

    The bisphosphonate, alendronate, is well known for its potent inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It has been used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and has also recently been used to reduce osteolysis around prostheses in a canine revision model of implant loosening...... proximal humeri. These specimens were scanned using a high-resolution microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) system. From accurate data sets, three-dimensional microstructural properties were calculated and physical and mechanical properties were determined. Treatment with alendronate increased bone volume...

  12. Alendronate in early postmenopausal women

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    Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect on bone mass of alendronate treatment for 5 yr and its withdrawal. Four hundred and forty-seven postmenopausal women with normal bone mass entered a 3-yr randomized trial followed by a 2-yr open label extension. Three hundred and eleven women completed the first 3 yr, and 263...... consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr...

  13. Effect of combined treatment with alendronate and calcitriol on femoral neck strength in osteopenic rats

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    Fotovati Abbas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip fracture is associated with pronounced morbidity and excess mortality in elderly women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Many drugs have been developed to treat osteoporosis and to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. We investigated the effects of combined alendronate and vitamin D3 treatment on bone mass and fracture load at the femoral neck in ovariectomized (OVX rats, and evaluated the relationship between bone mass parameters and femoral neck strength. Methods Thirty 12-week-old female rats underwent either a sham-operation (n = 6 or OVX (n = 24. Twenty weeks later, OVX rats were further divided into four groups and received daily doses of either saline alone, 0.1 mg/kg alendronate, 0.1 μg/kg calcitriol, or a combination of both two drugs by continuous infusion via Alzet mini-osmotic pumps. The sham-control group received saline alone. After 12 weeks of treatment, femoral necks were examined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT densitometry and mechanical testing. Results Saline-treated OVX rats showed significant decreases in total bone mineral content (BMC (by 28.1%, total bone mineral density (BMD (by 9.5%, cortical BMC (by 26.3%, cancellous BMC (by 66.3%, cancellous BMD (by 29.0% and total cross-sectional bone area (by 30.4% compared with the sham-control group. The combined alendronate and calcitriol treatments improved bone loss owing to estrogen deficiency. On mechanical testing, although OVX significantly reduced bone strength of the femoral neck (by 29.3% compared with the sham-control group, only the combined treatment significantly improved the fracture load at the femoral neck in OVX rats to the level of the sham-controls. The correlation of total BMC to fracture load was significant, but that of total BMD was not. Conclusion Our results showed that the combined treatment with alendronate and calcitriol significantly improved bone fragility of the femoral neck in OVX osteopenic

  14. Surgically treated osteonecrosis and osteomyelitis of the jaw and oral cavity in patients highly adherent to alendronate treatment

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    Eiken, P. A.; Prieto-Alhambra, D.; Eastell, R.

    2017-01-01

    register-based cohort study containing one nested case-control study. Patients were treatment-naïve incident users of alendronate 1996–2007 in Denmark, both genders, aged 50–94 at the time of beginning treatment (N = 61,990). Participants were followed to 31 December 2013. Results: Over a mean of 6.8 years...... pump inhibitors were independently associated with surgically treated ONJ. Conclusions: Our data suggest that recent, long-term, and compliant uses of alendronate are associated with an increased risk of surgically treated ONJ. Nevertheless, the rates remain low, even in long-term adherent users. ONJ...

  15. Effects of long-term alendronate treatment on bone mineralisation, resorption parameters and biomechanics of single human vertebral trabeculae

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    M Krause

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their well-established fracture risk reduction, bisphosphonates are the most frequently used therapeutic agent to treat osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates reduce fracture risk by suppressing bone resorption, but the lower bone turnover could have a negative impact on bone quality at the tissue level. Here, we directly assess the structural and mechanical characteristics of cancellous bone from the lumbar vertebrae (L5 in non-treated osteoporotic controls (n = 21, mid-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n = 6, and long-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n = 7. The strength and toughness of single trabeculae were evaluated, while the structure was characterised through measurements of microdamage accumulation, mineralisation distribution, and histological indices. The alendronate-treated cases had a reduced eroded surface (ES/BS, p < 0.001 and a higher bone mineralisation in comparison to non-treated controls (p = 0.037, which is indicative of low turnover associated with treatment. However, the amount of microdamage and the mechanical properties were similar among the control and treatment groups. As the tissue mineral density (TMD increased significantly with alendronate treatment compared to non-treated osteoporotic controls, the reduction in resorption cavities could counterbalance the higher TMD allowing the alendronate-treated bone to maintain its mechanical properties and resist microdamage accumulation. A multivariate analysis of the possible predictors supports the theory that multiple factors (e.g., body mass index, TMD, and ES/BS can impact the mechanical properties. Our results suggest that long-term alendronate treatment shows no adverse impact on mechanical cancellous bone characteristics.

  16. Alendronate treatment in the revision setting, with and without controlled implant motion

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    Søballe, Kjeld; Chen, Xinqian; Jensen, Thomas B

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates have been proposed to delay or prevent loosening of joint replacement implants by reducing bone resorption. It is known, however, that implant motion prevents the bone anchorage necessary to maintain secure implant fixation. Methods We used our experimental implant...... conditions, even with alendronate. With alendronate and stabilized implants, increased bone was observed near the sclerotic shell of the revision cavity, but it was reduced with alendronate when the implant was unstable. Interpretation Our findings suggest that it may be difficult for alendronate...... administration alone to rescue implants that are already loose. In implants that have not progressed to loosening, alendronate may increase bone density at the border with the sclerotic shell, but the effect of this bone in delaying eventual loosening is not known. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  17. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM ALENDRONATE TREATMENT ON A LARGE SAMPLE OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA.

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    Lv, Fang; Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiaojie; Wang, Jianyi; Ma, Doudou; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Xia, Weibo; Xing, Xiaoping; Yu, Wei; Li, Mei

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of inherited diseases characterized by reduced bone mass, recurrent bone fractures, and progressive bone deformities. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with alendronate in a large sample of Chinese children and adolescents with OI. In this prospective study, a total of 91 children and adolescents with OI were included. The patients received 3 years' treatment with 70 mg alendronate weekly and 500 mg calcium daily. During the treatment, fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum levels of the bone turnover biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen [β-CTX]) were evaluated. Linear growth speed and parameters of safety were also measured. After 3 years of treatment, the mean annual fracture incidence decreased from 1.2 ± 0.8 to 0.2 ± 0.3 (Posteogenesis imperfecta PTH = parathyroid hormone.

  18. Characteristics of patients who suffer major osteoporotic fractures despite adhering to alendronate treatment

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    Abrahamsen, B; Rubin, K H; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2013-01-01

    .03-1.06, for each drug). Dementia (HR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.18-2.78), prior fracture (one: HR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.02-1.34; multiple: HR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.08-1.67), and ulcer disease (HR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.03) also increased the risk. Diabetes did not influence fracture risk, nor did rheumatic disorders. The risk was lower...... and associations may not be causal, it may be prudent to include dementia, ulcer disease, and Parkinson's disease to capture the risk of fractures on treatment. Lower risk in patients treated with glucocorticoids and in men probably reflects a lower treatment threshold related to guidelines.......Antiresorptive treatment reduces the risk of fractures, but most patients remain at elevated risk. We used health registers to identify predictors of new major osteoporotic fractures in patients adhering to alendronate. Risk factors showed a different pattern than in the general population...

  19. Adherence to alendronic or risedronic acid treatment, combined or not to calcium and vitamin D, and related determinants in Italian patients with osteoporosis

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    Calabria S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available S Calabria,1 E Cinconze,2 M Rossini,3 E Rossi,2 AP Maggioni,1,4 A Pedrini,1 M De Rosa2 1CORE, Collaborative Outcome Research, Bologna, Italy; 2Health Care Systems Department, CINECA, Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, Italy; 3Rheumatology Unit, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 4ANMCO Research Center, Firenze, ItalyPurpose: Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79, alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting.Patients and methods: Analyses were carried out on data present in the ARNO Observatory, a population-based patient-centric Italian database. From a population of 5,808,832 inhabitants with available data, a cohort of 3.3 million of patients aged ≥40 years was selected. New users of first-line AODs as monotherapy (accrual period, 2007–2009 were followed up over 3 years to assess adherence at 6, 12, and 36 months to AODs and to supplements and related determinants.Results: Approximately 40,000 new users were identified: mostly women, aged on average (standard deviation 71±10 years. Alendronate was the most prescribed (38.2% of patients, followed by risedronate (34.9% and alendronate with colecalciferol as a fixed-dose combination (25.8%. Adherence at the 6-month follow-up was 54%, and this constantly and significantly decreased after 1 year to 46%, and after 3 years to 33% (P<0.01. Adherence to the fixed-dose combination was higher than to plain alendronate throughout the follow-up period. Similarly, adherence to supplements constantly decreased with the duration of treatment. Women and patients

  20. The Effect of Alendronate and Calcitonin Treatments on Bone Mineral Density and Quality of Life in Women With Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

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    F. Taşçıoğlu

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of alendronate and calcitonin treatments on bone mineral density (BMD and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. One hundred ninety-three patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 93 patients received daily doses of 10 mg alendronate and calcium 1000 mg, and 98 patients used intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCt at a dosage of 200 IU/day and they also received daily doses of 1000 mg calcium supplements. DXA was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur before and after the study period. SF-36 was used as a measure of health-related quality of life. At the end of the treatment, ALN produced significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (p< 0.001, femur neck (p<0.05, trochanteric region (p<0.001 and at the Ward triangle (p<0.05. In contrast, intranasal sCt treatment resulted in a significant bone loss in the femur neck (p<0.01 and Ward triangle (p<0.05, and only a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine was observed with calcitonin treatment(p< 0.05. Quality of life as assessed by SF-36 improved significantly in both groups(p<0.05. In conclusion, alendronate seemed to be more effective than calcitonin, increasing both spinal and femoral BMD, for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Both treatments were found to be effective for the improvement of quality of life.

  1. Alendronate treatment alters bone tissues at multiple structural levels in healthy canine cortical bone.

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    Acevedo, Claire; Bale, Hrishikesh; Gludovatz, Bernd; Wat, Amy; Tang, Simon Y; Wang, Mingyue; Busse, Björn; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Schaible, Eric; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Ritchie, Robert O

    2015-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoporosis, but have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) in the long term, which raises a critical health problem for the aging population. Several clinical studies have suggested that the occurrence of AFFs may be related to the bisphosphonate-induced changes of bone turnover, but large discrepancies in the results of these studies indicate that the salient mechanisms responsible for any loss in fracture resistance are still unclear. Here the role of bisphosphonates is examined in terms of the potential deterioration in fracture resistance resulting from both intrinsic (plasticity) and extrinsic (shielding) toughening mechanisms, which operate over a wide range of length-scales. Specifically, we compare the mechanical properties of two groups of humeri from healthy beagles, one control group comprising eight females (oral doses of saline vehicle, 1 mL/kg/day, 3 years) and one treated group comprising nine females (oral doses of alendronate used to treat osteoporosis, 0.2mg/kg/day, 3 years). Our data demonstrate treatment-specific reorganization of bone tissue identified at multiple length-scales mainly through advanced synchrotron x-ray experiments. We confirm that bisphosphonate treatments can increase non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking at molecular scales, which critically restricts plasticity associated with fibrillar sliding, and hence intrinsic toughening, at nanoscales. We also observe changes in the intracortical architecture of treated bone at microscales, with partial filling of the Haversian canals and reduction of osteon number. We hypothesize that the reduced plasticity associated with BP treatments may induce an increase in microcrack accumulation and growth under cyclic daily loadings, and potentially increase the susceptibility of cortical bone to atypical (fatigue-like) fractures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF ALENDRONIC ACID IN PATIENTS WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND OSTEOPOROSIS

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    A.O. Lisitsin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Search for and practical application of new medications to treat of osteoporosis is one of the critical issues in pediatric rheumatology. The article reviews the efficacy and safety of alendronic acid in 64 subjects with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and systemic osteoporosis. It is demonstrated that alendronate-based therapy in weekly 1 mg/kg doses over 12 months facilitated reliably increased bonedensity, decreased intensity of pain syndrome, and lowered C-terminal telopeptide serum concentration, which indicates improved bone metabolism processes.Key words: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, children, treatment, bisphosphonates, alendronic acid. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:48-54

  3. Inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption through alendronate treatment in rats reduces severe osteoarthritis progression.

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    Siebelt, M; Waarsing, J H; Groen, H C; Müller, C; Koelewijn, S J; de Blois, E; Verhaar, J A N; de Jong, M; Weinans, H

    2014-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatoid joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of extra-cellular cartilage matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial thickening. Alendronate (ALN) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption and results in reduced bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of pre-emptive use of ALN on OA related osteoclastic subchondral bone resorption in an in vivo rat model for severe OA. Using multi-modality imaging we measured effects of ALN treatment within cartilage and synovium. Severe osteoarthritis was induced in left rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with subcutaneous ALN injections and compared to twenty untreated controls. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12weeks with in vivo μCT to measure subchondral bone changes and SPECT/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation using a folate-based radiotracer. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12weeks with ex vivo contrast enhanced μCT and histology to measure sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content and cartilage thickness. ALN treatment successfully inhibited subchondral bone remodeling. As a result we found less subchondral plate porosity and reduced osteophytosis. ALN treatment did not reduce subchondral sclerosis. However, after the OA induction phase, ALN treatment protected cartilage ECM from degradation and reduced synovial macrophage activation. Surprisingly, ALN treatment also improved sGAG content of tibia cartilage in healthy joints. Our data was consistent with the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption might play an important role in OA and may be a driving force for progression of the disease. However, our study suggest that this effect might not solely be effects on osteoclastic activity, since ALN treatment also influenced macrophage functioning. Additionally, ALN treatment and physical activity

  4. Possible alendronate-induced polyarticular synovitis

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    K Gökkus

    2016-01-01

    The patient had no evidence of rheumatoid arthritis, pyrophosphate arthropathy, or seronegative/seropositive arthritis. Our main aim in this study is to highlight the potential adverse effects of alendronate and to warn orthopedic surgeons about the possibility of such a side effect that might lead orthopedic surgeons to administer wrong and unnecessary treatments like arthrocentesis. The withdrawal of alendronate is found to be the treatment of choice. Alendronate should be considered as a possible cause of synovitis or polyarthritis in patients treated with this agent in the absence of any other pathology. An association between alendronate and synovitis has rarely been described in the literature. We present a patient who developed polyarticular synovitis after treatment with alendronate and responded to its withdrawal.

  5. Efficacy of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, in the treatment of AVN of the hip. A prospective open-label study.

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    Agarwala, S; Jain, D; Joshi, V R; Sule, A

    2005-03-01

    To study the efficacy of alendronate, in the treatment of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip. Sixty patients with AVN of the hip (100 hips with AVN) were studied. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 5 yr. The most common cause of AVN was steroids. Parameters studied were walking time, standing time, pain and disability on a visual analogue scale (VAS), range of motion of the hip, X-ray and MRI of the hip. All patients were treated with alendronate 10 mg/day (or 70 mg/week) along with 500-1000 mg of daily calcium and vitamin D supplements, and were advised to avoid weight-bearing. NSAIDs and analgesics were permitted as needed and were recorded. Forty-one patients (71 AVN hips) with AVN have been followed up for a minimum of 1 yr, 24 patients (42 AVN hips) for 2 yr and 21 patients (37 AVN hips) for more than 2 yr (average 37 month). Fourteen patients have been followed up for less than 1 yr (3-9 months). Significant reduction in pain and disability scores (P 0.001). Radiologically, the hips either stabilized in the same grade or progressed by one grade. MRI showed a decrease in marrow oedema in most cases at the 1-yr follow-up. Six patients (10 hips) required surgery and there were two (three hips) dropouts. The drug was well tolerated and there was a reduction in NSAID requirement. Alendronate reduces pain, improves function and retards AVN progression. Early surgical intervention can be avoided in most patients.

  6. Three-year experience with combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in Japanese patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Yoshihiro Sato2, Mitsuyoshi Uzawa3, Tsuyoshi Takeda1, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keiyu Orthopaedic Hospital, Gunma, JapanPurpose: Combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol is more useful to increase bone mineral density (BMD than alendronate or alfacalcidol alone. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the 3-year outcome of combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol in patients with severe bone loss (BMD ≤ 50% of the young adult mean and osteoporotic fracture.Methods: Thirty-four patients (six men and 28 postmenopausal women with primary or secondary osteoporosis who had been treated with alendronate and alfacalcidol for more than 3 years were analyzed. The lumbar spine or total hip BMD and bone turnover markers were monitored, and the incidence of osteoporotic fractures was assessed.Results: The urinary level of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum level of alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (-42.5% at 3 months and -18.9% at 3 years, and the lumbar spine BMD, but not the total hip BMD, significantly increased (14.8% at 3 years, compared with the baseline values. However, the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was 26.5% and 2.9%, respectively, suggesting a high incidence of vertebral fractures.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that combined treatment with alendronate and alfacalcidol may be useful to reduce bone turnover and increase the lumbar spine BMD in patients with severe bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. However, its efficacy against vertebral fractures appears not to be sufficient. Thus, anabolic agents such as teriparatide should be taken into consideration as first-line drugs in patients with severe osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis

  7. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Posadowska, U.; Pařízek, Martin; Filová, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, M.; Kamperman, M.; Bačáková, Lucie; Pamula, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 485, 1-2 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0378-5173 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sodium alendronate * PLGA * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2015

  8. Alendronate has a residual effect on bone mass in postmenopausal Danish women up to 7 years after treatment withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    for 7, 5, or 3 yr, respectively. Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, and forearm was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were induced serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) and osteocalcin. Women who received alendronate (2...... was found in women treated with alendronate 20 mg per day for 2 yr (9.7%, P=0.01 vs. placebo). The rate of bone loss after alendronate withdrawal was comparable to the bone loss observed in the placebo group. Bone markers tended to reverse back to normal levels, but were still affected even several years...

  9. Glucocorticoid Steroid and Alendronate Treatment Alleviates Dystrophic Phenotype with Enhanced Functional Glycosylation of α-Dystroglycan in Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy with FKRPP448L Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Shah, Sapana N; Lu, Peijuan; Richardson, Stephanie M; Bollinger, Lauren E; Blaeser, Anthony; Madden, Kyle L; Sun, Yubo; Luckie, Taylor M; Cox, Michael D; Sparks, Susan; Harper, Amy D; Lu, Qi Long

    2016-06-01

    Fukutin-related protein-muscular dystrophy is characterized by defects in glycosylation of α-dystroglycan with variable clinical phenotypes, most commonly as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. There is no effective therapy available. Glucocorticoid steroids have become the standard treatment for Duchenne and other muscular dystrophies with serious adverse effects, including excessive weight gain, immune suppression, and bone loss. Bisphosphonates have been used to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy for prevention of osteoporosis. Herein, we evaluated prednisolone and alendronate for their therapeutic potential in the FKRPP448L-mutant mouse representing moderate limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2I. Mice were treated with prednisolone, alendronate, and both in combination for up to 6 months. Prednisolone improved muscle pathology with significant reduction in muscle degeneration, but had no effect on serum creatine kinase levels and muscle strength. Alendronate treatment did not ameliorate muscle degeneration, but demonstrated a limited enhancement on muscle function test. Combined treatment of prednisolone and alendronate provided best improvement in muscle pathology with normalized fiber size distribution and significantly reduced serum creatine kinase levels, but had limited effect on muscle force generation. The use of alendronate significantly mitigated the bone loss. Prednisolone alone and in combination with alendronate enhance functionally glycosylated α-dystroglycan. These results, for the first time, demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of this alliance treatment of the two drugs for fukutin-related protein-muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of 1% alendronate gel as adjunct to mechanical therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Raman, Achala; Pradeep, Avani Raju

    2017-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN) inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption and triggers osteostimulative properties both in vivo and in vitro, as shown by increase in matrix formation. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of 1% ALN gel as local drug delivery (LDD) in adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis among smokers. 75 intrabony defects were treated in 46 male smokers either with 1% ALN gel or placebo gel. ALN gel was prepared by adding ALN into carbopol-distilled water mixture. Clinical parameters [modified sulcus bleeding index, plaque index, probing depth (PD), and periodontal attachment level (PAL)] were recorded at baseline, at 2 months, and at 6 months, while radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline and at 6 months. Defect fill at baseline and at 6 months was calculated on standardized radiographs by using the image analysis software. Mean PD reduction and mean PAL gain were found to be greater in the ALN group than in the placebo group, both at 2 and 6 months. Furthermore, a significantly greater mean percentage of bone fill was found in the ALN group (41.05±11.40%) compared to the placebo group (2.5±0.93%). The results of this study showed 1% ALN stimulated a significant increase in PD reduction, PAL gain, and an improved bone fill compared to placebo gel in chronic periodontitis among smokers. Thus, 1% ALN, along with SRP, is effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers.

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of alendronate and zoledronate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ana Julissa; Begoña, Leire; Anitua, Eduardo; Cobos, Raquel; Orive, Gorka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two bisphosphonates (alendronate and zoledronate) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The incidence of fractures was considered as primary endpoint. Only randomized trials with a follow-up period of 1 year or more were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. We excluded studies that included patients with secondary osteoporosis especially in relation to therapy with corticosteroids or other drugs or diseases known to affect bone mineral density. Studies published as subgroup analysis, extension studies, economic evaluations, and comparisons with active control were excluded. The methodological quality of controlled clinical trials that met these inclusion criteria was evaluated. No studies were excluded from analysis due to lack of quality. The risk ratio of hip, vertebral and wrist fractures for alendronate were 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.93], 0.54 (95% CI 0.44-0.66) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.33-1.25), respectively. Zoledronate risk ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.46-0.82) and 0.38 (95% CI 0.22-0.67) for hip and vertebral fractures, respectively.

  12. Acute bilateral uveitis and right macular edema induced by a single infusion of zoledronic acid for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a substitution for oral alendronate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiming; Wang, Rui; Liu, Lianyuan; Ma, Chunming; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Fuzai

    2016-02-11

    Zoledronic acid-induced uveitis (ZAIU) is rare but severe, and has been recently considered part of an acute phase reaction. Only 15 cases have been reported since 2005. Here we describe a case with macular edema, which is the first reported case observed after long-term alendronate tolerance. A 63-year-old Asian woman received her first intravenous zoledronic acid treatment for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis as a more convenient substitute for oral alendronate. Twenty-four hours later, bilateral eye irritations, periorbital swelling, blurred vision, and diplopia presented. The complete blood count and transaminase levels were normal, but the erythrocytic sedimentation, C-reactive protein, and serum C4 levels were elevated. On detailed ophthalmological examination, a diagnosis of bilateral acute uveitis and macular edema in the right eye was made. The ocular symptoms were not improved until administration of topical and oral steroids. Complete resolution was achieved. There was no rechallenge of bisphosphonates, and no recurrence at 6 months follow-up. Based on an extensive review, abnormal fundus is rarely reported, especially in cases of macular edema. Rechallenge with zoledronic acid in five cases induced no additional uveitis, and changing the medication to pamidronate in another patient was also tolerated. Interestingly, our patient suffered from uveitis soon after intravenous zoledronate exposure after a two-year tolerance to oral alendronate. This is the first report of zoledronic acid induced uveitis with macular edema after long-term alendronate tolerance. Prior oral alendronate may not entirely prevent ZAIU. Steroids are usually necessary in the treatment of ZAIU. Bisphosphonate rechallenge is not fully contraindicated, and prior steroid administration may be a more reasonable treatment choice according to the available evidence.

  13. Nodular scleritis following alendronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-01-01

    To report a case of nodular scleritis following alendronate sodium. A 54 year-old male was treated with alendronate sodium 70 mg orally once per week. Eight weeks later, he experienced pain and redness of the right eye. Biomicroscopy was performed. Patient was found to have inferonasal nodular scleritis. Laboratory work-up was unrevealing. Patient was given 4 mg of subtenon's triamcinolone acetate in the area of the nodular scleritis and had complete resolution. Two weeks following rechallenge with alendronate sodium resulted in recurrence of his scleritis. Alendronate led to nodular scleritis and rechallenge caused recurrence of scleritis.

  14. A urine midmolecule osteocalcin assay shows higher discriminatory power than a serum midmolecule osteocalcin assay during short-term alendronate treatment of osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A K; Mohan, S; Singer, F R; Baylink, D J

    2002-07-01

    We isolated and characterized a peptide fragment corresponding to amino acid sequence 14-28 of human osteocalcin in urine from Paget's disease, and developed a polyclonal antibody reactive to this peptide in urine. We used this antibody to measure urinary fragments of osteocalcin and compared to efficacy of the urinary osteocalcin assay with a serum osteocalcin (sOC) assay (ELISA-Osteo, Cis-Bio International) to monitor the short-term changes in bone turnover in response to alendronate treatment. The synthetic peptide-based urinary osteocalcin (uOC) radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed an analytical sensitivity of 6.25 ng/mL, standard curve range of 3.12-400 ng/mL, and mean intra- (n = 20) and interassay (n = 30) coefficient of variation (CV) of sALP) (Alkphose-B, Metra Biosystems) in serum samples. The percent change data obtained between baseline and 30 days (n = 18) posttreatment suggested a rapid decline in uOC concentration (-27%, p sALP (-3.4%, p = 0.689), two specific markers of bone formation. As expected, due to the coupling of bone formation and bone resorption, the concentration of all markers showed a 30%-45% decline compared with baseline values after 90 days (n = 16) of treatment. Correlation of markers after a 30 day treatment with alendronate revealed a higher correlation (r = 0.61, p sALP (r = -0.14, p = 0.295) with uNTx. Similarly, correlation coefficients with r values between 0.48 and 0.55 (p < 0.05) were observed between uOC, sNTx, and sCTx, whereas no significant correlation was observed between sOC and sNTx or sCTx. These results provide indirect evidence that fragments measured by the urine assay probably originated from bone resorption, and suggest that the uOC assay could be used to assess short-term changes in bone metabolism with regard to osteocalcin.

  15. Combined Treatment of Alendronate and Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS Increases Bone Mineral Density at the Cancellous Bone Osteotomy Site in Aged Rats: A Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aonuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During fracture healing, alendronate encourages callus volume by inhibiting bone resorption, whereas low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances bone regeneration by promoting an anabolic response. Methods: In the present study, 9-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, with a unilateral proximal tibial osteotomy, were treated with alendronate (daily, 1 g/kg plus sham-LIPUS (n = 14, saline plus LIPUS (20 min/day (n = 18, alendronate plus LIPUS (n = 16, or saline plus sham- LIPUS as a control (n = 13 for 4 weeks. The rats were then examined for changes in bone mineral density (BMD during metaphyseal bone repair. Results: The combined therapy signi cantly increased BMD at the osteotomy site at 4 weeks (p < 0.001 compared with the control, without affecting the contralateral, non-osteotomized tibia. Both alendronate and LIPUS alone also exerted a positive, albeit less, effect on BMD in the affected limb (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: Alendronate and LIPUS cooperate to enhance BMD during metaphyseal bone healing. Keywords: LIPUS, bisphosphonate, bone mineral density.

  16. Efficient Transdermal Delivery of Alendronate, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, Using Tip-Loaded Self-Dissolving Microneedle Arrays for the Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Tanaka, Yutaro; Hitomi, Kaori; Liu, Shu; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2017-08-17

    To improve the transdermal bioavailability and safety of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, we developed self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs), in which ALN is loaded only at the tip portion of micron-scale needles by a dip-coating method (ALN(TIP)-MN). We observed micron-scale pores in rat skin just after application of ALN(TIP)-MN, indicating that transdermal pathways for ALN were created by MN. ALN was rapidly released from the tip of MNs as observed in an in vitro release study. The tip portions of MNs completely dissolved in the rat skin within 5 min after application in vivo. After application of ALN(TIP)-MN in mice, the plasma concentration of ALN rapidly increased, and the bioavailability of ALN was approximately 96%. In addition, the decrease in growth plate was effectively suppressed by this efficient delivery of ALN in a rat model of osteoporosis. Furthermore, no skin irritation was observed after application of ALN(TIP)-MN and subcutaneous injection of ALN, while mild skin irritation was induced by whole-ALN-loaded MN (ALN-MN)-in which ALN is contained in the whole of the micron-scale needles fabricated from hyaluronic acid-and intradermal injection of ALN. These findings indicate that ALN(TIP)-MN is a promising transdermal formulation for the treatment of osteoporosis without skin irritation.

  17. Evidence for Using Alendronate to Treat Adult Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ru-Bin; Lin, Tiao; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Yan, Shi-Gui; Wang, Jian-An

    2014-01-01

    Osteonecrosis or avascular osteonecrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a devastating multifactorial disease that affects 20 000 persons each year in the United States. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy and safety of alendronate for adult AVN during short- and long-term follow-up. Electronic databases were searched for randomized or nonrandomized clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies, and series of cases in which alendronate was used for treatment of adult AVN of the femoral head. Relevant articles with adequate data on reduction of pain, improvement of articular function, slowing of bone collapse progression, or need for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight articles involving 788 hips with evidence level 1b to 3b were included in this systematic review. Most studies suggested a positive short-term efficacy of alendronate treatment in reducing pain, improving articular function, slowing of bone collapse progression, and delaying the need for THA for adult AVN patients. The favorable long-term results were also presented in those treated patients after 10-year follow-up. In addition, there were no severe adverse effects associated with alendronate treatment observed during short- and long-term follow-up, and most of the included studies suggested use of alendronate in early AVN with small necrotic lesion to achieve better outcomes. The findings support consideration of alendronate use for adult AVN, particularly with early stage and small necrotic size. The lack of large-scale, randomized, and double-blind studies justifies new studies to demonstrate the detailed indication and the optimized strategy of alendronate treatment. Level of evidence: Level 3a. PMID:25424061

  18. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... years were assigned to receive alendronate, placebo, or open-label estrogen-progestin (conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate or a cyclic regimen of 17 beta-estradiol, norethisterone acetate and estradiol). Of the original women, one third after year 2 and one third after year 4...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...

  19. Alendronate Sodium as Enteric Coated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles; Preparation, Optimization, and In Vivo Evaluation to Enhance Its Oral Bioavailability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Hosny

    Full Text Available Treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate sodium has several challenges. The first challenge is the low bioavailability. The second main challenge is side effects, which include oesophageal ulceration. The aim of this research was to reformulate alendronate sodium as enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles in order to enhance its bioavailability, and preventing the free alendronate sodium from coming into direct contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa, and thereby reducing the possibility of side effects. Enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared according to the Box-Behnken design employing Design expert® software, and characterized for size, morphology, and entrapment efficiency. The optimized formula was coated with an Eudragit S100 and evaluated for drug release in acidic and basic media, stability studies and pharmacokinetic evaluations on rabbits. The results indicated that, using Derringer's desirability functional tool for optimization, the highest entrapment efficiency value of 74.3% and the smallest size value of 98 nm were predicted under optimum conditions with a desirability value of 0.917. The optimized nanoparticles released alendronate sodium only at an alkaline pH. The pharmacokinetic evaluation revealed that alendronate sodium bioavailability was enhanced by more than 7.4-fold in rabbits. In conclusion, enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles is a promising formula for the delivery of alendronate sodium, eliminating its oesophageal side effects and enhancing its bioavailability.

  20. Influence of treatment with alendronate on the speed of sound, an ultrasound parameter, of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis: a clinical practice-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Tetsuya Takada,2 Yoshihiro Sato,3 Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hiyoshi Medical Clinic, Kanagawa, 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: The influence of alendronate (ALN treatment on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus remains to be established in Japanese patients. The aim of the present clinical practice-based observational study was to examine the influence of ALN treatment for 1 year on the speed of sound (SOS of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Patients and methods: Forty-five postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis who had received treatment with ALN for more than 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored over 1 year of ALN treatment.Results: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly from the baseline values (–44.9% at 3 months and –22.2% at 12 months, respectively. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly, from the baseline value (0.6% at both 6 and 12 months. The percentage decrease in the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen at 3 months was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in the SOS only at 6 months (correlation coefficient, 0.299.Conclusion: The present study confirmed that ALN treatment suppressed bone turnover, producing a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Keywords: postmenopausal osteoporosis, quantitative ultrasound (QUS, SOS, bone turnover, biochemical markers

  1. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  2. The Effect of Alendronate on Various Graft Materials Used in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Rabbit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Ferhat; Gungormus, Metin; Omezli, Mehmet Melih; Gundogdu, Betul

    2015-12-01

    Increasing sinus pneumatization and the accompanying alveolar bone resorption complicate dental implant placement. This problem can be overcome today by raising the maxillary sinus floor with graft materials. Bisphosphonates are commonly used to accelerate the recovery of the graft materials and to prevent resorption. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether systemic administration of a bisphosphonate (alendronate) would improve new bone formation and reduce fibrous tissue formation over a 6-week follow-up in rabbits treated with two different grafting materials for maxillary sinus floor augmentation. This experimental animal study was conducted at the Experimental Medical Application and Research Center at Erzurum/ Turkey. Twelve New Zealand rabbits, each weighing between 2.7 and 3.3 kg, were used. Twenty-four maxillary sinus floor elevation operations were performed, two on each animal (n = 24). Each elevation was repaired with either deproteinized bovine bone (xenograft) or autogenous bone graft obtained from the iliac crest. Both groups were divided into 2 subgroups: saline-treated and alendronate-treated. All groups underwent the same surgical procedures and evaluation, and were sacrificed at the 6th postoperative week. Sinuses augmented with deproteinized bovine bone (xenograft) and autogenous bone graft were examined histopathologically and histomorphometrically. At 6 weeks, the bone area was significantly larger in the Xenograft-Alendronate group (33.0% ± 5.0%) than in the Xenograft-Saline group (20.8% ± 4.9%) and the bone area was significantly larger in the Autogenous-Alendronate group (43.3% ± 3.8%) than in the Autogenous-Saline group (37.5% ± 6.6%) (P = 0.001). The histomorphometric and histopathological results consistently showed that alendronate stimulated bone formation and reduced fibrous tissue formation in maxillary sinus augmentation grafts, especially in the deproteinized bovine bone group (xenograft). Alendronate may be

  3. [Clinical application of alendronate for osteoporosis/osteopenia secondary to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Juan; Shen, Fei-Xia; Zheng, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Hai-Ling

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of alendronate for the treatment of osteoporosis/osteopenia secondary to hyperthyroidism. From April 2008 to November 2009, 27 patients with hyperthyroidism with osteoporosis/ osteopenia measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were included in this study, and then they were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B) by simple random sampling. Group A consisted of 14 patients treated with antithyroid drug and caltrate D, the antithyroid drug change with thyroid function, and caltrate D 600 mg per day. Group B consisted of 13 patients treated with antithyroid drug, caltrate D and alendronate, antithyroid drug and caltrate D the same as group A, and alendronate 70 mg weekly. Meanwhile, 21 healthy voluntary adults were chosen as control group. And compared with the control group which was treated with nothing. Followed-up for one year, the bone mineral density (including T-score, Z-score, BMD) in lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and distal radius (DR) and general information, were compared before and after treatment. BMD at FN and DR were significantly higher at 12 months after treatment than at the baseline in group A (P = 0.000); T-score, Z-score, and BMD at the LS, FN and DR were all significantly higher at 12 months after treatment than at the baseline in group B (P hyperthyroidism and osteoporosis/osteopenia. Compared with anti-thyroid drugs alone, treatment with alendronate can obtain more clinical effect and also very safety.

  4. Theoretical analysis of alendronate and risedronate effects on canine vertebral remodeling and microdamage

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiang; Erickson, Antonia M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Hazelwood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates suppress bone remodeling activity, increase bone volume, and significantly reduce fracture risk in individuals with osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases. The objectives of the current study were to develop a mathematical model that simulates control and 1 year experimental results following bisphosphonate treatment (alendronate or risedronate) in the canine fourth lumbar vertebral body, validate the model by comparing simulation predictions to 3 year experimental res...

  5. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ► The materials have high surface area and amino group. ► The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N 2 adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH 3 + on the matrix and -COO − belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate

  6. Alendronate inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice by induction of apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Manabu; Maeno, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ogata, Fusa; Masubuchi, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Aoki, Fumiaki; Suga, Tatsuo; Nagai, Ryozo; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-03-10

    Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema.

  7. Alendronate augments interleukin-1β release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xue; Tamai, Riyoko; Endo, Yasuo; Kiyoura, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1β, but not TNFα, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1β production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1β production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1β induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1β release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs

  8. Alendronate augments interleukin-1{beta} release from macrophages infected with periodontal pathogenic bacteria through activation of caspase-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Deng; Tamai, Riyoko [Division of Oral Bacteriology, Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomitamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan); Endo, Yasuo [Department of Molecular Regulation, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kiyoura, Yusuke [Division of Oral Bacteriology, Department of Oral Medical Science, Ohu University School of Dentistry, 31-1 Misumido, Tomitamachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8611 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are anti-bone-resorptive drugs with inflammatory side effects that include osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Oral bacteria have been considered to be a trigger for these NBP-associated jaw bone diseases. The present study examined the effects of alendronate (a typical NBP) and clodronate (a non-NBP) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, which are important pathogens of periodontal diseases. Pretreatment with alendronate augmented IL-1{beta}, but not TNF{alpha}, production by macrophages infected with P. gingivalis or T. forsythia. This augmentation of IL-1{beta} production was inhibited by clodronate. Furthermore, caspase-1, a promoter of IL-1{beta} production, was activated by treatment with alendronate, and caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the production of IL-1{beta} induced by alendronate and P. gingivalis. These results suggest that NBPs augment periodontal pathogenic bacteria-induced IL-1{beta} release via caspase-1 activation, and this phenomenon may contribute to the development of NBP-associated inflammatory side effects including jaw osteomyelitis. Co-treatment with clodronate may prevent and/or reduce these inflammatory effects induced by NBPs.

  9. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  10. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  11. Alendronate for fracture prevention in postmenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Kathryn K; Kerley, Sara Shelton

    2008-09-01

    Osteoporosis is an abnormal reduction in bone mass and bone deterioration leading to increased fracture risk. Alendronate (Fosamax) belongs to the bisphosphonate class of drugs, which act to inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the activity of osteoclasts. To assess the effectiveness of alendronate in the primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women. The authors searched Central, Medline, and EMBASE for relevant randomized controlled trials published from 1966 to 2007. The authors undertook study selection and data abstraction in duplicate. The authors performed meta-analysis of fracture outcomes using relative risks, and a relative change greater than 15 percent was considered clinically important. The authors assessed study quality through reporting of allocation concealment, blinding, and withdrawals. Eleven trials representing 12,068 women were included in the review. Relative and absolute risk reductions for the 10-mg dose were as follows. For vertebral fractures, a 45 percent relative risk reduction was found (relative risk [RR] = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.67). This was significant for primary prevention, with a 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80) and 2 percent absolute risk reduction; and for secondary prevention, with 45 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.69) and 6 percent absolute risk reduction. For nonvertebral fractures, a 16 percent relative risk reduction was found (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.94). This was significant for secondary prevention, with a 23 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92) and a 2 percent absolute risk reduction, but not for primary prevention (RR = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.04). There was a 40 percent relative risk reduction in hip fractures (RR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.92), but only secondary prevention was significant, with a 53 percent relative risk reduction (RR = 0.47; 95% CI

  12. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongdong, E-mail: lidongchem@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ► The materials have high surface area and amino group. ► The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH{sub 3}{sup +} on the matrix and -COO{sup −}belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate.

  13. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a post?hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, con...

  14. Effects of local alendronate sodium gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Kiany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical treatments for the modulation of host response are applied along with mechanical modalities as adjunctive to periodontal treatment. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of locally-delivered alendronate sodium gel in adjunction to scaling and root planning on periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical defects of smokers with chronic periodontitis. Methods and Materials: In this study vertical defects (n=8 with depth>5 mm have been investigated. After performing the phase I of periodontal treatment, alendronate sodium gel (1% was applied into the periodontal pockets. The whole procedure was repeated after 4 weeks. Periodontal indices (plaque and bleeding, probing depth, gingival recession, and radiographic parameter (depth of bony defect were measured at the beginning and following 6 months. Results: Compared to pre-treatment, the probing depth, radiographic depth of bony defect and bleeding and plaque indices were significantly reduced by local application of alendronate sodium gel (P=0.026; P=0.012 and P=0.007 respectively. Gingival recession showed significant increase (P=0.011. Conclusion: Local alendronate sodium gel (1% plays an important role in the improvement process of periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical bony defects of smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

  15. Zoledronic acid and alendronate sodium and the implications in orthodontic movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, J S; Soares, F M P; Zaniboni, E; Vedovello Filho, M; Santamaria, M P; Dos Santos, G M T; Esquisatto, M A M; Felonato, M; Mendonca, F A S; Franzini, C M; Santamaria, M

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats treated with two types of bisphosphonates (BPs), alendronate sodium (A) and zoledronic acid (Z). In all, 15 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group OTM+A: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of alendronate sodium (2.5 mg/kg); Group OTM+Z: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous administration of zoledronic acid (0.02 mg/kg), and Group OTM: orthodontic tooth movement and subcutaneous injection of saline. The BPs were administered once a day during 25 days before OTM started and during 10 days of OTM. The left upper first molar was moved with a stainless-steel closed coil spring which delivered an initial force of 0.4N. OTM was measured with a digital caliper comparing the moved and the contralateral side. The histomorphometric analysis counted the number of osteoclasts, inflammatory cells, blood vessels and fibroblasts (n/10 4  m 2 ) in periodontal ligament (PDL) of the distobuccal root. A reduction of 58.3% of OTM was found in Group OTM+A and 99.6% in Group OTM+Z, when compared with Group OTM. There was a significant decrease of osteoclasts and inflammatory cells in BP-treated groups. Blood vessels and fibroblastic cells decreased mainly in Group OTM+Z. Alendronate sodium and zoledronic acid have similar effects on the periodontal tissue during orthodontic treatment in rats. Especially, zoledronic acid can affect orthodontic tooth movement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of docetaxel and alendronate-loaded chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of docetaxel and alendronate-loaded chitosan-conjugated polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: In vitro characterization in osteosarcoma cells. ... typical time-dependent cellular uptake and also displayed superior cytotoxicity in MG-63 cells compared with blank NPs, which were safe and biocompatible.

  17. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E; Black, Dennis M; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-05-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in relation to fracture risk with alendronate versus placebo in postmenopausal women. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Fracture Intervention Trial (FIT), a randomized, controlled trial that investigated the effect of alendronate versus placebo on fracture risk in postmenopausal women. We used SPC, a statistical method used for monitoring processes for quality control, to determine if and when the intervention group benefited significantly more than the control group. SPC discriminated between the normal variations over time in the numbers of fractures in both groups and the variations that were attributable to alendronate. The TTB was defined as the time point from which the cumulative difference in the number of clinical fractures remained greater than the upper control limit on the SPC chart. For the total group, the TTB was defined as 11 months. For patients aged ≥70 years, the TTB was 8 months [absolute risk reduction (ARR) = 1.4%]; for patients aged <70 years, it was 19 months (ARR = 0.7%). SPC is a clear and understandable graphical method to determine the TTB. Its main advantage is that there is no need to define a prespecified time point, as is the case in traditional survival analyses. Prescribing alendronate to patients who are aged ≥70 years is useful because the TTB shows that they will benefit after 8 months. Investigators should report the TTB to simplify clinical decision making.

  18. Tc-99m Radiolabeled Alendronate Sodium Microemulsion: Characterization and Permeability Studies Across Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, Yetkin; Ekinci, Meliha; Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Gundogdu, Evren; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2018-01-01

    Alendronate sodium (ALD) is used orally but it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For this reason, microemulsion system was chosen to evaluate ALD from the GI tract after oral delivery. This study was aimed to prepare water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion formulation of ALD and evaluate the permeability of ALD microemulsion from Caco-2 cell lines with radioactive and nonradioactive studies. The ALD microemulsion was developed by using pseudo-ternary phase diagram and composed of Soybean oil, Colliphor EL, Tween 80, Transcutol and distilled water. The prepared ALD microemulsion was characterized by physical appearance, droplet size, viscosity, pH, electrical conductivity and refractive index. The stability of the formulation was investigated for 6 months at 25±2°C/60±5% of relative humidity (RH) as well as at 40±2°C/75±5% RH. After that 1 mg of ALD was radiolabeled with 99mTc and added to microemulsion. The permeability studies were performed with both 99mTc-ALD microemulsion and ALD microemulsion. The experimental results suggested that ALD microemulsion presented adequate stability with droplet size varying from 37.8±0.9 to 39.9±1.2 nm during incubation time. In addition, ALD microemulsion was radiolabeled with high labeling efficiency (>95%). In a non-radioactive study, ALD permeability was found to be 45 µg.mL-1 and microemulsion has high permeability percentage when compared to another study. The novel w/o microemulsion formulation has been developed for oral delivery of ALD. Based on the results, permeability of ALD could be significantly improved by the microemulsion formulation. In addition, 99mTc-ALD microemulsion in capsule can be used for bone disease treatment and diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. A comparative study of zoledronic acid and once weekly Alendronate in the management of acute Charcot arthropathy of foot in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bharath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the response to two forms of treatment-immobilization with zoledronic acid injection and immobilization with oral weekly Alendronate, in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute Charcot arthropathy (CA of foot in terms of clinical and radiological parameters. Material and Methods: Patients attending the endocrinology and podiatry clinic with history of diabetes mellitus and Acute CA were taken for study. The patients were randomized into two treatment groups. Group Z-zoledronic acid injection along with total contact cast (TCC. Group A-Tab. Alendronate 70 mg. once a week till the complete clinical resolution of acute CA along with TCC. Forty-five patients were randomized and 40 of them completed the study. The primary end point was complete clinical resolution of acute CA-defined as temperature difference between normal and affected foot <1oF. Results: Among the 40 patients, 30 (75% had complete clinical resolution. The mean number of days taken for complete clinical resolution since the initiation of treatment (either Zoledronic acid or Alendronate was approximately 122 days. There was no significant difference in a number of days required for complete clinical resolution, between the two forms of therapy. There was more than 50% reduction in the visual score between the baseline and the final scan. The target to non-target ratio in the skeletal phase also showed an average of 40% reduction from the baseline to the final skeletal scintigraphy. Conclusion: Both Intravenous Zoledronic acid and oral alendronate had comparable efficacy with respect to the time taken for attaining complete clinical resolution of acute CA of foot. However, Alendronate therapy was cost effective among the two. 99m Tc MDP bone scan can be used as an adjuvant to the clinical parameters in assessing the response to therapy.

  20. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2011-01-01

    their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50 + ) and 122,424 matched controls......Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p ...

  1. A remarkable hematological and molecular response pattern in a patient with polycythemia vera during combination therapy with simvastatin and alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lindholm Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year old man with polycythemia vera, who had a remarkable hematological and molecular response during treatment with simvastatin and alendronate. The patient was treated with this combination for 56 months, and during this period the patient has been in complete hematological remission. The JAK2-V617F allele burden has dropped from 64% to sustained values below 20%, and follow-up bone marrow biopsies have revealed no change in PV features, without any regular cytoreductive treatment.

  2. Effects of local alendronate sodium gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing on smokers with chronic periodontitis: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Farin Kiany; Hashem Montaseri; Sadaf Adibi; Masoud Golshah; Saba Golshah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chemical treatments for the modulation of host response are applied along with mechanical modalities as adjunctive to periodontal treatment. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of locally-delivered alendronate sodium gel in adjunction to scaling and root planning on periodontal indices and bone formation within vertical defects of smokers with chronic periodontitis. Methods and Materials: In this study vertical defects (n=8) with depth>5 mm have be...

  3. Treated Hypertension has No Influence on the Efficacy of Alendronate in the Therapy of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Non-Randomized, Non-Blind, Controlled Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Matziolis, Doerte; Drewke, Monika; Matziolis, Georg; Perka, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Changes in hormone metabolism during menopause are involved in the development of osteoporosis and arterial hypertension. A mutual influence of these two clinical pictures is evident on the basis of pathophysiological factors. In this study, we investigated whether a drug therapy of hypertension influences the efficacy of a bisphosphonate (alendronate) in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. For this purpose, 60 female patients were enrolled in the study, 30 of them on drug treatment...

  4. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  5. Effects of odanacatib on bone matrix mineralization in rhesus monkeys are similar to those of alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M. Misof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Odanacatib (ODN is a selective and reversible inhibitor of cathepsin K which is an important enzyme for the degradation of collagen I. Aim of the present work was the head-to-head comparison between the effects of ODN and alendronate (ALN on bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD, based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging in relation to changes in histomorphometric mineralizing surface per bone surface (MS/BS in 12–22 years old ovariectomized rhesus monkeys. Trabecular and cortical BMDD derived parameters from vertebrae and proximal tibiae were compared among vehicle (VEH, n = 8, odanacatib low dose (ODN-L, n = 8, odanacatib high dose (ODN-H, n = 8, and alendronate (ALN, n = 6 treated animals. Additionally, data from an intact, non-treated group of animals are shown (INT, n = 8. In trabecular bone from the vertebra and metaphyseal tibia, the BMDD of the ODN and ALN treatment groups was shifted toward higher mineralization densities (p < 0.001 consistent with the significant reduction of MS/BS (p < 0.05 in ODN-H and ALN compared to VEH. Vertebral trabecular CaMean (average degree of mineralization was significantly higher in ODN-L (+6.5%, ODN-H (+6.1%, and ALN (+6.7%, all p < 0.001. Tibial osteonal cortical bone revealed also significantly increased CaMean for ODN-L (+1.4%, p < 0.05, ODN-H (+2.2%, p < 0.05, and ALN (+3.4%, p < 0.001 versus VEH, while primary cortical bone (devoid of secondary osteons did not show any significant differences between the study groups. The percentage of primary bone area in the tibial cross-sections (on average 45 ± 12% was also not significantly different between the study groups (p = 0.232. No significant differences in any BMDD parameters of all studied skeletal sites between ODN and ALN treatment were found. Correlation analysis revealed that MS/BS was highly predictive for trabecular BMDD in vertebral bone. The higher MS/BS, the lower was CaMean. Our findings are

  6. Effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Varda; Benbassat, Carlos A; Laron, Zvi

    2006-04-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Whether patients with LS are osteopenic or not, and whether they need treatment with bisphosphonates, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of alendronate on the IGF-I-deficient bones of adult patients with LS and osteoporosis, as determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry . Seven patients (5 women and 2 men) of mean age 40.8+/-7.6 years and mean bone mass density (BMD) 0.843+/-0.06 g/cm2 (T score -2.9+/-0.5) at the lumbar spine and 0.734+/-0.11 g/cm2 (T score -2.2+/-0.9) at the femoral neck were treated with alendronate 70 mg once/weekly over a 12-month period. Treatment led to an increase of 5.3% in BMD (p=0.038) at the femoral neck. There was a similar trend at the lumbar spine, but the difference was not statistically significant (2.3%, p=0.34). Mean total alkaline phosphatase decreased by 14% from normal range at baseline (p=0.007). Urinary deoxypyridinoline levels, which were elevated at baseline (10+/-2.3 nM/mMcre), showed a nonsignificant change during treatment. Our study suggests that treatment with alendronate may have positive effects in patients with LS and low BMD on dual X-ray absorptiometry.

  7. Validated spectrophotometric methods for determination of Alendronate sodium in tablets through nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walash Mohamed I

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate (ALD is a member of the bisphosphonate family which is used for the treatment of osteoporosis, bone metastasis, Paget's disease, hypocalcaemia associated with malignancy and other conditions that feature bone fragility. ALD is a non-chromophoric compound so its determination by conventional spectrophotometric methods is not possible. So two derivatization reactions were proposed for determination of ALD through the reaction with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB as chromogenic derivatizing reagents. Results Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of ALD. Method I is based on the reaction of ALD with NBD-Cl. Method II involved heat-catalyzed derivatization of ALD with DNFB, while, Method III is based on micellar-catalyzed reaction of the studied drug with DNFB at room temperature. The reactions products were measured at 472, 378 and 374 nm, for methods I, II and III, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration ranges of 1.0-20.0, 4.0-40.0 and 1.5-30.0 μg/mL with lower limits of detection of 0.09, 1.06 and 0.06 μg/mL for Methods I, II and III, respectively. The proposed methods were applied for quantitation of the studied drug in its pure form with mean percentage recoveries of 100.47 ± 1.12, 100.17 ± 1.21 and 99.23 ± 1.26 for Methods I, II and III, respectively. Moreover the proposed methods were successfully applied for determination of ALD in different tablets. Proposals of the reactions pathways have been postulated. Conclusion The proposed spectrophotometric methods provided sensitive, specific and inexpensive analytical procedures for determination of the non-chromophoric drug alendronate either per se or in its tablet dosage forms without interference from common excipients. Graphical abstract

  8. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  9. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  10. The use of alendronate is associated with a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus--a population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling has been linked to glucose metabolism in animal studies, but the results of human trials were inconclusive. Bisphosphonates may play a role in glucose metabolism through their impacts on bone remodeling enzymes. In this study, we aimed to examine the influence of alendronate usage on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among osteoporotic patients.A retrospective cohort study was designed to include osteoporotic patients without DM from a population-based cohort containing 1,000,000 subjects. Patients treated with alendronate (exposed group, N=1,011 were compared with those who received no treatment (age and gender matched non-exposed group, N=3,033. Newly diagnosed DM was identified from medical records by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9CM code. The incidence of DM in both groups was calculated for comparison.The non-exposed group had a significantly higher incidence of DM (Odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03~1.41 when compared with the exposed group. In subgroup analysis, the DM risk reduction in exposed group was only significant among those younger than 65 years and those without hypertension or dyslipidemia. Patients who were prescribed alendronate more than or equal to 3 times had demonstrated a significant reduction in DM risk.Our study showed alendronate might yield a protective effect for incident DM. This effect became insignificant in patients with older age, dyslipidemia or hypertension. The underlying mechanism needs further exploration with prospective data for confirmation of the observed findings.

  11. Effect of an estrogen-deficient state and alendronate therapy on bone loss resulting from experimental periapical lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haofei; Peng, Bin; Wei, Lili; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Li

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the impact of an estrogen-deficient state and alendronate (ALD) therapy on bone loss resulting from experimental periapical lesions in rats. Periapical lesions were induced on ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-ovariectomized (Sham) rats. After sample preparation, histologic and radiographic examination for periapical bone loss area and an enzyme histochemical test for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were performed. The results showed that OVX significantly increased bone loss resulting from periradicular lesions. After daily subcutaneous injection of ALD, the bone loss area and the number of TRAP-positive cells (osteoclasts) were reduced. These findings suggested that alendronate may protect against increased bone loss from experimental periapical lesions in estrogen-deficient rats. Given recent recognition of adverse effects of bisphosphonates, including an increased risk for osteonecrosis, the findings from this study should not be interpreted as a new indication for ALD treatment. However, they may offer insight into understanding and predicting outcomes in female postmenopausal patients already on ALD therapy for medical indications.

  12. Diagnostic PET Imaging of Mammary Microcalcifications Using 64Cu-DOTA-Alendronate in a Rat Model of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Bradley J; Li, Lin; Ciminera, Alexandra K; Chea, Junie; Poku, Erasmus; Bading, James R; Weist, Michael R; Miller, Marcia M; Colcher, David M; Shively, John E

    2017-09-01

    The development of improved breast cancer screening methods is hindered by a lack of cancer-specific imaging agents and effective small-animal models to test them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate as a mammary microcalcification-targeting PET imaging agent, using an ideal rat model. Our long-term goal is to develop 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate for the detection and noninvasive differentiation of malignant versus benign breast tumors with PET. Methods: DOTA-alendronate was synthesized, radiolabeled with 64 Cu, and administered to normal or tumor-bearing aged, female, retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats for PET imaging. Mammary tissues were subsequently labeled and imaged with light, confocal, and electron microscopy to verify microcalcification targeting specificity of DOTA-alendronate and elucidate the histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the microcalcifications in different mammary tumor types. Tumor uptake, biodistribution, and dosimetry studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate. Results: 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate was radiolabeled with a 98% yield. PET imaging using aged, female, retired breeder rats showed specific binding of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate in mammary glands and mammary tumors. The highest uptake of 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate was in malignant tumors and the lowest uptake in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Confocal analysis with carboxyfluorescein-alendronate confirmed the microcalcification binding specificity of alendronate derivatives. Biodistribution studies revealed tissue alendronate concentrations peaking within the first hour, then decreasing over the next 48 h. Our dosimetric analysis demonstrated a 64 Cu effective dose within the acceptable range for clinical PET imaging agents and the potential for translation into human patients. Conclusion: 64 Cu-DOTA-alendronate is a promising PET imaging agent for the sensitive and specific detection of mammary tumors as

  13. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis. Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment. Results: On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant. Conclusions: It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  14. Exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction of anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in androgen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, Urszula; Pytlik, Maria; Folwarczna, Joanna; Miozga, Rafał; Piskorz, Szymon; Nowak, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used long-term in elderly patients, increase the risk of osteoporotic fractures, and decrease the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of physical exercise on the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate administered concurrently with lansoprazole, a PPI, in male rats with androgen deficiency induced by orchidectomy. Male Wistar rats at 3 months of age were divided into: sham-operated control rats, orchidectomized (ORX) control rats, ORX rats receiving alendronate, ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole, ORX rats receiving alendronate and subjected to exercise, and ORX rats receiving alendronate and lansoprazole and subjected to exercise. The orchidectomy or sham-operation was performed 7-8 days before the start of drug administration. The rats were subjected to the exercise on the treadmill 1 hour/day for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Alendronate sodium (3 mg/kg p.o.) and lansoprazole (4 mg/kg p.o.) were administered once daily for 7 weeks (6 days a week). Mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed. Bone turnover markers, histomorphometric parameters, bone mass and mass of bone mineral were also studied. Lansoprazole weakened the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate. The exercise increased the alendronate effect. Similar changes were observed in the rats treated with lansoprazole and alendronate, subjected to exercise; no deleterious effects of lansoprazole were observed. In conclusion, the exercise prevented the lansoprazole-induced reduction the anti-osteoporotic efficacy of alendronate in orchidectomized rats.

  15. Differences in otosclerotic and normal human stapedial osteoblast properties are normalized by alendronate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Richardson, Yvonne L; Flynn, John; Kveton, John; Eisen, Marc; Leonard, Gerald; Aronow, Michael; Rodner, Craig; Parham, Kourosh

    2014-10-01

    Identify and compare phenotypic properties of osteoblasts from patients with otosclerosis (OSO), normal bones (HOB), and normal stapes (NSO) to determine a possible cause for OSO hypermineralization and assess any effects of the bisphosphonate, alendronate. OSO (n = 11), NSO (n = 4), and HOB (n = 13) cultures were assayed for proliferation, adhesion, mineralization, and gene expression with and without 10(-10)M-10(-8)M alendronate. Academic hospital. Cultures were matched for age, sex, and passage number. Cell attachment and proliferation + alendronate were determined by Coulter counting cells and assaying tritiated thymidine uptake, respectively. At 7, 14, and 21 days of culture + alendronate, calcium content and gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were determined. OSO had significantly more cells adhere but less proliferation than NSO or HOB. Calcification was significantly increased in OSO compared to HOB and NSO. NSO and HOB had similar cell adhesion and proliferation rates. A dose-dependent effect of alendronate on OSO adhesion, proliferation, and mineralization was found, resulting in levels equal to NSO and HOB. All cultures expressed osteoblast-specific genes such as RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteocalcin. However, osteopontin was dramatically reduced, 9.4-fold at 14 days, in OSO compared to NSO. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG), important in bone resorption, was elevated in OSO with decreased levels of OPG levels. Alendronate had little effect on gene expression in HOB but in OSO increased osteopontin levels and decreased RANKL/OPG. OSO cultures displayed properties of hypermineralization due to decreased osteopontin (OPN) and also had increased RANKL/OPG, which were normalized by alendronate. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  16. The resistance of cortical bone tissue to failure under cyclic loading is reduced with alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Geissler, Joseph R; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B; Fritton, J C

    2014-07-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most prescribed preventative treatment for osteoporosis. However, their long-term use has recently been associated with atypical fractures of cortical bone in patients who present with low-energy induced breaks of unclear pathophysiology. The effects of bisphosphonates on the mechanical properties of cortical bone have been exclusively studied under simple, monotonic, quasi-static loading. This study examined the cyclic fatigue properties of bisphosphonate-treated cortical bone at a level in which tissue damage initiates and is accumulated prior to frank fracture in low-energy situations. Physiologically relevant, dynamic, 4-point bending applied to beams (1.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 10 mm) machined from dog rib (n=12/group) demonstrated mechanical failure and micro-architectural features that were dependent on drug dose (3 groups: 0, 0.2, 1.0mg/kg/day; alendronate [ALN] for 3 years) with cortical bone tissue elastic modulus (initial cycles of loading) reduced by 21% (pbone remodeling, such as the size of osteons (-14%; ALN1.0: 10.5±1.8, VEH: 12.2±1.6, ×10(3) μm2; pbone tissue are altered by high-dose ALN treatment and contribute to reduced mechanical properties under cyclic loading conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro disintegration studies of weekly generic alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg) available in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Richard J; Crail, Debbie J; Perkins, Alan C

    2009-02-01

    Bisphosphonates as a class have the potential to cause upper gastrointestinal irritation. Although the generic alendronate sodium tablets are bioequivalent to the branded product, a potential concern is that the pharmaceutical attributes of the various generic formulations my affect the potential for local irritation and tolerability. The in vitro disintegration times were determined using the method described in the US Pharmacopeia 30 (USP 30). The disintegration of three generic alendronate sodium tablets 70 mg available in the United States was compared to that of the branded product. The mean disintegration times of the generic alendronate sodium tablets ranged from 9 to 10 s for the Barr lots to 108 s for the Watson lot. The disintegration time of the branded product (Fosamax) was 53 s. The three Barr lots and one Teva lot had rapid disintegration times which were similar to the disintegration standards (disintegrating tablets. Since there is no established disintegration time for alendronate sodium tablets there can be no assurance that the generic tablets are equivalent to the branded product in terms of esophageal exposure. However, the in vitro disintegration times have not been correlated with in vivo disintegration performance. Copies of generic alendronate sodium tablets are approved based on the results of single-dose bioavailability studies in healthy subjects and this is not considered adequate to establish similar disintegration characteristics.

  18. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sodium alendronate on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vera de Fátima Padrão; Caldeira, Celso L; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2006-12-01

    External root resorption processes are usually associated with dental trauma, mainly avulsion and intrusion. In such cases endodontic therapy aims to prevent this process by using medications that can inhibit osteoclastic activity, such as bisphosphonates. However, these drugs must be biocompatible to the periapical tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of a bisphosphonate (sodium alendronate) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells). Cells were plated in a density of 1 x 10(3) cells per dish. The experimental groups were GI (control) no sodium alendronate, and GII, GIII, and GIV with sodium alendronate at the concentrations of 10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7) M, respectively. The experimental times were 1, 6, 12, and 24 h (short-term) for viability and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days (long-term) for cell survival. Data in triplicate were statistically analyzed. Cultures treated with the highest alendronate concentration (GII) showed cell viability percentages significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other groups (GI, GIII, and GIV), at 12 and 24 h. Cell growth on GII and GIII groups was similar. GII presented smaller growth than the other groups (P < 0.05). We concluded that sodium alendronate, on direct contact with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, is cytotoxic in concentrations higher than of 10(-6) M.

  19. Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Ochiuz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on solid lipid particles (SLPs, described in the literature as the most effective lipid drug delivery systems that have been introduced in the last decades, as they actually combine the advantages of polymeric particles, hydrophilic/lipophilic emulsions and liposomes. In the current study, we present our most recent advances in the preparation of alendronate (AL-loaded SLPs prepared by hot homogenization and ultrasonication using various ratios of a self-emulsifying lipidic mixture of Compritol 888, Gelucire 44/14, and Cremophor A 25. The prepared AL-loaded SLPs were investigated for their physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics by dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Entrapment efficacy and actual drug content were assessed by a validated HPLC method. In vitro dissolution tests performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids and phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4 revealed a prolonged release of AL of 70 h. Additionally, release kinetics analysis showed that both in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in phosphate buffer solution, AL is released from SLPs based on equal ratios of lipid excipients following zero-order kinetics, which characterizes prolonged-release drug systems.

  20. Effect of heparin and alendronate coating on titanium surfaces on inhibition of osteoclast and enhancement of osteoblast function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Yun, Young-Pil [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Choong-Wan; Kim, Min Sung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Soo [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Woo [Department of Technology Commercialization Information, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), 66, Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-741 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Moo; Lee, Chang-Hoon [Department of Oriental Gynecology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Su [Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Il Keun, E-mail: kwoni@khu.ac.kr [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} We examine bone metabolism of engineered alendronate attached to Ti surfaces. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti enhances activation of osteoblast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti inhibits osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions. -- Abstract: The failure of orthopedic and dental implants has been attributed mainly to loosening of the implant from host bone, which may be due to weak bonding of the implant material to bone tissue. Titanium (Ti) is used in the field of orthopedic and dental implants because of its excellent biocompatibility and outstanding mechanical properties. Therefore, in the field of materials science and tissue engineering, there has been extensive research to immobilize bioactive molecules on the surface of implant materials in order to provide the implants with improved adhesion to the host bone tissue. In this study, chemically active functional groups were introduced on the surface of Ti by a grafting reaction with heparin and then the Ti was functionalized by immobilizing alendronate onto the heparin-grafted surface. In the MC3T3-E1 cell osteogenic differentiation study, the alendronate-immobilized Ti substrates significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium content. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited with the alendronate-immobilized Ti as confirmed by TRAP analysis. Real time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin, which are markers for osteogenesis, were upregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti. The mRNA expressions of TRAP and Cathepsin K, markers for osteoclastogenesis, in RAW264.7 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti were down-regulated. Our study suggests that alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions to enhance

  1. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  2. Preparation and Biological Study of (68)Ga-DOTA-alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhari, Ashraf; Jalilian, Amir R; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Shafiee-Ardestani, Mehdi; Khalaj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA-conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN) was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 ((68)Ga). DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by (68)Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and (68)GaCl3 (pH: 4-5) at 92-95° C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation, biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats. The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320 GBq/mmol) after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a log P value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65%) was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (<1%) at 30 min after the injection. The data were also confirmed by sequential imaging at 30-90 min following the intravenous injection. The high solubility and anionic properties of the complex led to major renal excretion and low hydroxyapatite uptake; therefore, the complex failed to demonstrate bone imaging behaviors.

  3. 阿仑膦酸钠对绝经后骨质疏松性骨痛的疗效分析%Effect analysis of alendronate on postmenopausal osteoporosis with bone ache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone component and regeneration of the microstructure of bone tissues, osteoporosis occurs in postmenopausal women for decreased estrogen level. Those women with osteoporosis often suffer from bone ache, such as pain at low back, back, knees and heels. In severe cases, there may be crookback or non- violent fracture. Objective: To discuss treatment effect of the Alendronate on 56 postmenopausal women with bone ache caused by osteoporosis. Unit: 210 Hospital of PLA.

  4. Effect of Low-Magnitude Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Alendronate in Ovariectomized Rats: A Random Controlled Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Wei; Ding, Ruo-Ting; Yu, Hui; Chen, Jian-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Background Alendronate (ALE) is a conventional drug used to treat osteoporosis. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been developed as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low-magnitude WBV could enhance the protective effect of ALE on bone properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods A total of 128 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (SHAM, OVX+VEH, OVX+WBV, OVX + ALE, OVX+WBV+ALE). The level of WBV applied was 0.3 g at 45–55 Hz for 20 min/day, 5 day/week and for 3 months. ALE was administered in dose of 1 mg/Kg once a week. Every four weeks eight rats from each group were sacrificed and their blood and both tibiae were harvested. The expression of osteocalcin and CTX in serum was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the tibiae were subjected to metaphyseal three-point bending and μCT analysis. Results Osteocalcin rose after ovariectomy and was not appreciably changed by either alendronate or WBV alone or in combination. Alendronate treatment significantly prevented an increase in CTX. WBV alone treatment did not alter this effect. Compared with the OVX+WBV group, nearly all tested indices such as the BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, Tb.Th, and Conn.D were higher in the OVX+ALE group at week 12.Compared with the OVX+WBV group, certain tested indices such as BV/TV, TV apparent, Tb.N, and Con.D, were higher in the OVX+WBV+ALE group at week 12. At week 12, tibiae treated with WBV+ALE exhibited a significantly higher Fmax compared to the OVX+VEH group, and a significant difference was also found in energy absorption between the OVX+WBV+ALE and OVX+VEH groups. Conclusions Compared with the WBV, ALE was more effective at preventing bone loss and improved the trabecular architecture. However, WBV enhanced the effect of alendronate in ovariectomized rats by inducing further improvements in trabecular architecture. PMID:24796785

  5. Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-09-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.

  6. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. DESIGN: Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. SETTING: Nationwide study of population of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 61 990 men...... ratio (MPR, a proxy for compliance) >80%) compared with poor adherence (MPR

  7. Effect of alendronate on early bone loss of renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abediazar, S; Nakhjavani, M R

    2011-03-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at risk of developing osteoporosis and osteopenia due to underlying renal osteodystrophy, hypophosphatemia, and immunosuppression. This process occurs more frequently in the first year after renal transplantation (RTX), resulting in eventual bone loss and fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose alendronate to prevent early bone loss after RTX. We prospectively studied 43 successful RTR including 22 men and 21-women with a mean overall age of 39.16±11.73 years, mean body mass index of 23.6±3.73, and mean dialysis duration of 25.73±17.67 months. We matched them based on age and sex: the alendronate-treated group received vitamin D (Vit D) during the study plus 30 mg alendronate weekly from 1 month after RTX. The control group only received Vit D. We measured serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea, creatinine, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) at the pretransplant baseline and monthly thereafter as well as BMD of the lumbar spine, femur, and radius pretransplant baseline versus 3 and 6 months after RTX. At 6 month after RTX, the lumbar BMD in the alendronate group increased significantly from 0.819±0.11 to 0.863±0.14 (Pbone loss and increase BMD immediately after RTX. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effect of topical alendronate on root resorption of dried replanted dog teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, L; Bryson, E C; Caplan, D; Trope, M

    2001-06-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a third generation bisphosphonate with demonstrated osteoclast inhibitory activity that may slow down the resorptive process after severe traumatic injuries. Eighty-two premolar roots of five mongrel dogs were endodontically treated and restored, extracted and treated as follows: 70 roots were bench dried for either 40 or 60 min. Thirty-eight of these roots were then soaked for 5 min in a 1 mM solution of ALN in Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and replanted. Thirty-two roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. In the remaining 12 roots which were not exposed to the bench drying procedure, a 0.5 mM deep lingual mid-root cemental defect was made. Six of these roots were soaked in a 1 mM solution of ALN in HBSS for 5 min and replanted. The other six roots were soaked for 5 min in HBSS and replanted. Historical negative and positive controls were used from similarly treated teeth in our previous studies. After 4 months the dogs were killed and the roots prepared for histological evaluation. Five-microm-thick cross-sections of the root and surrounding tissue taken every 70 microm were evaluated for healing according to the criteria of Andreasen. In the 12 roots with cemental defects, healing with cementum of the damaged root surface was evaluated. In addition, residual root mass was also measured to determine the extent of root structure loss for each soaking method. Cemental healing took place in all 12 artificially damaged roots, indicating that these soaking media did not inhibit cementogenesis. The alendronate-soaked roots had statistically significantly more healing than the roots soaked in HBSS without alendronate. This improvement in healing was seen in all dogs except one and in all teeth except the first premolar. Soaking in alendronate also resulted in significantly less loss in root mass due to resorption compared to those teeth soaked in HBSS without alendronate.

  9. Treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontenla, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    All aspects of treatment planning in radiotherapy are discussed in detail. Included are, among others, machine data and their acquisition, photon dose calculations and tests thereof, criteria of acceptability, sources of uncertainties, from 2D to 3D and from 3D to IMRT, dosimetric measurements for RTP validation, frequency of QA tests and suggested tolerances for TPS, time and staff requirements, model based segmentation, multi-dimensional radiotherapy (MD C RT), and biological IMRT process. (P.A.)

  10. Use of Calcium and Alendronic Acid Preparations in Correction of Structural and Functional Disorders of Bone Tissue in Thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Oliynyk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impact of calcium and alendronic acid preparations on disorders of structural and functional state of bone tissue in experimental animals at exogenic thyrotoxicosis was studied. It was defined that introduction of calcium preparations reduces bone mineral density loss in female rats with drug thyrotoxicosis, and combined use of calcium and alendronic acid prevents bone tissue loss regardless of thyrotoxicosis duration and presence of ovariectomy.

  11. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of alendronate on post-traumatic osteoarthritis induced by anterior cruciate ligament rupture in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Mohammad S; Diko, Sindi; Hsia, Allison W; Anderson, Matthew J; Genetos, Damian C; Haudenschild, Dominik R; Christiansen, Blaine A

    2015-02-16

    Previous studies in animal models of osteoarthritis suggest that alendronate (ALN) has antiresorptive and chondroprotective effects, and can reduce osteophyte formation. However, these studies used non-physiologic injury methods, and did not investigate early time points during which bone is rapidly remodeled prior to cartilage degeneration. The current study utilized a non-invasive model of knee injury in mice to investigate the effect of ALN treatment on subchondral bone changes, articular cartilage degeneration, and osteophyte formation following injury. Non-invasive knee injury via tibial compression overload or sham injury was performed on a total of 90 mice. Mice were treated with twice weekly subcutaneous injections of low-dose ALN (40 μg/kg/dose), high-dose ALN (1,000 μg/kg/dose), or vehicle, starting immediately after injury until sacrifice at 7, 14 or 56 days. Trabecular bone of the femoral epiphysis, subchondral cortical bone, and osteophyte volume were quantified using micro-computed tomography (μCT). Whole-joint histology was performed at all time points to analyze articular cartilage and joint degeneration. Blood was collected at sacrifice, and serum was analyzed for biomarkers of bone formation and resorption. μCT analysis revealed significant loss of trabecular bone from the femoral epiphysis 7 and 14 days post-injury, which was effectively prevented by high-dose ALN treatment. High-dose ALN treatment was also able to reduce subchondral bone thickening 56 days post-injury, and was able to partially preserve articular cartilage 14 days post-injury. However, ALN treatment was not able to reduce osteophyte formation at 56 days post-injury, nor was it able to prevent articular cartilage and joint degeneration at this time point. Analysis of serum biomarkers revealed an increase in bone resorption at 7 and 14 days post-injury, with no change in bone formation at any time points. High-dose ALN treatment was able to prevent early trabecular

  13. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs

  15. Advanced wastewater treatment system (SEADS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a third-party evaluation of a wastewater treatment technology identified as the Advanced Wastewater Treatment System Inc.'s Superior Extended Aerobic Digester System (SEADS). SEADS is an advanced miniaturized wastewater treatment plant that can meet advanced wastewater treatment standards for effluent public reuse. SEADS goes beyond primary and secondary treatment operations to reduce nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are typically found in excessive quantities in traditional wastewater treatment effluent. The objective of this evaluation will be to verify the performance and reliability of the SEADS to treat wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater and commercial industrial wastewater. SEADS utilizes remote telemetry equipment to achieve added reliability and reduces monitoring costs as compared to many package wastewater treatment plants. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the SEADS technology evaluation will address its ability to treat low flows-from remote individual and clustered housing applications, and individual commercial applications in lieu of a main station conventional wastewater treatment plant. The unneeded reliance on particular soil types for percolation and the improved effluent water quality over septic systems alone look to make these types of package treatment plants a viable option for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow remote settings. Added benefits to be examined

  16. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen YC; Ho HO; Chiu CC; Sheu MT

    2013-01-01

    Ying-Chen Chen,1,* Hsiu-O Ho,1,* Chiao-Chi Chiu,1 Ming-Thau Sheu1,2 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 2Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) tablets to enhance its oral bioav...

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  18. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Determination of pKa values of alendronate sodium in aqueous solution by piecewise linear regression based on acid-base potentiometric titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jing; Dou, Hanfei; Zhang, Ximin; Uhagaze, Dushimabararezi Serge; Ding, Xiali; Dong, Yuming

    2016-12-01

    As a mono-sodium salt form of alendronic acid, alendronate sodium presents multi-level ionization for the dissociation of its four hydroxyl groups. The dissociation constants of alendronate sodium were determined in this work by studying the piecewise linear relationship between volume of titrant and pH value based on acid-base potentiometric titration reaction. The distribution curves of alendronate sodium were drawn according to the determined pKa values. There were 4 dissociation constants (pKa 1 =2.43, pKa 2 =7.55, pKa 3 =10.80, pKa 4 =11.99, respectively) of alendronate sodium, and 12 existing forms, of which 4 could be ignored, existing in different pH environments.

  20. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chen Chen,1,* Hsiu-O Ho,1,* Chiao-Chi Chiu,1 Ming-Thau Sheu1,2 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 2Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF tablets to enhance its oral bioavailability. GRDF tablets were characterized with the effects of different molecular weights (MWs of chitosan (CS and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC at various ratios on swelling, floating, and physical integrity. The CS component was formed using various acids: acetic, lactic, malic, succinic, and citric, and a high viscosity grade of HEC was selected. The results demonstrated that the swelling ratios of the formulations comprising high MW CS were lower than those of low or medium MW CS when salts were formed with any countering acids except for acetic acid. The decreasing ranking of the swelling rates was: CS-citrate > CS-malate > CS-lactate > CS-succinate > CS-acetate. A negative correlation was found between the pKa of the respective countering acid and the swelling rate. The swelling rate was promoted if an acidic salt of CS with a lower water content was incorporated, while it became slower when tablet hardness was higher or the compression force to form tablets was increased. Although HEC did not contribute to swelling or floating, it played a role in maintaining structural integrity. A prolonged dissolution profile of alendronate GRDF tablets developed in this study was observed.Keywords: gastroretentive dosage form, chitosan, hydrogel, hydroxyethyl cellulose, swelling, alendronate

  1. Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rocío Chuguransky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPARγ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC.

  2. Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures in patients treated with alendronate: a register-based national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Alendronate (aln) is a potent bisphosphonate with a prolonged duration of action. Recent reports have found long-term aln use to be common in patients with subtrochanteric or proximal diaphyseal femur fracture, raising concerns that these fractures could be a consequence of excessive suppression...

  3. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiu, Chiao-Chi; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2014-01-01

    In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF) tablets to enhance its oral bioavailability. GRDF tablets were characterized with the effects of different molecular weights (MWs) of chitosan (CS) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) at various ratios on swelling, floating, and physical integrity. The CS component was formed using various acids: acetic, lactic, malic, succinic, and citric, and a high viscosity grade of HEC was selected. The results demonstrated that the swelling ratios of the formulations comprising high MW CS were lower than those of low or medium MW CS when salts were formed with any countering acids except for acetic acid. The decreasing ranking of the swelling rates was: CS-citrate > CS-malate > CS-lactate > CS-succinate > CS-acetate. A negative correlation was found between the pKa of the respective countering acid and the swelling rate. The swelling rate was promoted if an acidic salt of CS with a lower water content was incorporated, while it became slower when tablet hardness was higher or the compression force to form tablets was increased. Although HEC did not contribute to swelling or floating, it played a role in maintaining structural integrity. A prolonged dissolution profile of alendronate GRDF tablets developed in this study was observed.

  4. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  5. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habashi, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  6. Liquid waste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLW) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) involved three distinct processing operations: decontamination of liquid HLW in the Supernatant Treatment System (STS); volume reduction of decontaminated liquid in the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); and encapsulation of resulting concentrates into an approved cement waste form in the Cement Solidification System (CSS). Together, these systems and operations made up the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS)

  7. Development of docetaxel and alendronate-loaded chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification System (BCS) because of its poor solubility ... small drop of the NP suspension with a 2 % ... acceleration voltage of 100 kV in conventional .... Figure 2: (a) Particle size distribution of chitosan (CS)-coated polylactide-co-glycolide ...

  8. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of osteosarcoma using a bis(alendronate)-based bone-targeted contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Pingju; Sheng, Fugeng; Jin, Yiguang; Tong, Li; Du, Lina; Zhang, Lei; Tian, Ning; Li, Gongjie

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) is currently used for diagnosis of osteosarcoma but not well even though contrast agents are administered. Here, we report a novel bone-targeted MR imaging contrast agent, Gd 2 -diethylenetriaminepentaacetate-bis(alendronate) (Gd 2 -DTPA-BA) for the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. It is the conjugate of a bone cell-seeking molecule (i.e., alendronate) and an MR imaging contrast agent (i.e., Gd-DTPA). Its physicochemical parameters were measured, including pK a , complex constant, and T 1 relaxivity. Its bone cell-seeking ability was evaluated by measuring its adsorption on hydroxyapatite. Hemolysis was investigated. MR imaging and biodistribution of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA and Gd-DTPA were studied on healthy and osteosarcoma-bearing nude mice. Gd 2 -DTPA-BA showed high adsorption on hydroxyapatite, the high MR relaxivity (r 1 ) of 7.613mM -1 s -1 (2.6 folds of Gd-DTPA), and no hemolysis. The MR contrast effect of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA was much higher than that of Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection to the mice. More importantly, the MR imaging of osteosarcoma was significantly improved by Gd 2 -DTPA-BA. The signal intensity of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA reached 120.3% at 50min, equal to three folds of Gd-DTPA. The bone targeting index (bone/blood) of Gd 2 -DTPA-BA in the osteosarcoma-bearing mice was very high to 130 at 180min. Furthermore, the contrast enhancement could also be found in the lung due to metastasis of osteosarcoma. Gd 2 -DTPA-BA plays a promising role in the diagnoses of osteosacomas, including the primary bone tumors and metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro disintegration and dissolution studies of once-weekly copies of alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg) and in vivo implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Richard J; Crail, Debbie J; Perkins, Alan C

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro disintegration and dissolution of 26 alendronic acid tablets (70 mg) on the market in Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom compared to the branded product (Fosamax). The disintegration and dissolution times were determined using the methods described in the United States Pharmacopeia 30 (USP 30). The disintegration of four orally disintegrating tablets (non-bisphosphonates) and branded film-coated risedronate sodium tablets were included for comparison. The mean disintegration times of the alendronic acid tablets ranged from 14 s for Pharmachemie (Netherlands) to 342 s (5.7 min) for Betapharm (Germany). The mean disintegration time of the branded product tablets ranged from 43 to 78 s. Six of the 26 companies market alendronic acid tablets with very rapid disintegration times which are similar to those of orally disintegrating tablets (non-bisphosphonates). The alendronic acid tablets with very rapid mean disintegration times are as follows: Pharmachemie (Netherlands), 14 s; Novopharm (Canada), 13-24 s; GRY-Pharma (Germany), 21 s; Juta Pharma (Germany), 30 s; APS/Teva (United Kingdom), 26 and 37 s; and Teva (UK), 14-29 s. Since there is no established disintegration time for alendronic acid tablets there can be no assurance that the copy tablets are equivalent to the branded product in terms of esophageal drug exposure. However, the in vitro disintegration times have not been correlated with in vivo disintegration and performance. The dissolution of all the bisphosphonate tablets was rapid with greater than 80% dissolved in 15 min and all products conformed to the USP 30 specification. The dissolution of all alendronic acid tablets was rapid and complete and conformed to the established USP 30 specifications which should ensure adequate drug absorption from the copy products. However, copies of alendronic acid tablets are approved based on the results of single-dose bioavailability studies in

  11. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately

  12. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  13. Interferon-α treatment in systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2011-01-01

    classification need treatment. This review on interferon treatment in systemic mastocytosis documents an effect of this biological agent in some patients with mastocytosis. However, the place of interferon-a, as mono- or combination therapy, in the treatment algorithm may only be definitely established...

  14. Radwaste treatment complex. DRAWMACS planned maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the operation of the Planned Maintenance System for the Radwaste Treatment Complex. The Planned Maintenance System forms part of the Decommissioning and Radwaste Management Computer System (DRAWMACS). Further detailed information about the data structure of the system is contained in Database Design for the DRAWMACS Planned Maintenance System (AEA-D and R-0285, 2nd issue, 25th February 1992). Information for other components of DRAWMACS is contained in Basic User Guide for the Radwaste Treatment Plant Computer System (AEA-D and R-0019, July 1990). (author)

  15. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, L.A.D. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D. [Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Aragão, K.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Barbosa, A.L.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Medeiros, J.V.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H{sub 2}S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm{sup 2}); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm{sup 2}); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K

  16. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, L.A.D.; Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D.; Aragão, K.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.; Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P.; Medeiros, J.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H 2 S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm 2 ); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm 2 ); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels

  17. System and process for biomass treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  18. Systemic treatment of Krukenberg tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolak Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Of all ovarian tumors with distinct biological features, 10-25% are secondary ovarian tumors. Among the most common cancers that cause ovarian metastasis are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrium, as well as gastric and lateral cancer. Krukenberg tumors remain asymptomatic until the tumor reaches a certain size, as in the case of primary ovarian cancer. Symptoms are non-specific: abdominal pain (42%, postmenopausal bleeding (18%, weight loss (6% and an increasing abdominal girth (15%. Diagnostic procedures should include physical examination, basic blood and biochemistry tests, radiographic imaging and endoscopy. There are currently no uniform guidelines to be followed in order to treat this cancer. However, the survival rate of selected subgroups of patients may be enhanced by means of cytoreductive surgery (performable among patients with good general health condition, where the metastases are limited only to the ovaries, where the primary tumor is derived from the colorectal cancer, and where there is the absence or minimal residual disease. It is still controversial to use adjuvant chemotherapy following the metastasectomy of Krukenberg tumors. Although this type of treatment seems to provide a survival benefit, there are currently no randomized prospective trials available so as to confirm or deny. Future research should, therefore, be focused on the potentially synergistic effect of surgery and perioperative administration of cytotoxic therapies targeted at high response rates. Studies on new molecularly targeted drugs can also be beneficial.

  19. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  20. Does Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  1. Production, quality control, biodistribution assessment and preliminary dose evaluation of {sup 166}Ho-alendronate as a bone marrow ablative agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhari, Ashraf [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiopharmacy; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Samani, Ali Bahrami; Akbari, Mahmoud Reza; Deha, Fariba Johari [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafiee-Ardestani, Mahdi; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    In this study, production, quality control and biodistribution studies of {sup 166}Ho-alendronate have been presented and followed by dosimetric evaluation for human based on biodistribution data in wild-type rats. {sup 166}Ho chloride was obtained by thermal neutron irradiation of natural {sup 165}Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} samples. {sup 166}Ho-alendronate complex was prepared by adding the desired amount of alkaline alendronate solution (0.2 mL, 150 mg/mL) to 3-5 mCi of the {sup 166}HoCl{sub 3} solution. Radiochemical purity of the complex was monitored by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). {sup 166}Ho-alendronate complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99%, ITLC) and specific activity of 4.4 GBq/mmol. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and in the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. The major accumulation of the radio-complex was in the bone tissues followed by absorbed dose evaluation of each human organ by RADAR software used for modelling the radiation dose delivered. The final preparation was administered to wild-type rats and biodistribution of the complex was performed 2-48 h post injection showing major accumulation of the complex in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for {sup 166}Ho-alendronate is observed in bone surface and red marrow with 2.670 and 1.880 mSv/MBq; respectively. These findings suggest that {sup 166}Ho-alendronate has considerable characteristics compared to {sup 166}Ho-DOTMP and can be a possible candidate for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma.

  2. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  3. Treatment system operation, management, and finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truax, D.D. (Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State (United States))

    1990-06-01

    This article deals with literature on operation, management, and financing of wastewater treatment plants. Some topics discussed are system hydraulics and flow monitoring, odor, reliability, equipment age, management philosophy, performance, reducing operating cost, planning and response to emergencies, preventative maintenance, inspection systems, mechanical vibrations, safety, privatization, municipal leasing, user and impact fees.

  4. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

  5. Advances in HTGR Wastewater Treatment System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng; Qiu Yu; Wang Jianlong; Jia Fei

    2014-01-01

    The source terms of radioactive wastewater from HTR-PM were introduced. Concentration process should be used to reduce volume. A radioactive wastewater treatment system was designed by using Disc tubular reverse osmosis (DTRO) membrane system. The pretreatment system was simplify by using a cartridge filter. A three-stage membrane system was built. The operated characters to treat low and intermediate radioactive waste water were studied. A concentration rates of 25-50 is reached. The decontamination factor of the membrane system can reach 30-100. (author)

  6. Acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouard, E.

    1988-01-01

    The acquisition and treatment systems for experimental data has been conceived to give a response to experimental requirements in a research reactor such OSIRIS. Its objective is to acquire and treat the ensemble of informations coming from one or many experiences, to archive useful data for an ulterior treatment and to give at the experimentator a tool ensemble for a better track of his experience. Its main characteristics are given in this text [fr

  7. Mutual augmentation of the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase, between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS), and its prevention by clodronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xue; Yu Zhiqian; Funayama, Hiromi; Shoji, Noriaki; Sasano, Takashi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), powerful anti-bone-resorptive drugs, have inflammatory side effects, while histamine is not only an inflammatory mediator, but also an immuno-modifier. In murine models, a single intraperitoneal injection of an N-BP induces various inflammatory reactions, including the induction of the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in tissues important in immune responses (such as liver, lungs, spleen, and bone marrow). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF are also capable of inducing HDC. We reported previously that in mice (i) the inflammatory actions of N-BPs depend on IL-1 (ii) N-BP pretreatment augments both LPS-stimulated IL-1 production and HDC induction, and (iii) the co-administration of clodronate (a non-N-BP) with an N-BP inhibits the latter's inflammatory actions (including HDC induction). Here, we add the new findings that (a) pretreatment with alendronate (a typical N-BP) augments both IL-1- and TNF-induced HDC elevations, (b) LPS pretreatment augments the alendronate-induced HDC elevation, (c) co-administration of clodronate with alendronate abolishes these augmentations, (d) alendronate does not induce HDC in IL-1-deficient mice even if they are pretreated with LPS, and (e) alendronate increases IL-1β in all tissues tested, but not in the serum. These results suggest that (1) there are mutual augmentations between alendronate and immuno-stimulants (IL-1, TNF, and LPS) in HDC induction, (2) tissue IL-1β is important in alendronate-stimulated HDC induction, and (3) combination use of clodronate may have the potential to reduce the inflammatory effects of alendronate (we previously found that clodronate, conveniently, does not inhibit the anti-bone-resorptive activity of alendronate)

  8. In vitro incorporation studies of 99mTc-alendronate sodium at different bone cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evren Gundogdu; Derya Ilem-Ozdemir; Makbule Asikoglu

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates can be labeled with Technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and are used for bone imaging because of their good localization in the skeleton and rapid clearance from soft tissues. Over the last decades bone scintigraphy has been used extensively in the evaluation of oncological patients to provide information about the sites of bone lesions, their prognosis and the effectiveness of therapy by showing the sequential changes in tracer uptake. Since the lesion visualization and lesion/bone ratio are important utilities for a bone scanning radiopharmaceutic; in this study incorporation of 99m Tc labeled alendronate sodium ( 99m Tc-ALD) was evaluated in U 2 OS (human bone osteosarcoma) and NCI-H209 (human bone carcinoma) cell lines. ALD was directly labeled by 99m Tc, radiochemical purity and stability of the complex were analyzed by radioactive thin layer chromatography and radioactive high performance liquid chromatography studies. For cell incorporation study, NCI-H209 and U 2 OS cell lines were used with standard cell culture methods. The six well plates were used for all experiments and the integrity of each cell monolayer was checked by measuring its transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with an epithelial voltammeter. Results confirmed that ALD was successfully radiolabeled with 99m Tc. 99m Tc-ALD incorporated with NCI-H209 and U 2 OS cells. The uptake percentages of 99m Tc-ALD in NCI-H209 and U 2 OS cell lines were found significantly different. Since 99m Tc-ALD highly uptake in cancer cell line, the results demonstrated that radiolabeled ALD may be a promising agent for bone cancer diagnosis. (author)

  9. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines...... exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  10. Bisphosphonate-modified gold nanoparticles: a useful vehicle to study the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanord, Fedena; Fairbairn, Korie; Bhethanabotla, Venkat; Gupta, Vinay K [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Kim, Harry [Shriners Hospitals for Children, 12502 USF Pine Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Garces, Amanda, E-mail: vkgupta@usf.edu [Lisa Muma Weitz Microscopy and Cell Imaging, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2011-01-21

    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a juvenile form of osteonecrosis of the femoral head that presents in children aged 2-14 years. To date, there is no effective medical therapy for treating LCPD largely due to an inability to modulate the repair process, including the predominance of bone resorption. This investigation aims to evaluate the feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that are surface modified with a bisphosphonate compound for the treatment of osteonecrosis at the cellular level. Studies have found osteoclast-mediated resorption to be a process that contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of femoral head deformities arising from Perthes disease. Our in vitro model was designed to elucidate the effect of alendronate-(a bisphosphonate) modified GNPs, on osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were cultured with recombinant mouse receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL), which stimulates osteoclastogenesis, and were then treated with alendronate-modified GNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell proliferation, osteoclast function, and osteoclast morphology were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Comparative studies were performed with GNPs that were only stabilized with citrate ions and with alendronate alone. Neither osteoclastogenesis nor osteoclast function were adversely affected by the presence of the citrate-GNP. Alendronate-modified GNPs had an enhanced effect on inducing osteoclast apoptosis and impairing osteoclast function when compared to unbound alendronate populations.

  11. Bisphosphonate-modified gold nanoparticles: a useful vehicle to study the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanord, Fedena; Fairbairn, Korie; Bhethanabotla, Venkat; Gupta, Vinay K; Kim, Harry; Garces, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a juvenile form of osteonecrosis of the femoral head that presents in children aged 2-14 years. To date, there is no effective medical therapy for treating LCPD largely due to an inability to modulate the repair process, including the predominance of bone resorption. This investigation aims to evaluate the feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that are surface modified with a bisphosphonate compound for the treatment of osteonecrosis at the cellular level. Studies have found osteoclast-mediated resorption to be a process that contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of femoral head deformities arising from Perthes disease. Our in vitro model was designed to elucidate the effect of alendronate-(a bisphosphonate) modified GNPs, on osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were cultured with recombinant mouse receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), which stimulates osteoclastogenesis, and were then treated with alendronate-modified GNPs for 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell proliferation, osteoclast function, and osteoclast morphology were evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. Comparative studies were performed with GNPs that were only stabilized with citrate ions and with alendronate alone. Neither osteoclastogenesis nor osteoclast function were adversely affected by the presence of the citrate-GNP. Alendronate-modified GNPs had an enhanced effect on inducing osteoclast apoptosis and impairing osteoclast function when compared to unbound alendronate populations.

  12. System dynamics in complex psychiatric treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, R

    1988-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing contemporary psychiatry is the coordination of diverse services through organizational integration. With increasing frequency, psychiatric treatment takes place in complex treatment systems composed of multiple inpatient and outpatient programs. Particularly in public health care systems serving the chronically ill, contemporary practice demands a broad spectrum of programs, often geographically dispersed, that include crisis intervention teams, day treatment programs, substance abuse units, social rehabilitation programs and halfway houses (Bachrach 1983; Turner and TenHoor 1978). Individualized treatment planning often requires that a particular patient participate in two or more specialized programs either simultaneously or in a specified sequence. As a consequence of this specialization, treatment fragmentation has emerged as a significant clinical problem, and continuity of care has been highlighted as a valuable but elusive ingredient of optimal treatment. This paper will describe the dynamic interactions that result when several such programs are united under a common organizational roof. Using a large VA Psychiatry Service as an example, I will outline the hierarchical structure characteristic of such an organization, as well as the persistent pulls toward both integration and fragmentation that influence its operation.

  13. The role of subchondral bone remodeling in osteoarthritis: reduction of cartilage degeneration and prevention of osteophyte formation by alendronate in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Tadashi; Pickarski, Maureen; Wesolowski, Gregg A; McLane, Julia; Bone, Ashleigh; Destefano, James; Rodan, Gideon A; Duong, Le T

    2004-04-01

    It has been suggested that subchondral bone remodeling plays a role in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model of OA and evaluated the effects of alendronate (ALN), a potent inhibitor of bone resorption, on cartilage degradation and on osteophyte formation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ACLT or sham operation of the right knee. Animals were then treated with ALN (0.03 and 0.24 microg/kg/week subcutaneously) and necropsied at 2 or 10 weeks postsurgery. OA changes were evaluated. Subchondral bone volume and osteophyte area were measured by histomorphometric analysis. Coimmunostaining for transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and MMP-13 was performed to investigate the effect of ALN on local activation of TGF beta. ALN was chondroprotective at both dosages, as determined by histologic criteria and collagen degradation markers. ALN suppressed subchondral bone resorption, which was markedly increased 2 weeks postsurgery, and prevented the subsequent increase in bone formation 10 weeks postsurgery, in the untreated tibial plateau of ACLT joints. Furthermore, ALN reduced the incidence and area of osteophytes in a dose-dependent manner. ALN also inhibited vascular invasion into the calcified cartilage in rats with OA and blocked osteoclast recruitment to subchondral bone and osteophytes. ALN treatment reduced the local release of active TGF beta, possibly via inhibition of MMP-13 expression in articular cartilage and MMP-9 expression in subchondral bone. Subchondral bone remodeling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. ALN or other inhibitors of bone resorption could potentially be used as disease-modifying agents in the treatment of OA.

  14. μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry allows 3D evaluation of the early responses of bone resorption and formation to PTH and alendronate combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M J; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X Sherry

    2015-04-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our μCT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r=0.72-0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through μCT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment planning systems for high precision radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Computerized Treatment Planning System (TPS) play an important role in radiotherapy with the intent to maximize tumor control and minimize normal tissue complications. Treatment planning during earlier days was generally carried out through the manual summations of standard isodose charts on to patient body contours that were generated by direct tracing or lead wire representation, and relied heavily on the careful choices of beam weights and wedging. Since then there had been tremendous advances in field of Radiation Oncology in last few decades. The linear accelerators had evolved from MLC's to IGRT, the techniques like 3DCRT, IMRT has become almost routine affair. The simulation has seen transition from simple 2D film/fluoroscopy localization to CT Simulator with added development in PET, PET- CT and MR imaging. The Networking and advances in computer technology has made it possible to direct transfer of Images, contours to the treatment planning systems

  16. Systemic Treatments for Noninfectious Vitreous Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitreous inflammation, or vitritis, may result from many causes, including both infectious and noninfectious, including rheumatologic and autoimmune processes. Vitritis is commonly vision threatening and has serious sequelae. Treatment is frequently challenging, but, today, there are multiple methods of systemic treatment for vitritis. These categories include corticosteroids, antimetabolites, alkylating agents, T-cell inhibitors/calcineurin inhibitors, and biologic agents. These treatment categories were reviewed last year, but, even over the course of just a year, many therapies have made progress, as we have learned more about their indications and efficacy. We discuss here discoveries made over the past year on both existing and new drugs, as well as reviewing mechanisms of action, clinical dosages, specific conditions that are treated, adverse effects, and usual course of treatment for each class of therapy.

  17. Cumulative Alendronate Dose and the Long-Term Absolute Risk of Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Register-Based National Cohort Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients...

  18. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  19. WITHDRAWN: Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Tom; Fish, Reg; Coles, Bernadette; Mason, Malcolm

    2018-02-07

    Systemic therapies for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive of all skin cancers, remain disappointing. Few lasting remissions are achieved and the therapeutic aim remains one of palliation.Many agents are used alone or in combination with varying degrees of toxicity and cost. It is unclear whether evidence exists to support these complex regimens over best supportive care / placebo. To review the benefits from the use of systemic therapies in metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to best supportive care/placebo, and to establish whether a 'standard' therapy exists which is superior to other treatments. Randomised controlled trials were identified from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR/CENTRAL databases. References, conference proceedings, and Science Citation Index/Scisearch were also used to locate trials. Cancer registries and trialists were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials of adults with histologically proven metastatic cutaneous melanoma in which systemic anti-cancer therapy was compared with placebo or supportive care. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction forms were used for studies which appeared to meet the selection criteria and, where appropriate, full text articles were retrieved and reviewed independently. No randomised controlled trials were found comparing a systemic therapy with placebo or best supportive care in metastatic cutaneous melanoma. There is no evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials to show superiority of systemic therapy over best supportive care / placebo in the treatment of malignant cutaneous melanoma.Given that patients with metastatic melanoma frequently receive systemic therapy, it is our pragmatic view that a future systematic review could compare any systemic treatment, or combination of treatments, to single agent dacarbazine.

  20. Supernatant treatment system design through testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, D.K.; Leonard, I.M.

    1988-12-01

    The main purpose of the Supernatant Treatment System (STS) is to remove more than 99.9 percent of the radioactive cesium (Cs-137) from the high-level waste stored in tank 8D-2. Cesium removal is accomplished in the STS by processing the supernatant (liquid) portion of the high-level waste through three or four ion exchange columns filled with zeolite. After treatment in the STS, the decontaminated supernatant is processed as low-level waste and finally encapsulated in cement for eventual disposal. The Cs-137 removed from the waste and absorbed onto zeolite ion exchange material is temporarily stored in tank 8D-1 until it can be encapsulated in glass and disposed of as high-level waste. This report discusses construction and testing of the STS. Design of the STS was started in 1982 in parallel with the selection of the ion exchange material. The construction of this system was accomplished in five phase in parallel with completion of design to allow for faster completion of the project. The existing high-level waste storage tanks -- 8D-1, 8D-2, and 8D-3 -- required major renovations to permit transfer of the high-level waste from tank 8D-2 to tank 8D-1, to house the components that comprise the STS in tank 8D-1, and to store decontaminated wastes in tank 8D-3. Testing in the STS started before construction was complete and was accomplished by first testing components individually. Then the system was retested using simulated supernatant. Integrated testing of the whole Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), which includes the STS, Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS), Cement Solidification System (CSS), and the Drum Cell, was also performed using simulated supernatant. Finally, slightly radioactive condensate water from tank 8D-1 was processed. After successfully completing this testing, the STS started operations with radioactive supernatant on May 23, 1988. 21 refs., 33 figs., 21 tabs

  1. Treatment Algorithms in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangchan, Chayawee; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Bernatsky, Sasha R; Smith, C Douglas; Hudson, Marie; Inanç, Murat; Rothfield, Naomi F; Nash, Peter T; Furie, Richard A; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Chandran, Vinod; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Pope, Janet E

    2015-09-01

    To establish agreement on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) treatment. SLE experts (n = 69) were e-mailed scenarios and indicated preferred treatments. Algorithms were constructed and agreement determined (≥50% respondents indicating ≥70% agreement). Initially, 54% (n = 37) responded suggesting treatment for scenarios; 13 experts rated agreement with scenarios. Fourteen of 16 scenarios had agreement as follows: discoid lupus: first-line therapy was topical agents and hydroxychloroquine and/or glucocorticoids then azathioprine and subsequently mycophenolate (mofetil); uncomplicated cutaneous vasculitis: initial treatment was glucocorticoids ± hydroxychloroquine ± methotrexate, followed by azathioprine or mycophenolate and then cyclophosphamide; arthritis: initial therapy was hydroxychloroquine and/or glucocorticoids, then methotrexate and subsequently rituximab; pericarditis: first-line therapy was nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, then glucocorticoids with/without hydroxychloroquine, then azathioprine, mycophenolate, or methotrexate and finally belimumab or rituximab, and/or a pericardial window; interstitial lung disease/alveolitis: induction was glucocorticoids and mycophenolate or cyclophosphamide, then rituximab or intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG), and maintenance followed with azathioprine or mycophenolate; pulmonary hypertension: glucocorticoids and mycophenolate or cyclophosphamide and an endothelin receptor antagonist were initial therapies, subsequent treatments were phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and then prostanoids and rituximab; antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: standard anticoagulation with/without hydroxychloroquine, then a thrombin inhibitor for venous thrombosis, versus adding aspirin or platelet inhibition drugs for arterial events; mononeuritis multiplex and central nervous system vasculitis: first-line therapy was glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide followed by maintenance with azathioprine or mycophenolate, and

  2. Treatment of pathological gambling - integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenović, Ivica; Lažetić, Goran; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling was classified under impulse control disorders within the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), but the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition (DSM-V), (APA 2013), has recognized pathological gambling as a first disorder within a new diagnostic category of behavioral addictions - Gambling disorder. Pathological gambling is a disorder in progression, and we hope that our experience in the treatment of pathological gambling in the Daily Hospital for Addictions at The Institute of Mental Health, through the original "Integrative - systemic model" would be of use to colleagues, dealing with this pathology. This model of treatment of pathological gambling is based on multi-systemic approach and it primarily represents an integration of family and cognitive-behavioral therapy, with traces of psychodynamic, existential and pharmacotherapy. The model is based on the book "Pathological gambling - with self-help manual" by Dr Mladenovic and Dr Lazetic, and has been designed in the form of a program that lasts 10 weeks in the intensive phase, and then continues for two years in the form of "extended treatment" ("After care"). The intensive phase is divided into three segments: educational, insight with initial changes and analysis of the achieved changes with the definition of plans and areas that need to be addressed in the extended treatment. "Extended treatment" lasts for two years in the form of group therapy, during which there is a second order change of the identified patient, but also of other family members. Pathological gambling has been treated in the form of systemic-family therapy for more than 10 years at the Institute of Mental Health (IMH), in Belgrade. For second year in a row the treatment is carried out by the modern "Integrative-systemic model". If abstinence from gambling witihin the period of one year after completion of the intensive phase of treatment is taken as the main criterion of

  3. Improvements in patient treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Atkinson, C.A.; Babcock, R.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, Radiation treatment planning environment (BNCT-Rtpe) software system is used to develop treatment planning information. In typical use BNCT-Rtpe consists of three main components: (1) Semi-automated geometric modeling of objects (brain, target, eyes, sinus) derived from MRI, CT, and other medical imaging modalities, (2) Dose computations for these geometric models with rtt-MC, the INEL Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code, and (3) Dose contouring overlaid on medical images as well as generation of other dose displays. We continue to develop a planning system based on three-dimensional image-based reconstructions using Bspline surfaces. Even though this software is in an experimental state, it has been applied for large animal research and for an isolated case of treatment for a human glioma. Radiation transport is based on Monte Carlo, however there will be implementations of faster methods (e.g. diffusion theory) in the future. The important thing for treatment planning is the output which must convey, to the radiologist, the deposition of dose to healthy and target tissue. Many edits are available such that one can obtain contours registered to medical image, dose/volume histograms and most information required for treatment planning and response assessment. Recent work has been to make the process more automatic and easier to use. The interface, now implemented for contouring and reconstruction, utilizes the Xwindowing system and the MOTIF graphical users interface for effective interaction with the planner. Much work still remains before the tool can be applied in a routine clinical setting

  4. 71: Three dimensional radiation treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.; Wong, J.W.; Harms, W.B.; Drzymala, R.E.; Emami, B.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype 3-dimensional (3-D) radiation treatment planning (RTP) system has been developed and is in use. The system features a real-time display device and an array processor for computer intensive computations. The dose distribution can be displayed as 2-D isodose distributions superimposed on 2-D gray scale images of the patient's anatomy for any arbitrary plane and as a display of isodose surfaces in 3-D. In addition, dose-volume histograms can be generated. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  5. Systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Magda; Figueiredo, Luciene C; Soares, Geisla M Silva; Faveri, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that several clinical studies have shown additional benefits when certain systemic antibiotics are used as adjuncts to periodontal treatment, clear guidelines for the use of these agents in the clinical practice are not yet available. Basic questions concerning the use of systemic antibiotics to treat periodontitis remain unanswered, such as: which drug(s) should be used; which patients would most benefit from treatment; which are the most effective protocols (i.e. doses and durations); and in which phase of the mechanical therapy should the drug(s) be administered? Although not all of those questions have been directly addressed by controlled randomized clinical trials, recent concepts related to the ecology of periodontal diseases, as well as the major advances in laboratory and clinical research methods that have occurred in the past decade, have significantly broadened our knowledge in this field. This article endeavored to provide a 'state of the art' overview on the use of systemic antibiotics in the treatment of periodontitis, based on the most recent literature on the topic as well as on a compilation of data from studies conducted at the Center of Clinical Trials at Guarulhos University (São Paulo, Brazil) from 2002 to 2012. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Maintenance and monitoring of water treatment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoriero, G; Pozzoni, P; Tentori, F; Scaravilli, P; Locatelli, F

    2005-01-01

    Water treatment systems must be submitted to maintenance, disinfections and monitoring periodically. The aim of this review is to analyze how these processes must complement each other in order to preserve the efficiency of the system and optimize the dialysis fluid quality. The correct working of the preparatory process (pre-treatment) and the final phase of depuration (reverse osmosis) of the system need a periodic preventive maintenance and the regular substitution of worn or exhausted components (i.e. the salt of softeners' brine tank, cartridge filters, activated carbon of carbon tanks) by a competent and trained staff. The membranes of reverse osmosis and the water distribution system, including dialysis machine connections, should be submitted to dis-infections at least monthly. For this purpose it is possible to use chemical and physical agents according to manufacturer' recommendations. Each dialysis unit should predispose a monitoring program designed to check the effectiveness of technical working, maintenance and disinfections and the achievement of chemical and microbiological standards taken as a reference. Generally, the correct composition of purified water is monitored by continuous measuring of conductivity, controlling bacteriological cultures and endotoxin levels (monthly) and checking water contaminants (every 6-12 months). During pre-treatment, water hardness (after softeners) and total chlorine (after chlorine tank) should be checked periodically. Recently the Italian Society of Nephrology has developed clinical guidelines for water and dialysis solutions aimed at suggesting rational procedures for production and monitoring of dialysis fluids. It is hopeful that the application of these guidelines will lead to a positive cultural change and to an improvement in dialysis fluid quality.

  7. TFA Systems: A Unique Group Treatment of Spouse Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, Daniel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a group treatment model using Thought-Feeling-Action (TFA) Systems, an offense- and offender-specific group treatment for abusers. Describes use of TFA Systems in group of court-referred male spouse-abusers. Reviews evolution of TFA Systems, then focuses on TFA Systems treatment of spouse abusers. Notes that system can be adapted to other…

  8. Development of a laundry waste treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Ebara, K [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Takeshima, M [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works

    1977-12-01

    Fundamental and pilot plant experiments developed a laundry waste treatment system for nuclear power plants, consisting of a reverse osmosis unit for removal of radioactive materials and pre-concentration, and an evaporator for the final concentration. A sponge ball cleaning method was employed for the reverse osmosis unit and a heat-resistant antifoam reagent for the evaporator. The pilot plant test, using simulated wastes, showed a decontamination factor of above 10/sup 3/ and a volume reduction ratio of 10/sup -3/.

  9. Irradiation chamber for photoactivation patient treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Troutner, V.H.; Goss, J.; King, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A flat plate irradiation chamber is described for use in a patient treatment system for altering cells, including treating the cells with a photoactivatable agent and passing the cells and the agent through a field of photoactivating radiation whereby the agent is caused to be activated and to affect the cells. The agent and the cells are contained in the irradiation chamber during irradiation. The flat plate irradiation chamber comprises: a rigid top sheet matably joined with a rigid bottom sheet, forming therebetween a rigid serpentine pathway for conducting the cells through the field of radiation; and pump block means for holding tubing means in fluid communication with the serpentine pathway and adapted for engaging a peristaltic pump whereby rotation of the pump causes the cells to flow through the serpentine pathway, and wherein the chamber is removable from the system and disposable

  10. Integrated radwaste treatment system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1997-10-01

    In May 1988, the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) began pretreating liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This HLW was produced during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center from 1966 to 1972. Original reprocessing operations used plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) and thorium extraction (THOREX) processes to recover usable isotopes from spent nuclear fuel. The PUREX process produced a nitric acid-based waste stream, which was neutralized by adding sodium hydroxide to it. About two million liters of alkaline liquid HLW produced from PUREX neutralization were stored in an underground carbon steel tank identified as Tank 8D-2. The THOREX process, which was used to reprocess one core of mixed uranium-thorium fuel, resulted in about 31,000 liters of acidic waste. This acidic HLW was stored in an underground stainless steel tank identified as Tank 8D-4. Pretreatment of the HLW was carried out using the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS), from May 1988 until May 1995. This system was designed to decontaminate the liquid HLW, remove salts from it, and encapsulate the resulting waste into a cement waste form that achieved US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for low-level waste (LLW) storage and disposal. A thorough discussion of IRTS operations, including all systems, subsystems, and components, is presented in US Department of Energy (DOE) Topical Report (DOE/NE/44139-68), Integrated Radwaste Treatment System Lessons Learned from 2 1/2 Years of Operation. This document also presents a detailed discussion of lessons learned during the first 2 1/2 years of IRTS operation. This report provides a general discussion of all phases of IRTS operation, and presents additional lessons learned during seven years of IRTS operation

  11. Biofeedback systems and adaptive control hemodialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On-line monitoring devices to control functions such as volume, body temperature, and ultrafiltration, were considered more toys than real tools for routine clinical application. However, bio-feedback blood volume controlled hemodialysis (HD is now possible in routine dialysis, allowing the delivery of a more physiologically acceptable treatment. This system has proved to reduce the incidence of intra-HD hypotension episodes significantly. Ionic dialysance and the patient′s plasma conductivity can be calculated easily from on-line measurements at two different steps of dialysate conductivity. A bio-feedback system has been devised to calculate the patient′s plasma conductivity and modulate the conductivity of the dialysate continuously in order to achieve a desired end-dialysis patient plasma conductivity corresponding to a desired end-dialysis plasma sodium concentration. Another bio-feedback system can control the body tempe-rature by measuring it at the arterial and venous lines of the extra-corporeal circuit, and then modulating the dialysate temperature in order to stabilize the patients′ temperature at constant values that result in improved intra-HD cardiovascular stability. The module can also be used to quantify vascular access recirculation. Finally, the simultaneous computer control of ultrafiltration has proven the most effective means for automatic blood pressure stabilization during hemo-dialysis treatment. The application of fuzzy logic in the blood-pressure-guided biofeedback con-trol of ultrafiltration during hemodialysis is able to minimize HD-induced hypotension. In con-clusion, online monitoring and adaptive control of the patient during the dialysis session using the bio-feedback systems is expected to render the process of renal replacement therapy more physiological and less eventful.

  12. Micelles As Delivery System for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Aysen

    2017-01-01

    Micelles are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in certain solvents above concentrations called critical micelle concentration (CMC). Micelles are used in different fields like food, cosmetics, medicine, etc. These nanosized delivery systems are under spotlight in the recent years with new achievements in terms of their in vivo stability, ability to protect entrapped drug, release kinetics, ease of cellular penetration and thereby increased therapeutic efficacy. Drug loaded micelles can be prepared by dialysis, oil-in-water method, solid dispersion, freezing, spray drying, etc. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the research on micelles (in vitro, in vivo and clinical) as delivery system for cancer treatment. Passive targeting is one route for accumulation of nanosized micellar drug formulations. Many research groups from both academia and industry focus on developing new strategies for improving the therapeutic efficacy of micellar systems (active targeting to the tumor site, designing multidrug delivery systems for overcoming multidrug resistance or micelles formed by prodrug conjugates, etc). There is only one micellar drug formulation in South Korea that has reached clinical practice. However, there are many untargeted anticancer drug loaded micellar formulations in clinical trials, which have potential for use in clinics. Many more products are expected to be on the market in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Water Treatment Systems for Long Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLynn, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Space exploration will require new life support systems to support the crew on journeys lasting from a few days to several weeks, or longer. These systems should also be designed to reduce the mass required to keep humans alive in space. Water accounts for about 80 percent of the daily mass intake required to keep a person alive. As a result, recycling water offers a high return on investment for space life support. Water recycling can also increase mission safety by providing an emergency supply of drinking water, where another supply is exhausted or contaminated. These technologies also increase safety by providing a lightweight backup to stored supplies, and they allow astronauts to meet daily drinking water requirements by recycling the water contained in their own urine. They also convert urine into concentrated brine that is biologically stable and nonthreatening, and can be safely stored onboard. This approach eliminates the need to have a dedicated vent to dump urine overboard. These needs are met by a system that provides a contaminant treatment pouch, referred to as a urine cell or contaminant cell, that converts urine or another liquid containing contaminants into a fortified drink, engineered to meet human hydration, electrolyte, and caloric requirements, using a variant of forward osmosis (FO) to draw water from a urine container into the concentrated fortified drink as part of a recycling stage. An activated carbon pretreatment removes most organic molecules. Salinity of the initial liquid mix (urine plus other) is synergistically used to enhance the precipitation of organic molecules so that activated carbon can remove most of the organics. A functional osmotic bag is then used to remove inorganic contaminants. If a contaminant is processed for which the saline content is different than optimal for precipitating organic molecules, the saline content of the liquid should be adjusted toward the optimal value for that contaminant. A first urine

  14. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Yoichi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shibukawa General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shibukawa, Gunma (Japan); Takechi, Rumi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Cardiovascular Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Omodaka, Takuya [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination. (orig.)

  15. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  16. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  17. Esophageal transit and in vivo disintegration of branded risedronate sodium tablets and two generic formulations of alendronic acid tablets: a single-center, single-blind, six-period crossover study in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alan C; Blackshaw, P Elaine; Hay, Peter D; Lawes, Simon C; Atherton, Clare T; Dansereau, Richard J; Wagner, Leigh K; Schnell, Dan J; Spiller, Robin C

    2008-05-01

    Delayed esophageal transit or disintegration of oral bisphosphonate tablets before they enter the stomach may be of concern with respect to iatrogenic complications among patients receiving longterm treatment. Different formulations of generic bisphosphonate tablets meeting regulatory requirements may have substantial differences in pharmaceutical attributes from the branded product that may result in different characteristics during esophageal transit. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and compare esophageal transit times and in vivo disintegration of 3 bisphosphonate formulations, one branded and the others generic, that are commercially available in Canada and the United Kingdom. This was a single-center, randomized, singleblind, 6-period crossover study in healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. Each subject received a single oral dose of a branded risedronate sodium 35-mg tablet and 2 generic formulations of alendronic acid 70-mg tablets (Novopharm Limited, Toronto, Canada, and Teva UK Limited, Morley, United Kingdom) in both the erect and semisupine (45 degrees ) positions. Although the products are labeled to be taken in the erect position, the semisupine position was included to simulate dosing in bedridden patients. Subjects took tablets with 30 mL of water in the morning after an overnight fast. The tablets were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ion-exchange resins to enable visualization and measurement of esophageal transit time and disintegration using a gamma camera. Dynamic scintigraphic images were obtained for a total of 10 minutes: 2 images per second for the first 30 seconds and 1 image every 15 seconds for 9.5 minutes. This was a mechanistic study and tolerability was not assessed. The study was conducted in 20 healthy white female subjects with a mean age of 62 years (range, 51-77 years). The effect of body position was statistically significant (P = 0.043), with the estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.74 indicating longer

  18. INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.; Meeuwsen, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance. The KW IWTS was designed to treat basin water and maintain basin clarity during fuel retrieval, washing, and packaging activities in the KW Basin. The original design was based on a mission that was limited to handling of KW Basin fuel. The use of the IWTS was extended by the decision to transfer KE fuel to KW to be cleaned and packaged using KW systems. The use was further extended for the packaging of two more Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing legacy fuel and scrap. Planning is now in place to clean and package Knock Out Pot (KOP) Material in MCOs using these same systems. Some washing of KOP material in the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) is currently being done to remove material that is too small or too large to be included in the KOP Material stream. These plans will require that the IWTS remain operational through a campaign of as many as 30 additional MCOs, and has an estimated completion date in 2012. Recent operation of the IWTS during washing of canisters of KOP Material has been impacted by low pressure readings at the inlet of the P4 Booster Pump. The system provides a low pressure alarm at 10 psig, and low-low pressure interlock at 5 psig. The response to these low readings has been to lower total system flow to between 301 and 315 gpm. In addition, the IWTS operator has been required to operate the system in manual mode and make frequent adjustments to the P4 booster pump speed during PCM washes. The preferred mode of operation is to establish a setpoint of 317 gpm for the P4 pump speed and run IWTS in semi-automatic mode. Based on hydraulic modeling compared to field data presented in this report, the low P4 inlet pressure is attributed to restrictions in the 2-inch KOP inlet hose and in the KOP itself

  19. Dosimetry audit of radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Chelminski, Krzysztof; Rostkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) various calculation algorithms are used. The accuracy of dose calculations has to be verified. Numerous phantom types, detectors and measurement methodologies are proposed to verify the TPS calculations with dosimetric measurements. A heterogeneous slab phantom has been designed within a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the IAEA. The heterogeneous phantom was developed in the frame of the IAEA CRP. The phantom consists of frame slabs made with polystyrene and exchangeable inhomogeneity slabs equivalent to bone or lung tissue. Special inserts allow to position thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) capsules within the polystyrene slabs below the bone or lung equivalent slabs and also within the lung equivalent material. Additionally, there are inserts that allow to position films or ionisation chamber in the phantom. Ten Polish radiotherapy centres (of 30 in total) were audited during on-site visits. Six different TPSs and five calculation algorithms were examined in the presence of inhomogeneities. Generally, most of the results from TLD were within 5 % tolerance. Differences between doses calculated by TPSs and measured with TLD did not exceed 4 % for bone and polystyrene equivalent materials. Under the lung equivalent material, on the beam axis the differences were lower than 5 %, whereas inside the lung equivalent material, off the beam axis, in some cases they were of around 7 %. The TLD results were confirmed with the ionisation chamber measurements. The comparison results of the calculations and the measurements allow to detect limitations of TPS calculation algorithms. The audits performed with the use of heterogeneous phantom and TLD seem to be an effective tool for detecting the limitations in the TPS performance or beam configuration errors at audited radiotherapy departments. (authors)

  20. Dosimetry audit of radiotherapy treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulski, Wojciech; Chełmiński, Krzysztof; Rostkowska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    In radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) various calculation algorithms are used. The accuracy of dose calculations has to be verified. Numerous phantom types, detectors and measurement methodologies are proposed to verify the TPS calculations with dosimetric measurements. A heterogeneous slab phantom has been designed within a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the IAEA. The heterogeneous phantom was developed in the frame of the IAEA CRP. The phantom consists of frame slabs made with polystyrene and exchangeable inhomogeneity slabs equivalent to bone or lung tissue. Special inserts allow to position thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) capsules within the polystyrene slabs below the bone or lung equivalent slabs and also within the lung equivalent material. Additionally, there are inserts that allow to position films or ionisation chamber in the phantom. Ten Polish radiotherapy centres (of 30 in total) were audited during on-site visits. Six different TPSs and five calculation algorithms were examined in the presence of inhomogeneities. Generally, most of the results from TLD were within 5 % tolerance. Differences between doses calculated by TPSs and measured with TLD did not exceed 4 % for bone and polystyrene equivalent materials. Under the lung equivalent material, on the beam axis the differences were lower than 5 %, whereas inside the lung equivalent material, off the beam axis, in some cases they were of around 7 %. The TLD results were confirmed with the ionisation chamber measurements. The comparison results of the calculations and the measurements allow to detect limitations of TPS calculation algorithms. The audits performed with the use of heterogeneous phantom and TLD seem to be an effective tool for detecting the limitations in the TPS performance or beam configuration errors at audited radiotherapy departments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Sandro; Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Chiarion Sileni, Vanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Mocellin, Simone

    2018-02-06

    The prognosis of people with metastatic cutaneous melanoma, a skin cancer, is generally poor. Recently, new classes of drugs (e.g. immune checkpoint inhibitors and small-molecule targeted drugs) have significantly improved patient prognosis, which has drastically changed the landscape of melanoma therapeutic management. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2000. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma. We searched the following databases up to October 2017: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and the ASCO database in February 2017, and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We considered RCTs of systemic therapies for people with unresectable lymph node metastasis and distant metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to any other treatment. We checked the reference lists of selected articles to identify further references to relevant trials. Two review authors extracted data, and a third review author independently verified extracted data. We implemented a network meta-analysis approach to make indirect comparisons and rank treatments according to their effectiveness (as measured by the impact on survival) and harm (as measured by occurrence of high-grade toxicity). The same two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies according to Cochrane standards and assessed evidence quality based on the GRADE criteria. We included 122 RCTs (28,561 participants). Of these, 83 RCTs, encompassing 21 different comparisons, were included in meta-analyses. Included participants were men and women with a mean age of 57.5 years who were recruited from hospital settings. Twenty-nine studies included people whose cancer had spread to their brains. Interventions were categorised into five groups: conventional

  2. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: clinical picture and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Skov, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the histology of deep skin biopsies. Symptomatic treatment with intensive physiotherapy and painkillers is important, but there is no known curative medical treatment. Spontaneous remission of NSF symptoms may occur with recovery of renal function after an episode of acute renal failure, or with kidney...

  3. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  4. Systemic treatment of breast cancer in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegheoova, O.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is increasing due to trend of postponing child-bearing to later age. Breast cancer diagnosed during lactation has different biologic behaviour and worse prognosis than when diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not constitute a negative prognostic factor per se for outcomes of breast cancer in pregnancy, therefore breast cancer should be treated while containing pregnancy. Pregnancy should not delay treatment. Therapy should follow standard procedures as closely as possible, though with different timing of treatment modalities. Experienced multidisciplinary team is crucial for achieving good treatment results and involvement of an informed patient in decision-making is a must. Properly managed treatment during pregnancy does not carry detrimental effect on development and well-being of children. (author)

  5. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  6. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  7. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    exist for the use of systemic combination therapy. Therefore, our aim was to review the current literature on systemic anti-psoriatic combination regimens. We searched PubMed and identified 98 papers describing 116 studies (23 randomized) reporting on the effect of various systemic combination...

  8. Volume definition system for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakuijala, Jyrki; Pekkarinen, Ari; Puurunen, Harri

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Volume definition is a difficult and time consuming task in 3D treatment planning. We have studied a systems approach for constructing an efficient and reliable set of tools for volume definition. Our intent is to automate body outline, air cavities and bone volume definition and accelerate definition of other anatomical structures. An additional focus is on assisting in definition of CTV and PTV. The primary goals of this work are to cut down the time used in contouring and to improve the accuracy of volume definition. Methods: We used the following tool categories: manual, semi-automatic, automatic, structure management, target volume definition, and visualization tools. The manual tools include mouse contouring tools with contour editing possibilities and painting tools with a scaleable circular brush and an intelligent brush. The intelligent brush adapts its shape to CT value boundaries. The semi-automatic tools consist of edge point chaining, classical 3D region growing of single segment and competitive volume growing of multiple segments. We tuned the volume growing function to take into account both local and global region image values, local volume homogeneity, and distance. Heuristic seeding followed with competitive volume growing finds the body outline, couch and air automatically. The structure management tool stores ICD-O coded structures in a database. The codes have predefined volume growing parameters and thus are able to accommodate the volume growing dissimilarity function for different volume types. The target definition tools include elliptical 3D automargin for CTV to PTV transformation and target volume interpolation and extrapolation by distance transform. Both the CTV and the PTV can overlap with anatomical structures. Visualization tools show the volumes as contours or color wash overlaid on an image and displays voxel rendering or translucent triangle mesh rendering in 3D. Results: The competitive volume growing speeds up the

  9. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  10. The influence of alendronate on the healing of extraction sockets of ovariectomized rats assessed by in vivo micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2010-08-01

    Many dental patients take bisphosphonates to reduce the risk of hip and vertebral fractures. In vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to examine the longitudinal inhibitory effect of alendronate on the healing of extraction sockets in ovariectomized rats. Twenty 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 5), and 2 ovariectomized (OVX) groups: saline treated (0.1 mL/100 g/d, n = 7) and alendronate treated (1 mg/kg/d, n = 8). Before micro-CT scanning, the left maxillary first molars of the rats were extracted. In vivo micro-CT (spatial resolution 50 x 50 mum) of the jaw was performed at baseline and at 2-week intervals for 6 weeks. Alveolar-bone radiographic densities and dimensions were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance. The bony healing patterns of the extraction sockets were also evaluated in each group. The radiographic socket densities of the sham-treated and OVX-alendronate groups significantly increased during the first 4 weeks after extraction (P sockets in the OVX-saline group increased, but the increase was significantly lower than for the other groups at 4 weeks (P sockets in all groups 2 to 6 weeks after extraction. There was a significant loss of alveolar ridge height at the second week postextraction compared with baseline, and at the fourth week compared with the second week (P sockets in estrogen-deficient rats and helps resist the loss of alveolar bone adjacent to extraction sockets. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  12. Automated system for review of radiotherapy treatment sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado Chamorro, P.; Sanz Freire, C. J.; Vazquez Galinanes, A.; Diaz Pascual, V.; Gomez amez, J.; Martinez Sanchez, S.; Ossola Lentati, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    In many modern radiotherapy services begins to leaf treatment implemented in electronic form. In our department has developed an automated reporting system, that check the following parameters: treatment completed correctly, number of sessions and cumulative dose administered. Likewise treatments are verified in the allocated separate unit, and over-writing table parameters.

  13. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

  15. Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr)

  16. Reduction of treatment delivery variances with a computer-controlled treatment delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Lash, K.L.; Matrone, G.M.; Lichter, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment delivery variances for 3-D conformal therapy performed at various levels of treatment delivery automation, ranging from manual field setup to virtually complete computer-controlled treatment delivery using a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. Materials and Methods: All external beam treatments performed in our department during six months of 1996 were analyzed to study treatment delivery variances versus treatment complexity. Treatments for 505 patients (40,641 individual treatment ports) on four treatment machines were studied. All treatment variances noted by treatment therapists or quality assurance reviews (39 in all) were analyzed. Machines 'M1' (CLinac (6(100))) and 'M2' (CLinac 1800) were operated in a standard manual setup mode, with no record and verify system (R/V). Machines 'M3' (CLinac 2100CD/MLC) and ''M4'' (MM50 racetrack microtron system with MLC) treated patients under the control of a computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system (CCRS) which 1) downloads the treatment delivery plan from the planning system, 2) performs some (or all) of the machine set-up and treatment delivery for each field, 3) monitors treatment delivery, 4) records all treatment parameters, and 5) notes exceptions to the electronically-prescribed plan. Complete external computer control is not available on M3, so it uses as many CCRS features as possible, while M4 operates completely under CCRS control and performs semi-automated and automated multi-segment intensity modulated treatments. Analysis of treatment complexity was based on numbers of fields, individual segments (ports), non-axial and non-coplanar plans, multi-segment intensity modulation, and pseudo-isocentric treatments (and other plans with computer-controlled table motions). Treatment delivery time was obtained from the computerized scheduling system (for manual treatments) or from CCRS system logs. Treatment therapists rotate among the machines, so this analysis

  17. Effects of Alendronate and Raloxifene on Bone Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Zülfikaroğlu

    2011-04-01

    CONCLUSION: ALN 70 mg once- weekly significantly produced greater increases in spine and greater but not significantly increases in hip BMD and significantly greater reductions in markers of bone turnover than RLX in 1 yr treatment period. Both ALN and RLX treatment groups have similar safety and tolerability profiles.

  18. Comorbidities and treatment of trichotillomania systemic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Mina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichotillomania is a type of traumatic alopecia and is defined as the irresistible urge to pull out the hair. It is classified as impulse control disorder. This chronic, recurrent disorder with dermatologic expression has specific symptomatology, affects daily activities and leads to social isolation. Goal: The aim of the study was to investigate mannerism between symptoms in population with trichotillomania and to determine connection with other habits and disorders as well as treatment differences and efficiency. Material and methods: This prospective research was conducted within 880 people with trichotillomania from all around the world in a period from November 5th to December 15th, 2016. The data were collected by using a standardized internet questionnaire. Results: Symptoms of trichotillomania usually start between 9 and 13 years. 48,5% respondents localize their disorder on one specific body region. The most involved are scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes. 56,5% of the patients pull their hairs everyday, 61,6% even in company. Oral habits are present in 20,9%. Trichotillomania is associated with dermatillomania in 42.0%, nail biting habit in 37.0%, alcohol (21.7% and drug abuse (12.3%, anxiety (60.6%, affective (55.3%, obsessive-compulsive (19.4% and sleep disorders (11.3%. The most effective treatment seem to be combination of psychotherapy, antipsychotic and antidepressant. Conclusion: Trichotillomania shows diverse psychiatric appearance in most cases, so there is not specific treatment for this condition. It is necessary to treat trichotillomania with their comorbidities, especially the ones with oral habits, who present potential surgical patients.

  19. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  20. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  1. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  2. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  3. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  4. The Bone Resorption Inhibitors Odanacatib and Alendronate Affect Post-Osteoclastic Events Differently in Ovariectomized Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    performed a histomorphometric study of trabecular remodeling in vertebrae of estrogen-deficient rabbits treated or not with ODN or ALN, a model where ODN, but not ALN, was previously shown to preserve bone formation. In line with our hypothesis, we found that ODN treatment compared to ALN results...

  5. Targeted nanodrug delivery systems for the treatment of Tuberculosis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available patient treatment compliance and drug resistance pose a great challenge to TB treatment programs worldwide. To improve the current inadequate therapeutic management of TB, a polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system for anti-TB drugs was developed...

  6. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  7. Indigenous knowledge systems for the treatment of hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge systems for the treatment of hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia: ... are said to access traditional medicine (TM) for their disease management. ... Healers & Practitioners Association of Zambia (THPAZ) operating from within ...

  8. Modeling Jambo wastewater treatment system to predict water re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    C++ programme to implement Brown's model for determining water quality usage ... predicting the re-use options of the wastewater treatment system was a ... skins from rural slaughter slabs/butchers, slaughter .... City (Karnataka State, India).

  9. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  10. Zero insertion force socket for photoactivation patient treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troutner, V.H.

    1988-01-01

    Automatic operating zero insertion force socket for use in a photoactivatable reagent treatment system wherein photoactivatable agents, in contact with patient blood cells, are irradiated extracorporeally and then returned to the patient

  11. On treatment of uncertainty in system planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flage, R.; Aven, T.

    2009-01-01

    In system planning and operation considerable efforts and resources are spent to reduce uncertainties, as a part of project management, uncertainty management and safety management. The basic idea seems to be that uncertainties are purely negative and should be reduced. In this paper we challenge this way of thinking, using a common industry practice as an example. In accordance with this industry practice, three uncertainty interval categories are used: ±40% intervals for the feasibility phase, ±30% intervals for the concept development phase and ±20% intervals for the engineering phase. The problem is that such a regime could easily lead to a conservative management regime encouraging the use of existing methods and tools, as new activities and novel solutions and arrangements necessarily mean increased uncertainties. In the paper we suggest an alternative approach based on uncertainty and risk descriptions, but having no predefined uncertainty reduction structures. The approach makes use of risk assessments and economic optimisation tools such as the expected net present value, but acknowledges the need for broad risk management processes which extend beyond the analyses. Different concerns need to be balanced, including economic aspects, uncertainties and risk, and practicability

  12. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. 2: Local area networks as a multiprocessor treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neblett, D.L.; Hogan, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The creation of a local area network (LAN) of interconnected computers provides an environment of multi computer processors that adds a new dimension to treatment planning. A LAN system provides the opportunity to have two or more computers working on the plan in parallel. With high speed interprocessor transfer, events such as the time consuming task of correcting several individual beams for contours and inhomogeneities can be performed simultaneously; thus, effectively creating a parallel multiprocessor treatment planning system

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  15. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  16. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  17. Phantom-based interactive simulation system for dental treatment training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Kee, Bundit; Riener, Robert; Frey, Martin; Pröll, Thomas; Burgkart, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interactive simulation system for dental treatment training. The system comprises a virtual reality environment and a force-torque measuring device to enhance the capabilities of a passive phantom of tooth anatomy in dental treatment training processes. The measuring device is connected to the phantom, and provides essential input data for generating the graphic animations of physical behaviors such as drilling and bleeding. The animation methods of those physical behaviors are also presented. This system is not only able to enhance interactivity and accessibility of the training system compared to conventional methods but it also provides possibilities of recording, evaluating, and verifying the training results.

  18. A transportable system for radioactivity contaminated water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Contaminated water treatment system called SARRY for retrieval and recovery of water in operation at the site of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant since August 2011 has been modified by compacting the system size to develop a mobile system SARRY-Aqua that can process Cs-contaminated water (one ton/hour) to the level of 10 Bq/kg. Installing the system in a small container with dimensions conforming to the international standards facilitates transportation by truck and enables the contaminated water treatment occurring in a variety of locations. (S. Ohno)

  19. Drug Treatment within the U.S. Federal Prison System: Are Treatment Needs Being Met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine; Persson, Lance Edwards

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of inmates in the U.S. federal prison system have serious drug problems and are in need of treatment before they return to society. Accordingly, the Federal Bureau of Prisons has revamped substance abuse programming consistent with the latest research and expanded treatment services throughout its institutions. This article…

  20. Orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Brahmanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of class I malocclusion with bimaxillary dental protrusion and unilateral free end right upper ridge in adult patient is one of difficult biomechanical case in orthodontics. Due to this case that needs proper anchorage for upper incisor retraction with missing teeth in the right posterior segment. Purpose: The aim of this study to find an effective therapy for correction of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free and ridge. Case: A female patient, 36 year old complaining for the difficulty of lip closure due to severe bimaxillary protrusion with incompetence lip. Case management: Firstly correction of the maxillary and mandibular incisor proclination were done by extraction of the mandibular first premolar, the maxillary second premolar on left side and finally placement of miniplates implant in the zygomatic process on right side as an absolut anchorage. Conclusion: Skeletal anchorage system (SAS can be considered as an effective therapy for corection of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free end ridge.Latar belakang: Koreksi dari maloklusi klas I dari penderita dewasa yang disertai protrusi bimaksiler dengan kehilangan gigi posterior pada regio kanan atas merupakan salah satu kasus sulit untuk dikerjakan terutama berhubungan dengan biomekanik pergerakan giginya dalam perawatan ortodonti. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk menemukan terapi yang efektif untuk perbaikan protrusi bimaksiler dan kehilangan gigi posterior pada satu sisi. Kasus: Seorang penderita wanita usia 35 tahun datang dengan keluhan utama kesulitan untuk menutup mulut oleh karena gigi rahang atas dan rahang bawahnya maju dan bibirnya tidak kompeten. Tatalaksana kasus: Koreksi pada gigi insisivus rahang atas dan insisivus rahang bawah yang protrusi dilakukan dengan melakukan pencabutan terlebih dahulu pada gigi premolar pertama dirahang bawah sisi kanan dan sisi kiri serta pencabutan pada gigi premolar kedua di rahang atas sisi

  1. Would Be Prophylactic Administrations of Low Concentration of Alendronate an Alternative for Improving the Craniofacial Bone Repair? A Preliminary Study Focused in the Period of Cellular Differentiation and Tissue Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhringer, Isabella; Muller, Carmem L Storrer; Cunha, Emanuelle Juliana; Passoni, Giuliene Nunes De Souza; Vieira, Juliana Souza; Zielak, João Cesar; Scariot, Rafaela; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a nitrogen-bisphosphonate that may induce an anabolic effect on craniofacial bone repair when administrated in low doses. Based on this premise, this study analyzed the influence of prophylactic low doses of ALN on bone healing in defects created in rabbit mandible. A 5 × 2-mm diameter deep defect was created in the calvaria of 28 rabbits. Fourteen of these rabbits received previously 50 μg/kg of 1% sodium ALN for 4 weeks, while the other rabbits received only 0.9% physiological saline solution (control). Animals were euthanized at 15 and 60 days postsurgery (n = 7), and the data were analyzed using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry using the anti-CD34, bone morphogenetic protein -2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antibodies. On the 15th day postsurgery, the specimens that received previous treatment with ALN demonstrated large vascular lumen and intense positivity to CD34 either concentrated in endothelium or cells spread among the reparative tissue. These results coincided with intense positivity for BMP-2+ cells and TGF-β1 that was concentrated in both cells and perivascular area. In contrast, the control group revealed scarce cells that exhibited CD34, BMP-2+, and the TGF-β1 was restricted for perivascular area on well-formed granulation tissue. These patterns of immunohistochemical result, especially found on the 15th day of analysis, seem to be responsible for the development of larger quantities of bone matrix in the specimens that receive ALN on the 60th day postsurgery. These preliminary results showed that the prophylactic administration of low doses of ALN might be an alternative to craniofacial bone craniofacial bone repair because it increases the immunopositivity for TGF-β1 and consequently improves the CD34+ and BMP-2+ cells on reparative sites.

  2. Impact of decontamination on LWR radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenes, G.R.; Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, J.R.; Faust, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    Only at N-Reactor is there a means to accommodate radwaste produced during decontamination. The Dresden system is expected to be ready to accommodate such solutions by the summer of 1979. Solidification of the processed decontamination waste may be a significant problem. There is doubt that the materials in current radwaste treatment systems can handle chemicals from a concentrated process. The total storage volume, for concentrated decontamination, is not sufficient in existing radwaste treatment systems. Greater attention should be placed on designing reactors and radwaste treatment systems for decontamination. A means of handling waste material resulting from leaks in the primary system during the decontamination must be developed. On-site storage of solidified decontamination wastes may be a viable option, but license amendments will be necessary

  3. Methods of Improving Water Treatment Systems for Individual Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of hot topics for ecological management is sewage treatment today in places where there is no sewerage. The volume of country construction in territories, which are not connected to the public sewage system increasing nowadays. Therefore, problem of wastewater treatment take place. Currently, there are a lot of different designs of local waste treatment plants is offered to consumers. However, a large number of negative reviews indicate serious shortcomings in most of the local plants offered in the market. The purpose of this paper is the proposal of improvement of the most common local treatment plants in Russia.

  4. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  5. Systemic treatment of advanced, persistent or recurrent cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2015-01-01

    The cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy in women in the world. Despite advances in screening and treatment there are a relatively large number of patients who are diagnosed with advanced stage of disease, or who have inoperable recurrence. In this group of patients, the main aim of a treatment is palliative intent. The main cytotoxic agent is cisplatin, but the responses are also observed with other chemotherapy agents. Improved therapeutic results are observed with combined platinum-based chemotherapy regimens as compared to cisplatin monotherapy. Overall, however, the treatment results in advanced, persistent and recurrent cervical cancer are unfavorable and disease is considered to be relatively chemo resistant. The new treatment approaches are searched and a significant therapeutic benefit, as far as progression-free and overall survival, has been recently demonstrated when adding bevacizumab to systemic chemotherapy. The current article is a review of systemic treatment in advanced, persistent and recurrent metastatic carcinoma of the cervix. (author)

  6. Monitoring Utilization of a Large Scale Addiction Treatment System: The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Khobzi Rotondi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Client-based information systems can yield data to address issues of system accountability and planning, and contribute information related to changing patterns of substance use in treatment and, indirectly, general populations. The Drug and Alcohol Treatment Information System (DATIS monitors the number/types of clients treated in approximately 170 publicly-funded addiction treatment agencies in Ontario. The purpose of this study was to estimate the caseload of addiction treatment agencies, and describe important characteristics of clients, their patterns of service utilization and trends over-time from 2005 to 2010. In 2009–2010, 47,065 individuals were admitted to treatment. Since 2005–2006, there has been an increase in adolescents/youth in treatment, and a decrease in the male-female gender ratio. Alcohol problems predominated, but an increasing proportion of clients used cannabis and prescription opioids. DATIS is an evolving system and an integral component of Ontario's performance measurement system. Linkages with healthcare information systems will allow for longitudinal tracking of client health-related outcomes.

  7. Basic user guide for the radwaste treatment plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    1990-07-01

    This guide has been produced as an aid to using the Radwaste Treatment Plant computer system. It is designed to help new users to use the database menu system. Some of the forms can be used in ways different from those explained and more complex queries can be performed. (UK)

  8. Pollution abatement with peat onsite wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, J L [University of Maine, Orano, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of onsite wastewater treatment is to provide economical removal of dissolved nutrients, pathogens and other contaminates from septic tank effluent to avoid the pollution of groundwater or creation of other health hazards. The effective use of conventional soil adsorption systems is limited by a number of factors including site characteristics, soil type and condition, and the proximity of the system to surface waters or a source of potable water. On adverse sites, where the use of conventional subsurface soil adsorption systems does not provide acceptable levels of treatment, Sphagnum peat may be used as an economical method of onsite wastewater treatment. The peat system, when properly designed and constructed, is relatively simple to install, requires minimal energy and maintenance, and provides a high quality effluent without additional disinfection. 19 refs.

  9. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  10. Classification system for acute and chronic radiation treatment sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    A classification system in German language is proposed for scoring of acute and chronic treatment sequelae after radiotherapy. It includes all important organs and organ systems. The proposed grading corresponds to the four-scale-system of the WHO and UICC. The system is also compatible to the RTOG and EORTC acute and late radiation morbidity scoring criteria. This facilitates the data transfer for retrospective and prospective analysis of monomodal and multimodal radiotherapy treatment regimes. We recommend to use this scoring system in all German speaking countries for multicentric prospective studies. It is possible, that organ-specific sophistications of the toxicity grading will be developed in the future. These additions should conform with (inter)national standards and apply the same four-scale grading of this classification system. (orig.) [de

  11. Measured performance of four PWR liquid radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Mandler, J.W.; Stalker, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study of the liquid radwaste treatment and boron recovery systems of four operating PWR power plants. The performance of a given system was determined from measurements of radionuclide inventories in samples drawn from demineralizers, evaporators, filters, and gaseous cleanup systems. The plants at which measurements were made are Fort Calhoun, Zion 1 and 2, Turkey Point 3 and 4, and Rancho Seco

  12. Mental health treatment teams and leadership: a systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, G R; Barber, J W; Spradlin, W W

    1994-10-01

    Mental health treatment teams are living systems at the group level and comprise key productive subsystems of organizations providing mental health care. Effective treatment teams, like effective organizations, are anticipatory systems that contain subsystems that model and predict future system and environmental conditions and enable responses that increase system viability. A systems analysis of treatment teams highlights their potential instability due to their tendencies to regress toward dysfunctional partial systems and their active maintenance in nonequilibrium steady states with their organizational and external environments. Team subsystems are analyzed from the viewpoints of system processes and also with regard to individuals and their roles. Boundary processes are central to effective team functioning, assure constancy of team membership, and regulate the team's interfaces with its parent agency and with the external environment. Various causes and forms of disturbed information processing within hierarchical organizations are examined, and their effects at the treatment team level are discussed. The conclusion of the discussion focuses on team leadership and how leadership expands upon the concept of the decider subsystem to include role and personal factors to the team's leaders, and functions that are anticipatory and integrative in nature. Effective leaders must set appropriate thresholds for feedback regulation processes, and balance several pairs of seemingly opposing forces, including homeostasis and development, role differentiation and role overlap, and personal accountability and empowerment of others.

  13. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  14. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of clinical treatment of otospongiosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vicente, Andy; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S; Yamashita, Helio K; Cruz, Oswaldo Laercio M; Barros, Flavia A; Penido, Norma O

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a method for monitoring the activity of otospongiotic lesions before and after clinical treatment. Prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. One single tertiary care institution in a large, cosmopolitan city. Twenty-six patients (n = 42 ears) with clinical, audiometric, and tomographic diagnosis of otosclerosis were enrolled. If computed tomography (CT) demonstrated active lesions, these patients underwent MRI to detect otospongiotic foci, seen as areas of gadolinium enhancement. Patients were divided into 3 groups and received treatment with placebo, sodium alendronate, or sodium fluoride for 6 months. After this period, clinical and audiometric evaluations and a second MRI were performed. Each MRI was evaluated by both a neuroradiologist and an otolaryngologist in a subjective (visual) and objective (using specific eFilm Workstation software) manner. Otospongiosis was most predominantly identified in the region anterior to the oval window, and this site was reliable for comparing pre- and posttreatment scans. The patients in the alendronate and sodium fluoride groups had MRI findings that suggested a decrease in activity of otospongiotic lesions, more relevant in the alendronate group. These findings were statistically significant for both subjective and objective MRI evaluations. MRI shows higher sensitivity than clinical or audiometric assessment for detecting reduction in activity of otospongiosis. The objective MRI evaluation based on software analysis was the most accurate method of monitoring clinical treatment response in otospongiosis. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. Municipal wastewater treatment in Mexico: current status and opportunities for employing ecological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Roy, Eric D; White, John R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current status of municipal wastewater (MWW) treatment in Mexico, as well as to assess opportunities for using ecological treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands. In 2008, Mexico had 2101 MWW treatment plants that treated only 84 m3/s of wastewater (208 m3/s ofMWW were collected in sewer systems). Unfortunately, most treatment plants operate below capacity owing to a lack of maintenance and paucity of properly trained personnel. The main types of treatment systems applied in Mexico are activated sludge and waste stabilization ponds, which treat 44.3% and 18% of the MWW collected, respectively. As in many other developing nations around the world, there is a great need in Mexico for low-cost, low-maintenance wastewater treatment systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. In 2005, 24.3 million Mexicans lived in villages of less than 2500 inhabitants and 14.1 million lived in towns with 2500-15,000 inhabitants. An opportunity exists to extend the use of ecological treatment systems to these low population density areas and considerably increase the percentage of MWW that is treated in Mexico. Small-scale and medium-size constructed wetlands have been built successfully in some states, primarily during the past five years. Several barriers need to be overcome to increase the adoption and utilization of ecological wastewater technology in Mexico, including: a lack of knowledge about this technology, scarce technical information in Spanish, and the government's concentration on constructing MWW treatment plants solely in urban areas.

  17. Implementation of three dimensional treatment planning system for external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Tibor; Kurup, P.G.G.; Stumpf, Janos

    1997-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) treatment planning system was installed at Apollo Cancer Hospital, Chennai, India in 1995. This paper gives a short description of the system including hardware components, calculation algorithm, measured data requirements and specific three dimensional features. The concept and the structure of the system are shortly described. The first impressions along with critical opinions and the experiences are gained during the data acquisition are mentioned. Some improvements in the user interface are suggested. It is emphasized that although a 3D system offers more detailed and accurate dose distributions compared to a 2D system, it also introduces a greatly increased workload for the planning staff. (author)

  18. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel

  19. Rituximab treatment in primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Ross, Laura; Oon, Shereen; Nikpour, Mandana

    2018-06-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis affecting the brain and spinal cord. Treatment with biological agents has revolutionised the treatment of many rheumatic conditions but there is scant literature regarding the use of biological agents in PACNS. We present three cases of PACNS treated with rituximab, including two cases of relapsed disease, and a literature review suggesting a role for rituximab in this condition. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  1. The sewer collection system, the first treatment step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustia, B.M.; Dickerson, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The Civil Engineering Research Foundation's (CERF) Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC) conducted an evaluation of a microbial treatment additive that converts the entire sewer collection system into an efficient high-speed treatment step. The technology claims to reduce total suspended solids (TSS) by > 60% and carbonaceous biological oxygen demand (CBOD), simultaneously by > 30% before it reaches the treatment plant. The technology uses pump station wet wells as the network nodes to add the microbial treatment to the waste water collection system This process uses the natural retention time in the sewer coupled with the addition of an extremely concentrated mixture of select, symbiotic, facultative microbes, which degrade the waste en route to the treatment plant. These bacteria do not produce odorous compounds and they replace the sulfur-reducing-bacteria (SRB) in the biomass on the walls of the force mains and on the wet perimeter of the gravity sewer piping by 'competitive exclusion.' This microbial substitution is achieved by the high quantity of organisms injected into the collection system. This reduces the sulfides in the wastewater thereby reducing the odor, along with greatly reducing the corrosion elements, which attack the piping in a sewer collection system. The objective of EvTEC evaluation was to verify the performance and reliability of such a microbial additive to treat wastewater and reduce plant 'sludges,' or biosolids. Among other performance issues, the evaluation addressed the technology's ability to treat domestic wastewater flows over an extended time period (i.e., greater than 3 months, 6 months, 12 months..., etc.) and to see if the benefits are improved during particular times of year. The benefits to using the additive include reducing the biosolids produced at the treatment plant and increasing the treatment plant's efficiency and capacity. This in turn helped reduce operating costs without requiring a large

  2. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  3. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  4. Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Berrio; Oscar Beltran; Edison Agudelo; Santiago Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

  5. Carrier-Based Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Amber; Kumar Sonker, Avinesh

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 95% of the population suffers at some point in their lifetime from acne vulgaris. Acne is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit. This inflammatory skin disorder is most common in adolescents but also affects neonates, prepubescent children, and adults. Topical conventional systems are associated with various side effects. Novel drug delivery systems have been used to reduce the side effect of drugs commonly used in the topical treatment of acne. Topical treatment of acne with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) makes direct contact with the target site before entering the systemic circulation which reduces the systemic side effect of the parenteral or oral administration of drug. The objective of the present review is to discuss the conventional delivery systems available for acne, their drawbacks, and limitations. The advantages, disadvantages, and outcome of using various carrier-based delivery systems like liposomes, niosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and so forth, are explained. This paper emphasizes approaches to overcome the drawbacks and limitations associated with the conventional system and the advances and application that are poised to further enhance the efficacy of topical acne formulations, offering the possibility of simplified dosing regimen that may improve treatment outcomes using novel delivery system. PMID:24688376

  6. Integrated Risk Framework for Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Hargreaves, Megan; Frost, Ray; Dawes, Les

    2006-08-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are becoming increasingly important for the treatment and dispersal of effluent in new urbanised developments that are not serviced by centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems. However, the current standards and guidelines adopted by many local authorities for assessing suitable site and soil conditions for OWTS are increasingly coming under scrutiny due to the public health and environmental impacts caused by poorly performing systems, in particular septic tank-soil adsorption systems. In order to achieve sustainable onsite wastewater treatment with minimal impacts on the environment and public health, more appropriate means of assessment are required. This paper highlights an integrated risk based approach for assessing the inherent hazards associated with OWTS in order to manage and mitigate the environmental and public health risks inherent with onsite wastewater treatment. In developing a sound and cohesive integrated risk framework for OWTS, several key issues must be recognised. These include the inclusion of relevant stakeholders throughout framework development, the integration of scientific knowledge, data and analysis with risk assessment and management ideals, and identification of the appropriate performance goals for successful management and mitigation of associated risks. These issues were addressed in the development of the risk framework to provide a generic approach to assessing risk from OWTS. The utilisation of the developed risk framework for achieving more appropriate assessment and management techniques for OWTS is presented in a case study for the Gold Coast region, Queensland State, Australia.

  7. Performance of slow rate systems for treatment of domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, V E; Paranychianakis, N V; Angelakis, A N

    2007-01-01

    The performance of slow rate (SR) systems in terms of treatment efficiency, environmental and health risks, and land sustainability was investigated over a three-year period in a rural community close to Iraklio, Greece. Four plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camandulensis, Populus nigra and Arundo donax) were used in order to investigate the role of vegetation in the treatment of wastewater and in biomass production. Wastewater effluent was pre-treated in a septic tank before its application to land. Applied hydraulic loading rates were based on crop water requirements which were determined separately for each plant species. The evaluation of treatment performance was accomplished by measuring COD, TKN, NH3-N, NO3-N, total and reactive P, TC and FC in soil solution samples taken at different depths (15, 30 and 60 cm). SR systems showed great potential for COD, TKN and NH4-N removal which reached 89, 90 and 94%, respectively at a depth of 15 cm. An outstanding removal was also observed for TC and FC which reached 99.99%. The concentration of both P and NO3-N in soil solution increased with the passage of time, but it was lower in winter. Despite the differences in the application rates among the SR systems planted with different plant species, the treatment efficiency was not affected. Moreover, increasing the soil depth from 15 to 60 cm had no effect on the treatment efficiency of the SR systems.

  8. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  9. A framework for the organization and delivery of systemic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, T; Coakley, N; Nayler, J; Degrasse, C; Green, E; Mackay, J A; McLennan, C; Smith, A; Wilcock, L; Trudeau, M E

    2009-01-01

    Increasing systemic treatment and shortages of oncology professionals in Canada require innovative approaches to the safe and effective delivery of intravenous (IV) cancer treatment. We conducted a systematic review of the clinical and scientific literature, and an environmental scan of models in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. We then developed a framework for the organization and delivery of IV systemic treatment. The systematic review covered the medline, embase, cinahl, and HealthStar databases. The environmental scan retrieved published and unpublished sources, coupled with a free key word search using the Google search engine. The Systemic Treatment Working Group reviewed the evidence and developed a draft framework using evidence-based analysis, existing recommendations from various jurisdictions, and expert opinion based on experience and consensus. The draft was assessed by Ontario stakeholders and reviewed and approved by Cancer Care Ontario. The poor quantity and quality of the evidence necessitated a consensus-derived model. That model comprises four levels of care determined by a regional systemic treatment program and three integrated structures (integrated cancer programs, affiliate institutions, and satellite institutions), each with a defined scope of practice and a specific organizational framework. New models of care are urgently required beyond large centres, particularly in geographically remote or rural areas. Despite limited applicable evidence, the development and successful implementation of this framework is intended to create sustainable, accessible, quality care and to measurably improve patient outcomes.

  10. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E.

    2010-01-01

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  11. Ultrasonic treatment for microbiological control of water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, S.; Pohlmann, O.; Beardwooden, E. S.; Cordemans de Meulenaer, E. [Ashland Hercules Water Technologies, Krefeld (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A combination treatment of shear, micro-bubbles, and high-frequency low-power ultrasound introduced via side-stream treatment of industrial water systems has shown excellent results in controlling bacteria and algae; Through the physical, high-stress environment created by ultrasonic waves, sessile and planktonic biological populations, some of which may undergo programmed cell death (PCD), can be controlled. Additionally, the instability and reduction of biofilm have been observed in systems treated by ultrasound and may be attributed to starvation-stress and lack of available cross-linking cations in the biofilm. (authors)

  12. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Stochastic responses of tumor–immune system with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong-Xi; Li Ying

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the stochastic responses of a tumor–immune system competition model with environmental noise and periodic treatment. Firstly, a mathematical model describing the interaction between tumor cells and immune system under external fluctuations and periodic treatment is established based on the stochastic differential equation. Then, sufficient conditions for extinction and persistence of the tumor cells are derived by constructing Lyapunov functions and Ito’s formula. Finally, numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate and verify the results. The results of this work provide the theoretical basis for designing more effective and precise therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer cells, especially for combining the immunotherapy and the traditional tools. (paper)

  14. Consensus Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis in Korea (Part II): Systemic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lew, Bark-Lynn; Lee, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Phil; Jang, Yong Hyun; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun; Bae, Jung Min; Choi, Eung Ho; Suhr, Ki Beom; Lee, Seung Chul; Ko, Hyun Chang; Park, Young Lip; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Jun; Lee, Yang Won; Cho, Sang Hyun; Park, Chun Wook; Roh, Joo Young

    2015-10-01

    Since the treatment guidelines for atopic dermatitis (AD) were issued by the Korean Atopic Dermatitis Association (KADA) work group in 2006, there have been further advances in the systemic treatment of AD. We aimed to establish updated evidence- and experience-based systemic treatment guidelines for Korean AD. We compiled a database of references from relevant systematic reviews and guidelines regarding the systemic management of AD, including antihistamines, antimicrobials, systemic immunomodulators, allergen-specific immunotherapy, phototherapy, adjunctive treatment, and complementary and alternative medicines. Evidence for each statement was graded and classified based on the strength of the recommendation. Thirty-nine council members of KADA participated in the three rounds of votes and expert consensus recommendations were established. The use of antihistamines is recommended to relieve pruritus and to prevent exacerbation due to scratching in AD patients. Infection should be controlled as needed and long-term medication should be avoided. For moderate to severe AD patients, concomitant active treatments with systemic immunomodulators are indicated. Cyclosporine is the first choice among systemic immunomodulators and others should be considered as second-line alternatives. Allergen-specific immunotherapy could be effective in AD patients with aeroallergen hypersensitivity. Phototherapy can be useful for moderate to severe AD patients and narrow-band ultraviolet B is the most effective option. Complementary and alternative medicines cannot be recommended for treating AD. We expect these recommendations to be a reference guide for physicians and AD patients in choosing the appropriate treatment to improve quality of life and decrease unnecessary social medical costs.

  15. STUDY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS IN HOSPITALS OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Majlesi Nasr, A. R. Yazdanbakhsh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water resources shortage is one of the most important issues for environmental engineers and managers as well as its conservation due to population growth and ever-increasing water demands. Besides, hospital wastewater has the same quality as municipal wastewater, but may also potentially contain various hazardous components. In this paper, physical and chemical specifications of produced wastewater in hospitals of Iran were investigated experiments. Results were compared with the effluent parameters of wastewater standards of Iranian Department of the Environment. 70 governmental hospitals from different provinces of Iran were selected by purposive (non-random sampling method. For data analysis, SPSS and EXCEL softwares were applied. The findings of the study showed that 52% of the surveyed hospitals were not equipped and 48% were equipped with wastewater treatment systems. The mean of Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Total Suspended Solids of the effluent of wastewater treatment systems were reported as 113, 188 and 99 mg/L respectively. Comparison of the indicators between effluents of wastewater treatment systems and the standards of Departments of the Environment, showed the inefficiency in these systems and it was concluded that despite the recent improvements in hospital wastewater treatment systems, they should be upgraded based on the remarks in this paper.

  16. Systemic multimodal approach to speech therapy treatment in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Daniela; Marković, Slavica; Milankov, Vesela

    2013-01-01

    Conditions in which speech therapy treatment is applied in autistic children are often not in accordance with characteristics of opinions and learning of people with autism. A systemic multimodal approach means motivating autistic people to develop their language speech skill through the procedure which allows reliving of their personal experience according to the contents that are presented in the their natural social environment. This research was aimed at evaluating the efficiency of speech treatment based on the systemic multimodal approach to the work with autistic children. The study sample consisted of 34 children, aged from 8 to 16 years, diagnosed to have different autistic disorders, whose results showed a moderate and severe clinical picture of autism on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The applied instruments for the evaluation of ability were the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Ganzberg II test. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to the type of treatment: children who were covered by the continuing treatment and systemic multimodal approach in the treatment, and children who were covered by classical speech treatment. It is shown that the systemic multimodal approach in teaching autistic children affects the stimulation of communication, socialization, self-service and work as well as that the progress achieved in these areas of functioning was retainable after long time, too. By applying the systemic multimodal approach when dealing with autistic children and by comparing their achievements on tests applied before, during and after the application of this mode, it has been concluded that certain improvement has been achieved in the functionality within the diagnosed category. The results point to a possible direction in the creation of new methods, plans and programs in dealing with autistic children based on empirical and interactive learning.

  17. Safety in wastewater treatment: the pure oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giagnoni, L.

    1998-01-01

    Though the active sludge process represent, nowadays, the main reference system referring to installations for wastewater treatments, nevertheless systems that exploit the pure oxygen properties constitute an alternative method to the traditional cycle. The following essay is divided into two parts: the first one deals with the fundamental concepts related to the active sludge process and to the alternative system proposed, mentioned before, and includes a short account of the functional characteristics and a brief comparison with traditional methods; the second part represents the head corpus of the work and deals with the problems related to the safety with particular reference to the risk of an explosion meanwhile the process. Moreover, it's drawn attention to the fundamental role of security systems that, nowadays, get frequently used in such kind of installations. On this subject, furthermore, it's pointed out the great importance of the whole preliminary treatments in the planning phase, with particular reference to the processes used for stripping [it

  18. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Junyi; Mart, Christopher; Bayouth, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  19. A computer aided treatment event recognition system in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Mart, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Bayouth, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, K4/B55, Madison, Wisconsin 53792-0600 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop an automated system to safeguard radiation therapy treatments by analyzing electronic treatment records and reporting treatment events. Methods: CATERS (Computer Aided Treatment Event Recognition System) was developed to detect treatment events by retrieving and analyzing electronic treatment records. CATERS is designed to make the treatment monitoring process more efficient by automating the search of the electronic record for possible deviations from physician's intention, such as logical inconsistencies as well as aberrant treatment parameters (e.g., beam energy, dose, table position, prescription change, treatment overrides, etc). Over a 5 month period (July 2012–November 2012), physicists were assisted by the CATERS software in conducting normal weekly chart checks with the aims of (a) determining the relative frequency of particular events in the authors’ clinic and (b) incorporating these checks into the CATERS. During this study period, 491 patients were treated at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics for a total of 7692 fractions. Results: All treatment records from the 5 month analysis period were evaluated using all the checks incorporated into CATERS after the training period. About 553 events were detected as being exceptions, although none of them had significant dosimetric impact on patient treatments. These events included every known event type that was discovered during the trial period. A frequency analysis of the events showed that the top three types of detected events were couch position override (3.2%), extra cone beam imaging (1.85%), and significant couch position deviation (1.31%). The significant couch deviation is defined as the number of treatments where couch vertical exceeded two times standard deviation of all couch verticals, or couch lateral/longitudinal exceeded three times standard deviation of all couch laterals and longitudinals. On average, the application takes about 1 s per patient when

  20. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  1. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Decision Fusion Framework for Treatment Recommendation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Haifeng; Li, Xiang; Xie, Guotong; Yu, Yiqin

    2015-01-01

    Treatment recommendation is a nontrivial task--it requires not only domain knowledge from evidence-based medicine, but also data insights from descriptive, predictive and prescriptive analysis. A single treatment recommendation system is usually trained or modeled with a limited (size or quality) source. This paper proposes a decision fusion framework, combining both knowledge-driven and data-driven decision engines for treatment recommendation. End users (e.g. using the clinician workstation or mobile apps) could have a comprehensive view of various engines' opinions, as well as the final decision after fusion. For implementation, we leverage several well-known fusion algorithms, such as decision templates and meta classifiers (of logistic and SVM, etc.). Using an outcome-driven evaluation metric, we compare the fusion engine with base engines, and our experimental results show that decision fusion is a promising way towards a more valuable treatment recommendation.

  3. Validation Aspects of Water Treatment Systems for Pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of conducting validation is to demonstrate that a process, when operated within established limits, produces a product of consistent and specified quality with a high degree of assurance. Validation of water treatment systems is necessary to obtain water with all desired quality attributes. This also provides a ...

  4. Immune system as a vital partner in cancer treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 37 ISSN 1875-2292. [7th International Conference on Tumor Microenvironment. 11.10.2015-15.10.2015, Tel Aviv] Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Immune system * cancer treatment * nanomedicines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology

  5. Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrick, Ariane L; Pan, Xiaoyan; Peytrignet, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational cohort study...

  6. Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems For Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m 3 per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m 3 per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of

  7. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  8. Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 1115 m2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes, radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks; bulking small organic waste volumes; processing scintillation vials; treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium; treating contaminated solids such as barium sand; treating plating wastes and other solutions with heavy metals and oxidizing organics: Separate treatment rooms will allow workers to avoid mixing waste types and prevent cross-contamination. The ventilation air from the treatment areas may contain hazardous or radioactive dust. Gas may also leak from process equipment. The gas treatment process includes separating solids and gases and neutralization or adsorption of the hazardous gases. The ventilation air from each room will first be filtered before being scrubbed in a common gas caustic scrubber on an outside pad. There are two levels of exhaust in each treatment room, one for heavy gases and another for light gases. Several features help mitigate or eliminate hazards due to spills and releases: each treatment room is sealed and under slight negative pressure; each room has its own HEPA filtration; to avoid mixing of incompatible wastes and reagents, portable individual spill-containment trays are used for skids, to limit the danger of spills, the waste is directly transferred from outside storage to the treatment room; to mitigate the consequences of a gas release in the room, mobile hoods are connected to the exhaust-air treatment system; the floor, walls, ceilings, fixtures, ducts, and piping are made of acid-resistant material or are coated

  9. A record and verify system for radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koens, M.L.; Vroome, H. de

    1984-01-01

    The Record and Verify system developed for the radiotherapy department of the Leiden University Hospital is described. The system has been in use since 1980 and will now be installed in at least four of the Dutch University Hospitals. The system provides the radiographer with a powerful tool for checking the set-up of the linear accelerator preceeding the irradiation of a field. After the irradiation of a field the machine settings are registered in the computer system together with the newly calculated cumulative dose. These registrations are used by the system to produce a daily report which provides the management of the department with insight into the established differences between treatment and treatment planning. Buying a record and verify system from the manufacturer of the linear accelerator is not an optimal solution especially for a department with more than one accelerator from different manufacturers. Integration in a Hospital Information System (HIS) has important advantages over the development of a dedicated departmental system. (author)

  10. Development of laundry drainage treatment system with ceramic ultra filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Masanori; Kurahasi, Takafumi

    1995-01-01

    A compact laundry drainage treatment system (UF system hereafter) with a ceramic ultra filter membrane (UF membrane hereafter) has been developed to reduce radioactivity in laundry drainage from nuclear power plants. The UF membrane is made of sintered fine ceramic. The UF membrane has 0.01 μm fine pores, resulting in a durable, heat-resistant, and corrosion-resistant porous ceramic filter medium. A cross-flow system, laundry drainage is filtrated while it flows across the UF membrane, is used as the filtration method. This method creates less caking when compared to other methods. The UF membrane is back washed at regular intervals with permeated water to minimize caking of the filter. The UF membrane and cross-flow system provides long stable filtration. The ceramic UF membrane is strong enough to concentrate suspended solids in laundry drainage up to a weight concentration of 10%. The final concentrated laundry drainage can be treated in an incinerator. The performance of the UF system was checked using radioactive laundry drainage. The decontamination factor of the UF system was 25 or more. The laundry drainage treatment capacity and concentration ratio of the UF system, as well as the service life of the UF membrane were also checked by examination using simulated non-radioactive laundry drainage. Even though laundry drainage was concentrated 1000 times, the UF system showed good permeated water quality and permeated water flux. (author)

  11. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  12. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system.

  13. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  14. Design of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae Yong; Lee, Byung Doo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Young Myong

    2001-05-01

    We are developing Safeguards Information Treatment System at the facility level(SITS) to manage synthetically safeguards information and to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, we described the contents of the detailed design of SITS such as database, I/O layout and program. In the present, we are implementing the SITS based on the contents of the design of SITS, and then we plan to provide the system for the facilities after we finish implementing and testing the system

  15. A vision fusion treatment system based on ATtiny26L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Chunxi; Wang, Jiqiang

    2006-11-01

    Vision fusion treatment is an important and effective project to strabismus children. The vision fusion treatment system based on the principle for eyeballs to follow the moving visual survey pole is put forward first. In this system the original position of visual survey pole is about 35 centimeters far from patient's face before its moving to the middle position between the two eyeballs. The eyeballs of patient will follow the movement of the visual survey pole. When they can't follow, one or two eyeballs will turn to other position other than the visual survey pole. This displacement is recorded every time. A popular single chip microcomputer ATtiny26L is used in this system, which has a PWM output signal to control visual survey pole to move with continuously variable speed. The movement of visual survey pole accords to the modulating law of eyeballs to follow visual survey pole.

  16. In Situ Modular Waste Retrieval and Treatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process from remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at ORNL, a public meeting was held for the Proposed Plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and the environment. The US DOE in conjunction with the US EPA and the TDEC agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated. This report presents the results of a conceptual design for an In Situ Modular Retrieval and Treatment System able to excavate, shred, and process buried waste on site, with minimum disturbance and distribution of dust and debris. the system would bring appropriate levels of treatment to the waste then encapsulate and leave it in place. The system would be applicable to areas in which waste was disposed in long trenches

  17. A research-oriented treatment planning program system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalet, I.J.; Jacky, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of a treatment planning program is to graphically simulate radiation dose distributions from proposed radiation therapy treatments. While many such programs are available which provide this much-needed service, none addresses the question of how to intercompare calculation and display techniques. This paper describes a program system designed for support of research efforts, particularly development and testing of new calculation algorithms. The system emphasizes a modular flexible structure, enabling programs to be developed somewhat as interchangeable parts. Thus multiple variants of a calculation algorithm can be compared without undue software overhead or additional data management. Unusual features of the system include extensive use of command procedures, logical names and a structured language (PASCAL). These features are described along with other implementation details. Obstacles, limitations and future applications are also discussed. (Auth.)

  18. INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

  19. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled open-quotes Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Resultsclose quotes (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was open-quotes to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.close quotes The study also open-quotes identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.close quotes This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete open-quotes cradle-to-graveclose quotes systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews

  20. Modelling of treatment couch top with prowess panther treatment planning system for external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Agyapong, Linus

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the attenuation effects of a treatment couch and to alternatively model the couch top material with a Prowess Panther treatment planning system which does not support couch top modelling. The Hounsfield Unit classification of the couch structure was determined using a PMMA phantom by comparing ion chamber measurements with the dose forecasted by the treatment planning system (TPS). The transmission factor (TF) of the couch top was determined and was used as a TF for a treatment accessory that represented the treatment couch in the TPS. A treatment plan was done for various angles with and without the interference of the couch top and a simulated treatment was done using the PMMA phantom. Ion chamber measurement were made and compared with dose predicted by the TPS to evaluate the accuracy of the couch top modelling in the treatment planning system TPS. These investigations were done for various field sizes. The ideal set of HU for the couch was established to be -674. The measured TF was 0.956042 and the TPS calculated Transmission factor was 0.951456. The percentage difference between the measured and calculated TFs was 0.48% and this agrees perfectly with the IAEA recommended tolerance of 2%. Relative attenuation measurements were as high as 54.16% and as low as 0.63% for the beams that exited the couch before interacting with the phantom. In comparing couch modelling by couch simulation and couch TF insert, it was observed that the normalized doses were the same for 5×5 square field but deviated approximately 1% for the other field sizes. The highest deviation was observed at 10×10 square field. This study demonstrates that the couch simulation method of couch modelling is the best method that can be used to account for the effect of the treatment couch top on intersecting posterior beam fields. Thus, the attenuation effects of the treatment couch was effectively evaluated and the couch top material accurately modelled in

  1. A review of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, Matthew E; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-15

    Wastewater treatment ponds (lagoons) are one of the most common types of technologies used for wastewater management worldwide, especially in small cities and towns. They are particularly well-suited for systems where the effluent is reused for irrigation. However, the efficiency of virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems is not very well understood. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the major findings related to virus removal in wastewater treatment pond systems and to statistically analyze results reported in the literature from field studies on virus removal in these systems. A comprehensive analysis of virus removal reported in the literature from 71 different wastewater treatment pond systems reveals only a weak to moderate correlation of virus removal with theoretical hydraulic retention time. On average, one log10 reduction of viruses was achieved for every 14.5-20.9 days of retention, but the 95th percentile value of the data analyzed was 54 days. The mechanisms responsible for virus removal in wastewater treatment ponds were also reviewed. One recent finding is that sedimentation may not be a significant virus removal mechanism in some wastewater ponds. Recent research has also revealed that direct and indirect sunlight-mediated mechanisms are not only dependent on pond water chemistry and optics, but also on the characteristics of the virus and its genome. MS2 coliphage is considered to be the best surrogate for studying sunlight disinfection in ponds. The interaction of viruses with particles, with other microorganisms, and with macroinvertebrates in wastewater treatment ponds has not been extensively studied. It is also unclear whether virus internalization by higher trophic-level organisms has a protective or a detrimental effect on virus viability and transport in pond systems. Similarly, the impact of virus-particle associations on sunlight disinfection in ponds is not well understood. Future research should focus on

  2. New electrochemical and photochemical systems for water and wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarria, Victor M; Parra, Sandra; Rincon, Angela G; Torres, Ricardo A; Pulgarin, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    With the increasing pressure on a more effective use of water resources, the development of appropriate water treatment technologies become more and more important. Photochemical and electrochemical oxidation processes have been proposed in recent years as an attractive alternative for the treatment of contaminated water containing anthropogenic substances hardly biodegradable as well as to purify and disinfect drinking waters. The aim of this paper is to present some of our last results demonstrating that electrochemical, photochemical, and the coupling of these processes with biological systems are very promising alternatives for the improvement of the water quality

  3. In Vivo Diode Dosimetry for Imrt Treatments Generated by Pinnacle Treatment Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaei, Parham; Higgins, Patrick D.; Gerbi, Bruce J.

    2009-01-01

    Dose verification using diodes has been proposed and used for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. We have previously evaluated diode response for IMRT deliveries planned with the Eclipse/Helios treatment planning system. The Pinnacle treatment planning system generates plans that are delivered in a different fashion than Eclipse. Whereas the Eclipse-generated segments are delivered in organized progression from one side of each field to the other, Pinnacle-generated segments are delivered in a much more randomized fashion to different areas within the field. This makes diode measurements at a point more challenging because the diode may be exposed fully or partially to multiple small segments during one single field's treatment as opposed to being exposed to very few segments scanning across the diode during an Eclipse-generated delivery. We have evaluated in vivo dosimetry for Pinnacle-generated IMRT plans and characterized the response of the diode to various size segments on phantom. We present results of patient measurements on approximately 300 fields, which show that 76% of measurements agree to within 10% of the treatment-plan generated calculated doses. Of the other 24%, about 11% are within 15% of the calculated dose. Comparison of these with phantom measurements indicates that many of the discrepancies are due to diode positioning on patients and increased diode response at short source-to-surface distances (SSDs), with the remainder attributable to other factors such as segment size and partial irradiation of the diode

  4. Development of Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. G.; Lee, B. D.; So, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To implement obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral agreements more effectively, we proposed a computerized system named the Nuclear Control and Management Information Treatment System (NCAMITS) as a part of the Nuclear Transparency Enhancement Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The database system is designed not only to undertake the facility-level accounting for and control of nuclear material at KAERI, but also to meet the requirements of the State (National) System of Accounting and Control (SSAC). Since the NCAMITS will provide services for the facility operators as well as the safeguard information managers at KAERI, the development of the system is supposed to accommodate the end-user's convenience and the manager's sophisticated specifications as well.

  5. Decision making in treatment strategy of AVMs. Treatment board system at Tohoku University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokura, Hidefumi; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of some large, deep-seated arteriovenous malformations is still a challenge to neurosurgeons. The recent development of non-invasive imaging modalities has increased the chance of finding asymptomatic AVM's, for which evaluation for treatment is more complicated than in symptomatic cases. Currently there are 3 major treatment options for AVM: microsurgical removal, radiosurgery, and intravascular embolization. It is not easy to choose the best single modality or combination of modalities for individual patients, who have different types of onset, neurological deficits, size and location, and social background. After the installation of the Gamma Knife in November 1991, we established an 'AVM Treatment Board.' It comprises vascular neurosurgeons, endovascular neurosurgeons, and radio-neurosurgeons, and meetings are held twice a month. Every AVM case referred to us is presented to the board, and treatment strategy is selected after a discussion among experts who know the advantages and drawbacks of each treatment modality. We describe this board system in detail and emphasize the importance of gathering expertise in decision making. (author)

  6. The stochastic system approach for estimating dynamic treatments effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commenges, Daniel; Gégout-Petit, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The problem of assessing the effect of a treatment on a marker in observational studies raises the difficulty that attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. As an example, we focus on the analysis of the effect of a HAART on CD4 counts, where attribution of the treatment may depend on the observed marker values. This problem has been treated using marginal structural models relying on the counterfactual/potential response formalism. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models, and causal influence has been formalized in the framework of the Doob-Meyer decomposition of stochastic processes. Causal inference however needs assumptions that we detail in this paper and we call this approach to causality the "stochastic system" approach. First we treat this problem in discrete time, then in continuous time. This approach allows incorporating biological knowledge naturally. When working in continuous time, the mechanistic approach involves distinguishing the model for the system and the model for the observations. Indeed, biological systems live in continuous time, and mechanisms can be expressed in the form of a system of differential equations, while observations are taken at discrete times. Inference in mechanistic models is challenging, particularly from a numerical point of view, but these models can yield much richer and reliable results.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  8. Design of a new flotation system for industrial waters treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J E; Diaz, J; Blandon V R

    1999-01-01

    The air flotation is a process of physical separation for the industrial wastewater treatment that removes oils and suspended solids. Although methods different from flotation have been used in petroleum industry, their application is subjected to numerous operational and economic limitations. In this work some comparisons of these flotation techniques are discussed and, a new system for the treatment of residual waters by flotation is the developed. This system is the result of several years of research both in laboratory and in pilot plants. The new design uses characteristics from other techniques, it is based on a modification of a system of induced air flotation as to operate like a system of dissolved air flotation, which improves its performance at lower costs and reduces operational problems associated with equipment maintenance. The developed system has several characteristics that improve its operation, including the use of nozzles for gas injection and dispersion in the liquid phase. As opposed to conventional systems, there is no need to use motorized bubble generating equipment for each flotation cell, diminishing therefore power requirements

  9. Treatment Planning Systems for BNCT Requirements and Peculiarities

    CERN Document Server

    Daquino, G G

    2003-01-01

    The main requirements and peculiarities expected from the BNCT-oriented treatment planning system (TPS) are summarized in this paper. The TPS is a software, which can be integrated or composed by several auxiliary programs. It plays important roles inside the whole treatment planning of the patient's organ in BNCT. However, the main goal is the simulation of the irradiation, in order to obtain the optimal configuration, in terms of neutron spectrum, patient positioning and dose distribution in the tumour and healthy tissues. The presence of neutrons increases the level of complexity, because much more nuclear reactions need to be monitored and properly calculated during the simulation of the patient's treatment. To this purposes several 3D geometry reconstruction techniques, generally based on the CT scanning data, are implemented and Monte Carlo codes are normally used. The TPSs are expected to show also the results (basically doses and fluences) in a proper format, such as isocurves (or isosurfaces) along t...

  10. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  11. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  12. Safety evaluation of BWR off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.J.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the results of a safety evaluation performed on current generic types of BWR off-gas treatment systems including cooled and ambient temperature adsorber beds and cryogenics are presented. The evaluation covered the four generic types of off-gas systems and the systems of five major vendors. This study was part of original work performed under AEC contract for the Directorate of Regulatory Standards. The analysis techniques employed for the safety evaluation of these systems include: Fault Tree Analysis; FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis); general system comparisons, contaminant, system control, and design adequacy evaluations; and resultant Off-Site Dose Calculations. The salient areas presented are some of the potential problem areas, the approach that industry has taken to mitigate or design against potential upset conditions, and areas where possible deficiencies still exist. Potential problem areas discussed include hydrogen detonation, hydrogen release to equipment areas, operator/automatic control interface, and needed engineering evaluation to insure safe system operation. Of the systems reviewed, most were in the category of advanced or improved over that commonly in use today, and a conclusion from the study was that these systems offer excellent potential for noble gas control for BWR power plants where more stringent controls may be specified -- now or in the future. (U.S.)

  13. MINERVA - a multi-modal radiation treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, C.A. E-mail: cew@enel.gov; Wessol, D.E.; Nigg, D.W.; Cogliati, J.J.; Milvich, M.L.; Frederickson, C.; Perkins, M.; Harkin, G.J

    2004-11-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Montana State University have undertaken development of MINERVA, a patient-centric, multi-modal, radiation treatment planning system. This system can be used for planning and analyzing several radiotherapy modalities, either singly or combined, using common modality independent image and geometry construction and dose reporting and guiding. It employs an integrated, lightweight plugin architecture to accommodate multi-modal treatment planning using standard interface components. The MINERVA design also facilitates the future integration of improved planning technologies. The code is being developed with the Java Virtual Machine for interoperability. A full computation path has been established for molecular targeted radiotherapy treatment planning, with the associated transport plugin developed by researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Development of the neutron transport plugin module is proceeding rapidly, with completion expected later this year. Future development efforts will include development of deformable registration methods, improved segmentation methods for patient model definition, and three-dimensional visualization of the patient images, geometry, and dose data. Transport and source plugins will be created for additional treatment modalities, including brachytherapy, external beam proton radiotherapy, and the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc codes for external beam photon and electron radiotherapy.

  14. Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, R; Utecht, K-U; Exner, M; Verstraete, W; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. The present study investigated the effect of physical-chemical disinfection methods on the reduction of the concentration of Legionella in the biological treatment and in the treated effluent entering the river Wäster. Additionally, to gain insight into the factors that promote the growth of Legionella in biological systems, growth experiments were made with different substrates and temperatures. The dosage rates of silver micro-particles, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone and pH stress to the activated sludge were not able to decrease the number of culturable Legionella spp. in the effluent. Nevertheless, the UV treatment of secondary treated effluent reduced Legionella spp. on average by 1.6-3.4 log units. Laboratory-scale experiments and full-scale measurements suggested that the aerobic treatment of warm wastewater (30-35 °C) rich in organic nitrogen (protein) is a possible source of Legionella infection.

  15. [Newly Designed Water Treatment Systems for Hospital Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Takashi

    2018-01-01

     Pharmaceuticals are indispensable to contemporary life. Recently, the emerging problem of pharmaceutical-based pollution of river environments, including drinking water sources and lakes, has begun to receive significant attention worldwide. Because pharmaceuticals are designed to perform specific physiological functions in targeted regions of the human body, there is increasing concern regarding their toxic effects, even at low concentrations, on aquatic ecosystems and human health, via residues in drinking water. Pharmaceuticals are consistently employed in hospitals to treat disease; and Japan, one of the most advanced countries in medical treatment, ranks second worldwide in the quantity of pharmaceuticals employed. Therefore, the development of technologies that minimize or lessen the related environmental risks for clinical effluent is an important task as well as that for sewage treatment plants (STPs). However, there has been limited research on clinical effluent, and much remains to be elucidated. In light of this, we are investigating the occurrence of pharmaceuticals, and the development of water treatment systems for clinical effluent. This review discusses the current research on clinical effluent and the development of advanced water treatment systems targeted at hospital effluent, and explores strategies for future environmental risk assessment and risk management.

  16. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  17. Simulation of gamma irradiation system for a ballast water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faez, T. P.; Sarkar, S.

    2006-01-01

    Invasion by different kinds of ballast the water microorganisms is one of the most important marine environment problems around the world therefore preventing the invasion of these unwanted and harmful stowaways is one of the main strategies of responsible agencies. Some of these methods such as ocean exchange, heating, filtration, hydro cyclones, UV irradiation and chemical treatment, have various problems such as technical deficiency, high costs, lack of safety and environmental side effects. Materials and Methods: A novel system of treatment by Gamma irradiation is designed to irradiate the blast water uniformly and effectively. To determine the dose distribution as a function of distance from the irradiation source, the MCNP code was used. The systems used for source implant in this simulation were Paterson-Parker, Paris and Network systems. In each system, Sivert-integral and inverse square law were used in MATLAB program to determine the dose distribution. Results: Results of initial laboratory tests on offshore water samples of Siri Island indicated that the appropriate dose for deactivation of organisms of water samples is approximately one kGy. It has been demonstrated that the dose can be provided by twenty five 100,000 Ci line sources of ' 60 Co in a triangle implant arranged in a 1*1*1 m3 cubic shape water pipe. In order to increase efficiency and radiation safety, water passed from two other coaxial and bigger cubes, after passing from the first cube. A one meter thick wall of concrete around the cubes was adequate to shield the system completely. Conclusion: The main advantages of this system such as high efficiency, safety, reliability, minimum environmental adverse effects, proves that this novel method not only can be used for ballast water treatment, but is also effective for drinking water purification

  18. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kalinina; V. I. Albanova; T. A. Belousova; V. I. Nozdrin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people) antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Be...

  19. Current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the current status of quality assurance of treatment planning systems. At this moment only one comprehensive report is available. In order to review national activities a questionnaire has been distributed amongst national societies of medical physicists. From the 23 responding countries, 8 indicated that only limited efforts are underway, 8 answered that a working group is evaluating their specific national requirements while in 5 countries a document is drafted. The highlights of these reports have been summarized. (author)

  20. TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER AT VILLA CLARA WATER MANAGEMENT COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floramis Pérez Martín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the current operating and safety conditions of biological treatment systems for wastewater in the centers of swinish and poultry breeding at Villa Clara Water Management Company, with the purpose of setting a group of organizational, technical and human measures that contributes to prevent contamination and minimize biological risks. In this way it can be guaranteed the protection to the workers, the facilities, community and the environment, to have a sure occupational atmosphere in the organization. As a result of the evaluation the factors that affect the operation of the biodigestion system and the security of the process are defined.

  1. Candidal Arthritis After Complete Treatment of Systemic Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Hsieh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the incidence of invasive candidal infections in neonatal intensive care units has increased dramatically. Various complications, such as arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis, and endophthalmitis, have been reviewed. We present the case of a premature infant with systemic candidemia. Arthritis was discovered 6 months after completion of amphotericin B therapy, and was successfully treated with oral fluconazole for 6 weeks. We conclude that long-term follow-up is particularly important in patients with treated candidemia. To prevent complications, prolonged treatment with high-dose amphotericin B is suggested for systemic fungal infection, and oral fluconazole is an effective alternative for candidal arthritis.

  2. System for supporting conception in the field of surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, J.M.; Gras, M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of the techniques issued from artificial intelligence for assisting the development of a computer technical memory on a representative subject, which is the surface treatments and coating in tribology, is illustrated. The development of the system is composed of several steps: data acquisition and formatting representation, data validation and software. Particular attention is given to the dialogue between the user and the system. The study shows that the development of the following points are indispensable: the possibility of following the user's reasoning and coming back to previous steps or exploring several parallel ways [fr

  3. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  4. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  5. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Woodruff, Henry C; van Uytven, Eric; McCurdy, Boyd M C; Kuncic, Zdenka; O'Connor, Daryl J; Greer, Peter B

    2013-09-01

    To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient. The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance. The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ∼1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s). A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

  6. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn [Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Division of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Kuncic, Zdenka [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [Faculty of Science and IT, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, the University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia and Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Locked Bag 7, Hunter region Mail Centre, Newcastle, NSW 2310 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ∼1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy.

  7. A system for EPID-based real-time treatment delivery verification during dynamic IMRT treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Woodruff, Henry C.; O’Connor, Daryl J.; Uytven, Eric van; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Greer, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To design and develop a real-time electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based delivery verification system for dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) which enables detection of gross treatment delivery errors before delivery of substantial radiation to the patient.Methods: The system utilizes a comprehensive physics-based model to generate a series of predicted transit EPID image frames as a reference dataset and compares these to measured EPID frames acquired during treatment. The two datasets are using MLC aperture comparison and cumulative signal checking techniques. The system operation in real-time was simulated offline using previously acquired images for 19 IMRT patient deliveries with both frame-by-frame comparison and cumulative frame comparison. Simulated error case studies were used to demonstrate the system sensitivity and performance.Results: The accuracy of the synchronization method was shown to agree within two control points which corresponds to approximately ∼1% of the total MU to be delivered for dynamic IMRT. The system achieved mean real-time gamma results for frame-by-frame analysis of 86.6% and 89.0% for 3%, 3 mm and 4%, 4 mm criteria, respectively, and 97.9% and 98.6% for cumulative gamma analysis. The system can detect a 10% MU error using 3%, 3 mm criteria within approximately 10 s. The EPID-based real-time delivery verification system successfully detected simulated gross errors introduced into patient plan deliveries in near real-time (within 0.1 s).Conclusions: A real-time radiation delivery verification system for dynamic IMRT has been demonstrated that is designed to prevent major mistreatments in modern radiation therapy

  8. A model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of osteoporosis screening and treatment strategy for postmenopausal Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M; Moriwaki, K; Noto, S; Takiguchi, T

    2017-02-01

    Although an osteoporosis screening program has been implemented as a health promotion project in Japan, its cost-effectiveness has yet to be elucidated fully. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis and found that osteoporosis screening and treatment would be cost-effective for Japanese women over 60 years. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and drug therapy in the Japanese healthcare system for postmenopausal women with no history of fracture. A patient-level state transition model was developed to predict the outcomes of Japanese women with no previous fracture. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were estimated for women who receive osteoporosis screening and alendronate therapy for 5 years and those who do not receive the screening and treatments. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the screening option compared with the no screening option was estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the influence of parameter uncertainty on the base case results. The ICERs of osteoporosis screening and treatments for Japanese women aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and 75-79 years were estimated to be $89,242, $64,010, $40,596, $27,697, $17,027, and $9771 per QALY gained, respectively. Deterministic sensitivity analyses showed that several parameters such as the disutility due to vertebral fracture had a significant influence on the base case results. Applying a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY gained, the probability that the screening option became cost-effectiveness estimated to 50.9, 56.3, 59.1, and 64.7 % for women aged 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, and 75-79 years, respectively. Scenario analyses showed that the ICER for women aged 55-59 years with at least one clinical risk factor was below $50,000 per QALY. In conclusion, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) screening and alendronate therapy for osteoporosis would be cost-effective for

  9. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  11. Clinical treatment planning optimization by Powell's method for gamma unit treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yulong; Shu Huazhong; Bao Xudong; Luo Limin; Bai Yi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a new optimization method for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning for gamma unit treatment system. Methods and Materials: The gamma unit has been utilized in stereotactic radiosurgery for about 30 years, but the usual procedure for a physician-physicist team to design a treatment plan is a trial-and-error approach. Isodose curves are viewed on two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) image planes, which is not only time consuming but also seldom achieves the optimal treatment plan, especially when the isocenter weights are regarded. We developed a treatment-planning system on a computer workstation in which Powell's optimization method is realized. The optimization process starts with the initial parameters (the number of iso centers as well as corresponding 3D iso centers' coordinates, collimator sizes, and weight factors) roughly determined by the physician-physicist team. The objective function can be changed to consider protection of sensitive tissues. Results: We use the plan parameters given by a well-trained physician-physicist team, or ones that the author give roughly as the initial parameters for the optimization procedure. Dosimetric results of optimization show a better high dose-volume conformation to the target volume compared to the doctor's plan. Conclusion: This method converges quickly and is not sensitive to the initial parameters. It achieves an excellent conformation of the estimated isodose curves with the contours of the target volume. If the initial parameters are varied, there will be a little difference in parameters' configuration, but the dosimetric results proved almost to be the same

  12. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  13. Monte Carlo systems used for treatment planning and dose verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brualla, Lorenzo [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Essen (Germany); Rodriguez, Miguel [Centro Medico Paitilla, Balboa (Panama); Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    General-purpose radiation transport Monte Carlo codes have been used for estimation of the absorbed dose distribution in external photon and electron beam radiotherapy patients since several decades. Results obtained with these codes are usually more accurate than those provided by treatment planning systems based on non-stochastic methods. Traditionally, absorbed dose computations based on general-purpose Monte Carlo codes have been used only for research, owing to the difficulties associated with setting up a simulation and the long computation time required. To take advantage of radiation transport Monte Carlo codes applied to routine clinical practice, researchers and private companies have developed treatment planning and dose verification systems that are partly or fully based on fast Monte Carlo algorithms. This review presents a comprehensive list of the currently existing Monte Carlo systems that can be used to calculate or verify an external photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment plan. Particular attention is given to those systems that are distributed, either freely or commercially, and that do not require programming tasks from the end user. These systems are compared in terms of features and the simulation time required to compute a set of benchmark calculations. (orig.) [German] Seit mehreren Jahrzehnten werden allgemein anwendbare Monte-Carlo-Codes zur Simulation des Strahlungstransports benutzt, um die Verteilung der absorbierten Dosis in der perkutanen Strahlentherapie mit Photonen und Elektronen zu evaluieren. Die damit erzielten Ergebnisse sind meist akkurater als solche, die mit nichtstochastischen Methoden herkoemmlicher Bestrahlungsplanungssysteme erzielt werden koennen. Wegen des damit verbundenen Arbeitsaufwands und der langen Dauer der Berechnungen wurden Monte-Carlo-Simulationen von Dosisverteilungen in der konventionellen Strahlentherapie in der Vergangenheit im Wesentlichen in der Forschung eingesetzt. Im Bemuehen, Monte

  14. Software Design for Interactive Graphic Radiation Treatment Simulation Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Ira J.; Sweeney, Christine; Jacky, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    We examine issues in the design of interactive computer graphic simulation programs for radiation treatment planning (RTP), as well as expert system programs that automate parts of the RTP process, in light of ten years of experience at designing, building and using such programs. An experiment in object-oriented design using standard Pascal shows that while some advantage is gained from the design, it is still difficult to achieve modularity and to integrate expert system components. A new design based on the Common LISP Object System (CLOS) is described. This series of designs for RTP software shows that this application benefits in specific ways from object-oriented design methods and appropriate languages and tools.

  15. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in WWTP. Information is given on extracellular polymeric substances production as factor that is key for formation of spatial structures of microorganisms. Additionally, we discuss data on microbial groups including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, Anammox bacteria, and phosphate- and glycogen-accumulating bacteria in full-scale aerobic systems that was obtained with the use of molecular techniques, including high-throughput sequencing, to shed light on dependencies between the microbial ecology of biomass and the overall efficiency and functional stability of wastewater treatment systems. Sludge bulking in WWTPs is addressed, as well as the microbial composition of consortia involved in antibiotic and micropollutant removal.

  16. The endocannabinoid system: a new pharmacological target for obesity treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Zhu, Chao; Huang, Mao

    2009-06-01

    Being a great threaten for human health, obesity has become a pandemic chronic disease. There have been several therapeutic treatments for this social health issue, including diet and exercise therapy, medication and surgery, among which the diet is still the most common way. However, none of these therapeutic measures available is ideal, making it necessary to find an effective medical treatment. The endocannabinoid system, which is well known for its contributions in certain mental processes such as relaxation, amelioration of pain and anxiety, and sedation initiation, has been recently reported to play an essential role in regulating appetite and metabolism to maintain energy balance, leading to the belief that endocannabinoid system is closely related to obesity. This new discovery deepens our understanding of obesity, and provides us with a new direction for clinical obesity treatment. Rimonabant is an antagonist for CB1, and has entered the market in some countries. However, although effective as an anti-obesity drug, rimonabant also causes obviously adverse side-effects, thus is being doubted and denied for medical usage.

  17. Systemic treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with retinol palmitate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kalinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study. Evaluating of the effectiveness of treatment of men with a diagnosis «Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp» by the system using of retinol palmitate. Material and methods. 36 patients every day for 2 months received overnight per os 200000 ME of retinol palmitate, and in the comparison group (39 people antiseborrheic shampoos have been used. The dynamics of severity of skin oiliness, pruritis, erythema, peeling, infiltration, excoriations has been evaluated in points. Before and after the treatment a histological and morphometric study of biopsy material from the affected areas has been carried.The terms of relapses have been set. Results. Retinol palmitate treatment efficiency - 91.7%, antiseborrheic shampoos - 84.6%. Along with the regression of symptoms of the disease in both groups after retinol palmitate treatment significantly declined oiliness of skin; the sizes of sebaceous glands acini and the presence of differentiated sebocytes, the squares of lymphocytic-macrophage clusters in the dermis, the number of keratinocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm have been reduced. Relapses of the disease during a year occured more rare - in 21 patients out of 32 (in the comparison group- in 25 out of 31 and at a later date (in the first 3 months in 2 patients out of 32, in comparison group in 10 out of 31. Identified effects were due to the action of retinol palmitate on the morphogenesis of the sebaceous glands.

  18. Cost of Tuberculosis Treatment: Evidence from Iran's Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Vahid; Tabarsi, Payam; Rezapour, Aziz; Marzban, Sima; Zarei, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the cost of smear-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) treatment of the patients in the Azadshahr district, Golestan Province, Iran. In this retrospective study, all new smear positive pulmonary TB patients who had been registered at the district's health network between April, 2013 and December, 2015 and had successfully completed their treatment were entered into the study (45 patients). Treatment costs were estimated from the provider's perspective using an activity-based costing (ABC) method. The cost of treating a new smear-positive pulmonary TB patient was US dollar (USD) 1,409.00 (Iranian Rial, 39,438,260), which can be divided into direct and indirect costs (USD 1,226.00 [87%] and USD 183.00 [13%], respectively). The highest cost (58.1%) was related to care and management of TB patients (including 46.1% human resources costs and 12% directly-observed treatment, short course implementation) and then respectively related to hospitalization (12.1%), supportive activity centers (11.4%), transportation (6.5%), medicines (5.3%), and laboratory tests and radiography (3.2%). Using disease-specific cost studies can help the healthcare system management to have correct insight into the financial burden created by the disease. This can subsequently be used in prioritization, planning, operational budgeting, economic evaluation of programs, interventions, and ultimately in disease management.

  19. Radioactive waste treatment system for Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Masaki; Saito, Toru; Kikkawa, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    The augmentation of the radioactive waste treatment system in the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was planned in 1973, and this enlarged facility was completed in June, 1977. The object of this augmentation is to increase the storage capacity for wastes and to enlarge the treating capacity utilizing the newly installed facility. The operating experience in the facility having been already constructed was fed back for the engineering of this new facility. This new facility contains the newly developed vacuum forced circulation type concentrator, the exclusive storage pool for solid wastes, etc. At the design stage of this new system, the pilot plant test of slurry transportation and the corrosion test of long hours were carried out as the research and developmental works for the confirmation of correct design condition. The measures for augmenting this radioactive waste treatment system are the installation of a long time storage tank with the capacity of 350 m 3 , the sit bunker facility and the drum storage as the storage facility, and the vacuum forced circulation type concentrator with the circulating flow rate more than 200 times as much as the treating flow rate and vacuum level of 0.255 ata. The augmented system is shown with the flow sheet of whole waste disposal system. The flow sheet of the concentrator is separately shown, and the relating research and developmental works, for example, the test of the cause of corrosion, the surface finishing test, the material test, the blockage test for heat transfer tubes and the inhibiter test, are explained with the test results. The ion exchange resin is transported by air and water as the slurry state, and the long distance transport of about 250 m is required in this new system. As clogging has to be avoided in this transportation, the experimental work was conducted to obtain the flow characteristics of slurry, and the test result is outlined. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Microbial Diversity in Soil Treatment Systems for Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyk, S.; Spear, J.; Siegrist, R.; Pace, N.

    2002-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness and concern over land based wastewater system performance with respect to the removal of bacteria and virus. The goal of this work is to describe and identify the organismal composition of the microbiota in the applied wastewater effluent, the rich biomat that develops at the infiltrative surface, and in the soil percolate in order to aid in the understanding of bacterial and virus purification in soil treatment systems. The traditional reliance on pure culture techniques to describe microbiota is circumvented by the employment of a molecular approach. Microbial community characterization is underway based on cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes for phylogenetic analyses, to determine the nature and quantity of microbiota that constitute these ecosystems. Knowledge of the organisms naturally present can influence the design and treatment capacity of these widely used land based systems. Laboratory, intermediate and field scale systems are currently under study. Since human pathogens are known to exist in sewage effluents, their removal in wastewater infiltration systems and within the underlying soil are in need of a more fundamental understanding. The relationship between design parameters and environmental conditions, including a microbial characterization, is essential for the prevention of contamination in groundwater sources. Preliminary results indicate the presence of uncultured organisms and phylogenetic kinds that had not been detected in these systems using other methods. Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acrobacter cryaerophilus were the two dominant species found in septic tank effluent, comprising 20% and 11% of the library respectively. In soil samples collected from the infiltrative surface of a column dosed with STE, there was no dominant bacterial species present. Percolate samples collected from the outflow of the column showed that a tuber borchii symbiont, a common soil microorganism, dominated the bacterial

  1. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  2. Tendencies the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alert Silva, Jose; Jimenez Medina, Jose

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) tumors is based on the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) and that chemotherapy (QMT) is used even more, as well as the other drugs. A bibliographic review was made to update the knowledge on the current trends and perspectives of RT applied to CNS tumors. The following were found among them: a) combinations of RT and CMT; b) radiosensitizers incorporated to the radiant treatment; c) angiogenesis inhibitors associated with RT; d) the scale-up or increase of the RT doses thanks to the development of new technologies, such as 3 D conformal radiotherapy, intensity- modulated radiotherapy, surgery and others. Another field of research is that of the changes in the rhythm or fractioning of the RT: hyperfractionated, accelerated, combinations of both, etc., which will allow mainly to increase the dosage scale-up

  3. Do health systems delay the treatment of poor children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Helle; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Mbuyita, Selemani Said

    2013-01-01

    Child mortality remains one of the major public-health problems in Tanzania. Delays in receiving and accessing adequate care contribute to these high rates. The literature on public health often focuses on the role of mothers in delaying treatment, suggesting that they contact the health system too...... late and that they prefer to treat their children at home, a perspective often echoed by health workers. Using the three-delay methodology, this study focus on the third phase of the model, exploring the delays experienced in receiving adequate care when mothers with a sick child contact a health......-care facility. The overall objective is to analyse specific structural factors embedded in everyday practices at health facilities in a district in Tanzania which cause delays in the treatment of poor children and to discuss possible changes to institutions and social technologies....

  4. Comparison of DVH data from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M A; Kearvell, R; Hooton, B; Spry, N A; Bydder, S A; Joseph, D J; Haworth, A; Hug, B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the variation of dose-volume histogram (DVH) data sourced from multiple radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPSs). Treatment plan exports were obtained from 33 Australian and New Zealand centres during a dosimetry study. Plan information, including DVH data, was exported from the TPS at each centre and reviewed in a digital review system (SWAN). The review system was then used to produce an independent calculation of DVH information for each delineated structure. The relationships between DVHs extracted from each TPS and independently calculated were examined, particularly in terms of the influence of CT scan slice and pixel widths, the resolution of dose calculation grids and the TPS manufacturer. Calculation of total volume and DVH data was consistent between SWAN and each TPS, with the small discrepancies found tending to increase with decreasing structure size. This was significantly influenced by the TPS model used to derive the data. For target structures covered with relatively uniform dose distributions, there was a significant difference between the minimum dose in each TPS-exported DVH and that calculated independently. (note)

  5. Effect of systemic insulin treatment on diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Nasibeh; Jahangiri, Younes; Landry, Gregory J; Moneta, Gregory L; Azarbal, Amir F

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates if different diabetic treatment regimens affect diabetic foot ulcer healing. From January 2013 to December 2014, 107 diabetic foot ulcers in 85 patients were followed until wound healing, amputation or development of a nonhealing ulcer at the last follow-up visit. Demographic data, diabetic treatment regimens, presence of peripheral vascular disease, wound characteristics, and outcome were collected. Nonhealing wound was defined as major or minor amputation or those who did not have complete healing until the last observation. Median age was 60.0 years (range: 31.1-90.1 years) and 58 cases (68.2%) were males. Twenty-four cases reached a complete healing (healing rate: 22.4%). The median follow-up period in subjects with classified as having chronic wounds was 6.0 months (range: 0.7-21.8 months). Insulin treatment was a part of diabetes management in 52 (61.2%) cases. Insulin therapy significantly increased the wound healing rate (30.3% [20/66 ulcers] vs. 9.8% [4/41 ulcers]) (p = 0.013). In multivariate random-effect logistic regression model, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, type of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, oral hypoglycemic use, wound infection, involved side, presence of Charcot's deformity, gangrene, osteomyelitis on x-ray, and serum hemoglobin A1C levels, insulin treatment was associated with a higher chance of complete healing (beta ± SE: 15.2 ± 6.1, p = 0.013). Systemic insulin treatment can improve wound healing in diabetic ulcers after adjusting for multiple confounding covariates. © 2017 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Integrated thermal treatment system study. Phase 2. Addendum system A8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Teheranian, B.; Quapp, W.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1996-05-01

    This is an addendum to the Integrated Treatment System Study - Phase 2 Results report. This addendum describes the technology and the operation of System A-8, Rotary Kiln, Air Combustion Gas, Dry-Wet APC, and Grout Stabilization. A process flow diagram, functional allocation diagrams, and plan views and perspective views for this system are attached. Detailed cost information for this subsystem is reported in Appendix A of this addendum

  7. Development of safeguards information treatment system at the facility level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Doo; Song, Dae Yong; So, Dong Sup; Kwack, Eun Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Safeguards Information Treatment System(SITS) at the facility level is required to implement efficiently the obligations under the Korea-IAEA Safeguards Agreement, bilateral agreements with other countries and domestic law. In this report, the requirements and major functions of SITS were considered, and the error checking methods and the relationships of safeguards information were reviewed. SITS will be developed to cover the different accounting procedures and methods applied at the various facilities under IAEA safeguards. Also, the resolved result of the Y2K problem in the existing nuclear material accounting program was described. 3 tabs. (Author)

  8. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.; Hinman, M.B.; Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K.

    1997-01-01

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems

  9. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  10. Quality aspects of ex vivo root canal treatments done by undergraduate dental students using four different endodontic treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, Luise; Kruse, Casper; Vaeth, Michael; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate factors associated with treatment quality of ex vivo root canal treatments performed by undergraduate dental students using different endodontic treatment systems. Four students performed root canal treatment on 80 extracted human teeth using four endodontic treatment systems in designated treatment order following a Latin square design. Lateral seal and length of root canal fillings was radiographically assessed; for lateral seal, a graded visual scale was used. Treatment time was measured separately for access preparation, biomechanical root canal preparation, obturation and for the total procedure. Mishaps were registered. An ANOVA mirroring the Latin square design was performed. Use of machine-driven nickel-titanium systems resulted in overall better quality scores for lateral seal than use of the manual stainless-steel system. Among systems with machine-driven files, scores did not significantly differ. Use of machine-driven instruments resulted in shorter treatment time than manual instrumentation. Machine-driven systems with few files achieved shorter treatment times. With increasing number of treatments, root canal-filling quality increased, treatment time decreased; a learning curve was plotted. No root canal shaping file separated. The use of endodontic treatment systems with machine-driven files led to higher quality lateral seal compared to the manual system. The three contemporary machine-driven systems delivered comparable results regarding quality of root canal fillings; they were safe to use and provided a more efficient workflow than the manual technique. Increasing experience had a positive impact on the quality of root canal fillings while treatment time decreased.

  11. System and method for treatment of a medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Acharya, Harish Radhakrishna; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-05-23

    A system and method for treatment of a medium is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of separator zones and a plurality of heat transfer zones. Each of the separator zone and the heat transfer zone among the plurality of separator zones and heat transfer zones respectively, are disposed alternatively in a flow duct. Further, each separator zone includes an injector device for injecting a sorbent into the corresponding separator zone. Within the corresponding separator zone, the injected sorbent is reacted with a gaseous medium flowing in the flow duct, so as to generate a reacted gaseous medium and a reacted sorbent. Further, each heat transfer zone exchanges heat between the reacted gaseous medium fed from the corresponding separator zone and a heat transfer medium.

  12. Topical vs. systemic treatments for acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Kathy; Parrish, Francie; Swords, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common condition in children that is often treated with systemic antibiotic therapy; however, research suggests that non-complicated AOM will resolve spontaneously using only eardrops. To determine best practice for the use of systematic antibiotics compared to topical treatment of AOM, a systematic review of evidence was conducted. Cochrane, Medline, CINAHL, and other databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies published from 1995-2010 that included children with AOM and were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five systematic reviews and five RCTs were included in the review. Current evidence recommends using topical and other alternative approaches for treating non-complicated AOM in children 2 years of age or older; however, many practitioners are not currently following these recommendations for various reasons. Additional research to address these reasons may help determine how to improve practitioner adherence to best practice evidence and guidelines to help reduce the unnecessary use of systemic antibiotics.

  13. Water treatment in the EBR-II steam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.A.; Hurst, H.

    1975-01-01

    Boiler-water treatment in the EBR-II steam system consists of demineralizing makeup water and using hydrazine to remove traces of oxygen and morpholine to adjust pH to 8.8-9.2. This treatment is called a ''zero-solids'' method, because the chemical agents and reaction products are either volatile or form water and do not contribute solids to the boiler water. A continuous blowdown is cooled, filtered, and deionized to remove impurities and maintain high purity of the water. If a cooling-water leak occurs, phosphate is added to control scaling, and the ''zero-solids'' eatment is suspended until the leak is repaired. Water streams are sampled at six points to control water purity. Examination of the steam drum and an evaporator show the metal surfaces to be in excellent condition with minimal corrosion. The EBR-II steam-generating plant has accumulated over 85,000 hours of in-service operation and has operated successfully for over ten years with the ''zero-solids'' treatment. (auth)

  14. Periodontal disease, periodontal treatment and systemic nitric oxide in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Verstraete, F J M; Jerin, A; Šentjurc, M; Kass, P H; Petelin, M; Pavlica, Z

    2013-06-01

    Thirty-two client-owned dogs treated for periodontal disease were divided in group 1 if no periodontitis, group 2 if ≤25%, and group 3 if >25% of the teeth present were affected with periodontitis. Blood was tested before and 2 weeks after periodontal therapy for nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO), plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) levels. No HbNO was detected in any of the animals tested. There was no significant difference in the NOx plasma levels within each group or across the groups before and after the treatment, but a noticeable increase in NOx plasma levels was observed in group 3 after the treatment. Plasma NT was detected in only one third of the animals. NO levels varied greatly across individual dogs. The data are suggestive of an overall increase in systemic NO response 2 weeks after periodontal treatment in dogs with advanced periodontal disease, but the response is greatly individually-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ionic interactions in biological and physical systems: a variational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is about chemical reactions. Chemistry is about electrons changing their configurations as atoms and molecules react. Chemistry has for more than a century studied reactions as if they occurred in ideal conditions of infinitely dilute solutions. But most reactions occur in salt solutions that are not ideal. In those solutions everything (charged) interacts with everything else (charged) through the electric field, which is short and long range extending to the boundaries of the system. Mathematics has recently been developed to deal with interacting systems of this sort. The variational theory of complex fluids has spawned the theory of liquid crystals (or vice versa). In my view, ionic solutions should be viewed as complex fluids, particularly in the biological and engineering context. In both biology and electrochemistry ionic solutions are mixtures highly concentrated (to approximately 10 M) where they are most important, near electrodes, nucleic ids, proteins, active sites of enzymes, and ionic channels. Ca2+ is always involved in biological solutions because the concentration (really free energy per mole) of Ca2+ in a particular location is the signal that controls many biological functions. Such interacting systems are not simple fluids, and it is no wonder that analysis of interactions, such as the Hofmeister series, rooted in that tradition has not succeeded as one would hope. Here, we present a variational treatment of ard spheres in a frictional dielectric with the hope that such a treatment of an lectrolyte as a complex fluid will be productive. The theory automatically extends to spatially nonuniform boundary conditions and the nonequilibrium systems and flows they produce. The theory is unavoidably self-consistent since differential equations are derived (not assumed) from models of (Helmholtz free) nergy and dissipation of the electrolyte. The origin of the Hofmeister series is (in my view) an inverse problem that becomes well posed when

  16. 3D printed alendronate-releasing poly(caprolactone) porous scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation and bone formation in rat tibial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Yun, Young-Pil; Shim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Hak-Jun; Park, Kyeongsoon; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2016-09-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro osteogenic effects and in vivo new bone formation of three-dimensional (3D) printed alendronate (Aln)-releasing poly(caprolactone) (PCL) (Aln/PCL) scaffolds in rat tibial defect models. 3D printed Aln/PCL scaffolds were fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition. The fabricated Aln/PCL scaffolds had high porosity and an interconnected pore structure and showed sustained Aln release. In vitro studies showed that MG-63 cells seeded on the Aln/PCL scaffolds displayed increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium content in a dose-dependent manner when compared with cell cultures in PCL scaffolds. In addition, in vivo animal studies and histologic evaluation showed that Aln/PCL scaffolds implanted in a rat tibial defect model markedly increased new bone formation and mineralized bone tissues in a dose-dependent manner compared to PCL-only scaffolds. Our results show that 3D printed Aln/PCL scaffolds are promising templates for bone tissue engineering applications.

  17. Environmentally safe system for treatment of bio corrosion of ETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarovičová Katarína

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of microorganisms on building facades are responsible for aesthetic, bio-geophysical and biogeochemical deterioration. The process of cleaning of contaminated facades involves the removal and eradication of micro flora on the surface of insulation using chemical products, killing cells and eliminating all living mass, including organic ingredients. The removal of bio corrosion coating from ETICS structure by means of chemical and preservative substances (biocides is currently the only effective and most used technology. Uncontrolled leaching of the used biocides is unacceptable. Meantime, new technology for environmentally safe maintenance of ETICS is needed. Scientists have been working on replacement the biocides currently used in facades treatment with eco-friendly biocides that have no negative effects on the environment or human beings. While the eco- treatment will be available, safe dewatering of chemicals being leached from the surface of the facade could be provided by e.g. special drain systems adjusted to the building type, use and age. The paper gives an overview of the problem in context of Slovakia and examples of leaching systems designed for new and renovated buildings.

  18. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, D.

    1994-01-01

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  20. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS

  1. Centrifugal Filtration System for Severe Accident Source Term Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu Chang; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this paper is to present the conceptual design of a filtration system that can be used to process airborne severe accident source term. Reactor containment may lose its structural integrity due to over-pressurization during a severe accident. This can lead to uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment. For preventing the dispersion of these uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment, several ways to capture or mitigate these radioactive source term releases are under investigation at KAIST. Such technologies are based on concepts like a vortex-like air curtain, a chemical spray, and a suction arm. Treatment of the radioactive material captured by these systems would be required, before releasing to environment. For current filtration systems in the nuclear industry, IAEA lists sand, multi-venturi scrubber, high efficiency particulate arresting (HEPA), charcoal and combinations of the above in NS-G-1-10, 4.143. Most if not all of the requirements of the scenario for applying this technology near the containment of an NPP site and the environmental constraints were analyzed for use in the design of the centrifuge filtration system.

  2. Nutrient fate in aquacultural systems for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dontje, J.H.; Clanton, C.J.

    1999-08-01

    Twelve small, recirculating aquacultural systems were operated for livestock waste treatment to determine nutrient fate. Each system consisted of a 730-L fish tank coupled in a recirculating loop with three sand beds (serving as biofilters) in parallel. Fish (Tilapia species) were grown in the tanks while cattails, reed canary grass, and tomatoes were grown in separate sand beds. Swine waste was added to the fish tanks every other day at average rates of 50, 72, 95, and 118 kg-COD/ha/day of fish tank surface (three replications of each loading rate). Water from the fish tanks was filtered through the sand beds three times per day with 20% of the tank volume passing through the sand each day. The systems were operated in a greenhouse for eight months (21 July to 8 March). Aboveground plant matter was harvested at eight-week intervals. The fish were removed after four months and the tanks were restocked with fingerlings. Initial and final nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents of the system components, as well as that of the harvested plants and fish, were determined. Nutrient balance calculations revealed that 30 to 68% of added N was lost from the systems, probably via denitrification. Nutrient removal by plants was 6 to 18% for N, 8 to 21% for P, and 25 to 71% for K, with tomatoes (foliage and fruit) accounting for the majority of the removal. Plant growth was limited by growing conditions (particularly day length), not be nutrient availability. Fish growth was limited by temperature; thus nutrient extraction by the fish was minimal. Under the conditions of this experiment, the system required supplemental aeration.

  3. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  5. Schizophrenia and the immune system: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Michelle D; Brahm, Nancy C

    2012-05-01

    Published evidence on established and theoretical connections between immune system dysfunction and schizophrenia is reviewed, with a discussion of developments in the search for immunologically-targeted treatments. A growing body of evidence indicates that immunologic influences may play an important role in the etiology and course of schizophrenia. A literature search identified more than 100 articles pertaining to suspected immunologic influences on schizophrenia published over the past 15 years. Schizophrenia researchers have explored a wide range of potential immune system-related causal or contributory factors, including neurobiological and neuroanatomical disorders, genetic abnormalities, and environmental influences such as maternal perinatal infection. Efforts to establish an immunologic basis for schizophrenia and identify reliable immune markers continue to be hindered by sampling challenges and methodological problems. In aggregate, the available evidence indicates that at least some cases of schizophrenia have an immunologic component, suggesting that immune-focused prevention strategies (e.g., counseling of pregnant women to avoid immune stressors) and close monitoring of at-risk children are appropriate. While antipsychotics remain the standard treatments for schizophrenia, a variety of drugs with immunologic effects have been investigated as adjunctive therapies, with variable and sometimes conflicting results; these include the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, immune-modulating agents (e.g., azathioprine and various anticytokine agents such as atlizumab, anakinra, and tumor necrosis factor-α blockers), and an investigational anti-interferon-γ agent. The published evidence indicates that immune system dysfunction related to genetic, environmental, and neurobiological influences may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia in a subset of patients.

  6. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment may include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and targeted therapy. Treatment depends on the tumor type. Learn more about brain and spinal tumor treatment in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Nitrogen transformations in a waterhyacinth-based water treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Reddy, K.R.; Graetz, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Fate of added 15 NH 4 -N and 15 NO 3 -N in waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms]-based water treatment system was evaluated under controlled conditions. Labeled 15 NH 4 -N uptake by waterhyacinth exceeded 15 NO 3 -N uptake. Total 15 N recovery by waterhyacinth ranged from 57 to 72% for added 15 NO 3 -N and 70 to 89% for added 15 NH 4 -N. Both sediment and detritus were potential sources of N for waterhyacinths. Waterhyacinths cultured in sewage effluent removed 55% of the added 15 NH 4 -N and 14% of the added 15 NO 3 -N, respectively. Three to 44% of the added 15 NH 4 -N was lost through nitrification in the water column and subsequent denitrification in the underlying sediments, whereas 24 to 86% of the added 15 NO 3 -N was lost through denitrification. In a system without plants, 13 to 89% of the added 15 NH 4 -N and 48 to 96% of the added 15 NO 3 -N were lost from the system through a combination of nitrification/denitrification and NH 3 volatilization

  8. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  9. Treatment planning systems dosimetry auditing project in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M C; Cavaco, A; Jacob, K; Madureira, L; Germano, S; Faustino, S; Lencart, J; Trindade, M; Vale, J; Batel, V; Sousa, M; Bernardo, A; Brás, S; Macedo, S; Pimparel, D; Ponte, F; Diaz, E; Martins, A; Pinheiro, A; Marques, F; Batista, C; Silva, L; Rodrigues, M; Carita, L; Gershkevitsh, E; Izewska, J

    2014-02-01

    The Medical Physics Division of the Portuguese Physics Society (DFM_SPF) in collaboration with the IAEA, carried out a national auditing project in radiotherapy, between September 2011 and April 2012. The objective of this audit was to ensure the optimal usage of treatment planning systems. The national results are presented in this paper. The audit methodology simulated all steps of external beam radiotherapy workflow, from image acquisition to treatment planning and dose delivery. A thorax CIRS phantom lend by IAEA was used in 8 planning test-cases for photon beams corresponding to 15 measuring points (33 point dose results, including individual fields in multi-field test cases and 5 sum results) in different phantom materials covering a set of typical clinical delivery techniques in 3D Conformal Radiotherapy. All 24 radiotherapy centers in Portugal have participated. 50 photon beams with energies 4-18 MV have been audited using 25 linear accelerators and 32 calculation algorithms. In general a very good consistency was observed for the same type of algorithm in all centres and for each beam quality. The overall results confirmed that the national status of TPS calculations and dose delivery for 3D conformal radiotherapy is generally acceptable with no major causes for concern. This project contributed to the strengthening of the cooperation between the centres and professionals, paving the way to further national collaborations. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecological System Influences in the Treatment of Pediatric Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre E Logan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Family, school and the peer network each shape the chronic pain experience of the individual child, and each of these contexts also represents a domain of functioning often impaired by chronic pain. The goal of the present article is to summarize what is known about these bidirectional influences between children with pain and the social systems that surround them. Case reports that illustrate these complex, transactional forces and their ultimate impact on the child’s pain-related functioning are included. A case involving siblings participating in an intensive interdisciplinary program for functional restoration and pain rehabilitation highlights how parents change through this treatment approach and how this change is vital to the child’s outcomes. Another case involving a child undergoing intensive interdisciplinary treatment illustrates how school avoidance can be treated in the context of pain rehabilitation, resulting in successful return to the regular school environment. Finally, an acceptance and commitment therapy-focused group intervention for children with sickle cell disease and their parents demonstrates the benefits of peer contact as an element of the therapeutic intervention.

  11. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  12. Engineering report for the central mercury treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) was used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant between 1950 and 1963. This contamination legacy has prompted a series of remedial measures. Since the mid-1980s, a series of engineered projects, maintenance activities, and general improvement in work practices has resulted in a decreasing trend of Hg concentration in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Some of the Hg in the soils surrounding past Hg- use buildings enters the building sumps which are discharged to EFPC. Overall goal is to reduce the Hg contamination of EFPC to no more than 5 g/day. This project will create the Central Mercy Treatment System to reduce the Hg contribution to EFPC by installing carbon adsorption units to treat the effluent from buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4. Use of carbon adsorption will be the long-term strategy for reduction of Hg in plant effluent

  13. System and method for treatment of a flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiry, Irina Pavlovna; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Perry, Robert James; McDermott, John Brian

    2017-09-19

    A method for treatment of a flue gas involves feeding the flue gas and a lean solvent to an absorber. The method further involves reacting the flue gas with the lean solvent within the absorber to generate a clean flue gas and a rich solvent. The method also involves feeding the clean flue gas from the absorber and water from a source, to a wash tower to separate a stripped portion of the lean solvent from the clean flue gas to generate a washed clean flue gas and a mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent. The method further involves treating at least a portion of the mixture of the water and the stripped portion of the lean solvent via a separation system to separate the water from the stripped portion of the lean solvent.

  14. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  15. Specification and acceptance testing of radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    Quality assurance (QA) in the radiation therapy treatment planning process is essential to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient and to minimize the possibility of accidental exposure. The computerized radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPSs) are now widely available in industrialized and developing countries and it is of special importance to support hospitals in Member States in developing procedures for acceptance testing, commissioning and QA of their RTPSs. Responding to these needs, a group of experts developed an IAEA publication with such recommendations, which was published in 2004 as IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 430. This report provides a general framework and describes a large number of tests and procedures that should be considered by the users of new RTPSs. However, small hospitals with limited resources or large hospitals with high patient load and limited staff are not always able to perform complete characterization, validation and software testing of algorithms used in RTPSs. Therefore, the IAEA proposed more specific guidelines that provide a step-by-step recommendation for users at hospitals or cancer centres how to implement acceptance and commissioning procedures for newly purchased RTPSs. The current publication was developed in the framework of the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Procedures for Quality Assurance for Dosimetry Calculations in Radiotherapy and uses the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 62083, Requirements for the Safety of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems as its basis. The report addresses the procedures for specification and acceptance testing of RTPSs to be used by both manufacturers and users at the hospitals. Recommendations are provided for specific tests to be performed at the manufacturing facility known as type tests, and for acceptance tests to be performed at the hospital known as site tests. The purpose of acceptance testing is to demonstrate to the

  16. Evaluation of a commercial biologically based IMRT treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenenko, Vladimir A.; Reitz, Bodo; Day, Ellen; Qi, X. Sharon; Miften, Moyed; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    A new inverse treatment planning system (TPS) for external beam radiation therapy with high energy photons is commercially available that utilizes both dose-volume-based cost functions and a selection of cost functions which are based on biological models. The purpose of this work is to evaluate quality of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans resulting from the use of biological cost functions in comparison to plans designed using a traditional TPS employing dose-volume-based optimization. Treatment planning was performed independently at two institutions. For six cancer patients, including head and neck (one case from each institution), prostate, brain, liver, and rectal cases, segmental multileaf collimator IMRT plans were designed using biological cost functions and compared with clinically used dose-based plans for the same patients. Dose-volume histograms and dosimetric indices, such as minimum, maximum, and mean dose, were extracted and compared between the two types of treatment plans. Comparisons of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD), a previously proposed plan quality index (fEUD), target conformity and heterogeneity indices, and the number of segments and monitor units were also performed. The most prominent feature of the biologically based plans was better sparing of organs at risk (OARs). When all plans from both institutions were combined, the biologically based plans resulted in smaller EUD values for 26 out of 33 OARs by an average of 5.6 Gy (range 0.24 to 15 Gy). Owing to more efficient beam segmentation and leaf sequencing tools implemented in the biologically based TPS compared to the dose-based TPS, an estimated treatment delivery time was shorter in most (five out of six) cases with some plans showing up to 50% reduction. The biologically based plans were generally characterized by a smaller conformity index, but greater heterogeneity index compared to the dose-based plans. Overall, compared to plans based on dose

  17. System Life Cycle Evaluation(SM) (SLiCE): harmonizing water treatment systems with implementers' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joseph; Caravati, Kevin; Foote, Andrew; Nelson, Molly; Woods, Emily

    2013-06-01

    One of the methods proposed to improve access to clean drinking water is the mobile packaged water treatment system (MPWTS). The lack of published system performance comparisons combined with the diversity of technology available and intended operating conditions make it difficult for stakeholders to choose the system best suited for their application. MPWTS are often deployed in emergency situations, making selection of the appropriate system crucial to avoiding wasted resources and loss of life. Measurable critical-to-quality characteristics (CTQs) and a system selection tool for MPWTS were developed by utilizing relevant literature, including field studies, and implementing and comparing seven different MPWTS. The proposed System Life Cycle Evaluation (SLiCE) method uses these CTQs to evaluate the diversity in system performance and harmonize relevant performance with stakeholder preference via a selection tool. Agencies and field workers can use SLiCE results to inform and drive decision-making. The evaluation and selection tool also serves as a catalyst for communicating system performance, common design flaws, and stakeholder needs to system manufacturers. The SLiCE framework can be adopted into other emerging system technologies to communicate system performance over the life cycle of use.

  18. Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Faro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC. Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions.

  19. SOS switch system (SSS) in the radiation treatment room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Takafumi; Motoyama, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Koji; Onishi, Hiroshi; Araya, Masayuki; Sano, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    We applied patient's self-breath hold irradiation system to a device to declare the patient's intentions (SOS switch system: SSS) in the radiation room and examined a utility for problem recognition and improvement of risk management during radiation therapy by induction of SSS. Between May 2005 and October 2006, we used SSS with 65 patients. The study involved 32 men and 33 women with a median age of 65 (range, 26-88) years. The reason for using SSS was as a shell in 57, a history of laryngectomy in 2, a cough in 6, convulsions in 1, and anxiety in 3. The treatment with SSS was performed 1,120 times. The hand switch was pushed 11 times. The reasons the switch was pushed were for nausea, aspiration, pain, and cough one time each. For the others, the reasons were unclear, and it was thought due to the clouding of consciousness from brain metastases. No problems were observed with the use of SSS. SSS was a useful device for improvement of risk management during the radiation therapy. (author)

  20. A virtual linear accelerator for verification of treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieslander, Elinore

    2000-01-01

    A virtual linear accelerator is implemented into a commercial pencil-beam-based treatment planning system (TPS) with the purpose of investigating the possibility of verifying the system using a Monte Carlo method. The characterization set for the TPS includes depth doses, profiles and output factors, which is generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The advantage of this method over conventional measurements is that variations in accelerator output are eliminated and more complicated geometries can be used to study the performance of a TPS. The difference between Monte Carlo simulated and TPS calculated profiles and depth doses in the characterization geometry is less than ±2% except for the build-up region. This is of the same order as previously reported results based on measurements. In an inhomogeneous, mediastinum-like case, the deviations between TPS and simulations are small in the unit-density regions. In low-density regions, the TPS overestimates the dose, and the overestimation increases with increasing energy from 3.5% for 6 MV to 9.5% for 18 MV. This result points out the widely known fact that the pencil beam concept does not handle changes in lateral electron transport, nor changes in scatter due to lateral inhomogeneities. It is concluded that verification of a pencil-beam-based TPS with a Monte Carlo based virtual accelerator is possible, which facilitates the verification procedure. (author)

  1. Hydroponic system for the treatment of anaerobic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, K; Nair, J; Bäuml, B

    2012-01-01

    The effluent from anaerobic digestion process has high concentrations of nutrients, particularly nitrogen, essential for plant growth but is not suitable for direct disposal or application due to high chemical oxygen demand (COD), low dissolved oxygen (DO), odour issues and is potentially phytotoxic. This research explored the optimum conditions of anaerobic effluent for application and dilutions of the effluent required to obtain better plant growth. A small-scale hydroponic system was constructed in a glasshouse to test different concentrations of anaerobic effluent against a commercial hydroponic medium as the control for the growth of silverbeet. It was found that the survival of silverbeet was negatively affected at 50% concentration due to low DO and NH(4) toxicity. The concentration of 20% anaerobic liquid was found to be the most efficient with highest foliage yield and plant growth. The hydroponic system with 20% concentrated effluent had better utilisation of nutrients for plant growth and a COD reduction of 95% was achieved during the 50-day growth period. This preliminary evaluation revealed that the growth and development of silverbeet was significantly lower in anaerobic effluent compared with a commercial hydroponic plant growth solution. The nutrient quality of anaerobic effluent could be highly variable with the process and the waste material used and dilution may depend on the nutrient content of the effluent. It is recommended that, a pre-treatment of the effluent to increase DO and reduce ammonium content is required before plant application, and simple dilution by itself is not suitable for optimum plant growth in a hydroponic system.

  2. An evaluation of oxygen systems for treatment of childhood pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudan Igor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen therapy is recommended for all of the 1.5 – 2.7 million young children who consult health services with hypoxemic pneumonia each year, and the many more with other serious conditions. However, oxygen supplies are intermittent throughout the developing world. Although oxygen is well established as a treatment for hypoxemic pneumonia, quantitative evidence for its effect is lacking. This review aims to assess the utility of oxygen systems as a method for reducing childhood mortality from pneumonia. Methods Aiming to improve priority setting methods, The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI has developed a common framework to score competing interventions into child health. That framework involves the assessment of 12 different criteria upon which interventions can be compared. This report follows the proposed framework, using a semi-systematic literature review and the results of a structured exercise gathering opinion from experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies, to assess and score each criterion as their “collective optimism” towards each, on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results A rough estimate from an analysis of the literature suggests that global strengthening of oxygen systems could save lives of up to 122,000 children from pneumonia annually. Following 12 CHNRI criteria, the experts expressed very high levels of optimism (over 80% for answerability, low development cost and low product cost; high levels of optimism (60-80% for low implementation cost, likelihood of efficacy, deliverability, acceptance to end users and health workers; and moderate levels of optimism (40-60% for impact on equity, affordability and sustainability. The median estimate of potential effectiveness of oxygen systems to reduce the overall childhood pneumonia mortality was ~20% (interquartile range: 10-35%, min

  3. [Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: myths, certainties and doubts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Danza, Alvaro; Khamashta, Munther

    2013-12-21

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease with different clinical forms of presentation, including a wide range of severity and organic involvement. Such circumstance, along with the fact of the uncommon nature of the disease and the absence of clinically representative response criteria, make it difficult to design controlled clinical trials in SLE patients. As a result, observational studies have a special relevance, being a source of valuable information of SLE prognosis and outcome as well as of the efficacy and adverse effects of the different therapies. Herein we update some of the main treatments used in SLE. Steroids may have more risks than benefits if used at high doses. New mechanisms of action have been described, supporting the use of lower doses, possibly with the same efficacy and less adverse effects. Intravenous pulses of cyclophosphamide still have a role in the treatment of proliferative lupus nephritis and other serious SLE manifestations. Mycophenolate mofetil has shown its efficacy both as induction and maintenance therapy of selected cases of lupus nephritis. Biological therapies have emerged as new promising options. Although clinical trials have not confirmed a clear superiority of rituximab in SLE, observational studies have shown good response rates in severe SLE manifestations or refractory forms. Belimumab has recently been added to the therapeutic armamentarium of SLE; although its place in clinical practice is not well-defined, it may be recommended in active patients with no response or good tolerance to standard therapies. Hydroxichloroquine improves survival, decreases the risk of thrombosis and flares and is safe in pregnancy, and should be considered the baseline therapy in most SLE patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT FOR DISORDERS OF THE VENOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Osiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual rate of deep vein thrombosis in general population is from 5 to 9 cases per 10 000, whereas for venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism taken together amounts to 14 cases per 10 000. To improve longterm results of therapy for thrombosis of deep veins of the lower extremities, it is important to restore venous function and outflow. Anticoagulant therapy with low weight or non-fractionated heparin preparations remains the most widely used method of management. However, total or partial thrombosis resolution under anticoagulant treatment is achieved only in 4 and 14% of cases, respectively. Thrombolysis allows for early resorption of the thrombus by means of a minimally invasive procedure with lower risk of complication. After the venous flow is restored, the aim of treatment is to prevent damage to the venous valves, venous hypertension and repeated thrombosis with development of the post-thrombotic syndrome. Compared to anticoagulation, systemic thrombolysis has the benefit of more rapid clot resorption and less damage to the venous valve. One of its serious limitations is a high bleeding risk related to higher doses of the drug administered through a peripheral vein catheter. Therefore, selective intra-clot administration of thombolytics (direct catheter thrombolysis has been suggested as an alternative. For more effective therapy with the use of lower doses of thrombolytics, the so called pharmaco-mechanical thrombectomy has been developed. Venous stenosis hindering the venous outflow is frequently seen after direct catheter or pharmaco-mechanical thrombolysis. Angioplasty with stent placement is recommended in the cases with residual venous abnormality after successful thrombolysis and thrombectomy. 

  5. Evaluation of on-site wastewater treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will describe the nature, scope, and findings of a program designed to conduct a third-party group evaluation of wastewater denitrification technologies appropriate for low-flow systems, partially funded by a grant from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). The objective of this program is to verify the performance of products that provide nutrient reduction in wastewater from a variety of sources, including domestic wastewater, agricultural runoff, or other waste streams. The evaluation process will be overseen and coordinated by the Environmental Technology Evaluation Center (EvTEC), a program of the Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF), the research and technology transfer arm of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). EvTEC is a pilot program evaluating innovative environmental technologies under the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. Among other performance issues, the potential energy savings of using nutrient reducing technologies scaled to treat low flows - larger than an individual septic tank but smaller than that of a conventional wastewater treatment plant - will be assessed. The energy savings realized by reduced construction and equipment transport costs alone could make low-flow nutrient reduction technologies viable options for rural communities, small farms, and other low-flow settings. The evaluation is being funded in part by PADEP, which is sponsoring this evaluation due to its interest in developing low-cost wastewater treatment technologies for Pennsylvania's rural communities. However, the evaluation is national in scope, and participants will come from all areas of the country. The presentation will include a description of the process for establishing the testing protocol, testing results from various nutrient reducing technologies, and obstacles encountered and lessons learned during the process. (author)

  6. Systemic 5-fluorouracil treatment causes a syndrome of delayed myelin destruction in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ruolan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer treatment with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents often is associated with delayed adverse neurological consequences. Despite their clinical importance, almost nothing is known about the basis for such effects. It is not even known whether the occurrence of delayed adverse effects requires exposure to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, the presence of both chemotherapeutic agents and the body's own response to cancer, prolonged damage to the blood-brain barrier, inflammation or other such changes. Nor are there any animal models that could enable the study of this important problem. Results We found that clinically relevant concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a widely used chemotherapeutic agent were toxic for both central nervous system (CNS progenitor cells and non-dividing oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Short-term systemic administration of 5-FU caused both acute CNS damage and a syndrome of progressively worsening delayed damage to myelinated tracts of the CNS associated with altered transcriptional regulation in oligodendrocytes and extensive myelin pathology. Functional analysis also provided the first demonstration of delayed effects of chemotherapy on the latency of impulse conduction in the auditory system, offering the possibility of non-invasive analysis of myelin damage associated with cancer treatment. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that systemic treatment with a single chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, is sufficient to cause a syndrome of delayed CNS damage and provide the first animal model of delayed damage to white-matter tracts of individuals treated with systemic chemotherapy. Unlike that caused by local irradiation, the degeneration caused by 5-FU treatment did not correlate with either chronic inflammation or extensive vascular damage and appears to represent a new class of delayed degenerative damage in the CNS.

  7. Whole systems thinking for sustainable water treatment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology could provide a low cost alternative to conventional aerated wastewater treatment, however there has been little comparison between MFC and aeration treatment using real wastewater substrate. This study attempts to directly compare the wastewater treatment efficiency and energy consumption and generation among three reactor systems, a traditional aeration process, a simple submerged MFC configuration, and a control reactor acting similar as natural lagoons. Results showed that all three systems were able to remove >90% of COD, but the aeration used shorter time (8 days) then the MFC (10 days) and control reactor (25 days). Compared to aeration, the MFC showed lower removal efficiency in high COD concentration but much higher efficiency when the COD is low. Only the aeration system showed complete nitrification during the operation, reflected by completed ammonia removal and nitrate accumulation. Suspended solid measurements showed that MFC reduced sludge production by 52-82% as compared to aeration, and it also saved 100% of aeration energy. Furthermore, though not designed for high power generation, the MFC reactor showed a 0.3 Wh/g COD/L or 24 Wh/m3 (wastewater treated) net energy gain in electricity generation. These results demonstrate that MFC technology could be integrated into wastewater infrastructure to meet effluent quality and save operational cost. The high cost and life-cycle impact of electrode materials is one major barrier to the large scale application of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We also demonstrate that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar), could be a more cost effective and sustainable alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granule (GG) electrodes. In a comparison study, two biochar materials made from lodgepole pine sawdust pellets (BCp) and lodgepole pine woodchips (BCc), gassified at a highest heat temperature (HHT) of 1000°C under a heating rate of 16°C/min, showed a

  8. Neural network models for biological waste-gas treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Eldon R; Estefanía López, M; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2011-12-15

    This paper outlines the procedure for developing artificial neural network (ANN) based models for three bioreactor configurations used for waste-gas treatment. The three bioreactor configurations chosen for this modelling work were: biofilter (BF), continuous stirred tank bioreactor (CSTB) and monolith bioreactor (MB). Using styrene as the model pollutant, this paper also serves as a general database of information pertaining to the bioreactor operation and important factors affecting gas-phase styrene removal in these biological systems. Biological waste-gas treatment systems are considered to be both advantageous and economically effective in treating a stream of polluted air containing low to moderate concentrations of the target contaminant, over a rather wide range of gas-flow rates. The bioreactors were inoculated with the fungus Sporothrix variecibatus, and their performances were evaluated at different empty bed residence times (EBRT), and at different inlet styrene concentrations (C(i)). The experimental data from these bioreactors were modelled to predict the bioreactors performance in terms of their removal efficiency (RE, %), by adequate training and testing of a three-layered back propagation neural network (input layer-hidden layer-output layer). Two models (BIOF1 and BIOF2) were developed for the BF with different combinations of easily measurable BF parameters as the inputs, that is concentration (gm(-3)), unit flow (h(-1)) and pressure drop (cm of H(2)O). The model developed for the CSTB used two inputs (concentration and unit flow), while the model for the MB had three inputs (concentration, G/L (gas/liquid) ratio, and pressure drop). Sensitivity analysis in the form of absolute average sensitivity (AAS) was performed for all the developed ANN models to ascertain the importance of the different input parameters, and to assess their direct effect on the bioreactors performance. The performance of the models was estimated by the regression

  9. Modulation of the immune system for the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katharina; Und Hohenstein-Blaul, Nadine von Thun; Teister, Julia; Grus, Franz H

    2017-07-19

    At present intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering therapies are the only approach to treat glaucoma. Neuroprotective strategies to protect the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from apoptosis are lacking to date. Results from clinical studies revealed altered immunoreactivities against retinal and optic nerve antigens in sera and aqueous humor of glaucoma patients and point toward an autoimmune involvement in glaucomatous neurodegeneration and RGC death. IgG accumulations along with plasma cells were found localised in human glaucomatous retinae in a pro-inflammatory environment possibly maintained by microglia. Animal studies show that antibodies (e.g. anti- heat shock protein 60 and anti-myelin basic protein) elevated in glaucoma patients provoke autoaggressive RGC loss and are associated with IgG depositions and increased microglial cells. We demonstrate that intermittent IOP elevation in a rat model is sufficient to provoke glaucoma-like neurodegeneration and elicits correlating changes of IgG autoantibody reactivities. On the other hand, antibodies (e.g. anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-gamma-Synuclein) found decreased in glaucoma patients hold neuroprotective potential on immortalised neuroretinal cells and RGC in an adolescent porcine retina organ culture. We believe that our work not only demonstrates an autoimmune component in glaucoma, but also opens up new options for glaucoma diagnostics and treatment. Nevertheless the immune system also consists of other cells involved not only in the adaptive, but also innate immune system. Studies addressing changes in T lymphocytes, macrophages but also local immune responses in the retina have been performed and also hold promising results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The

  11. Classification System for Individualized Treatment of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Timothy J; Tachibana, Isamu; Siegel, Jordan A; Hoxworth, Ronald; Scott, Jeremy M; Morey, Allen F

    2016-09-01

    The authors present their experience with reconstructive strategies for men with various manifestations of adult buried penis syndrome, and propose a comprehensive anatomical classification system and treatment algorithm based on pathologic changes in the penile skin and involvement of neighboring abdominal and/or scrotal components. The authors reviewed all patients who underwent reconstruction of adult buried penis syndrome at their referral center between 2007 and 2015. Patients were stratified by location and severity of involved anatomical components. Procedures performed, demographics, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Fifty-six patients underwent reconstruction of buried penis at the authors' center from 2007 to 2015. All procedures began with a ventral penile release. If the uncovered penile skin was determined to be viable, a phalloplasty was performed by anchoring penoscrotal skin to the proximal shaft, and the ventral shaft skin defect was closed with scrotal flaps. In more complex patients with circumferential nonviable penile skin, the penile skin was completely excised and replaced with a split-thickness skin graft. Complex patients with severe abdominal lipodystrophy required adjacent tissue transfer. For cases of genital lymphedema, the procedure involved complete excision of the lymphedematous tissue, and primary closure with or without a split-thickness skin graft, also often involving the scrotum. The authors' overall success rate was 88 percent (49 of 56), defined as resolution of symptoms without the need for additional procedures. Successful correction of adult buried penis often necessitates an interdisciplinary, multimodal approach. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Dosimetry audit simulation of treatment planning system in multicenters radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmuri, S.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Treatment Planning System (TPS) is an important modality that determines radiotherapy outcome. TPS requires input data obtained through commissioning and the potentially error occurred. Error in this stage may result in the systematic error. The aim of this study to verify the TPS dosimetry to know deviation range between calculated and measurement dose. This study used CIRS phantom 002LFC representing the human thorax and simulated all external beam radiotherapy stages. The phantom was scanned using CT Scanner and planned 8 test cases that were similar to those in clinical practice situation were made, tested in four radiotherapy centers. Dose measurement using 0.6 cc ionization chamber. The results of this study showed that generally, deviation of all test cases in four centers was within agreement criteria with average deviation about -0.17±1.59 %, -1.64±1.92 %, 0.34±1.34 % and 0.13±1.81 %. The conclusion of this study was all TPS involved in this study showed good performance. The superposition algorithm showed rather poor performance than either analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and convolution algorithm with average deviation about -1.64±1.92 %, -0.17±1.59 % and -0.27±1.51 % respectively.

  13. Breaking emulsions in Navy bilge collection and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, R.C.; Patterson, R.L.

    1978-05-01

    A new bilge waste collection and treatment system, which serves as the collector, transporter, and gravity separator for ship's bilge waste, was used as a medium for the application of chemical demulsification techniques to emulsified oily wastes that are reluctant to separate into the constituent phases. Laboratory tests on 27 demulsifying agents showed that three cation active quaternary ammonium salts were acceptable. They were effective in breaking 5% oil-in-sea-water emulsions over a 20 hr period at 4/sup 0/-45/sup 0/C. The demuslifier concentration required to break the emulsions generally ranged from 1-2% at 4/sup 0/C to 0.1-0.2% at 45/sup 0/C. At 4/sup 0/C, the oil concentration in the separated water was in the 100-500 ppm range; at 45/sup 0/C, no more than 55 ppm was observed with most oil level readings of the order of 25 ppm or less. The demulsifiers were useful in breaking emulsions of Navy distillate oil, used motor oil, turbine oil, and bilge wastes containing unknown oil mixtures. A field demonstration supported the laboratory tests.

  14. Evaluation of advanced wastewater treatment systems for water reuse in the era of advanced wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hisao; Watanabe, Masahiro

    This study focuses on effluent COD concentration from wastewater treatment in regards to the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and trace substances in public waters. The main types of secondary wastewater treatment were conventional activated sludge processes. Recently, however, advance wastewater treatment processes have been developed aimed at the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the effluent quality of these processes was analyzed in this study. Treatment processes for water reclamation that make effluent to meet the target water quality for reuse purposes were selected and also optimum design parameters for these processes were proposed. It was found that the treatment cost to water reclamation was greatly affected by the effluent COD of the secondary treatment. It is important to maintain low COD concentration in the secondary treated effluent. Therefore, it is considered that adequate cost benefits would be obtained by achieving target COD quality through shifting from a conventional activated sludge process to an advanced treatment process.

  15. ETV REPORT AND VERIFICATION STATEMENT - KASELCO POSI-FLO ELECTROCOAGULATION TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kaselco Electrocoagulation Treatment System (Kaselco system) in combination with an ion exchange polishing system was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metal finishing wastewater at Gull Industries in Houston, Texas. The verification test evaluated the a...

  16. Life cycle assessment comparing the treatment of surplus activated sludge in a sludge treatment reed bed system with mechanical treatment on centrifuge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Hoeve, Marieke ten; Nielsen, Steen

    2018-01-01

    or the centrifuge and terminated by land application of the final sludge product. The environmental impacts caused by the sludge treatment reed bed system strategy were comparable to or lower than those caused by the mechanical sludge treatment method. The impacts on climate change were the same for all...

  17. Knowledge-based treatment planning and its potential role in the transition between treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Kathryn; Archer, Paul; Jackson, William; Sun, Yilun; Schipper, Matthew; Hamstra, Daniel; Matuszak, Martha

    2017-11-22

    Commissioning a new treatment planning system (TPS) involves many time-consuming tasks. We investigated the role that knowledge-based planning (KBP) can play in aiding a clinic's transition to a new TPS. Sixty clinically treated prostate/prostate bed intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were exported from an in-house TPS and were used to create a KBP model in a newly implemented commercial application. To determine the benefit that KBP may have in a TPS transition, the model was tested on 2 groups of patients. Group 1 consisted of the first 10 prostate/prostate bed patients treated in the commercial TPS after the transition from the in-house TPS. Group 2 consisted of 10 patients planned in the commercial TPS after 8 months of clinical use. The KBP-generated plan was compared with the clinically used plan in terms of plan quality (ability to meet planning objectives and overall dose metrics) and planning efficiency (time required to generate clinically acceptable plans). The KBP-generated plans provided a significantly improved target coverage (p = 0.01) compared with the clinically used plans for Group 1, but yielded plans of comparable target coverage to the clinically used plans for Group 2. For the organs at risk, the KBP-generated plans produced lower doses, on average, for every normal-tissue objective except for the maximum dose to 0.1 cc of rectum. The time needed for the KBP-generated plans ranged from 6 to 15 minutes compared to 30 to 150 and 15 to 60 minutes for manual planning in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. KBP is a promising tool to aid in the transition to a new TPS. Our study indicates that high-quality treatment plans could have been generated in the newly implemented TPS more efficiently compared with not using KBP. Even after 8 months of the clinical use, KBP still showed an increase in plan quality and planning efficiency compared with manual planning. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published

  18. Nitrite oxidizing bacteria for water treatment in coastal aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorak, S.; Rakkhiaw, S.; Limjirakhajornt, K.; Uppabullung, A.; Keawtawee, T.; Sangnoi, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to isolate and characterize nitrite oxidizing bacteria and to study their capability for water quality improvement. Fourteen strains of bacteria with nitrite-oxidizing character were isolated after 21 days of enrichment in Pep-Beef-NOB medium contained NaNO2. Two strains, SF-1 and SF-5, showed highest nitrite removal rate for 42.42% and 37.2%, respectively. These strains were determined an efficiency of open-system wastewater treatment for 14 days. The results showed that control, SF-1 and SF-5 had remove ammonia from day 1 to day 6. At the end of the study, ammonia was removed by the control, SF-1 and SF-5 for 81.27%, 70.1% and 69.82%, respectively. Nitrite concentration was lowest at day 8 with removal rate of 98.73%, 98.3% and 97.24% from control, SF-1 and SF-5, respectively. However, nitrite concentration in control experiment was increased again at day 11 whereas in SF-1 and SF-5 were increased at day 13. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was decreased by 77.78%, 73.50% and 78.63% in the control, SF-1 and SF-5, respectively. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the control, SF-1 and SF-5 were reduced by 85.92%, 79.53% and 82.09%, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene, SF-1 and SF-5 were identified as Bacillus vietnamensis and B. firmus, respectively.

  19. Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft 2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility

  20. A control system based on field programmable gate array for papermaking sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zi Sheng; Xie, Chang; Xiong, Yan Qing; Liu, Zhi Qiang; Li, Qing

    2013-01-01

    A sewage treatment control system is designed to improve the efficiency of papermaking wastewater treatment system. The automation control system is based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), coded with Very-High-Speed Integrate Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), compiled and simulated with Quartus. In order to ensure the stability of the data used in FPGA, the data is collected through temperature sensors, water level sensor and online PH measurement system. The automatic control system is more sensitive, and both the treatment efficiency and processing power are increased. This work provides a new method for sewage treatment control.

  1. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method: An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  2. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method :  An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M M; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2016-01-01

    Background For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for

  3. Estimating the Time to Benefit for Preventive Drugs with the Statistical Process Control Method : An Example with Alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Esther M. M.; Willems, Hanna C.; Eslami, Saeid; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Lems, Willem F.; Hooft, Lotty; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Black, Dennis M.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    For physicians dealing with patients with a limited life expectancy, knowing the time to benefit (TTB) of preventive medication is essential to support treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of statistical process control (SPC) for determining the TTB in

  4. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult central nervous system tumor treatment options include surgery, radiosurgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surveillance, and supportive care. Get detailed information about the types and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent brain and spinal tumors in this clinician summary.

  5. Commissioning and quality assurances of the CMS XIO radiotherapy treatment planning system for external beam photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, K.R.; Anurupa; Soubhagya; Sudhakar; Shiva; Krishnam Raju, A.; Narayana Murthy, P.

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning of XIO treatment planning system (TPS) was carried out by Computerized Medical Devices, USA for Siemens and Elekta linear accelerators. The Commissioning and quality assurance of the CMS XIO radiotherapy treatment planning system involves many steps, beginning from beam data acquisition and entry into the computerized TPS, through patient data acquisition, to treatment plan generation and the final transfer of data to the treatment machine and quality assurance of TPS

  6. Evaluation of margining algorithms in commercial treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooler, Alistair M.; Mayles, Helen M.; Naismith, Olivia F.; Sage, John P.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: During commissioning of the Pinnacle (Philips) treatment planning system (TPS) the margining algorithm was investigated and was found to produce larger PTVs than Plato (Nucletron) for identical GTVs. Subsequent comparison of PTV volumes resulting from the QA outlining exercise for the CHHIP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose IMRT for Prostate Ca.) trial confirmed that there were differences in TPS's margining algorithms. Margining and the clinical impact of the different PTVs in seven different planning and virtual simulation systems (Pinnacle, Plato, Prosoma (MedCom), Eclipse (7.3 and 7.5) (Varian), MasterPlan (Nucletron), Xio (CMS) and Advantage Windows (AW) (GE)) is investigated, and a simple test for 3D margining consistency is proposed. Methods: Using each TPS, two different sets of prostate GTVs on 2.5 mm and 5 mm slices were margined according to the CHHIP protocol to produce PTV3 (prostate + 5 mm/0 mm post), PTV2 (PTV3 + 5 mm) and PTV1 (prostate and seminal vesicles + 10 mm). GTVs and PTVs were imported into Pinnacle for volume calculation. DVHs for 5 mm slice plans, created using the smallest PTVs, were recalculated on the largest PTV dataset and vice versa. Since adding a margin of 50 mm to a structure should give the same result as adding five margins of 10 mm, this was tested for each TPS (consistency test) using an octahedron as the GTV and CT datasets with 2.5 mm and 5 mm slices. Results: The CHHIP PTV3 and PTV1 volumes had a standard deviation, across the seven systems, of 5% and PTV2 (margined twice) 9%, on the 5 mm slices. For 2.5 mm slices the standard deviations were 4% and 6%. The ratio of the Pinnacle and the Eclipse 7.3 PTV2 volumes was 1.25. Rectal doses were significantly increased when encompassing Pinnacle PTVs (V 50 42.8%), compared to Eclipse 7.3 PTVs (V 50 = 36.4%). Conversely, fields that adequately treated an Eclipse 7.3 PTV2 were inadequate for a Pinnacle PTV2. AW and Plato PTV volumes were the most consistent

  7. Decision support systems in water and wastewater treatment process selection and design: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, M A; Anderson, W B; Huck, P M

    2009-01-01

    The continuously changing drivers of the water treatment industry, embodied by rigorous environmental and health regulations and the challenge of emerging contaminants, necessitates the development of decision support systems for the selection of appropriate treatment trains. This paper explores a systematic approach to developing decision support systems, which includes the analysis of the treatment problem(s), knowledge acquisition and representation, and the identification and evaluation of criteria controlling the selection of optimal treatment systems. The objective of this article is to review approaches and methods used in decision support systems developed to aid in the selection, sequencing of unit processes and design of drinking water, domestic wastewater, and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Not surprisingly, technical considerations were found to dominate the logic of the developed systems. Most of the existing decision-support tools employ heuristic knowledge. It has been determined that there is a need to develop integrated decision support systems that are generic, usable and consider a system analysis approach.

  8. In situ heat treatment process utilizing a closed loop heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Nguyen, Scott Vinh

    2010-12-07

    Systems and methods for an in situ heat treatment process that utilizes a circulation system to heat one or more treatment areas are described herein. The circulation system may use a heated liquid heat transfer fluid that passes through piping in the formation to transfer heat to the formation. In some embodiments, the piping may be positioned in at least two of the wellbores.

  9. On site experiments of the slanted soil treatment systems for domestic gray water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itayama, Tomoaki; Kiji, Masato; Suetsugu, Aya; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Iwami, Norio; Mizuochi, Motoyuki; Inamori, Yuhei

    2006-01-01

    In order to make a breakthrough for the acute problem of water shortage in the world, the key words "decentralization and re-use" are very important for new sustainable sanitation systems that will be developed. Therefore, we focused on a new treatments system called "a slanted soil treatment system" which combines a biotoilet system with a domestic grey water treatment system. Because this system is a low cost and compact system, the system can be easily introduced to homes in urban areas or in the suburbs of cities in many developing countries. In this study, we performed on site experiments carried out on Shikoku Island, Japan, for several years. We obtained the following results. The slanted soil treatment system could remove organic pollutants and total nitrogen and total phosphorus in grey water effectively. Furthermore, the system performance became high in the case of the high concentration of the influent water. The nitrification reaction and denitrification reaction were speculated to exist due to aerobic zones and anaerobic zones present in the slanted soil treatment system. The slanted soil treatment system could perform for approximately 3 years with zero maintenance. The plug flow model of 1st order reaction kinetics could describe the reaction in the slanted soil treatment system. However, it is necessary to improve the system to maintain the performance in all seasons.

  10. Radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic treatment versus systemic treatment alone in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases: a randomized EORTC Intergroup phase II study (EORTC 40004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruers, T; Punt, C; Van Coevorden, F; Pierie, J P E N; Borel-Rinkes, I; Ledermann, J A; Poston, G; Bechstein, W; Lentz, M A; Mauer, M; Van Cutsem, E; Lutz, M P; Nordlinger, B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the possible benefits of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases. This phase II study, originally started as a phase III design, randomly assigned 119 patients with non-resectable colorectal liver metastases between systemic treatment (n = 59) or systemic treatment plus RFA ( ± resection) (n = 60). Primary objective was a 30-month overall survival (OS) rate >38% for the combined treatment group. The primary end point was met, 30-month OS rate was 61.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 48.2-73.9] for combined treatment. However, 30-month OS for systemic treatment was 57.6% (95% CI 44.1-70.4), higher than anticipated. Median OS was 45.3 for combined treatment and 40.5 months for systemic treatment (P = 0.22). PFS rate at 3 years for combined treatment was 27.6% compared with 10.6% for systemic treatment only (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, P = 0.025). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16.8 months (95% CI 11.7-22.1) and 9.9 months (95% CI 9.3-13.7), respectively. This is the first randomized study on the efficacy of RFA. The study met the primary end point on 30-month OS; however, the results in the control arm were in the same range. RFA plus systemic treatment resulted in significant longer PFS. At present, the ultimate effect of RFA on OS remains uncertain.

  11. Clinical Presentation And Treatment Outcome In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell Raj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of ARA criteria and other constitutional symptoms in SLE and the effect of various treatment modalities on these criteria were studied. Immunological features and arthritis were the commonest findings. Addition of an immunosuppressant.

  12. Treatment of Biofouling in Internal Seawater Systems - Phase 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, John A; Dimas, Jim

    2007-01-01

    .... Mussels are of particular concern. In this study, a range of chemicals, including vinegar, detergents, disinfectants, bleach, descalers, pipework treatments and freshwater, were tested on the southern Australian blue mussel, Mytilus...

  13. Topical and systemic pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For chronic lichenified eczema, frequent applications of potent steroids are required for ... TCIs are registered for short-term and non-continuous chronic treatment of moderate to severe AD .... biofeedback, stress management), acu- puncture ...

  14. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

    2004-06-03

    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to

  15. Currently used systems of dental posts for endodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Joana; Almeida, Paulo; Fernandes, Sampaio; Marques, Arcelina; Vaz, Mário

    2017-01-01

    An advanced stage of a tooth decay promotes an extremely damaged tooth that needs endodontic treatment to be restored. When satisfactory coronal tooth structure remains, an artificial crown can be placed without a post. On the other hand, the treatment of seriously damaged teeth often require an endodontic post. The main reason for using post is to enable rebuilding of the tooth structure prior to crown restoration. Dentists believe that endodontic posts provide a stable ...

  16. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  17. A computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. III: graphical simulation and monitoring of treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Marc L.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Safe and efficient delivery of radiotherapy using computer-controlled machines requires new procedures to design and verify the actual delivery of these treatments. Graphical simulation and monitoring techniques for treatment delivery have been developed for this purpose. Methods and Materials: A graphics-based simulator of the treatment machine and a set of procedures for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts are used to simulate machine motions, detect collisions, and monitor machine positions during treatment. The treatment delivery simulator is composed of four components: a three-dimensional dynamic model of the treatment machine; a motion simulation and collision detection algorithm, user-interface widgets that mimic the treatment machine's control and readout devices; and an icon-based interface for creating and manipulating treatment delivery scripts. These components are used in a stand-alone fashion for interactive treatment delivery planning and integrated with a machine control system for treatment implementation and monitoring. Results: A graphics-based treatment delivery simulator and a set of procedures for planning and monitoring computer-controlled treatment delivery have been developed and implemented as part of a comprehensive computer-controlled conformal radiotherapy system. To date, these techniques have been used to design and help monitor computer-controlled treatments on a radiotherapy machine for more than 200 patients. Examples using these techniques for treatment delivery planning and on-line monitoring of machine motions during therapy are described. Conclusion: A system that provides interactive graphics-based tools for defining the sequence of machine motions, simulating treatment delivery including collision detection, and presenting the therapists with continual visual feedback from the treatment machine has been successfully implemented for routine clinical use as part of an overall system for computer

  18. A microcomputer system for prescription, calculation, verification and recording of radiotherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, D.; Smith, C.W.; Belcher, R.A.; Harding, T.; Sutherland, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a microcomputer system for the reduction of mistakes in radiotherapy is described. The system covers prescription entry, prescription and treatment calculations, and verification and recording of the treatment set-up. A telecobalt unit was interfaced to the system and in the first 12 months 400 patients have been prescribed and 5000 treatment fields verified. The prescription is entered by the medical officer using an interactive program and this prescription provides the reference for verifying the treatment set-up. The program allows amendments to the prescription to be made easily during the treatment course. The treatment parameters verified are field size, wedge and treatment time. The system uses bar-codes for patient and field identification. A reduction in the number of mistakes has been achieved and future developments are discussed. (author)

  19. Planning for management information systems in drug treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalkind, D; Zelon, H; Moore, M; Kaluzny, A

    1979-02-01

    An attempt to set up a management information system for individual drug abuse programs throughout a state is described. The principles upon which the system is based are discussed along with the problems encountered in its implementation. A series of guidelines for establishing management information systems in operating human services agencies is included.

  20. Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments. The case of stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jytte; Skjoldborg, Ulla Slothuus

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic properties in the systems most commonly considered for costing treatments in the Danish hospitals. The differences between the traditional charge system, the DRG system and the ABC system are analysed, and difficulties encountered in comparing these systems are discussed. A sample of patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at Odense University Hospital was used to compare the three systems when costing an entire treatment path, costing single hospitalisations and studying the effects of length of stay. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the main idea behind each system is reflected in how the systems over- or underestimate costs. Implications when managing the hospitals, particularly reimbursement, are discussed.

  1. Treatment of initial parenchymal central nervous system involvement in systemic aggressive B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Marcel; Jansen, Anne; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Enting, Roelien H; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C

    2017-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) at diagnosis (sysCNS) is rare. We investigated the outcome of 21 patients with sysCNS, most commonly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, treated with high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) and R-CHOP. The median number of cycles of HD-MTX and R-CHOP was 4 (range 1-8) and 6 (range 0-8), respectively. Consolidative whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) was given to 33% (7/21) patients. With a median follow-up of 44 months the 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 45% (95%CI 34-56%) and 49% (95%CI 38-60%), respectively. Over 90% of patients had an unfavorable international prognostic index score, reflected by treatment-related mortality of 19% (4/21) and relapse-related mortality of 28% (6/21). The outcome of these patients was, however, unexpectedly good when compared to secondary CNS relapses. Prospective studies are needed to define the optimal treatment for patients with sysCNS, but its rarity might be challenging.

  2. Patient-specific system for prognosis of surgical treatment outcomes of human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyadkina, Anastasiya A.; Kalinin, Aleksey A.; Kirillova, Irina V.; Kossovich, Elena L.; Kossovich, Leonid Y.; Menishova, Liyana R.; Polienko, Asel V.

    2015-03-01

    Object of study: Improvement of life quality of patients with high stroke risk ia the main goal for development of system for patient-specific modeling of cardiovascular system. This work is dedicated at increase of safety outcomes for surgical treatment of brain blood supply alterations. The objects of study are common carotid artery, internal and external carotid arteries and bulb. Methods: We estimated mechanical properties of carotid arteries tissues and patching materials utilized at angioplasty. We studied angioarchitecture features of arteries. We developed and clinically adapted computer biomechanical models, which are characterized by geometrical, physical and mechanical similarity with carotid artery in norm and with pathology (atherosclerosis, pathological tortuosity, and their combination). Results: Collaboration of practicing cardiovascular surgeons and specialists in the area of Mathematics and Mechanics allowed to successfully conduct finite-element modeling of surgical treatment taking into account various features of operation techniques and patching materials for a specific patient. Numerical experiment allowed to reveal factors leading to brain blood supply decrease and atherosclerosis development. Modeling of carotid artery reconstruction surgery for a specific patient on the basis of the constructed biomechanical model demonstrated the possibility of its application in clinical practice at approximation of numerical experiment to the real conditions.

  3. An investigation into positron emission tomography contouring methods across two treatment planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Tony; Som, Seu; Sathiakumar, Chithradevi; Holloway, Lois

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to provide additional information regarding patient tumor location, size, and staging for radiotherapy treatment planning purposes. This additional information reduces interobserver variability and produces more consistent contouring. It is well recognized that different contouring methodology for PET data results in different contoured volumes. The goal of this study was to compare the difference in PET contouring methods for 2 different treatment planning systems using a phantom dataset and a series of patient datasets. Contouring methodology was compared on the ADAC Pinnacle Treatment Planning System and the CMS XiO Treatment Planning System. Contours were completed on the phantom and patient datasets using a number of PET contouring methods—the standardized uptake value 2.5 method, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximum uptake method and the signal to background ratio method. Differences of >15% were observed for PET-contoured volumes between the different treatment planning systems for the same data and the same PET contouring methodology. Contoured volume differences between treatment planning systems were caused by differences in data formatting and display and the different contouring tools available. Differences in treatment planning system as well as contouring methodology should be considered carefully in dose-volume contouring and reporting, especially between centers that may use different treatment planning systems or those that have several different treatment planning systems

  4. Matlab Tools: An Alternative to Planning Systems in Brachytherapy Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Rodriguez, Mercedes; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This work proposes the use of the Matlab environment to obtain the treatment dose based on the reported data by Krishnaswamy and Liu et al. The comparison with reported measurements is showed for the Amersham source model. For the 3M source model, measurements with TLDs and a Monte Carlo simulation are compared to the data obtained by Matlab. The difference for the Amersham model is well under the 15% recommended by the IAEA and for the 3M model, although the difference is greater, the results are consistent. The good agreement to the reported data allows the Matlab calculations to be used in daily brachytherapy treatments

  5. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments

  6. Association of periodontal disease with systemic health indices in dogs and the systemic response to treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Goldstein, Richard E; Reiter, Alexander M; Attwater, Daniel Z; Harvey, Colin E

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether severity of periodontal disease (PD) was associated with systemic health indices in dogs and whether treatment of PD altered systemic health indices. Prospective cohort study. 38 dogs. Healthy dogs with clinical signs of PD were included in the study. Physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, a CBC, urine evaluation, measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and a microalbuminuria test were performed prior to treatment of PD. All tooth roots were scored for gingivitis and attachment loss, and appropriate treatment of PD was performed. Laboratory data were obtained 4 weeks after treatment. The Spearman rank correlation and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Analyses of the correlation of several variables with attachment loss or gingivitis or of differences before and after treatment revealed significant results for several variables. After applying Bonferroni corrections for family-wise error rate, significant rank correlations were found between attachment loss and platelet number (r = 0.54), creatinine concentration (r = -0.49), and the within-dog difference in CRP concentrations before and after treatment (r = 0.40). The BUN concentration was significantly higher after treatment than before treatment. Increasing severity of attachment loss was associated with changes in systemic inflammatory variables and renal indices. A decrease in CRP concentration after treatment was correlated with the severity of PD. The BUN concentration increased significantly after treatment of PD. There is a need for continued research into the systemic impact of PD.

  7. Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis with cornea transplantation and topical and systemic voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Eggink, C.A.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Wesseling, P.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    A case of invasive Fusarium keratitis in a previously healthy male patient was treated successfully with cornea transplantation and systemic and topical voriconazole after treatment failure with topical amphotericin B and systemic itraconazole. Topical voriconazole was well tolerated, and, in

  8. Treatment decision-making processes in the systemic treatment of ovarian cancer: review of the scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, Hrvoje; Fotopoulou, Christina; Luketina, Ruzica-Rosalia; Pilger, Adak; Sehouli, Jalid

    2012-09-01

    The systemic treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the cornerstones in the multimodal management of advanced OC in both primary and recurrent stages of this disease. In most situations various treatment options are available but only few data exists about the treatment decision-making process. Therefore, we conducted a review of the current literature regarding the decision-making process concerning the systemic therapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The electronic database MEDLINE (PubMed) was systematically reviewed for studies that evaluate the treatment decision-making processes in patients with advanced OC. The PubMed database was searched in detail for all titles and abstracts of potentially relevant studies published between 1995 and 2011. An initial search identified 15 potentially relevant studies, but only seven met all inclusion criteria. Factors that influence treatment decisions in patients with OC include not only rational arguments and medical reasons, but also individual attitudes, fears, existential questions, various projections resulting from the physician patient relationship and the social environment. The physician's personal experience with OC treatment seems to be an important factor, followed by previous personal experience with medical issues, and the fear of side-effects and future metastases. Family and self-support organisations also seem to play a significant role in the treatment decision-making process. This review underlines the need for more research activities to explore the treatment decision-making process to enable the best individual support for patients in treatment decision-making. It is a challenge for clinicians to determine the individual information needs of women with OC and to involve them during the decision-making process to the extent they wish.

  9. Transient osteoporosis of the hip, complete resolution after treatment with Alendronate as observed by MRI Description of 8 cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emad, Y.; Ragab, Y.; El Shaarawy, Nashwa; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2012-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH), also referred to as transient bone marrow edema syndrome, is most common in middle-aged men and often after trivial trauma or sport-related injuries. Diagnosis is usually made by eliminating other possible causes of hip pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  10. HIV/AIDS, Drug Abuse Treatment, and the Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses in-prison prevalence and transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Focuses on epidemiology in prison settings, the role of ethnicity and gender in transmission, screening for HIV, segregating the HIV-positive inmate, condom distribution, medical treatment for HIV-positive inmates, HIV education and prevention, and tuberculosis…

  11. CORPOR- AND SPONDYLECTOMYIN SYSTEM OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF VERTEBRAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Usikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have reported the 10-years experience of treatment of 571 patient with spinal tumors. Radical resection (en bloc of tumors was done in 114 cases (65 - corpectomy, 55 - spondylectomy. The rate of tumors recurrence was - 9%, it depended from type of tumors and it's size.

  12. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal rate. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is getting wide acceptance among several anaerobic processes. However, its application is still ...

  13. Detention and positioning system for patient Treatment with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso Bernad, Nuria; Tirado Porcar, Miriam; Del Castillo Arres, M. Jose; Broseta Tormos, M. Mercedes; Franch Martinez, Silvia; Suarez Dieguez, Raquel; Roures Ramos, M.Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The first step in what we call in radiotherapy S imulation and Planning o f radiation, is the correct choice of patient position and methods to use for this position is maintained along both the simulation and planning as the radiation treatment. The choice of position is directly linked to the choice of immobilizer to be used. (Author)

  14. Electron-beam flue-gas treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sinji; Suzuki, Ryoji

    1994-01-01

    The damage of forests in the world due to acid rain has become serious problems, and the development of high efficiency and economical desulfurization and denitration technologies for combustion exhaust gas has been desired. Japan leads the world in exhaust gas treatment technology. The conventional technologies have been the desulfurization by lime gypsum process and the denitration by ammonia catalytic reduction process. The solution by entirely new concept is the electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas. This technology is a dry process without drain, and does not require catalyst. The byproduct from this technology was approved as a fertilizer. The electron beam treatment technology is called EBA (electron beam with ammonia). The exhaust gas treatment technology by electron beam process is constituted by the cooling of exhaust gas, ammonia addition, electron beam irradiation and the separation of byproduct. The features of the technology are the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, dry process, the facilities are simple and the operation is easy, easy following to load variation and the utilization of byproduct. The reaction mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, the course of development, the electron beam generator, and the verifying test are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrick, Ariane L; Pan, Xiaoyan; Peytrignet, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    .440), but survival was poorest in the no immunosuppressant group (84.0%) at 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may support using immunosuppressants for early dcSSc but suggest that overall benefit is modest over 12 months and that better treatments are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02339441....

  16. Combination Antifungal Therapy in the Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum Central Nervous System Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Scedosporium apiospermum central nervous system (CNS infection typically consists of an azole in combination with surgical debridement. This approach requires prolonged treatment and carries a high associated mortality. We present two cases of the successful treatment of S. apiospermum CNS infections with the combination of voriconazole and terbinafine.

  17. Safety of Systemic Agents for the Treatment of Pediatric Psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronckers, Inge M G J; Seyger, Marieke M B; West, Dennis P

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Use of systemic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis in children is increasing, but comparative data on their use and toxicities are limited. Objective: To assess patterns of use and relative risks of systemic agents for moderate to severe psoriasis in children. Design, Setting,...... per week protected more against methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal AEs than did weekly administration. A prospective registry is needed to track the long-term risks of systemic agents for pediatric psoriasis....

  18. Wekiva Basin onsite sewage treatment and disposal system study

    OpenAIRE

    Booher, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Existing onsite systems and aquifer vulnerability in the Wekiva Basin. Recommendations from the Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, Division of Environmental Health, Florida Department of Health. (11 slides)

  19. Effects of advanced treatment systems on the removal of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants from Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei

    2013-08-06

    This study aimed at quantifying the concentration and removal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employing different advanced treatment systems [biological aerated filter, constructed wetland, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection]. The concentrations of tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, sulI, sulII, intI1, and 16S rDNA genes were examined in wastewater and biosolid samples. In municipal WWTPs, ARG reductions of 1-3 orders of magnitude were observed, and no difference was found among the three municipal WWTPs with different treatment processes (p > 0.05). In advanced treatment systems, 1-3 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in constructed wetlands, 0.6-1.2 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in the biological aerated filter, but no apparent decrease by UV disinfection was observed. A significant difference was found between constructed wetlands and biological filter (p removal of ARGs and 16S rDNA genes (R(2) = 0.391-0.866; p removal values with WWTP (p > 0.05) but also have the advantage in ARG relative abundance removal, and it should be given priority to be an advanced treatment system for further ARG attenuation from WWTP.

  20. Commissioning and acceptance testing of Cadplan plus- a 3D treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, H.K.; Kinhikar, R.K.; Deshpande, D.D.; Dinshaw, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    3D treatment planning systems are finding wide acceptance in the radiotherapy community due to their improved dose calculation accuracy as well as the 3D visualization tools. Cadplan plus, a 3D treatment planning system from Varian, has been commissioned at the Tata Memorial Hospital in accordance to various international guidelines

  1. Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arriaga, Sonia; de Jonge, Nadieh; Lund Nielsen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals are persistent pollutants that are only partially degraded in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used as a polishing step on a full-scale WWTP, and its ability to remove micropollutants...

  2. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Renal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Orhan; Caliskan, Ahmet; Demirtas, Sinan; Yavuz, Celal; Kuyumcu, Mahir; Nergiz, Yusuf; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Karahan, Oguz; Ari, Seyhmus; Soker, Sevda; Yalinkilic, Ibrahim; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is steadily increasing as a therapeutic modality for various types of diseases. Although good clinical outcomes were reported with HBO treatment for various diseases, the multisystemic effects of this modality are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the renal effects of HBO experimentally. Fourteen New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 2 groups randomly as the control group and the study group. The study group received HBO treatment for 28 days (100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres for 90 minutes daily) and the control group was used to obtain normal renal tissue of the animal genus. After the intervention period, venous blood samples were obtained, and renal tissue samples were harvested for comparisons. Normal histological morphology was determined with Masson trichrome staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining in the control group. Atrophic glomerular structures, vacuolated tubule cells, and degeneration were detected in the renal samples of the study group with Masson trichrome staining. Additionally, flattening was observed on the brush borders of the proximal tubules, and tubular dilatation was visualized with periodic acid-Schiff staining. The histopathologic disruption of renal morphology was verified with detection of significantly elevated kidney function laboratory biomarkers in the study group. Our findings suggests that HBO has adverse effects on renal glomerulus and proximal tubules. However, the functional effects of this alteration should be investigated with further studies.

  3. Systemic treatment of cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) comprises a heterogenous group of cancers with distinct biology and prognosis. There is, however, a specific group of patients with curable diseases, or incurable diseases with good prognosis. The main aim of treatment in the group of patients with CUP is timely initiation of therapy in the cases of curable disease. There is no known standard of care in the cases of CUP with poor prognosis, but most frequently, platinum-based regimens are used. In the cases of specific immunohistochemistry (IHC) or molecular gene expression profile, there are used the treatment regimens similar to those used in the patients with known primary tumor and similar IHC or molecular profile. Currently, most of data in patients with CUP are from phase II clinical trials. Thus proficiently designed phase III randomized clinical trials with translation research is priority, with aim to improve our knowledge and personalize treatment of such heterogenous group of patients as is a group of patients with CUP. (author)

  4. Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennevey Kinidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.

  5. Concepts for treatment of micrometastases developed in murine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabel, F.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Current knowledge of tumor cell population growth kinetics indicates that the growth fraction (viable tumor cells undergoing active cell replication) is inversely related to population size. Tumor cells in micrometastases should, therefore, be more sensitive to anticancer drugs active against anabolizing cells than are tumor cells in the larger, grossly apparent primary tumor from which they were derived. This indicates the probability that micrometastases will be effectively responsive to more drugs than is the primary and clinically apparent tumor from which they came. Studies with at least four metastatic and uniformly fatal murine solid tumors (lung, breast, colon, and melanoma) have demonstrated significantly improved cure rates with drug treatment following surgical removal of the grossly apparent primary tumor than can be obtained with either surgery or drug treatment when used alone. Further, both disease staging and drug dosage have been shown to influence cure rates of combined-modality treatment. With several mouse tumors, a significantly smaller number of viable tumor cells can establish lethal tumors in the presence of radiation-inactivated tumor cells than in their absence. This suggests that small numbers of residual viable tumor cells in radiation-treated tumor sites may be a greater threat to clinical cure than smaller tumor cell populations remaining in situ after surgery

  6. Comparison of treatments of steep and shoot generated by different inverse planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of IMRT treatments with the technique Steep and Shoot or static is the number of segments and monitor units used in the treatment. These parameters depend largely on the inverse planning system which determines treatment. Are evaluated three commercial planning systems, with each one performing clinical dosimetry for the same series of patients. Dosimetric results are compared, UM calculated and number of segments.

  7. RESOURCE RECOVERY BY OSMOTIC BIOELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS  TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Recovering valuable resources from wastewater will transform wastewater management from a treatment focused to sustainability focused strategy, and creates the need for new technology development. An innovative treatment concept - osmotic bioelectrochemical system (OsBES), which is based on cooperation between bioelectrochemical systems (BES) and forward osmosis (FO), has been introduced and studied in the past few years. An OsBES can accomplish simultaneous treatment of wastewater and recove...

  8. Information Processing and Coaching Treatments in an Intelligent Tutoring System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dillon, Ronna

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to develop an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) to train test administrators how to operate computerized adaptive testing Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (CAT-ASVAB...

  9. Dosimetric evaluation of PLATO and Oncentra treatment planning systems for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy gynecological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hardev; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Showalter, Barry; Thompson, Spencer J.; Syzek, Elizabeth J.; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peggy and Charles Stephenson Oklahoma Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23

    This study compares the dosimetric differences in HDR brachytherapy treatment plans calculated with Nucletron's PLATO and Oncentra MasterPlan treatment planning systems (TPS). Ten patients (1 T1b, 1 T2a, 6 T2b, 2 T4) having cervical carcinoma, median age of 43.5 years (range, 34-79 years) treated with tandem and ring applicator in our institution were selected retrospectively for this study. For both Plato and Oncentra TPS, the same orthogonal films anterior-posterior (AP) and lateral were used to manually draw the prescription and anatomical points using definitions from the Manchester system and recommendations from the ICRU report 38. Data input for PLATO was done using a digitizer and Epson Expression 10000XL scanner was used for Oncentra where the points were selected on the images in the screen. The prescription doses for these patients were 30 Gy to points right A (RA) and left A (LA) delivered in 5 fractions with Ir-192 HDR source. Two arrangements: one dwell position and two dwell positions on the tandem were used for dose calculation. The doses to the patient points right B (RB) and left B (LB), and to the organs at risk (OAR), bladder and rectum for each patient were calculated. The mean dose and the mean percentage difference in dose calculated by the two treatment planning systems were compared. Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. No significant differences in mean RB, LB, bladder and rectum doses were found with p-values > 0.14. The mean percent difference of doses in RB, LB, bladder and rectum are found to be less than 2.2%, 1.8%, 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. Dose calculations based on the two different treatment planning systems were found to be consistent and the treatment plans can be made with either system in our department without any concern.

  10. The treatment of skin ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Matucci- Cerinic; F. Braschi; A. Moggi Pignone; L. Amanzi; G. Fiori

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (Ssc) is a complex disease of the connective tissue, characterized by progressive thickening and fibrosis of the skin and the internal organs and by diffused damage of the microvascular system. The fibrosis ones of the skin associated to the characteristic vascular alterations lead to the genesis of ulcers, more or less extended, often multiple, peripheral localization, chronic course, painful, able to influence patient’s quality of life. Indeed, immunity reactivity, the th...

  11. Characterization of alendronic- and undecylenic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles for the targeted delivery of rosiglitazone to subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Katayoun; Tod, Sarah E; Leung, Donna; Nicholson, Kenton E; Andreu, Irene; Buchwalder, Christian; Schmitt, Veronika; Häfeli, Urs O; Gray, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a state of positive energy balance where excess white adipose tissue accumulates to the detriment of metabolic health. Improving adipocyte function with systemic administration of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improves metabolic outcomes in obesity, however TZD use is limited clinically due to undesirable side effects. Here we evaluate magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a tool to target rosiglitazone (Rosi) specifically to adipose tissue. Results show Rosi can be adsorbed to MNPs (Rosi-MNPs) with hydrophobic coatings for which we present binding and release kinetics. Rosi adsorbed to MNPs retained the ability to induce PPARγ target gene expression in cells. Biodistribution analysis of radiolabeled Rosi-MNPs revealed a fat-implanted magnet significantly enhanced localization of Rosi to the targeted adipose tissue when administered by subcutaneous injection to obese mice. We propose MNPs for targeted delivery of anti-diabetic agents to superficially located subcutaneous adipose tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety of Systemic Agents for the Treatment of Pediatric Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronckers, Inge M G J; Seyger, Marieke M B; West, Dennis P; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Tollefson, Megha; Tom, Wynnis L; Hogeling, Marcia; Belazarian, Leah; Zachariae, Claus; Mahé, Emmanuel; Siegfried, Elaine; Philipp, Sandra; Szalai, Zsuzsanna; Vleugels, Ruth Ann; Holland, Kristen; Murphy, Ruth; Baselga, Eulalia; Cordoro, Kelly; Lambert, Jo; Alexopoulos, Alex; Mrowietz, Ulrich; Kievit, Wietske; Paller, Amy S

    2017-11-01

    Use of systemic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis in children is increasing, but comparative data on their use and toxicities are limited. To assess patterns of use and relative risks of systemic agents for moderate to severe psoriasis in children. A retrospective review was conducted at 20 centers in North America and Europe, and included all consecutive children with moderate to severe psoriasis who used systemic medications or phototherapy for at least 3 months from December 1, 1990, to September 16, 2014. The minimal core data set included age, sex, severity of psoriasis, systemic interventions, monitoring, adverse events (AEs), and reason for discontinuation. For 390 children (203 girls and 187 boys; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 8.4 [3.7] years) with psoriasis who used 1 or more systemic medications, the mean interval between diagnosis and starting systemic therapy was 3.0 years. Methotrexate was used by 270 patients (69.2%), biologic agents (primarily etanercept) by 106 (27.2%), acitretin by 57 (14.6%), cyclosporine by 30 (7.7%), fumaric acid esters by 19 (4.9%), and more than 1 medication was used by 73 (18.7%). Of 270 children taking methotrexate, 130 (48.1%) reported 1 or more AEs associated with methotrexate, primarily gastrointestinal (67 [24.8%]). Folic acid 6 days per week (odds ratio, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.06-0.41; P psoriasis.

  13. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L.; Cooley, C.R.; Biagi, C.

    1996-01-01

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies' results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%

  14. Bioequivalence of generic alendronate sodium tablets (70 mg to Fosamax® tablets (70 mg in fasting, healthy volunteers: a randomized, open-label, three-way, reference-replicated crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yifan Zhang,1 Xiaoyan Chen,1 Yunbiao Tang,2 Youming Lu,1 Lixia Guo,1 Dafang Zhong1 1State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmacy, The General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of a generic product 70 mg alendronate sodium tablets with the reference product Fosamax® 70 mg tablet. Materials and methods: A single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period, three-sequence, reference-replicated crossover study was performed in 36 healthy Chinese male volunteers under fasting conditions. In each study period, the volunteers received a single oral dose of the generic or reference product (70 mg. Blood samples were collected at pre-dose and up to 8 h after administration. The bioequivalence of the generic product to the reference product was assessed using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA reference-scaled average bioequivalence (RSABE methods. Results: The average maximum concentrations (Cmax of alendronic acid were 64.78±43.76, 56.62±31.95, and 60.15±37.12 ng/mL after the single dose of the generic product and the first and second doses of the reference product, respectively. The areas under the plasma concentration–time curves from time 0 to the last timepoint (AUC0–t were 150.36±82.90, 148.15±85.97, and 167.11±110.87 h·ng/mL, respectively. Reference scaling was used because the within-subject standard deviations of the reference product (sWR for Cmax and AUC0–t were all higher than the cutoff value of 0.294. The 95% upper confidence bounds were -0.16 and -0.17 for Cmax and AUC0–t, respectively, and the point estimates for the generic/reference product ratio were 1.08 and 1.00, which satisfied the RSABE acceptance criteria of the FDA. The 90% CIs for Cmax and AUC0–t were 90.35%–129

  15. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  16. Aerobic granular SBR systems applied to the treatment of industrial effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, V. del; Figueroa, M.; Arrojo, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J. L.; Garcia-Torriello, G.; Mendez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Systems based on aerobic granular biomass are an alternative to the conventional activated sludge plants for wastewater treatment. Large organic and nitrogen loads are treated in these systems where biomass grown as granules, easy to separate by setting, make unnecessary the construction of secondary settler reducing the surface requirements for the treatment system construction. Furthermore, in aerobic granular reactors simultaneously carbon and nitrogen removal is feasible. These systems have been already applied at laboratory scale for the treatment of different types of industrial and urban wastewater. (Author)

  17. Systems genetics analysis of pharmacogenomics variation during antidepressant treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Kogelman, L J A; Kadarmideen, H N

    2016-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used antidepressants, but the efficacy of the treatment varies significantly among individuals. It is believed that complex genetic mechanisms play a part in this variation. We have used a network based approach to unravel the in...... genes involved in calcium homeostasis. In conclusion, we suggest a difference in genetic interaction networks between initial and subsequent SSRI response.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 October 2016; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.68....

  18. Can a digital medicine system improve adherence to antipsychotic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papola, D; Gastaldon, C; Ostuzzi, G

    2018-06-01

    A substantial proportion of people with mental health conditions do not adhere to prescribed pharmacological treatments. Poor adherence is probably one of the most critical elements contributing to relapse in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders. In order to tackle this global issue, in November 2017 the Food and Drug Administration approved a tablet formulation of the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole embedded with a novel digital adherence-assessment device. In this commentary, we critically appraised the potential beneficial and harmful consequences of this new digital formulation of aripiprazole, and we highlighted expected implications for clinical practice.

  19. Information-theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Patrick J.; Yu Li; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given positive operator valued measure (POVM) on system a is present in another system b, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on a in a third system c. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize ''all-or-nothing'' theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of partial information, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: For example, if E accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel F will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis invariance of the difference between the information about a contained in b and c.

  20. Development of the heat treatment system for the 40 T hybrid magnet superconducting outsert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W G; Chen, Z M; Chen, Z Y; Huang, P C; He, P; Zhu, J W

    2011-10-01

    The heat treatment of Nb(3)Sn coil with the glass fabric insulation is one of the key and critical processes for the outsert solenoids of the 40 T hybrid magnet, which could be wound with cable-in-conduit conductors using the insulation-wind-and-react technique. The manufacturing of the large vertical type vacuum/Ar atmosphere-protection heat treatment system has been completed and recently installed in the High Magnetic Filed Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The heat treatment system composed mainly the furnace, the purging gas supply system, the control system, the gas impurities monitoring system, and so on. At present, the regulation and testing of the heat treatment system has been successfully finished, and all of technical parameters meet or exceed specifications.

  1. Toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms in biological wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Banihani, Qais; León, Glendy; Khatri, Chandra; Field, James A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2009-07-01

    Fluoride is a common contaminant in a variety of industrial wastewaters. Available information on the potential toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms implicated in biological wastewater treatment is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of fluoride towards the main microbial populations responsible for the removal of organic constituents and nutrients in wastewater treatment processes. The results of short-term batch bioassays indicated that the toxicity of sodium fluoride varied widely depending on the microbial population. Anaerobic microorganisms involved in various metabolic steps of anaerobic digestion processes were found to be very sensitive to the presence of fluoride. The concentrations of fluoride causing 50% metabolic inhibition (IC(50)) of propionate- and butyrate-degrading microorganisms as well as mesophilic and thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogens ranged from 18 to 43 mg/L. Fluoride was also inhibitory to nitrification, albeit at relatively high levels (IC(50)=149 mg/L). Nitrifying bacteria appeared to adapt rapidly to fluoride, and a near complete recovery of their metabolic activity was observed after only 4d of exposure to high fluoride levels (up to 500 mg/L). All other microbial populations evaluated in this study, i.e., glucose fermenters, aerobic glucose-degrading heterotrophs, denitrifying bacteria, and H(2)-utilizing methanogens, tolerated fluoride at very high concentrations (>500 mg/L).

  2. Theoretical treatment of transverse feedback systems with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornacchia, M.; Wang, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The differential equation of the dipole moment of coherent oscillations in the presence of a feedback system is derived. The analysis, which starts in the time domain, is extended to the frequency domain; this allows a straightforward derivation of the damping rate for both coasting and bunched beams. The damping rate is expressed in terms of the transfer function of the feedback system and in a general form which takes into account the β-function and betatron phase modulation along the beam trajectory, the effect of memory arising from the finiteness of the system bandwidth, the effect of the time delay and of the betatron phase advance between detector and kicker. Some examples of the dependence of the damping rate on the feedback parameters are given

  3. Predictors of Relapse after Discontinuing Systemic Treatment in Childhood Autoimmune Chronic Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Gabriele; Bracaglia, Claudia; Cattalini, Marco; Taddio, Andrea; Brambilla, Alice; De Libero, Cinzia; Pires Marafon, Denise; Caputo, Roberto; Cimaz, Rolando

    2017-06-01

    To identify clinical predictors of relapse in childhood autoimmune chronic uveitis after stopping systemic treatment. A retrospective, multicenter, cohort study. Ninety-four children in remission, receiving no treatments and with at least a 6-month followup, were enrolled. A higher probability of maintaining remission after discontinuing treatment was shown in idiopathic compared with juvenile idiopathic arthritis uveitis (Mantel-Cox chi-square = 23.21) if inactivity had been obtained within 6 months from starting systemic treatment (Mantel-Cox chi-square = 24.17) and by antitumor necrosis factor-α treatment (Mantel-Cox chi-square = 6.43). Type of disease, time, and type of systemic therapy to achieve inactivity predict different duration of uveitis remission after treatment withdrawal.

  4. Estimation of second primary cancers risk based on the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Chufeng; Sun Guangyao; Liu Hui; Zheng Huaqing; Cheng Mengyun; Li Gui; Wu Yican; FDS Team

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of second primary cancers risk after radiotherapy has become increasingly important for comparative treatment planning. A new method based on the treatment planning system to estimate the risk of second primary cancers was introduced in this paper. Using the Advanced/Accurate Radiotherapy Treatment System(ARTS), a treatment planning system developed by the FDS team,the risk of second primary cancer was estimated over two treatment plans for a patient with pancreatic cancer. Based on the second primary cancer risk, the two plans were compared. It was found that,kidney and gall-bladder had higher risk to develop second primary cancer. A better plan was chosen by the analysis of second primary cancer risk. The results showed that this risk estimation method we developed could be used to evaluate treatment plans. (authors)

  5. Safety aspects of the design of a PWR gaseous radwaste treatment system using hydrogen recombiners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.; Nuyt, G.; Herin, S.; Fossion, P.

    1978-01-01

    PWR Gaseous radwaste treatment system is essential for the reduction of impact on environment of the nuclear power plants. Decay tank system has been used for the retention of the radioactive gaseous fission products generated in the primary coolant. The use of a system combining decay tanks and hydrogen recombiner units is described in this paper. Accent is put on the safety aspects of this gaseous radwaste treatment facilitystudied by BN for a Belgian Power Plant. (author)

  6. Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Garcia Sancho, J.M.; Crelgo, D.; Pamos, M.; Fernandez, J.; Vivanco, J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it. The attenuation caused by an Exact treatment couch in a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D was characterized in detail. Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. The treatment couch was modeled and incorporated to Elekta XiO treatment planning system. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by this complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam. The measured attenuation values reach 16% for 6 MV and 10% for 18 MV. The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows reducing the differences between measured and calculated data below 2.5% and 2.0% for 6 MV and 18 MV respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it. The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. (Author).

  7. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

  8. [Development of performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Huang, Shui-Sheng; Gong, Xin-Guo; Cen, Li-Ping; Zhang, Cong; Zhu, Hong; Yang, Jun-Jing; Chen, Li

    2012-04-01

    To construct a performance evaluation and management system on advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment, and analyze and evaluate the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment over the years. By applying the database management technique and C++ programming technique, we inputted the information of the advanced schistosomiasis cases into the system, and comprehensively evaluated the work of the advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment through the cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. We made a set of software formula about cost-effect analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. This system had many features such as clear building, easy to operate, friendly surface, convenient information input and information search. It could benefit the performance evaluation of the province's advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work. This system can satisfy the current needs of advanced schistosomiasis medical treatment work and can be easy to be widely used.

  9. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations

  10. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  11. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  12. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed

  13. Towards Realization of Intelligent Medical Treatment at Nanoscale by Artificial Microscopic Swarm Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rowhanimanesh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this paper, the novel concept of artificial microscopic swarm control systems is proposed as a promising approach towards realization of intelligent medical treatment at nanoscale. In this new paradigm, treatment is done autonomously at nanoscale within the patient’s body by the proposed swarm control systems.Methods: From control engineering perspective, medical treatment can be considered as a control problem, in which the ultimate goal is to find the best feasible way to change the state of diseased tissue from unhealthy to healthy in presence of uncertainty. Although a living tissue is a huge swarm of microscopic cells, nearly all of the common treatment methods are based on macroscopic centralized control paradigm. Inspired by natural microscopic swarm control systems such as nervous, endocrine and immune systems that work based on swarm control paradigm, medical treatment needs a paradigm shift from macroscopic centralized control to microscopic swarm control. An artificial microscopic swarm control system consists of a huge number of very simple autonomous microscopic agents that exploit swarm intelligence to realize sense, control (computing and actuation at nanoscale in local, distributed and decentralized manner. This control system can be designed based on mathematical analysis and computer simulation.Results: The proposed approach is used for treatment of atherosclerosis and cancer based on mathematical analysis and in-silico study.Conclusion: The notion of artificial microscopic swarm control systems opens new doors towards realization of autonomous and intelligent medical treatment at nanoscale within the patient’s body.

  14. Analytical treatment of Coriolis coupling for three-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Bill

    2005-01-31

    In a previous article [J. Chem. Phys. 108 (1998) 5216], an efficient method was presented for performing 'exact' quantum calculations for the three-body rovibrational Hamiltonian, within the helicity-conserving approximation. This approach makes use of a certain three-body ''effective potential,'' enabling the same bend angle basis set to be employed for all values of the rotational quantum numbers, J, K and M. In the present work, the method is extended to incorporate Coriolis coupling, for which the relevant matrix elements are derived exactly. These can be used to solve the full three-body rovibrational problem, in the standard Jacobi coordinate vector embedding. Generalization of the method for coupled kinetic energy operators arising from other coordinate systems, embeddings, and/or system sizes, is also discussed.

  15. Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; Cargo, C.H.; Ayers, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO 2 ) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

  16. Study of Advanced Oxidation System for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdi Usada; Bambang Siswanto; Suryadi; Agus Purwadi; Isyuniarto

    2007-01-01

    Hygiene water is still a big problem globally as well as energy and food, especially in Indonesia where more than 70 % lived in Java island. One of the efforts in treating hygiene water is to recycle the used water. In this case it is needed clean water technology. Many methods have been done, this paper describes the advanced oxidation technology system based on ozone, titania and plasma discharge. (author)

  17. [The treatment of skin ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, G; Amanzi, L; Moggi Pignone, A; Braschi, F; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    2004-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (Ssc) is a complex disease of the connective tissue, characterized by progressive thickening and fibrosis of the skin and the internal organs and by diffused damage of the microvascular system. The fibrosis ones of the skin associated to the characteristic vascular alterations lead to the genesis of ulcers, more or less extended, often multiple, peripheral localization, chronic course, painful, able to influence patient's quality of life. Indeed, immunity reactivity, the thinning and the loss of elasticity of the skin, the peripheral neurological damage and the eventual drug assumption that can reduce regenerative/reparative abilities, can easily make an ulcer chronic and become infected complicating still more the patient disease, rendering more difficult the cure often, ulcer evolves to gangrene, and in some cases, in amputation too. For all these reasons, we have begun to study ulcers therapy (local and systemic), considering this activity it leave integrating of the charitable distance of the sclerodermic patient, putting to point on strategy both diagnostic and therapeutic, but above all with the primary scope, if possible, is to prevent ulcers, in contrary case, to alleviate the pain and to render the quality of the life of the patient better.

  18. The treatment of skin ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matucci- Cerinic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Sclerosis (Ssc is a complex disease of the connective tissue, characterized by progressive thickening and fibrosis of the skin and the internal organs and by diffused damage of the microvascular system. The fibrosis ones of the skin associated to the characteristic vascular alterations lead to the genesis of ulcers, more or less extended, often multiple, peripheral localization, chronic course, painful, able to influence patient’s quality of life. Indeed, immunity reactivity, the thinning and the loss of elasticity of the skin, the peripheral neurological damage and the eventual drug assumption that can reduce regenerative/reparative abilities, can easy chronicizzate an ulcer and become infected complicating still more the patient disease, rendering more difficult the cure often, ulcer evolves to gangrene, and in some cases, in amputation too. For all these reasons, we have begun to study ulcers therapy (local and systemic, considering this activity it leave integrating of the charitable distance of the sclerodermico patient, putting to point on strategy both diagnostic and therapeutic, but above all with the primary scope, if possible, is to prevent ulcers, in contrary case, to alleviate the pain and to render the quality of the life of the patient better.

  19. Shielding evaluation of the Thorium Lean Raffinate (TLR) waste treatment system at Waste Immobilisation Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhosale, Nitin A.; Deepa, A.K.; Jakhete, A.P.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Prasad, S.K.; Gangadharan, Anand; Singh, Neelima

    2012-01-01

    Thoria rods irradiated in research reactors were reprocessed for 233 U recovery and resulted in 9 m 3 of acidic Th-bearing raffinate waste. A two step treatment system was planned to treat the raffinate waste. The first step was the generation of thorium lean raffinate waste (TLR) after separation of thorium and the second step was the separation of residual radioactivity and conditioning planned at WIP. The beta activity in the TLR waste is around 50 mCi/i having 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 125 Sb as its main constituents. Shielding calculations were carried out for the various stages of the treatment system at Area-61 of WIP, Trombay. Dose rate evaluations at each step of the treatment system were evaluated to keep the personnel exposure during campaign, ALARA. The work set the base for the shielding design of the treatment system and for the estimation of the man-rem budgeting during commissioning of the system

  20. Hydrogen treatment system in the Genkai nuclear power plant No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masayuki; Kodama, Hideo; Murashima, Masayasu

    1977-01-01

    The new hydrogen treatment system which injects hydrogen into the volume control tank for purging the mixed waste gas of Kr, Xe, etc. is adopted in the Genkai nuclear power plant No. 2. The system is composed of mainly the waste gas pretreatment equipment, a palladium alloy membrane type hydrogen separator, a hydrogen compressor, and a waste gas decay tank. The outline of the primary cooling system and the chemical volume control system of PWR, the hydrogen treatment system, and the gaseous waste disposal system of original and new types for the Genkai nuclear power plants No. 1 and 2 are explained in this paper. This newly added hydrogen treatment system will be able to reduce the rare gas concentration rate in the primary coolant to about 1/2 and 1/5 for Kr 85 and Xe 133 , respectively. (auth.)

  1. Innovative biological systems for anaerobic treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M

    1986-09-01

    The application of two innovative fixed film and suspended growth anaerobic biological systems to the treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters is discussed. A fluidized bed fixed film system and a suspended growth membrane system are described. The technical and economic factors dictating which system is selected for treatment of a specific industrial wastewater are discussed. Case history results from successful operation of full-scale, demonstration, and pilot-scale systems treating respectively, soy whey, cheese whey, and wheat flour processing wastewaters are presented.

  2. Massive Pulmonary Embolism: Treatment with the Rotarex Thrombectomy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Gu Jianping; Yang Zhengqiang; Chen Liang; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Zhou Weizhong; Zhou Chungao; Zhao Linbo; Xia Jinguo; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Fourteen patients (8 men, 6 women) with a mean age of 55.4 (range, 38–71) years with acute massive PE were initially diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and confirmed by pulmonary angiography. All patients presented with acute PE symptoms and hemodynamic compromise. Each patient was treated with Straub Rotarex thrombectomy device and five patients received additional thrombolysis. Technique success and clinical improvement were achieved in all patients without major complications. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) decreased from 37.6 ± 6.6 to 29 ± 6.4 mmHg (P 2 (PaO 2 ) increased from 61.1 ± 9.2 to 88 ± 5.1 mmHg (P < 0.01). The Miller index was 0.67 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.13 (P < 0.01), respectively, before and after PMT (P < 0.01). Eleven patients had no recurrence of PE on a mean follow-up of 28.3 months, whereas the other three patients were lost to follow-up. The preliminary experience in our series suggests that the Straub Rotarex thrombectomy device, which has been utilized in peripheral arteries, also is useful for the treatment of acute massive PE.

  3. Evaluation of an integrated treatment system for MGP site groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, O.K.; Grey, G.M.; Maiello, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Initially studied at bench scale, process sequences comprising dissolved air flotation (DAF), aerobic biological oxidation, air stripping, filtration, and carbon adsorption were demonstrated at pilot scale at a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in New Jersey. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the primary organics in the groundwater, ranging from levels of 2 to 8 mg/L and 0.3 to 27 mg/L, respectively; chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were from 60 to 4,500 mg/L. Significant levels of dense, emulsified, and nonaqueous tars and oils were present in the more highly contaminated waters and were effectively removed by DAF. Carbon-based fluidized-bed biological treatment of the DAF subnatant at COD loadings between 2 and 4 g/L-d yielded effluent-soluble COD levels between 40 and 60 mg/L, with both residual BTEX and PAH concentrations ranging from nondetect levels to 0.1 mg/L. Subsequent polishing by filtration and carbon adsorption resulted in additional COD removal and nondetect levels of volatiles and semivolatiles. Air stripping was effective in lieu of the biological process for both volatile organic compound (VOC) and PAH removal

  4. Method of treatment in a system passing radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K; Kinoshita, M; Asakura, Y

    1976-05-14

    A method to ensure the safety of the reactor and reduce radiation exposure dose by preventing oxygen hydrogen reaction of the reactor off-gas and accumulation of the radioactive material is described. Substances which are accumulated in an off-gas duct and are likely to capture radioactive material (for instance Pd catalyst falling from a recombiner) is changed into a stable material (for instance, PdI/sub 2/) which is hot likely to capture radioactive material through reaction with a stabilizer (for instance, I/sub 2/, Cl/sub 2/, HCl, etc.). This stabilized material is washed off the atomic power plant system.

  5. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  6. Engineering Task Plan for a vapor treatment system on Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan describes tasks and responsibilities for the design, fabrication, test, and installation of a vapor treatment system (mixing system) on Tank 241-C-103. The mixing system is to be installed downstream of the breather filter and will use a mixing blower to reduce the chemical concentrations to below allowable levels

  7. Interactive tele-radiological segmentation systems for treatment and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimeras, S; Gortzis, L G

    2012-01-01

    Telehealth is the exchange of health information and the provision of health care services through electronic information and communications technology, where participants are separated by geographic, time, social and cultural barriers. The shift of telemedicine from desktop platforms to wireless and mobile technologies is likely to have a significant impact on healthcare in the future. It is therefore crucial to develop a general information exchange e-medical system to enables its users to perform online and offline medical consultations through diagnosis. During the medical diagnosis, image analysis techniques combined with doctor's opinions could be useful for final medical decisions. Quantitative analysis of digital images requires detection and segmentation of the borders of the object of interest. In medical images, segmentation has traditionally been done by human experts. Even with the aid of image processing software (computer-assisted segmentation tools), manual segmentation of 2D and 3D CT images is tedious, time-consuming, and thus impractical, especially in cases where a large number of objects must be specified. Substantial computational and storage requirements become especially acute when object orientation and scale have to be considered. Therefore automated or semi-automated segmentation techniques are essential if these software applications are ever to gain widespread clinical use. The main purpose of this work is to analyze segmentation techniques for the definition of anatomical structures under telemedical systems.

  8. Interactive Tele-Radiological Segmentation Systems for Treatment and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zimeras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth is the exchange of health information and the provision of health care services through electronic information and communications technology, where participants are separated by geographic, time, social and cultural barriers. The shift of telemedicine from desktop platforms to wireless and mobile technologies is likely to have a significant impact on healthcare in the future. It is therefore crucial to develop a general information exchange e-medical system to enables its users to perform online and offline medical consultations through diagnosis. During the medical diagnosis, image analysis techniques combined with doctor’s opinions could be useful for final medical decisions. Quantitative analysis of digital images requires detection and segmentation of the borders of the object of interest. In medical images, segmentation has traditionally been done by human experts. Even with the aid of image processing software (computer-assisted segmentation tools, manual segmentation of 2D and 3D CT images is tedious, time-consuming, and thus impractical, especially in cases where a large number of objects must be specified. Substantial computational and storage requirements become especially acute when object orientation and scale have to be considered. Therefore automated or semi-automated segmentation techniques are essential if these software applications are ever to gain widespread clinical use. The main purpose of this work is to analyze segmentation techniques for the definition of anatomical structures under telemedical systems.

  9. Oily bilge water treatment with a tubular ultrafiltration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L.R.; Jackson, D.F.; Schatzberg, P.

    1976-11-01

    The Navy has been developing various oil pollution abatement systems. One potential process for the separation of oil in bilge water is ultrafiltration, a pressure-driven membrane process which can separate, concentrate, and fractionate macromolecular solutes and suspended species from water. A tubular ultrafiltration system using cellulosic and noncellulosic membranes was tested with bilge oil obtained from a patrol craft. Tests were also conducted with tap water, river water, a turbine lubricating oil, and a fuel oil, alone and in combination with a nonionic detergent. The addition of the detergent was observed to result in a steeper flux decline than when any of the fluids were evaluated alone. Both membrane types produced a permeate with an oil content generally less than 15 mg/l. Although the noncellulosic membranes exhibited higher flux rates than the cellulosic membranes, only the former could be restored by a cleaning operation to its initial water flux after experiencing a decline in flux. A cumulative irreversible flux decline was exhibited by the cellulosic membrane. Cleaning operations, some of which were time-consuming, consisted of flushing the membrane with ultrafiltrate, distilled water, tap water, or the manufacturer's enzyme-detergent formulation. Only the last of these, when employed at elevated temperature (125/sup 0/F), restored the initial water flux of the noncellulosic membrane.

  10. Fate of antimicrobials in duckweed Lemna minor wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatrou, Evangelia I; Gatidou, Georgia; Damalas, Dimitrios; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2017-05-15

    The fate of four antimicrobials (cefadroxil, CFD; metronidazole, METRO; trimethoprim, TRI; sulfamethoxazole, SMX) was studied in Lemna minor systems and the role of different mechanisms on their removal was evaluated. All micropollutants were significantly removed in batch experiments with active Lemna minor; the highest removal was observed for CFD (100% in 14 d), followed by METRO (96%), SMX (73%) and TRI (59%) during 24 d of the experiment. Calculation of kinetic constants for hydrolysis, photodegradation, sorption to biomass and plant uptake revealed significant differences depending on the compound and the studied mechanism. For METRO, TRI and SMX the kinetic constants of plant uptake were by far higher comparing to those of the other mechanisms. The transformation products of antimicrobials were identified using UHPLC-QToF-MS. Two were the main degradation pathways for TRI; hydroxylation takes place during both phyto- and photodegradation, while demethylation occurs only in absence of Lemna minor. The operation of a continuous-flow duckweed system showed METRO and TRI removal equal to 71±11% and 61±8%, respectively. The application of mass balance and the use of published biodegradation constants showed that plant uptake and biodegradation were the major mechanisms governing METRO removal; the most important mechanism for TRI was plant uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of development and management of treatment planning systems for BNCT at foreign facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    A new computational dosimetry system for BNCT: JCDS is developed by JAERI in order to carry out BNCT with epithermal neutron beam at present. The development and management situation of computational dosimetry system, which are developed and are used in BNCT facilities in foreign countries, were investigated in order to accurately grasp functions necessary for preparation of the treatment planning and its future subjects. In present state, 'SERA', which are developed by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is used in many BNCT facilities. Followings are necessary for development and management of the treatment planning system. (1) Reliability confirmation of system performance by verification as comparison examination of calculated value with actual experimental measured value. (2) Confirmation systems such as periodic maintenance for retention of the system quality. (3) The improvement system, which always considered relative merits and demerits with other computational dosimetry system. (4) The development of integrated system with patient setting. (author)

  12. Integrated process analysis of treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.

    1997-10-01

    Selection of technologies to be developed for treatment of DOE's mixed low level waste (MLLW) requires knowledge and understanding of the expected costs, schedules, risks, performance, and reliability of the total engineered systems that use these technologies. Thus, an integrated process analysis program was undertaken to identify the characteristics and needs of several thermal and nonthermal systems. For purposes of comparison, all systems were conceptually designed for a single facility processing the same amount of waste at the same rate. Thirty treatment systems were evaluated ranging from standard incineration to innovative thermal systems and innovative nonthermal chemical treatment. Treating 236 million pounds of waste in 20 years through a central treatment was found to be the least costly option with total life cycle cost ranging from $2.1 billion for a metal melting system to $3.9 billion for a nonthermal acid digestion system. Little cost difference exists among nonthermal systems or among thermal systems. Significant cost savings could be achieved by working towards maximum on line treatment time per year; vitrifying the final waste residue; decreasing front end characterization segregation and sizing requirements; using contaminated soil as the vitrifying agent; and delisting the final vitrified waste form from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) requirements

  13. Human applications of the INEL patient treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.; Wessol, D.; Atkinson, C.; Nigg, D.

    1995-01-01

    During the past few years, murine and large animal research, as well as human studies have provided data to the point where human clinical trials have been initiated at the BMRR using BPA-F for gliomas and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) using BPA for melanomas of the extremeties. It is expected that glioma trials using BSH will proceed soon at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) in the Netherlands. The first human glioma epithermal boron neutron capture therapy application was performed at the BMRR in the fall of 1994. This was a collaborative effort by BNL, Beth Israel Manhattan hospital, and INEL. The INEL planning system was chosen to perform dose predictions for this application

  14. A semiclassical treatment of correlation energy for nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Starting with the separation of the many-body density operator in two parts, one describing the one-body aspects of the full density and the other containing all dynamic correlations information, the semiclassical approximation for the system correlation energy, was calculated. It is showm that, in this case, the Gaussian Wave Packets Phase Space Representation is more convenient than the Wely-Wigner Rrepresentation for the analysis of the semiclassical correlation energy. Using a phenomenological interaction, the correlation energy to the nuclear matter and some simmetric finite nucleus was calculated. The Fermi Surface Diffusivity, was also calculated. Finally, from the relation between this theory and the pertubation theory, we have done some considerations about the viability on the local densities expansion for energy functionals. (author) [pt

  15. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M.; Tyler, A.; Marshall, I.

    1996-01-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs

  16. B cell biology: implications for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anolik, J H

    2013-04-01

    B cells are critical players in the orchestration of properly regulated immune responses, normally providing protective immunity without autoimmunity. Balance in the B cell compartment is achieved through the finely regulated participation of multiple B cell populations with different antibody-dependent and independent functions. Both types of functions allow B cells to modulate other components of the innate and adaptive immune system. Autoantibody-independent B cell functions include antigen presentation, T cell activation and polarization, and dendritic cell modulation. Several of these functions are mediated by the ability of B cells to produce immunoregulatory cytokines and chemokines and by their critical contribution to lymphoid tissue development and organization including the development of ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissue. Additionally, the functional versatility of B cells enables them to play either protective or pathogenic roles in autoimmunity. In turn, B cell dysfunction has been critically implicated in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a complex disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies and heterogeneous clinical involvement. Thus, the breakdown of B cell tolerance is a defining and early event in the disease process and may occur by multiple pathways, including alterations in factors that affect B cell activation thresholds, B cell longevity, and apoptotic cell processing. Once tolerance is broken, autoantibodies contribute to autoimmunity by multiple mechanisms including immune-complex mediated Type III hypersensitivity reactions, type II antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, and by instructing innate immune cells to produce pathogenic cytokines including IFNα, TNF and IL-1. The complexity of B cell functions has been highlighted by the variable success of B cell-targeted therapies in multiple autoimmune diseases, including those conventionally viewed as T cell-mediated conditions. Given the widespread

  17. Rituximab in the treatment of shrinking lung syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba Toribio, Patricia; Córica Albani, María Emilia; Mayos Pérez, Mercedes; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. We report the case of a patient with non-responding SLS (neither to glucocorticoids nor immunosupresors), who showed remarkable improvement after the onset of treatment with rituximab. Although there is a little evidence, treatment with rituximab could be proposed in SLS when classical treatment fails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Simple Radioactive marker System to Reduce Positioning Errors in Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William H. Miller; Dr. Jatinder Palta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to implement an inexpensive, quick and simple monitor that provides an accurate indication of proper patient position during the treatment of cancer by external beam X-ray radiation and also checks for any significant changes in patient anatomy. It is believed that this system will significantly reduce the treatment margin, provide an additional, independent quality assurance check of positioning accuracy prior to all treatments and reduce the probability of misadministration of therapeutic dose

  19. Cross-system effects of dysphagia treatment on dysphonia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    LaGorio, Lisa A; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, treatment of dysphagia and dysphonia has followed a specificity approach whereby treatment plans have focused on each dysfunction individually. Recently however, a therapeutic cross-system effect has been proposed between these two dysfunctions. At least one study has demonstrated swallowing improvement in subjects who completed a dysphonia treatment program. However, we are unaware of any evidence demonstrating the converse effect. In this paper, we present a case-report of a ...

  20. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  1. Advances in the use of biologic agents for the treatment of systemic vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sharon A.; Seo, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Due to the well-known toxicities of cyclophosphamide, substantial interest exists in finding other therapies to treat primary systemic vasculitis. Biologic agents have been proposed as an alternative to cyclophosphamide for these disorders because of their recent success in treating other rheumatic diseases. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art with regards to the use of biologic agents as a treatment for systemic vasculitis. Recent findings The greatest amount of experience with these agents for the treatment of systemic vasculitis is with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, pooled intravenous immunoglobulin, and anti-B cell therapies such as rituximab. Intravenous immunoglobulin is already a standard therapy for Kawasaki's disease, but should also be considered for the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis when standard therapies are either ineffective or contraindicated. Early experience with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors indicates that they may be effective for the treatment of Takayasu's arteritis, but their role in the treatment of other forms of vasculitis remains controversial. Early experience with rituximab for the treatment of several forms of vasculitis has been quite promising, but must be confirmed by ongoing randomized clinical trials. Summary Biologic agents represent the next evolution in treatment for the primary systemic vasculitides. Greater understanding of these diseases has allowed use to move further away from non-specific, highly toxic therapies towards a more directed approach. As our experience with these agents increases, they will likely form the keystone of treatment in the near future. PMID:19077713

  2. The evaluation of treatment services and systems for substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush Brian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research and program evaluation have not played a major role in shaping the development of treatment services and systems in most countries. This has led to disparities in the development, management and monitoring of national treatment systems. In the evaluation of treatment for substance use disorders, the evaluation practitioner will usually be working at one of five levels: single case, treatment activity, treatment service, treatment agency or treatment system. One of the major barriers to undertaking internal program evaluation is the belief that it is a complicated research process best left to those with specific research training. Program managers and staff can plan and initiate an evaluation process for their program if they have access to research expertise when needed for certain parts of the process. There are seven main components of an evaluation process that can be planned and implemented: need assessment; evaluation planning, process evaluation, cost analysis, client satisfaction evaluation, outcome evaluation and economic evaluation. However, evaluation is more than the techniques and technology required to implement these types of activities. It also involves the routine questioning of current practice even if the feedback may be less positive than anticipated. A healthy culture for evaluation is one in which feedback loops are woven into the fabric of the treatment service or system. There are many barriers to evaluation in substance abuse services but these barriers can be overcome with careful planning and commitment to the delivery of evidence-based services.

  3. Integration of second cancer risk calculations in a radiotherapy treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M; Schneider, U

    2014-01-01

    Second cancer risk in patients, in particular in children, who were treated with radiotherapy is an important side effect. It should be minimized by selecting an appropriate treatment plan for the patient. The objectives of this study were to integrate a risk model for radiation induced cancer into a treatment planning system which allows to judge different treatment plans with regard to second cancer induction and to quantify the potential reduction in predicted risk. A model for radiation induced cancer including fractionation effects which is valid for doses in the radiotherapy range was integrated into a treatment planning system. From the three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution the 3D-risk equivalent dose (RED) was calculated on an organ specific basis. In addition to RED further risk coefficients like OED (organ equivalent dose), EAR (excess absolute risk) and LAR (lifetime attributable risk) are computed. A risk model for radiation induced cancer was successfully integrated in a treatment planning system. Several risk coefficients can be viewed and used to obtain critical situations were a plan can be optimised. Risk-volume-histograms and organ specific risks were calculated for different treatment plans and were used in combination with NTCP estimates for plan evaluation. It is concluded that the integration of second cancer risk estimates in a commercial treatment planning system is feasible. It can be used in addition to NTCP modelling for optimising treatment plans which result in the lowest possible second cancer risk for a patient.

  4. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic – Aerobic system for irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant

  5. Anaerobic sewage treatment in a one-stage UASB reactor and a combined UASB Digester system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.J.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of sewage at 15°C was investigated in a one-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a UASB-Digester system. The latter consists of a UASB reactor complemented with a digester for mutual sewage treatment and sludge stabilisation. The UASB reactor was operated at a

  6. Increasing consumer demand for tobacco treatments: Ten design recommendations for clinicians and healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan Swartz; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Health professionals play an important role in addressing patient tobacco use in clinical settings. While there is clear evidence that identifying tobacco use and assisting smokers in quitting affects outcomes, challenges to improve routine, clinician-delivered tobacco intervention persist. The Consumer Demand Initiative has identified simple design principles to increase consumers' use of proven tobacco treatments. Applying these design strategies to activities across the healthcare system, we articulate ten recommendations that can be implemented in the context of most clinical systems where most clinicians work. The recommendations are: (1) reframe the definition of success, (2) portray proven treatments as the best care, (3) redesign the 5A's of tobacco intervention, (4) be ready to deliver the right treatment at the right time, (5) move tobacco from the social history to the problem list, (6) use words as therapy and language that makes sense, (7) fit tobacco treatment into clinical team workflows, (8) embed tobacco treatment into health information technology, (9) make every encounter an opportunity to intervene, and (10) end social disparities for tobacco users. Clinical systems need to change to improve tobacco treatment implementation. The consumer- and clinician-centered recommendations provide a roadmap that focuses on increasing clinician performance through greater understanding of the clinician's role in helping tobacco users, highlighting the value of evidence-based tobacco treatments, employing shared decision-making skills, and integrating routine tobacco treatment into clinical system routines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fibrotic scar formation in central serous chorioretinopathy developed during systemic treatment with corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooymans, JMM

    1998-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate the development of subretinal fibrotic scar formation in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) that developed during systemic corticosteroid treatment. Methods: The clinical and photographic records of a patient in whom an unusual

  9. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Vieno, N.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic +

  10. A Study on the System for Treatment of ADHD Using Virtual Reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, J

    2001-01-01

    .... This fact caused us to develop the newly system for treatment of ADHD using Virtual Reality technology Psychotherapy using VR has some advantages that it is safer and more effective than conventional...

  11. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  12. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process Indicators for Decentralized Non-potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centraliz...

  13. The state of the vegetative nervous system in patients with gonarthrosis for surgical treatment before and after surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaseva T.lu.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Analyzing the vegetative tensity of organism» functional systems before and after surgical treatment of elderly patients with metabolic-and-dystrophic gonarthrosis. Methods. The evaluation of vegetative homeostasis, reactivity of the vegetative nervous system by the data of variation pulsometry («REAN-POLY» RGPA-6/12, Taganrog in 60 patients with gonarthrosis at the age of 50-72 years and the disease duration — 9+1.5 years before and after surgical treatment: total tunnelization (Group I, tunnelization with osteotomy of leg bones for correction of limb biomechanical axis (Group II, treatment-and-diagnostic arthroscopy (Group III. Results. The reduction of the level of hypoxia tolerance and the decrease of the processes of general adaptation one month after surgery in Group I was registered in 40% of patients. As for patients of Group II, by the end of the period of fixation with the llizarov device — in 50%. As for those of Group III after arthroscopy — in 10% of patients. Among the patients whose 1С / 1С calculated parameter after surgical treatment was registered <1.0, its values were >10.0 before treatment in 70% of cases. At rest, marked vagotonia was registered with hypersympathicotonic reaction to orthotest, as well as with sharp decrease of the proportion of second-order slow waves while transition to standing position (VLF proportion <10.0%, thereby reflecting organism»s energy deficiency state. Conclusion. Preoperative examination. When VLF proportion after orthotest is registered <10.0%, such patients should be referred to risk group and prescribed in-depth examination. The index of centralization (1С dynamics for orthotest (1С test/1С rest is one of the criteria of functional recovery level for the particular patient: its increase points to the positive dynamics of restorative rehabilitative process, and the values <1.0 —to the negative one.

  14. Treatment system for contaminated water in Fukushima of Areva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan earthquake and following tsunami that occurred on March 11, 2011 resulted in a very difficult situation on the site of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi NPP, TEPCO was facing a very difficult challenge to cool down the reactors. Following the implementation of an open circuit reactor cooling using seawater mixed seawater and freshwater began to accumulate in the basements of the reactors and turbine building on site. This eater was highly contaminated at different levels, due to contact with damaged fuel elements and contaminated elements. Despite efforts to increase water storage capacity, it was estimated that in end of June 2011, water would ever flow as storage capacity would be reached. The site was urgently in needed of a water decontamination system that would greatly reduce the activity of the water. This would allow a recirculation to cool the reactors, reduce the water storage needs and facilitate access for other site remediation operations by decreasing the activity on site. Quality of water to be processed was estimated at about 100,000 tons with contamination level reaching 1Ci/L. (Author)

  15. Bio-treatment system of oily bilge drained from ship engine room; Hakuyo kikanshitsu haishutsu bilge no bio shori system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Zaitsu, A.; Nobeyama, N.; Hirata, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    We aimed to develop a system for treating emulsified oil discharged from ship engine rooms. The efficiency of the system aimed at reducing the oil content of the drain to 15ppm or less so that the drain might be discharged into the sea. We have succeeded in developing a biological treatment system using the fluidized bed in which the drain and sludge are efficiently mixed by aeration and stirring. The specific sludge with enhanced oil decomposing ability is used in the system. We performed on - shipboard tests using a pilot test system, whose capacity of the reaction chamber is 0.5m{sup 3} and oil volume load, 0.4kg-oil/m{sup 3}/d, and have confirmed future possible applications to the treatment system for ships. This would bring great reduction in loads on the existing oil separator, saving its maintenance cost in general. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Television system for verification and documentation of treatment fields during intraoperative radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Harrington, F.S.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) involves direct treatment of tumors or tumor beds with large single doses of radiation. The verification of the area to be treated before irradiation and the documentation of the treated area are critical for IORT, just as for other types of radiation therapy. A television system which allows the target area to be directly imaged immediately before irradiation has been developed. Verification and documentation of treatment fields has made the IORT television system indispensable

  17. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  18. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering

  19. System for effluent treatment with particular reference to the reuse of the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolke, O.E.

    1979-01-01

    A system for effluent treatment with particular reference to the reuse of the water consisted of biological treatment, flocculation, filtration, activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange. Such a multistage system is needed to treat wastewaters from coal gasification and coke-oven plants since the effluents, derived from cooling water for scrubbers, waste heat boilers, and heat exchangers, contains high levels of phenols, fatty acids, ammonia, suspended tar oil, and coal particles. A pilot plant, which has been built based on the system, will produce water of sufficient quality for reuse as cooling water. It is hoped that cooling systems for coal gasification plants can be 90% closed circuit.

  20. Microparticulate drug delivery system containing tramadol hydrochloride for pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurba, Adriana; Todoran, Nicoleta; Vari, C E; Lazăr, Luminita; Al Hussein, Stela; Hancu, G

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of replacing conventional pharmaceutical forms is justified because most substances administered in this form give fluctuations of therapeutic concentrations and often outside the therapeutic range. In addition, these formulations offer a reduction in the dose or the number of administrations, thus increasing patient compliance. In the experiment, we developed an appropriate technology for the preparation of gelatin microspheres containing tramadol hydrochloride by emulsification/cross-linking method. The formulated microspheres were characterized by product yield, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride. Data obtained from in vitro release studies were fitted to various mathematical models to elucidate the transport mechanisms. The kinetic models used were zero-order, first-order, Higuchi Korsmeyer-Peppas and Hopfenberg. Spherical microspheres were obtained, with free-flowing properties. The entrapment efficiency of tramadol hydrochloride in microparticles was 79.91% and product yield -94.92%. As the microsphere size was increased, the entrapment efficiency increased. This was 67.56, 70.03, 79.91% for formulations MT80-250, MT8-500 and, MT250-500. High entrapment efficiency was observed for MT250-500 formulation. The gelatin microspheres had particle sizes ranging from 80 to 500 microm. The drug was released for a period of 12 hours with a maximum release of 96.02%. Of the three proposed formulations, MT250-500 presented desirable properties and optimal characteristics for the therapy of pain. Release of tramadol hydrochloridi was best fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation because the Akaike Information Criterion had the lowest values for this kinetic model. These results suggest the opportunity to influence the therapeutic characteristics of gelatin microspheres to obtain a suitable drug delivery system for the oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride.

  1. SU-D-201-03: During-Treatment Delivery Monitoring System for TomoTherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q; Read, P [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multiple error pathways can lead to delivery errors during the treatment course that cannot be caught with pre-treatment QA. While in vivo solutions are being developed for linacs, no such solution exists for tomotherapy. The purpose of this study is to develop a near real-time system for tomotherapy that can monitor the delivery and dose accumulation process during the treatment-delivery, which enable the user to assess the impact of delivery variations and/or errors and to interrupt the treatment if necessary. Methods: A program running on a tomotherapy planning station fetches the raw DAS data during treatment. Exit detector data is extracted as well as output, gantry angle, and other machine parameters. For each sample, the MLC open-close state is determined. The delivered plan is compared with the original plan via a Monte Carlo dose engine which transports fluence deviations from a pre-treatment Monte Carlo run. A report containing the difference in fluence, dose and DVH statistics is created in html format. This process is repeated until the treatment is completed. Results: Since we only need to compute the dose for the difference in fluence for a few projections each time, dose with 2% statistical uncertainty can be computed in less than 1 second on a 4-core cpu. However, the current bottleneck in this near real-time system is the repeated fetching and processing the growing DAS data file throughout the delivery. The frame rate drops from 10Hz at the beginning of treatment to 5Hz after 3 minutes and to 2Hz after 10 minutes. Conclusion: A during-treatment delivery monitor system has been built to monitor tomotherapy treatments. The system improves patient safety by allowing operators to assess the delivery variations and errors during treatment delivery and adopt appropriate actions.

  2. SU-D-201-03: During-Treatment Delivery Monitoring System for TomoTherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q; Read, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple error pathways can lead to delivery errors during the treatment course that cannot be caught with pre-treatment QA. While in vivo solutions are being developed for linacs, no such solution exists for tomotherapy. The purpose of this study is to develop a near real-time system for tomotherapy that can monitor the delivery and dose accumulation process during the treatment-delivery, which enable the user to assess the impact of delivery variations and/or errors and to interrupt the treatment if necessary. Methods: A program running on a tomotherapy planning station fetches the raw DAS data during treatment. Exit detector data is extracted as well as output, gantry angle, and other machine parameters. For each sample, the MLC open-close state is determined. The delivered plan is compared with the original plan via a Monte Carlo dose engine which transports fluence deviations from a pre-treatment Monte Carlo run. A report containing the difference in fluence, dose and DVH statistics is created in html format. This process is repeated until the treatment is completed. Results: Since we only need to compute the dose for the difference in fluence for a few projections each time, dose with 2% statistical uncertainty can be computed in less than 1 second on a 4-core cpu. However, the current bottleneck in this near real-time system is the repeated fetching and processing the growing DAS data file throughout the delivery. The frame rate drops from 10Hz at the beginning of treatment to 5Hz after 3 minutes and to 2Hz after 10 minutes. Conclusion: A during-treatment delivery monitor system has been built to monitor tomotherapy treatments. The system improves patient safety by allowing operators to assess the delivery variations and errors during treatment delivery and adopt appropriate actions.

  3. Systemic barriers accessing HIV treatment among people who inject drugs in Russia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarang, Anya; Rhodes, Tim; Sheon, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Achieving 'universal access' to antiretroviral HIV treatment (ART) in lower income and transitional settings is a global target. Yet, access to ART is shaped by local social condition and is by no means universal. Qualitative studies are ideally suited to describing how access to ART is socially situated. We explored systemic barriers to accessing ART among people who inject drugs (PWID) in a Russian city (Ekaterinburg) with a large burden of HIV treatment demand. We undertook 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with people living with HIV with current or recent experience of injecting drug use. Accounts were analysed thematically, and supplemented here with an illustrative case study. Three core themes were identified: 'labyrinthine bureaucracy' governing access to ART; a 'system Catch 22' created by an expectation that access to ART was conditional upon treated drug use in a setting of limited drug treatment opportunity; and 'system verticalization', where a lack of integration across HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and drug treatment compromised access to ART. Taken together, we find that systemic factors play a key role in shaping access to ART with the potential adverse effects of reproducing treatment initiation delay and disengagement from treatment. We argue that meso-level systemic factors affecting access to ART for PWID interact with wider macro-level structural forces, including those related to drug treatment policy and the social marginalization of PWID. We note the urgent need for systemic and structural changes to improve access to ART for PWID in this setting, including to simplify bureaucratic procedures, foster integrated HIV, TB and drug treatment services, and advocate for drug treatment policy reform.

  4. Mobile Clinical Decision Support System for Acid-base Balance Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzuka, Mensur; Begic, Edin; Boskovic, Dusanka; Begic, Zijo; Masic, Izet

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents mobile application implementing a decision support system for acid-base disorder diagnosis and treatment recommendation. The application was developed using the official integrated development environment for the Android platform (to maximize availability and minimize investments in specialized hardware) called Android Studio. The application identifies disorder, based on the blood gas analysis, evaluates whether the disorder has been compensated, and based on additional input related to electrolyte imbalance, provides recommendations for treatment. The application is a tool in the hands of the user, which provides assistance during acid-base disorders treatment. The application will assist the physician in clinical practice and is focused on the treatment in intensive care.

  5. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications

  6. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost

  7. Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donner, E.; Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.

    2010-01-01

    ) o